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CONSTITUTION OF INDIA (Updated upto (One Hundredth Amendment) Act, 2015)
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Why lasers are the future (of projectors)
In projectors designed for both the cinema and at home, lasers are starting to replace traditional lamps as the light source of choice. This is potentially awesome. Here’s why.
Geoffrey Morrison mugshot
by Geoffrey Morrison
Updated: July 1, 2015 6:58 AM PDT

In this Christie laser setup, the lasers are separate from the projector. The laser light gets sent over optical cabling.
Christie
Projectors are starting to use lasers to generate light. What was once the realm of science fiction, or at least the nemesis of cats and Professor Hathaway, is now being used to create some of the best big-screen images possible.

Beyond picture quality, lasers last longer than traditional projector lamps, aren’t as fragile, and offer nearly instant on/off. With these benefits, lasers will probably be the future of front projection.

Projectors provide the biggest, most immersive images you can see. Sure, you can buy a 70-inch TV today, but projection screens in the home are usually 100 inches or more in size, and that much more amazing to experience in person. In theaters, the sheer size of the screen is one of the best reasons to pay for going to the movies. When I saw in one of the best theaters in the world, it blew me away. That image was powered by lasers, and lasers can make your big-screen experience better too.

Goodbye Xenon, hello Lazlo

As awesomely futuristic as they sound, laser projectors aren’t that much different from traditional projectors. With all projectors, something creates light, and that light is then manipulated to create the image on the screen. The only thing changes with laser projectors is what is creating the light.

In the purest form, red, green and blue lasers are “defocused” to fill an entire DLP, LCOS, or LCD chip. The lasers don’t scan the chip (or the screen). So, in fairness, “laser projector” is about as much of a misnomer as “LED TV.” Both terms refer to the of name the technology that creates the light — lasers and light-emitting diodes, respectively — not the technology that creates the image as a whole. “DLP projector” and “LCD TV” would be more accurate.

Lasers replace the UHP, Xenon, and other lamps found in current projectors. So even though that makes “laser projectors” a little less futuristic (more evolution than revolution), they’re still way cool, and offer lots of benefits.

All about the B (and R and G)

There are several benefits of lasers, and they’re all tied together. The first is efficiency. If you read my Ultra HD Color, Part I article, you’ll remember that TVs and projector use red, green and blue light to create every color you see on the screen.

In this Christie laser setup, the lasers are separate from the projector. The laser light gets sent over optical cabling.
Christie
Projectors are starting to use lasers to generate light. What was once the realm of science fiction, or at least the nemesis of cats and Professor Hathaway, is now being used to create some of the best big-screen images possible.

Beyond picture quality, lasers last longer than traditional projector lamps, aren’t as fragile, and offer nearly instant on/off. With these benefits, lasers will probably be the future of front projection.

Projectors provide the biggest, most immersive images you can see. Sure, you can buy a 70-inch TV today, but projection screens in the home are usually 100 inches or more in size, and that much more amazing to experience in person. In theaters, the sheer size of the screen is one of the best reasons to pay for going to the movies. When I saw in one of the best theaters in the world, it blew me away. That image was powered by lasers, and lasers can make your big-screen experience better too.

Goodbye Xenon, hello Lazlo

As awesomely futuristic as they sound, laser projectors aren’t that much different from traditional projectors. With all projectors, something creates light, and that light is then manipulated to create the image on the screen. The only thing changes with laser projectors is what is creating the light.

In the purest form, red, green and blue lasers are “defocused” to fill an entire DLP, LCOS, or LCD chip. The lasers don’t scan the chip (or the screen). So, in fairness, “laser projector” is about as much of a misnomer as “LED TV.” Both terms refer to the of name the technology that creates the light — lasers and light-emitting diodes, respectively — not the technology that creates the image as a whole. “DLP projector” and “LCD TV” would be more accurate.

Lasers replace the UHP, Xenon, and other lamps found in current projectors. So even though that makes “laser projectors” a little less futuristic (more evolution than revolution), they’re still way cool, and offer lots of benefits.

All about the B (and R and G)

There are several benefits of lasers, and they’re all tied together. The first is efficiency. If you read my Ultra HD Color, Part I article, you’ll remember that TVs and projector use red, green and blue light to create every color you see on the screen.

A normal projector lamp creates white light. This may seem like a good thing, but the fact is, projectors have to throw away (absorb or otherwise block) most of this light, leaving only the red, green, and blue parts. It then projects those on the screen so you can see — wait for it — white light. Mildly inefficient, that.

Lasers only create the exact colors needed, which uses less power. Here’s one way to think about it: if a UHP lamp draws 300 watts to create white light, only a portion of that is used to create red, green and blue. The rest is wasted on yellow, purple, chartreuse, etc. With a laser projector there could be three 100-watt lasers which could, in theory, each create much more light for their respective colors, given the same overall power draw. It’s not quite this simple, but that’s the basic advantage.

rgb-pj-vs-lamp-pj.jpg
This diagram, by the Laser Illuminated Projector Association, should give you a basic idea of what’s going on. It incorrectly shows LCD as a reflective technology, and also shows red, green, and blue lasers combining on one chip (which is misleading), but generally, this is what’s happening.
Laser Illuminated Projector Association
And turns out that efficiency does mean laser projection systems can get brighter. Muchbrighter. When I saw “Tomorrowland,” Dolby claimed they were getting 31 foot-Lamberts off the screen, which is similar to what many plasma TVs could do. In a dark room with a massive screen, 31 fL is incredibly bright. It’s highly unlikely you’d be able to get that amount of light with a traditional lamp without requiring a power sub-station and a cryogenic deep-freeze.

Perhaps most interesting, lasers can be built to create whatever wavelength of light you want (within reason, of course). So wider color gamuts are possible without brightness issues. That translates to deeper, richer colors that come closer than ever to the vast range of colors our eyes can appreciate. The version of “Tomorrowland” I watched used the P3 color gamut, widely considered the next level of color for future home video sources like 4K Blu-ray. Dolby says their laser projection technology can handle all the way out to the Rec 2020 color space, which is really huge.

There are also benefits like fast (or possibly instant) on/off. As any projector owner can tell you, not having to wait around for the projector to warm up or cool down is awesome. This fast adjustment in output also means a huge dynamic contrast ratio potential, essentially turning the lasers off (or down) during dark scenes.

The laser light source in Epson’s LS10000 lasts 30,000 hours.
Sarah Tew/CNET
Lastly, there’s longevity. Epson, for example, is claiming 30,000 hours for the lasers in the LS10000 , one of the best laser projectors currently available for home theater in the US. Compare this to the roughly 3,000 hours most home projectors get with their UHP lamps. At $250 to $400 per lamp over the lifetime of the projector, that’s some serious savings.

Safety and speckle

There are two common questions when it comes to lasers. The first is one of safety. After all, anyone who’s played with a consumer laser knows you don’t shine them in people’s eyes.

The lasers in projectors are much more powerful. Doesn’t that mean they’re more dangerous?

Epson says safety is not an issue. “The laser passes through a phosphor/diffuser wheel. Light from the projection lens complies with the class 2 safety standard, and is in accordance with other laser projectors. There is no risk of retina damage, unless users intentionally stare into the lens directly for prolonged periods.”

Christie, another company that makes laser projectors, adds that “high-powered laser projectors are no more dangerous than other lamp-based, high-brightness projection systems.”

Christie
The fact is, by the time the light leaves the lens (actually, well before that), it’s no longer a coherent beam. So it’s still bright, but not focused. It’d be no worse than staring at any seriously bright light (which, to be fair, isn’t a, ahem, bright idea anyway).

There are some FDA requirements for the cinema projectors, based on the fact that those laser projectors are classified as a “laser light show.”

Another question concerns sparkle, or speckle. If you’ve ever shone a laser on a reflective surface (even a white wall), you’ve probably seen the speckle. It is the sparkly bits in the overall reflected light.

There are a number of factors that contribute to speckle, but for the most part it’s unlikely you’ll see it with most laser projectors. For example, Epson says it’s not an issue with their LS10000 projector. The Laser Illuminated Projector Association (LIPA) acknowledges it could be a problem, but says “researchers have developed very effective means of virtually eliminating any visible speckle in state-of-the-art laser illuminated projector systems .”

I certainly didn’t see anything during “Tomorrowland” and CNET Editor David Katzmaier didn’t either when he reviewed Epson’s LS10000.

Hybrids: Fewer lasers, lower prices

At home and in the cinema, there are hybrid designs that don’t use all three colors of separate red, green and blue lasers. Instead, they use one or two of those, and then some method with phosphors to create the other wavelengths of light. One benefit is to cut costs.

The Epson LS10000 uses a hybrid design with two blue lasers: One for blue light, the other to energize a yellow phosphor, which splits the blue light into red and green.

Epson
Epson’s Product Manager Brian Savarese explained things further. “The dual blue-laser sources in Epson Pro Cinema LS models have different characteristics. One is to achieve higher color space coverage, while the other is focused on brightness (a high-efficiency laser system). Additionally, Epson is committed to bringing new technology at a competitive price for the discerning home theater customer. Currently, the laser light source architecture achieves this goal, delivering a new Epson Pro Cinema experience at an optimal price point.”

