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2098 Wed 4 Jan 2017 LESSONS from Rector JCMesh J Alphabets Letter Animation ClipartMesh C Alphabets Letter Animation Clipart http://teekhimirchi.in/…/10-hilarious-photoshopped-bjp-pub…/ Bahuth Jiyadha Psychopaths (BJP) with its stealth, shadowy and discriminating hindutva cult rashtra full of hatred has already lost the fight for power as they have betrayed entire country its SC/STs/farmers and youth of Sarvajan Samaj. Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) and SP gobbled the Master Key by tampering the fraud EVMs. Since the entire EVMs will be replaced only in 2019 as per the CEC the BJP wants to continue its hey days even after the notorious DEMON demonitisation.
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: site admin @ 10:25 pm

2098 Wed 4 Jan 2017


LESSONS

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Designing a Cost Effective, Reliable and Scalable Electronic Voting https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3FeaMu_1EQyd1pFdVFLMDlPSmc/view
Filed under: General
Posted by: site admin @ 8:48 pm



http://teekhimirchi.in/…/10-hilarious-photoshopped-bjp-pub…/


Bahuth Jiyadha Psychopaths (BJP) with its stealth, shadowy and
discriminating hindutva cult rashtra full of hatred has already lost the
fight for power as they have betrayed entire country its SC/STs/farmers
and youth of Sarvajan Samaj. Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi)
and SP gobbled the Master Key by tampering the fraud EVMs. Since the
entire EVMs will be replaced only in 2019 as per the CEC the BJP wants
to continue its hey days even after the notorious DEMON demonitisation.


CEC has announced that only in 2019 entire EVMs would be replaced. For
UP Assembly elections 2017 only in 20 constituencies EVMs are replaced.
Till entire EVMs are replaced paper ballots have to be used to save
democracy.

The ex CJI Sathasivam had committed a grave error of
judgement by ordering that the EVMs will be replaced in a phased manner
as suggested by the ex CEC Sampath. Only 8 out of 543 seats in 2014 Lok
Sabha elections which helped Murderer ofg democratic institutions (Modi)
gobble the Master Key. In many states the entire EVMs were not used
helping Bahuth Jiyadha Psychopaths (BJP) and its allies got selected.

None of the above have ordered for paper ballots to be used until the entire EVMs were replaced.
In the last UP Panchayat elections where paper ballots were used Ms
Mayawati’s BSP won majority of the seats while it lost all the seats in
the 2014 Lok Sabha elections because of these fraud EVMs.

Now the
CEI must order for dissolving the Central and state governments
selected through these fraud EVMs and go for fresh polls until the
entire EVMs were replaced to save democracy, equality, liberty and
fraternity as enshrined in our Modern Constitution for Sarvajan Hitay
Sarvajan Sukhaya i.e., for the welfare, happiness and peace of all
socities.

Your Broom, My Head


Modi’s head photoshopped on someone’s picture to showcase him as someone of humble background.

Modi's head photoshopped on someone's picture to showcase him as someone of humble background

CEC
has announced that only in 2019 entire EVMs would be replaced. For UP
Assembly elections 2017 only in 20 constituencies EVMs are replaced.
Till entire EVMs are replaced paper ballots have to be used to save
democracy.

The ex CJI Sathasivam had committed a grave error of
judgement by ordering that the EVMs will be replaced in a phased manner
as suggested by the ex CEC Sampath. Only 8 out of 543 seats in 2014 Lok
Sabha elections which helped Murderer ofg democratic institutions
(Modi) gobble the Master Key. In many states the entire EVMs were not
used helping Bahuth Jiyadha Psychopaths (BJP) and its allies got
selected.

None of the above have ordered for paper ballots to be used until the entire EVMs were replaced.
In the last UP Panchayat elections where paper ballots were used Ms
Mayawati’s BSP won majority of the seats while it lost all the seats in
the 2014 Lok Sabha elections because of these fraud EVMs.

