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Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
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01/18/18
2506 Fri 19 Jan 2018 LESSON 1 Classical Pāḷi Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā 23 Classical English Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University and related NEWS through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org in
105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 10:43 pm

2506 Fri 19 Jan 2018 LESSON

1 Classical Pāḷi

Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya  http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā

23 Classical English

Analytic Insight  Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University
and related NEWS through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org in
105
CLASSICAL LANGUAGES


Tipiṭaka Studies for University Students




Tipiṭaka Studies for University Students



Day Programme : 2 hrs.


Organised annually since 2003 for 1st Year Students of Sport Science Faculty, Chulalongkorn University
at the International Tipiṭaka Hall, Chulalongkorn University
B.E. 2546 (2003)

1st yr Sport Science students arrive International Tipitaka Hall for the first time 2003
1st yr Sport Science students arrive International Tipitaka Hall for the first time 20031st yr Sport Science students arrive International Tipitaka Hall for the first time 20031st yr Sport Science students arrive International Tipitaka Hall for the first time 2003Introduction to Tipitaka is part of 1st yr Sport Science Students' orientation to univ life on campus 2003Screening of Dhamma Society's Tipitaka Documentary for 1st yr Sport Science Students at Chulalongkorn Univ 2003Screening of Dhamma Society's Tipitaka Documentary for 1st yr Sport Science Student at Chulalongkorn Univ 2003Introduction to Tipitaka is part of 1st yr Sport Science Students' orientation to univ life on campus 20031st yr Sport Science Students are introduced to Tipitaka culture and student spiritual activities on campus1st yr Sport Science Students are introduced to Tipitaka culture and student spiritual activities on campus1st yr Sport Science Students are introduced to Tipitaka culture and student spiritual activities on campus1st yr Sport Science Students are introduced to Tipitaka culture and student spiritual activities on campus

1st yr Sport Scinece Students are introduced to the Tipitaka Collection at the International Tipitaka Hall1st yr Sport Scinece Students are introduced to the Tipitaka Collection at the International Tipitaka HallHead of 1st yr Sport Science Students with univ alumni who organise the Tipitaka OrientationLeaving the International Tipitaka Hall, 1st yr Sport Science Students are presented with books from President of Tipitaka Hall and univ alumniView from the Royal Portrait seen from the International Tipitaka HallLeaving the International Tipitaka Hall, 1st yr Sport Science Students are presented with books from President of Tipitaka Hall and univ alumniFirst year orientation for Sport Science Students are organised by students and alumni at Chulalongkorn UniversityInitiated in 2003, Sport Science Faculty was the first to organize Tipitaka Introduction Activity for freshman studentsLeaving the International Tipitaka Hall, 1st yr Sport Science Students are presented with books from President of Tipitaka Hall and univ alumniLeaving the International Tipitaka Hall, 1st yr Sport Science Students are presented with books from President of Tipitaka Hall and univ alumniLeaving the International Tipitaka Hall, 1st yr Sport Science Students are presented with books from President of Tipitaka Hall and univ alumni

1st yr Sport Scinece Students are introduced to the Tipitaka Collection at the International Tipitaka Hall1st yr Sport Scinece Students are introduced to the Tipitaka Collection at the International Tipitaka HallHead of 1st yr Sport Science Students with univ alumni who organise the Tipitaka OrientationLeaving the International Tipitaka Hall, 1st yr Sport Science Students are presented with books from President of Tipitaka Hall and univ alumniView from the Royal Portrait seen from the International Tipitaka HallLeaving the International Tipitaka Hall, 1st yr Sport Science Students are presented with books from President of Tipitaka Hall and univ alumniFirst year orientation for Sport Science Students are organised by students and alumni at Chulalongkorn UniversityInitiated in 2003, Sport Science Faculty was the first to organize Tipitaka Introduction Activity for freshman studentsLeaving the International Tipitaka Hall, 1st yr Sport Science Students are presented with books from President of Tipitaka Hall and univ alumniLeaving the International Tipitaka Hall, 1st yr Sport Science Students are presented with books from President of Tipitaka Hall and univ alumniLeaving the International Tipitaka Hall, 1st yr Sport Science Students are presented with books from President of Tipitaka Hall and univ alumni

Image printed from the Dhamma Society Electronic Archives
500-hour/6500-gigabyte documentary of the World Tipiṭaka Project
Recorded between 1999-2007




for more image information of the World Tipiṭaka Project


https://www.flickr.com/photos/dhammasociety/2564484080/


https://www.flickr.com/photos/dhammasociety/2564484080/

World Tipiṭaka Foundation by Dhamma Society
Pāḷi Tipiṭaka in Roman-script to the International Phonetic Alphabet for Pāḷi Transcription


The International Phonetic Alphabet for Pāḷi (IPA Pāḷi) 2008 as
proposed by Emeritus Professor Vichin Phanupong, Ph.D., to be used in
the printing of the World Tipiṭaka Edition 2009 and the newly revised
2010 Chulachomklao Tipiṭaka of Siam Anthology.


“…To
explain the special phonological features of the Pāḷi used in the sacred
Buddhist texts, the Dhamma Society, invited Professor Emeritus Dr.
Vichin Panupong to prepare a handbook on the pronunciation of Pāḷi words
used in the Tipiṭaka and their transcription in Roman script entitled
“Pāḷi and the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).”


Her
work is a milestone in the academic study of the Tipiṭaka recitation,
integrating current knowledge from various fields and setting an example
for internationalizing the study of the Theravāda Buddhist scriptures,
i.e., Tipiṭaka Studies, a new academic discipline to study the Pāḷi
Tipiṭaka for laity, envisioned by Her Royal Highness Princess Galyani
Vadhana, who in 2004, expressed her gracious support for disseminating
knowledge of the Tipiṭaka to people all around the world.” (from the
preface of King of Siam Digital Preservation Edition 2009)


Prof. Emeritus Vichin is the founder of Linguistics Department at
Chulalongkorn University, the first linguistics studies in the country,
the first President of the International Tipiṭaka Hall at Chulalongkorn
University between 2002-2005, and is now an Associate Fellow of the Arts
Academy, the Royal Institute in Bangkok.


The article “Pāḷi
and the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)” is, therefore, a research
in response to the wishes of the late Princess and is humbly dedicated
to Her Royal Highness in respectful gratitude for her patronage of this
project. The article appears at the end of each volume of the new
40-volume publication, “Chulachomklao of Siam Pāḷi Tipiṭaka 1893 : A
Digital Preservation Edition 2009”.


Digital Archives from Dhamma Society’s World Tipiṭaka Projects in Roman Script, 1999-2010. www.tipitakahall.net


การศึกษาการออกเสียงตามสัททอักษรสากล
ช่วยให้สามารถอ่านพระไตรปิฎกภาษาปาฬิง่ายขึ้น
ซึ่งจะเป็นประโยชน์ในการจัดการอ่านสังวัธยายพระไตรปิฎก
อันเป็นกิจกรรมที่เป็นทั้งกุศลและประโยชน์ในการสร้างความสามัคคีด้วยปัญญา


สัททอักษรสากลปาฬิ (International Phonetic Alphabet Pāḷi, IPA Pāḷi)
จัดทำโดยศาสตราจารย์กิตติคุณ ดร. วิจินตน์ ภาณุพงศ์
ผู้เชี่ยวชาญด้านภาษาศาสตร์และนิรุกษ์ติศาสตร์แห่งราชบัณฑิตยสถาน


เอกสารนี้เป็นส่วนหนึ่งของการประชุมเชิงปฎิบัติการ เรื่อง
การอ่านสังวัธยายพระไตรปิฎกสากล นำโดย ดร. วิจินตน์ ภาณุพงษ์ ณ รร.จปร. 25
มิถุนายน 2552


ในเดือน พศจิกายน พ.ศ. 2552 อาจารย์วิจินตน์
ได้รับเชิญเป็นผู้ฝึกการอ่านสังวัธยายพระไตรปิฎกปาฬิ ด้ายอักษรโรมัน
แก่อนุศาสนาจารย์ของกระทรวงกลาโหม
เนื่องในโอกานที่กระทรวงกลาโหมร่วมเป็นผู้จัดงานอัญเชิญและสมโภชพระไตรปิฎกสากลอักษรโรมัน
ตามรอยพระไตรปิฎก จปร. อัษรสยาม ถวายแด่สมเด็จพระสังฆราช ณ
วัดพระศรีรัตนศาดาราม ซึ่งในพิธีดังกล่าวได้มีการอ่านสังวัธยายพระไตรปิฎก
เป็นภาษาปาฬิ และภาคแปลเป็็นภาษาไทย
เป็นพระราชกุศลแด่สถาบันนพระมหากษัตริย์พุทธมามกะ ด้วย.


Please see the updated version at :

International Phonetic Alphabet for Pāḷi





Pāḷi Tipiṭaka in Roman-script to the International Phonetic Alphabet for Pāḷi Transcription


https://buddhavasse.blogspot.com/feeds/posts/default…
Buddhavasse 2500
หนังสือสวดมนต์ จปร.ฉบับสากล อักษรสยาม 2554
17 October 2011 5:18 PM

Open publication - Free publishing - More alphabet


ผลงานที่ได้จากการจาริกไปพม่า... คือการจัดพิมพ์พระไตรปิฎก เล่มพิเศษอีก 1
เล่ม โดยกองทุนสนทนาธัมม์นำสุขฯ ชื่อ “พระไตรปิฎกเบ่มประมวลเนื้อหา
(Anthology)” เทียบระหว่าง ฉบับ ปาฬิภาสา-อักษรสยาม พ.ศ. 2436 กับ
ปาฬิภาสา-อักษรพม่า พ.ศ. 2500 และ ปาฬิภาสา-อักษรโรมัน พ.ศ. 2548.


The World Tipiṭaka Edition in various scripts will be printed by Dhamma
Society, for the first time — in parallel corpus for all to study and
understand…
As you see, the parallel corpus brings a great deal
more profound perspective of these sacred scripts — an ingenious
attempt to preserve the original sounds of Dhamma in various scripts to
ensure the correctness.


ข้อมูลนี้จะทำให้ประชาชนทั่วไปเกิดความเข้าใจเรื่องการสังคายนา
และการจัดพิมพ์พระไตรปิฎก ฉบับสังคายนาสากล ฉบับอักษรต่างๆ
รวมฉบับสากล-อักษรโรมันชุดที่สมบูรณ์ 40 เล่ม
http://www.facebook.com/worldtipitaka
ภาพบรรยากาศการถวายพระไตรปิฎก จปร. อักษรสยาม ณ วัดป่าบ้านตาด
3 April 2011 5:57 PM


ภาพ เตรียมการอัญเชิญ พระไตรปิฎก จปร. ปาฬิภาสา-อักษรสยาม พ.ศ. 2436
ฉบับอนุรักษ์ดิจิทัล พ.ศ. 2554 ในวันมาฆบูชา 18 กุมภาพันธ์ พ.ศ. 2554 ณ
วัดป่าบ้านตาด อุดรธานี

…เนื่องด้วยในปลายปี พ.ศ. 2553
คณะสงฆ์ผู้ที่คณะกรรมการ “มูลนิธิเสียงธรรมเพื่อประชาชนฯ”
ได้ปรารถถึงความสำคัญของอักษรโรมัน ในการเผยแผ่ธัมมะ
โดยใช้พิมพ์กำกับเสียงสวดมนต์ผ่านทางสถานีโทรทัศน์
และทางวิทยุของสถานีวิทยุเสียงธรรมเพื่อประชาชน
โครงการพระไตรปิฎกสากลและกองทุนสนทนาธัมม์นำสุขฯ ในพระสังฆราชูปถัมภ์ฯ
ผู้ดำเนินงานเผยแผ่ข้อมูลพระไตรปิฎกอักษรโรมัน
จึงได้มอบข้อมูลพระไตรปิฎกอิเล็คทรอนิกส์ดังกล่าว ถวายแก่คณะสงฆ์


ต่อ มาในปี พ.ศ. 2554
เมื่อได้มีการประชุมร่วมระหว่างคณะสงฆ์กับโครงการพระไตรปิฎกสากล
และกองทุนสนทนาธัมม์นำสุขฯ ในพระสังฆราชูปถัมภ์ฯ มากขึ้น
มูลนิธิเสียงธรรมเพื่อประชาชนจึงได้รับทราบข้อมูลเพิ่มเติมเกี่ยวกับพระ
ไตรปิฎก จปร. อักษรสยาม พ.ศ. 2436 ซึ่งเป็น “ต้นฉบับ”
ที่สำคัญในการจัดทำฐานข้อมูล “ปาฬิภาสา-อักษรโรมัน” พ.ศ. 2548

ดัง
นั้นเมื่อพระอาจารย์พระมหาบัวได้ละสังขารไปในปลายเดือนมกราคม 2554
โครงการพระไตรปิฎกสากล และกองทุนสนทนาธัมม์นำสุขฯ ในพระสังฆราชูปถัมภ์ฯ
จึงได้มีจิตศรัทธาอย่างแรงกล้าในการถวายพระไตรปิฎก จปร. อักษรสยาม
ฉบับอนุรักษ์ดิจิทัล พ.ศ. 2554 ซึ่งได้จัดพิมพ์ขึ้นใหม่ เป็นชุดพิเศษ ชุด
40 เล่ม ชุดเดียวในประเทศไทยในปีนี้ และเมื่อได้รับความเห็นชอบจากคณะสงฆ์
ก็ได้ทำการอัญเชิญพระไตรปิฎก จปร. อักษรสยาม ไปประดิษฐาน ณ วัดป่าบ้านตาด
ทั้งนี้เพื่อทางคณะสงฆ์และกรรมการมูลนิธิเสียงธรรมเพื่อประชาชนฯ
จะได้พิจารณานำข้อมูล และเนื้อหาไปเผยแผ่ต่อไป
ตามเจตนารมย์ของพระอาจารย์พระมหาบัว ญาณสัมปันโน
ผู้ซึ่งปฏิบัติตามธัมมะตามพระไตรปิฎกอย่างเคร่งครัด

และเนื่องด้วย
พระไตรปิฎก จปร. อักษรสยาม มีระบบอักขรวิธีการเขียนปาฬิภาสา ที่เป็นเลิศ
คือมีเครื่องหมายสัญลักษณ์ “ไม้ยามักการ” กำกับเสียงควบกล้ำที่ชัดเจน
พระไตรปิฎก จปร. อักษรสยามชุดนี้
จึงเป็นเอกสารที่สำคัญยิ่งที่จะใช้อ้างอิงในการสวดสังวัธยายของสงฆ์
ซึ่งเป็นเสียง “ปาฬิภาสา”
ที่ทางวัดป่าอรัญญวาสีได้สืบทอดต่อมาอย่างเคร่งครัดตามพระไตรปิฎก
และการออกเสียงที่ได้สวดในพระปาติโมกข์

นอกจากนั้นที่สำคัญ
ยิ่งยวดอีกประการก็คือ พระไตรปิฎก จปร. อักษรสยาม เมื่อ พ.ศ. 2436
เป็นการจัดพิมพ์พระไตรปิฎกปาฬิภาสา เป็นชุดๆ แรกในประวัติศาสตร์พุทธศาสนา
โดยพระบาทสมเด็จพระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว เจ้ากรุงสยาม
ทรงโปรดให้เปลี่ยนวิธีการอนุรักษ์พระพุทธพจน์จากคัมภีร์ใบลานอักษรขอมโบราณ
มาเป็นกระดาษที่ทันสมัย และยังได้ตีพิมพ์เป็น “อักษรสยาม” แทน “อักษรขอม”
ซึ่งอักษรสยามก็คือ
อักษรที่ใช้เขียนภาษาไทยที่ประชาชนทั่วไปสามารถอ่านได้ดีด้วย

การ
ดำเนินงานและจัดพิมพ์พระไตรปิฎก จปร.
เป็นช่วงที่สยามต้องเผชญกับวิกฤตการณ์ร้ายแรงจากลัทธิการล่าอาณานิคมของ
ประเทศมหาอำนาจตะวันตก โดยเฉพาะฝรั่งเศส ซึ่งในปีรัตนโกสินทรศก ร.ศ. 112
หรือ พ.ศ. 2436 ฝรั่งเศสได้ส่งเรือรบมาปิดอ่าวไทย
หมายจะยึดครองไทยเป็นเมืองขึ้น แต่แม้กระนั้น ไทยก็มีขันติธัมม์
และสามารถอดกลั้นต่ออกุสลทั้งปวง เพื่อเจรจารด้วยสันติวิธี
และด้วยความชาญฉลาดของผู้นำกรุงสยาม สยามประเทศก็สามารถเจรจาสงบข้อพิพาทได้
และพระไตรปิฎก ฉบับ จปร. ก็จัดพิมพ์สำเร็จในปีนี้ด้วย
อันเป็นมงคลของประเทศ ที่แม้มีปัญหารอบด้าน แต่สยามก็เป็นพระธัมมนคร
สามารถจัดสร้างพระไตรปิฎกเป็นชุดตีพิมพ์เป็นชุดแรกของโลก
เป็นพระธัมมทานไปทั่วสยาม และยังได้พระราชทานไปเป็นพระธัมมทาน
แก่สถาบันสำคัญมในนานาประเทศทั่วโลก รวมทั้งประเทศฝรั่งเศส ด้วย


ด้วยเหตุสำคัญทางประวัติศาสตร์ต่างๆ นี้ พระไตรปิฎก จปร. อักษรสยาม
จึงเป็นสัญลักษณ์ –ภาพรวม– ของสถาบันสำคัญสูงสุดของไทย คือ
สถาบันพระพุทธศาสนา สถาบันชาติเอกราช และสถาบันพระมหากษัตริย์พุทธมามกะ
ซึ่งล้วนเป็นสิ่งที่พระอาจารย์พระมหาบัว แห่งวัดป่าบ้านตาด
ได้เมตตาปลูกฝังให้ชาวไทยตระหนักและปกป้องจนถึงที่สุดเพื่อประโยชน์อัน
ไพบูลย์ของลูกหลานไทยในภายหน้า จนเกิดมีโครงการผ้าป่าช่วยชาติที่ยิ่งใหญ่
ที่ชาวไทยทั้งหลายจะไม่มีวันลืมเลือน…

ขอหวังว่า
การจัดพิมพ์พระไตรปิฎก จปร. อักษรสยาม ฉบับอนุรักษ์ดิจิทัล 2554
และการที่ได้อัญเชิญมาน้อมถวายบูชาพระพุทธ พระธัมม์ พระสงฆ์
เนื่องในงานบำเพ็ญกุสลพระอาจารย์พระมหาบัว ญาณสัมปันโน
จะเป็นการบำเพ็ญบุญกิริยาตามแนวทางปฏิปทาของครูบาอาจารย์ฝ่ายอรัญญวาสี
ผู้อนุรักษ์พระไตรปิฎก และปฏิบัติตามพระไตรปิฎก
ตั้งแต่อดีตจนถึงปัจจุบัน…

ข้อมูลเพื่มเติม
http://www.facebook.com/DhammaSociety WorldTipitaka



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VQnL1QCSPyA
How I learned Pali (Theravada Buddhism) and my Positive Experiences in the Field
à-bas-le-ciel
Published on Jun 26, 2015
I taught myself Pali and lived for years in Theravada Countries in
Asia. Learning the language is hard work, and this video may motivate
you by discussing some of the positive outcomes of learning the
language; I had a lot of positive experiences in both monastic and
academic settings (and archives, museums, etc.)
and most of my writing (on the internet) about learning Pali instead
provides pretty “dry” advice (and, sometimes, some grave warnings). So,
this is a relatively upbeat video, for people interested in the human
reality of what it means to be a Pali scholar in the 21st century –an
era when every Pali scholar is an autodidact.


