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01/24/18
2512 Thu 25 Jan 2018 LESSONUnrevealed facts about Republic day in India
Filed under: General
Posted by: site admin @ 10:05 pm



 2512 Thu 25 Jan 2018 LESSON

Unrevealed facts about Republic day in India




Unrevealed facts about Republic day in India

The ceremonial performance of bands of the defense forces was started
in the early 1950s by a certain Major Roberts of the Indian Army.

One of the most popular tune that is played at the Republic day
functions is ‘Abide with me’, a Christian hymn, which was said to be
Mahatma Gandhi’s favourite.

Republic Day celebration actually lasts for three days! The ‘Beating Retreat’ held on 29th January,
marks the end of all Republic day celebrations in the country. The
ceremony is held at Vijay Chowk where bands of the Indian Army, Indian
Air Force and Indian Navy perform.

There are just two original
copies of the Constitution in the country written in Hindi and English.
They have been preserved in helium-filled cases in the Parliament of
India. This constitution has been calligraphed and not printed. Such
photo lithographic copies are in circulation and only 1000 copies have
been written till date.

The President addresses the Republic Day whereas; the Prime Minister addresses the Independence Day.

Our Constitution is the longest in the world. You definitely cannot read it in a single day.
Now, writing the constitution was not simple. The Assembly gathered for
166 days that was spread over two years, 11 months and 18 days before
the final version was formed. Yes, it was all hand-written and it was on
the 26th of January that marked the celebration of Independence in its
true sense.
The Constitution came into a legal circulation at 10:18 AM on the 26th of January, 1950.
There are 12 Schedules and 395 Articles
Till 2006 there are 96 Amendments are made.|



http://www.legalservicesindia.com/…/dr-b-r-ambedkar-the-fat…
“The third thing we must do is not be content with mere political
democracy. We must note that our political democracy can not last unless
there lies at the base of it social democracy. What does social
democracy mean? It means a way of life which recognizes liberty,
equality and fraternity as the principles of life.” – Dr. B.R. Ambedkar

In the world the great man first has to be born in the form of the great man and
then he has to prove himself the great man by his enriched personality
with virtues and by his great capability. According to such a rule of
the world Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar was born in the form of the great
man, on 14th April 1891 at Mahu in Madhya Pradesh of India. Bhimrao
Ramji Ambedkar, also known as Babasaheb, was an Indian nationalist,
jurist, Dalit, political leader, activist, philosopher, thinker,
anthropologist, historian, orator, profilic writer, economist, scholar,
editor, revolutionary and the revivalist of Buddhism in India. He was
also the chief architect of the Indian constitution. Born into a poor
untouchable family, Ambedkar spent his whole life fighting against
social discrimination, the system of Chaturvarna – the Hindu
categorization of human society into four varnas – and the Indian Caste
System.

The great man Dr.
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar’s active life, glorious personality and great
capability these characteristics forever are worthy of writing with the
golden letters, in the useful history of the nation India of the entire
world and of the universal mankind.


The
third thing we must do is not be content with mere political democracy.
We must note that our political democracy can not last unless there
lies at the base of it social democracy.
legalservicesindia.com













jnanakadali.com




jnanakadali.com

Malayalam Scraps

Who is the BEST in Malayalam cinema? Vote n Share. Kalabhavan Mani. Total votes: 5,763. … Dr. B.R Ambedkar. Edison. EK Nayanar. EMS. George Washington. Glorit …
malayalamscrap.com

https://www.thatstamilnews.com/dr-ambedkar-biography-thats…/

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar Biography:
Personal details:

Born 14 April 1891
Mhow, Central Provinces, India (now in Madhya Pradesh)
Died 6 December 1956 (aged 65)
Delhi, India
Political party Samata Sainik Dal
Other political
affiliations Independent Labour Party, Scheduled Castes Federation
Spouse(s):
Ramabai (m. 1906; d. 1935)
Savita Ambedkar (m. 1948)
Alma mater: University of Mumbai, Columbia University
London School of Economics
Profession: Jurist, economist, politician, social reformer
Religion: Hinduism (1891–1956) and Buddhism (1956)
Awards: Bharat Ratna (posthumously in 1990)







https://ta.wikipedia.org/…/%E0%AE%85%E0%AE%AE%E0%AF%8D%E0%A…

கட்டற்ற கலைக்களஞ்சியமான விக்கிப்பீடியாவில் இருந்து.
முனைவர்
பீம்ராவ் ராம்ஜி அம்பேத்கர்
Ambedkar speech at Yeola.png
13 அக்டோபர் 1935 அன்று நாசிக்கில் ஒரு பொதுக்கூட்டத்தில் உரையாற்றுகின்றார்
பிறப்பு பீமாராவ் சக்பால் அம்பேவாதேகர்
ஏப்ரல் 14, 1891
மாவ் (Mhow), பிரித்தானிய இந்தியா (இப்போது மத்தியப் பிரதேசம்)
இறப்பு 6 திசம்பர் 1956 (அகவை 65)
தில்லி, இந்தியா
தேசியம் இந்தியர்
மற்ற பெயர்கள் பாபா சாகேப், பாபா, பீமா, மூக்நாயக்
படித்த கல்வி நிறுவனங்கள் மும்பை பல்கலைக்கழகம்
கொலம்பியா பல்கலைக்கழகம்
இலண்டன் பல்கலைக்கழகம்
இலண்டன் பொருளாதாரப் பள்ளி
அமைப்பு(கள்) சுதந்திர தொழிலாளர் கட்சி, இந்தியக் குடியரசுக் கட்சி, பட்டியல் சாதிகள் கூட்டமைப்பு
பட்டம் முதல் இந்திய சட்ட அமைச்சர், இந்திய அரசியலமைப்பு வரைவு குழுவின் தலைவர்
அரசியல் இயக்கம் தலித் பௌத்த இயக்கம்
சமயம் பௌத்தம்
வாழ்க்கைத்
துணை இராமாபாய் அம்பேத்கர் (தி. 1906)[1]
சவிதா அம்பேத்கர் (தி. 1948)[2]
விருதுகள் பாரத ரத்னா
கையொப்பம்