Now the
CEI must order for dissolving the Central and state governments
selected through these fraud EVMs and go for fresh polls until the
entire EVMs were replaced to save democracy, equality, liberty and
fraternity as enshrined in our Modern Constitution for Sarvajan Hitay
Sarvajan Sukhaya i.e., for the welfare, happiness and peace of all
socities.


The
Election Commission of India has called a meeting today evening for the
Chief Electoral Officers and nodal officers of police of poll-bound
Uttar Pradesh, Punjab,…
india.com|By Sohit Mishra

LikeShow More Reactions
Comment
F. Navasivathika Pabba

(1)
Puna
ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya
chaḍḍitaṃ ekāha·mataṃ vā dvīha·mataṃ vā tīha·mataṃ vā uddhumātakaṃ
vinīlakaṃ vipubbaka·jātaṃ, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho
kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti. 

F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

(1)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, one day dead, or two days dead or three days dead,
swollen, bluish and festering, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya
also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not
free from such a condition.” 


Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā
kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī
vā kāyasmiṃ viharati; ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati,
na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati. 



Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

F. ஒன்பது இடுகாடு நிலத்தளங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு

மேலும், பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, ஒருவேளை அவர் தொலைவான இடத்தில்  ஒரு பிரேதம் இடுகாடு நிலத்தளத்தில் எறியப்பட்டு
இருப்பதைப்
பார்த்துக் கொண்டிருஇந்தால், ஒரு நாள் இறந்த, அல்லது இரண்டு நாட்கள்
இறந்த, அல்லது மூன்று நாட்கள் இறந்த, வீங்கிய, சற்றே நீலமான மற்றும்
புரைத்துச் சீக்கொண்ட நிலையில், அவர் இந்த மெய்ம்மூலமான kāya  உடல்/காய
ஆழ்ந்து ஆராய: “இந்த kāya  உடல்/காய கூட அவ்வகைப்பட்ட ஒரு இயற்கை ஆற்றல்
உடையதாக இருக்கிறது, அதுவும் இப்படி  ஆகத்தொடங்கு போக இருக்கிறது, மற்றும்
அத்தகைய ஒரு  கட்டுப்பாட்டு வரம்புகளற்ற
நிலைமை இருந்து  வேறல்ல.

இவ்வாறு
அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.


charnel ground photo: Charnel 207048271487c0baa44a0d.gif


http://www.ambedkar.org/gifimages/voteforBSP.gif

http://www.ambedkar.org/gifimages/voteforBSP.gif

Designing a Cost Effective, Reliable and Scalable Electronic Voting
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3FeaMu_1EQyd1pFdVFLMDlPSmc/view

Page
10
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10

Page 1 of 10

Designing a Cost Effective, Reliable and Scalable Electronic Voting

Machine for National Election of Bangladesh

M.J. HOSSAIN1

, A.S.SHAKUR2

, M.J. AHMED3

, B. PAUL4

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Shahjalal University of Science and Technology

Kumargaon, Sylhet-3114,

Bangladesh

1

jitu.s4sust@gmail.com,2

shakur7751@gmail.com, 3

jb.ahmed25@gmail.com

4

{shuvon_bd@yahoo.com, biswajit-eee@sust.edu}

Abstract: The purpose of this project is to design and ameliorate hackneyed electoral process and create a

system that will extirpate paper based voting system’s problem. Present electronic voting machines

(EVM) have not prevailed over issues germane to security, reliability and cost. The principle concern of

our design is to ensure reliability, flexibility, scalability and user friendly operations. In this design

biometric scanner and keypad are introduced for identification. Three ways back up is provided to avoid

any sudden power failure, ballot is organized in such a way that it will not pose problems for untrained

urban voters. The device is designed carefully to suit the election environment in Bangladesh.

Key words: EVM, biometric scanner, Arduino Uno, EEPROM, LCD display, I2C bus.

1 Introduction

Voting is the most pivotal process of democratic

society through which voters determine and

reveal opinion on an issue that is under

consideration. For a democratic society voting is

a crucial and only legal constructional process of

determining its government. The term

“electronic voting” depicts to the use of some

electronic means or machinery that is more or

less computer supported in voting and ensures

better security, reliability and transparency.