As is mentioned in the video, you can find the resources I created to
help people learn Pali in various places, including Google Books (for
free, of course):
https://www.google.ca/search?tbm=bks&…


For some much more depressing, practical advice (on learning the Pali
language), you can take a look at some of my written work, e.g.,
http://a-bas-le-ciel.blogspot.ca/2012


A useful essay for any beginner (both providing useful information, and
warnings about misinformation in the field) can be found in both
English and Chinese translation through the following links: http://a-bas-le-ciel.blogspot.ca/2014


You might also be interested in my more recent video (over 20 minutes
long), on the question of, “What is the future of Buddhism?”: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QbvtU
Category
Education


I taught myself Pali and lived for years in Theravada Countries in…

http://tipitaka.sutta.org/
Welcome to Online Pāḷi Tipiṭaka Website!
This website (website source code, data) allows instant lookup of words
when mouse cursor hovers over words, and contrast (parallel) reading of
Pāḷi texts and translations (if available). The dictionaries include
Pāḷi-English, Pāḷi-Japanese, Pāḷi-Chinese, Pāli-Vietnamese,
Pāli-Burmese. The data of Pāḷi Tipiṭaka in this website comes from Pāḷi
Tipiṭaka. Before using this website, please read Howto on Pāḷi Tipiṭaka
first. If you only need to look up Pāḷi words, please visit Pāḷi
Dictionary (website source code, data). The data of dictionaries comes
from Pali Canon E-Dictionary Version 1.94 (PCED). This website is still
under development, if any questions, problems, or suggestions, please
contact me.

Firefox and Chrome are preferred browsers for this website. IE8 or older are not supported.
Notice:

The data of Pāḷi Tipiṭaka in this website comes from V.R.I. (Vipassana
Research Institute, India) & the VRI editions are based on the
Burmese texts (Chaṭṭhasaṅgāyana edition).

During compiling Pāḷi
text, we have perceived some misplacements and these points have been
confirmed by VRI. According to VRI, the misplacements had been occurring
from the Chaṭṭhasaṅgāyana edition.

The misplacements are being on these paths:

1. Tipiṭaka (Mūla) (Pāḷi Canon) >> Suttapiṭaka (The Basket of
Discourses) >> Aṅguttaranikāya (Further-factored Discourses)
>> Ekakanipātapāḷi (Book of the Ones) >> 9. Pamādādivaggo,
the paragraph #81 should belong to the previous chapter (8.
Kalyāṇamittādivaggo) instead of current state.

2. Tipiṭaka (Mūla)
(Pāḷi Canon) >> Suttapiṭaka (The Basket of Discourses) >>
Aṅguttaranikāya (Further-factored Discourses) >> Ekakanipātapāḷi
(Book of the Ones) >> 10. Dutiyapamādādivaggo, the paragraphs 130
to 139 should belong to the next chapter (11. Adhammavaggo) instead of
current state.


Pāli Tipiṭaka, Pali Tipitaka, 巴利三藏, 南伝大蔵経

comments (0)
2506 Fri 19 Jan 2018 LESSON Tipiṭaka Studies for University Students 22 Classical Dutch,24 Classical Esperanto-Klasika Esperanto,25 Classical Estonian-klassikaline eesti keel,26 Classical Filipino
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 8:00 pm

2506 Fri 19 Jan 2018 LESSON

Tipiṭaka Studies for University Students

22 Classical Dutch,24 Classical Esperanto-Klasika Esperanto,
25 Classical Estonian-klassikaline eesti keel,26 Classical Filipino,




22 Classical Dutch

22 Klassiek Nederlands

Analytic
Insight Net - GRATIS online Tipiṭaka Onderzoek en praktijk Universiteit
en aanverwant NIEUWS via http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org in 105 KLASSIEKE
TALEN



https://www.youtube.com/watch…
24 Classical Esperanto
24 Klasika Esperanto

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youtube.com


https://en.wordpress.com/tag/agama-buddha/
25 Classical Estonian25 klassikaline eesti keel

Analüütika Insight Net - TASUTA Online Tipiťaka Uurimis- ja praktikaülikool ja sellega seotud UUDISED läbi http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 105 KLASSI KEELADES

Tags
» Agama Buddha




Empat Ajaran Liao Fan

Sotthi Hotu, Namo Buddhaya

Bagaimana kabar Anda hari ini?
Semoga senantiasa selalu berbahagia

Sadhu…

Tulisan kali ini berisikan tentang sebuah kisah nyata dari seorang yang berhasil mengubah hidupnya ke arah yang lebih baik. 1,334 more words

Agama Buddha


Pengantar Tipiṭaka Part 3 (Abhidhamma Piṭaka)

Sotthi Hotu, Namo Buddhaya

Bagaimana kabar Anda hari ini?
Semoga kita semua senantiasa berbahagia

Sadhu…

Tulisan kali ini berisikan materi lanjutan mengenai Kitab Suci Agama Buddha, yaitu… 705 more words

Agama Buddha


Pengantar Tipiṭaka Part 2 (Sutta Piṭaka)

­­Sotthi Hotu, Namo Buddhaya

Bagaimana kabar Anda hari ini?
Semoga kebahagiaan selalu menyertai Anda sekalian

Sadhu..

Tulisan kali ini akan melanjutkan tulisan terdahulu mengenai Kitab Suci Agama Buddha, yaitu  1,368 more words

Agama Buddha


Perbuatan Baik dengan Bobot Paling Tinggi

Sotthi Hotu, Namo Buddhaya
Semoga Kita senantiasa selalu berbahagia.

Sadhu..Sadhu..Sadhu..

Tulisan ini merupakan lanjutan dari post sebelumnya. Awalnya, penulis
berniat menggabung keduanya. Akan tetapi, Penulis mengurungkan kehendak
tersebut karena perbedaan topik.
1,679 more words

Agama Buddha


Merespon Kegagalan Cinta Versi Dhamma

Sotthi Hotu, Namo Buddhaya

Semoga Kita Senantiasa Berbahagia

Hari Minggu, 29 Oktober 2017 merupakan hari yang begitu menyenangkan.
Kalian ingin tahu alasannya?
Silahkan baca tulisan ini dengan penuh perhatian :D
2,030 more words

Agama Buddha


Dhamma is My Way

Sotthi Hotu, Namo Buddhaya
Semoga Kita Senantiasa Berbahagia
Sadhu…

Tulisan kali ini akan berisikan sebuah pedoman hidup untuk semua
makhluk. Mengapa? Karena yang tertulis disini adalah Dhamma (Kebenaran).
803 more words

Agama Buddha


Kicauan Burung

Sotthi Hotu, Namo Buddhaya
Semoga Kita Senantiasa Selalu Berbahagia

Sadhu…

Berbeda dari biasanya, Penulis tidak membahas mengenai Chord Lagu
Buddhis, Teori Dhamma atau pun pengalaman mengenai perjalanan kehidupan.
1,300 more words

Agama Buddha


Variasi Untuk Menyegarkan Meditasi

Sotthi Hotu, Namo Buddhaya

Semoga kita sekalian senantiasa sehat dan berbahagia

Sadhu…

Dewasa ini, banyak orang yang belum mengetahui bahwa mereka telah membawa-bawa beban yang begitu banyak dalam hidupnya. 1,938 more words

Agama Buddha


Metode Dasar Meditasi (Tahap I)

Sotthi Hotu, Namo Buddhaya
Semoga Kita Senantiasa Berbahagia

Dewasa ini, sering kali ditemukan banyak orang yang berusaha keras
mengejar kebahagiaan dalam hidupnya. Pernahkah kita meresapi kalimat
perenungan bahwa…
1,175 more words

Agama Buddha

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2506 Fri 19 Jan 2018 LESSON Tipiṭaka Studies for University Students 27 Classical Finnish-klassista suomalaista,
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 9:14 am


2506 Fri 19 Jan 2018 LESSON  Tipiṭaka Studies for University Students
27 Classical Finnish-klassista suomalaista,




Nasihat Ajahn Chah

Sotthi Hotu, Namo Buddhaya
Semoga Anda senantiasa berbahagia :)

Dewasa ini, perkembangan dunia IPTEK sangat cepat. Akan tetapi, tidak
diimbangi dengan moral manusia. Sehingga sering kali ditemui
kejadian-kejadian yang diluar nalar manusia.
1,103 more words

Agama Buddha


Sila (Peraturan Disiplin) dalam Agama Buddha

Sotthi Hotu, Namo Buddhaya

Tulisan ini akan membahas mengenai sila dalam Agama Buddha, khususnya
Pancasila Buddhis yang wajib dijalankan oleh upasaka dan upasika.
Sebelum membahas lebih jauh mengenai sila, marilah kita sama-sama
membaca penggalan Dhammapada, yaitu sebagai berikut.
1,023 more words

Agama Buddha


Apa dan Bagaimana Berdoa menurut Agama Buddha?

Sotthi Hotu, Namo Buddhaya
Semoga Anda senantiasa berbahagia :)
Sadhu..

Sesuai dengan yang telah dijanjikan pada post sebelumnya, penulis
akan membahas singkat mengenai apa dan bagaimana berdoa menurut Agama
Buddha?
1,048 more words

Agama Buddha


Mitos-mitos dalam Agama Buddha

Sotthi Hotu, Namo Buddhaya

Bagaimana kabar Anda hari ini?

Semoga Anda senantiasa berbahagia. Sadhu :)

Dewasa ini, banyak ditemui beberapa pandangan yang keliru mengenai Agama Buddha. 1,157 more words

Agama Buddha


Perayaan Asadha Puja 2561 BE/2017 Vihara Dhamma Sabha

Sotthi Hotu, Namo Buddhaya

Peluang menulis kali ini digunakan untuk menceritakan Perayaan Asadha
Puja 2561 BE/2017 di Vihara Dhamma Sabha. Perayaan Asadha Puja Vihara
Dhamma Sabha dilaksanakan di Hari Minggu, 30 Juli 2017 mulai pukul 08.00
WIB.
781 more words

Agama Buddha


Hidup Bersama Pasangan yang Ideal menurut Pandangan Agama Buddha (4+1)

Sotthi Hotu,
Bagaimana kabarnya hari ini?
Semoga hari Anda sekalian senantiasa berbahagia. :)

Topik yang akan dibahas kali ini adalah hidup bersama pasangan yang ideal menurut pandangan Agama Buddha. 1,440 more words

Agama Buddha


Pengantar Tipiṭaka Part 1 (Vinaya Piṭaka)

Sotthi Hottu, Namo Buddhaya

Saya akan membahas mengenai Kitab Suci Agama Buddha, yaitu
Tipiṭaka (literatur berbahasa Pāli).
Selamat membaca :D

Tipiṭaka berarti 3 keranjang, yang bermakna Tiga Wadah yang berisi ajaran Buddha. 486 more words

Agama Buddha


Kelembagaan Umat Buddha

Sotthi Hotu, Namo Buddhaya :)

Tulisan kali ini akan membahas mengenai kelembagaan umat Buddha, khususnya lembaga keagamaan umat Buddha mazhab Therāvada.
Apa itu kelembagaan? Kelembagaan mempunyai kata dasar lembaga, berarti
organisasi yang bertujuan melakukan suatu penyelidikan keilmuan.
590 more words

Agama Buddha


Cara Menjadi Bahagia

Sotthi Hotu, Namo Buddhaya

Tulisan saya kali ini membahas tentang “Cara menjadi bahagia”.
Banyak manusia mendambakan kebahagiaan. Apakah kita salah satu diantara
mereka? Tahukah kita bagaimana untuk mendapatkan kebahagiaan sejati?
604 more words

Agama Buddha


Umat Buddha Sejati

Sotthi Hotu, Namo Buddhaya

Saya akan membahas mengenai umat buddha sejati. Apa yang dimaksud
dengan umat buddha yang sejati? Umat Buddha yang sejati adalah umat
Budhha yang menjalankan ajaran Buddha dalam kehidupan sehari-hari.
300 more words

Agama Buddha


Tidak Membandingkan

Sotthi Hotu, Namo Buddhaya

Tulisan saya kali ini diambil dari buku berjudul “Don’t worry be hopey” karya Ajahn Brahm.
Selamat membaca :D

Kebanyakan penindas memiliki rasa percaya diri yang rendah. 317 more words

Agama Buddha


Proses Kematian

Sotthi Hotu, Namo Buddhaya

Banyak orang yang takut akan kematian. Mereka ingin hidup selamanya.
Bahkan, mereka berdalih jika mereka akan meninggal ketika urusan mereka
telah selesai di dunia.
366 more words

Agama Buddha


Hari Raya Magha Puja

Sotthi Hotu, Namo Buddhaya.

Tulisan saya kali ini akan membahas mengenai salah satu hari raya
bagi umat buddha, yaitu Hari Raya Magha Puja. Secara umum, ada 4 Hari
Raya dalam Agama Buddha, yaitu Waisak, Asadha, Kathina, dan Magha Puja.
530 more words

Agama Buddha


Tiga Corak Umum (Tilakhana)

Sotthi Hotu, Namo Buddhaya…

Saya akan menulis ulang mengenai topik yang sama seperti di post pertama, yaitu Tilakhana atau biasa dikenal dengan Tiga Corak Umum. 547 more words

Agama Buddha


SUTRA AVALOKITESVARA RAJA GAO

SUTRA AVALOKITESVARA RAJA GAO.

佛說高王觀世音經

Fo shuō gāo wáng guānshìyīn jīng

Taisho Tripitaka 2898

Diterjemahkan dari bahasa Mandarin ke bahasa Indonesia oleh Ivan Taniputera. 2,635 more words

Ilmu & Budaya & Tatacara Ritual


SUTRA AVALOKITESVA RAJA GAO

SUTRA AVALOKITESVARA RAJA GAO.

佛說高王觀世音經

Fo shuō gāo wáng guānshìyīn jīng

Taisho Tripitaka 2898

Diterjemahkan dari bahasa Mandarin ke bahasa Indonesia oleh Ivan Taniputera. 2,635 more words

Ilmu & Tata Cara & Ritual


Come discover Estonia! More travel inspiration available @ http:/…
youtube.com

http://quantumleapalchemy.com/…/bigstock-Molecular-Thoughts…

26 Classical Filipino

Analytic Insight Net - LIBRE Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University at mga kaugnay na BALITA sa pamamagitan ng http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org sa 105 Classical LANGUAGES




SHEET MUSIC AND TABS contact the publisher Mr. Albert Sison…
youtube.com


https://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php…

27 Classical Finnish
27 klassista suomalaista

Analytic Insight Net - ILMAINEN Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University ja siihen liittyvät uutiset osoitteessa http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES


The
Western canon is the body of books , music , and art that scholars
generally accept as the most important and influential in shaping
Western culture . It includes works of fiction , non-fiction , poetry ,
drama , music, art, sculpture, and architecture generally perceived as
being of major artis…
revolvy.com

Classical canon

Classical canon

The Western canon is the body of books, music, and art that scholars generally accept as the most important and influential in shaping Western culture. It includes works of fiction, non-fiction, poetry, drama, music, art, sculpture, and architecture generally perceived as being of major artistic merit and representing the high culture of Europe and North America. University of California philosopher John Searle suggests that the Western canon can be roughly defined as “a certain Western intellectual tradition that goes from, say, Socrates to Wittgenstein in philosophy, and from Homer to James Joyce in literature”.[1] The Bible, a product of Middle Eastern culture, has been a major force in shaping Western culture, and “has inspired some of the great monuments of human thought, literature, and art”.[2]

The canon of books, including Western literature and Western philosophy, has been fairly stable, although it has expanded to include more women and racial minorities, while the canons of music and the visual arts have greatly expanded to cover the Middle Ages
and subsequent centuries once largely overlooked. Also during the
twentieth century there has been a growing interest in the cultures of
Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and South America. In particular the
former colonies of European countries began in the twentieth century to
produce major works, both in literature and in the other arts. This is
especially reflected in the Nobel prizes awarded in literature. But some
examples of newer media such as cinema have attained a precarious position in the canon.

There
has been an ongoing debate over the nature and status of the canon,
especially in America, since at least the 1960s, much of which is rooted
in critical theory, feminism, critical race theory, and Marxism.[3] In particular, postmodern studies have argued that the body of scholarship is biased because the traditional main focus of academic studies of Western culture and history has only been on works produced by Western men.

A classic

In painting, the Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci, c. 1503–1506, is the archetypal masterpiece, though it was not produced for admission to a guild or academy.

A classic is a book, or any other work of art, accepted as being exemplary or noteworthy, for example through an imprimatur such as being listed in a list of great books,
or through a reader’s personal opinion. Although the term is often
associated with the Western canon, it can be applied to works of
literature, music and art, etc. from all traditions, such as the Chinese classics or the Vedas. A related word is masterpiece
or chef d’œuvre, which in modern use refers to a creation that has been
given much critical praise, especially one that is considered the
greatest work of a person’s career or to a work of outstanding
creativity, skill, or workmanship. Historically, the word refers to a
work of a very high standard produced in order to obtain membership of a
Guild or Academy.

The first writer to use the term “classic” was Aulus Gellius, a 2nd-century Roman writer who, in the miscellany
Noctes Atticae (19, 8, 15), refers to a writer as a classicus scriptor,
non proletarius (”A distinguished, not a commonplace writer”). Such
classification began with the Greeks’ ranking their cultural works, with
the word canon (”carpenter’s rule”). Moreover, early Christian Church Fathers used canon to rank the authoritative texts of the New Testament, preserving them, given the expense of vellum and papyrus
and mechanical book reproduction, thus, being comprehended in a canon
ensured a book’s preservation as the best way to retain information
about a civilization. Contemporarily, the Western canon defines the best
of Western culture. In the ancient world, at the Alexandrian Library, scholars coined the Greek term Hoi enkrithentes (”the admitted”, “the included”) to identify the writers in the canon.