பாபா சாகேப் என்றழைக்கப்படும் பீம்ராவ் ராம்ஜி அம்பேத்கர்
(ஆங்கிலம்:Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, பிறப்பு:14 ஏப்ரல் 1891 – 6 திசம்பர்
1956) இந்திய விடுதலைக்குப் பின்னர் நாட்டின் முதலாவது சட்ட அமைச்சராக
பதவியேற்றவர். உயர் கல்வி பெறுவதற்காக அமெரிக்கா சென்ற முதல் இந்தியர்
ஆவார்.
தாழ்த்தப்பட்ட மக்களுக்கென கழகம் ஒன்றைத் தொடங்கியவர். பரோடா
மன்னருடன் இணைந்து தீண்டாமை ஒழியப் போராடியவர். பொருளாதாரம், அரசியல்,
வரலாறு, தத்துவம், சட்டம் ஆகிய துறைகளில் தேர்ந்தவர்; ஆசிரியராகவும்,
இதழாளராகவும், எழுத்தாளராகவும் சமூகநீதிப் புரட்சியாளராகவும் விளங்கியவர்.
‘திராவிட புத்தம்’ என்ற பெயரில் பல ஆயிரக்கணக்கான தாழ்த்தப்பட்டவர்
எனப்பட்ட தலித் மக்களை புத்தசமயத்தைத் தழுவச்செய்தவர்; இவை யாவற்றுக்கும்
மேலாக இந்திய அரசியலமைப்புச் சாசனத்தை வரைவதற்கான குழுவின் தலைவராகவும்
பொறுப்பேற்றவர். 2012 ஆம் ஆண்டில் வரலாற்றுத் தொலைக்காட்சியும்,
சி.என்.என்- ஐ.பி.என் தொலைக்காட்சியும் நடத்திய வாக்கெடுப்பில் மிகச்சிறந்த
இந்தியராகத் தேர்ந்தெடுக்கப்பட்டார்.[3][4] இந்தியாவின் மிகச்சிறந்த உயரிய
விருதான ‘பாரத ரத்னா’ விருது இவரது இறப்புக்குப் பின் 1990 இல் இவருக்கு
வழங்கப்பட்டது.[5]

பொருளடக்கம்

1 வாழ்க்கை வரலாறு
1.1 இளமை
1.2 கல்வி
2 சமூகப்பணிகள்
3 தீண்டாமைக்கு எதிராக
3.1 புனே உடன்படிக்கை
4 அரசியல் வாழ்க்கை
5 இந்திய அரசியலமைப்பில் பங்கு
6 ரிசர்வ் வங்கி உருவாக்கத்தில் பங்கு
7 பௌத்த சமயத்திற்கு மாறுதல்
8 மரணம்
9 அம்பேத்கர் கருத்துக்கள்
10 ஆவணப்பதிவுகள்
11 கெளரவிப்புகள்
12 ஊடகங்கள்
13 மேற்கோள்கள்
14 வெளி இணைப்புகள்
15 மேலதிக வாசிப்பு


பாபா
சாகேப் என்றழைக்கப்படும் பீம்ராவ் ராம்ஜி அம்பேத்கர் (Bhimrao Ramji
Ambedkar; 14 ஏப்ரல் 1891 – 6 திசம்பர் 1956) இந்திய விடுதலைக்கு……
ta.wikipedia.org

https://tamil.oneindia.com/…/india-dr-br-ambedkar-the-great…
இந்தியாவின் மாபெரும் தலைவர் அண்ணல் அம்பேத்கர் - 2 கோடி பேர் வாக்களிப்பு!
டெல்லி: மகாத்மா காந்திக்குப் பின் சுதந்திர இந்தியாவின் மாபெரும் தலைவர்
யார் என்பது குறித்து மக்களிடம் நடத்திய வாக்கெடுப்பில், அண்ணல் டாக்டர்
அம்பேத்கர் முதலிடம் பெற்றுள்ளார். அவருக்கு 2 கோடி பேர் வாக்களித்து,
நாட்டின் ஒப்பற்ற தலைவர் என்று உறுதிப்படுத்தியுள்ளனர். ஆன்லைன், கள ஆய்வு
மற்றும் நடுவர் வாக்குகள் அடிப்படையில் இந்த தேர்வு நடத்தப்பட்டது.
இவற்றில் அண்ணல் அம்பேத்கருக்கு 2 கோடி வாக்குகள் கிடைத்தன. தேசத்தின்
ஒப்பற்ற தலைவர் அவரே என்பது பெருவாரியான மக்களால்
உறுதிப்படுத்தப்பட்டுள்ளது. டாக்டர் அம்பேத்கரை ஒரு தலித் சமுதாய தலைவராக,
பிரதிநிதியாகப் பார்க்கக் கூடாது என்றும், அவர் இந்த நாட்டைக் கட்டமைத்த
ஒப்பற்ற சிற்பி என்பதை ஒவ்வொரு இந்தியரும் மனதில் கொள்ள இது ஒரு வாய்ப்பு
என்றும் பெரும்பாலானோர் கருத்து தெரிவித்திருந்தனர். தேசத்தின் தந்தைக்கு
நிகரானவர், இந்திய அரசியல் சாசனத்தின் தந்தை என்றெல்லாம் அம்பேத்கருக்கு
புகழ் மாலை சூட்டியுள்ளனர் கருத்துக் கணிப்பில் பங்கேற்றவர்கள். இந்த
தேர்வில் முதல் பத்து இடங்களைப் பிடித்த தலைவர்கள் மற்றும் பிற
துறையினர்… 1. பாபாசாகேப் டாக்டர் பிஆர் அம்பேத்கர் 2. டாக்டர்
அப்துல்கலாம் 3.வல்லபபாய் படேல் 4.ஜவஹர்லால் நேரு 5.அன்னை தெரசா 6.ஜேஆர்டி
டாடா 7.இந்திரா காந்தி 8.சச்சின் டெண்டுல்கர் 9. அடல் பிகாரி வாஜ்பாய் 10.
லதா மங்கேஷ்கர்


Search
for the Greatest Indian after Mahatma Gandhi is over. BR Ambedkar, the
Father of Indian Constitution, is the overwhelming choice.
tamil.oneindia.com

Bhimrao
Ramji Ambedkar Biography: Personal details: Born 14 April 1891 Mhow,
Central Provinces, India (now in Madhya Pradesh) Died 6 December 1956
(aged 65) Delhi, India Political party Samata Sainik Dal Other political
affiliations Independent…
thatstamilnews.com

Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Movie in Tamil - pinterest.com

Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Movie in Tamil | Dr B R Ambedkar Books. … Dr BR Ambedkar wanted to “burn” the constitution, … Dr. B R Ambedkar, Republic day, …


  • The ceremonial performance of bands of the defense forces was started in the early 1950s by a certain Major Roberts of the Indian Army.
  • One of the most popular tune that is played at the Republic day functions is ‘Abide with me’, a Christian hymn, which was said to be Mahatma Gandhi’s favourite.
  • Republic Day celebration actually lasts for three days! The ‘Beating Retreat’
    held on 29th January, marks the end of all Republic day celebrations in
    the country. The ceremony is held at Vijay Chowk where bands of the
    Indian Army, Indian Air Force and Indian Navy perform.
  • There are just two original copies of the Constitution
    in the country written in Hindi and English. They have been preserved
    in helium-filled cases in the Parliament of India. This constitution has
    been calligraphed and not printed. Such photo lithographic copies are in circulation and only 1000 copies have been written till date.
  • Read more https://www.iaspaper.net/india-republic-day/

    Unrevealed facts about Republic day in India

    Read more https://www.iaspaper.net/india-republic-day/

    Unrevealed facts about Republic day in India

    Read more https://www.iaspaper.net/india-republic-day/

    comments (0)
    2512 Thu 25 Jan 2018 LESSON Dr. B. R. Ambedkar on Republic Day (26th January)
    Filed under: General
    Posted by: site admin @ 9:54 pm


     2512 Thu 25 Jan 2018 LESSON


    Wish You A Very Happy Republic Day!