Based on the promise of greater efficiency,

better scalability, faster speed, lower cost and

more reliability, voting process is currently

shifting from paper based manual process to

electronic based voting systems. Comparing to

traditional voting systems electronic voting

systems have many benefits such as ensuring

better accuracy by eliminating human error,

increased speed of computation and lower

operating cost through automated means.

Whether or not electronic voting is a necessary

replacement for the traditional paper-based

method, it is irrefutable that the conduct of

voting has been shifting to the use of electronic

medium. To date, electronic databases are used

to record voter information, computers are used

to count the votes and produce voting results and

Recent Advances in Circuits, Systems and Automatic Control ISBN: 978-1-61804-306-1 79

Page 1 of 10
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Fig. 1 Proposed Electronic Voting Machine (EVM)

electronic voting machines have been used in

some national elections. The idea behind modern

EVM was illustrated by the London Working

Men’s Organization in 1838.

. However, a

number of recent studies have shown that most

of the electronic voting systems being used

today are fatally defective [1-3] and that their

quality does not match the importance of the

task that they are supposed to carry out. Flaws in

current voting systems, which were discovered

through testing and other analysis techniques,

have stimulated a number of research efforts to

mitigate the problems in deployed voting

systems. These efforts focused on ameliorating

security primitives, such as the storage of votes

[4-5] and auditing[6], and on formally assessing

and making procedures more effective [7-8].

Finally, the standards that set the functional and

performance requirements against which the

systems are developed, tested, and operated have

often been found to be inadequate [9]. Among

the reasons for concern, critics include vague

and incomplete security guidelines, insufficient

documentation requirements, and inadequate

descriptions of the configuration of commercial

software. In Bangladesh perspective, main

concerns for implementation of electronic voting

machine are cost, unfamiliarity with technology,

power and transportation. As most of the voters

of Bangladesh have little or no experience with

this technology, sequence of manual voting steps

are kept in tact, but electronic components have

been included in all steps.

Microcontroller based electronic voting machine

has been designed with various code protection

schemes specified by the manufacturer of the

microcontroller are used to prevent inadvertent

or deliberate reading and reproduction of the

code contained in the microcontroller. Individual

password has been introduced for id verification

as well as biometric detection has been used for

Recent Advances in Circuits, Systems and Automatic Control ISBN: 978-1-61804-306-1 80

Page 2 of 10
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added protection. Both voting data and id

information are stored in external EEPROM.

Internal EEPROM of microcontroller is not used

to make sure that the microcontroller is not

overloaded. Multiple microcontrollers are

introduced within system to provide added

security and to distribute work pressure . The

whole system is divided into three sections;

control unit, ballot unit and power supply unit.

Control unit is for verification and counting as

well as controlling data flow from ballot unit.

Ballot unit is for vote casting and multiple units

can be connected with single control unit. Power

unit provides power to both control unit and

ballot unit. A battery is provided as power

backup in case if power is cut off.

Prior to the election, all voters are provided with

individual password that is to be kept secret and

data of voters have to be included in control

unit. On vote day voters will have to insert their

individual passwords and fingerprint in control

unit to be verified and only after successful

verification process a voter may cast vote/votes

in ballot unit. For the whole time of voting

process a separate microcontroller inside power

supply unit will monitor supply power as well as

battery charge condition. If main line fails, that

microcontroller will automatically connect

battery with supply and drain power from

battery. I2C communication method has been

used for communication between all the

microcontrollers and external EEPROM within

the system. As I2C is a two way communication

channel all the microcontrollers are aware about

the process and any tempering with the

electronic voting machine is very difficult and if

it happens it would be detected by election

authority.

2 Relevant Works

A comparative study of the voting techniques in

various countries was performed by Kumar et.

al[10]. According to the authors the electronic

voting device used in Belgium suffered from

power and computer failure. To solve the

problem of power failure we have used three

phase power back up scheme in our design.