In case you’re wondering, the LS10000 costs $7,999 in the US (its equivalent in the UK is the EH-LS10000 for £5,999) while the similarly laser-powered LS9600e goes for $5,999. Numerous less-expensive laser projectors are also available for home and business use, but none we’ve seen offer the kind of performance that the Epson does.

sony-laser.jpg
Sony
Sony, Casio, and several other companies have laser-hybrid designs, sometimes with just a laser and phosphors, other times with lasers, LEDs, and phosphors. For the most part these are found on business or industrial projectors (like digital signage). Christie has some cinema projectors that use a hybrid designs too.

casio-laser-tech.jpg
Casio
Bottom Line

The short version? Lasers offer potentially brighter projected images, with more and better colors. They’re expensive right now, but hopefully we’ll see cheaper high-performance theater models soon.

Lasers, once again, are the future.

Got a question for Geoff? First, check out all the other articles he’s written on topics such as why all HDMI cables are the same, LED LCD vs. OLED vs. Plasma, why 4K TVs aren’t worth it and more. Still have a question? Send him an email! He won’t tell you what TV to buy, but he might use your letter in a future article. You can also send him a message on Twitter @TechWriterGeoff or Google+.

https://pro.sony.co.in/pro/products/solutions-laser-projection

Laser Projectors
Products

VPL-PWZ10

VPL-PHZ10

VPL-FHZ55

VPL-FHZ57

VPL-FWZ60

VPL-FHZ60

VPL-FHZ65

VPL-FWZ65

VPL-FHZ700L
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Discover the world’s brightest Laser Light Source projectors, the VPL-FHZ65, VPL-FHZ60, VPL-FHZ57, VPL-FWZ65, VPL-FWZ60, and the VPL-FHZ700L. With stunning picture quality, low running costs and up to 20,000 hours operation, laser offers you enduring brightness for classrooms, boardrooms and auditoriums.
Lamp or laser? Projector technologies compared
Our buyers’ guide compares the benefits of lamp and laser projection for different applications.
More
Ten bright reasons to switch to laser projection
Find out more about the world’s brightest 3LCD laser light source projectors.
More

https://pro.sony.co.in/pro/article/projectors-ten-bright-reasons-laser-projection

Ten bright reasons to switch to laser projection

Our VPL-FHZ60, VPL-FHZ65 and VPL-FHZ57 laser projectors are great for businesses, universities and schools, with fantastic picture quality, low running costs and up to 20,000 hours operation without changing light source. Here are ten great reasons for switching to laser for your next presentation with Sony.

Ten bright reasons to switch to laser projection
1. Laser lasts longer

Nothing lasts forever – and ordinary projector lamps have the habit of lasting a few thousand hours at best. The laser light source in our VPL-FHZ60, VPL-FHZ65 and VPL-FHZ57 projectors are rated for an estimated 20,000 hours operation. Typically, that means you don’t need to replace the light source for almost ten years in normal use.

2. Stay productive with fewer interruptions

Who wants to interrupt that important presentation or lecture with an unexpected lamp changing? Laser’s far longer lifetime means there’s virtually no chance of disruption when you’re focused on getting that important point across to your audience.

3. Less hassle, lower ownership costs

No lamps. No maintenance. No downtime. 20,000 hours filter replacement cycles keep the projector in peak operating condition while reducing maintenance needs even further. With laser it all adds up to significantly lower lifetime ownership costs compared with conventional business projectors.

4. Visibly brilliant pictures

The VPL-FHZ700L and VPL-FHZ55 combine a highly efficient laser light source with Sony’s acclaimed 3LCD BrightEra™ panel technology. It’s a potent blend that delivers exceptionally bright, high contrast pictures with excellent colour accuracy and stability.

5. Always stays bright without fading

If you’re a seasoned user of conventional projectors, you’ll know that the lamp source fades over time, making presentations noticeably dimmer and duller as the lamp ages. But with a laser light source brightness lasts longer . So every presentation looks as clear, bright and beautiful as the last.

6. No waiting

The laser light source turns on and off instantly – unlike conventional lamp projectors that need time to warm up and cool down, wasting valuable time in that lecture or important presentation. With laser the waiting’s over

7. Install it any way you want

The laser light source in the VPL-FHZ700L and VPL-FHZ55 doesn’t have any special installation requirements. Mount the projector sideways, upside down – any way you want it.

8. Cleaner and greener

With lots of energy-saving features built in, our laser projectors are kinder on the environment. And as well as helping our planet, you’ll be grateful for the welcome reduction in electricity bills.

9. More of what you love

There’s a lot that’s reassuringly familiar about our laser projectors. They’re built into the same standard chassis size as other Sony F Series projectors, with the same familiar connections and a friendly user interface. So your transition to laser is reassuringly seamless.

10. Your dependable choice, today and tomorrow

They’re made to last for longer. Exceptional reliability is designed into every Sony projector, ensuring extra peace of mind when your business depends on great-looking presentations. Today and tomorrow, laser gives you superb performance plus the reassurance of a future-proofed solution that’s with you for the long term.

Find out more about the VPL-FHZ700L laser projector

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Having a desire to bring home the cinema experience? Well, you may consider BenQ MS612ST DLP 3D Ready Short Throw SVGA Home Theater Projector that has been well tested and allow you enjoying plenty of big time gaming and movie fun. In today’s high tech savvy world, it is the most wonderful projector that features …

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Posted on February 11, 2013 (October 11, 2015)

The short throw projector from the high quality electronic house of BENQ MX880UST XGA 2500, has benefited the presentation requirements to a great extent, especially for the contemporary ones, which can take place in conference rooms or even in your boss’ cabin. What is special about this launch? If you have been wondering this, then …

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Posted on May 2, 2012 (October 11, 2015)

3M is working hard to introduce the new models for mobile projector MP 220 and MP 410 available in the market. These two projector models from 3M projectors are lightweight and featured a compact design. This can be really practical for any professional business presenter who need to run PowerPoint presentations and carry with their …

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EPSON iProjection for PowerPoint

Posted on February 19, 2012

EPSON iProjection for PowerPoint is a new solution introduced by EPSON that allows you to deliver wireless presentations while integrating your mobile devices: smartphones and tablets in your organization. The application for presentations let you display these awkward holiday snaps on any wirelessly connected (Epson branded) projectors from your iOS device. All you need is to …

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Projector ViewSonic Pro8400 HD

Posted on January 12, 2012 (October 11, 2015)

ViewSonic projectors are well known High Quality projectors that you can use for presentations but also for movies or games as well as projecting the screen for PowerPoint presentations. This ViewSonic Pro8400 HD is a High Definition projector that Pro Series 8 of the brand. This projector is maybe highlighted by the remarkable 4,000 ANSI lumens …

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Toshiba TDP-TW355U Projector for presentations

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Toshiba TDP-TW355U projector is a projection device for text and images featuring a rich and vibrant DLP display. The Toshiba TDP-TW355U outputs 3,500 ANSI lumens providing an exceptionally high level of brightness in normal mode. Or if you choose to conserve energy the projector can be switched to Ecomode allowing the user to extend the …

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Sanyo PLV-Z3000 is a high definition projector with accurate color decoding and solid connectivity. One of the good points of this Sanyo projector is that it is well-rounded feature package with horizontal and vertical lens shift. It is a great projector for the price. You can get this Sanyo projector these days with a decent …

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Introductory Guide To Fog And Haze
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Fog and haze differ in that fog is a thick, opaque effect that lasts a short time, while haze is a thin, translucent effect that lasts a long time. Fog is used as a special effect, whereas haze is used for lighting/atmosphere enhancement.
Fog
Whether created by nature or machine, fog consists of liquid droplets suspended in the air. Fog machines create fog by vaporizing fog fluid – that is, they convert the fog fluid from a liquid form to an aerosol form. Most fog machines accomplish this by forcing the fluid at high pressure through a heated pipe.
Bursts of fog are typically used for special effects in live and filmed productions. They’re useful for anything from causing a cigar to “smoke” in a small ashtray, to obscuring a huge battlefield. Fog is a smoke-like effect; however, it’s not smoke, since smoke consists of solid particles rather than liquid droplets. (Also, smoke is usually created by burning, and although fog machines do heat the fog fluid to vaporize it, they don’t burn it.)
Fog can also be made to stay low to the ground, for a “walking on clouds” effect. This is usually accomplished by ducting the fog through a cold chamber to cool it. Typically, fog fluid for creating fast-dissipating fog is used, so that the fog will evaporate before it warms and begins to rise. Some machines make low fog by mixing a cryogenic liquid (such as liquid nitrogen) or solid (such as dry ice) with hot water.
Haze
Like fog, haze consists of liquid droplets, but the drops are very fine and are distributed evenly over a large area to form a mist. Some haze machines vaporize fluid by forcing it through a heater, and others vaporize it using high air pressure.
The primary use of haze is to make light beams visible. Since light reflects off the droplets, you will see light travelling through the air that you ordinarily would not see. Haze is also used to create a misty atmosphere.
Safety
Fog fluids are generally made of water-soluble glycols, such as propylene glycol. These glycols have been used in industry for decades and health data is available. There is an ANSI standard that defines the limit of glycol that a healthy adult can safely breathe (ANSI E1.5 – 2003 Entertainment Technology – Theatrical Fog Made with Aqueous Solutions of Di- and Trihydric Alcohols). Still, you should always use only the smallest amount of fog necessary to produce the required effect.
Fog machines that use cryogenic products to cool the fog add gases like carbon-dioxide and nitrogen to the air, so care must be taken to avoid build up of these gases to toxic levels or to levels that might cause oxygen deficiency.
Haze fluids are generally either water-soluble glycols or highly refined oils. The safe level for oil is different than that for glycols, but is still much higher than the amount typically used for haze effects.
For more information
Read Introduction to Atmospheric Effects published by the Entertainment Services & Technology Association (www.esta.org), and consult the various fog manufacturers’ catalogs and specification sheets. The ANSI standard referenced above is also available on the ESTA website, for free, in the Technical Standards Program section.