    May You Be Ever Happy, Well and Secure!

    May All Sentient and Non-sentient Beings in This Universe Be Ever Happy, Well and Secure!

    May All Live Long!

    May All Have Calm, Quiet, Alert, Attentive and An Equanimity Mind

    With a Clear Understanding that Nothing is Permanent!

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RRGfg-EBAfM













    Dr. B. R. Ambedkar on Republic Day (26th January)





    Happy Republic Day 2018 Dr. Ambedkar Images|Photos|Wallpaper for Whatsapp and Facebook:


    https://drambedkarbooks.com/…/dr-b-r-ambedkar-on-republic-…/
    Dr. B. R. Ambedkar on Republic Day (26th January)


    “On 26th January 1950, we are going to enter into a life of
    contradictions. In politics, we will have equality and in social and
    economic structure, continue to deny the principle of one man one value.
    How long shall we continue to live this life of contradictions? How
    long shall we continue to deny equality in our social and economic life?
    If we continue to deny it for long, we
    will do so only by putting our political democracy in peril. We must
    remove this contradiction at the earliest possible moment else those who
    suffer from inequality will blow up the structure of democracy which
    this Constituent Assembly has so laboriously built up.”


    “I feel that the constitution is workable, it is flexible and it is
    strong enough to hold the country together both in peacetime and in
    wartime. Indeed, if I may say so, if things go wrong under the new
    Constitution, the reason will not be that we had a bad Constitution.
    What we will have to say is that Man was vile.”


    “There is no nation of Indians in the real sense of the world, it is
    yet to be created. In believing we are a nation, we are cherishing a
    great delusion. How can people divided into thousand of castes be a
    nation? The sooner we realise that we are not yet a nation, in a social
    and psychological sense of the world, the better for us.”


    “The third thing we must do is not be content with mere political
    democracy. We must note that our political democracy can not last unless
    there lies at the base of it social democracy. What does social
    democracy mean? It means a way of life which recognizes liberty,
    equality and fraternity as the principles of life.”

    “Independence
    is no doubt a matter of joy. But let us not forget that this
    independence has thrown on us greater responsibilities. By independence,
    we have lost the excuse of blaming the British for anything going
    wrong. If hereafter things go wrong, we will have nobody to blame except
    ourselves. There is a greater danger of things going wrong. Times are
    fast changing.”

    “Our object in framing the Constitution is rally two-fold:

    (1) To lay down the form of political democracy, and


    (2) To lay down that our ideal is economic democracy and also to
    prescribe that every Government whatever is in power shall strive to
    bring about economic democracy. The directive principles have a great
    value, for they lay down that our ideal is economic democracy.”


    Posts about Dr. B. R. Ambedkar on Republic Day written by Pardeep
    drambedkarbooks.com

    http://www.rashtriyamulniwasisangh.com/dr-b-r-ambedkar-on-…/

    Dr. B. R. Ambedkar on Republic Day (26th January)
    January 25, 2013 Mulnivasi Sangh Articles


    On
    26th January 1950, we are going to enter into a life of contradictions.
    In politics, we will have equality and in social and economic
    structure, continue
    rashtriyamulniwasisangh.com
    http://www.ambedkar.org/Babasaheb/quotations.htm

    Thus Spoke Ambedkar, Quotations of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar

    Men are mortal. So are ideas. An idea needs
    propagation as much as a plant needs watering. Otherwise both will wither and
    die.



    The conception of secular state is derived from
    the liberal democratic tradition of west. No institution which is maintained
    wholly out of state funds shall be used for the purpose of religious instruction
    irrespective of the question whether the religious instruction is given by the
    state or any other body.



    If you ask me, my ideal would be the society
    based on liberty, equality and fraternity. An ideal society should be mobile and
    full of channels of conveying a change taking place in one part to other
    parts.



    To idealise the real which more often than not
    is full of inequities is a very selfish thing to do. It is only when a person
    finds a personal advantage in things, as they are that he tries to idealise the
    real. To proceed to make such an ideal real is nothing short of criminal. It
    means perpetuating inequity on the ground that whatever is settled is settled
    for all times. Such a view is opposed to all morality. No society with ideal
    conscience has ever accepted it. On the contrary whatever progress in improving
    the terms of associated life between individuals and classes has been made in
    the course of history, is due entirely to the recognition of the ethical
    doctrine that whatever is wrongly settled is never settled and must be
    resettled.



    A historian ought to be exact, sincere and
    impartial; free from passion, unbiased by interest, fear, resentment or
    affection; and faithful to the truth, which is the mother of history the
    preserver of great actions, the enemy of oblivion, the witness of the past, the
    director of the future.



    In every country the intellectual class is the
    most influential class. This is the class which can foresee, advise and lead. In
    no country does the mass of the people live the life for intelligent thought and
    action. It is largely imitative and follows the intellectual class. There is no
    exaggeration in saying that the entire destination of the country depends upon
    its intellectual class. If the intellectual class is honest and independent, it
    can be trusted to take the initiative and give a proper lead when a crisis
    arises. It is true that the intellect by itself is no virtue. It is only a means
    and the use of a means depends upon the ends which an intellectual person
    pursues. An intellectual man can be a good man but he may easily be a rogue.
    Similarly an intellectual class may be a band of high-souled persons, ready to
    help, ready to emancipate erring humanity or it may easily be a gang of crooks
    or a body of advocates of narrow clique from which it draws its
    support.



    My final words of advice to you are educate,
    agitate and organize; have faith in yourself. With justice on our side I do not
    see how we can loose our battle. The battle to me is a matter of joy. The battle
    is in the fullest sense spiritual. There is nothing material or social in it.
    For ours is a battle not for wealth or for power. It is battle for freedom. It
    is the battle of reclamation of human personality.



    You must abolish your slavery yourselves. Do not
    depend for its abolition upon god or a superman. Remember that it is not enough
    that a people are numerically in the majority. They must be always watchful,
    strong and self-respecting to attain and maintain success. We must shape our
    course ourselves and by ourselves.