Direct Recording Electronic Voting Machine

(DRE) is being used by UK which does not

address the risk of mobile e voting. While DRE

voting system can be helpful to the disabled

voters Claassenet et.al could not reach to a

conclusive statement whether the DRE voting

system improve election day voter confidence or

not [11]. Differences among the various voting

techniques are discussed in [2]. Although e- voting facilities are not incorporated in our

design, we plan to introduce e-voting facilities in

our proposed design in future. One problem of

the e-voting system is the poor verifiability

schemes [11] and Kusterset et.al also discuss

about the possible countermeasures in this

regard. Grewal and Ryan et.al also address those

issues in their paper and proposed the use of

coercion-evidence for remote voting systems

[12]. EVMs used in India do not have any

measure to perform the identification and

verification of voters. A lot of security schemes

are available to date .To avoid false voters we

have introduced biometric scanner in our design.

A similar effort can be observed in [13],

however other issues are ignored in their

proposed modification. A detailed discussion on

available biometric technologies and the merits

and demerits of those technologies can be found

in [14].While DRE voting systems can be

particularly useful to disabled voters, Bell et. al

proposes “STAR-Vote” scheme to ensure

security, transparency, audit ability and

reliability[15]. Considering Bangladesh

perspective, the same scheme can be

incorporated in our design to further strengthen

the security issues of EVMs. We also tried to

enhance the security of our code in this design.

Nevertheless, the importance of cryptography

for a secure and robust system cannot be denied.

Superficial use of cryptography can lead to a

disaster and two such incidents are reported by

Davtyanet et.al in [16].

Recent Advances in Circuits, Systems and Automatic Control ISBN: 978-1-61804-306-1 81

Page 3 of 10
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3 System Architecture

3.1 System overview

This proposed design utilizes biometric scanner

which serves the purpose of voter registration

and identification. Voter identification numbers

and corresponding finger prints are stored in

database prior to the voting process. Once voter

identification number is provided by a voter

he/she will be asked to verify his/her finger

print. If the finger print and respective ID

number is matched, microprocessor will check

previous vote casting IDs. If present ID holder

doesn’t cast any vote before, he/she would be

allowed to cast a vote. Once a vote has been cast

microprocessor would store this ID to prevent

multiple vote casting. Every time when a vote is

cast, microprocessor would store every

candidate’s votes. To view results of the

election, poll authority must provide a specific

code which would be supplied by electoral

authority. Identification process is done by both

biometric scanner and keypad. For a specific

finger print respective password must be

matched. After every vote casting this system

always checks for finish command. Finish

command is basically result showing command.

When electoral authority provides this command

this device will show result and ask for clear its

EEPROM. Block diagram and system workflow

flowchart are depicted in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3

respectively.

3.2 System construction

The architecture of the developed EVM consists

of three segments. The segments are

1. Control Unit

2. Ballot Unit

3. Power Unit

Responsibilities of three segments are

summarized in Table 1.

Control Unit Ballot Unit Power Unit

1. Performs voter

registration.

2. Performs voter

verification.

3. Displays

information.

4. Controls ballot unit

operations.

5. Processes result.

6. Monitors power

level.

1. Displays

candidate’s

information.

2. Provides vote

casting options to

the voters.

3. Informs control

unit about vote

casting.

1. Monitors battery charge level as well

as main supply bus

2. Switches on charger if battery charge

level is not above the threshold level.

3. Connects with battery in case of

power failure.

4. Diodes are included to avoid reverse

flow of current.

Table 1 : Responsibilities are divided among the three units of the proposed EVM

Recent Advances in Circuits, Systems and Automatic Control ISBN: 978-1-61804-306-1 82

Page 4 of 10
Page 5 of 10

Fig. 2 System Architecture

3.2.1 Control Unit

Control unit consists of two microcontrollers,

one biometric scanner, one keypad, one LCD

display and an external EEPROM. One of the

microcontrollers is connected to biometric

scanner and keypad, which transacts voter’s

identification and authorization. Another one is

connected to LCD to display necessary

information. To start and end voting process

electoral authority must provide a specific

password. Every time when a vote is cast

microcontroller adds a vote to the connected

EEPROM. The bi-directional communication

between EEPORM and microcontroller is

executed by I2C protocol. External EEPROM

restrains data even if power is switched off.

