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Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā
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2090 Tue 27 Dec 2016 LESSONS from Rector JCMesh J Alphabets Letter Animation ClipartMesh C Alphabets Letter Animation Clipart an expert who identifies experts influenced by Expert and Infulencer Sashikanth Chandrasekharan of Free Online Buddhism - World Religions for Kidshttps://drambedkarbooks.com/2015/03/14/the-chamcha-age-by-saheb-kanshi-ram/#more-1506Awaken One With Awareness Mind (A1wAM)+ ioT (insight-net of Things) - the art of Giving, taking and Living to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal through Electronic Visual Communication Course on Political Science -Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement (TPSTEEM). Struggle hard to see that all fraud EVMs are replaced by paper ballots by Start using Internet of things by creating Websites, blogs. Make the best use of facebook, twitter etc., to propagate TPSTEEM thru FOA1TRPUVF. Practice Insight Meditation in all postures of the body - Sitting, standing, lying, walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, martial arts etc., for health mind in a healthy body. from INSIGHT-NET-Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online A1 (Awakened One) Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University in Visual Format (FOA1TRPUVF) https://archive.org/stream/DhammapadaIllustrated/dhammapada_illustrated#page/n1/mode/2up free online university research practice up a level through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level https://awakenmediaprabandhak. wordpress.com/ email-0565.gif from 123gifs.eu Download & Greeting Card modinotourpm@gmail.com jchandra1942@icloud.com sarvajanow@yahoo.co.in is the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement followed by millions of people all over the world in 105 Classical languages. Rendering exact translation as a lesson of this University in one’s mother tongue to this Google Translation and propagation entitles to become a Stream Enterer (Sottapanna) and to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal BSP is the Number One Largest Party in the Country with all societies (sarvajan Samaj ) supporting it for Sarvajan Hitay sarvajan Sukhay. http://www.abplive.in/…/not-even-1-4th-of-the-promises-made… Not even 1/4th of the promises made by BJP are fulfilled: Mayawati, BSP Chief http://media.photobucket.com/…/W…/media/SilentHill.gif.html… https://scroll.in/…/silent-disquiet-what-explains-the-lack-… THE THIN EDGE Silent disquiet: What explains the lack of large-scale public anger in the face of oppression? http://indiatoday.intoday.in/…/rahul-gandhi-p…/1/843007.html Congress was bad, but Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) turned our country into a malevolent enemy of the people.up a level தமிழில் திரபிடக மூன்று தொகுப்புகள்TIPITAKA-ஸுத்தபிடக-Section-C- from FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org இந்த நூட்கள் வெளியீடு காட்சிமுறை உருவரைக்குறிப்பு தேவனாகரி எழுத்துப் பிரதியில் திபிடக முக்கூடைகளின் சஹ்ஹுவ ஸாக்யன (ஆறாவது மன்றம்) பதிப்பு.
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: site admin @ 8:54 pm



2090 Tue 27 Dec 2016


LESSONS


from

Rector
JCMesh J Alphabets Letter Animation ClipartMesh C Alphabets Letter Animation Clipart

an expert who identifies experts influenced by Expert and Infulencer Sashikanth Chandrasekharan
of


Free Online
Buddhism - World

Religions for Kidshttps://drambedkarbooks.com/2015/03/14/the-chamcha-age-by-saheb-kanshi-ram/#more-1506
Awaken One With Awareness Mind
(A1wAM)
+ ioT (insight-net of Things)  - the art of Giving, taking and Living   to attain Eternal Bliss
as Final Goal through Electronic Visual Communication Course on
Political Science -Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic
Emancipation Movement (TPSTEEM).


Struggle hard to see that all fraud EVMs are replaced by paper ballots by

Start
using Internet of things by creating Websites, blogs. Make the best use
of facebook, twitter etc., to propagate TPSTEEM thru
FOA1TRPUVF.

Practice
Insight Meditation in all postures of the body - Sitting, standing,
lying, walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, martial arts etc., for
health mind in a healthy body.



 from

INSIGHT-NET-Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online A1 (Awakened One) Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University
in Visual Format (FOA1TRPUVF)

https://archive.org/stream/DhammapadaIllustrated/dhammapada_illustrated#page/n1/mode/2up


free online university research practice









up a level through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level



https://awakenmediaprabandhak. wordpress.com/












email-0565.gif from 123gifs.eu Download & Greeting Card


modinotourpm@gmail.com
jchandra1942@icloud.com
sarvajanow@yahoo.co.in



is the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement followed by millions of people all over the world in 105 Classical languages.


Rendering exact translation as a lesson of this
University in one’s mother tongue to this Google Translation and
propagation entitles to become a Stream
Enterer (Sottapanna) and

to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal

BSP
is the Number One Largest Party in the Country with all societies
(sarvajan Samaj ) supporting it for Sarvaj
an Hitay sarvajan Sukhay.

http://www.abplive.in/…/not-even-1-4th-of-the-promises-made…

Not even 1/4th of the promises made by BJP are fulfilled: Mayawati, BSP Chief

http://media.photobucket.com/…/W…/media/SilentHill.gif.html…

https://scroll.in/…/silent-disquiet-what-explains-the-lack-…

THE THIN EDGE

Silent disquiet: What explains the lack of large-scale public anger in
the face of oppression?

http://indiatoday.intoday.in/…/rahul-gandhi-p…/1/843007.html


Congress was bad, but Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) turned
our country into a malevolent enemy of the people.

Not even 1/4th of the promises made by BJP are fulfilled: Mayawati, BSP Chief
Monday, 26 December 2016 1:09 PM


It is being said that Cong and SP will form alliance, final call will
be taken when its realised that BJP will benefit from alliance: Mayawati

For latest breaking news, other top stories log on to: http://www.abplive.in & https://www.youtube.com/c/abpnews


It
is being said that Cong and SP will form alliance, final call will be
taken when its realised that BJP will benefit from alliance: MayawatiFor
latest breaking news, other…
abplive.in
http://www.watch-latest-news.com/watch-mayawatis-press-conference-eyeing-upcoming-assembly-election-in-up-26-12-2016/

Watch : Mayawati’s Press Conference eyeing upcoming assembly election in UP 26-12-2016

Watch : Mayawati’s Press Conference eyeing upcoming assembly election in UP
Mayawati’s
Press Conference eyeing upcoming assembly election in U.P. Watch
complete news story of News @ 12:00 PM to get the detailed news updates!

http://www.aplatestnews.com/usnewsvideo.php?vidtype=10&idx=mayawati-press-conference-against-demonetization-2016-11-26

Mayawati Press Conference Against Demonetization

http://media.photobucket.com/…/W…/media/SilentHill.gif.html…

https://scroll.in/…/silent-disquiet-what-explains-the-lack-…

THE THIN EDGE

Silent disquiet: What explains the lack of large-scale public anger in
the face of oppression?

We believe in servitude and obedience, constantly adjusting to the
powerful, applying exactly the same oppressive techniques on those
weaker than us.

8 hours ago
Updated 3 hours ago

TM Krishna

The spirit is mute, maybe it lost its voice a long time ago and I just
didn’t notice. The spark, the verve in our voice has wearied – its
timbre is missing. The gentle smile that opens into a hearty laugh
even among the poorest of the poor has lost its shine. Among a
section, there is nervousness, many finding recourse in the safety of
silence and an equal number resigned to whatever is thrown at them.

Of course, there are those who feel vindicated – “our time has come,”
they say. Somewhere at the very epicentre of that pride, there is
thirst for blood, revenge targeted at an unknown past, curated to
refer to a mirage of characters, long gone. Sharing has become an
exercise in socio-political incest, when everyone else is a fool or a
dangerous pariah.

I am unable to frame words with exactitude that describe this silent
disquiet among many. But as I watch people, listen to conversations,
overhear whispers at railway stations and airports, speak to auto
drivers, street vendors and shopkeepers, there is a sense of
acceptance about the various infringements we have been mute witnesses to over the past few years.


The maya of pseudo-morality has been so wonderfully mass-marketed and
installed in our minds that any expression of dissent makes us feel
lesser, corrupt and unfaithful. And, hence, even the doubtful are
surrendering to the possibility that all this is for our betterment.

Just like we feel that punishment at school is necessary to instil
discipline and moral correctness, today we sit in the classroom of our
land, policed by our headmaster, Narendra Modi, receiving a few lashes at all those ideals that he says have led us astray.

Before proceeding , it is important to state that cultural and economic
manipulations are not new to our nation. The Congress has employed
them to put us in our place too. But I will be lying to myself if I do
not express my feeling that ever since Modi came to power, we have
been witness to a tactical and systematic orchestration of
manipulation of various shades. I am stopping just short of calling it
sinister, but I cannot but wonder.

The evil, most tragically, is targeted at the very conscience of our
modern existence – the Constitution. And the fact that many are
convinced that this is the way to move forward makes all this even
more dangerous.

Machiavellian governance is today being justified by majoritarianism.

Even the labeled anti-lot are struggling to come to terms with this
emotional seed that Modi has planted in our hearts. Within this
internal quagmire exists religious and nationalistic fidelity. How
does one fight it without feeling or sounding immoral? The
psychological war unleashed by this government has effectively crushed
response by instilling doubt. And my worry is that by the time we
realise the fallacy of the weapons or develop the courage to respond
with conviction, the boat may have left the jetty.

The marginalised struggle to retain their culture-specific identities,
dignity and relevance. The few voices of protest are targeted with
vengeance. Our bravado only worsened the Kashmir crisis and we may have
turned the clock back by at least a decade or more – all for
machismo and display of another form of ugly morality. And the
economically disfranchised across sections of society have been hit
hard by an unimaginable financial act of insanity.

Ironically, every secular Hindu quote aids and abets Modi’s discourse,
making us think twice before we stand up and say anything to the
contrary.

Stuck in the past

There is something missing in us. I do not know if it is cultural or
conditioned, but as a people, we do not recognise rights as a
fundamental nature of living. This is as true of the privileged as it
is of the ones on the fringes. We will oppress, twist the system and
justify that in the name of survival. At the same time, rarely will we
realise that the rights given by our Constitution to all inhabitants
of this land are not benevolence showered on us by some supreme power
but a beautiful gift we gave ourselves. Exercising our rights is seen by
many as obstructive and of nuisance value. Some even feel they are
committing a wrong when they assert themselves, and there are those who
will not take the risk, held back by fear.

We do not respect ourselves as people of ethical power, power that
gives us the right to live with dignity, privacy, empathy and
empowerment. And, hence, we are nervous about voicing those demands.