Literary canon (mainly)
Classic book

With regard to books, what makes a book “classic” is a concern that has occurred to various authors ranging from Italo Calvino to Mark Twain
and the related questions of “Why Read the Classics?” and “What Is a
Classic?” have been essayed by authors from different genres and eras,
including Calvino, T. S. Eliot, Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve, Michael Dirda, and Ezra Pound.

The
terms “classic book” and Western canon are closely related concepts,
but they are not necessarily synonymous. A “canon” refers to a list of
books considered to be “essential” and is presented in a variety of
ways. It can be published as a collection (such as Great Books of the Western World, Modern Library, Everyman’s Library, or Penguin Classics), presented as a list with an academic’s imprimatur (such as Harold Bloom’s[4] ) or be the official reading list of an institution of higher learning.

Some of the writers who are generally considered the most important in Western literature are Homer, Aeschylus, Euripides, Virgil, Horace, Geoffrey Chaucer, Dante Alighieri, William Shakespeare, François Rabelais, Jean Racine, Molière, Camões, Miguel de Cervantes, Michel de Montaigne, John Milton, Samuel Johnson, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, William Wordsworth, Jane Austen, Stendhal, Walt Whitman, Gustave Flaubert, Emily Dickinson, Honoré de Balzac, Charles Dickens, Herman Melville, George Eliot, Leo Tolstoy, Henrik Ibsen, Sigmund Freud, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Eça de Queirós, Marcel Proust, Thomas Mann, Robert Musil, James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, Franz Kafka, William Faulkner, Jorge Luis Borges, Pablo Neruda, Fernando Pessoa, Albert Camus and Samuel Beckett.[5] [6]

Harold Bloom has divided the body of Western Literature into four ages[7] :

  • The Chaotic Age (1900-today), which includes a multitude of countries and authors.[8]
Great Books Program

A university or college Great Books Program is a program inspired by the Great Books movement begun in the United States in the 1920s by Prof. John Erskine of Columbia University,[9] which proposed to improve the higher education system by returning it to the western liberal arts tradition of broad cross-disciplinary learning. These academics and educators included Robert Hutchins, Mortimer Adler, Stringfellow Barr, Scott Buchanan, Jacques Barzun, and Alexander Meiklejohn. The view among them was that the emphasis on narrow specialization in American colleges had harmed the quality of higher education by failing to expose students to the important products of Western civilization and thought.

The
essential component of such programs is a high degree of engagement
with primary texts, called the Great Books. The curricula of Great Books
programs often follow a canon of texts considered more or less
essential to a student’s education, such as Plato’s Republic, or Dante’s
Divine Comedy. Such programs often focus exclusively on Western
culture. Their employment of primary texts dictates an interdisciplinary
approach, as most of the Great Books do not fall neatly under the
prerogative of a single contemporary academic discipline. Great Books
programs often include designated discussion groups as well as lectures,
and have small class sizes. In general students in such programs
receive an abnormally high degree of attention from their professors, as
part of the overall aim of fostering a community of learning.

Over
100 institutions of higher learning, mostly in the United States, offer
some version of a Great Books Program as an option for students.[10]

Debate


There has been an ongoing debate, especially in the US, over the nature
and status of the canon since at least the 1960s, much of which is
rooted in critical theory, feminism, critical race theory, and Marxism.[3] In particular postmodern
studies has argued that the body of scholarship is biased, because the
main focus traditionally of the academic studies of history and Western culture, has only been on Europe and men. American philosopher Jay Stevenson argues:

Classicist Bernard Knox made direct reference to this topic when he delivered his 1992 Jefferson Lecture (the U.S. federal government’s highest honor for achievement in the humanities).[12] Knox used the intentionally “provocative” title “The Oldest Dead White European Males”,[13]
as the title of his lecture and his subsequent book of the same name,
in both of which Knox defended the continuing relevance of classical culture to modern society.[14] [15]

Some
intellectuals have championed a “high conservative modernism” that
insists that universal truths exist, and have opposed approaches that
deny the existence of universal truths.[16] Many argued that “natural law” was the repository of timeless truths.[17] Allan Bloom,
in his highly influential Closing of the American Mind: How Higher
Education Has Failed Democracy and Impoverished the Souls of Today’s
Students (1987) argues that moral degradation results from ignorance of
the great classics
that shaped Western culture. Bloom further comments: “But one thing is
certain: wherever the Great Books make up a central part of the
curriculum, the students are excited and satisfied.”[18]
His book was widely cited by some intellectuals for its argument that
the classics contained universal truths and timeless values which were
being ignored by cultural relativists.[19] [20] Yale University Professor of Humanities and famous literary critic Harold Bloom (no relation) has also argued strongly in favor of the canon, in his 1995 book The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages, and in general the canon remains as a represented idea in many institutions,[1] though its implications continue to be debated.

Defenders
maintain that those who undermine the canon do so out of primarily
political interests, and that such criticisms are misguided and/or
disingenuous. As John Searle, Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley, has written:

There
is a certain irony in this [i.e., politicized objections to the canon]
in that earlier student generations, my own for example, found the
critical tradition that runs from Socrates through the Federalist Papers, through the writings of Mill and Marx,
down to the twentieth century, to be liberating from the stuffy
conventions of traditional American politics and pieties. Precisely by
inculcating a critical attitude, the “canon” served to demythologize the
conventional pieties of the American bourgeoisie and provided the
student with a perspective from which to critically analyze American
culture and institutions. Ironically, the same tradition is now regarded
as oppressive. The texts once served an unmasking function; now we are
told that it is the texts which must be unmasked.[1]

One
of the main objections to a canon of literature is the question of
authority; who should have the power to determine what works are worth
reading? Searle’s rebuttal suggests that “one obvious difficulty with it
[i.e., arguments against hierarchical ranking of books] is that if it
were valid, it would argue against any set of required readings
whatever; indeed, any list you care to make about anything automatically
creates two categories, those that are on the list and those that are
not.”[1]

Charles Altieri, of the University of California, Berkeley,
states that canons are “an institutional form for exposing people to a
range of idealized attitudes.” It is according to this notion that work
may be removed from the canon over time to reflect the contextual
relevance and thoughts of society.[21] American historian Todd M. Compton
argues that canons are always communal in nature; that there are
limited canons for, say a literature survey class, or an English
department reading list, but there is no such thing as one absolute
canon of literature. Instead, there are many conflicting canons. He
regards Bloom’s “Western Canon” as a personal canon only.[22]

The process of defining the boundaries of the canon is endless. The philosopher John Searle
has said, “In my experience there never was, in fact, a fixed ‘canon’;
there was rather a certain set of tentative judgments about what had
importance and quality. Such judgments are always subject to revision,
and in fact they were constantly being revised.”[1] One of the notable attempts at compiling an authoritative canon for literature in the English-speaking world was the Great Books of the Western World program. This program, developed in the middle third of the 20th century, grew out of the curriculum at the University of Chicago. University president Robert Maynard Hutchins and his collaborator Mortimer Adler
developed a program that offered reading lists, books, and
organizational strategies for reading clubs to the general public. An
earlier attempt had been made in 1909 by Harvard University president Charles W. Eliot, with the Harvard Classics,
a 51-volume anthology of classic works from world literature. Eliot’s
view was the same as that of Scottish philosopher and historian Thomas Carlyle: “The true University of these days is a Collection of Books”. (”The Hero as Man of Letters”, 1840)

In the English-speaking world
British renaissance poetry

The
canon of Renaissance English poetry of the 16th and early 17th century
has always been in some form of flux and towards the end of the 20th
century the established canon was criticized, especially by those who
wished to expand it to include, for example, more women writers.[23] However, the central figures of the British renaissance canon remain, Edmund Spenser, Sir Philip Sidney, Christopher Marlowe, William Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, and John Donne.[24] Spenser, Donne, and Jonson were major influences on 17th-century poetry. However, poet John Dryden condemned aspects of the metaphysical poets in his criticism. In the 18th century Metaphysical poetry fell into further disrepute,[25] while the interest in Elizabethan poetry was rekindled through the scholarship of Thomas Warton and others. However, the canon of Renaissance poetry was formed in the Victorian period with anthologies like Palgrave’s Golden Treasury.[26]

In the twentieth century T. S. Eliot and Yvor Winters were two literary critics who were especially concerned with revising the canon of renaissance English literature. T. S. Eliot, for example, championed poet Sir John Davies in an article in The Times Literary Supplement in 1926. During the course of the 1920s, T.S. Eliot
did much to establish the importance of the metaphysical school, both
through his critical writing and by applying their method in his own
work. However, by 1961 A. Alvarez
was commenting that “it may perhaps be a little late in the day to be
writing about the Metaphysicals. The great vogue for Donne passed with
the passing of the Anglo-American experimental movement in modern
poetry.”[27] Two decades
later, a hostile view was expressed that emphasis on their importance
had been an attempt by Eliot and his followers to impose a ‘high
Anglican and royalist literary history’ on 17th-century English poetry.[28]

The American critic Yvor Winters suggested in 1939 an alternative canon of Elizabethan poetry,[29] which would exclude the famous representatives of the Petrarchan school of poetry, represented by Sir Philip Sidney and Edmund Spenser. Winters claimed that the Native or Plain Style anti-Petrarchan movement had been undervalued and argued that George Gascoigne (1525–1577) “deserves to be ranked […] among the six or seven greatest lyric poets of the century, and perhaps higher”.[30]

Towards the end of the 20th century the established canon was increasingly under fire.[31]

Expansion of the literary canon in the 20th century

In the twentieth century there was a general reassessment of the literary canon, including women’s writing, post-colonial literatures, gay and lesbian literature,
writing by people of colour, working people’s writing, and the cultural
productions of historically marginalized groups. This reassessment has
resulted in a whole scale expansion of what is considered “literature”,
and genres hitherto not regarded as “literary”, such as children’s
writing, journals, letters, travel writing, and many others are now the
subjects of scholarly interest.[32] [33] [34]

The Western literary canon has also expanded to include the literature of Asia, Africa, the Middle East,
and South America. Writers from countries like Turkey, China, Egypt,
Peru, and Colombia, Japan, etc., have received Nobel prizes since the
late 1960s. Writers from Asia and Africa have also been nominated for,
and also won, the Booker prize in recent years.

Feminism and the literary canon

The
feminist movement produced both feminist fiction and non-fiction and
created new interest in women’s writing. It also prompted a general
reevaluation of women’s historical
and academic contributions in response to the belief that women’s lives
and contributions have been underrepresented as areas of scholarly
interest.[32]

However,
in Britain and America at least women achieved major literary success
from the late eighteenth century, and many major nineteenth century
British novelists were women, including Jane Austen, the Brontë family, Mrs Gaskell, and George Eliot. There were also two major female poets, Elizabeth Barrett Browning[35] and Emily Dickinson.[36] [37] In the twentieth century there were also many major female writers, including Katherine Mansfield, Dorothy Richardson, Virginia Woolf, Eudora Welty, and Marianne Moore. Notable female writers in France include Colette and Simone de Beauvoir; and in Russia, Anna Akhmatova.

Much
of the early period of feminist literary scholarship was given over to
the rediscovery and reclamation of texts written by women. Virago Press
began to publish its large list of 19th and early 20th century novels
in 1975 and became one of the first commercial presses to join in the
project of reclamation.

Black authors

In the twentieth century, the Western literary canon started to include black writers not only from black American writers, but also from the wider black diaspora
of writers in Britain, France, Latin America, and Africa. This is
largely due to the shift in social and political views during the civil rights movement in the United States. The first global recognition came in 1950 when Gwendolyn Brooks was the first black American to win a Pulitzer Prize for Literature. Chinua Achebe’s novel Things Fall Apart helped draw attention to African literature. Nigerian Wole Soyinka was the first African to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1986, and American Toni Morrison was the first black woman to win in 1993.

In the United States

Throughout American history, African Americans have been discriminated against, and this experience inspired some Black writers,
at least during the early years, to prove they were the equals of white
American authors. As Henry Louis Gates, Jr., has said, “it is fair to
describe the subtext of the history of black letters as this urge to
refute the claim that because blacks had no written traditions they were
bearers of an inferior culture.”[38]

African-American
writers were also attempting to subvert the literary and power
traditions of the United States. Some scholars assert that writing has
traditionally been seen as “something defined by the dominant culture as
a white male activity.”[38]
This means that, in American society, literary acceptance has
traditionally been intimately tied in with the very power dynamics which
perpetrated such evils as racial discrimination. By borrowing from and
incorporating the non-written oral traditions and folk life of the African diaspora, African-American literature broke “the mystique of connection between literary authority and patriarchal power.”[39]
In producing their own literature, African Americans were able to
establish their own literary traditions devoid of the white intellectual
filter. This view of African-American literature as a tool in the
struggle for Black political and cultural liberation has been stated for
decades, most famously by W. E. B. Du Bois.[40]

Asia, Africa, Middle East, and South America

Since
the 1960s the Western literary canon has been expanded to include
writers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and South America. This is
reflected in the Nobel prizes awarded in literature.

Yasunari Kawabata (1899 – 1972)[41] was a Japanese novelist and short story writer whose spare, lyrical, subtly-shaded prose works won him the Nobel Prize for Literature
in 1968, the first Japanese author to receive the award. His works have
enjoyed broad international appeal and are still widely read.

Naguib Mahfouz (1911 – 2006) was an Egyptian writer who won the 1988 Nobel Prize for Literature. He is regarded as one of the first contemporary writers of Arabic literature, along with Tawfiq el-Hakim, to explore themes of existentialism.[42]
He published 34 novels, over 350 short stories, dozens of movie
scripts, and five plays over a 70-year career. Many of his works have
been made into Egyptian and foreign films.

Kenzaburō Ōe (b. 1935) is a Japanese writer and a major figure in contemporary Japanese literature. His novels, short stories, and essays, strongly influenced by French and American literature and literary theory, deal with political, social, and philosophical issues, including nuclear weapons, nuclear power, social non-conformism, and existentialism. Ōe was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1994 for creating “an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today”.[43]

Guan Moye
(b. 1955), better known by the pen name “Mo Yan”, is a Chinese novelist
and short story writer. Donald Morrison of the U.S. news magazine TIME referred to him as “one of the most famous, oft-banned and widely pirated of all Chinese writers“,[44] and Jim Leach called him the Chinese answer to Franz Kafka or Joseph Heller.[45] He is best known to Western readers for his 1987 novel Red Sorghum Clan, of which the Red Sorghum and Sorghum Wine volumes were later adapted for the film Red Sorghum. In 2012, Mo was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for his work as a writer “who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary”.[46] [47]

Octavio Paz Lozano (1914 – 1998) was a Mexican poet and diplomat. For his body of work, he was awarded the 1981 Miguel de Cervantes Prize, the 1982 Neustadt International Prize for Literature, and the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature.

Orhan Pamuk (b. 1952) is a Turkish novelist, screenwriter, academic, and recipient of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature. One of Turkey’s most prominent novelists,[48] his work has sold over thirteen million books in sixty-three languages,[49] making him the country’s best-selling writer.[50] Pamuk is the author of novels including The White Castle, The Black Book, The New Life, My Name Is Red, Snow, The Museum of Innocence, and A Strangeness in My Mind. He is the Robert Yik-Fong Tam Professor in the Humanities at Columbia University, where he teaches writing and comparative literature. Born in Istanbul,[51]
Pamuk is the first Turkish Nobel laureate. He is also the recipient of
numerous other literary awards. My Name Is Red won the 2002 Prix du Meilleur Livre Étranger, 2002 Premio Grinzane Cavour, and 2003 International Dublin Literary Award.

Gabriel García Márquez[52] (1927 – 2014) was a Colombian
novelist, short-story writer, screenwriter, and journalist. Considered
one of the most significant authors of the 20th century and one of the
best in the Spanish language, he was awarded the 1972 Neustadt International Prize for Literature and the 1982 Nobel Prize in Literature.[53]

García
Márquez started as a journalist, and wrote many acclaimed non-fiction
works and short stories, but is best known for his novels, such as One Hundred Years of Solitude (1967), The Autumn of the Patriarch (1975), and Love in the Time of Cholera
(1985). His works have achieved significant critical acclaim and
widespread commercial success, most notably for popularizing a literary
style labeled as magic realism,
which uses magical elements and events in otherwise ordinary and
realistic situations. Some of his works are set in a fictional village
called Macondo (the town mainly inspired by his birthplace Aracataca), and most of them explore the theme of solitude. On his death in April 2014, Juan Manuel Santos, the President of Colombia, described him as “the greatest Colombian who ever lived.”[54]

Mario Vargas Llosa, (b. 1936)[55] is a Peruvian writer, politician, journalist, essayist, college professor, and recipient of the 2010 Nobel Prize in Literature.[56]
Vargas Llosa is one of Latin America’s most significant novelists and
essayists, and one of the leading writers of his generation. Some
critics consider him to have had a larger international impact and
worldwide audience than any other writer of the Latin American Boom.[57] Upon announcing the 2010 Nobel Prize in Literature, the Swedish Academy
said it had been given to Vargas Llosa “for his cartography of
structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual’s
resistance, revolt, and defeat”.[58]

Canon of Western philosophers

The
discussion of the literary canon above, especially with regard to
“Great Book” and the “debate” over the canon, is also relevant.