    Untouchability shuts all doors of opportunities
    for betterment in life for Untouchables. It does not offer an Untouchable any
    opportunity to move freely in society; it compels him to live in dungeons and
    seclusion; it prevents him from educating himself and following a profession of
    his choice.



    Untouchability has ruined the Untouchables, the
    Hindus and ultimately the nation as well. If the depressed classes gained their
    self-respect and freedom, they would contribute not only to their own progress
    and prosperity but by their industry intellect and courage would contribute also
    to the strength and prosperity of the nation. If the tremendous energy
    Untouchables are at present required to fritter away in combating the stigma of
    Untouchability had been saved them, it would have been applied by them to the
    promotion of education and development of resources of their nation as a whole.



    There have been many Mahatmas in India whose
    sole object was to remove Untouchability and to elevate and absorb the depressed
    classes, but everyone has failed in their mission. Mahatmas have come, Mahatmas
    have gone but the Untouchables have remained as Untouchables.



    From the point of view of annihilation of caste,
    the struggle of the saints did not have any effects on society. The value of a
    man is axiomatic and self-evident; it does not come to him from the gilding of
    Bhakti. The saints did not struggle to establish this point. On the contrary
    their struggle had very unhealthy effect on the depressed classes. It provided
    the Brahmins with an excuse to silence them by telling them that they would be
    respected if they attained the status of Chokhamela.



    It is mischievously propagated by Hindu
    scriptures that by serving the upper classes the Shudras achieve salvation.
    Untouchability is another appellation of slavery. No race can be raised by
    destroying its self-respect. So if you really want to uplift the Untouchables,
    you must treat them in the social order as free citizens, free to carve out
    their destiny.



    What you have lost others have gained. Your
    humiliations are a matter of pride with others. You are made to suffer wants,
    privations and humiliations not because it was pre-ordained by the sins
    committed in your previous birth, but because of the overpowering tyranny and
    treachery of those who are above you. You have no lands because others have
    usurped them; you have no posts because others have monopolised them. Do not
    believe in fate; believe in your strength.



    Learn to live in this world with self-respect.
    You should always cherish some ambition of doing something in this world. But
    remember that the age of selflessness has ended. A new epoch is set in. All
    things are now possible because of your being able to participate in the
    politics and legislature of your country.



    Some people think that religion is not essential
    to the society. I do not hold this view. I consider the foundations of religion
    are essential to the society. At the roots of Hindu social system lies a Dharma
    as prescribed in the Manusmriti. Such being the case I do not think it is
    possible to abolish the inequality in the Hindu society unless foundations of
    the Smriti-religion is removed and a better one laid in its place. I however,
    despair of Hindu society, being able to reconstruct itself on such a better
    foundation.



    My religious conversion is not inspired by any
    material motive. This is hardly anything I cannot achieve even while remaining
    an Untouchable. There is no other feeling than that of a spiritual feeling
    underlying my religious conversion. Hinduism does not appeal to my conscience.
    My self-respect cannot assimilate Hinduism. In your case change of religion is
    imperative for worldly as well as spiritual ends. Do not care for the opinion of
    those who foolishly ridicule the idea of conversion for material ends. Why
    should you live under the fold of that religion which has deprived you of honor,
    money, food and shelter?



    I tell you, religion is for man and not man for
    religion. If you want to organise, consolidate and be successful in this world,
    change this religion. The religion that does not recognise you as a human being,
    or give you water to drink, or allow you to enter in temples is not worthy to be
    called a religion. The religion that forbids you to receive education and comes
    in the way of your material advancement is not worthy of the appellation
    ‘religion’. The religion that does not teach its followers to show humanity in
    dealing with its co-religionists is nothing but a display of a force. The
    religion that teaches its followers to suffer the touch of animals but not the
    touch of human beings is not a religion but a mockery. The religion that compels
    the ignorant to be ignorant and the poor to be poor is not a religion but a
    visitation!



    The basic idea underlying religion is to create
    an atmosphere for the spiritual development of the individual. This being the
    situation, it is clear that you cannot develop your personality at all in
    Hinduism.



    In Hinduism, conscience, reason and independent
    thinking have no scope for development.



    It is your claim to equality which hurts them.
    They want to maintain the status quo. If you continue to accept your lowly
    status ungrudgingly, continue to remain dirty, filthy, backward, ignorant, poor
    and disunited, they will allow you to live in peace. The moment you start to
    raise your level, the conflict starts. Untouchability is not transitory or
    temporary feature; it is eternal, it is lasting. Frankly it can be said that the
    struggle between the Hindus and the Untouchables is a never-ending conflict. It
    is eternal because the religion which assigns you the lowest status in society
    is itself divine and eternal according to the belief of the so-called high caste
    Hindus. No change warranted by change of time and circumstances is
    possible.



    I have never claimed to be a universal leader of
    suffering humanity. The problem of the untouchables is quite enough for my
    slender strength. I do not say that other causes are not equally noble. But
    knowing that life is short, one can only serve one cause and I have never
    aspired to do more than serve the Untouchables.



    Every man must have a philosophy of life, for
    everyone must have a standard by which to measure his conduct. And philosophy is
    nothing but a standard by which to measure.



    Negatively I reject the Hindu social philosophy
    propounded in Bhagvad Gita, based as it is on the Triguna of Sankhya Philosophy
    which in my judgement is a cruel perversion of the philosophy of Kapila, and
    which had made the caste system of graded inequality the law of Hindu social
    life.

    Positively, my social philosophy may be said to be enshrined in
    three words: liberty, equality and fraternity. Let no one however say that I
    have borrowed my philosophy from the French Revolution. I have not. My
    philosophy has its roots in religion and not in political science. I have
    derived them from the teachings of my master, the Buddha.



    Indians today are governed by two different
    ideologies. Their political ideal set in the preamble of the Constitution
    affirms a life of liberty, equality and fraternity. Their social ideal embodied
    in their religion denies them.



    Unlike a drop of water which loses its identity
    when it joins the ocean, man does not lose his being in the society in which he
    lives. Man’s life is independent. He is born not for the development of the
    society alone, but for the development of his self.



    Freedom of mind is the real freedom. A person
    whose mind is not free though he may not be in chains, is a slave, not a free
    man. One whose mind is not free, though he may not be in prison, is a prisoner
    and not a free man. One whose mind is not free though alive, is no better than
    dead. Freedom of mind is the proof of one’s existence.