This is disrespect of our own humanity and, ironically, that gives us
the right to manipulate it unabashedly. We believe in servitude and
obedience, constantly adjusting to the powerful, applying exactly the
same oppressive techniques on those who are lower in our social
ladder, the worst hit being the SC/STs, Muslims and women.


Therefore, the lack of large-scale public anger at all that has been
going on is not to be equated with a certification, it is an odd mixture
of fatalism, false morality and an inability to ask for what is ours.
Our
idea of the self is not derived from the Constitution, it comes from
elsewhere, an intangible vague past.


We are a confluence of an old civilisation and a new democracy. If you
ask an Indian, they will instantly connect with the cultural antiquity
of who we are and not with the modern constitutional democracy that is
India today. Many of our cultural practices and faiths contravene
democracy, making reconciliation next to impossible. This is the
reason why we are unable to understand ideas such as liberty,
equality, fraternity and justice in a 21st-century sense. We interpret
all this in relation to an ambiguous past, and we are unable to trust
the contemporary.

For us, the old is far more valuable than the new and our Constitution
is new and hence, must submit to an old age scrutiny. We are
uncomfortable in our Democratic Republic skin and always looking out
for that monarch. And unfortunately, in Modi many have found that
tough, benevolent raja. The only history that he and his government
want to destroy is the one that began in 1950 and was told from then
on. They lose no opportunity to constantly reiterate that ancient
past, when we were supposedly pure, unpolluted by outsiders. A
cultural technique to subvert India – the Secular Socialist Democratic
Republic.


Need for deep reflection Modi probably believes he is the saviour on
the white horse and has convinced us that the modern lies in the
employment of technological tools, though behind these technologies are
parochial, casteist, religiously divisive and economically invasive
stratagems. Technology is the perfect facade to hide behind and Modi
does it to perfection.

The fraud EVMs have been tampered for Modi to gobble the Master Key.
The Ex CJI had committed agrave error of judgement by ordering that the
EVMs could be replaced in a phased manner as suggested by the ex CEC
Sampath. Only 8 out of 543 seats in 2014 Lok Sabha were replaced.
The present CEC says that only in 2019 the entire EVMs will be replaced.
None of them ordered for paper ballotrs to be used till the entire EVMs
were replaced. And the central and state governments selected by these
fraud EVMs to be dissolved and go for fresh elections with paper
ballots.

Similarly, he has reduced corruption to only its
financial mmanifestation. While until now, he and Modi may be clear of
financial corruption,they are culturally and socially corrupt. But do we
really care to think of these as forms of corruption?

As we enter a new year, we need to reflect deeply on those whose
voices we do not hear. The lack of voices of dissidence does not
indicate support. And a victory in an election, too, does not
necessarily infer validation. We have to search with greater intensity
and subtlety, because only then will this nation mature to become what
our founding fathers believed was possible. Today, we are a mockery of
what we could have been, and have nobody but ourselves to blame.

Decades of philosophical and political degeneration has led us to
where we are and, therefore, I will not lay all blame at Modi’s
doorstep. After all, we let him happen and that says something about
us. And this country celebrates nationhood when death, sorrow,
unhappiness and unimaginable hardship are forced upon people. What a shame!


Peace Is Doable

silent hill gif photo: Silent Hill Shattered Memories SilentHill.gif

http://indiatoday.intoday.in/…/rahul-gandhi-p…/1/843007.html


Congress was bad, but Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) turned
our country into a malevolent enemy of the people. Always threatening
with newer punitive measures, taking your money away, making you stand
in lines in his QUEUE INDIA MOVEMENT. And all the collected money from
ordinary people will go to Bahuth Jiyadha Psychopath (BJP) friends, not a
penny back to us, except build a hospital here and a statue there.
Corruption by congress was big and under the surface, but BJP greed took
the food out of poor peoples mouth, only dictators in Africa do this.


Congress vice-president Rahul Gandhi claims that Modi was paid huge
money in kickbacks during his stint as Gujarat chief minister.

He accused Modi of receiving crores from the two big corporate houses and demanded an independent probe into the matter.


Congress’ Uttar Pradesh chief ministerial candidate Sheila Dikshit on
Monday too washed her hands off the allegation made in the diaries
against her. Among others, the list contains an entry against Dikshit,
the then Delhi chief minister. The diary entry showed that Rs 1 crore in
cash was paid to her on September 23, 2013.

Rahul earlier claimed whether it was a sin to have a brahmin as CM of UP.

1. BOFORS SCAM


Diary entries in the Bofors scam played a major role during trial
in Sweden. Former head of the Swedish police Sten Lindstrom claimed that
he leaked about 350 documents, which included payment instructions to
banks, contracts, handwritten notes, minutes of meetings and Bofors
managing director Martin Ardbo’s diary that carried a lot of sensitive
information.

In an interview to The Hindu, Lindstrom’s commented
on former prime minister Rajiv Gandhi and Ottavio Quattrocchi, the
Italian businessman accused of being a middleman in the deal:

But
Rajiv Gandhi watched the massive cover-up in India and Sweden and did
nothing. Many Indian institutions were tarred, innocent people were
punished while the guilty got away. The evidence against Ottavio
Quattrocchi was conclusive.

Former prime minister VP Singh
raised the issue during Rajiv Gandhi’s tenure as PM. This led to
Gandhi’s defeat in the 1989 Lok Sabha elections and Singh succeeded him
as the PM.

2. JAIN HAWALA SCAM

The sensational Jain
Hawala scam of 1996 also affected the political careers of several
leaders. Names of at least 60 politicians, civil servants and
businessmen appeared in coded entries in two diaries seized by the
police from a prominent New Delhi businessman in 1991. According to the
prosecutors, SK Jain - one of two brothers who kept the diaries -
claimed that the entries reflected payoffs made from 1988 to 1991 for
government contracts and other favours.

On the directive from
the Supreme Court in January 1996, a special hawala court was set up.
This forced three senior ministers - Madhavrao Scindia, VC Shukla and
Balram Jakhar - of the PV Narasimha Rao government to resign. The then
BJP president LK Advani too resigned from Parliament and pledged not to
contest till his name was cleared from the scam.

3. APPLE ORCHARD SCAM OF VIRBHADRA SINGH


The Income Tax department, during its raids in December 2012 at
Ispat Industries premises, found diaries with entries made about
off-the-book cash transactions. Some notings between 2008 and 2010 were
under the title ‘VBS’. The raids took place when the present Himachal
Pradesh Chief Minister Virbhadra Singh was the Union Steel Minister in
the Manmohan Singh’s UPA government rocked by scams. The seized
documents revealed that payments of Rs 50 lakh each on 28 October 2009
and 21 December 2009; Rs 28 lakh on 21 April 2010, and Rs 1 crore on 8
August 2010 had been made. Similar entries in the diaries hinted at
payments made to Virbhadra through his aides.
The entries were
made at the same time when the Income Tax department laid its hands on
three large cash deposits made by an LIC agent, Anand Chauhan, into
account number 524185 of Punjab National Bank’s branch at Sinjauli, near
Shimla, the capital of Himachal Pradesh. The agent deposited Rs 5 crore
between 2008 and 2011 and then i,Rassued cheques to pay for one-time
life insurance premium of ‘Veerbhadra Singh Hindu United Family’,
comprising the CM, his wife and two children. Virbhadra told the Income
Tax officials that the payments had been made to Chauhan for managing
his apple orchards.
The said income from apple orchards saw
multifold jump - from Rs 10-20 lakh every year to an additional profit
of Rs 6.15 crore. Noose is tightening around Virbhadra and the
Opposition BJP is all set to raise it during forthcoming Assembly
elections.

4. PDS SCAM OF RAMAN SINGH

The PDS scam
came into limelight following allegations levelled by senior senior
Congress leaders against Chhattisgarh Chief Minister Raman Singh. In
March 2015, Congress spokesperson Abhishek Manu Singhvi, on the basis of
unverified “documentary evidence”, alleged that over Rs 34 crore were
sent to the CM’s house on June 8, 2014, as “payment of ill-gotten
wealth”.
Singhvi claimed that Raman Singh, his close relatives
and personal staff earned several crores worth of “ill-gotten wealth”
through the alleged scam in the state’s public distribution system
(PDS). Based on daily entries made in a diary of one Shiv Shankar Bhatt
of the State Civil Supplies Corporation, Congress accused Singh, his
wife and her close relatives, state ministers as well as the CM’s
personal cook, courier and aides of indulging in “unprecedented
corruption”.
The PDS rice scam is a tale of “ministers, chief
minister, CM’s close relatives, CM’s close personnel and staff
completely immersed neck deep in corruption,” Singhvi had told the media
while distributing copies of the diary entries.

5. EX-CBI DIRECTOR RANJIT SINHA


Former CBI Director Ranjit Sinha was indicted by a Supreme
Court-appointed panel which held that prima facie there was an attempt
to influence investigation into the multi-crore coal block allocation
scam, again during the Congress-led UPA government. Sinha was accused of
meeting some of the high- profile accused in the scam. The court also
pulled up CBI for its sluggish probe in the scam and directed the agency
to complete the investigation expeditiously.
Attorney General
Mukul Rohatgi informed the apex court that the panel headed by former
CBI special director ML Sharma held that Sinha’s meetings prima facie
indicated that there was an attempt to influence the investigation.

This case too was based on a visitors’ diary at Sinha’s residence.
Rohtagi said he had gone through the report which has found that the
entries made in the diary were genuine.

B K

Sheila
Dikshit era of Delhi witnessed number of money laundering and
corruptions in Delhi. Her removal from UP election process may not
benefit the party as Sonia herself made the impression of the party as
the most corrupt party in the country. The scam prone Sonia cheated
farmers, poor of the country while she encouraged scams after scams in
her 10 years of rule. Sonia’s corrupt image discouraged people to leave
the party.

Chand

The oldest political party is suffering
from aimless and poor leadership. The so called earthquake seems to be
happening within the party.

Jaitley Sabotaging Even Petty Gains, Soft On Corporate, Traders


Jaitley as FM had bungled everyday. It was Most Lunatic to keep Shops
and Businesses Run 24 Hrs/day as if 8 hrs/day is not enough. Even
BSE/NSE work for 25 Hr/Week - Led to Rs.2-3 Lakh Cr Black Money
Conversion in few days.

Who Prevented Traders from Accepting
Checks? – A Trader may E-Mail Check Number to the Bank And Bank Then
Transfer The Money in to Traders Account, Check is then deposited with
Bank for record, First of 3 Lunatics yesterday.

There was a 20 Yr
Old Bobby Deol film also which depicted how Accounts of a Criminal was
Cleaned up remotely from a Cruise Ship in seconds. E-Banking means $b
money can flow from one account to another to another in seconds.