Hardware’s used in this segment are depicted

bellow.

1. Arduino Uno: Arduino is open source

software based on various 8-bit AVR

microcontroller or 32-bit ARM processor.

Operating voltage of Arduino is 5v. It has 14

digital I/O pins 6 analog pins and 16 MHz

crystal. Arduino Uno uses ATmega328 which is

8-bit AVR microcontroller. ATmega328 has 32

KB ISP flash memory, 1 KB EEPROM, 2 KB

SRAM, 23 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general

purpose working register. Maximum operating

frequency of this device is 20 MHz. This device

operates between 1.8 volts to 5.5 volts. In

control unit 2 Arduino Uno is used. One of these

Fig. 3 Workflow Flowchart

Power Supply

Control Unit

(MCU) I2C

Bus

Ballot Unit

(MCU)

Biometric

Scanner

Keypad

LCD

LCD Buttons

Start

Verificatio

n process

Cast vote & adds it

to respective

candidate

Finish

comman

d

Process result

End

Takes ID

No

Yes

No

Recent Advances in Circuits, Systems and Automatic Control ISBN: 978-1-61804-306-1 83

Page 5 of 10
Page 6 of 10

Fig. 4 Block Diagram of Control Unit

Fig. 5 Control Unit Workflow

microcontrollers is connected with power unit

and another one is connected to ballot unit via

I2C bus. this microcontroller is also connected

with an external EEPROM.

2. Biometric scanner: In this design optical

biometric scanner is used. Optical scanner

creates image and stores it in a suitable memory

device. Finger print scanner GT-511C3 is used

in this design. It operates on 3.3v and it has a

built in CPU. It creates 202×258 pixels image

having resolution of 450dpi. Enrollment and

identification time of this device is respectively

less than 3s and less than 1s. Biometric scanner

in this device save finger prints as an encrypted

biometric key or mathematical representation

which is a series of number and this code is used

for verification.

3. EEPROM: Electrically Erasable Read-Only

Memory is a kind of non-volatile memory

commonly known as EEPROM. It is capable of

storing small amount of data when power is

removed. Within overall EEPROM family of

memory devices, there are two main types.

These are

1. Parallel EEPROM Memory

2. Serial EEPROM Memory

Parallel EEPROM is relatively faster than Serial

EEPROM. In this design Serial EEPROM is

utilized. Serial EEPROM is difficult to operate

because of pin limitation. It transfers data in

sequentially; therefore making the process

slower than parallel EEPROM. Serial EEPROM

is operated in two ways.

(i) 3- Wire Bus Operation Primer.

(ii) 2-Wire Bus Operation Primer.

3-Wire Bus Operation is omitted in this design.

A 2-wire bus is utilized where microcontroller

pins are limited, i2c bus and noise reduction are

needed.

Control

Unit

(MCU)

I2

C

Bu

s

Biometric

Scanner

Keypad

LCD

Authorization

switch

External

EEPROM

Recent Advances in Circuits, Systems and Automatic Control ISBN: 978-1-61804-306-1 84

Page 6 of 10
Page 7 of 10

4. Keypad: Membrane keypad is used in this

design. In 4×4 keypad there are 4 vertical wires

(column) and 4 horizontal wires (row). These 4

vertical wires and 4 horizontal wires make 16

open connections. When a button is pressed one

open vertical and one open horizontal wire

connects with each other and process a signal.

Block diagram and workflow flowchart are

depicted in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 respectively.

3.2.2 Ballot Unit

Ballot unit carries ballot and necessary circuitry.

It contains ballot, microcontroller, push buttons

and LCD display. It is also connected with

control unit. Voting process is run and candidate

information is displayed through ballot unit.

Power option of this unit is always monitored by

control unit. When a vote is cast ballot unit

informs control unit and control unit adds this

vote to respective candidate. After every single

vote casting, power option of this unit is

removed by control unit. Hardwires used in this

segment are depicted bellow.