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This vertical effects fogger really packs a punch! Creating a photo-realistic pyrotechnic effect at a fraction of the cost, the Vesuvio RGBA gives you the safety of a fogger but with the eye-candy of a flame projector. Similar to the Geyser P6, the Vesuvio RGBA (with Red, Green, Blue, & Amber LEDs) illuminates voluminous fog bursts for multi-colored atmospheric columns, bringing a new level of effects to your production.
VesuvioRGBA-1.jpgVesuvio™ RGBA features a quick heating 1.6 kW heater and a 2.5 L fluid tank for dependability in production, and features an incredible 40,000 cubic feet per minute output (CFM), bringing a huge punch to your show.
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The Geyser™ P7 Cryo / Pyro Simulator
Add Drama To Any Performance
GEYSER-P7-1.jpgGive your audience the awe and eye-candy they will talk about long after your show! Make a statement with the Geyser™ - a unique effect fogger that adds a touch of drama to any performance. Never worry about the hazards of toxic chemicals, real fire, or heavy CO2 canisters. This powerful fogger blasts a vertical stream of safe, water-based fog while simultaneously illuminating it with 7 high-power (9W) penta-color (RGBA+UV) LEDs. Precise control over the LEDs allows you to easily mix the perfect color to illuminate the fog, creating a photo-realistic “flame thrower” or “flash pot” effect.
geyser-p6-3.jpgPerfect for venues where pyro is not allowed but you need that added punch on-stage. There are endless uses for the Geyser. It can be sat on the stage, mounted upside down in your light grid, or hung on a side bar and shot off sideways.
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Perfect for Productions on a Budget!
Theatrical fog machines create fog by vaporizing a special, safe and non-toxic water-based fluid. When used according to instructions, they leave no residue. Fog greatly enhances any lighting effect. It’s used extensively in haunted houses, nightclubs, concerts and theaters. Popular Fog Machines is our line of economically priced models suitable for most applications. (Theme parks, arenas, stadiums, cruise ship shows and other large-scale or long-running shows should choose from our Professional Fog Machines category below.)
All models use Theatre Effects Fog Fluid.
More information on these systems can be found by following the links below.
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Don’t forget: always use Theatre Effects high-quality Fog Fluids for optimum results and extended life of your machines! Our fluids are manufacture in our Northern Kentucky facility and meet the highest industry standards using only pharmaceutical-grade ingredients.

Professional Fog Machines & Fluids
Nimbus-7b.jpgFog machines are perhaps the most widely used special effects device in the theatre today. Advances in technology over the past several years have developed them from noisy boxes emitting foul-smelling smoke into fairly quiet devices capable of producing huge amounts of virtually scent-free fog. Fog machines have also dropped in price significantly over the years so that, today, a fog machine is within the budget of almost any school or community theatre group. Theatre Effects is one of the largest suppliers of theatrical fog machines and fog fluids in the United States, and we are proud to offer quality machines by the following manufacturers:
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More information on the professional machines we carry can be found by following the manufacturer’s links above, or browse our entire Fog & Haze Machine collection. Don’t forget: always use high-quality Fog Fluid for optimum results and extended life of your machines!

The CANDLE LITE™ by City Theatrical
Reacquaint Yourself With An Old Flame
Nimbus-7b.jpgThe best & safest simulated candle on the market. These electronic candles give a truly realistic flame-like appearance. Used wherever fire laws prohibit real flame, they are ideal on stages and in public haunted houses. The candles are superbly designed and constructed devices, featuring a tiny logic circuit and three very bright bulbs.
More Information and Product Video
Nimbus-Jr-5.jpgThe logic circuit controls the flicker of the bulbs to simulate the look of a real candle.
The bulb closest to the base of the candle flickers very slowly, the middle bulb a little faster and the top bulb flickers quickly and simulates the dancing flame of a burning candle.
The three bulbs are encased in a flame shaped translucent shell to protect them and to soften and diffuse the flicker effect.

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Theatrical smoke and fog, also known as special effect smoke, fog or haze, is a category of atmospheric effects used in the entertainment industry. The use of fog can be found throughout motion picture and television productions, live theatre, concerts, at nightclubs and raves, amusement and theme parks and even in video arcades and similar venues. These atmospheric effects are used for creating special effects, to make lighting and lighting effects visible, and to create a specific sense of mood or atmosphere. If an individual is at an entertainment venue and beams of light are visible cutting across the room, that most likely means smoke or fog is being used. Theatrical smoke and fog are indispensable in creating visible mid-air laser effects to entertain audiences. Recently smaller, cheaper fog machines have become available to the general public, and fog effects are becoming more common in residential applications, from small house parties to Halloween and Christmas.
Theatrical fog and theatrical fog machines are also becoming more prevalent in industrial applications outside of the entertainment industry, due to their ease of use, inherent portability and ruggedness. Common popular applications for theatrical fog include environmental testing (such as HVAC inspections) as well as emergency personnel and disaster response training exercises.
Militaries have historically used smoke and fog to mask troop movements in training and combat, the techniques of which are technologically similar to those used in theatre and film.
Types of effects
There are generally 4 types of fog effects used in entertainment applications: smoke, fog, haze, and “low-lying” effects.
Smoke
Smoke effects refers to theatrical atmospheric effects produced either by pyrotechnic materials, such as Smoke Cookies, and pre-fabricated smoke cartridges; or other, flammable substances such as incense or HVAC smoke pencils or pens.
Smoke is differentiated from other atmospheric effects in that it is composed of solid particles released during combustion, rather than the liquid droplets that fog or haze are composed of.
Fog
Fog is created by pumping one of a variety of different glycol or glycol/water mixtures (referred to as fog fluid) into a heat exchanger (essentially a block of metal with a resistance heating element in it) and heating until the fluid vapourizes, creating a thick translucent or opaque cloud. Devices specifically manufactured for this purpose are referred to as a fog machines.
An obsolete method for creating theatrical fog on-stage (although the technique is still commonly used in motion) is to use a device known as a thermal fogger, initially designed for distributing pesticide, which aspirates a petroleum product (typically kerosene or propane), ignites the fuel, and then mixes in air and pesticide to create a dense fog. For theatrical purposes the pesticide is typically replaced with glycol, glycol/water mixtures, or water. This technique is similar to the smoke generators used by militaries to create smoke screens, and is generally only used outdoors due to the volume of fog produced and the petroleum fuel required.

A thermal fogger and fan on a movie set.
“Low-lying” fog effects can be created by combining a fog machine with another device designed specifically for this purpose. As the fog exits the fog machine it is chilled, either by passing through a device containing a fan and ice, or by passing through a device containing a fan and compressor similar to an air conditioner. The result is a relatively thick fog that stays within a few feet of the ground. As the fog warms, or is agitated, it rises and dissipates. Several manufacturers of theatrical fog fluid have developed specially formulated mixtures specifically designed to be used with CO, intended to provide thicker, more consistent fog effects. Although these chilling devices do not use carbon dioxide, the specially formulated fog fluid does create denser fog than regular fog fluid.
Haze

A laser passing though haze.
Haze effects refer to creating an unobtrusive, homogeneous cloud intended primarily to reveal lighting beams, such as “light fingers” in a rock concert. This effect is produced using a haze machine, typically done in one of two ways. One technique uses mineral oil, atomized via a spray pump powered either by electricity or compressed CO, breaking the mineral oil into a fine mist. Another technique for creating haze uses a glycol/water mixture to create haze in a process nearly identical to that for creating fog effects. In either case the fluid used is referred to as haze fluid, but the different formulations are not compatible or interchangeable. Glycol/water haze fluid is sometimes referred to as “water based haze” to avoid ambiguity.
Smaller volumes of haze can also be generated from aerosol canisters containing mineral oil under pressure. Although the density of haze generated and the volume of space that can be filled is significantly smaller than that of a haze machine, aerosol canisters have the advantages of portability, no requirements for electricity and finer control over the volume of haze generated.
Carbon dioxide and dry ice

Dry ice in water
Liquid carbon dioxide (CO), stored in compressed cylinders, is used in conjunction with theatrical fog machines to produce “low-lying” fog effects. When liquid CO is used to chill theatrical fog, the result is a thick fog that stays within a few feet of the ground. As the fog warms, or is agitated, it rises and dissipates. Several manufacturers of theatrical fog fluid have developed specially formulated mixtures specifically designed to be used with CO, intended to provide thicker, more consistent fog effects. Effect duration is determined by the heating cycle of the theatrical fog machine and consumption rate of liquid CO.
Carbon dioxide can also be used as an atmospheric effect on its own. When liquid CO is released into the air, typically through an electric solenoid valve to control timing and duration, the carbon dioxide liquid expands to a vapour and condenses the moisture in the air, creating large billowing plumes. When the solenoid valve is closed, the CO vapour rapidly disperses in the air, ending the effect nearly instantaneously. This effect can be used for a variety of applications, including simulating geysers of steam, in place of pyrotechnics, or to create an instant opaque wall for a reveal or disappearance during magic acts.