Had I advised him at 8PM on Nov08, 2016 It would have been to Unplug
all the ATMs, Inter-Bank transactions and directed all banks to Switch
off Power supply and shut down banking transactions. Directed people to
buy essential supplies, made Quick Arrangement to Deposit Old notes in
Sealed Bags with Copy of Aadhar Card after making them unusable by
dipping an end of it in ink or oil with Third Party like Schools used
for Elections.

This would have ensured ALL THE CURRENCY NOTES are
Safely deposited with Third Party in few days QUICKLY – Leaving the
banks to do Normal Business through Written Pay Orders and Do Normal
Business through ATMs in 2-5 day.

It is Laughable India’s
Finance Minister had no idea that Businesses Use FAKE ACCOUNTS to
LAUNDER BLACK MONEY and Secret Accounts to keep Money.

Second
Lunatics he said PM is Wrong when he wanted Stock Market ‘Profits’
should be TAXED like any other income, next Third he said ‘Cashless
means less cash, not no cash’. This is LUNATIC – means Earning Money At
Stock Market is TAX FREE and Buying a Pizza attract 17% to 20% S.Tax
plus Taxes on Business.

http://www.ril.com/ar2014-15/RIL%20AR%202014%20-15.pdf
SCANDALOUS CORPORATE BEHAVIOR OF RIL IS ILLUSTRATED BY THE FACT THAT
ITS CONSOLIDATED NET PROFIT IS Rs.23,556 Cr BUT STANDALONE NET PROFIT IS
Rs.22,719 Cr IS REPORTED PAGE 49 of RIL AR 201-15>
Ø THUS NET
PROFIT FROM Rs.100,000 Cr INVESTING & FINANCING ACTIVITIES, 100
Plus Subsidiaries Generated Just Rs.763 Cr Profit.
Ø THUS
Rs.20,000 Cr Tax Evasion & Black Money Conversion Business Within
RIL. i.e. Rs.8,613 Other Income should attract Rs.2500 Cr Income Tax.
Ø INSTEAD OF RELEASING Rs.15-20 Lakh Cr LOCKED In Corporate &
Rs.2 Lakh Cr Tax Evasion By SPLITTING Companies – He Gave Us
Demonetization.

silent hill gif photo: Silent Hill Shattered Memories SilentHill.gif

http://www.ambedkar.org/gifimages/voteforBSP.gif

http://www.ambedkar.org/gifimages/voteforBSP.gif

up a level
மிழில் திபி  மூன்று தொகுப்புள்TIPITAKA-ஸுத்தபிடக-Section-C-
from FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and
Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org


இந்த  நூட்கள் வெளியீடு
காட்சிமுறை உருவரைக்குறிப்பு தேவனாகரி எழுத்துப் பிரதியில் திபிடக 
முக்கூடைகளின் சஹ்ஹுவ ஸாக்யன (ஆறாவது மன்றம்) பதிப்பு.

This outline displays the publication of books in the Devan±gari-script edition of the
Chaμμha Saag±yana (Sixth Council) Tipiμaka. The names of the volumes are displayed
in italics with the suffix “-p±1⁄4i” indicating
the volume is part of the root Tipiμaka, rather than commentarial literature. This outline lists the root volumes only.
Please note: These books are in P±li only, in Devan±gari script, and are not for sale.

No set of English translations is available. For further information please see: www.tipitaka.org

விநய பியுயக Vinaya Piμaka
(மூன்று மண்டலங்கள், 5 நூட்களாக அச்சடிக்கப்பட்டது)

(Three divisions, printed in 5 books)

1.ஸுத்த விபாக(ஒரு சர  மண்டலம்) [பிக்குக்கள் மற்றும் பிக்குனிகளுக்கான தன்னகம் கொண்ட
விதிகளின் இரண்டு நூட்கள்]

Sutta Vibhaaga [two books containing rules for the bhikkhus and
bhikkhunis, outlining eight classes of offences]


திபிடக  முக்கூடைகள்

Tipiμaka (three “baskets”)

ஸுத்த பியுயக

( ஐந்து திரட்டுகள்)

Sutta Piμaka

(Five nik±yas, or collections)

The
Sutta Piṭaka contains the essence of the Buddha’s teaching regarding
the Dhamma. It contains more than ten thousand suttas. It is divided in
five collections called Nikāyas (A multitude, assemblage; a collection; a
class, order, group; an association, fraternity, congregation; a house,
dwelling).

நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணைக் கூடை தம்மா பற்றி புத்தர்
கற்பித்த மெய்ம்மை சாறு நிரம்பியது.  அது பதினாயிரம் விஞ்சி மிகுதியாக நெறி
முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை நிரம்பியது. அது நிகாய ( ஒரு பேரெண்ணிக்கை,
ஒன்றுகூடுதல் ஒரு வகை, வரிசைமுறை, குவியல், ஓர் கூட்டமைப்பு,
பொதுநோக்கங்கள் கொண்ட, ஒருங்கு கூட்டுதல், ஒரு குடும்பமரபுக் குழு,
கருத்தூன்றி நீடித்த ) என அழைக்கப்படும் ஐந்து திரட்டுகளாக பிரிந்துள்ளது.

Dīgha Nikāya
[dīgha:
long] The Dīgha Nikāya gathers 34 of the longest discourses given by
the Buddha. There are various hints that many of them are late additions
to the original corpus and of questionable authenticity.

நீளமான நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)
புத்தரால் கொடுக்கப்பட்ட 34 நீளமான போதனையுரைகள் கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது.

Majjhima Nikāya
[majjhima:
medium] The Majjhima Nikāya gathers 152 discourses of the Buddha of
intermediate length, dealing with diverse matters.

 மத்திம (நடுத்தரமான) நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

புத்தரால்
கொடுக்கப்பட்ட 152 மத்திம ( நடுத்தரமான நீட்சி ) பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட
விஷயங்கள் செயல் தொடர்பு உடன் போதனையுரைகள் கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது.

Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta:
group] The Saṃyutta Nikāya gathers the suttas according to their
subject in 56 sub-groups called saṃyuttas. It contains more than three
thousand discourses of variable length, but generally relatively short.

குவியல் நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

குவியல்
நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்) என அழைக்கப்படும் நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை அவற்றினுடைய
பொருளுக்கு ஏற்ப 56 பங்குவரி குவியலாக கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது. அது மூவாயிரம்
விஞ்சி மிகுதியாக மாறும் தன்மையுள்ள நீளம் ஆனால் பெரும்பாலும் ஒப்பு
நோக்காக சுருக்கமான நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை நிரம்பியது.

Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg:
factor | uttara: additionnal] The Aṅguttara Nikāya is subdivized in
eleven sub-groups called nipātas, each of them gathering discourses
consisting of enumerations of one additional factor versus those of the
precedent nipāta. It contains thousands of suttas which are generally
short.

கூடுதல் அங்கமான (ஆக்கக்கூறு) நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

இறங்குதல்
காரணி, கருத்தைக் கவர்கிற, கீழ் நோக்கி அல்லது ஏறத்தாழ தற்போதைக்கு
உதவுகிற என அழைக்கப்படும் பதினொன்று பங்குவரி, ஒவ்வொன்று
கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை கணக்கிடல் ஆக்கை ஒரு
குறிப்பிட்ட கூடுதல் ஆக்கக் கூறு எதிராக அவை முன்னோடி மாதிரி இறங்குதல்
காரணி. அது ஆயிரக்கணக்கான பெரும்பாலும் சுருக்கமான நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை
நிரம்பியது. தன்னகம் கொண்டிரு

Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha: short,
small] The Khuddhaka Nikāya short texts and is considered as been
composed of two stratas: Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta,
Theragāthā-Therīgāthā and Jātaka form the ancient strata, while other
books are late additions and their authenticity is more questionable.

சுருக்கமான, சிறிய நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

சுருக்கமான,
சிறிய நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்) வாசகம் மற்றும் ஆலோசனை மிக்க மாதிரி தணிந்த
இரண்டு படுகைகள் : தம்மபத (ஒரு சமய சம்பந்தமான முற்றுத் தொடர் வாக்கியம் ,
மூன்று கூடைகள் நூட்கள்  ஒன்றின் பெயர் , தம்மாவின் உடற்பகுதி அல்லது
பாகம்), உதான (வார்த்தைகளால்,
மேல்நோக்கிய பேரார்வம், ஆவல் கொண்ட அல்லது
மகிழ்ச்சி கூற்று, சொற்றொடர் , உணர்ச்சிமிக்க உறுதலுணர்ச்சி, மகிழ்ச்சி
அல்லது மனத்துயரம் இரண்டனுள் ஒன்று), இதிவுத்தக ( இது குத்தகனிகாய நான்காம்
புத்தகம் பெயர்), ஸுத்த ( ஒரு சரம், இழை ,: புத்தசமயம், சவுகதநூல் ஒரு
பாகம்; ஒரு விதி, நீதி வாக்கியம் இறங்குதல் காரணி),தேரகாத-தேரிகாத(
தேராக்களுக்கு உரியதானது), மற்றும் ஒரு சரடு ஜாதக ( பிறப்பு , பிறப்பிடம் ,
ஒரு பிறப்பு அல்லது : புத்தசமயம் விவேகம் வாழ்தல் , ஒரு ஜாதக, அல்லது
புத்தரின் முந்திய பிறப்பு கதைளில் ஒன்று.)



2090 Tue 27 Dec 2016


LESSONS


from

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University in one’s mother tongue to this Google Translation and
propagation entitles to become a Stream
Enterer (Sottapanna) and

to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal

BSP
is the Number One Largest Party in the Country with all societies
(sarvajan Samaj ) supporting it for Sarvaj
an Hitay sarvajan Sukhay.

http://www.abplive.in/…/not-even-1-4th-of-the-promises-made…

Not even 1/4th of the promises made by BJP are fulfilled: Mayawati, BSP Chief

http://media.photobucket.com/…/W…/media/SilentHill.gif.html…

https://scroll.in/…/silent-disquiet-what-explains-the-lack-…

THE THIN EDGE

Silent disquiet: What explains the lack of large-scale public anger in
the face of oppression?

http://indiatoday.intoday.in/…/rahul-gandhi-p…/1/843007.html


Congress was bad, but Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) turned
our country into a malevolent enemy of the people.