1. Arduino Uno: Performance of this

microcontroller is similar to control unit.

Arduino Uno of ballot unit is powered up only

when control unit has legitimate voter’s

identifications. This device display necessary

voting information. Communication between

ballot and control unit’s microcontroller is

operated by I2C.

2. LCD: Liquid Crystals are actually small thin

rod like molecules that like to move in unison

when a voltage is applied. LCD doesn’t emit

light instead it uses the ambient light in the

environment. LCD can operate in two ways 4

bit double operation and 8 bit single operation.

A Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) consists of two

substrates that form a “flat bottle” that contains

the liquid crystal mixture. The inside surfaces of

the bottle or cell are coated with a polymer that

is buffed to align the molecules of liquid crystal.

The liquid crystal molecules align on the

surfaces in the direction of the buffing. For

Twisted Nematic devices, the two surfaces are

buffed orthogonal to one another, forming a 90

degree twist from one surface to the other.

Fig. 6 Block Diagram of Ballot Unit

Fig. 7 Ballot Unit Workflow

Ballot unit

(mcu)

Push buttons LCD

I2C

bus

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3.2.3 Power unit

Power supply provides us with 12 Volt DC

power from 220Volt 50Hz AC supply and

integrates built in battery backup. A

microcontroller is used for monitoring both

battery charge condition and DC supply voltage.

If battery is not fully charged, charging switch

will be turn on by MCU and supply switch will

be turned on provided that supply voltage is not

available. In both cases diodes are used for

reverse current flow protection.

Components used:

1. Arduino: Discussed in sub-section

3.2.1.

2. PC817: It’s an optocoupler, containing

an IRED optically coupled to a

phototransistor. We used for switching

purpose which provides us up to 5.0KV

isolation with an input current of 5mA.

Fig. 8 Power Unit Workflow

4 Research Contribution

Considering Bangladesh perspective, the most

crucial design consideration of Electronic

Voting Machine is reliable power options. In

Bangladesh load shedding is a common

phenomenon and power supply in Bangladesh

can exacerbate any time and thus it can affect

EVM operation badly. To combat against any

kind of power failure three ways back up is

provided in this design. Another crucial feature

of our design is security. Vote tampering and

booth capture is common issue in Bangladesh.

In this design multiple security options are

provided. Without secret password it is

impossible to manipulate result. If any furtive

attempt is initiated to tamper result it can be

prevented through control unit. To ensure a

transparent election it is necessary to secure

result. In this device external EEPROM is used

to retain result in case of power failure. Illiteracy

and unfamiliarity with technology are some very

important factors in the context of Bangladesh

that should be taken into consideration. In this

design ballot unit is separated from control unit

in order to make voting process similar to paper

based voting system and to make sure that the

device does not intimidate voters. In this design

voters simply press button instead of marking

ballot paper. The socio-economic structure of

Bangladesh also places some constraints in the

design process. The cost of the designed EVM

is approximately BDT15000 taka which is

approximately USD 188$ only.

5 Conclusion

In this project our principle concern was to

design a low cost, user friendly, scalable and

secure EVM. A new design is proposed that

includes unique verification process, three phase

power back up scheme and inalienable security

options. This design utilizes biometric

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scanner and keypad for unique identification.

External EEPROM has been used along with

several microcontrollers to restrain the errors of

result. Intransigent security option has been

provided to militate against any kind of

manipulations. Simplicity, flexibility, scalability

and low cost make this design commensurate in

a developing country like Bangladesh.

References:

1. Al-Shammari, A.F.N.; Villafiorita, A.;

Weldemariam, K., “Understanding the

Development Trends of Electronic

Voting Systems,” Seventh International

Conference on Availability, Reliability

and Security (ARES), Prague, Czech

Republic, Aug. 20-24, 2012.

2. Htet Ne Oo, “A Survey of Different

Electronic Voting Systems”-

International Journal of Scientific

Engineering and Technology Research,

vol.03, issue16, pp. 3460-3464, 2014.