Generic dry ice machine made from a 45gal. drum.
Dry ice (solid carbon dioxide) effects are produced by heating water to or near boiling in a suitable container (for example: a 55-gallon drum with water heater coils in it), and then dropping in one or more pieces of dry ice. Because carbon dioxide cannot exist as a liquid at atmospheric pressure, the dry ice sublimates and instantly produces a gas,[1] condensing water vapour and creating a thick white fog. A fan placed at the top of the container directs the fog where it is needed, creating a rolling fog that lies low to the ground. As the submerged dry ice cools the water, the amount and duration of fog produced will be reduced, requiring “rest” periods to reheat the water.
Dry ice can also be used in conjunction with a fog machine to create a low-lying fog effect. Dry ice is placed inside an insulated container with an orifice at each end. Fog from a fog machine is pumped in one side of the container, and allowed to flow out the other end. Although this technique does allow an individual to create low-lying fog “on the cheap” (when compared to the cost of renting cylinders of liquid CO or watertight containers with integral heaters), the volume of low-lying fog produced is typically less, and is more susceptible to atmospheric disturbances.
Nitrogen
Liquid nitrogen (N) is used to create low-lying fog effects in a manner similar to dry ice. A machine heats water to at or near the boiling point, creating steam and increasing the humidity in a closed container. When liquid nitrogen is pumped into the container, the moisture rapidly condenses, creating a thick white fog. A fan placed at the output of the container directs the fog where it is needed, creating a rolling fog that lies low to the ground. These types of machines are commonly referred to as “dry foggers” because the fog created by this method consists solely of water droplets, and as it dissipates there is little to no residue left on any surfaces. Dry Fogger is also a trademarked name for a particular brand of this style of fog machine.
Historical usage
The Globe Theatre (1598–1613) reportedly used smoke effects during performances for atmosphere and special effects.[2]
On 23 March 1934, Adelaide Hall opened at Harlem’s Cotton Club in The Cotton Club Parade 24th Edition.[3] In the show Hall introduced the song “Ill Wind”,[4] which Harold Arlen and Ted Koehler wrote especially for her.[5] [6] [7] It was during Hall’s rendition of “Ill Wind” that nitrogen smoke was used to cover the floor of the stage. It was the first time such an effect had ever been used on a stage and caused a sensation.[8]
Smoke testing
When using smoke machines, a common test is to fill the venue to the full capacity with smoke to see if there are any smoke detectors still live, or if there are any leaks of smoke from the venue sufficient to set off detectors in other parts of the venue being tested. This practice is known as a smoke test.
Awards
The techniques and technology for creating smoke and fog effects are continually evolving. The individuals who create and develop theatrical fog for use in the entertainment industry have received numerous recognition for their efforts.
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
Technical achievement awards
On March 7, 1992, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences presented a Technical Achievement Award to Jim Doyle for the design and development of the Dry Fogger, which uses liquid nitrogen to produce a safe, dense, low-hanging dry fog.
On February 28, 1998, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences presented a Technical Achievement Award to James F. Foley (UCISCO); Charles Converse (UCISCO); F. Edward Gardner (UCISCO); Bob Stoker and Matt Sweeney for the development and realization of the Liquid Synthetic Air system.
On January 4, 2008, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences presented a Technical Achievement Award to Jörg Pöhler and Rüdiger Kleinke of OTTEC Technology GmbH for the design and development of the battery-operated series of fog machines known as “Tiny Foggers.”
The operating characteristics of this compact, well-engineered and remote-controllable package make possible a range of safe special effects that would be totally impractical with larger, more conventional fog units.[9]
Scientific and engineering award
On March 25, 1985, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences presented a Scientific and Engineering Award to Günther Schaidt of Rosco Laboratories for the development of an improved, non-toxic fluid for creating fog and smoke for motion picture production.
Adverse health effects
Carbon dioxide
Unsafe concentrations of carbon dioxide can cause headaches, nausea, blurred vision, dizziness and shortness of breath. Higher concentrations will result in loss of consciousness and death due to suffocation. When using compressed carbon dioxide or dry ice, care should be taken to ensure there is sufficient ventilation available at all times, and that procedures are in place to rapidly evacuate CO from any enclosed space in an emergency.
Liquid carbon dioxide (−56.6 °C) and dry ice (−78.5 °C) present a significant risk of frostbite if mishandled. Proper protective clothing, such as long sleeves and gloves, should always be worn when handling these products. Liquid carbon dioxide, stored in compressed cylinders, also presents all the hazards attendant to materials under pressure and should be handled accordingly.
Liquid nitrogen
Nitrogen itself is relatively non-toxic, but in high concentrations it can displace oxygen, creating a suffocation hazard. Liquid nitrogen (−195.8 °C) presents a significant risk of frostbite or cold burn if mishandled. Proper protective clothing, such as long sleeves and gloves, should always be worn when handling these products. Liquid nitrogen is stored in compressed cylinders, and therefore presents all the hazards attendant to materials under pressure and should be handled accordingly.
Theatrical fog and artificial mists
A number of studies have been published on the potential health effects presented by exposure to theatrical fogs and artificial mists.
The first study that was completed was done by Consultech Engineering, Co. under contract to Actor’s Equity. The findings of the Consultech study were confirmed by two additional studies—a Health Hazard Evaluation completed in 1994 by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health,[10] and another one in 2000 by the Department of Community and Preventative Medicine at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine and ENVIRON;[11] both prepared for Actors Equity and the League of American Theatres and Producers, focused on the effects on actors and performers in Broadway musicals. The conclusion of all three studies was that there was irritation of mucous membranes such as the eyes and the respiratory tract associated with extended peak exposure to theatrical fog. Exposure guidelines were outlined in the 2000 study that, it was determined, should prevent actors from suffering adverse impact to their health or vocal abilities.
Another study[12] focused on the use of theatrical fog in the commercial aviation industry for emergency training of staff in simulated fire conditions. This study that found eye and respiratory tract irritation can occur.
In May 2005, a study published in the American Journal of Industrial Medicine,[13] conducted by the School of Environment and Health at the University of British Columbia, looked at adverse respiratory effects in crew members on a wide variety of entertainment venues ranging from live theatres, concerts, television and film productions to a video arcade. This study determined that cumulative exposure to mineral oil and glycol-based fogs were associated with acute and chronic adverse effects on respiratory health. This study found that short-term exposure to glycol fog was associated with coughing, dry throat, headaches, dizziness, drowsiness, and tiredness. This study also found long-term exposure to smoke and fog was associated with both short-term and long-term respiratory problems such as chest tightness and wheezing. Personnel working closest to the fog machines had reduced lung function results.
The Entertainment Services and Technology Association (ESTA) has compiled a standard for theatrical fogs or artificial mists compositions for use in entertainment venues that “are not likely to be harmful to otherwise healthy performers, technicians, or audience members of normal working age, which is 18 to 64 years of age, inclusive.”[14] This standard was based primarily (though not exclusively), upon the findings of a report commissioned for ESTA by the Cohen Group[15] and applies only those fog fluid compositions that consist of a mixture of water and glycol (so called “water based” fog fluid).
Short term exposure to glycol fog can be associated with headaches, dizziness, drowsiness and tiredness. Long term exposure to smoke and fog can be related to upper airway and voice symptoms. Extended (multi-year) exposure to smoke and fog has been associated with both short-term and long-term respiratory health problems. Efforts should be made to reduce exposure to theatrical smoke to as low a level as possible. The use of digital effects in post production on film and television sets can be considered a safer practice than using theatrical smoke and fog during filming,[16] although this is not always practical.
See also
Fog machine
Haze machine
References
Phase Diagrams
Shakespeare productions in the Globe Theatre
Steven Suskin, “Cotton Club Parade, 1934″, in Show Tunes: The Songs, Shows, and Careers of Broadway’s Major Composers, Oxford University Press, 2010, p. 147 (retrieved 14 September 2014).
“Ill Wind” at JazzStandards.com
The 1934 Cotton Club Parades.
Harold Arlen website.
“HARLEM NIGHT CLUBS BRILLIANT AND LIVELY – ADELAIDE HALL, GLADYS BENTLEY FEATURED STARS”, The Pittsburgh Courier, 18 August 1934.
Adelaide Hall obituary in the Independent newspaper in which it mentions the use of nitrogen smoke used during Hall’s appearance at the Cotton Club: (article retrieved 26 december 2014): http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/obituary-adelaide-hall-1502902.html
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Scientific and Technical Award winners – 2007 Archived February 16, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
Burr GA, Van Gilder TJ, Trout DB, Wilcox TG, Driscoll R. NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation HETA 90-0355-2499. Actor’s Equity Association.
Moline JM, Golden AL, Highland JH, Wilmarth KR, Kao AS. Health Effects Evaluation of Theatrical Smoke, Haze and Pyrotechnics. Prepared for Actor’s Equity Pension and Health Trust Funds. June 6, 2000.
Wieslander G, Norback D, Lindgren T. Experimental exposure to propylene glycol mist in aviation emergency training: acute ocular and respiratory effects Archived August 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.. Occup Environ Med. 2001 Oct. 58(10):649–55.
Varughese S, Teschke K, Brauer M, Chow Y, van Netten C, Kennedy SM. Effects of theatrical smokes and fogs on respiratory health in the entertainment industry. Am J Ind Med. 2005 May 47(5):411–8.
ANSI E1.5 – 2003, Entertainment Technology – Theatrical Fog Made With Aqueous Solutions Of Di- And Trihydric Alcohols F&S/1997-3017r7.5
Gregory E. Raymond, Joel M. Cohen. Recommended Exposure Guidelines for Glycol Fogging Agents, Project No. 6070-1001
Teschke K, Chow Y, van Netten C, Varughese S, Kennedy SM, Brauer M. Exposures to atmospheric effects in the entertainment industry. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2005 May 2(5):277–84.
External links
Theatre Effects U.S. – Many Fog FAQs Found Within This Site
Rosco U.S.A. – How Fog Machines Work
Ontario Ministry of Labour – Fog and Smoke Safety Guideline for the Live Performance Industry
– Fog Film Special Effects

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Here is a sampling of web sites that offer translations of Pali Tipitaka texts into languages other than English. This is by no means an exhaustive list. Rather, I have selected a few representative sites that offer either a good selection of texts or a rich set of web-links to other sites in that language. Most of these sites offer texts (suttas, essays, etc.) that also appear (in English) on Access to Insight.