Not even 1/4th of the promises made by BJP are fulfilled: Mayawati, BSP Chief
Monday, 26 December 2016 1:09 PM


It is being said that Cong and SP will form alliance, final call will
be taken when its realised that BJP will benefit from alliance: Mayawati

For latest breaking news, other top stories log on to: http://www.abplive.in & https://www.youtube.com/c/abpnews


It
is being said that Cong and SP will form alliance, final call will be
taken when its realised that BJP will benefit from alliance: MayawatiFor
latest breaking news, other…
abplive.in
http://www.watch-latest-news.com/watch-mayawatis-press-conference-eyeing-upcoming-assembly-election-in-up-26-12-2016/

Watch : Mayawati’s Press Conference eyeing upcoming assembly election in UP 26-12-2016

Watch : Mayawati’s Press Conference eyeing upcoming assembly election in UP
Mayawati’s
Press Conference eyeing upcoming assembly election in U.P. Watch
complete news story of News @ 12:00 PM to get the detailed news updates!

http://www.aplatestnews.com/usnewsvideo.php?vidtype=10&idx=mayawati-press-conference-against-demonetization-2016-11-26

Mayawati Press Conference Against Demonetization

http://media.photobucket.com/…/W…/media/SilentHill.gif.html…

https://scroll.in/…/silent-disquiet-what-explains-the-lack-…

THE THIN EDGE

Silent disquiet: What explains the lack of large-scale public anger in
the face of oppression?

We believe in servitude and obedience, constantly adjusting to the
powerful, applying exactly the same oppressive techniques on those
weaker than us.

8 hours ago
Updated 3 hours ago

TM Krishna

The spirit is mute, maybe it lost its voice a long time ago and I just
didn’t notice. The spark, the verve in our voice has wearied – its
timbre is missing. The gentle smile that opens into a hearty laugh
even among the poorest of the poor has lost its shine. Among a
section, there is nervousness, many finding recourse in the safety of
silence and an equal number resigned to whatever is thrown at them.

Of course, there are those who feel vindicated – “our time has come,”
they say. Somewhere at the very epicentre of that pride, there is
thirst for blood, revenge targeted at an unknown past, curated to
refer to a mirage of characters, long gone. Sharing has become an
exercise in socio-political incest, when everyone else is a fool or a
dangerous pariah.

I am unable to frame words with exactitude that describe this silent
disquiet among many. But as I watch people, listen to conversations,
overhear whispers at railway stations and airports, speak to auto
drivers, street vendors and shopkeepers, there is a sense of
acceptance about the various infringements we have been mute witnesses to over the past few years.


The maya of pseudo-morality has been so wonderfully mass-marketed and
installed in our minds that any expression of dissent makes us feel
lesser, corrupt and unfaithful. And, hence, even the doubtful are
surrendering to the possibility that all this is for our betterment.

Just like we feel that punishment at school is necessary to instil
discipline and moral correctness, today we sit in the classroom of our
land, policed by our headmaster, Narendra Modi, receiving a few lashes at all those ideals that he says have led us astray.

Before proceeding , it is important to state that cultural and economic
manipulations are not new to our nation. The Congress has employed
them to put us in our place too. But I will be lying to myself if I do
not express my feeling that ever since Modi came to power, we have
been witness to a tactical and systematic orchestration of
manipulation of various shades. I am stopping just short of calling it
sinister, but I cannot but wonder.

The evil, most tragically, is targeted at the very conscience of our
modern existence – the Constitution. And the fact that many are
convinced that this is the way to move forward makes all this even
more dangerous.

Machiavellian governance is today being justified by majoritarianism.

Even the labeled anti-lot are struggling to come to terms with this
emotional seed that Modi has planted in our hearts. Within this
internal quagmire exists religious and nationalistic fidelity. How
does one fight it without feeling or sounding immoral? The
psychological war unleashed by this government has effectively crushed
response by instilling doubt. And my worry is that by the time we
realise the fallacy of the weapons or develop the courage to respond
with conviction, the boat may have left the jetty.

The marginalised struggle to retain their culture-specific identities,
dignity and relevance. The few voices of protest are targeted with
vengeance. Our bravado only worsened the Kashmir crisis and we may have
turned the clock back by at least a decade or more – all for
machismo and display of another form of ugly morality. And the
economically disfranchised across sections of society have been hit
hard by an unimaginable financial act of insanity.

Ironically, every secular Hindu quote aids and abets Modi’s discourse,
making us think twice before we stand up and say anything to the
contrary.

Stuck in the past

There is something missing in us. I do not know if it is cultural or
conditioned, but as a people, we do not recognise rights as a
fundamental nature of living. This is as true of the privileged as it
is of the ones on the fringes. We will oppress, twist the system and
justify that in the name of survival. At the same time, rarely will we
realise that the rights given by our Constitution to all inhabitants
of this land are not benevolence showered on us by some supreme power
but a beautiful gift we gave ourselves. Exercising our rights is seen by
many as obstructive and of nuisance value. Some even feel they are
committing a wrong when they assert themselves, and there are those who
will not take the risk, held back by fear.

We do not respect ourselves as people of ethical power, power that
gives us the right to live with dignity, privacy, empathy and
empowerment. And, hence, we are nervous about voicing those demands.

This is disrespect of our own humanity and, ironically, that gives us
the right to manipulate it unabashedly. We believe in servitude and
obedience, constantly adjusting to the powerful, applying exactly the
same oppressive techniques on those who are lower in our social
ladder, the worst hit being the SC/STs, Muslims and women.


Therefore, the lack of large-scale public anger at all that has been
going on is not to be equated with a certification, it is an odd mixture
of fatalism, false morality and an inability to ask for what is ours.
Our
idea of the self is not derived from the Constitution, it comes from
elsewhere, an intangible vague past.


We are a confluence of an old civilisation and a new democracy. If you
ask an Indian, they will instantly connect with the cultural antiquity
of who we are and not with the modern constitutional democracy that is
India today. Many of our cultural practices and faiths contravene
democracy, making reconciliation next to impossible. This is the
reason why we are unable to understand ideas such as liberty,
equality, fraternity and justice in a 21st-century sense. We interpret
all this in relation to an ambiguous past, and we are unable to trust
the contemporary.

For us, the old is far more valuable than the new and our Constitution
is new and hence, must submit to an old age scrutiny. We are
uncomfortable in our Democratic Republic skin and always looking out
for that monarch. And unfortunately, in Modi many have found that
tough, benevolent raja. The only history that he and his government
want to destroy is the one that began in 1950 and was told from then
on. They lose no opportunity to constantly reiterate that ancient
past, when we were supposedly pure, unpolluted by outsiders. A
cultural technique to subvert India – the Secular Socialist Democratic
Republic.


Need for deep reflection Modi probably believes he is the saviour on
the white horse and has convinced us that the modern lies in the
employment of technological tools, though behind these technologies are
parochial, casteist, religiously divisive and economically invasive
stratagems. Technology is the perfect facade to hide behind and Modi
does it to perfection.

The fraud EVMs have been tampered for Modi to gobble the Master Key.
The Ex CJI had committed agrave error of judgement by ordering that the
EVMs could be replaced in a phased manner as suggested by the ex CEC
Sampath. Only 8 out of 543 seats in 2014 Lok Sabha were replaced.
The present CEC says that only in 2019 the entire EVMs will be replaced.
None of them ordered for paper ballotrs to be used till the entire EVMs
were replaced. And the central and state governments selected by these
fraud EVMs to be dissolved and go for fresh elections with paper
ballots.

Similarly, he has reduced corruption to only its
financial mmanifestation. While until now, he and Modi may be clear of
financial corruption,they are culturally and socially corrupt. But do we
really care to think of these as forms of corruption?

As we enter a new year, we need to reflect deeply on those whose
voices we do not hear. The lack of voices of dissidence does not
indicate support. And a victory in an election, too, does not
necessarily infer validation. We have to search with greater intensity
and subtlety, because only then will this nation mature to become what
our founding fathers believed was possible. Today, we are a mockery of
what we could have been, and have nobody but ourselves to blame.

Decades of philosophical and political degeneration has led us to
where we are and, therefore, I will not lay all blame at Modi’s
doorstep. After all, we let him happen and that says something about
us. And this country celebrates nationhood when death, sorrow,
unhappiness and unimaginable hardship are forced upon people. What a shame!


Peace Is Doable

silent hill gif photo: Silent Hill Shattered Memories SilentHill.gif

http://indiatoday.intoday.in/…/rahul-gandhi-p…/1/843007.html


Congress was bad, but Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) turned
our country into a malevolent enemy of the people. Always threatening
with newer punitive measures, taking your money away, making you stand
in lines in his QUEUE INDIA MOVEMENT. And all the collected money from
ordinary people will go to Bahuth Jiyadha Psychopath (BJP) friends, not a
penny back to us, except build a hospital here and a statue there.
Corruption by congress was big and under the surface, but BJP greed took
the food out of poor peoples mouth, only dictators in Africa do this.


Congress vice-president Rahul Gandhi claims that Modi was paid huge
money in kickbacks during his stint as Gujarat chief minister.

He accused Modi of receiving crores from the two big corporate houses and demanded an independent probe into the matter.


Congress’ Uttar Pradesh chief ministerial candidate Sheila Dikshit on
Monday too washed her hands off the allegation made in the diaries
against her. Among others, the list contains an entry against Dikshit,
the then Delhi chief minister. The diary entry showed that Rs 1 crore in
cash was paid to her on September 23, 2013.

Rahul earlier claimed whether it was a sin to have a brahmin as CM of UP.

1. BOFORS SCAM


Diary entries in the Bofors scam played a major role during trial
in Sweden. Former head of the Swedish police Sten Lindstrom claimed that
he leaked about 350 documents, which included payment instructions to
banks, contracts, handwritten notes, minutes of meetings and Bofors
managing director Martin Ardbo’s diary that carried a lot of sensitive
information.

In an interview to The Hindu, Lindstrom’s commented
on former prime minister Rajiv Gandhi and Ottavio Quattrocchi, the
Italian businessman accused of being a middleman in the deal:

But
Rajiv Gandhi watched the massive cover-up in India and Sweden and did
nothing. Many Indian institutions were tarred, innocent people were
punished while the guilty got away. The evidence against Ottavio
Quattrocchi was conclusive.

Former prime minister VP Singh
raised the issue during Rajiv Gandhi’s tenure as PM. This led to
Gandhi’s defeat in the 1989 Lok Sabha elections and Singh succeeded him
as the PM.

2. JAIN HAWALA SCAM

The sensational Jain
Hawala scam of 1996 also affected the political careers of several
leaders. Names of at least 60 politicians, civil servants and
businessmen appeared in coded entries in two diaries seized by the
police from a prominent New Delhi businessman in 1991. According to the
prosecutors, SK Jain - one of two brothers who kept the diaries -
claimed that the entries reflected payoffs made from 1988 to 1991 for
government contracts and other favours.