3. Kohno, T.; Stubblefield, A.; Rubin,

A.D.; Wallach, D.S., “Analysis of an

electronic voting system”, Proceedings.

2004 IEEE Symposium on Security and

Privacy, California, USA, May 9-12,

2004, pp.27-40.

4. D. Molnar, T. Kohno, N. Sastry, and D.

Wagner, “Tamper-Evident, History

Independent, Subliminal-Free Data

Structures on PROM Storage-or-How to

Store Ballots on a Voting Machine

(Extended Abstract),” in Proc. of IEEE

Symp. on Security and Privacy,

California, USA, May 21-24,2006, pp.

365- 70.

5. Bethencourt, D. Boneh, and B. Waters,

“Cryptographic Methods for Storing

Ballots on a Voting Machine,” in Proc.

of Network and Distributed System

Security Symp., California, USA, Feb

28- March 2,2007.

6. S. Garera and A. Rubin, “An

Independent Audit Framework for

Software Dependent Voting Systems,”

in Proc. of ACM conf. Computer and

Comm. Security, Virginia, USA, Oct 29-

Nov 2, 2007, pp. 256-265.

7. J. Hall, “Improving the Security,

Transparency and Efficiency of

California’s 1 Percent Manual Tally

Procedures,” in Proc. of Usenix/

Accurate Electronic Voting Technology

Workshop, California, USA, July 28-29,

2008.

8. K. Weldemariam and A. Villafiorita,

“Modeling and Analysis of Procedural

Security in (e) Voting: The Trentino’s

Approach and Experiences,” in Proc. of

Usenix/Accurate Electronic Voting

Technology Workshop, California, USA,

July 28-29, 2008.

9. R. Hite, “All Levels of Government are

needed to Address Electronic. Voting

System Challenges,” Technical report,

GAO, 2007.

10. Mr. Sanjay Kumar, Dr. EktaWalia,

“Analysis of electronic voting system in

various countries”, International

Journal on Computer Science and

Engineering (IJCSE), Vol. 3 No 5 May,

2011.

11. Ryan L. Claassen, David B. Magleby, J.

Quin Monson, Kelly D. Patterson,

“Voter Confidence and the Eleection- Day Voting Experience”, Political

Behaviour, May,2012, pp-215-235.

12. Grewal, G.S.; Ryan, M.D.; Bursuc, S.;

Ryan, P.Y.A., “Caveat Coercitor:

Coercion-Evidence in Electronic

Voting,” 2013 IEEE Symposium on

Security and Privacy (SP), Washington,

DC, USA, May 19-22, 2013, pp.367-

381.

13. Mr. Venkata Rao, Ramya Krishna

Rebba, Afzal Muneer Shalk, Durga

Mahesh Murakonda, “Development of

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Antirigging Voting System Using

Finger Print”, International Journal of

Research in Computer and

Communication Technology, vol 4, issue

2, February, 2015.

14. Ricardo Janes, Auguato F. BrandAo JR,

Eduardo M. Dias, “A study on Available

Biometric Technology Used in Order to

Control Security in physical access”,

Wseas Transactions on systems and

control, Volume 5, Issue 6, June, 2010.

15. Susan Bell, Josh Benalch, Mical D.

Byrne, Dana DeBeauvoir, Bryce Eakin,

Gail Fisher, PholipKortum, Neal

McBurnett, Julian Montoya, Michelle

Parker, Oliver Pereira, Philip B.

Wallach, Michael Winn, “STAR-Vote:

A Secure, Transparent, Auditable, and

Reliable Voting”, USENIX Journal of

Election Technology and system(JETS),

Vol. 1, No. 1, August, 2013.

16. Seda Davtyan, Aggelos Kiayias, Laurent

Michel, Alexander Russell, Alexander

A. Shvartsman, “Integrity of Electronic

Voting Systems: Fallacious Use of

Cryptography”, Proceeding of 27th

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Computing, Riva Del Garda, Italy,

March 26-30, 2012. Pp. 1486-1493.

Appendix

Fig. 9 EVM Schematics

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CSECS-12.pdf

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