[Flag of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia] Catalàn
Budisme en Català (Albert Biayna Gea) offers a collection of suttas in Catalàn
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The Wings to Awakening: Readings in Theravadan Buddhism in Chinese Translation (Lau, Sinh-Lam) is a Chinese website (both in Simplified and Traditional Fonts) dedicated to the study and practice of Theravada Buddhist Teachings. It is created and maintained by two Theravadan Buddhist practitioners and at present, all the materials are selected, translated, and organized by them, of which over the years they have found

Home
Random Sutta
Random Article
Random Jataka
Abbreviations
Glossary
Index
Help!
Library
External Links
Off-site Resources
Non-English Tipitaka translations
[dana/©] 2005-2014
- Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammā-sambuddhassa -
Non-English Tipitaka Pali Printed books Online books Audio
Note: I can’t vouch for the quality of all the materials offered on the external sites listed here. Some are more useful than others. Use your own best judgment. To report errors or to recommend sites to add to this list, please contact me.

Here is a sampling of web sites that offer translations of Pali Tipitaka texts into languages other than English. This is by no means an exhaustive list. Rather, I have selected a few representative sites that offer either a good selection of texts or a rich set of web-links to other sites in that language. Most of these sites offer texts (suttas, essays, etc.) that also appear (in English) on Access to Insight.

[Flag of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia] Catalàn
Budisme en Català (Albert Biayna Gea) offers a collection of suttas in Catalàn
[Flag of Traditional and Simplified Chinese] Chinese (Traditional & Simplified)
The Wings to Awakening: Readings in Theravadan Buddhism in Chinese Translation (Lau, Sinh-Lam) is a Chinese website (both in Simplified and Traditional Fonts) dedicated to the study and practice of Theravada Buddhist Teachings. It is created and maintained by two Theravadan Buddhist practitioners and at present, all the materials are selected, translated, and organized by them, of which over the years they have found particularly useful in their own practice. Includes translations of several Pali suttas.
[Flag of the Czech Republic] Czech
Prátelé Dhammy (”Friends of Dhamma”) has an extensive library of readings in Czech from the Thai Forest traditions and the Pali canon.
[Flag of the Netherlands] Dutch
Sleutel tot Inzicht (”Key to Insight”) (Peter van Loosbroek)
Suttas.net (Dhammajoti)
Toegang tot Inzicht (”Access to Insight”) (Django Vaal)
[Flag of France] French
Accès au Canon Pali (Michel Proulx) mirrors the sutta collection of Access to Insight in English, and offers a growing number of French translations of suttas and other texts.
[Flag of the Federal Republic of Germany] German
Tipitaka, der Pali Kanon des Theravada-Buddhismus offers a nearly complete collection of German translations from all five Nikayas, plus extensive excerpts from the Vinaya and Abhidhamma Pitakas.
Dhamma-dana offers German translations of articles by Ajaan Chah, Ajaan Suwat, Thanissaro Bhikkhu, Bhikkhu Bodhi, and Ayya Khema.
[Flag of Hungary] Hungarian
A Buddha Ujja (”The Finger of the Buddha”) (Gambhiro Bhikkhu) offers a large collection of Pali suttas in Hungarian, articles and videos by and about major teachers from the Thai forest traditions, and links to Hungarian Buddhist communities and websites.
[Flag of Hungary] Indonesian
Dhamma Citta: Tipitaka-Kanon Pali
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Canone Pali: le parole del Buddha (Enzo Alfano)
Il Canone Pali (Michel Proulx)
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Tekster i oversettelse (Kåre A. Lie)
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Sasana.pl (Piotr Jagodziński)
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Acesso ao Insight: Leituras do Budismo Theravada (Michael Beisert) offers an extensive collection of Pali suttas, articles by major teachers from the Thai forest traditions, and much more — all translated into Portuguese.
[Flag of Romania] Romanian
Mahindarama Buddhism e-course.
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Koleso Dhammy (”Wheel of Dhamma”)
Theravada.ru
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Pali Kanon (Branko KovaČević) offers a good selection of suttas and other passages from the Pali canon, plus several articles from the pages of Access to Insight.
[Flag of Sri Lanka] Sinhala
Aathaapi: Pure Theravada Buddhism Exposed according to The Original Pali Canon (Saminda Ranasinghe) offers the complete Buddha Jayanthi Tipitaka in Sinhalese script (Pali and translation) in PDF format.
The Tipitaka (Russia) offers Sinhala translations of large portions of the Vinaya and Sutta Pitakas.
[Flag of Spain] [Flag of Mexico] Spanish
Bosque Theravada offers Spanish language translations of suttas and articles by teachers from the Thai forest traditions.
Buddha Soto Zen has a growing library of Spanish language translations.
Centro Mexicano del Buddhismo Theravada A.C. offers an extensive collection of Spanish language texts.
TextosBudistas
[Flag of Sweden] Swedish
Suttor (Kerstin Jönhagen) offers Swedish translations of about 30 suttas. The site’s home page has links to other Swedish Buddhist resources.
[Flag of the Kingdom of Thailand] Thai
Thai Tipitaka (Bhodhiyana Meditation Center) offers the Thai Tipitaka (in Thai script), plus translations of selected suttas in other languages.
[Flag of Viet Nam] Vietnamese
BuddaSasana: Vietnamese Buddhist Page (Binh Anson) offers the entire Vietnamese translation of the Tipitaka and is regularly revised and corrected for any errors. Also distributes a free CD that includes both the BuddhaSasana website (in Vietnamese; updated monthly) and Access to Insight (in English; updated every six months).
Trang Văn Học Pāli (Pali Tripitaka & Glossary)
[Flag of The Earth or No-nation] Earth
A good all-around source for international links to Dhamma sites is the Wikipedia. In particular, look for the box titled “In other languages” in the lower left corner of these pages: Buddhism, Theravada, and Tipitaka.
Acknowledgments

The flag icons are copyright © Philippe Verdy, and appear here courtesy of SETI@home.

The poitically-neutral Chinese language icon (which reads “Chinese language” in both Traditional and Simplified Chinese) was contributed by an ATI reader.