On the directive from
the Supreme Court in January 1996, a special hawala court was set up.
This forced three senior ministers - Madhavrao Scindia, VC Shukla and
Balram Jakhar - of the PV Narasimha Rao government to resign. The then
BJP president LK Advani too resigned from Parliament and pledged not to
contest till his name was cleared from the scam.

3. APPLE ORCHARD SCAM OF VIRBHADRA SINGH


The Income Tax department, during its raids in December 2012 at
Ispat Industries premises, found diaries with entries made about
off-the-book cash transactions. Some notings between 2008 and 2010 were
under the title ‘VBS’. The raids took place when the present Himachal
Pradesh Chief Minister Virbhadra Singh was the Union Steel Minister in
the Manmohan Singh’s UPA government rocked by scams. The seized
documents revealed that payments of Rs 50 lakh each on 28 October 2009
and 21 December 2009; Rs 28 lakh on 21 April 2010, and Rs 1 crore on 8
August 2010 had been made. Similar entries in the diaries hinted at
payments made to Virbhadra through his aides.
The entries were
made at the same time when the Income Tax department laid its hands on
three large cash deposits made by an LIC agent, Anand Chauhan, into
account number 524185 of Punjab National Bank’s branch at Sinjauli, near
Shimla, the capital of Himachal Pradesh. The agent deposited Rs 5 crore
between 2008 and 2011 and then i,Rassued cheques to pay for one-time
life insurance premium of ‘Veerbhadra Singh Hindu United Family’,
comprising the CM, his wife and two children. Virbhadra told the Income
Tax officials that the payments had been made to Chauhan for managing
his apple orchards.
The said income from apple orchards saw
multifold jump - from Rs 10-20 lakh every year to an additional profit
of Rs 6.15 crore. Noose is tightening around Virbhadra and the
Opposition BJP is all set to raise it during forthcoming Assembly
elections.

4. PDS SCAM OF RAMAN SINGH

The PDS scam
came into limelight following allegations levelled by senior senior
Congress leaders against Chhattisgarh Chief Minister Raman Singh. In
March 2015, Congress spokesperson Abhishek Manu Singhvi, on the basis of
unverified “documentary evidence”, alleged that over Rs 34 crore were
sent to the CM’s house on June 8, 2014, as “payment of ill-gotten
wealth”.
Singhvi claimed that Raman Singh, his close relatives
and personal staff earned several crores worth of “ill-gotten wealth”
through the alleged scam in the state’s public distribution system
(PDS). Based on daily entries made in a diary of one Shiv Shankar Bhatt
of the State Civil Supplies Corporation, Congress accused Singh, his
wife and her close relatives, state ministers as well as the CM’s
personal cook, courier and aides of indulging in “unprecedented
corruption”.
The PDS rice scam is a tale of “ministers, chief
minister, CM’s close relatives, CM’s close personnel and staff
completely immersed neck deep in corruption,” Singhvi had told the media
while distributing copies of the diary entries.

5. EX-CBI DIRECTOR RANJIT SINHA


Former CBI Director Ranjit Sinha was indicted by a Supreme
Court-appointed panel which held that prima facie there was an attempt
to influence investigation into the multi-crore coal block allocation
scam, again during the Congress-led UPA government. Sinha was accused of
meeting some of the high- profile accused in the scam. The court also
pulled up CBI for its sluggish probe in the scam and directed the agency
to complete the investigation expeditiously.
Attorney General
Mukul Rohatgi informed the apex court that the panel headed by former
CBI special director ML Sharma held that Sinha’s meetings prima facie
indicated that there was an attempt to influence the investigation.

This case too was based on a visitors’ diary at Sinha’s residence.
Rohtagi said he had gone through the report which has found that the
entries made in the diary were genuine.

B K

Sheila
Dikshit era of Delhi witnessed number of money laundering and
corruptions in Delhi. Her removal from UP election process may not
benefit the party as Sonia herself made the impression of the party as
the most corrupt party in the country. The scam prone Sonia cheated
farmers, poor of the country while she encouraged scams after scams in
her 10 years of rule. Sonia’s corrupt image discouraged people to leave
the party.

Chand

The oldest political party is suffering
from aimless and poor leadership. The so called earthquake seems to be
happening within the party.

Jaitley Sabotaging Even Petty Gains, Soft On Corporate, Traders


Jaitley as FM had bungled everyday. It was Most Lunatic to keep Shops
and Businesses Run 24 Hrs/day as if 8 hrs/day is not enough. Even
BSE/NSE work for 25 Hr/Week - Led to Rs.2-3 Lakh Cr Black Money
Conversion in few days.

Who Prevented Traders from Accepting
Checks? – A Trader may E-Mail Check Number to the Bank And Bank Then
Transfer The Money in to Traders Account, Check is then deposited with
Bank for record, First of 3 Lunatics yesterday.

There was a 20 Yr
Old Bobby Deol film also which depicted how Accounts of a Criminal was
Cleaned up remotely from a Cruise Ship in seconds. E-Banking means $b
money can flow from one account to another to another in seconds.


Had I advised him at 8PM on Nov08, 2016 It would have been to Unplug
all the ATMs, Inter-Bank transactions and directed all banks to Switch
off Power supply and shut down banking transactions. Directed people to
buy essential supplies, made Quick Arrangement to Deposit Old notes in
Sealed Bags with Copy of Aadhar Card after making them unusable by
dipping an end of it in ink or oil with Third Party like Schools used
for Elections.

This would have ensured ALL THE CURRENCY NOTES are
Safely deposited with Third Party in few days QUICKLY – Leaving the
banks to do Normal Business through Written Pay Orders and Do Normal
Business through ATMs in 2-5 day.

It is Laughable India’s
Finance Minister had no idea that Businesses Use FAKE ACCOUNTS to
LAUNDER BLACK MONEY and Secret Accounts to keep Money.

Second
Lunatics he said PM is Wrong when he wanted Stock Market ‘Profits’
should be TAXED like any other income, next Third he said ‘Cashless
means less cash, not no cash’. This is LUNATIC – means Earning Money At
Stock Market is TAX FREE and Buying a Pizza attract 17% to 20% S.Tax
plus Taxes on Business.

http://www.ril.com/ar2014-15/RIL%20AR%202014%20-15.pdf
SCANDALOUS CORPORATE BEHAVIOR OF RIL IS ILLUSTRATED BY THE FACT THAT
ITS CONSOLIDATED NET PROFIT IS Rs.23,556 Cr BUT STANDALONE NET PROFIT IS
Rs.22,719 Cr IS REPORTED PAGE 49 of RIL AR 201-15>
Ø THUS NET
PROFIT FROM Rs.100,000 Cr INVESTING & FINANCING ACTIVITIES, 100
Plus Subsidiaries Generated Just Rs.763 Cr Profit.
Ø THUS
Rs.20,000 Cr Tax Evasion & Black Money Conversion Business Within
RIL. i.e. Rs.8,613 Other Income should attract Rs.2500 Cr Income Tax.
Ø INSTEAD OF RELEASING Rs.15-20 Lakh Cr LOCKED In Corporate &
Rs.2 Lakh Cr Tax Evasion By SPLITTING Companies – He Gave Us
Demonetization.

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மிழில் திபி  மூன்று தொகுப்புள்TIPITAKA-ஸுத்தபிடக-Section-C-
from FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and
Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org


இந்த  நூட்கள் வெளியீடு
காட்சிமுறை உருவரைக்குறிப்பு தேவனாகரி எழுத்துப் பிரதியில் திபிடக 
முக்கூடைகளின் சஹ்ஹுவ ஸாக்யன (ஆறாவது மன்றம்) பதிப்பு.

This outline displays the publication of books in the Devan±gari-script edition of the
Chaμμha Saag±yana (Sixth Council) Tipiμaka. The names of the volumes are displayed
in italics with the suffix “-p±1⁄4i” indicating
the volume is part of the root Tipiμaka, rather than commentarial literature. This outline lists the root volumes only.
Please note: These books are in P±li only, in Devan±gari script, and are not for sale.

No set of English translations is available. For further information please see: www.tipitaka.org

விநய பியுயக Vinaya Piμaka
(மூன்று மண்டலங்கள், 5 நூட்களாக அச்சடிக்கப்பட்டது)

(Three divisions, printed in 5 books)

1.ஸுத்த விபாக(ஒரு சர  மண்டலம்) [பிக்குக்கள் மற்றும் பிக்குனிகளுக்கான தன்னகம் கொண்ட
விதிகளின் இரண்டு நூட்கள்]

Sutta Vibhaaga [two books containing rules for the bhikkhus and
bhikkhunis, outlining eight classes of offences]


திபிடக  முக்கூடைகள்

Tipiμaka (three “baskets”)

ஸுத்த பியுயக

( ஐந்து திரட்டுகள்)

Sutta Piμaka

(Five nik±yas, or collections)

The
Sutta Piṭaka contains the essence of the Buddha’s teaching regarding
the Dhamma. It contains more than ten thousand suttas. It is divided in
five collections called Nikāyas (A multitude, assemblage; a collection; a
class, order, group; an association, fraternity, congregation; a house,
dwelling).

நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணைக் கூடை தம்மா பற்றி புத்தர்
கற்பித்த மெய்ம்மை சாறு நிரம்பியது.  அது பதினாயிரம் விஞ்சி மிகுதியாக நெறி
முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை நிரம்பியது. அது நிகாய ( ஒரு பேரெண்ணிக்கை,
ஒன்றுகூடுதல் ஒரு வகை, வரிசைமுறை, குவியல், ஓர் கூட்டமைப்பு,
பொதுநோக்கங்கள் கொண்ட, ஒருங்கு கூட்டுதல், ஒரு குடும்பமரபுக் குழு,
கருத்தூன்றி நீடித்த ) என அழைக்கப்படும் ஐந்து திரட்டுகளாக பிரிந்துள்ளது.

Dīgha Nikāya
[dīgha:
long] The Dīgha Nikāya gathers 34 of the longest discourses given by
the Buddha. There are various hints that many of them are late additions
to the original corpus and of questionable authenticity.

நீளமான நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)
புத்தரால் கொடுக்கப்பட்ட 34 நீளமான போதனையுரைகள் கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது.

Majjhima Nikāya
[majjhima:
medium] The Majjhima Nikāya gathers 152 discourses of the Buddha of
intermediate length, dealing with diverse matters.

 மத்திம (நடுத்தரமான) நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

புத்தரால்
கொடுக்கப்பட்ட 152 மத்திம ( நடுத்தரமான நீட்சி ) பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட
விஷயங்கள் செயல் தொடர்பு உடன் போதனையுரைகள் கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது.

Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta:
group] The Saṃyutta Nikāya gathers the suttas according to their
subject in 56 sub-groups called saṃyuttas. It contains more than three
thousand discourses of variable length, but generally relatively short.

குவியல் நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

குவியல்
நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்) என அழைக்கப்படும் நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை அவற்றினுடைய
பொருளுக்கு ஏற்ப 56 பங்குவரி குவியலாக கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது. அது மூவாயிரம்
விஞ்சி மிகுதியாக மாறும் தன்மையுள்ள நீளம் ஆனால் பெரும்பாலும் ஒப்பு
நோக்காக சுருக்கமான நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை நிரம்பியது.

Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg:
factor | uttara: additionnal] The Aṅguttara Nikāya is subdivized in
eleven sub-groups called nipātas, each of them gathering discourses
consisting of enumerations of one additional factor versus those of the
precedent nipāta. It contains thousands of suttas which are generally
short.

கூடுதல் அங்கமான (ஆக்கக்கூறு) நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

இறங்குதல்
காரணி, கருத்தைக் கவர்கிற, கீழ் நோக்கி அல்லது ஏறத்தாழ தற்போதைக்கு
உதவுகிற என அழைக்கப்படும் பதினொன்று பங்குவரி, ஒவ்வொன்று
கொய்சகமாக்கப்பட்டது நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை கணக்கிடல் ஆக்கை ஒரு
குறிப்பிட்ட கூடுதல் ஆக்கக் கூறு எதிராக அவை முன்னோடி மாதிரி இறங்குதல்
காரணி. அது ஆயிரக்கணக்கான பெரும்பாலும் சுருக்கமான நெறி முறைக் கட்டளை ஆணை
நிரம்பியது. தன்னகம் கொண்டிரு

Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha: short,
small] The Khuddhaka Nikāya short texts and is considered as been
composed of two stratas: Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta,
Theragāthā-Therīgāthā and Jātaka form the ancient strata, while other
books are late additions and their authenticity is more questionable.

சுருக்கமான, சிறிய நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்)

சுருக்கமான,
சிறிய நிகாய (திரட்டுகள்) வாசகம் மற்றும் ஆலோசனை மிக்க மாதிரி தணிந்த
இரண்டு படுகைகள் : தம்மபத (ஒரு சமய சம்பந்தமான முற்றுத் தொடர் வாக்கியம் ,
மூன்று கூடைகள் நூட்கள்  ஒன்றின் பெயர் , தம்மாவின் உடற்பகுதி அல்லது
பாகம்), உதான (வார்த்தைகளால்,
மேல்நோக்கிய பேரார்வம், ஆவல் கொண்ட அல்லது
மகிழ்ச்சி கூற்று, சொற்றொடர் , உணர்ச்சிமிக்க உறுதலுணர்ச்சி, மகிழ்ச்சி
அல்லது மனத்துயரம் இரண்டனுள் ஒன்று), இதிவுத்தக ( இது குத்தகனிகாய நான்காம்
புத்தகம் பெயர்), ஸுத்த ( ஒரு சரம், இழை ,: புத்தசமயம், சவுகதநூல் ஒரு
பாகம்; ஒரு விதி, நீதி வாக்கியம் இறங்குதல் காரணி),தேரகாத-தேரிகாத(
தேராக்களுக்கு உரியதானது), மற்றும் ஒரு சரடு ஜாதக ( பிறப்பு , பிறப்பிடம் ,
ஒரு பிறப்பு அல்லது : புத்தசமயம் விவேகம் வாழ்தல் , ஒரு ஜாதக, அல்லது
புத்தரின் முந்திய பிறப்பு கதைளில் ஒன்று.)


https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3FeaMu_1EQyaVhnam1kRlZOZEk/view

FIXING



THE



VOTE



ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINES PROMISE TO MAKE



ELECTIONS MORE ACCURATE THAN EVER BEFORE, BUT



ONLY IF CERTAIN PROBLEMS—WITH THE MACHINES



AND THE WIDER ELECTORAL PROCESS—ARE RECTIFIED



By Ted Selker



90 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN OCTOBER 2004



COURTESY OF SEQUOIA VOTING SYSTEMS



COPYRIGHT 2004 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.

Page 1 of 8

For more details on FIXING THE VOTE
please visit http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

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Page 1 of 8

FIXING

THE

VOTE

ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINES PROMISE TO MAKE

ELECTIONS MORE ACCURATE THAN EVER BEFORE, BUT

ONLY IF CERTAIN PROBLEMS—WITH THE MACHINES

AND THE WIDER ELECTORAL PROCESS—ARE RECTIFIED

By Ted Selker

90 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN OCTOBER 2004

COURTESY OF SEQUOIA VOTING SYSTEMS

COPYRIGHT 2004 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.

Page 1 of 8

Page 2 of 8

Voting may seem like a simple activity—cast ballots, then count them. Complexity arises, how-
ever, because voters must be registered and votes must be recorded in secrecy, transferred se-
curely and counted accurately. We vote rarely, so the procedure never becomes a well-practiced

routine. One race between two candidates is easy. Half a dozen races, each between several can-
didates, and ballot measures besides—that’s harder. This complex process is so vital to our democ-
racy that problems with it are as noteworthy as engineering faults in a nuclear power plant.

Votes can be lost at every stage of the process. The infamous 2000 U.S. presidential election

dramatized some very basic, yet systemic, flaws concerning who got to vote and

how the votes were counted. An estimated four million to six

million ballots were not counted or were prevented

from being cast at all—well over 2 percent of the 150

million registered voters. This is a shockingly large

number considering that the decision of which can-
didate would assume the most powerful office in the

world came to rest on 537 ballots in Florida.

Three simple problems were to blame for these

losses. The first, which made up the largest contri-
bution, was from registration database errors that

prevented 1.5 million to three million votes; this

problem was exemplified by 80,000 names taken off

the Florida lists because of a poorly designed com-
puter algorithm. Second, a further 1.5 million to two

million votes were uncountable because of equip-
ment glitches, mostly bad ballot design. For exam-
ple, the butterfly ballot of Palm Beach County con-
fused many into voting for an unintended candidate

and also contributed to another appalling outcome:

19,235 people, or 4 percent of voters, selected more

than one presidential candidate. Equipment prob-
lems such as clogged punch holes resulted in an ad-
ditional 682 dimpled ballots that were not counted

there. Finally, according to the U.S. Census Bureau,

about one million registered voters reported that

polling-place difficulties such as long lines prevent-
ed them from casting a vote.

Thus, registration and polling-place troubles ac-
counted for about two thirds of the documentable

lost votes in 2000. The remaining one third were

technology-related, most notably ballot design and

mechanical failures. In the aftermath of the 2000

election, officials across the country, at both the fed-
eral and local levels, have scrambled to abandon old

approaches, such as lever machines and punch cards,

in favor of newer methods. Many are turning to elec-
tronic voting machines. Although these machines of-
fer many advantages, we must make sure that these

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 91

VOTING

MACHINE—here,

Sequoia Voting Systems’s

AVC Edge—is fairly typical

of direct record electronic

(DRE) voting machines

on the market. Voters enter

their votes via a touch-
screen interface.

COPYRIGHT 2004 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.

Page 2 of 8

Page 3 of 8

new systems simplify the election process, reduce errors and

eliminate fraud.

Some countries have introduced electronic systems with

great success. Brazil started testing electronic voting machines

in the mid-1990s and since 2000 has been using one type of ma-
chine across its vast pool of 106 million voters. It has multiple

organizations responsible for different aspects of voting equip-
ment development as part of the safeguards. It also introduced

the machines in carefully controlled stages—with 40,000 voters

in 1996 (7 percent of whom failed to record their votes elec-
tronically) and 150,000 in 1998 (2 percent failure). Improve-
ments based on those experiments reduced the failure rate to

an estimated 0.2 percent in 2000.

Voting Technology

VOTING SYSTEMS have a long history of advancing with tech-
nology. In ancient Greece, Egypt and Rome, marks were made

for candidates on pieces of discarded pottery called ostraca. Pa-
per superseded pottery in the hand-counted paper ballot, which

is still used by 1.3 percent of U.S. voters. Other modern tech-
nologies are lever machines, punch cards and mark-sense bal-
lots (where each candidate’s name is next to an empty oval or

other shape that must be marked correctly to indicate the selec-
tion, and a scanner counts the votes automatically). The table

on pages 94 and 95 summarizes the benefits and drawbacks of

each of these methods and suggests ways to improve them. A

lengthier discussion of nonelectronic systems is at www.sciam.

com/ontheweb.

Electronic voting machines have been around for 135

years—Thomas Edison patented one in 1869. Elections started

testing electronic voting machines in the 1970s, when display-
ing and recording a ballot directly into a computer file became

economical. At first, many were mixed-media machines, using

paper to present the selections and buttons to record the votes.

Officials had to carefully align the paper with the buttons and

indicator lights. Electronic voting machines that use such pa-
per overlays are still on the market. More modern direct record

electronic (DRE) voting machines present the ballot and feed-
back information on an electronic display, which may be com-
bined with audio.

Such machines have many advantages: they can stop a vot-
er from choosing too many candidates (called overvoting), and

they can warn if no candidate is picked on a race (undervoting).

For instance, when Georgia changed over to DREs in 2002,

residuals (the total of overvotes and undervotes combined)

were reduced from among the worst in the nation at 3.2 per-
cent on the top race in 2000 to 0.9 percent in 2002. So-called

ballotless voting allows the machines to eliminate tampering

with physical ballots during handling or counting. (Lever ma-
chines, dating back to 1892, share many of those features.)

Yet the birthing of DRE voting equipment in the U.S. has not

been easy. The voting machine industry is fragmented, with nu-
merous companies pursuing a variety of products and without

a mature body of industry-wide standards in place. Deciding

what is a good voting machine is still being discussed by various

advocacy organizations and groups such as the IEEE Project

1583 on voting equipment standards. Allegations of voting com-
panies using money to influence testing and purchasing of

equipment are not uncommon.

Complicating matters, local jurisdictions across the coun-
try have different rules and approaches to testing and using vot-
ing equipment. Some counties, such as Los Angeles, are so-
phisticated enough that they commission voting machines built

to their own specifications. Many other municipalities know so

little about voting that they employ voting companies to run

the election and report the results.

Polling-place practices add further hazards of insecurity and

potential malfunctions. I recall walking into the central election

warehouse (where the voting machines are stored and the

precinct vote tallies are combined) in Broward County, Flori-
da, when it was being used for a recount in December 2002.