    What is the proof to judge that the flame of
    mental freedom is not extinguished in the mind of person? To whom can we say
    that his mind is free. I call him free who with his conscience awake realises
    his rights, responsibilities and duties. He who is not a slave of circumstances
    and is always ready and striving to change them in his flavor, I call him free.
    One who is not a slave of usage, customs, of meaningless rituals and ceremonies,
    of superstitions and traditions; whose flame of reason has not been
    extinguished, I call him a free man. He who has not surrendered his free will
    and abdicated his intelligence and independent thinking, who does not blindly
    act on the teachings of others, who does not blindly accept anything without
    critically analysing and examining its veracity and usefulness, who is always
    prepared to protect his rights, who is not afraid of ridicule and unjust public
    criticism, who has a sound conscience and self-respect so as not become a tool
    in the hands of others, I call him a free man. He who does not lead his life
    under the direction of others, who sets his own goal of life according to his
    own reasoning and decides for himself as to how and in what way life should be
    lead, is a free man. In short, who is a master of his own free will, him alone I
    call a free man.



    Caste cannot be abolished by inter caste dinners
    or stray instances of inter caste marriages. Caste is a state of mind. It is a
    disease of mind. The teachings of the Hindu religion are the root cause of this
    disease. We practice casteism and we observe Untouchability because we are
    enjoined to do so by the Hindu religion. A bitter thing cannot be made sweet.
    The taste of anything can be changed. But poison cannot be changed into
    nectar.



    What struck me most was that my community still
    continues to accept a position of humiliation only because caste Hindus persist
    in dominating over them. You must rely on your own strength, shake off the
    notion that you are in any way inferior to any community.



    Constitutional morality is not a natural
    sentiment. It has to be cultivated. We must realise that our people have yet to
    learn it. Democracy in India is only a top dressing on an Indian soil whish is
    essentially undemocratic.



    Majorities are of two sorts: (1) communal
    majority and (2) political majority. A political majority is changeable in its
    class composition. A political majority grows. A communal majority is born. The
    admission to a political majority is open. The door to a communal majority is
    closed. The politics of political majority are free to all to make and unmake.
    The politics of communal majority are made by its own members born in
    it.



    The minorities in India have loyally accepted
    the rule of the majority whish is basically a communal majority and not a
    political majority. It is for the majority to realise its duty not to
    discriminate against minorities. Whether the minorities will continue or will
    vanish must depend upon this habit of majority. The moment the majority looses
    the habit of discriminating against the minority, the minorities can have no
    ground to exist. They will vanish.



    We want our own people, people who will fight
    tooth and nail for our interest and secure privilege for the under-privileged;
    people who will undo the wrongs done to our people ;people who will voice our
    grievances fearlessly; people who can think, lead and act; people with
    principles and character. Such people should be sent to the legislatures. We
    must send such people to Legislatures who will be slaves to none but remain free
    to their conscience and get our grievances redressed.



    Why does a human body become deceased? The
    reason is that as long as the human body is not free from suffering, mind cannot
    be happy. If a man lacks enthusiasm, either his body or mind is in a deceased
    condition…. Now what saps the enthusiasm in man? If there is no enthusiasm,
    life becomes drudgery - a mere burden to be dragged. Nothing can be achieved if
    there is no enthusiasm. The main reason for this lack of enthusiasm on the part
    of a man is that an individual looses the hope of getting an opportunity to
    elevate

    himself. Hopelessness leads to lack of enthusiasm. The mind in
    such cases becomes deceased…. When is enthusiasm created? When one breaths an
    atmosphere where one is sure of getting the legitimate reward for one’s labor,
    only then one feels enriched by enthusiasm and inspiration.



    The fundamental principle of Buddhism is
    equality… Buddhism was called the religion of Shudras. There was only one man
    who raised his voice against separatism and Untouchability and that was Lord
    Buddha.



    The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even
    then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has
    the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can
    claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you
    will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility
    inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.



    I am myself a believer in Animas (non-violence).
    But I make a distinction between Animas and meekness. Meekness is weakness and
    weakness is voluntarily imposed upon oneself is not a virtue. I am believer in
    Animas but in the sense defined by the saint Takuma. Takuma has quite rightly
    said that Animas consisted of two things: (1) love and kindness towards all
    creatures and (2) destruction of evil doers. The second part of this definition
    is often lost sight of that the doctrine of Animas becomes so
    ridiculous.



    Religion must mainly be a matter of principles
    only. It cannot be a matter of rules. The moment it degenerates into rules, it
    ceases to be a religion, as it kills responsibility which is an essence of the
    true religious act.



    We must begin by acknowledging that there is a
    complete absence of two things in Indian Society. One of these is equality. On
    the social plane we have an India based on the principles of graded inequality,
    which means elevation for some and degradation for others. On the economic plane
    we have a society in which there are some who have immense wealth as against
    many who live in abject poverty.



    The second thing we are wanting in is the
    recognition of the principle of fraternity. What does fraternity mean?
    Fraternity means a sense of common brotherhood of all Indians, all Indians being
    one people. It is a principle that gives solidarity to social life. It is
    difficult thing to achieve. It seems to me that there lies a heavy duty to see
    that democracy does not vanish from the earth as a governing principle of human
    relationship. If we believe in it, we must both be true and loyal to it. We must
    not only be staunch in our faith in democracy but we must resolve to see that
    whatever we do, we do not help the enemies of democracy to uproot the principles
    of liberty, equality and fraternity. It follows that we must strive along with
    other democratic countries to maintain the basis of democratic civilization. If
    democracy lives we are sure to reap the benefit of it. If democracy dies it will
    be our doom. On that there can be no doubt.



    The basis of my politics lies in the proposition
    that the Untouchables are not a sub-division or sub-section of Hindus, and that
    they are a separate and distinct element in the national life of
    India.



    The true function of law consists in repairing
    the faults in society. Unfortunately ancient societies never dared to assume the
    function of repairing their own defects; consequently they decayed. This country
    has seen the conflict between ecclesiastical law and secular law long before
    Europeans sought to challenge the authority of the Pope. Kautilya’s Arthshastra
    lays down the foundation of secular law. In India unfortunately ecclesiastical
    law triumphed over secular law. In my opinion this was the one of the greatest
    disasters in the country. The unprogressive nature of the Hindu society was due
    to the notion that the law cannot be changed.



    Civilization has never been a continuous
    process. There were states and societies which at one time had been civilised.
    In the course of time something happened which made these societies stagnant and
    decayed. This could be illustrated by India’s history itself. There could be no
    doubt that one of the countries which could boast of ancient civilization is
    India. When the inhabitants of Europe were living under the barbaric conditions,
    this country had reached the highest peak of civilization, it had parliamentary
    institutions when the people of Europe were mere nomads.



    I measure the progress of a community by the
    degree of progress which women have achieved.



    Justice has always evoked ideas of equality, of
    proportion of compensation. Equity signifies equality. Rules and regulations,
    right and righteousness are concerned with equality in value. If all men are
    equal, then all men are of the same essence, and the common essence entitles
    them of the same fundamental rights and equal liberty… In short justice is
    another name of liberty, equality and fraternity.