Non-English Tipitaka Pali Printed books Online books Audio
Provenance: The source of this work is the gift within Access to Insight “Offline Edition 2012.09.10.14″, last replication 12. March 2013, generously given by John Bullitt and mentioned as: ©2005 Access to Insight. Prepared by jtb for Access to Insight. Translations, rebublishing, editing and additions are in the sphere of responsibility of Zugang zur Einsicht. useful in their own practice. Includes translations of several Pali suttas.
[Flag of the Czech Republic] Czech
Prátelé Dhammy (”Friends of Dhamma”) has an extensive library of readings in Czech from the Thai Forest traditions and the Pali canon.
[Flag of the Netherlands] Dutch
Sleutel tot Inzicht (”Key to Insight”) (Peter van Loosbroek)
Suttas.net (Dhammajoti)
Toegang tot Inzicht (”Access to Insight”) (Django Vaal)
[Flag of France] French
Accès au Canon Pali (Michel Proulx) mirrors the sutta collection of Access to Insight in English, and offers a growing number of French translations of suttas and other texts.
[Flag of the Federal Republic of Germany] German
Tipitaka, der Pali Kanon des Theravada-Buddhismus offers a nearly complete collection of German translations from all five Nikayas, plus extensive excerpts from the Vinaya and Abhidhamma Pitakas.
Dhamma-dana offers German translations of articles by Ajaan Chah, Ajaan Suwat, Thanissaro Bhikkhu, Bhikkhu Bodhi, and Ayya Khema.
[Flag of Hungary] Hungarian
A Buddha Ujja (”The Finger of the Buddha”) (Gambhiro Bhikkhu) offers a large collection of Pali suttas in Hungarian, articles and videos by and about major teachers from the Thai forest traditions, and links to Hungarian Buddhist communities and websites.
[Flag of Hungary] Indonesian
Dhamma Citta: Tipitaka-Kanon Pali
[Flag of Italy] Italian
Canone Pali: le parole del Buddha (Enzo Alfano)
Il Canone Pali (Michel Proulx)
[Flag of the Kingdom of Norway] Norwegian
Tekster i oversettelse (Kåre A. Lie)
[Flag of the Kingdom of Norway] Polish
Sasana.pl (Piotr Jagodziński)
Tipitaka.pl (Andrzej Dałek)
Trzy Kosze (The Three Baskets): Tłumaczenie sutt buddyskich (Hubert Kowalewski)
[Flag of Portugal] [Flag of Brazil] Portuguese
Acesso ao Insight: Leituras do Budismo Theravada (Michael Beisert) offers an extensive collection of Pali suttas, articles by major teachers from the Thai forest traditions, and much more — all translated into Portuguese.
[Flag of Romania] Romanian
Mahindarama Buddhism e-course.
[Flag of the Federation of Russia] Russian
Koleso Dhammy (”Wheel of Dhamma”)
Theravada.ru
[Flag of the Federation of Yugoslavia] Serbian
Pali Kanon (Branko KovaČević) offers a good selection of suttas and other passages from the Pali canon, plus several articles from the pages of Access to Insight.
[Flag of Sri Lanka] Sinhala
Aathaapi: Pure Theravada Buddhism Exposed according to The Original Pali Canon (Saminda Ranasinghe) offers the complete Buddha Jayanthi Tipitaka in Sinhalese script (Pali and translation) in PDF format.
The Tipitaka (Russia) offers Sinhala translations of large portions of the Vinaya and Sutta Pitakas.
[Flag of Spain] [Flag of Mexico] Spanish
Bosque Theravada offers Spanish language translations of suttas and articles by teachers from the Thai forest traditions.
Buddha Soto Zen has a growing library of Spanish language translations.
Centro Mexicano del Buddhismo Theravada A.C. offers an extensive collection of Spanish language texts.
TextosBudistas
[Flag of Sweden] Swedish
Suttor (Kerstin Jönhagen) offers Swedish translations of about 30 suttas. The site’s home page has links to other Swedish Buddhist resources.
[Flag of the Kingdom of Thailand] Thai
Thai Tipitaka (Bhodhiyana Meditation Center) offers the Thai Tipitaka (in Thai script), plus translations of selected suttas in other languages.
[Flag of Viet Nam] Vietnamese
BuddaSasana: Vietnamese Buddhist Page (Binh Anson) offers the entire Vietnamese translation of the Tipitaka and is regularly revised and corrected for any errors. Also distributes a free CD that includes both the BuddhaSasana website (in Vietnamese; updated monthly) and Access to Insight (in English; updated every six months).
Trang Văn Học Pāli (Pali Tripitaka & Glossary)
[Flag of The Earth or No-nation] Earth
A good all-around source for international links to Dhamma sites is the Wikipedia. In particular, look for the box titled “In other languages” in the lower left corner of these pages: Buddhism, Theravada, and Tipitaka.
Acknowledgments

The flag icons are copyright © Philippe Verdy, and appear here courtesy of SETI@home.

The poitically-neutral Chinese language icon (which reads “Chinese language” in both Traditional and Simplified Chinese) was contributed by an ATI reader.

Non-English Tipitaka Pali Printed books Online books Audio
Provenance: The source of this work is the gift within Access to Insight “Offline Edition 2012.09.10.14″, last replication 12. March 2013, generously given by John Bullitt and mentioned as: ©2005 Access to Insight. Prepared by jtb for Access to Insight.

https://www.thoughtco.com/tripitaka-tipitaka-449696

Definition of Buddhist Term: Tripitaka (Tipitaka)
The Earliest Collection of Buddhist Scripture

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A monk of Burma (Myanmar) reads Pali scriptures. © Design Pics / Stuart Corlett / Getty Images
by Barbara O’Brien
Updated July 24, 2017
In Buddhism, the word Tripitaka (Sanskrit for “three baskets”; “Tipitaka” in Pali) is the earliest collection of Buddhist scriptures. It contains the texts with the strongest claim to being the words of the historical Buddha.

The texts of the Tripitaka are organized into three major sections–the Vinaya-pitaka, containing the rules of communal life for monks and nuns; the Sutra-pitaka, a collection of sermons of the Buddha and senior disciples; and the Abhidharma-pitaka, which contains interpretations and analyses of Buddhist concepts.

In Pali, these are the Vinaya-pitaka, the Sutta-pitaka, and the Abhidhamma.

ORIGINS OF THE TRIPITAKA
Buddhist chronicles say that after the death of the Buddha (ca. 4th century BCE) his senior disciples met at the First Buddhist Council to discuss the future of the sangha–the community of monks and nuns — and the dharma, in this case, the Buddha’s teachings. A monk named Upali recited the Buddha’s rules for monks and nuns from memory, and the Buddha’s cousin and attendant, Ananda, recited the Buddha’s sermons. The assembly accepted these recitations as the accurate teachings of the Buddha, and they became known as the Sutra-pitaka and the Vinaya.

The Abhidharma is the third pitaka, or “basket,” and is said to have been added during the Third Buddhist Council, ca. 250 BCE. Although the Abhidharma is traditionally attributed to the historical Buddha, it probably was composed at least a century after his death by an unknown author.

VARIATIONS OF THE TRIPITAKA
At first, these texts were preserved by being memorized and chanted, and as Buddhism spread through Asia there came to be chanting lineages in several languages. However, we have only two reasonably complete versions of the Tripitaka today.

What came to be called the Pali Canon is the Pali Tipitaka, preserved in the Pali

This canon was committed to writing in the 1st century BCE, in Sri Lanka. Today, the Pali Canon is the scriptural canon for Theravada Buddhism.

There were probably several Sanskrit chanting lineages, which survive today only in fragments. The Sanskrit Tripitaka we have today was pieced together mostly from early Chinese translations, and for this reason, it is called the Chinese Tripitaka.

The Sanskrit/ Chinese version of the Sutra-pitaka also is called the Agamas. There are two Sanskrit versions of the Vinaya, called the Mulasarvastivada Vinaya (followed in Tibetan Buddhism) and the Dharmaguptaka Vinaya (followed in other schools of Mahayana Buddhism). These were named after the early schools of Buddhism in which they were preserved.

The Chinese/Sanskrit version of the Abhidharma that we have today is called the Sarvastivada Abhidharma, after the Sarvastivada school of Buddhism that preserved it.

For more about the scriptures of Tibetan and Mahayana Buddhism, see The Chinese Mahayana Canon and The Tibetan Canon.

ARE THESE SCRIPTURES TRUE TO THE ORIGINAL VERSION?
The honest answer is, we don’t know. Comparing the Pali and Chinese Tripitakas reveals many discrepancies. Some corresponding texts at least closely resemble each other, but some are considerably different.

The Pali Canon contains a number of sutras found nowhere else. And we have no way of knowing how much the Pali Canon of today matches the version originally written more than two thousand years ago, which has been lost to time. Buddhist scholars spend a good deal of time debating the origins of the various texts.

It should be remembered that Buddhism is not a “revealed” religion–meaning it’s scriptures are not assumed to be the revealed wisdom of a God. Buddhists are not sworn to accept every word as literal truth. Instead, we rely on our own insight, and the insight of our teachers, to interpret these early texts.

The Pali Canon
Words of the Historical Buddha

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A young monk studies by a window in the Myoe Daung Monastery in Bagan, Burma (Myanmar). © Necip Yanma / Getty Images
by Barbara O’Brien
Updated July 11, 2017
More than two millennia ago some of the oldest scriptures of Buddhism were gathered into a mighty collection. The collection was called (in Sanskrit) “Tripitaka,” or (in Pali) “Tipitaka,” which means “three baskets,” because it is organized into three major sections.

This particular collection of scriptures also is called the “Pali Canon” because it is preserved in a language called Pali, which is a variation of Sanskrit.

Note that there are actually three primary canons of Buddhist scripture, called after the languages in which they were preserved — the Pali Canon, the Chinese Canon, and the Tibetan Canon, and many of the same texts are preserved in more than one canon.

The Pali Canon or Pali Tipitaka is the doctrinal foundation of Theravada Buddhism, and much of it is believed to be the recorded words of the historical Buddha. The collection is so vast that, it is said, it would fill thousands of pages and several volumes if translated into English and published. The sutta (sutra) section alone, I’m told, contains more than 10,000 separate texts.

The Tipitaka was not, however, written during the life of the Buddha, in the late 5th century BCE, but in the 1st century BCE. The texts were kept alive through the years, according to legend, by being memorized and chanted by generations of monks.

Much about early Buddhist history is not well understood, but here is the story generally accepted by Buddhists about how the Pali Tipitaka originated:

THE FIRST BUDDHIST COUNCIL
About three months after the death of the historical Buddha, ca. 480 BCE, 500 of his disciples gathered in Rajagaha, in what is now northeast India. This gathering came to be called the First Buddhist Council. The purpose of the Council was to review the Buddha’s teachings and take steps to preserve them.

The Council was convened by Mahakasyapa, an outstanding student of the Buddha who became leader of the sangha after the Buddha’s death. Mahakasyapa had heard a monk remark that the death of the Buddha meant monks could abandon the rules of discipline and do as they liked. So, the Council’s first order of business was to review the rules of discipline for monks and nuns.