Ancient Greek philosophy
has consistently held a prominent place in the canon. Only a relatively
small number of works of Greek philosophy have survived, essentially
those thought most worth copying in the Middle Ages. Plato, Aristotle and, indirectly, Socrates are the primary figures. Roman philosophy is included, but regarded as less significant (as it tended to be even by the Romans themselves). The ancient philosophy of other cultures now receives more attention than before the 20th century. The vast body of Christian philosophy is typically represented on reading lists mainly by Saints Augustine of Hippo and Thomas Aquinas, and the 12th-century Jewish scholar Maimonides is now usually represented, mostly by The Guide for the Perplexed. The academic canon of early modern philosophy generally includes Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, and Kant, though influential contributions to philosophy were made by many thinkers in this period.[59]

Women have engaged in philosophy throughout the field’s history. There were female philosophers since ancient times, notably Hipparchia of Maroneia (active c. 325 BC) and Arete of Cyrene (active 5th–4th century BC), and some were accepted as philosophers during the ancient, medieval, modern and contemporary eras, but almost no female philosophers have entered the philosophical Western canon.[60] [61] In the early 1990s, the Canadian Philosophical Association claimed that there is gender imbalance and gender bias in the academic field of philosophy.[62]
In June 2013, a US sociology professor stated that “out of all recent
citations in four prestigious philosophy journals, female authors
comprise just 3.6 percent of the total. While other areas of the
humanities are at or near gender parity, philosophy is actually more
overwhelmingly male than even mathematics.”[63]

Ancient Greeks

Many philosophers today agree that Greek philosophy has influenced much of Western culture since its inception. Alfred North Whitehead once noted: “The safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato.”[64] Clear, unbroken lines of influence lead from ancient Greek and Hellenistic philosophers to Early Islamic philosophy, the European Renaissance, and the Age of Enlightenment.[65] Some claim that Greek philosophy, in turn, was influenced by the older wisdom literature and mythological cosmogonies of the ancient Near East, but philosophy as we understand it is a Greek creation.”[66]

Plato was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. He is widely considered the most pivotal figure in the development of philosophy, especially the Western tradition, unlike nearly all of his philosophical contemporaries.[67] [68]

Aristotle was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist. His writings cover many subjects – including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theater, music, rhetoric, linguistics, politics and government—and constitute the first comprehensive system of Western philosophy.[69]

Aristotle’s views on physical science had a profound influence on medieval scholarship. Their influence extended from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages into the Renaissance, and his views were not replaced systematically until the Enlightenment and theories such as classical mechanics. In metaphysics, Aristotelianism profoundly influenced Judeo-Islamic philosophical and theological thought during the Middle Ages and continues to influence Christian theology, especially the Neoplatonism of the Early Church and the scholastic tradition of the Roman Catholic Church. Aristotle was well known among medieval Muslim intellectuals and revered as “The First Teacher” (Arabic: المعلم الأول‎). His ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics. All aspects of Aristotle’s philosophy continue to be the object of active academic study today.[70]

Indian philosophy

Major Western writers and philosophers have been influenced by Eastern philosophy. American modernist poet T S Eliot wrote that the great philosophers of India “make most of the great European philosophers look like schoolboys”.[71] [72] Arthur Schopenhauer, in the preface to his book The World As Will And Representation,
writes that one who “has also received and assimilated the sacred
primitive Indian wisdom, then he is the best of all prepared to hear
what I have to say to him”[73] The 19th century American philosophical movement Transcendentalism was also influenced by Indian thought.[74] [75]

Seventeenth-century philosophers

The seventeenth century was important for philosophy, and the major figures were Francis Bacon (1561–1626), Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679), René Descartes (1596–1650), Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677), John Locke (1632–1704), Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716), and Isaac Newton (1642– c.1726).[76]

Eighteenth-century philosophers

Major philosophers of the eighteenth century include George Berkeley (1685–1753), David Hume (1711–1776), Adam Smith (1723–1790), Immanuel Kant (1724–1804), Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832), Voltaire (1694–1778), Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778), and Edmund Burke (1729–1797).[77]

Nineteenth-century philosophers

Important nineteenth century philosophers include Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831), Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855), Karl Marx (1818–1883) and Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900).

Twentieth-century philosophers

Major twentieth century figures are Henri Bergson (1859–1941), Edmund Husserl (1859-1938), Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) and Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889–1951). A porous distinction between analytic and continental approaches emerged during this period. The term “continental” is misleading, as many prominent British philosophers such as R. G. Collingwood and Michael Oakeshott were non-analytic, and many non-British European philosophers like Wittgenstein
were analytic. Moreover, analytic approaches are dominant in the
Netherlands, Scandinavia, Germany, and parts of east-central Europe
today. Some argue in English-speaking countries, it is better to
distinguish between the dominant approaches of university departments,
where Modern Language departments tend to favor continental methods and
philosophy department tends to favor analytic ones. However, the
humanities/social sciences departments in general such as history,
sociology, anthropology, and political science departments in
English-speaking countries tend to favor continental methods such as
those by Michel Foucault (1926-1984), Pierre Bourdieu (1930-2002) and Jürgen Habermas (1929- ).[78] [79]

Female
philosophers have begun to gain prominence in the last hundred years.
Notable female philosophers from the contemporary period include Susanne Langer (1895–1985), Simone de Beauvoir (1908–1986), and Martha Nussbaum (1947– ).

Classical music

The term “classical music” did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Ludwig van Beethoven as a golden age. In addition to Bach and Beethoven, the other major figures from this period were Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.[80] The earliest reference to “classical music” recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1836.[81]

In classical music,
during the nineteenth century a “canon” developed which focused on what
was felt to be the most important works written since 1600, with a
great concentration on the later part of this period, termed the Classical period, which is generally taken to begin around 1730. After Beethoven, the major nineteenth century composers include Robert Schumann, Frédéric Chopin, Hector Berlioz, Franz Liszt, Richard Wagner, Johannes Brahms, Anton Bruckner, Giuseppe Verdi, Giacomo Puccini, and Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky.[82]

In
the 2000s, the standard concert repertoire of professional orchestras,
chamber music groups, and choirs tends to focus on works by a relatively
small number of mainly 18th and 19th century male composers. Many of
the works deemed to be part of the musical canon are from genres
regarded as the most serious, such as the symphony, concerto, string quartet, and opera. Folk music was already giving art music melodies, and from the late 19th century, in an atmosphere of increasing nationalism,
folk music began to influence composers in formal and other ways,
before being admitted to some sort of status in the canon itself.

Since the early twentieth century non-Western music has begun to influence Western composers. In particular, direct homages to Javanese gamelan music are found in works for western instruments by Claude Debussy, Béla Bartók, Francis Poulenc, Olivier Messiaen, Pierre Boulez, Benjamin Britten, John Cage, Steve Reich, and Philip Glass.[83]
Debussy was immensely interested in non-Western music and its
approaches to composition. Specifically, he was drawn to the Javanese Gamelan,[84]
which he first heard at the 1889 Paris Exposition. He was not
interested in directly quoting his non-Western influences, but instead
allowed this non-Western aesthetic to generally influence his own
musical work, for example, by frequently using quiet, unresolved
dissonances, coupled with the damper pedal, to emulate the “shimmering”
effect created by a gamelan ensemble. American composer Philip Glass was not only influenced by the eminent French composition teacher Nadia Boulanger,[85] but also by the Indian musicians Ravi Shankar and Alla Rakha,
His distinctive style arose from his work with Shankar and Rakha and
their perception of rhythm in Indian music as being entirely additive.[86]

In the latter half of the 20th century the canon expanded to cover the so-called Early music of the pre-classical period, and Baroque music by composers other than Bach and George Frideric Handel. including Antonio Vivaldi, Claudio Monteverdi, Domenico Scarlatti, Alessandro Scarlatti, Henry Purcell, Georg Philipp Telemann, Jean-Baptiste Lully, Jean-Philippe Rameau, Marc-Antoine Charpentier, Arcangelo Corelli, François Couperin, Heinrich Schütz, and Dieterich Buxtehude. Earlier composers, such as Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Orlande de Lassus and William Byrd, have also received more attention in the last hundred years.

The absence of female composers from the canon has been debated in the twentieth century, even though there have been female composers
throughout the classical music period. Marcia J Citron, for example,
has examined “the practices and attitudes that have led to the exclusion
of women [sic] composers from the received ‘canon’ of performed musical
works.”[87] More recently the music of Hildegard von Bingen (1098–1179), a German Benedictine abbess, has been rediscovered, and both the Russian Sofia Gubaidulina (1931– ) and Finnish Kaija Saariaho (1952– ) have achieved international reputations. Saariaho’s opera L’amour de loin has been staged in some of the world’s major opera houses, including The English National Opera (2009)[88] and in 2016 the Metropolitan Opera in New York.

Visual arts

The Capitoline Venus (Capitoline Museums), an Antonine copy of a late Hellenistic sculpture that ultimately derives from Praxiteles

The backbone of traditional Western art history is a celebratory chronology of artworks,
mostly of a luxury nature, commissioned by elite groups in western
Europe for private or public enjoyment, as well as works in drawing and printmaking. Much of this was religious, mostly Roman Catholic, art. The classical art
of Greece and Rome has been regarded since the Renaissance as the fount
of the Western tradition, and has been long regarded as superior to
modern creations in the equivalent fields, in particular sculpture.

Giorgio Vasari (1511–1574) is the great originator of the artistic canon and the originator of many of the concepts it embodies. His Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects covers only artists working in Italy,[89]
with a strong pro-Florentine prejudice, and has cast a long shadow over
succeeding centuries. Northern European art has arguably never quite
caught up to Italy in terms of prestige, and Vasari’s placing of Giotto as the founding father of “modern” painting has largely been retained. In painting, the rather vague term of Old master covers painters up to about the time of Goya.

Such
a “canon” remains prominent, as indicated by the selection of objects
present in art history textbooks, as well as the prices obtained in the art trade. But there have been considerable swings of fortune in what is valued. In the 19th century the Baroque fell into great disfavour, to be revived from about the 1920s, by which time the Academic art of the 18th and 19th century was largely disregarded, and Victorian painting generally, with its equivalents in other countries. The High Renaissance Vasari regarded as the greatest period has always retained its prestige, including works by Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael, but the succeeding period of Mannerism has fallen in and out of favour.

In
the 19th century the beginnings of academic art history, led by German
universities, led to much better understanding and appreciation of medieval art,
and a more nuanced understanding of classical art, including the
realization that many if not most treasured masterpieces of sculpture
were late Roman copies rather than Greek originals. The European
tradition of art was expanded to include Byzantine art and the new discoveries of archaeology, notably Etruscan art, Celtic art and Upper Paleolithic art.

Since
the 20th century there has been an effort to re-define the discipline
to be more inclusive of art made by women; vernacular creativity,
especially in printed media; and an expansion to include works in the
Western tradition produced outside Europe. At the same time there has
been a much greater appreciation of non-Western traditions, including
their place with Western art in wider global or Eurasian traditions. The decorative arts have traditionally had a much lower critical status than fine art,
although often highly valued by collectors, and still tend to be given
little prominence in undergraduate studies or popular coverage on
television and in print.

Women and the artistic canon

Women
were discriminated against in terms of obtaining the training necessary
to be an artist in the mainstream Western traditions. In addition,
since the Renaissance the nude, more often than not female, has had a special position as subject matter. In her 1971 essay, “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?“, Linda Nochlin
analyzes what she sees as the embedded privilege in the predominantly
male Western art world and argues that women’s outsider status allowed
them a unique viewpoint to not only critique women’s position in art,
but to additionally examine the discipline’s underlying assumptions
about gender and ability.[90]
Nochlin’s essay develops the argument that both formal and social
education restricted artistic development to men, preventing women (with
rare exception) from honing their talents and gaining entry into the
art world.[90]

In
the 1970s, feminist art criticism continued this critique of the
institutionalized sexism of art history, art museums, and galleries, and
questioned which genres of art were deemed museum-worthy.[91] This position is articulated by artist Judy Chicago:
“[I]t is crucial to understand that one of the ways in which the
importance of male experience is conveyed is through the art objects
that are exhibited and preserved in our museums. Whereas men experience
presence in our art institutions, women experience primarily absence,
except in images that do not necessarily reflect women’s own sense of
themselves.”[92]

English artist and sculptor Barbara Hepworth DBE (1903 – 1975), whose work exemplifies Modernism, and in particular modern sculpture, is one of the few female artists to achieve international prominence.[93] In 2016 the art of American modernist Georgia O’Keefe has been staged at the Tate Modern, in London, and is then moving in December 2016 to Vienna, Austria, before visiting the Art Gallery of Ontario, Canada in 2017.[94]

Sources containing canonical lists
English literature
International literature
University reading lists
Contemporary anthologies of renaissance literature

The preface to the Blackwell
anthology of Renaissance Literature from 2003 acknowledges the
importance of online access to literary texts on the selection of what
to include, meaning that the selection can be made on basis of
functionality rather than representativity”.[99]
This anthology has made its selection based on three principles. One is
“unabashedly canonical”, meaning that Sidney, Spenser, Marlowe,
Shakespeare, and Jonson have been given the space prospective users
would expect. A second principle is “non-canonical”, giving female
writers such as Anne Askew, Elizabeth Cary, Emilia Lanier, Martha Moulsworth, and Lady Mary Wroth
a representative selection. It also includes texts that may not be
representative of the qualitatively best efforts of Renaissance
literature, but of the quantitatively most numerous texts, such as
homilies and erotica. A third principle has been thematic, so that the
anthology aims to include texts that shed light on issues of special
interest to contemporary scholars.

The Blackwell anthology is
still firmly organised around authors, however. A different strategy has
been observed by The Penguin Book of Renaissance Verse from 1992.[100]
Here the texts are organised according to topic, under the headings The
Public World, Images of Love, Topographies, Friends, Patrons and the
Good Life, Church, State and Belief, Elegy and Epitaph, Translation,
Writer, Language and Public. It is arguable that such an approach is
more suitable for the interested reader than for the student. While the
two anthologies are not directly comparable, since the Blackwell
anthology also includes prose and the Penguin anthology goes up to 1659,
it is telling that while the larger Blackwell anthology contains work
by 48 poets, seven of which are women, the Penguin anthology contains
374 poems by 109 poets, including 13 women and one poet each in Welsh, Siôn Phylip, and Irish, Eochaidh Ó Heóghusa.

German literature
Best German Novels of the Twentieth Century

The Best German Novels of the Twentieth Century is a list of books compiled in 1999 by Literaturhaus München and Bertelsmann, in which 99 prominent German authors, literary critics, and scholars of German ranked the most significant German-language novels of the twentieth century.[101] The group brought together 33 experts from each of the three categories.[102]
Each was allowed to name three books as having been the most important
of the century. Cited by the group were five titles by both Franz Kafka and Arno Schmidt, four by Robert Walser, and three by Thomas Mann, Hermann Broch, Anna Seghers, and Joseph Roth.[101]

Der Kanon or more precisely “Marcel-Reich-Ranickis Kanon” is a large anthology of exemplary works of German literature.[103]

French literature

See Key texts of French literature

Canon of Dutch Literature

The Canon of Dutch Literature comprises a list of 1000 works of Dutch Literature important to the cultural heritage of the Low Countries, and is published on the DBNL.
Several of these works are lists themselves; such as early
dictionaries, lists of songs, recipes, biographies, or encyclopedic
compilations of information such as mathematical, scientific, medical,
or plant reference books. Other items include early translations of
literature from other countries, history books, first-hand diaries, and
published correspondence. Notable original works can be found by author
name.

Scandinavia
Danish Culture Canon

The Danish Culture Canon consists of 108 works of cultural excellence in eight categories: architecture, visual arts, design and crafts, film, literature, music, performing arts, and children’s culture. An initiative of Brian Mikkelsen in 2004, it was developed by a series of committees under the auspices of the Danish Ministry of Culture
in 2006–2007 as “a collection and presentation of the greatest, most
important works of Denmark’s cultural heritage.” Each category contains
12 works, although music contains 12 works of score music and 12 of
popular music, and the literature section’s 12th item is an anthology of
24 works.[104] [105]

Sweden

Världsbiblioteket (The World Library) was a Swedish list of the 100 best books in the world, created in 1991 by the Swedish literary magazine Tidningen Boken. The list was compiled through votes from members of the Svenska Akademien, Swedish Crime Writers’ Academy, librarians, authors, and others. Approximately 30 of the books were Swedish.

Norway
See also
Notes and references
  1. Searle, John. (1990) “The Storm Over the University”, The New York Review of Books, December 6, 1990.
  2. Riches, John (2000). The Bible: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-19-285343-1.
  3. Hicks, Stephen. (2004). Explaining Postmodernism: Skepticism and Socialism from Rousseau to Foucault. Scholargy Press, p. 18.
  4. Bloom, Harold (1994). The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages. New York: Harcourt Brace & Company.
  5. Harold Bloom, The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages, 1994, p. 2
  6. Tucker, Ken (21 October 1994). “Book Review: ‘The Western Canon: The Books and the School of the Ages’; Books”. EW.com. Retrieved 2011-05-01.
  7. [1]
  8. [2]
  9. “radicalacademy.com”. radicalacademy.com. Retrieved 2013-11-09.
  10. Casement, William. “College Great Books Programs”. The Association for Core Texts and Courses (ACTC). Retrieved May 29, 2012.
  11. Jay Stevenson (2007). The Complete Idiot’s Guide to English Literature. Alpha Books. pp. 9–10.
  12. Jefferson Lecturers at NEH Website (retrieved May 25, 2009).
  13. Nadine Drozan, “Chronicle”, The New York Times, May 6, 1992.
  14. Bernard
    Knox, The Oldest Dead White European Males and Other Reflections on the
    Classics (1993) (reprint, W. W. Norton & Company, 1994), ISBN 978-0-393-31233-1.
  15. Christopher Lehmann-Haupt, “Books of The Times; Putting In a Word for Homer, Herodotus, Plato, Etc.”, The New York Times, April 29, 1993.
  16. Gerald J. Russello, The Postmodern Imagination of Russell Kirk (2007) p. 14
  17. Hyrum S. Lewis (2007). Sacralizing
    the Right: William F. Buckley Jr., Whittaker Chambers, Will Herberg and
    the Transformation of Intellectual Conservatism, 1945–1964
    . ProQuest. p. 122.
  18. Allan Bloom (2008), p. 344.
  19. M. Keith Booker (2005). Encyclopedia of Literature and Politics: A–G. Greenwood. pp. 180–81.
  20. Jeffrey Williams, ed. PC wars: Politics and theory in the academy (Routledge, 2013)
  21. Wisegeek.org
  22. Compton, “Infinite Canons: A Few Axioms and Questions, and in Addition, a Proposed Definition. A response to Harold Bloom”
  23. Waller, Gary F. (2013). English Poetry of the Sixteenth Century. London: Routledge. pp. 263–70. ISBN 0582090962. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  24. “English Poetry” James P. Bednarz. Oxford Bibliographies [3]
  25. “Life of Cowley,” in Samuel Johnson’s Lives of the Poets
  26. Gary F. Waller, (2013). English Poetry of the Sixteenth Century. London: Routledge. p. 262
  27. Alvarez, p.11
  28. Brown & Taylor (2004), ODNB
  29. Poetry,
    LII (1939, pp. 258-72, excerpted in Paul. J. Alpers (ed): Elizabethan
    Poetry. Modern Essays in Criticism. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
    1967.
  30. Poetry,
    LII (1939, pp. 258–72, excerpted in Paul. J. Alpers (ed): Elizabethan
    Poetry. Modern Essays in Criticism. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
    1967: 98
  31. Waller, Gary F. (2013). English Poetry of the Sixteenth Century. London: Routledge. pp. 263–70. ISBN 0582090962. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  32. Blain,
    Virginia; Clements, Patricia; Grundy, Isobel (1990). The feminist
    companion to literature in English: women writers from the Middle Ages
    to the present. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. vii–x. ISBN 0-300-04854-8.
  33. Buck, Claire, ed. (1992). The Bloomsbury Guide to Women’s Literature. Prentice Hall. p. vix.
  34. Salzman, Paul (2000). “Introduction”. Early Modern Women’s Writing. Oxford UP. pp. ix–x.
  35. Angela Leighton (1986). Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Indiana University Press. pp. 8–18. ISBN 978-0-253-25451-1. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
  36. Bloom (1999), 9
  37. Ford (1966), 122
  38. “The
    Other Ghost in Beloved: The Specter of the Scarlet Letter” by Jan Stryz
    from The New Romanticism: a collection of critical essays by Eberhard
    Alsen, p. 140, ISBN 0-8153-3547-4.
  39. Quote
    from Marjorie Pryse in “The Other Ghost in Beloved: The Specter of the
    Scarlet Letter” by Jan Stryz, from The New Romanticism: a collection of
    critical essays by Eberhard Alsen, p. 140, ISBN 0-8153-3547-4.
  40. Mason, “African-American Theory and Criticism” (accessed July 6, 2005).
  41. “Yasunari Kawabata - Facts”. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  42. Haim Gordon. “Naguib Mahfouz’s Egypt: Existential Themes in His Writings”. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-04-26.
  43. “Oe, Pamuk: World needs imagination”, Yomiuri.co.jp; May 18, 2008.
  44. Morrison, Donald (2005-02-14). “Holding Up Half the Sky”. Time. Retrieved 2017-08-30.
  45. “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2015-11-18. Retrieved 2015-11-03.
  46. “García Márquez”. Random House Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary.
  47. “The Nobel Prize in Literature 1982″. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  48. https://www.theguardian.com/books/2014/apr/19/gabrielgarciamarquez-colombia
  49. “Vargas Llosa” Archived December 31, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.. Random House Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary.
  50. “Peru’s Mario Vargas Llosa wins Nobel Literature Prize”. London: The Independent. October 7, 2010.
  51. Boland & Harvey 1988, p. 7 and Cevallos 1991, p. 272
  52. “The Nobel Prize in Literature 2010″. Nobelprize. October 7, 2010. Retrieved October 7, 2010.
  53. Aloysius
    Martinich, Fritz Allhoff, Anand Vaidya, Early modern philosophy:
    essential readings with commentary. Oxford : Blackwell, 2007
  54. Duran, Jane. Eight women philosophers: theory, politics, and feminism. University of Illinois Press, 2005.
  55. Hipporeads.com
  56. Nas.org
  57. Salon

Continue Reading…

Content from Wikipedia Licensed under CC-BY-SA.