    Anyone who studies working of the system of
    social economy based on private enterprise and pursuit of personal gain will
    realise how it undermines, if it does not actually violate the individual rights
    on which democracy rests. How many have to relinquish their rights in order to
    gain their living? How many have to subject themselves to be governed by private
    employers?



    I hate injustice, tyranny, pompousness and
    humbug, and my hatred embraces all those who are guilty of them. I want to tell
    my critics that I regard my feelings of hatred as a real force. They are only
    the reflexes of love I bear for the causes I believe in and I am in no wise
    ashamed of it.



    Indifferentism is the worst kind of disease that
    can affect people.



    Political tyranny is nothing compared to the
    social tyranny and a reformer who defies society is a more courageous man than a
    politician who defies Government.



    Every man who repeats the dogma of Mill that one
    country is no fit to rule another country must admit that one class is not fit
    to rule another class.



    One cannot have any respect or regard for men
    who take the position of the reformer and then refuse to see the logical
    consequences of that position, let alone following them out in
    action.



    History shows that where ethics and economics
    come in conflict, victory is always with economics. Vested interests have never
    been known to have willingly divested themselves unless there was sufficient
    force to compel them.



    Slavery does not merely mean a legalised form of
    subjection. It means a state of society in which some men are forced to accept
    from others the purposes which control their conduct.



    This condition obtains even where there is no
    slavery in the legal sense. It is found where as in caste system, some persons
    are forced to carry on the prescribed callings which are not their
    choice.



    India is a peculiar country and her nationalists
    and patriots are a peculiar people. A patriot and a nationalist in India is one
    who sees with open eyes his fellow men treated as being less than man. But his
    humanity does not rise in protest. He knows that men and women for no cause are
    denied their rights. But it does not prick his civil sense of helpful action. He
    finds a whole class of people shut out from public employment. But it does not
    rouse his sense of justice and fair play. Hundreds of evil practices that injure
    man and society are perceived by him. But they do not sicken him with disgust.
    The patriot’s one cry is power for him and his class. I am glad I do not belong
    to that class of patriots. I belong to that class which takes its stand on
    democracy and which seeks to destroy monopoly in every form. Our aim is to
    realise in practice our ideal of one man one value in all walks of life -
    political, economical and social.



    There is no nation of Indians in the real sense
    of the world, it is yet to be created. In believing we are a nation, we are
    cherishing a great delusion. How can people divided into thousand of castes be a
    nation? The sooner we realise that we are not yet a nation, in a social and
    psychological sense of the world, the better for us.



    It is not enough to be electors only. It is
    necessary to be law-makers; otherwise those who can be law-makers ill be the
    masters of those who can only be electors.



    Walter Bagehot defined democracy as ‘ Government
    by discussion’. Abraham Lincoln defined democracy as ‘ A Government of the
    people, by the people and for the people’.

    My definition of democracy is - A form and a method of
    Government whereby revolutionary changes in the social life are brought about
    without bloodshed. That is the real test. It is perhaps the severest test. But
    when you are judging the quality of the material you must put it to the severest
    test.



    Democracy is not merely a form of Government. It
    is primarily a mode of associated living, of conjoint communicated experience.
    It is essentially an attitude of respect and reverence towards our fellow
    men.



    A democratic form of Government presupposes a
    democratic form of a society, The formal framework of democracy is of no value
    and would indeed be a misfit if there was no social democracy. It may not be
    necessary for a democratic society to be marked by unity, by community of
    purpose, by loyalty to public ends and by mutuality of sympathy. But it does
    unmistakably involve two things. The first is an attitude of mind, and attitude
    of respect and equality towards their fellows. The second is a social
    organisation free from rigid social barriers. Democracy is incompatible and
    inconsistent with isolation and exclusiveness resulting in the distinction
    between the privileged and the unprivileged.



    Democracy is not a Form of Government, but a
    form of social organisation.



    What we must do is not to content ourselves with
    mere political democracy. We must make our political democracy a social
    democracy as well. Political democracy cannot last unless there is at the base
    of it, a social democracy. What does social democracy mean? It means a way of
    life which recognises liberty, equality and fraternity as the principles of
    life. These principles of liberty, equality and fraternity are not to be treated
    as separate items. They form a union in the sense that, to divorce one from the
    other is to defeat the very purpose of democracy. Liberty cannot be divorced
    from equality, nor can liberty and equality be divorced from
    fraternity.



    Without social union, political unity is
    difficult to be achieved. If achieved, it would be as precarious as a summer
    sapling, liable to be uprooted by the gust of wind. With mere political unity,
    India may be a state. But to be a state is not to be a nation and a state which
    is not a nation has small prospects of survival in the struggle of existence.
    This is especially true where nationalism - the most dynamic force of modern
    times, is seeking everywhere to free itself by the destruction and disruption of
    all mixed states. The danger to a mixed and composite state, therefore lies not
    so much in external aggression as in the internal resurgence of nationalities
    which are fragmented, entrapped, suppressed and held against their
    will.



    The idea of fundamental rights has become a
    familiar one since their enactment in the American Constitution and in the
    Constitution framed by the Revolutionary France. The idea of making a gift of
    fundamental rights to every individual is no doubt very laudable. The question
    is how to make them effective? The prevalent view is that once the rights are
    enacted in law then they are safeguarded. This again is an unwarranted
    assumption. As experience proves, rights are protected not by law but by social
    and moral conscience of the society. If social conscience is such that it is
    prepared to recognise the rights which law proposes to enact, rights will be
    safe and secure. But if the fundamental rights are opposed by the community, no
    Law, no Parliament, no Judiciary can guarantee them in the real sense of the
    world. What is the use of Fundamental rights to the Untouchables in India? As
    Burke said, there is no method found for punishing the multitude. Law can punish
    a single solitary recalcitrant criminal. It can never operate against the whole
    body of people who choose to defy it. Social conscience is the only safeguard of
    all rights, fundamental or non-fundamental.



    Rights are real only if they are accompanied by
    remedies. It is no use giving rights if the aggrieved person has no legal remedy
    to which he can resort when his rights are invaded.



    Lost rights are never regained by appeals to the
    conscience of the usurpers, but by relentless struggle…. Goats are used for
    sacrificial offerings and not lions.



    Life should be great rather than
    long.



    For a successful revolution it is not enough
    that there is discontent. What is required is a profound and thorough conviction
    of the justice, necessity and importance of political and social
    rights.



    I feel that the constitution is workable, it is
    flexible and it is strong enough to hold the country together both in peacetime
    and in wartime. Indeed, if I may say so, if things go wrong under the new
    Constitution, the reason will not be that we had a bad Constitution. What we
    will have to say is that Man was vile.



    Equality may be a fiction but nonetheless one
    must accept it as a governing principle.



    What are we having this liberty for? We are
    having this liberty in order to reform our social system, which is full of
    inequality, discrimination and other things, which conflict with our fundamental
    rights.