A venerable monk named Upali was acknowledged to have the most complete knowledge of the Buddha’s rules of monastic conduct. Upali presented all of the Buddha’s rules of monastic discipline to the assembly, and his understanding was questioned and discussed by the 500 monks. The assembled monks eventually agreed that Upali’s recitation of the rules was correct, and the rules as Upali remembered them were adopted by the Council.

Then Mahakasyapa called on Ananda, a cousin of the Buddha who had been the Buddha’s closest companion. Ananda was famous for his prodigious memory. Ananda recited all of the Buddha’s sermons from memory, a feat that surely took several weeks. (Ananda began all of his recitations with the words “Thus I have heard,” and so nearly all Buddhist sutras begin with those words.) The Council agreed that Ananda’s recitation was accurate, and the collection of sutras Ananda recited was adopted by the Council.

TWO OF THREE BASKETS
It was from the presentations of Upali and Ananda at the First Buddhist Council that the first two sections, or “baskets,” came into being:

The Vinaya-pitaka, “Basket of Discipline.” This section is attributed to the recitation of Upali. It is a collection of texts concerning the rules of discipline and conduct for monks and nuns. The Vinaya-pitaka not only lists rules but also explains the circumstances that caused the Buddha to make many of the rules. These stories show us much about how the original sangha lived.

The Sutta-pitaka,”Basket of Sutras.” This section is attributed to the recitation of Ananda. It contains thousands of sermons and discourses — sutras (Sanskrit) or suttas (Pali) — attributed to the Buddha and a few of his disciples. This “basket” is further subdivided into five nikayas, or “collections.” Some of the nikayas are further divided into vaggas, or “divisions.”

Although Ananda is said to have recited all of the Buddha’s sermons, some parts of the Khuddaka Nikaya — “collection of little texts” — were not incorporated into the canon until the Third Buddhist Council.

THE THIRD BUDDHIST COUNCIL
According to some accounts, the Third Buddhist Council was convened about 250 BCE to clarify Buddhist doctrine and stop the spread of heresies. (Note that other accounts preserved in some schools record an entirely different Third Buddhist Council.) It was at this council that the entire Pali Canon version of the Tripitaka was recited and adopted in final form, including the third basket. Which is …

The Abhidhamma-pitaka, “Basket of Special Teachings.” This section, also called the Abhidharma-pitaka in Sanskrit, contains commentaries and analyses of the sutras. The Abhidhamma-pitaka explores the psychological and spiritual phenomena described in the suttas and provides a theoretical foundation for understanding them.

Where did the Abhidhamma-pitaka come from? According to legend, the Buddha spent the first few days after his enlightenment formulating the contents of the third basket. Seven years later he preached the teachings of the third section to devas (gods). The only human who heard these teachings was his disciple Sariputra, who passed the teachings on to other monks. These teachings were preserved by chanting and memory, as were the sutras and the rules of discipline.

Historians, of course, think the Abhidhamma was written by one or more anonymous authors sometime later.

Again, note that the Pali “pitakas” are not the only versions. There were other chanting traditions preserving the sutras, the Vinaya and the Abhidharma in Sanskrit. What we have of these today were mostly preserved in Chinese and Tibetan translations and can be found in the Tibetan Canon and Chinese Canon of Mahayana Buddhism.

The Pali Canon appears to be the most complete version of these early texts, although it’s a matter of contention how much the current Pali Canon actually dates to the time of the historical Buddha.

THE TIPITAKA: WRITTEN, AT LAST
The various histories of Buddhism record two Fourth Buddhist Councils, and at one of these, convened in Sri Lanka in the 1st century BCE, the Tripitaka was written out on palm leaves. After centuries of being memorized and chanted, the Pali Canon finally existed as written text.

AND THEN CAME HISTORIANS
Today, it may be safe to say that no two historians agree on how much, if any, of the story of how the Tipitaka originated is true. However, the truth of the teachings has been confirmed and re-confirmed by the many generations of Buddhists who have studied and practiced them.

Buddhism is not a “revealed” religion. Our About.com Guide to Agnosticism / Atheism, Austin Cline, defines revealed religion this way:

“Revealed Religions are those which find their symbolic center in some set of revelations handed down by a god or gods. These revelations are normally contained in the religion’s holy scriptures which, in turn, have been transmitted to the rest of us by specially revered prophets of the god or gods.”

The historical Buddha was a man who challenged his followers to discover the truth for themselves. The sacred writings of Buddhism provide valuable guidance to seekers of truth, but merely believing in what the scriptures say is not the point of Buddhism. As long as the teachings in the Pali Canon are useful, in a way it’s not so important how it came to be written.

Pali Scirptures
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India, Ladakh, Phyang Gompa monastery, young monks (8-9, 10-11, 12-13) sitting cross-legged studying scriptures, side view
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Everything You Need to Know About Buddhist Scriptures

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https://www.thoughtco.com/the-sutta-pitaka-450124
The Sutta-pitaka
Earliest Record of the Buddha’s The Sutta-pitaka, or “basket of suttas [sutras],” contains grouped collections of sermons and sayings of the historical Buddha and his chief disciples.There are more than 10,000 suttas in the Sutta-pitaka. It is the second of three sections of the Tipitaka, the earliest Buddhist scripture.

These talks were not written down during the life of the Buddha (ca. 5th century BCE), but were preserved by being memorized and chanted by generations of monks and nuns.

Buddhist legend says that after the Buddha’s death and parinirvana, the Buddha’s disciple Ananada was able to recite all of the Buddha’s sermons from memory. Other monks who heard Ananda’s recitation at the First Buddhist Council confirmed that Ananda’s recitation was accurate, and thus the canon of suttas that became the Sutta-pitaka was born.

Most of the time, when we’re talking about the Sutta-pitaka we’re talking about the Pali version, found in the Pali Tipitika or Pali Canon. Pali is a language closely related to Sanskrit. But Pali was only one of the languages in which the Buddha’s teachings were memorized and chanted. Elsewhere in Asia versions of the same suttas were also being preserved in Sanskrit and other languages, and some were eventually written. (Historians are not sure what language the Buddha himself spoke, but it may have been a dialect closely related to Sanskrit and Pali.) We’ll talk about these other versions, called the agamas, later in this article.

The Pali Tipitika is said to have been first written on palm leaves in Sri Lanka, late in the 1st century BCE. However, the existing physical copies of the Pali Tipitika are not that old. Scholars believe some parts of today’s Pali Tipitka were added long after the 1st century BCE, although exactly what and when is a matter of some dispute.

By comparing texts from different language traditions, and also by examining early Chinese translations, scholars are painstakingly attempting to date the texts in the Pali Tipitika. The ages of the various texts are much disputed, however.

It’s probably the case that we’ll never be absolutely certain how much of the Sutta-pitaka originated with the historical Buddha. But it’s the best record we have of what he taught during his life. The foundational teachings of Buddhism, including the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path, were first presented in the Sutta-pitaka.

Today, the Sutta-pitaka is revered and studied primarily by Theravada Buddhists. For the most part, Mahayana Buddhists regard the Sutta-pitaka as historically important, but incomplete. See “Three Turnings of the Dharma Wheel” for more explanation of this point.

THE ORGANIZATION OF THE SUTTA-PITAKA
One complication with studying the Sutta-pitaka is that the sermons are not organized chronologically, and for the most part they are not organized by topic. Instead, most are grouped by length in one of five nikayas (collections). The list of nikayas below includes the standard abbreviation used in citing texts:

Digha Nikaya (DN)– the “collection of long discourses”
Majjhima Nikaya (MN) — the “collection of middle-length discourses”
Samyutta Nikaya (SN)– the “collection of connected discourses”
Anguttara Nikaya (AN)– the “collection of further-factored discourses”
Khuddaka Nikaya — the “collection of little texts.” (These separate texts have their own abbreviations. For example, the abbreviation for the Dhammapada is Dhp.)
See “A Reader’s Guide to the Sutta-pitaka” for further explanation of how the nikayas are organized.

THE AGAMAS
Early Sanskrit texts that correspond to the nikayas are called the agamas (”sacred works”). Scholars tell us there was never a single “Sanskrit Canon” corresponding to the Pali Canon. Instead, several separate groups of early Buddhists preserved the sermons in Sanskrit. Most of the time the corresponding Sanskrit and Pali texts are very similar but not exactly the same.

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Tipitaka
The Pali Canon
© 2005
See also Sutta Index; Translations by Translator
Vin DN MN SN AN KN
SThe of w Dhp Ud Iti Sn Vv Pv Thag Thig Nm Miln
The Tipitaka (Pali ti, “three,” + pitaka, “baskets”), or Pali canon, is the collection of primary Pali language texts which form the doctrinal foundation of Theravada Buddhism. The Tipitaka and the paracanonical Pali texts (commentaries, chronicles, etc.) together constitute the complete body of classical Theravada texts.

The Pali canon is a vast body of literature: in English translation the texts add up to thousands of printed pages. Most (but not all) of the Canon has already been published in English over the years. Although only a small fraction of these texts are available on this website, this collection can be a good place to start.