The building’s loading dock was opened to the outdoors for

ventilation. The control center for tallying all the votes was a

small computer room; the door to that room was ajar and no

log was kept of personnel entering and leaving.

Beyond external issues, DRE machines themselves have had

technological shortcomings that have slowed their adoption.

Voters have found their displays confusing or challenging to

use. Software bugs and difficulties in setting up DREs have also

presented problems. During the 2002 Broward County re-
count, I was allowed to try out machines from Electronic Sys-
tems and Services (ESS), one of the country’s major election ma-
chine makers. The ESS machines had an excessive undervote

because the “move to next race” button was too close to the

“deposit my ballot” button. An audio ballot was so poorly de-
signed it took about 45 minutes to vote.

On machines made by the company Sequoia, people who

chose a straight party vote and then tried to select that party’s

presidential candidate were unaware that they were deselecting

their presidential choice. A massive 10 percent undervote was

registered in one county using Sequoia machines in New Mexico.

Examining the insides of new voting machines still reveals

92 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN OCTOBER 2004

■ Following the infamous 2000 presidential election,

electoral officials around the country have scrambled to

upgrade their voting technology with newer systems,

such as direct record electronic voting machines (DREs).

■ A state or county that is considering buying DREs should

hire experts to test the machines thoroughly for bugs,

malicious software and security holes and to assess the

quality of the user interface.

■ Election officials and polling-place workers should be well

versed in the operation of their machines and should follow

practices that do not compromise the security of the vote.

■ In addition to these technology-related issues, the voter

registration process and polling-place practices in general

must be improved to prevent massive losses of votes.

Overview/Electronic Voting

COPYRIGHT 2004 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.

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many physical security faults. For example, some machines have

a lifetime electronic odometer that is supposed to read every vote

that the machine makes. But the odometer is connected to the

rest of the machine by a cable that a corrupt poll worker could

unplug to circumvent it without breaking a seal.

Source code for voting machines made by different compa-
nies, like most commercial software, is a trade secret. Election

machine companies allow buyers to show the source code to

experts under confidential terms. Unfortunately, the local elec-
tion officials might not know how to find a qualified expert.

And when they find one, will the voting companies be required

to listen? For instance, in 1997 Iowa was considering a voting

machine made by Global Election Systems, which was later

bought out by Diebold. Computer scientist Douglas W. Jones

of the University of Iowa pointed out security issues, and the

state bought Sequoia machines instead. In February 2003

Diebold left its software on unsecured servers, and DRE crit-
ics posted Diebold’s code on the Internet for everyone to see.

The problems that Jones saw six years earlier had not been

fixed. Any person with physical access to the machines and a

moderate amount of computer knowledge could have hacked

into them to produce any outcome desired.

The best computer security available depends on sophisti-
cated encryption and carefully designed protocols. Yet to know

the system has not been compromised requires testing. DRE

machines have not received the constant testing that they re-
quire. Security of today’s voting machines is wholly dependent

on election workers and the procedures that they follow.

Because virtually all tallies, no matter what voting method

is used, are now stored and transmitted in some electronic form,

computer fraud is possible with all voting systems. The advent

of DRE machines potentially allows such tampering to go

www.sciam.com SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 93

DON FOLEY (illustration); COURTESY OF SEQUOIA VOTING SYSTEMS (photograph)

AUDIT TRAILS

VERIVOTE PRINTER UPGRADE to Sequoia Voting

Systems’s AVC Edge voting machine produces

a paper copy of the votes made on it and

displays it behind a window. Before leaving the

voting booth, the voter can verify her vote by

inspecting the paper record, which is retained

by the machine for use in recounts

An audit trail printed on

paper or recorded on tape

or CD would enable an

independent recount

of votes made on an

electronic voting machine.

1Voter makes selections

using a touch screen

2Audio confirmation

is played to the voter

over headphones as each

selection is made

3A tape recorder

also records the

audio confirmations,

providing a permanent

human- and machine-
readable audit trail for

the votes

COPYRIGHT 2004 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.

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unchecked from the point at which the voter attempts to cast

a ballot. Schemes for altering ballots have always existed, but

a computerized attack could have widespread effects were it

waged on a large jurisdiction that uses one kind of software on

one type of machine. Using a single system allows large juris-
dictions to get organized and improve their results but must be

accompanied by stringent controls.

The successful reduction of residuals across all of Georgia,

mentioned earlier, is a case in point. Thorough tests on the

DREs at Kenisaw State University found many problems,

which were resolved before the machines were put into use.

This rigorous testing and careful introduction of the machines

were central to the state’s success.

Electronic Fraud

HOW CAN WE FIND all the dangers created by bad software

and prevent or correct them before they compromise an elec-
tion? Reading source code exposes its quality and its use of se-
curity approaches and can reveal bugs. But the only complete-
ly reliable way to test software is by running it through all the

possible situations that it might be faced with.

In 1983 Ken Thompson, on receipt of the Association for

Computing Machinery’s Turing Award (the most prestigious

award in computer science), gave a lecture entitled “Reflections

on Trusting Trust.” In it he showed the possibility of hazards

such as “Easter eggs”—pieces of code that are not visible to a

reader of the program. In a voting machine, such code would do

nothing until election day, when it would change how votes

were recorded. Such code could be loaded into a voting machine

in many ways: in the voting software itself, in the tools that as-
semble the software (compiler, linker and loader), or in the tools

the program depends on (database, operating system scheduler,

memory management and graphical-user-interface controller).

Tests must therefore be conducted to catch Easter eggs and

bugs that occur only on election day. Many electronic voting

machines have clocks in them that can be set forward to the day

of the election to perform a test. But these clocks could be ma-
nipulated by officials to rerun an election and create bogus vot-
ing records, so a safer voting machine would not allow its clock

to be set in the field. Such machines would need to be tested

for Easter egg fraud on election day. In November 2003 in Cal-
ifornia a random selection of each electronic voting system was

taken aside on the day of election, and careful parallel elections

were conducted to show that the machines were completely ac-
curate at recording votes. These tests demonstrated that the vot-
ing machines were working correctly.

To prepare for a fraud-free voting day requires that every ef-
fort be made to create voting machines that do not harbor ma-
licious code. The computer science research community is con-
stantly debating the question of how to make provably secure

software. Computer security experts have devised many ap-
proaches to keep computers reliable enough for other purpos-
es, such as financial transactions. Financial software transfers

billions of dollars every day, is extensively tested and holds up

well under concerted attacks. The same security techniques can

be applied to voting machines. Some researchers believe that the

security precautions of “open source” (making the programs

available for anyone to examine) and encryption techniques can

help but not completely guard against Easter eggs.

Guarding votes against being compromised has always re-

94 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN OCTOBER 2004

ELIZA JEWETT

EXISTING VOTING TECHNOLOGIES

Improving or optimizing an existing technology may be a better choice for many counties than hasty adoption of a new system—

introduction of a new technology is often accompanied by an increase in errors.

TECHNOLOGY Hand-counted Lever machines Punch cards

paper ballots

COMMENTS ■ Used by 1.3 percent of U.S. ■ First used in 1892 in Lockport, N.Y. ■ First used in 1964 in Fulton

and De Kalb counties, Georgia

ADVANTAGES ■ Simple ■ Overvotes are impossible ■ Removes human errors of tallying

■ Lowest residual* rate ■ Guarantees secrecy of vote ■ Compact machines

DISADVANTAGES ■ Recounts differ from original count ■ Bulky, massive machines ■ Hard to punch holes correctly

by twice as much as machine-counted ■ Defective odometers common ■ Often punch wrong hole

votes do ■ Misreading of odometers ■ Ballot design troubles

■ Persistent allegations of votes being ■ Voting falloff on lower races (for ■ Card readers jam frequently

altered, added, lost, and so on Senate, state office, for example) ■ Ballot easy to spoil

WAYS TO IMPROVE ■ Count by mechanical scanner ■ Check and service before each election ■ Optical way to check ballot while

■ Treat paper with light, heat or coating ■ Monitor odometers with video cameras in booth might help

material to make vote indelible ■ Improve labeling of groups of levers

forming a race

■ Adjustable height of machines

COPYRIGHT 2004 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.

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quired multiple human agents watching each other for mistakes

or malice. The best future schemes might include computer

agents that check one another and create internal audits to val-
idate every step of the voting process. The Secure Architecture

for Voting Electronically (SAVE) at the Massachusetts Institute

of Technology is a demonstration research project to explore

such an approach. SAVE works by having several programs car-
ry out the same tasks, but while using such different methods

that each program would have to be breached separately to

compromise the final result. The system knows to call foul when

too many modules disagree.

Audit Trails

SOME CRITICS INSIST that the best way to ameliorate such

attacks is by providing a separate human-readable paper ballot.

This widely promoted scheme is the voter-verified paper ballot

(VVPB) suggested by Rebecca Mercuri, then at Bryn Mawr Col-
lege. The voting machine prints out a receipt, and the voter can

look at it after voting and assure himself that at least the paper

records his intention. The receipt remains behind a clear screen

so no one can tamper with it during its inspection, and it is re-
tained by the machine. If a dispute about the electronic count

arises, a recount can be conducted using the printed receipts. (It

is not a good idea for the voter to have a copy, because such re-
ceipts could encourage the selling of votes.)

Although the VVPB looks quite appealing at first glance, a

deeper inspection exposes some serious flaws. First, it is com-
plicated for the voter. Elections in this country often have many

races. Validating all the selections on a separate paper after the

ballot has been filled out is not a simple task. Experience shows

that even when confronted with a printout that tells voters in

which race they have made a mistake, few are willing to go back

and correct it. Anything that takes a voter’s attention away from

the immediate act of casting a ballot will reduce the chances of

the person voting successfully. Every extra button, every extra

step, every extra decision is a source of lost votes.

The scheme is also complicated for the officials. If a voter

claims fraud, what is the official to do? The voter claims she vot-
ed for Jane, but both the DRE screen and the receipt show a vote

for John. Should they close the polling station? On top of this,

the officials are not legally allowed to see an individual voter’s

ballot.

VVPB addresses only a small part of the fraud problem. The

paper trails themselves could be made part of a scheme for de-
frauding an election if a hacker tampers with the printing soft-
ware. The paper can be manipulated in all the usual ways after

the election.

A better option would allow people to verify their selections

www.sciam.com SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 95

TED SELKER is the Massachusetts Institute of Technology direc-
tor of the California Institute of Technology/M.I.T. voting project,

which evaluates the impact of technology on the election process.

A large part of his research in voting concerns inventing and test-
ing new technology. Examples include new approaches to user in-
terfaces and ballot design and secure electronic architectures.