    Our object in framing the Constitution is rally
    two-fold: (1) To lay down the form of political democracy, and (2) To lay down
    that our ideal is economic democracy and also to prescribe that every Government
    whatever is in power shall strive to bring about economic democracy. The
    directive principles have a great value, for they lay down that our ideal is
    economic democracy.



    If I find the constitution being misused, I
    shall be the first to burn it.



    On the 26th January 1950, we are going to enter
    into a life of contradictions. In politics we will have equality and in social
    and economic life we will have inequality. In politics we will be recognising
    the principle of one man one vote and one vote one value. In our social and
    economic life, we shall by reason of our social and economic structure, continue
    to deny the principle of one man one value. How long shall we continue to live
    this life of contradictions? How long shall we continue to deny equality in our
    social and economic life? If we continue to deny it for long, we will do so only
    by putting our political democracy in peril. We must remove this contradiction
    at the earliest possible moment else those who suffer from inequality will blow
    up the structure of democracy which this Constituent Assembly has so laboriously
    built up.



    There can be no gain saying that political power
    in this country has too long been the monopoly of the few, and the many are not
    beasts of burden but also beasts of prey.



    The monopoly has not merely deprived them of
    their chance of betterment, it has sapped them of what may be called the
    significance of life. Those downtrodden classes are tired of being governed.
    They are impatient to govern themselves. This urge of self-realisation in the
    downtrodden must not be allowed to devolve into class struggle or class war. It
    would lead to the division of the House. That would indeed be a day of disaster.
    For, as has been well-said by Abraham Lincoln: “A house divided against cannot
    stand very long”. Therefore the sooner room is made for realisation of their
    aspiration, the better for the few, the better for the country, the better for
    the independence and the better for the continuance of its democratic structure.
    This can only be done by the establishment of equality and fraternity in all
    walks of life.



    It is disgraceful to live at the cost of one’s
    self-respect. Self-respect is the most vital factor in life. Without it, man is
    a cipher. To live worthily with self-respect, one has to overcome difficulties.
    It is out of hard and ceaseless struggle alone that one derives strength,
    confidence and recognition.



    Cultivation of mind should be the ultimate aim
    of human existence.



    Sincerity is the sum of all moral
    qualities.



    Man is mortal. Everyone has to die some day or
    the other. But one must resolve to lay down one’s life in enriching the noble
    ideals of self-respect and in bettering one’s human life. We are not slaves.
    Nothing is more disgraceful for a brave man than to live life devoid of
    self-respect.



    My social philosophy may be said to be enshrined
    in three words: liberty, equality and fraternity. My philosophy has roots in
    religion and not in political science. I have derived them from the teachings of
    my master, the Buddha.



    Emerson has said that consistency is a virtue of
    an ass. No thinking human being can be tied down to a view once expressed in the
    name of consistency. More important than consistency is responsibility. A
    responsible person must learn to unlearn what he has learned. A responsible
    person must have the courage to rethink and change his thoughts. Of course there
    must be good and sufficient reason for unlearning what he has learned and for
    recasting his thoughts. There can be no finality in rethinking.



    John Dewey said: “Every society gets encumbered
    with what is trivial, with what is dead wood from the past and what is
    positively perverse. As a society becomes more enlightened, it realises that it
    is responsible not to conserve and transmit the whole of its achievement, but
    only such as makes a better future society”



    There is nothing fixed, nothing eternal, nothing
    sanatan; everything is changing, change is the law of life for individuals as
    well as for society. In a changing society there must be constant revolution of
    old values.



    No civilised society of today presents more
    survivals of primitive times than does the Indian society. Its religion is
    essentially primitive and its tribal code, in spite of the advance of time and
    civilization, operates in all its pristine vigor even today. Indian society
    still savors of the clan system, even though there are no clans.



    An ideal society should be mobile, should be
    full of channels for conveying a change taking place in one part to other parts.
    In an ideal society there should be many interests consciously communicated and
    shared.



    The strength of a society depends upon the
    presence of points of contacts, possibilities of interaction between different
    groups that exist in it. These are what Carlyle calls “Organic filaments”, i.e.
    the elastic threads which helps to bring the disintegrating elements together
    and to reunite them.



    Heroes and hero-worship is a hard fact in
    India’s political life. I agree that hero-worship is demoralising for the
    devotee and dangerous to the country. I welcome the criticism so far as it
    conveys the caution that you must know your man is really great before you start
    worshipping him. This unfortunately is not an easy task. For in these days with
    the Press in hand it is easy to manufacture Great Men. Carlyle used a happy
    phrase when he described the Great Men of history as so many bank notes. Like
    bank notes they represent gold. What we have to see that they are not forged
    notes. I admit that we ought to be more cautious in our worship of Great Men.
    For in this country we have arrived at such a stage when alongside the notice
    boards saying “Beware of pickpockets”, we need to have notice boards saying
    “Beware of Great Men”. Even Carlyle who defended the worship of Great Men warned
    his readers how: “Multitudes of Great Men have figured in history who were false
    and selfish “.



    Hero-worship in the sense of expressing our
    unbound admiration is one thing. To obey the hero is a totally different kind of
    worship. There is nothing wrong in the former while the latter is no doubt a
    most pernicious thing. The former is man’s respect for which is noble and of
    which the great men are only an embodiment. The latter is the serf’s fealty to
    his lord. The former is consistent with respect, but the latter is a sign of
    debasement. The former does not take away one’s intelligence to think and
    independence to act. The latter makes one perfect fool. The former involves no
    disaster to the state. The latter is a source of positive danger to
    it.



    In India, ‘Bhakti’ or what may be called the
    path of devotion or hero-worship plays a part in politics unequalled in
    magnitude by the part it plays in the politics of any other of the world.
    ‘Bhakti’ in religion may be a road to salvation of the soul. But in politics,
    ‘Bhakti’ or hero-worship is a sure road to degradation and to eventual
    dictatorship.



    The questions which President Roosevelt
    propounded for the American public to consider will arise here, if they have not
    already arisen: Who shall rule - wealth or man? Which shall lead - money or
    intellect? Who shall fill the public stations - educated and patriotic free men
    or the feudal serf’s of the corporate capital? For the president, Indian
    politics, at any rate the Hindu part of it, instead of being spiritualised has
    become grossly commercialised, so much so that it has become a byword for
    corruption. Many men of culture are refusing to concern themselves in this
    cesspool. Politics has become a kind of sewage system intolerably unsavory and
    insanitary. To become a politician is like going to work in the
    drain.



    History bears out the proposition that political
    revolutions have always been preceded by social and religious revolutions.
    Social reform in India has few friends and many critics.



    Law and order are the medicine of the body
    politic and when the body politic gets sick, medicine must be
    administered.