The three divisions of the Tipitaka are:

Vinaya Pitaka
The collection of texts concerning the rules of conduct governing the daily affairs within the Sangha — the community of bhikkhus (ordained monks) and bhikkhunis (ordained nuns). Far more than merely a list of rules, the Vinaya Pitaka also includes the stories behind the origin of each rule, providing a detailed account of the Buddha’s solution to the question of how to maintain communal harmony within a large and diverse spiritual community.
Sutta Pitaka
The collection of suttas, or discourses, attributed to the Buddha and a few of his closest disciples, containing all the central teachings of Theravada Buddhism. (More than one thousand sutta translations are available on this website.) The suttas are divided among five nikayas (collections):
Digha Nikaya — the “long collection”
Majjhima Nikaya — the “middle-length collection”
Samyutta Nikaya — the “grouped collection”
Anguttara Nikaya — the “further-factored collection”
Khuddaka Nikaya — the “collection of little texts”:
Khuddakapatha
Dhammapada
Udana
Itivuttaka
Sutta Nipata
Vimanavatthu
Petavatthu
Theragatha
Therigatha
Tipitaka
The Pali Canon
© 2005
See also Sutta Index; Translations by Translator
Vin DN MN SN AN KN
Khp Dhp Ud Iti Sn Vv Pv Thag Thig Nm Miln
The Tipitaka (Pali ti, “three,” + pitaka, “baskets”), or Pali canon, is the collection of primary Pali language texts which form the doctrinal foundation of Theravada Buddhism. The Tipitaka and the paracanonical Pali texts (commentaries, chronicles, etc.) together constitute the complete body of classical Theravada texts.

The Pali canon is a vast body of literature: in English translation the texts add up to thousands of printed pages. Most (but not all) of the Canon has already been published in English over the years. Although only a small fraction of these texts are available on this website, this collection can be a good place to start.

The three divisions of the Tipitaka are:

Vinaya Pitaka
The collection of texts concerning the rules of conduct governing the daily affairs within the Sangha — the community of bhikkhus (ordained monks) and bhikkhunis (ordained nuns). Far more than merely a list of rules, the Vinaya Pitaka also includes the stories behind the origin of each rule, providing a detailed account of the Buddha’s solution to the question of how to maintain communal harmony within a large and diverse spiritual community.
Sutta Pitaka
The collection of suttas, or discourses, attributed to the Buddha and a few of his closest disciples, containing all the central teachings of Theravada Buddhism. (More than one thousand sutta translations are available on this website.) The suttas are divided among five nikayas (collections):
Digha Nikaya — the “long collection”
Majjhima Nikaya — the “middle-length collection”
Samyutta Nikaya — the “grouped collection”
Anguttara Nikaya — the “further-factored collection”
Khuddaka Nikaya — the “collection of little texts”:
Khuddakapatha
Dhammapada
Udana
Itivuttaka
Sutta Nipata
Vimanavatthu
Petavatthu
Theragatha
Therigatha
Jataka
Niddesa
Patisambhidamagga
Apadana
Buddhavamsa
Cariyapitaka
Nettippakarana (included only in the Burmese edition of the Tipitaka)
Petakopadesa ( ” ” )
Milindapañha ( ” ” )
Abhidhamma Pitaka
The collection of texts in which the underlying doctrinal principles presented in the Sutta Pitaka are reworked and reorganized into a systematic framework that can be applied to an investigation into the nature of mind and matter.
Niddesa
Patisambhidamagga
Apadana
Buddhavamsa
Cariyapitaka
Nettippakarana (included only in the Burmese edition of the Tipitaka)
Petakopadesa ( ” ” )
Milindapañha ( ” ” )
Abhidhamma Pitaka
The collection of texts in which the underlying doctrinal principles presented in the Sutta Pitaka are reworked and reorganized into a systematic framework that can be applied to an investigation into the nature of mind and matter.
Tipitaka
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Category: Vinaya
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http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html
Tipitaka
The Pali Canon
© 2005
See also Sutta Index; Translations by Translator
Vin DN MN SN AN KN
Khp Dhp Ud Iti Sn Vv Pv Thag Thig Nm Miln
The Tipitaka (Pali ti, “three,” + pitaka, “baskets”), or Pali canon, is the collection of primary Pali language texts which form the doctrinal foundation of Theravada Buddhism. The Tipitaka and the paracanonical Pali texts (commentaries, chronicles, etc.) together constitute the complete body of classical Theravada texts.

The Pali canon is a vast body of literature: in English translation the texts add up to thousands of printed pages. Most (but not all) of the Canon has already been published in English over the years. Although only a small fraction of these texts are available on this website, this collection can be a good place to start.

The three divisions of the Tipitaka are:

Vinaya Pitaka
The collection of texts concerning the rules of conduct governing the daily affairs within the Sangha — the community of bhikkhus (ordained monks) and bhikkhunis (ordained nuns). Far more than merely a list of rules, the Vinaya Pitaka also includes the stories behind the origin of each rule, providing a detailed account of the Buddha’s solution to the question of how to maintain communal harmony within a large and diverse spiritual community.
Sutta Pitaka
The collection of suttas, or discourses, attributed to the Buddha and a few of his closest disciples, containing all the central teachings of Theravada Buddhism. (More than one thousand sutta translations are available on this website.) The suttas are divided among five nikayas (collections):
Digha Nikaya — the “long collection”
Majjhima Nikaya — the “middle-length collection”
Samyutta Nikaya — the “grouped collection”
Anguttara Nikaya — the “further-factored collection”
Khuddaka Nikaya — the “collection of little texts”:
Khuddakapatha
Dhammapada
Udana
Itivuttaka
Sutta Nipata
Vimanavatthu
Petavatthu
Theragatha
Therigatha
Jataka
Niddesa
Patisambhidamagga
Apadana
Buddhavamsa
Cariyapitaka
Nettippakarana (included only in the Burmese edition of the Tipitaka)
Petakopadesa ( ” ” )
Milindapañha ( ” ” )
Abhidhamma Pitaka
The collection of texts in which the underlying doctrinal principles presented in the Sutta Pitaka are reworked and reorganized into a systematic framework that can be applied to an investigation into the nature of mind and matter.
For further reading

Where can I find a copy of the complete Pali canon (Tipitaka)? (Frequently Asked Question)
Beyond the Tipitaka: A Field Guide to Post-canonical Pali Literature
Pali Language Study Aids offers links that may be useful to Pali students of every level.
Handbook of Pali Literature, by Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne & Sons, Ltd., 1994). A guide, in dictionary form, through the Pali canon, with detailed descriptions of the major landmarks in the Canon.
An Analysis of the Pali Canon, Russell Webb, ed. (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1975). An indispensable “roadmap” and outline of the Pali canon. Contains an excellent index listing suttas by name.
Guide to Tipitaka, U Ko Lay, ed. (Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1990). Another excellent outline of the Tipitaka, containing summaries of many important suttas.
Buddhist Dictionary, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1980). A classic handbook of important terms and concepts in Theravada Buddhism.
Creative Commons License ©2005 Access to Insight. The text of this page (”Tipitaka: The Pali Canon”, by Access to Insight) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of the license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Documents linked from this page may be subject to other restrictions. Last revised for Access to Insight on 30 November 2013.
How to cite this document (a suggested style): “Tipitaka: The Pali Canon”, edited by Access to Insight. Access to Insight (Legacy Edition), 30 November 2013, http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html .
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பணமதிப்பழிப்பு நடவடிக்கை : சிக்கியது வெள்ளை ! தப்பியது கருப்பு !!

”கருப்புப் பணத்தின் மீது தொடுக்கப்பட்ட துல்லிய தாக்குதல்” என மெச்சப்பட்ட நரேந்திர மோடி அரசின் பணமதிப்பழிப்பு நடவடிக்கை, சொல்லிக்கொள்ளப்பட்ட அந்த நோக்கத்தில் கடுகளவைக்கூட நிறைவேற்ற முடியாமல், கேவலமான முறையில் படுதோல்வி அடைந்துவிட்டது. ரிசர்வ் வங்கி வெளியிட்டுள்ள 2016 – 17 ஆம் ஆண்டுக்கான பொருளாதார அறிக்கையின் வழியாக இந்த உண்மை வெளியே வந்திருக்கிறது.

பணமதிப்பழிப்பு நடவடிக்கை அறிவிக்கப்பட்ட ஒரு வாரம் கழித்து, அதனை ஆதரித்து உச்ச நீதிமன்றத்தில் வாதாடிய மைய அரசின் தலைமை வழக்குரைஞர் முகுல் ரோத்தகி, ”காஷ்மீரிலும், வடகிழக்கு இந்திய மாநிலங்களிலும் தீவிரவாதத்திற்கு ஆதரவாகப் பயன்படுத்தப்பட்டு வரும் 4 இலட்சம் கோடி ரூபாய் முதல் 5 இலட்சம் கோடி ரூபாய் வரையிலான கருப்புப் பணம் முடக்கப்பட்டுவிடும்” என ஆணித்தரமாக அறிவித்தார்.

இந்திய அரசு வங்கியின் தலைமைப் பொருளாதார ஆலோசகர் நவம்பர் 23, 2016 அன்று வெளியிட்ட அறிக்கையில், ”2.4 இலட்சம் கோடி ரூபாய் முதல் 4.8 இலட்சம் கோடி ரூபாய் வரையிலான பணம் வங்கிக்குத் திரும்பாது. இந்தப் பணம் முழுவதும் அரசுக்குக் கிடைத்த இலாபமாகக் கருதப்பட்டு, அந்தப் பணம் நாட்டின் அடிக்கட்டுமானப் பணிகள் தொடங்கி பலவற்றிலும் மூலதனமாகப் போடப்படும்” எனக் குறிப்பிட்டிருந்தார்.
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