The Western canon is the body of books , music , and art that scholars
generally accept as the most important and influential in shaping
Western culture . It includes works of fiction , non-fiction , poetry ,
drama , music, art, sculpture, and architecture generally perceived as
being of major artistic merit and representing the high culture of…   More…

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First page of Mus.MS 16481-8 from Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – the
oldest surviving copy of Johann Pachelbel’s “Canon and Gigue in D major”
(first movement popularly known as “Pachelbel’s Canon”). Shows the
first bars of the canon. Canon and Gigue in D Performed and realized on
synthesizers by Jeffrey Hall. Problems playing thi…   More…

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Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of
Western music , including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
While a more precise term is also used to refer to the period from 1750
to 1820 (the Classical period ), this article is about the broad span
of time from before the 6th century AD to the pr…   More…

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In music , a canon is a contrapuntal ( counterpoint -based)
compositional technique that employs a melody with one or more
imitations of the melody played after a given duration (e.g., quarter
rest, one measure, etc.). The initial melody is called the leader (or
dux), while the imitative melody, which is played in a dif…   More…

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“An Order in architecture is a certain assemblage of parts subject to
uniform established proportions, regulated by the office that each part
has to perform”. Coming down to the present from Ancient Greek and
Ancient Roman civilization, the Architectural Orders are the styles of
classical architecture , each distinguished by its pr…   More…

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Canon law is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical
authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian
organization or church and its members. It is the internal
ecclesiastical law, or operational policy, governing the Roman Catholic
Church (both the Latin Church and the Ea…   More…

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Kritios Boy. c. 480 BCE, was the first known statue to use
contrapposto. Contrapposto ( Italian pronunciation:  ) is an Italian
term that means counterpose. It is used in the visual arts to describe a
human figure standing with most of its weight on one foot so that its
shoulders and arms twist off-axis from the hips and legs. This gives the
figure a…   More…

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A classical language is a language with a literature that is classical.
According to UC Berkeley linguist George L. Hart , “it should be
ancient, it should be an independent tradition that arose mostly on its
own, not as an offshoot of another tradition, and it must have a large
and extremely rich body of ancient literature.” Classical languages are
ty…   More…

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Painting depicting a lecture in a knight academy, painted by Pieter
Isaacsz or Reinhold Timm for Rosenborg Castle as part of a series of
seven paintings depicting the seven independent arts. This painting
illustrates rhetoric. Rhetoric is the art of discourse , wherein a
writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade or motivate particular
audiences in…   More…

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Traditional German round.   Play   A round (also called a perpetual
canon [canon perpetuus] or infinite canon ) is a musical composition , a
limited type of canon , in which a minimum of three voices sing exactly
the same melody at the unison (and may continue repeating it
indefinitely), but with each voice beginning at dif…   More…

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Indian classical dance , or Shastriya Nritya , is an umbrella term for
various performance arts rooted in religious Hindu musical theatre
styles, whose theory and practice can be traced to the Sanskrit text
Natya Shastra . The number of recognized classical dances range from
eight to more, depending on the source and sc…   More…

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The ten Attic orators were considered the greatest orators and
logographers of the classical era (5th–4th century BC). They are
included in the “Canon of Ten”, which probably originated in Alexandria.
A.E. Douglas has argued, however, that it was not until the second
century AD that the canon took on the form that is re…   More…

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JerryC ( simplified Chinese : 张逸帆 ; traditional Chinese : 張逸帆 ; pinyin :
Zhāng Yìfān ; born August 31, 1981), also known by his English name
Jerry Chang , is a Taiwanese guitarist and composer . He is known for
arranging and playing “Canon Rock”, a rock arrangement of Johann
Pachelbel ’s Canon in D . He began playing the gu…   More…

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” The Christmas Canon ” is a Christmas song by the Trans-Siberian
Orchestra (TSO) from their 1998 album The Christmas Attic . The song is
set to the tune of Johann Pachelbel ’s Canon in D Major with new lyrics
added. The style is a departure from TSO’s usual rock arrangements,
instead being performed in the style of a ch…   More…

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Jacques-Louis David , Oath of the Horatii , 1784, an icon of
Neoclassicism in painting Classicism , in the arts , refers generally to
a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the
Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists
seek to emulate. The art of classicism typically seeks to be for…   More…

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Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the
Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman
Republic and the Roman Empire . In some later periods, it was regarded
as “good” Latin, with later versions being viewed as debased or corrupt.
The word Latin is now taken by default as m…   More…

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Bust of Homer , the ancient Greek epic poet Classics or classical
studies is the study of classical antiquity . It encompasses the study
of the Greco-Roman world , particularly of its languages and literature
(Ancient Greek and Classical Latin) but also of Greco-Roman philosophy,
history, and archaeology. Traditionally in the West , the st…   More…

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The Pāli Canon ( Pali : Tipitaka, Sanskrit : IAST : Tripiṭaka ) is the
standard collection of scriptures in the Theravadan Buddhist tradition,
as preserved in the Pāli language . It is the first known and
most-complete extant early Buddhist canon. It was composed in North
India and was preserved orally until it was committed to wr…   More…

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Classical architecture usually denotes architecture which is more or
less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Roman
architecture of classical antiquity , or sometimes even more
specifically, from the works of Vitruvius . Different styles of
classical architecture have arguably existed since the Carolingian Re…
  More…

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Professional ratings Review scores Source Rating Allmusic The 50
Greatest Pieces of Classical Music is a selection of classical works
recorded by the London Philharmonic Orchestra with conductor David Parry
. Recorded at Abbey Road Studios , Royal Festival Hall and Henry Wood
Hall in London, the album was released in digital formats in N…   More…

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Music is found in every known culture, past and present, varying widely
between times and places. Since all people of the world, including the
most isolated tribal groups, have a form of music, it may be concluded
that music is likely to have been present in the ancestral population
prior to the dispersal of humans around the world. C…   More…

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Hindustani classical music is the traditional music of northern areas
of the Indian subcontinent, including the modern states of India, Nepal,
Bangladesh and Pakistan. It may also be called North Indian classical
music or Shāstriya Sangīt. Its origins date from the 12th century CE ,
when it diverged from Carnatic m…   More…

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Douglas James Wilson (born 18 June 1953) is a conservative Reformed and
evangelical theologian , pastor at Christ Church in Moscow, Idaho ,
faculty member at New Saint Andrews College , and prolific author and
speaker. Wilson is well known for his controversial work Southern
Slavery, As It Was, which he coauthored wi…   More…

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The Tanakh ( ; Hebrew : תַּנַ”ךְ ‬, pronounced  or ; also Tenakh,
Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible , is the canonical
collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the
Christian Old Testament . These texts are composed mainly in Biblical
Hebrew , with some passages in Biblical Aramaic (in the books of Daniel ,
Ezra and a fe…   More…

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The Canon of Medicine ( Arabic : القانون في الطب ‎ al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb)
is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian
philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025. It presents an
overview of the contemporary medical knowledge, which had been largely
influenced by Galen . The Canon of M…   More…

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The Canon of Kings was a dated list of kings used by ancient
astronomers as a convenient means to date astronomical phenomena, such
as eclipses . The Canon was preserved by the astronomer Claudius Ptolemy
, and is thus known sometimes as Ptolemy’s Canon . It is one of the
most important bases for our kn…   More…

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Canon is a 1964 National Film Board of Canada animated short
co-directed by Norman McLaren and Grant Munro that offers a visual
representation of the canon musical form through three animated
segments. The soundtrack combines both a recorded classical score by
Eldon Rathburn and electronic sounds pr…   More…

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In music, a coda ( Italian for “tail”, plural code) is a passage that
brings a piece (or a movement ) to an end. Technically, it is an
expanded cadence . It may be as simple as a few measures , or as complex
as an entire section . Coda (It.) (1) The tail of a note. (2) The bars
occasionally added to a contrapuntal movement after the close or fin…  
More…

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The London Canon Tables (British Library, Add. MS 5111) is a Byzantine
illuminated Gospel Book fragment on vellum from the sixth or seventh
century. It was possibly made in Constantinople . The fragment consists
of two folios of two illuminated canon tables – of unusual construction –
set beneath an or…   More…

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The Wisdom of Solomon or Book of Wisdom is a Jewish work composed in
Alexandria (Egypt) around the 1st century AD with the aim of bolstering
the faith of the Jewish community in a hostile Greek world. It is one
of the seven Sapiential or wisdom books included within the Septuagint ,
along with Psalms , Pr…   More…

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Classical sculpture refers loosely to the forms of sculpture from
Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome , as well as the Hellenized and
Romanized civilizations under their rule or influence from about 500 BC
to around 200 AD. More precisely it refers to Ancient Greek sculpture
from around 500 BC to the onset of the H…   More…

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Dispositio is the system used for the organization of arguments in
Western classical rhetoric . The word is Latin , and can be translated
as “organization” or “arrangement”. It is the second of five canons of
classical rhetoric (the first being inventio , and the remaining being
elocutio , memoria , and pronuntiatio ) th…   More…

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Antonio Canova ’s Psyche Revived by Love’s Kiss Henry Fuseli , The
artist moved to despair at the grandeur of antique fragments, 1778–79
Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos, “new” and Latin classicus, “of the
highest rank”) is the name given to Western movements in the decorative
and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and ar…   More…

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The Other Canon Foundation is a center and network for research of
heterodox economics founded by Erik Reinert . The name refers to the
founders’ message of there being another economic canon, alternative to
the ruling neoclassical economics . Their suggestions, they claim, are
valid for and can be applicated in the fir…   More…

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Biblical languages are any of the languages employed in the original
writings of the Bible . Partially owing to the significance of the Bible
in society, Biblical languages are studied more widely than many other
dead languages . Furthermore, some debates exist as to which language is
the original language of a particular pa…   More…

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The Ruzang or Confucian Canon ( Chinese : 儒藏 ) is an ongoing project to
compile all known classical works on Confucianism , comparable to the
Daozang (Taoist Canon) and the Chinese Buddhist Canon . It also includes
Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese Confucian classics. The project, which
involves 400 scholars, was led by…   More…

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UNC course catalog from June, 1819 Seal of the University of
Pennsylvania from 1894 The Classical education movement advocates a form
of education purportedly based in the traditions of Western culture ,
with a particular focus on education as understood and taught in
Classical antiquity and the Middle Ages . The cu…   More…

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Non nobis is the incipit and conventional title of a short Latin
Christian hymn used as a prayer of thanksgiving and expression of
humility. The Latin text is from the Vulgate translation of the Book of
Psalms , Psalm 113:9 in Vulgate numbering ( Psalm 115 :1 in Greek/Hebrew
numbering): Nōn nōbīs, Domine, nōn nōbīs, sed nō…   More…

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The Vitruvian Man ( Italian : Le proporzioni del corpo umano secondo
Vitruvio , which is translated to “The proportions of the human body
according to Vitruvius”), or simply L’Uomo Vitruviano ( Italian
pronunciation:  ), is a drawing by Leonardo da Vinci around 1490. It is
accompanied by notes based on the work of the ar…   More…

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The canon of the New Testament is the set of books Christians regard as
divinely inspired and constituting the New Testament of the Christian
Bible . For most, it is an agreed-upon list of twenty-seven books that
includes the Canonical Gospels , Acts , letters of the Apostles , and
Revelation . The books of the canon of the New Te…   More…

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Program music or programme music is a type of art music that attempts
to musically render an extra-musical narrative . The narrative itself
might be offered to the audience in the form of program notes , inviting
imaginative correlations with the music. A classic example is Hector
Berlioz ’s Symphonie fantastique , w…   More…

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” Leck mir den Arsch fein recht schön sauber ” (”Lick my ass right well
and clean”) is a canon for three voices in B-flat major , K. 233/382d ,
long thought to have been composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart during
1782 in Vienna, but now thought to be the work of Wenzel Trnka .
Authenticity In 1988, Wolfgang Plath presented ev…   More…

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Literature , in its broadest sense, is any single body of written works
. More restrictively, literature is writing considered to be an art
form, or any single writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual
value, often due to deploying language in ways that differ from ordinary
usage. Its Latin root literatura/litteratura (derived its…   More…

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In music , a standard is a musical composition of established
popularity, considered part of the “standard repertoire” of one or
several genres . Even though the standard repertoire of a given genre
consists of a dynamic and partly subjective set of songs, these can be
identified by having been performed or recorded by a va…   More…

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Polykleitos’ Doryphoros , an early example of classical contrapposto
Polykleitos was an ancient Greek sculptor in bronze of the 5th century
BCE. His Greek name was traditionally Latinized Polycletus, but is also
transliterated Polycleitus ( Ancient Greek : Πολύκλειτος , Classical
Greek Greek pronunciation:  , “m…   More…

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The Fourth Council of the Lateran was convoked by Pope Innocent III
with the papal bull Vineam domini Sabaoth of 19 April 1213, and the
Council gathered at Rome’s Lateran Palace beginning 11 November 1215.
Due to the great length of time between the Council’s convocation and
meeting, many bishops had the op…   More…

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The Apostolic Fathers were Christian theologians who lived in the 1st
and 2nd centuries AD, who are believed to have personally known some of
the Twelve Apostles , or to have been significantly influenced by them.
Their writings, though popular in Early Christianity , were ultimately
not included in the canon of the New Te…   More…

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Theravāda ( Pali , literally “school of the elder monks “) is a branch
of Buddhism that uses the Buddha’s teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon
as its doctrinal core. The Pali canon is the only complete Buddhist
canon which survives in a classical Indic Language , Pali , which serves
as the sacred language and lingua franca of Th…   More…

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This is a list of musical forms and genres organized according to the
eras of Classical music . The form of a musical composition refers to
the general outline of the composition, based on the sections that
comprise it or on specific details that are unique to a certain type of
composition. For example, a rondo is ba…   More…

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Western law refers to the legal traditions of Western culture . Western
culture has an idea of the importance of law which has its roots in
both Roman law and canon law . As Western culture has a Graeco-Roman
Classical and Renaissance cultural influence, so does its legal systems.
History The rediscovery of th…   More…

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Evolution of the Taishō Tripiṭaka from previous editions of the Chinese
Buddhist canon The Chinese Buddhist Canon refers to the total body of
Buddhist literature deemed canonical in Chinese , Japanese , Korean ,
and Vietnamese Buddhism . The traditional term for the canon ( Chinese :
大藏經 Dàzàngjīng ; Japanese : 大蔵経 Da…   More…

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Legal history or the history of law is the study of how law has evolved
and why it changed. Legal history is closely connected to the
development of civilisations and is set in the wider context of social
history . Among certain jurists and historians of legal process, it has
been seen as the recording of the evolution of la…   More…

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Look up kanon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Kanon may refer to:
Buddhism and philosophy Kanon, a Japanese name for Guanyin , an East
Asian bodhisattva and spiritual figure associated with mercy and
compassion Kanon, or canon , basic rules in classical Greek philosophy
Linguistics Kan-on ( 漢音 , literally “Han sound”) : one of th…   More…

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Jacob Peeling the Rods by Guido Cagnacci , Royal Collection Trust,
circa 1665 Polygamy (from Late Greek πολυγαμία , polygamía, “state of
marriage to many spouses”) is the practice of marrying multiple
spouses. When a man is married to more than one wife at a time,
sociologists call this polygyny . When a woman is married to m…   More…

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In the history of canon law , a decretist was student and interpreter
of the Decretum Gratiani . Like Gratian , the decretists sought to
provide “a harmony of discordant canons” (concordia discordantium
canonum), and they worked towards this through glosses (glossae) and
summaries (summae) on Gratian. They are co…   More…

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Head of Doryphoros excavated at the Villa of the Papyri . The
Doryphoros ( Greek Δορυφόρος Classical Greek Greek pronunciation:  ,
“Spear-Bearer”; Latinised as Doryphorus) of Polykleitos is one of the
best known Greek sculptures of classical antiquity , depicting a
solidly-built, well-muscled standing warrior, ori…   More…

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The Musical Offering (German title: Musikalisches Opfer or Das
Musikalische Opfer), BWV 1079, is a collection of keyboard canons and
fugues and other pieces of music by Johann Sebastian Bach , all based on
a single musical theme given to him by Frederick the Great (Frederick
II of Prussia), to whom they are dedicated. The Ricercar a 6, a six…  
More…

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First edition Stories in an Almost Classical Mode is a short story
collection by the American writer Harold Brodkey , published in 1988 by
Alfred A. Knopf . Most of the stories were published in The New Yorker ,
between 1963 and 1988. It was Brodkey’s first book in 30 years, and
presaged his much-he…   More…