Selker’s Context Aware Computing group at the M.I.T. Media Labo-
ratory strives to create a world in which people’s desires and in-
tentions guide computers to help them. This work is developing

environments that use sensors and artificial intelligence to form

keyboardless computer scenarios.

THE AUTHOR

Mark-sense Electronic machines Internet voting, phone

ballots messaging, interactive TV

■ First used in 1962 in California ■ First used in 1976 ■ Internet voting first used in 2000 primary

in Phoenix, Ariz.

■ With in-precinct scanning, has lowest ■ Overvotes are impossible ■ Vote from home

residuals of any mechanical method ■ No human errors of tallying ■ People with physical disabilities can use their own

■ Easier than punching holes ■ Easy for people with physical disabilities to use special-needs setup

■ Voter can read candidates right on ballot ■ Good feedback ■ No human errors in tallying

■ Ballot readers are slower, harder to calibrate ■ User interface often poor ■ Concerns about malicious software, network

and more prone to jamming than card readers ■ Concerns about malicious software problems and hackers

■ Bulky ballot ■ Concerns about computer obsolescence

■ Ballot easy to spoil

■ Use an in-precinct scanner to catch problems ■ Test ballots ■ Use special Web browser

and give the voter a second chance to vote ■ Consider closed systems ■ System on a CD

■ Use DRE to mark ballot ■ Test system, including on day of election ■ New approaches to security needed,

■ “Fill in the shape” version better such as multiple software agents

than “connect the arrow” version

*Residuals are ballots with votes for too many (overvote) or too few (undervote) candidates.

COPYRIGHT 2004 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.

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with recorded audio feedback. An audio transcript on tape or a

CD has an integrity that is harder to compromise than a collec-
tion of paper receipts. Most current electronic voting machines

can be set up to speak the choices to the voter while he looks at

the visual interface. The tape can be read by a computer or lis-
tened to by people. Because misreads of paper are a major dif-

ficulty with all counting machines today, the tape can be better

verified than paper receipts. An audio receipt is also preferable

to a paper receipt because it is hard to change or erase the au-
dio verifications without such alterations being noticed (think

about the 18-minute gap on the Watergate tapes). Also, a small

number of cassette tapes or CDs are easier to store and trans-
port than thousands of paper receipts.

Other proposals for voter verification include recording the

video image of the DRE and showing the ballot as it has been

received by the central counting databases while the voter is in

the booth. The advantage of these techniques is that they are

passive—they do not require additional actions on the part of

the voter.

Here is how voting might go using a well-designed audio

record. Imagine you are voting on a computer. You like Abby

Roosevelt, Independent. You press the touch-screen button for

your choice. The name is highlighted, and the vote button on

one side is replaced with an unvote button on the other side. The

tab on the screen for this race shows that a selection has been

made. The earphones you are wearing tell you that you have vot-
ed for “Ben Jefferson” (and these words are recorded on a back-
up tape).

Wait a minute! “Ben Jefferson”? You realize that you must

have pressed the wrong button by mistake. You study the

screen and see a prominent “cancel vote” button. You press it.

“Vote for Ben Jefferson for president canceled,” the computer

intones onto a tape and into your ears. The screen returns to its

prevote state, and this time you press more carefully and are re-
warded with “Vote cast for Abby Roosevelt, Independent, for

president.” You go on to the Senate race.

The features just described are designed to give feedback

in ways you are most adept at understanding. People are good

at noticing labels moving, tabs changing, and contrast and tex-
ture changes. We have trouble doing things accurately without

such feedback. The audio verification comes right at a time

when the user is performing the action. Perceptual tasks (see-
ing movement and hearing the audio) are easier to perform than

cognitive ones (reading a paper receipt and remembering all the

candidates one intended to vote for). A tape or CD recording is

a permanent, independent transcript of your vote.

96 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN OCTOBER 2004

In the Courts and in the News

In recent months, electronic voting machines have been in the news a lot, as groups file legal actions both for and against use

of the machines and new problems with elections are uncovered. —Graham P. Collins, staff editor

March—In a case brought by the American Association of

Disabled Persons, a federal judge in Florida orders Duval County

to have at least one machine that allows the visually impaired to

vote without assistance at 20 percent of its polling places. Duval

County appeals, and in April the judge stays his own ruling.

April—In Maryland, local politicians and activists from the

Campaign for Verifiable Voting file suit against the Maryland

Board of Elections to block the use of the state’s 16,000 direct

record electronic (DRE) voting machines, which do not have

printers to produce paper receipts as required by state law. The

move follows reports of glitches in the March 2 primary election;

some voters who demanded paper ballots were given them but

later learned their votes were invalidated.

April—Citing security and reliability concerns and following

problems in the March 2 primary election, California’s secretary

of state bans the use, in the November 2004 election, of more

than 14,000 DREs made by Diebold, Inc. He also conditionally

decertifies 28,000 other DREs, pending steps to upgrade their

security. (Some counties have their systems recertified in

June.) Three counties file suit to block his order. A group of

disabled voters also sues to undo the order. In addition, the

California secretary of state recommends that the state’s

attorney general look into possible civil and criminal charges

against Diebold because of what he calls “fraudulent actions by

Diebold.” A report accuses the company of breaking state

election law by installing uncertified software on DREs in four

counties and then lying about those machines.

May—In Florida, Representative Robert Wexler sues to block the

use of Election Systems and Services voting technology in

Broward and Miami-Dade counties.

June—The League of Women Voters, which in 2003 endorsed

paperless electronic voting, drops that support. Instead it

adopts a resolution to favor “secure, accurate, recountable and

accessible” systems such as those with printed receipts.

June—The head of the Election Assistance Commission calls

for tougher security measures for electronic voting by the

November election.

July—Advocacy groups in Florida ask a Tallahassee judge to

step in before the August 31 primary election and override

Governor Jeb Bush’s decision not to allow manual recounts in

the 15 counties that have touch-screen voting machines. Also in

Florida, audit records of the 2002 governor’s primary and

general election are reported permanently lost because of

computer failures. After a few days the records are rediscovered

on a disk in an adjoining room.

September—Nevada, in a primary election, will be the first to

use DREs that print paper receipts statewide.

COPYRIGHT 2004 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.

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These features are all implementable now as ballot im-
provements on current voting machines. Extra work would be

needed to allow sight- or hearing-impaired people to verify mul-
tiple records of their ballot as well.

Some researchers are studying alternatives to DREs, in the

form of Internet voting or voting using familiar devices such

as the phone. Since May 2002, England has been experiment-
ing with a number of systems intended to increase turnout.

These methods include mailing in optically readable paper bal-
lots (absentee voting), using a standard phone call and the

phone’s keypad, using the instant-messaging facilities on cell

phones and using interactive TV that is available in English

homes. Swindon Borough, for example, included more than

100,000 voters in an experiment using the Internet and tele-
phones. A 10-digit PIN was hand-delivered to voters’ homes.

This PIN was used in conjunction with a password the voters

had been sent separately to authorize them to vote. No fraud

was detected or reported. But the effort only improved turnout

by 3 percentage points (from 28 to 31 percent).

In contrast, introducing the option of absentee voting in-
creased voter turnout by 15 percentage points—but with a down-
side: large-scale vote buying was reported in Manchester and

Bradford. (Being able to prove whom you have voted for, such

as by showing the ballot you are mailing in, enables vote buying.)

What Must Be Done

THE UNIVERSAL ADOPTION of perfect voting machines will

not be happening anytime soon. But quite independent of the

specific machines used, much can and should be done simply

to ensure that votes are collected and accurately counted in the

U.S. We must be adamant about the following improvements:

1. We must simplify the registration system. The largest loss

of votes in 2000 occurred because errors in registration data-
bases prevented people from voting. Registration databases

must be properly checked to make sure they include all eligi-
ble people who want to be registered. We must develop na-
tional standards and technology to ensure that people can reg-
ister reliably but that they do not register and vote in multi-
ple places.

2. Local election officials must understand the operation of

their equipment and test its performance thoroughly when it

is delivered and before each election. DREs should be tested

on election day, using dummy precincts.

3. Local election officials must teach their workers using sim-
ple procedures to run the equipment and other processes. Bal-
lot making, marking, collecting and counting all must be care-
fully set up to avoid error and fraud. Many voting officials in-
advertently use procedures that compromise accuracy,

security and integrity of ballots by, for example, turning off

precinct scanning machines that check for overvotes and in-
specting and “correcting” ballots.

4. Each step in the voting process must be resistant to tam-
pering. Collecting, counting and storing of ballots must be

done with documentation of who touches everything and with

clear procedures for what to do with the materials at each

stage. Multiple people must oversee all critical processes.

5. Each task in the voting process must be clear and accessible,

have helpful feedback and allow a person to validate it. Per-
ceptual, cognitive, motor and social capabilities of people must

be taken into account when designing machines and ballots.

Ballot designs should pass usability and countability tests be-
fore being shown for final approval to the parties invested in the

election. Voters must be able to understand how to make their

selections, and votes must be easy to count in mass quantities.

6. The government should invest in research to develop and

test secure voting technology, including DREs and Internet

voting. Rushing to adopt present-day voting machines is not

the best use of funds in the long term.

7. Standards of ethics must be set and enforced for all poll

workers and also for voting companies regarding investments

in them and donations by them or their executives.

Only when these requirements are met will we have a truly

secure and accurate voting system, no matter what underlying

technology is used.

www.sciam.com SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 97

COURTESY OF DIEBOLD ELECTION SYSTEMS

Misvotes, Undervotes and Overvotes: The 2000 Presidential Election in

Florida. Alan Agresti and Bret Presnell in Statistical Science, Vol. 17, No. 4,

pages 436–440; 2002. Available at web.stat.ufl.edu/~presnell/Tech-
Reps/election2000.pdf

A Better Ballot Box? Rebecca Mercuri in IEEE Spectrum, Vol. 39, No. 10,

pages 46–50; October 2002. Available at

www.spectrum.ieee.org/WEBONLY/publicfeature/oct02/evot.html

Security Vulnerabilities and Problems with VVPT. Ted Selker and Jon

Goler. April 2004. Available at

www.vote.caltech.edu/Reports/vtp_wp13.pdf

The Caltech/M.I.T. Voting Technology Project is at www.vote.caltech.edu;

the project’s July 2004 report with recommendations for the 2004

presidential election is at www.vote.caltech.edu/Reports/EAC.pdf

The U.S. Election Assistance Commission Web site is at www.eac.gov

MORE TO EXPLORE

DIEBOLD ELECTION SYSTEMS’S AccuVote TSX, another typical modern

electronic voting machine, was decertified in California.

COPYRIGHT 2004 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.

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