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WTWP Classical Talkity-Talk Radio was released in 1991 by Telarc
Records . The album contains the “last hour of the broadcast from
station WTWP in Hoople on May 5, 1991, the 184th anniversary of the
death of P. D. Q. Bach .” The station name WTWP means “Wall to Wall
Pachelbel ” in which some unusual instruments play his Canon in D .
Pe…   More…

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The 1917 Code of Canon Law , also referred to as the Pio-Benedictine
Code , was the first official comprehensive codification of Latin canon
law . It was promulgated on 27 May 1917 and took legal effect on 19 May
1918. It was in force until the 1983 Code of Canon Law took legal
effect and abrogated it on 27 November 1983. It has been described as
“th…   More…

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The frontispiece of a Jawi edition of the Malay Annals Classical Malay
literature , also known as traditional Malay literature , refers to the
Malay-language literature from the Malay world , consisting of areas now
part of Brunei , Malaysia , and Indonesia ; works from countries such
as the Philippines and Sri Lanka have al…   More…

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Chinese classic texts or canonical texts ( simplified Chinese : 中国 古典
典籍 ; traditional Chinese : 中國 古典 典籍 ; pinyin : Zhōngguó gǔdiǎn diǎnjí )
refers to the Chinese texts which originated before the imperial
unification by the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, particularly the ” Four Books
and Five Classics ” of the Neo-Confucian tra…   More…

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In Catholic canon law , affinity is an impediment to marriage of a
couple due to the relationship which either party has as a result of a
kinship relationship created by another marriage or as a result of
extramarital intercourse. The relationships that give rise to the
impediment have varied over time. Marriages and sexual rel…   More…

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The Danish Culture Canon ( Danish : Kulturkanonen ) consists of 108
works of cultural excellence in eight categories: architecture , visual
arts , design and crafts , film , literature , music , performing arts ,
and children’s culture . An initiative of Brian Mikkelsen in 2004, it
was developed by a series of committees un…   More…

Add Note


Under the portico of the Pantheon in Rome Temple diagram with location
of the pronaos highlighted Portico close to piazza Santo Stefano,
Bologna A portico (from Italian ) is a porch leading to the entrance of a
building, or extended as a colonnade , with a roof structure over a
walkway, supported by columns or en…   More…

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The Gāyatrī Mantra , also known as the Sāvitrī mantra , is a highly
revered mantra from the Rig Veda ( Mandala 3 .62.10), dedicated to
Savitr , a form of the sun. Gāyatrī is the name of the Vedic meter in
which the verse is composed. Its recitation is traditionally preceded
by oṃ and the formula bhūr bhuvaḥ svaḥ , known as the m…   More…

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The Rape of Philomela by Tereus, engraved by Virgil Solis for a 1562
edition of Ovid’s Metamorphoses (Book VI, 519–562). Philomela ( ) or
Philomel ( ; Greek : Φιλομήλη , Philomēlē) is a minor figure in Greek
mythology and is frequently invoked as a direct and figurative symbol in
literary, artistic, and musical works in the Western canon . Sh…   More…

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The Catholic Church , also known as the Roman Catholic Church , is the
largest Christian church , with more than 1.29 billion members
worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it
has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western
civilisation . Headed by the Bishop of Ro…   More…

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The oldest surviving manuscript of a text composed in Sanskrit, in an
early Bhujimol script. The Devi Māhātmya on Palm-leaf, Bihar or Nepal ,
11th century. Vedic and Sanskrit literature comprises the spoken or sung
literature of the Vedas from the early-to-mid 2nd to mid 1st millennium
BCE, and continues with the oral tra…   More…

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Elizabeth I Armada Portrait British School Elizabethan literature
refers to bodies of work produced during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I
(1558–1603), and is one of the most splendid ages of English literature .
Elizabeth I presided over a vigorous culture that saw notable
accomplishments in the arts, voyages of di…   More…

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Middle French ( French : moyen français ) is a historical division of
the French language that covers the period from the 14th to the early
17th centuries. It is a period of transition during which: the French
language became clearly distinguished from the other competing Oïl
languages , which are sometimes subsumed within th…   More…

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Tallis’ Canon Tallis’ Canon, originally a setting for Psalm 67 .
Problems playing this file? See media help . In 1567 English composer
Thomas Tallis contributed nine tunes for Archbishop Parker’s Psalter , a
collection of vernacular psalm settings intended for publication in a
metrical psalter then being compiled for the se…   More…

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Composers of the Baroque era, ordered by date of birth: Brief timeline
Transition from Renaissance to Baroque (born 1500–49) Composers in the
Renaissance/Baroque transitional era include the following (listed by
their date of birth): Philippe de Monte (1521–1603) Baldassare Donato
(1525/1530–1603) Costanzo Porta (1529–1601) Jiří Ry…   More…

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna , IPA:  ) is a classical language belonging
to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin
alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and
ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin was originally spoken in
Latium , in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of…   More…

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Ancient Greek in classical antiquity , before the development of the
κοινή (koiné) “common” language of Hellenism , was divided into several
dialects . Most of them are known only from inscriptions, but a few of
them, principally Aeolic , Doric , and Ionic , are also represented in
the literary canon alongside the do…   More…

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Newton’s reflector , the first reflecting telescope The history of
science is the study of the development of science and scientific
knowledge, including both the natural sciences and social sciences .
(The history of the arts and humanities is termed the history of
scholarship .) Science is a body of e…   More…

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Before the decipherment of cuneiform text, knowledge of the history of
the ancient Mesopotamia was mostly dependent upon classical authorities
and the Hebrew Bible . These testimonies were scanty and confused for
times predating the 7th century BCE. Had the native history of Berossus
survived, this may not have been the case; all th…   More…

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Inventio , one of the five canons of rhetoric, is the method used for
the discovery of arguments in Western rhetoric and comes from the Latin
word, meaning “invention” or “discovery”. Inventio is the central,
indispensable canon of rhetoric, and traditionally means a systematic
search for arguments . A speaker us…   More…

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The University of Santo Tomas Faculties of Ecclesiastical Studies (also
known as UST Ecclesiastical Faculties and UST-Eccle ) are the
ecclesiastical schools of the University of Santo Tomas , the oldest and
the largest Catholic university in Manila , Philippines. Ecclesiastical
Faculties consist of academic programs being off…   More…

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The history of zoophilia and bestiality begins in the prehistoric era ,
where depictions of humans and animals in a sexual context appear
infrequently in European rock art . Bestiality remained a theme in
mythology and folklore through the classical period and into the Middle
Ages (e.g. the Greek myth of Leda and th…   More…

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Piano Tiles 2 is a music arcade game, created by Hu Wen Zeng. It is
published by the Entertainment department of Cheetah Mobile . The game’s
aim is to tap the black tiles without making any mistakes. It was
published in August 2015 as the sequel of Piano Tiles . First level of a
game in Piano Tiles 2, Little Star . Reception Piano Tiles 2 is hi…  
More…

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Saint Genevieve (French: Sainte Geneviève ; Latin : Sancta Genovefa,
Genoveva ; from Gaullish geno “race, lineage” and uida “sage”) (
Nanterre , c. 419/422 AD – Paris 502/512 AD), is the patron saint of
Paris in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions. Her feast
day is kept on January the 3rd. She was born in Nanterre and m…   More…

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Look up jcb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. JCB may refer to:
Companies JCB (company) , a British manufacturer of heavy industrial and
agricultural vehicles By extension, slang for any backhoe
digger/excavator in Britain and Europe JCB Co., Ltd. , originally Japan
Credit Bureau, a credit card company based in To…   More…

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Alexander Tzonis Alexander Tzonis ( Greek : Αλέξανδρος Τζώνης ; born
November 8, 1937) is a Greek born architect, researcher and author. He
has made contributions to architectural theory, history, and design
cognition bringing together scientific and humanistic approaches in a
rare synthesis. Since 1975 he has be…   More…

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Canon Slade School is a Church of England secondary school in Bradshaw
in the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton , Greater Manchester , England.
History Bolton Church Institute, St Peter’s Church in the background The
school was founded in 1855 by Canon James Slade as Bolton Church
Institute , aimed at ed…   More…

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Moby-Dick by Herman Melville , an example of a “classic book” A classic
is a book accepted as being exemplary or noteworthy, for example
through an imprimatur such as being listed in a list of great books , or
through a reader’s personal opinion. Although the term is often
associated with the Western canon , it can be ap…   More…

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The New Testament ( Greek : Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη , Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Latin :
Novum Testamentum ) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon ,
the first part being the Old Testament , based on the Hebrew Bible .
The New Testament discusses the teachings and person of Jesus , as well
as events in first-century Ch…   More…

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A digitized copy of the Su Wen of the Huangdi Neijing for online
reading Huangdi Neijing ( simplified Chinese : 黄帝内经 ; traditional
Chinese : 黃帝內經 ; pinyin : Huángdì Nèijīng ), literally the Inner Canon
of the Yellow Emperor or Esoteric Scripture of the Yellow Emperor , is
an ancient Chinese medical text that has been treated as the fu…   More…

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The Piano Guys are an American musical group consisting of pianist Jon
Schmidt , cellist Steven Sharp Nelson , videographer Paul Anderson, and
music producer Al van der Beek. They gained popularity through YouTube ,
where in 2010 they began posting piano and cello compositions combining
cl…   More…

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A string, tied at A, is kept in tension by W, a suspended weight, and
two bridges, B and the movable bridge C, while D is a freely moving
wheel , density may be tested by using different strings A monochord ,
also known as sonometer (see below ), is an ancient musical and
scientific laboratory instrument , involving one (m…   More…

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Ming Dynasty painting by Chen Hongshou showing a scholar-gentleman
(literati) with a guqin The Parthenon in Athens High culture encompasses
the cultural products of aesthetic value, which a society collectively
esteem as exemplary art . It may also include intellectual works
considered to be of supreme philosophical, hi…   More…

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Gustave Doré ’s illustration of La Fontaine’s fable, c.1868 “Belling
the Cat” is a fable also known under the titles “The Bell and the Cat”
and “The Mice in Council” . Although often attributed to Aesop , it was
not recorded before the Middle Ages and has been confused with the quite
different fable of Classical origin titled The Cat and the Mi…   More…

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The importance of music in Taoist ceremony is demonstrated by revealing
how central beliefs are reflected through elements of music such as
harmony, instrumentation and rhythm. The ritual celebrating the birth of
Guanyin was observed at the Evergreen Taoist Church of Australia ,
Deagon to identify structure, role of pa…   More…

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Ecclesiastical Latin , also called Liturgical Latin or Church Latin ,
is the form of Latin that is used in the Roman and the other Latin rites
of the Catholic Church , as well as in the Anglican Churches , Lutheran
Churches , Methodist Churches , and the Western Rite of the Eastern
Orthodox Church , for liturgical purposes. It is di…   More…

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Greek ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, “Greek”, ελληνική γλώσσα  (
  listen ) , ellinikí glóssa, “Greek language”) is an independent
branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and
other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented
history of any living Indo-European la…   More…

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Marcionism was an Early Christian dualist belief system that originated
in the teachings of Marcion of Sinope at Rome around the year 144.
Marcion believed Jesus was the savior sent by God , and Paul the Apostle
was his chief apostle , but he rejected the Hebrew Bible and the God of
Israel . Marcionists believed that the wr…   More…

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Joannes or John Zonaras ( Greek : Ἰωάννης Ζωναρᾶς , Iōánnēs Zōnarâs;
fl.  12th century) was a Byzantine chronicler and theologian who lived
in Constantinople . Under Emperor Alexios I Komnenos he held the offices
of head justice and private secretary ( protasēkrētis ) to the emperor,
but after Alexios’ death, he ret…   More…

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Dance in India comprises numerous styles of dances , generally
classified as classical or folk. As with other aspects of Indian
culture , different forms of dances originated in different parts of
India, developed according to the local traditions and also imbibed
elements from other parts of the country. Sangeet Natak Akademi , the
na…   More…

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Standing Buddha statue at the Tokyo National Museum . One of the
earliest known representations of the Buddha , 1st–2nd century CE.
Buddhism ( or ) is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of
traditions , beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original
teachings attributed to the Buddha and re…   More…

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BanYa (반야), sometimes spelled BANYA or Banya , is South Korean Andamiro
’s musical group responsible for creating original songs for Pump It Up
. The style of its music varies greatly, from hip hop to electronic ,
from rock to classical crossovers . Classical remixes are among Banya’s
most popular productions. Several so…   More…

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The music of Iraq or Iraqi music , ( Arabic : موسيقى عراقية ‎), also
known as the Music of Mesopotamia encompasses the music of a number of
ethnic groups and musical genres. Ethnically, it includes Arabic music ,
Assyrian , Kurdish and the music of Turkmen , among others. Apart from
the traditional music of th…   More…

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The most notable reference to a group of seven Archangels appears to
have been borrowed from the Jewish Pseudepigrapha , namely the 250 BC
Book of the Watchers, which at some point was merged with some other
books in what is known today as 1 Enoch (the Book of Enoch), and was
made part of the Ethiopian Ch…   More…

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A classic is an outstanding example of a particular style; something of
lasting worth or with a timeless quality; of the first or highest
quality , class, or rank – something that exemplifies its class . The
word can be an adjective (a classic car) or a noun (a classic of English
literature). It denotes a particular quality in art, architecture,
lit…   More…

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In the medieval Roman Catholic church there were several Councils of
Tours , that city being an old seat of Christianity, and considered
fairly centrally located in France. Athenius , Bishop of Rennes , took
part in the First Council of Tours in AD 461. The last to sign the
canons was Mansuetus, episcopus Brittanorum (”bishop of the Bri…   More…

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Lesbos ( , US : ; Greek : Λέσβος Lesvos , pronounced  ), sometimes
referred to as Mytilini after its capital , is a Greek island located in
the northeastern Aegean Sea . It has an area of 1,633 km (631 sq mi)
with 320 kilometres (199 miles) of coastline , making it the third
largest island in Greece . It is separated from Turkey by the na…   More…

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Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical
sources; it is a combination of literary criticism , history , and
linguistics . It is more commonly defined as the study of literary
texts as well as oral and written records, the establishment of their
authenticity and their original form, an…   More…

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Rayonnant rose window in Notre Dame de Paris . In Gothic architecture ,
light was considered the most beautiful revelation of God . Beauty is a
characteristic of an animal, idea , object , person or place that
provides a perceptual experience of pleasure or satisfaction . Beauty is
studied as part of aesthetics , culture , social ps…   More…

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Traditional Chinese medicine ( TCM ; simplified Chinese : 中医 ;
traditional Chinese : 中醫 ; pinyin : Zhōngyī ) is a style of traditional
medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese
medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine ,
acupuncture , massage (tui na) , exercise (qigong) , and dietary th…  
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Pseudepigrapha (also anglicized as “pseudepigraph” or “pseudepigraphs”)
are falsely-attributed works, texts whose claimed author is not the
true author, or a work whose real author attributed it to a figure of
the past. Pseudepigraphy covers the false ascription of names of
authors to works, even to authentic works that make no su…   More…

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The Romantic revival in serious music arose in the 1960s after decades
of relatively conservative and traditional offerings by the world’s
concert presenting organizations and record companies. After World War
II there was an over-emphasis on the canon of standard “great
masterpieces”, co-existing with disdain for any m…   More…

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The following is a list of the casualties count in battles in world
history . The list includes both sieges (not technically battles but
usually yielding similar combat-related deaths) and civilian casualties
during the battles. Large battle casualty counts are almost impossible
to calculate precisely. Many of these figures are es…   More…

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Antiquities of the Jews ( Greek : Ἰουδαϊκὴ ἀρχαιολογία , Ioudaikē
archaiologia; Latin : Antiquitates Judaicae ), also Judean Antiquities
(see Ioudaios ), is a 20-volume historiographical work composed by the
Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in the 13th year of the reign of Roman
emperor Flavius Domitian which was ar…   More…

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The pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of the
civilization of ancient Egypt. Ancient Egypt was a civilization of
ancient Northeastern Africa , concentrated along the lower reaches of
the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt . It is one of
six historic civilizations to arise independently. Eg…   More…

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Bach: The Goldberg Variations is the 1955 debut album of Canadian
classical pianist Glenn Gould . An interpretation of Johann Sebastian
Bach’s Goldberg Variations ( BWV 988), the work launched Gould’s career
as a renowned international pianist, and became one of the most
well-known piano recordings. Sales w…   More…

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Cincinnati Shakespeare Company is a professional ensemble theater
located in downtown Cincinnati focusing on Shakespearean and other
classical works. History Cincinnati Shakespeare Company originally was
incorporated under the name Fahrenheit Theatre Company. Beginning with a
small grant in 19…   More…

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James Scholefield (15 November 1789 – 4 April 1853), English classical
scholar, was born at Henley-on-Thames . He was educated at Christ’s
Hospital and Trinity College, Cambridge , and was in 1825 appointed
professor of Greek in the university. He was for some time curate to
Charles Simeon , the evangelical ch…   More…

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The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam ,
traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during
which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various
caliphates , and science , economic development and cultural works
flourished. This period is traditionally understood to ha…   More…

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OBE ribbon Katherine Maria Jenkins OBE (born 29 June 1980) is a Welsh
lyric mezzo-soprano singer and songwriter. She is a classical-crossover
singer who performs across a spectrum of operatic arias, popular
songs, musical theatre and hymns. After winning singing competitions in
her youth, Jenkins st…   More…

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Crossover is a term applied to musical works or performers who appeal
to different types of audience, for example (especially in the United
States) by appearing on two or more of the record charts which track
differing musical styles or genres . If the second chart combines
genres, such as a ” Hot 100 ” list, the w…   More…

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St Paul’s illuminated, with the Millennium Bridge in the foreground St
Paul’s Cathedral , London, is an Anglican cathedral , the seat of the
Bishop of London and the mother church of the Diocese of London . It
sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London and is a
Grade I listed building . Its dedication to Paul the Apostle dates
ba…   More…

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The Five Ws (sometimes referred to as Five Ws and How , 5W1H , or Six
Ws ) are questions whose answers are considered basic in information
gathering or problem solving. They are often mentioned in journalism
(cf. news style ), research , and police investigations . They
constitute a formula for getting the complete story on a…   More…

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Memoria refers to one of five canons in classical rhetoric. Memoria or
Memorias (Spanish), or Memórias (Portuguese) may also refer to: Latin
texts and ritual Medieval memoria, a complex of liturgical and social
acts connecting the living and the dead Memoria Apostolorum , a lost
texts of the New Testament apocrypha In M…   More…

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St. Jerome , who lived as a hermit near Bethlehem , depicted in his
study being visited by two angels ( Cavarozzi , early 17th century). A
hermit ( adjectival form : eremitic or hermitic ) is a person who lives
in seclusion from society, usually for religious reasons. Description In
Christianity , the term was originally applied to a Ch…   More…

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Richard H. Helmholz ( R.H. Helmholz ) is the Ruth Wyatt Rosenson
Distinguished Service Professor of Law at the University of Chicago Law
School , where he is indifferent to the students who refer to him as
“the Hammer.” He received his LL.B. from Harvard Law School in 1965 and
also earned an A.B. in French lit…   More…

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Enoch ( ; Hebrew : חֲנוֹךְ ‬ , Modern   H̱anokh Tiberian   Ḥănōḵ ;
Arabic : أَخْنُوخ ‎ ʼAkhnūkh , [commonly in Qur’ānic literature]:
إِدْرِيس ʼIdrīs ) is a historical figure in Biblical literature. “In the
seventh generation from Adam,” he was considered the author of the
Book of Enoch and also called Enoch the scribe of judgment. In addition
to an ap…   More…

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In music , an ostinato (derived from Italian: stubborn, compare
English, from Latin: ‘obstinate’) is a motif or phrase that persistently
repeats in the same musical voice , frequently at the same pitch.
Well-known ostinato-based pieces include both classical compositions
such as Ravel ’s Boléro and popular songs such as Donna Summer and Gi…
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Roger Marbeck (1536–1605), son of organist John Marbeck , was a noted
classical scholar , was appointed public orator in the University of
Oxford in 1564, and in 1565 became a canon of Christ Church and was
elected Provost of Oriel College ; he left Oxford on account of an
unfortunate marriage, and took to medicine as a profession, be…   More…

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The following list contains a selection from the Latin abbreviations
that occur in the writings and inscriptions of the Romans . A A. —
Absolvo, Actum, Aedilis, Aes, Aedilis, Ager, Ago, Aio, Amicus, Annus,
Antiquo, Auctor, Auditor, Augustus, Aulus, Aurum, Aut. A.A. — Aes
alienum, Ante audita, Apud agrum, Aurum argentum. AA. — Au…   More…

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The Discophoros , also spelled Discophorus , (Greek - ” Discus
-Bearer”) was a bronze sculpture by the classical Greek sculptor
Polyclitus , creator of the Doryphoros and Diadumenos , and its many
Roman marble copies. (It is not, however, to be confused with Discobolus
of Myron , which shows a discus being thrown, not ca…   More…

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Professional ratings Review scores Source Rating AllMusic Place to Be
is a solo album by jazz pianist Hiromi Uehara . The album features eight
original compositions plus two covers which are intended to musically
describe Hiromi’s travels around the world. Music Although most of the
album is played in a post-bop style, it has cl…   More…

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A one-hit wonder is any entity that achieves mainstream popularity and
success for a very short period of time, often for only one piece of
work, and becomes known among the general public solely for that
momentary success. The term is most commonly used in regard to music
performers with only one to…   More…

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The Taishō Tripiṭaka ( Chinese : 大正新脩大藏經 ; pinyin : Dàzhèng Xīnxīu
Dàzàngjīng ; Japanese : Taishō Shinshū Daizōkyō; English : Taishō
Revised Tripiṭaka) is a definitive edition of the Chinese Buddhist
canon and its Japanese commentaries used by scholars in the 20th
century. It was edited by Takakusu Ju…   More…

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The Shakespeare Theatre Company is a regional theatre company located
in Washington, D.C. The theatre company focuses primarily on plays from
the Shakespeare canon, but its seasons include works by other classic
playwrights such as Euripides , Ibsen , Wilde , Shaw , Schiller , Coward
and Tennessee Williams . The co…   More…

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George Stubbs Cheetah with Two Indian Attendants and a Stag Boar
hunting , Tacuinum Sanitatis (a medieval handbook on health and
wellbeing; 14th century) Mughal aristocrats hunting a blackbuck
alongside an Asiatic cheetah A 19th-century Maratha hunting party from
India Velázquez ’s portrait of the Ca…   More…

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Emilie Autumn Liddell (born on September 22, 1979), better known by her
stage name Emilie Autumn , is an American singer-songwriter, poet,
violinist, and actress. Autumn’s musical style has been described by her
as “Fairy Pop”, “Fantasy Rock” or “Victoriandustrial”. It is influenced
by glam rock and from pl…   More…

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Christendom has several meanings. In a contemporary sense, it may refer
to the worldwide community of Christians , the adherents of
Christianity , the Christian-majority countries , the countries in which
Christianity dominates, or the nations in which Christianity is the
established religion. It is also used as sy…   More…

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The Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali are 196 Indian sutras ( aphorisms ). The
Yoga Sutras were compiled prior to 400 CE by Sage Patanjali , taking
materials about yoga from older traditions. The Yoga Sūtras of
Patañjali was the most translated ancient Indian text in the medieval
era, having been translated into about forty Indian la…   More…

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Holmwood House in Redditch , Worcestershire , is a country house built
for Canon Horace Newton of Glencripesdale Estate and Barrells Hall in
1893 by the famed Victorian architect Temple Lushington Moore , who was a
vague relative of the Newton family. Rev Canon Newton was brother of
Goodwin Newton of Barrells Hall , w…   More…

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Christ Church is a Reformed and evangelical church in Moscow , Idaho ,
pastored by Douglas Wilson , and a member of the Communion of Reformed
Evangelical Churches . The congregation is known for a conservative
religious ideology and a number of institutional projects, including a
publishing operation ( Canon Pr…   More…

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The Ten Commandments on a monument on the grounds of the Texas State
Capitol . The fourth commandment listed is “Remember the Sabbath day, to
keep it holy”, see also Biblical law in Christianity . Sabbath
desecration is the failure to observe the Biblical Sabbath , and is
usually considered a sin and a breach of a ho…   More…

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The Meenakshi temple complex of Madurai , mostly built between 1623 and
1655 CE, a large complex in the Dravidian architecture of South India ,
dominated by gopuram gatehouse towers. A Badami Shiva temple in
Karnataka . The early 10th century Baroli temple complex in Rajasthan,
illustrating the Nagara ar…   More…

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The consecration of Saint Genevieve , 1821 ( Ste. Genevieve, Missouri
). In the Catholic Church , a consecrated virgin is a woman who has been
consecrated by the church to a life of perpetual virginity in the
service of God . Consecrated virgins are to spend their time in works of
penance and mercy, in ap…   More…

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Male and female yogis from 17th- and 18th-century India Yoga ( ;
Sanskrit , योगः Listen ) is a group of physical , mental , and spiritual
practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India . There is a
broad variety of yoga schools, practices, and goals in Hinduism ,
Buddhism , and Jainism . Among the most well-kn…   More…

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The contemporary legal systems of the world are generally based on one
of four basic systems : civil law , common law , statutory law ,
religious law or combinations of these. However, the legal system of
each country is shaped by its unique history and so incorporates
individual variations. Both Civil (also known as Roman) and C…   More…

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Sir Ian Murray McKellen , CH , CBE (born 25 May 1939) is an English
actor. He is the recipient of six Laurence Olivier Awards , a Tony Award
, a Golden Globe Award , a Screen Actors Guild Award , a BIF Award ,
two Saturn Awards , four Drama Desk Awards , and two Critics’ Choice
Awards . He has also received two Oscar no…   More…

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Santiniketan Shilaidaha Jorasanko, Kolkata Locations of places
associated with Rabindranath Tagore Rabindranath Tagore FRAS (  (  
listen ) ; Bengali:  ), also written Ravīndranātha Thākura (7 May 1861 –
7 August 1941), sobriquet Gurudev , was a Bengali polymath who
reshaped Bengali literature and m…   More…

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Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement
within Protestant Christianity that places special emphasis on a direct
personal experience of God through the baptism with the Holy Spirit .
The term Pentecostal is derived from Pentecost , the Greek name for the
Jewish Feast of Weeks . For Christians, thi…   More…

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Rufinus was an Italian canon lawyer , described as the most influential
canonist at the University of Bologna in the mid 12th century. He
composed an influential Summa on Gratian ’s Decretum before 1159.
Stephen of Tournai , his pupil, quoted from his Summa several times.
Notes Hartmann an…   More…

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The de Vallière cannons were drilled after being founded in one piece,
according to the method developed by Jean Maritz . Jean-Florent de
Vallière (7 September 1667 – 7 January 1759) was a French artillery
officer of the 18th century. He was lieutenant-general of the King’s
Armies. In 1726, de Vallière became Director-General of the Ba…   More…

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The Iliad ( ; Ancient Greek : Ἰλιάς Iliás , pronounced  in Classical
Attic ; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium ) is
an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter , traditionally
attributed to Homer . Set during the Trojan War , the ten-year siege of
the city of Troy (Ilium) by a coalition of Greek states, it tells of the
ba…   More…

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A detail of the 13th-century Fontana Maggiore in Perugia with the
fables of The Wolf and the Crane and The Wolf and the Lamb Aesop’s
Fables , or the Aesopica , is a collection of fables credited to Aesop ,
a slave and storyteller believed to have lived in ancient Greece
between 620 and 564 BCE. Of diverse origins, the stories as…   More…

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The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from
the Atharvaveda . The Vedas ( ; Sanskrit : वेद veda , ” knowledge “) are
a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian
subcontinent . Composed in Vedic Sanskrit , the texts constitute the
oldest layer of Sanskrit lit…   More…

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      This is a part of Hebrew literature This article is concerned
with Hebrew-language texts written in the period from the beginning of
Hebrew writing to the Middle Ages . Hebrew, classified as a Canaanite
language along with Phoenician , had developed as an independent
language by at least 1050 BCE, th…   More…

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The outer panels of Rogier van der Weyden ’s Braque Triptych shows the
skull of the patron displayed in the inner panels. The bones rest on a
brick, a symbol of his former industry and achievement. Memento mori.
Gravestone inscription (1746). Edinburgh . St. Cuthbert’s Churchyard .
Memento mori ( Latin : “remember th…   More…

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The Hanafi ( Arabic : حنفي ‎ Ḥanafī) school is one of the four
religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence ( fiqh ). It is named
after the scholar Abū Ḥanīfa an-Nu‘man ibn Thābit (d. 767), a tabi‘i
whose legal views were preserved primarily by his two most important
disciples, Abu Yusuf and Muhammad al-Shaybani . The ot…   More…

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The Arm of the Starfish is a young adult novel by Madeleine L’Engle ,
first published in 1965 . It is the first novel featuring Polly O’Keefe
and the O’Keefe family , a generation after the events of A Wrinkle in
Time (1962). The plot concerning advanced regeneration research puts
this novel in the science fiction ge…   More…

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Look up agon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Agon ( Classical Greek
ἀγών ) is an ancient Greek term for a struggle or contest. This could
be a contest in athletics, in chariot or horse racing, or in music or
literature at a public festival in ancient Greece. Agon is the
word-forming element in ‘agony’, explaining the concept of agon(y) in
tra…   More…

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Advaita Vedanta and Mahayana Buddhism share significant similarities.
Those similarities have attracted Indian and Western scholars attention,
and have also been criticised by concurring schools. The similarities
have been interpreted as Buddhist influences on Advaita Vedanta, though
some deny such influences, or see th…   More…

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Prometheus depicted in a sculpture by Nicolas-Sébastien Adam , 1762 (
Louvre ) In Greek mythology , Prometheus ( ; Greek : Προμηθεύς ,
pronounced  , meaning “forethought”) is a Titan , culture hero , and
trickster figure who is credited with the creation of man from clay ,
and who defies the gods by stealing fire and giving it to hu…   More…

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Pronuntiatio was the discipline of delivering speeches in Western
classical rhetoric . It is one of the five canons of classical rhetoric
(the others being inventio , dispositio , elocutio , and memoria ) that
concern the crafting and delivery of speeches. In literature the
equivalent of ancient pronuntiatio is the recitation of ep…   More…

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Memoria was the term for aspects involving memory in Western classical
rhetoric . The word is Latin, and can be translated as “memory”. It was
one of five canons in classical rhetoric (the others being inventio ,
dispositio , elocutio , and pronuntiatio ) concerned with the crafting
and delivery of speeches and prose. The art of rhetoric grew out of
or…   More…

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In photography , through-the-lens ( TTL ) metering refers to a feature
of cameras whereby the intensity of light reflected from the scene is
measured through the lens ; as opposed to using a separate metering
window or external hand-held light meter . In some cameras various TTL
metering modes can be selected. This information ca…   More…

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Hans Baldung Grien ’s Three Witches, c. 1514 Belief in and practice of
witchcraft in Europe can be traced to classical antiquity and has
continuous history during the Middle Ages , culminating in the Early
Modern witch hunts and giving rise to the fairy tale and popular culture
“witch” stock character of modern times, as well as to the co…   More…

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The Gathering of the Manna by James Tissot Manna ( Hebrew : מָן ‎ mān,
Greek : μάννα ; Arabic : المَنّ ‎, Persian : گزانگبین ‎), sometimes or
archaically spelled mana , is an edible substance which, according to
the Bible and the Quran , God provided for the Israelites during their
travels in the desert during the forty-year period fol…   More…

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Liverpool Cathedral is the Church of England Cathedral of the Diocese
of Liverpool , built on St James’s Mount in Liverpool and is the seat of
the Bishop of Liverpool . It may be referred to as the Cathedral Church
of Christ in Liverpool (as recorded in the Document of Consecration) or
the Cathedral Church of the Risen Ch…   More…

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The question of the internal consistency of the Bible concerns the
coherence and textual integrity of the biblical scriptures . Disputes
regarding biblical consistency have a long history. Classic texts that
discuss questions of inconsistency, from a critical secular perspective,
include The Age of Reason by Thomas Pa…   More…

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Tragedy (from the Greek : τραγῳδία , tragōidia ) is a form of drama
based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or
pleasure in audiences. While many cultures have developed forms that
provoke this paradoxical response, the term tragedy often refers to a
specific tradition of drama that has played a un…   More…

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Women in musicology describes the role of women professors, scholars
and researchers in postsecondary education musicology departments at
postsecondary education institutions, including universities , colleges
and music conservatories . Traditionally, the vast majority of major
m…   More…

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Buddhist texts were initially passed on orally by monks, but were later
written down and composed as manuscripts in various Indo-Aryan
languages which were then translated into other local languages as
Buddhism spread. They can be categorized in a number of ways. The
Western terms “scripture” and “c…   More…

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Sarah Bernhardt as Hamlet , in 1899 Theatre or theater is a
collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers, typically
actors or actresses , to present the experience of a real or imagined
event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage. The
performers may communicate this experience to the audience through co…
  More…

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Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome , including the legal
developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence , from the
Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered
by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I . Roman law forms the basic
framework for Civil law , the most us…   More…

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Mother Bombie is an Elizabethan era stage play, a comedy by John Lyly .
It is unique in Lyly’s dramatic canon as a work of farce and social
realism ; in Mother Bombie alone, Lyly departs from his dream world of
classical allusion and courtly comedy to create a “vulgar realistic play
of rustic life” in a contemporaneous En…   More…

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The soundtrack to The Royal Tenenbaums features a score composed by
Mark Mothersbaugh . Also featured are a variety of rock songs from the
1960s through 1990s. There have been two soundtrack album releases for
The Royal Tenenbaums. The first, in 2001, omitted some songs; notably,
Paul Simon ’s “Me and Ju…   More…

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Jan van Eyck ’s The Madonna with Canon van der Paele is one of the
masterpieces of the museum Joseph Denis Odevaere , Lord Byron on his
Death-bed The Groeningemuseum is a municipal museum in Bruges , Belgium ,
built on the site of the medieval Eekhout Abbey . It houses a
comprehensive survey of six ce…   More…

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18th century depiction of the four temperaments Phlegmatic and
choleric (above) Sanguine and melancholic (below) Four temperaments is a
proto- psychological theory that suggests that there are four
fundamental personality types, sanguine (enthusiastic, active, and
social), choleric (independent, de…   More…

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A literary language is a register or dialect of a language that is used
in literary writing of the language. This may also include liturgical
writing . A literary variety of a language often gives rise to a
standard variety of the language. The difference between literary and
non-literary forms is more marked in some la…   More…

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Algorithmic anagram test using multisets as canonical forms: The
strings ” madam curie ” and ” radium came ” are given as C arrays. Each
one is converted into a canonical form by sorting. Since both sorted
strings literally agree, the original strings were anagrams of each
other. In mathematics and computer science , a ca…   More…

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The Symphony No. 3 , Op. 36, also known as the Symphony of Sorrowful
Songs ( Polish : Symfonia pieśni żałosnych ), is a symphony in three
movements composed by Henryk Górecki in Katowice , Poland, between
October and December 1976. The work is indicative of the transition
between Górecki’s dissonant earlier manner and his m…   More…

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The character 無 in seal script . The character 無 in cursive script .
See also this animated stroke order . The Japanese and Korean term mu (
Japanese : 無 ; Korean : 무 ) or Chinese wú ( traditional Chinese : 無 ;
simplified Chinese : 无 ), meaning “not have; without”, is a key word in
Buddhism , especially Zen traditions. The word The Ch…   More…

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The eight spoke Dharma wheel symbolizes the Noble Eightfold Path The
Noble Eightfold Path ( Pali : ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo , Sanskrit :
āryāṣṭāṅgamārga ) is an early summary of the path of Buddhist practices
leading to liberation from samsara , the painful cycle of rebirth . The
Eightfold Path consists of eight pr…   More…

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David , by Michelangelo ( Accademia di Belle Arti , Florence , Italy )
is a masterpiece of Renaissance and world art. The Renaissance ( UK : ,
US : ) was a period in European history , from the 14th to the 17th
century, regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages and
modern history . It st…   More…

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” Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser ” (English: God Save Emperor Francis )
is an anthem to Francis II , Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and later
of Austria . The lyrics were by Lorenz Leopold Haschka (1749–1827), and
the melody by Joseph Haydn . It is sometimes called the “Kaiserhymne”
(Emperor’s Hymn). Haydn’s tune has since be…   More…

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Cañon City Downtown Historic District is a historic district in Cañon
City, Colorado . It was listed on the National Register of Historic
Places in 1983. The historic district listing was based on a 1981
survey by city staff; a 2004-05 survey has been completed which updates
and expands upon it. The district includes 80 historic str…   More…

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A Jewish wedding procession, 1724, from the book Juedisches Ceremoniel
Music is often played at wedding celebrations, including during the
ceremony and at festivities before or after the event. The music can be
performed live by instrumentalists or vocalists or may use pre-recorded
songs, depending on the for…   More…

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Jason with the Golden Fleece is a sculpture by Bertel Thorvaldsen . A
lifesize clay version created in 1803 is considered to be the artist’s
first great work. The larger marble statue, reaching a height of 242 cm
(95 in), was however not completed until 1828. History The sculpture
expresses the gist of the Ancient Gr…   More…

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Joseph’s Granaries is a designation for the Egyptian pyramids often
used by early travelers to the region. The notion of a granary ( horreum
, θησαυρός ) being associated with the Hebrew patriarch Joseph derives
from the account in Genesis 41, where “he gathered up all the food of
the seven years when there was plenty in the land of Eg…   More…

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The Curse of Ham is a misnomer for the supposed curse upon Canaan ,
Ham’s son, that was imposed by the biblical patriarch Noah . The curse
occurs in the Book of Genesis and concerns Noah’s drunkenness and the
accompanying shameful act perpetrated by his son Ham , the father of
Canaan ( Gen. 9:20–27 ). The co…   More…

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Order of Mass is an outline of a Mass celebration, describing how and
in what order liturgical texts and rituals are employed to constitute a
Mass. The expression Order of Mass is particularly tied to the Roman
Rite where the sections appearing under that title in the Roman Missal
also contain a set of liturgical texts that recur in most or in all
Eu…   More…

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Cardinal Vaughan Memorial School is a Roman Catholic school in Holland
Park , London, with approximately 950 students. The school does not
select first year pupils on academic ability, but accepts pupils who are
practising Catholics . The school is renowned for the quality of both
its choral and instrumental m…   More…

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In the study of language and literary style , a vulgarism is an
expression or usage considered non-standard or characteristic of
uneducated speech or writing. In colloquial or lexical English,
“vulgarism” or “vulgarity” may be synonymous with profanity or obscenity
, but a linguistic or literary vulgarism encompasses a br…   More…

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Classical Discoveries is a live radio program hosted and produced by
American pianist, musicologist and music educator, Marvin Rosen . The
program airs on WPRB 103.3 FM , a commercial, non-profit,
community-supported independent radio station. The 14,000 watt radio
station, once part of Princeton University , br…   More…

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Profile of geiko Kimiha from Miyagawacho , wearing a formal black
kimono ( tomesode ) and a Shimada -styled nihongami wig. Her obi is tied
in the “taiko” ( drum ) style. All these are details which clearly
distinguish her from a maiko (an apprentice). Geiko Tsunemomo of Gion
Higashi Geisha ( 芸者 ) ( ; Japanese:  ), ge…   More…

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Antonio Agustín y Albanell. Antonio Agustín y Albanell (1516–1586),
also referred to as Augustinus , was a Spanish Humanist historian,
jurist and Roman Catholic archbishop of Tarragona who pioneered the
historical research of the sources of canon law . Life Born in Zaragoza ,
Agustín studied law and classical literature in Alcalá , Sa…   More…

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French composer Louis-Nicolas Clérambault composing at the keyboard A
composer ( Latin compōnō ; literally “one who puts together”) is a
musician who is an author of music in any form, including vocal music
(for a singer or choir ), instrumental music , electronic music , and
music which co…   More…

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Samuel Hollander , OC FRSC (born April 6, 1937) is a British / Canadian
/ Israeli economist . Born in London , he received a B.Sc. in economics
from the London School of Economics in 1959. In 1961 he received an AM
and a Ph.D. in 1963 from Princeton University . He started with the
University of Toronto becoming an As…   More…

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Historical criticism , also known as the historical-critical method or
higher criticism , is a branch of criticism that investigates the
origins of ancient texts in order to understand “the world behind the
text”. While often discussed in terms of Jewish and Christian writings
from ancient times, historical criticism has also been ap…   More…

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Marital debt (commonly referred as conjugal debt ) is a spouse ’s
sexual commitment to one another. There concept stems from descriptions
found in canon law of medieval Europe . History During the later
medieval period (10th to 15th centuries), a new scholastic way thinking
allowed the Church to solidify doctrine, le…   More…

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The historicity of the Bible is the question of the Bible’s
“acceptability as a history,” in the words of Thomas L. Thompson , a
scholar who has written widely on this topic as it relates to the Old
Testament . This can be extended to the question of the Christian New
Testament as an accurate record of the historical Jesus and the A…   More…

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Namu Myōhō Renge Kyō (南無妙法蓮華經) (also known as Nam Myōhō Renge Kyō ) (
English : Devotion to the Mystic Law of the Lotus Sutra or Glory to the
Sutra of the Lotus of the Supreme Law) is the central mantra chanted
within all forms of Nichiren Buddhism as well as Tendai Buddhism . The
words Myōhō Renge Kyō refers to the Ja…   More…

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Homer’s Odyssey, book i A 15th-century manuscript of the Odyssey, book
i, written by the scribe Ioannes Rhosos for the Tornabuoni family,
Florence ( British Museum ) Greek text of the Odyssey’s opening passage
The Odyssey ( ; Greek : Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, pronounced  in Classical
Attic ) is one of two major ancient Greek ep…   More…

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” Decomposing Composers ” is a Monty Python comedic song released on
Monty Python’s Contractual Obligation Album and the Monty Python Sings
album. It was written and composed by Michael Palin and arranged by John
Du Prez . The song Palin sings the song in what appears to be the
persona of Luigi Ve…   More…

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Look up fine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Fine may refer to:
Legal terms Fine (penalty) , financial punishment Fine of lands , an
obsolete type of land conveyance to a new owner Fine on alienation , in
feudal law, money paid to the lord by a tenant when he made over his
land to another Music Fine , an Italian word used mostly in cl…   More…

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Imago Dei College is an Evangelical Classical Christian Liberal Arts
College in the ‘ Great Books ’ tradition. It is located in the community
of Oak Glen, California in the San Bernardino mountains. The college
curriculum, pedagogy and style are reminiscent of the classical
educational paradigm. The curriculum is comprehensive both in co…   More…

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The Hellenistic Pergamon Altar : l to r Nereus , Doris , a Giant ,
Oceanus Hades abducting Persephone , 4th-century BC wall painting in the
small Macedonian royal tomb at Vergina Ancient Greek art stands out
among that of other ancient cultures for its development of naturalistic
but idealized depictions of the human body, in…   More…

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This is a list of compositions by Igor Stravinsky . Opera/theatre The
Nightingale (Le Rossignol), 3-act opera (1914) Renard , a burlesque for 4
pantomimes and chamber orchestra (1916) L’Histoire du soldat (The
Soldier’s Tale), for chamber ensemble and three speakers (1918) Mavra ,
one-act opera (1922) Oedipus rex , 2-…   More…

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Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late
Antiquity . The English dictionary definition of Late Latin dates this
period from the 3rd to the 6th centuries AD, extending in the Iberian
Peninsula of southwestern Europe to the 7th century. This
somewhat-ambiguously-defined period fits between Classical Latin and
Medieval La…   More…

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Andrea De Jorio (1769–1851) was an Italian antiquarian who is
remembered today among ethnographers as the first ethnographer of body
language , in his work La mimica degli antichi investigata nel gestire
napoletano, 1832 (”The mime of the Ancients investigated through
Neapolitan gesture”). The work has been mined, ref…   More…

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Penitential canons are religious rules laid down by councils or bishops
concerning the penances to be done for various sins. These canons,
collected, adapted to later practice, and completed by suitable
directions formed the nucleus of the Penitential Books (see Moral
Theology ). They all belong to the ancient pe…   More…

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Jean-François Paillard (12 April 1928 – 15 April 2013) was a French
conductor. He was born in Vitry-le-François and received his musical
training at the Conservatoire de Paris , where he won first prize in
music history, and the Salzburg Mozarteum . He also earned a degree in
mathematics at the Sorbonne . In 1953, he founded the Je…   More…

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Bokklubben World Library ( Norwegian : Verdensbiblioteket ) is a series
of classical books, mostly novels, published by the Norwegian Book Club
since 2002. It is based on a list of the hundred best books, as
proposed by one hundred writers from fifty-four different countries,
compiled and organized in 2002 by the Book Cl…   More…

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A 1521 Italian language edition of De architectura, translated and
illustrated by Cesare Cesariano Manuscript of Vitruvius; parchment
dating from about 1390 De architectura ( On architecture , published as
Ten Books on Architecture ) is a treatise on architecture written by the
Roman architect and military engineer M…   More…

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A chord progression or harmonic progression is a succession of musical
chords , which are two or more notes, typically sounded simultaneously.
Chord progressions are the foundation of harmony in Western musical
tradition from the common practice era of Classical music to the 21st
ce…   More…

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The Hippocratic Corpus is a collection of early medical works from
ancient Greece that is strongly associated with the ancient Greek
physician Hippocrates and his teachings. The history of medicine , as
practiced by trained professionals, shows how societies have changed in
their approach to illness and disease from ancient ti…   More…

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Yukio Mishima ( 三島 由紀夫 Mishima Yukio) is the pen name of Kimitake
Hiraoka ( 平岡 公威 Hiraoka Kimitake, January 14, 1925 – November 25, 1970) ,
a Japanese author, poet, playwright, actor, film director, founder of
the Tatenokai , and nationalist. Mishima is considered one of the most
important Japanese authors of the 20th ce…   More…

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Paul Mauriat ( French:  or ; 4 March 1925 – 3 November 2006) was a
French orchestra leader , conductor of Le Grand Orchestre de Paul
Mauriat , who specialized in the easy listening genre. He is best known
in the United States for his million-selling remake of André Popp ’s ”
Love is Blue “, which was #1 for 5 weeks in 1968 . Ot…   More…

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” Leck mich im Arsch ” (literally “Lick me in the arse”) is a canon in
B-flat major composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , K.  231 (K. 382c),
with lyrics in German. It was one of a set of at least six canons
probably written in Vienna in 1782. Sung by six voices as a three-part
round , it is thought to be a party piece for his fri…   More…

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Jaron Zepel Lanier ( , born May 3, 1960) is an American computer
philosophy writer, computer scientist, visual artist, and composer of
classical music. A pioneer in the field of virtual reality , Lanier and
Thomas G. Zimmerman left Atari in 1985 to found VPL Research , Inc.,
the first company to sell VR goggles and gloves . In the lat…   More…

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Ichthys as adopted as one of the earlier Christian symbols Early
Christianity is the period of Christianity preceding the First Council
of Nicaea in 325. It is typically divided into the Apostolic Age and the
Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea). The first
Christians, as described in the first chapters of the Acts of the
Apostles , w…   More…

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Giovanni Devoti (born at Rome , 11 July 1744; died there 18 September
1820) was an Italian canon lawyer and bishop. Life At the age of twenty
he occupied a chair of canon law at the Sapienza University of Rome .
After twenty-five years service in this position Pope Pius VI appointed
him Bishop of Anagni . He resigned the see in…   More…

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Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw ( Polish : Uniwersytet
Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego w Warszawie ) is a state university in
Warsaw . It was founded in 1999, and it is named after Cardinal Stefan
Wyszyński of Poland. It offers religious studies at the faculties of
theology , Canon law and Ch…   More…

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In law, a prohibited degree of kinship refers to a degree of
consanguinity (blood relatedness) between persons that results in
certain actions between them becoming illegal. Two major examples of
prohibited degrees are found in incest and nepotism . Incest refers to
sexual relations and marriage between closely related individuals;
nepotism is…   More…

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The upper half shows a text in Sanskrit (praise of Vishnu ) written in
Devanagari while the lower half shows a text in Pali from a Buddhist
ceremonial scripture called “Kammuwa” from Burma , probably in the Mon
script . Pali ( Pāli ) or Magadhan is a Prakrit language native to the
Indian subcontinent . It is widely st…   More…

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The Rainbow is a 1915 novel by British author D. H. Lawrence . It
follows three generations of the Brangwen family living in
Nottinghamshire , particularly focusing on the individual’s struggle to
growth and fulfilment within the confining strictures of English social
life. Lawrence’s 1920 novel Women in Love is a se…   More…

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The Book of Kells ( Latin : Codex Cenannensis ; Irish : Leabhar
Cheanannais ; Dublin, Trinity College Library, MS A. I. [58], sometimes
known as the Book of Columba ) is an illuminated manuscript Gospel book
in Latin , containing the four Gospels of the New Testament together
with various prefatory texts and tables. It was created in a C…   More…

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Huguccio (died 1210) was an Italian canon lawyer . He studied at
Bologna , probably under Gandolphus , and taught canon law in the same
city, perhaps in the school connected with the monastery of SS. Nabore e
Felice. He is believed to have become Bishop of Ferrara in 1190. Among
his supposed pupils was Lotario de’ C…   More…

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A symphony orchestra The Oxford Companion to Music defines music
criticism as ‘the intellectual activity of formulating judgements on the
value and degree of excellence of individual works of music, or whole
groups or genres’. In this sense, it is a branch of musical aesthetics .
With the concurrent expansion of int…   More…

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Astesanus of Asti (died c. 1330) was an important Franciscan canon
lawyer and theologian, from Asti in Piedmont . His major work is Summa
de casibus conscientiae (Cases of conscience), a confessional work, in
manuscript from around 1317 and comprising eight volumes and three
indices. Its writing is said to have been at the prompting of Ca…   More…

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Lumiere Records is an American classical music record label focusing on
classical music with an emphasis on popular classical hits with
crossover appeal, as well as pop arrangements recorded by classical
ensembles such as string quartets. It was established by Victoria
Paterson in 2006 and is based in New Yo…   More…

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The nude figure is a tradition in Western art , and has been used to
express ideals of male and female beauty and other human qualities. It
was a central preoccupation of Ancient Greek art , and after a
semi-dormant period in the Middle Ages returned to a central position in
Western art with the Renaissance . Athletes, da…   More…

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The Four Noble Truths refer to and express the basic orientation of
Buddhism in a short expression: we crave and cling to impermanent
states and things , which are dukkha , “incapable of satisfying” and
painful. This craving keeps us caught in samsara , the endless
cycle of repeated rebirth and dying again, and the dukkha th…   More…

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” Rest in peace ” (from Latin : Requiescat in pace ( Classical Latin:  ,
Ecclesiastical Latin:  )) is a phrase sometimes used in traditional
Christian services and prayers , such as in the Lutheran , Methodist ,
and Roman Catholic denominations, sometimes to wish the soul of a
decedent eternal rest and peace in Christ. It is al…   More…

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Frère Jacques ( , French:  , in the nursery rhyme and in song more
generally ; English: “Brother John”; Dutch: “Vader Jacob” (Netherlands)
or “Broeder Jacob” (Flanders), German: “Bruder Jakob”, Italian: “Fra’
Martino”, Polish: “Panie Janie”, Danish: “Mester Jakob”), is a nursery
rhyme of French origin. The rhyme is traditionally sung in a ro…   More…

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Āyatana ( Pāli ; Sanskrit : आयतन) is a Buddhist term that has been
translated as “sense base”, “sense-media” or “sense sphere.” In
Buddhism, there are six internal sense bases (Pali: ajjhattikāni
āyatanāni; also known as, “organs”, “gates”, “doors”, “powers” or
“roots” ) and six external sense bases (bāhirāni āyatanāni or “sense
ob…   More…

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The marble Kritios Boy or Kritian Boy belongs to the Early Classical
period of ancient Greek sculpture . It is the first statue from
classical antiquity known to use contrapposto ; Kenneth Clark called it
“the first beautiful nude in art” It is possible, even likely, that
earlier Bronze statues had used the technique, but if th…   More…

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Patristics or patrology is the study of the early Christian writers who
are designated Church Fathers . The names derive from the combined
forms of Latin pater and Greek patḗr (father). The period is generally
considered to run from the end of New Testament times or end of the
Apostolic Age ( c.  AD 100 ) to either AD 451 (the date of th…   More…

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Yoko Kanno ( 菅野 よう子 Kanno Yōko, born March 18, 1963) is a Japanese
composer, arranger and musician best known for her work on the
soundtracks on anime films, television series, live-action films , video
games , and advertisements . She was born in Sendai , Miyagi Prefecture
, Japan. She has written scores for Cowboy Be…   More…

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During its long history, Jerusalem has been attacked 52 times, captured
and recaptured 44 times, besieged 23 times, and destroyed twice. The
oldest part of the city was settled in the 4th millennium BCE, making
Jerusalem one of the oldest cities in the world . Given the city’s
central position in both Israeli nationalism and Pa…   More…

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Pythagoras of Samos ( US : ; UK : ; Greek : Πυθαγόρας ὁ Σάμιος  
Pythagóras ho Sámios  ’Pythagoras the Samian ‘, or simply Πυθαγόρας ;
Πυθαγόρης in Ionian Greek ; c. 570– 495 BC ) was an Ionian Greek
philosopher and the eponymous founder of the Pythagoreanism movement.
His political and rel…   More…

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Christian apologetics ( Greek : ἀπολογία , “verbal defence, speech in
defence”) is a branch of Christian theology that aims to present
historical, reasoned , and evidential bases for Christianity , defending
it against objections. Christian apologetics have taken many forms over
the centuries, starting with Paul the Apostle in…   More…

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Study of a vase as a solid of revolution by Paolo Uccello . 15th
century Mathematics and art are related in a variety of ways.
Mathematics has itself been described as an art motivated by beauty .
Mathematics can be discerned in arts such as music , dance , painting ,
architecture , sculpture , and textiles . This art…   More…

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The Rabbula Gospels , or Rabula Gospels , (Florence, Biblioteca Mediceo
Laurenziana, cod. Plut. I, 56) is a 6th-century illuminated Syriac
Gospel Book . One of the finest Byzantine works produced in Asia , and
one of the earliest Christian manuscripts with large miniatures, it is
distinguished by the mi…   More…

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Bengali music ( Bengali : বাংলা সংগীত ) comprises a long tradition of
religious and secular song-writing over a period of almost a millennium.
Composed with lyrics in the Bengali language , Bengali music spans a
wide variety of styles. Bengal is today split between the Indian state
of West Bengal and the independent country Ba…   More…

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The Four Books and Five Classics ( Chinese : 四書五經 ; pinyin : Sìshū
wǔjīng ) are the authoritative books of Confucianism in China written
before 300 BC. Four Books The Four Books ( 四書 ; Sìshū ) are Chinese
classic texts illustrating the core value and belief systems in
Confucianism . They were selected by Zhu Xi in the So…   More…

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The relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and science is a
widely debated subject. Historically, the Church has often been a patron
of sciences. It has been prolific in the foundation of schools,
universities and hospitals, and many clergy have been active in the
sciences. Historians of science such as Pierre Duhem cr…   More…

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Kronos Quartet Performs Alfred Schnittke: The Complete String Quartets
is a studio album by the Kronos Quartet . The double CD contains all
four of Russian composer Alfred Schnittke ’s “startling” string quartets
. String Quartet No.3 was recorded and released in 1988; the other
three were recorded between 1994 and 19…   More…

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André Léon Marie Nicolas Rieu (born 1 October 1949) is a Dutch
violinist and conductor best known for creating the waltz -playing
Johann Stra