    The world owes much to rebels who would dare to
    argue in the face of the pontiff (high priest) and insist that he is not
    infallible.



    A people and their religion must be judged by
    social standards based on social ethics. No other standard would have any
    meaning if religion is held to be necessary good for the well-being of the
    people.



    Ethnologists are of the opinion that men of pure
    race exist nowhere and that there has been admixture of all races in all parts
    of the world - especially is this the case with the people if India. Mr. D.R.
    Bhandarkar has stated: “There is hardly a class or caste in India which has not
    a foreign strain in it. There is as an admixture of alien blood not only among
    the warrior classes - the Rajputs and Marathas - but among the Brahmins who are
    under the happy delusion that they are free from all foreign
    elements.



    The question is not whether a community lives or
    dies, the question is on what plane does it live. There are different modes of
    survival. But all are not equally honorable. For an individual as well as a
    society, there is a gulf between merely living and living worthily. To fight in
    a battle and live in a glory is one mode. To beat a retreat to surrender and to
    live the life of a captive is also a mode of survival.



    The sovereignty of scriptures of all religions
    must come to an end if we want to have a united integrated modern
    India.



    Law and religion are two forces which govern the
    conduct of men. At times they act as handmaids to each other. At other times
    they act as check and counter-check. Of the two forces, Law is personal while
    religion is impersonal. Law being personal it is capable of being unjust and
    iniquitous. But religion being impersonal, it can be impartial, it is capable of
    defeating the inequity committed by law. Religion is believed to ennoble man and
    not degrade him. Hinduism is an exception.



    I like the religion that teaches liberty,
    equality & fraternity.

    The relationship
    between husband & wife should be one of closest friends.


    To open or not to open the temples is a question
    for you to consider & not for me to agitate. If u think it is bad manners
    not to believe in the sanctity of human beings, then throw open the doors &
    be a gentleman, but if u wish to remain a orthodox Hindu then shut the doors
    & damn yourself, for I don’t care to come.

    We are Indians, firstly & lastly

    Given the time & circumstances, nothing under the sun
    shall stop this country from becoming a super power.

    Being grateful has limitations, no man can be grateful at
    the cost of his dignity, no woman at the cost of her chastity & no country
    at the cost of its freedom.

    I hope that
    Mr. Gandhi will not drive me to the necessity of making a choice between his
    life & rights of my people, for I shall never consent to deliver my people
    bound hand & foot to the orthodox for generations to come.


    A great man is different from an eminent one in that he is
    ready to be the servant of the society.


    So long as you do not achieve social liberty,
    whatever freedom is provided by the law is of no avail to you.



    On 26th Jan. 1950,India will be an independent
    country. What would happen to her independence? Will she maintain or will she
    lose it again? This is the first thought that comes to my mind.It is not that
    India was never an independent country. The point is that she once lost the
    independence she had. Will she lose it a second time? It is this thought which
    makes makes me most anxious for the future. What perturbs me greatly is the fact
    that not only India has once beforelost her independence, but she lost it by
    treachery of some of her own people…
    Will history repeat itself ?It is this
    thought which fills me with anxiety. This anxiety is deepened by the realization
    of the fact that in addition to our old enemies in the form of castes
    &creeds, we are going to have many political parties with diverse &
    opposing political creeds. Will Indians place the country above their creed or
    creed above their country? I do not know, But this much is certain that if the
    parties place creed above country, our independence will be put in jeopardy a
    second time & probably be lost forever. This eventuality we all must
    resolutely guard against. We must be determined to defend our independence with
    the last drop of our blood!



    Send e-mail to dalits@ambedkar.org with questions or comments about this web site.

    No Copyright © 2000 dalit e-forum
    Last modified: April 06, 2000


    comments (0)
    2512 Thu 25 Jan 2018 LESSON We are Indians, firstly and lastly.” – B. R. Ambedkar Why We Celebrate Republic day
    Filed under: General
    Posted by: site admin @ 9:40 am


     2512 Thu 25 Jan 2018 LESSON

    We are Indians, firstly and lastly.” – B. R. Ambedkar

    Why We Celebrate Republic day


    On January 26, 1950, the Constitution of India, drafted by Dr BR
    Ambedkar, came into force and replaced the Government of India Act,
    1935, as the governing document of the country, completing the
    transition towards becoming a sovereign democratic republic. The
    constitution was passed on November 26, 1949.

    However, because
    the Indian National Congress had passed a resolution in 1930, fixing
    January 26 as the independence day, the assembly, after passing the
    constitution, decided to wait till January 26, 1950, to bring it (the
    constitution) into force.

    January 26 Indian republic day 2018 Celebration and Its Importance

    Celebration of the Republic day

    Importance of Republic day


    Indian national flag has horizontally tricolor upper saffron, middle
    white and bottom of dark green color divided between the equal
    proportion and a wheel navy blue color, having 24 spokes in the center
    representing the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka.

    Republic Day is
    the symbol of true spirit for the independent India where military
    parades, exhibiting military equipment, salute to the national flag by
    the Indian president and variety of events are take place at this day.


    India is a country having people of different cultures, societies,
    religions, and languages who interplay with each other harmoniously.
    Independence to the India is the great pride as it obtained over the
    years after facing a variety of obstacles and hurdles.

    The day is
    celebrated every year to feel the Indian people very proud for living
    in the multicultural and independent country. Republic Day celebrated in
    very colorful and exhilarating ways to make the memorable and
    significant celebration of the year. National Anthem is sing by the
    people participated in the ceremony. This festival brings all the Indian
    people together at one place and thinks of one topic.

    Short Speech and the Paragraph About Republic day


    Republic day in India is celebrated every year with a large honor on
    26th of January to honor the Constitution of India as it came into force
    on the same day in the year 1950. It had replaced the Government of
    India Act, 1935 into the governing document of the India.

    At this
    day, a national holiday is declared by the Indian Government. The new
    Indian constitution was sketched and approved by the Indian Constituent
    Assembly and decided to celebrate it on 26th of January every year as
    India became a republic country.

    Republic Day in India is
    celebrated to commemorate the coming of its constitution into force.
    Officially it is celebrated every year in the national capital of India
    New Delhi at the Rajpath in the presence of the President of India.


    Republic Day is celebrated to commemorate the efforts of
    constitution-makers who ensured the smooth, gradual conversion of India
    into a constitutional democracy. Our nation had not inherited a legacy
    like Magna Carta. After almost 1200 years of authoritarian and
    imperialist rule, this was the first occasion when the country attained
    self-rule along with a system to safeguard it.

    To commemorate the
    historic day when the longest constitution on the globe was enacted for
    the largest democracy in the world, a series of official events are
    planned in the national capital. A grand parade, involving all the three
    wings of the armed forces march from Raisina Hill, paying salutations
    to the President of India, who is also the Commander-in-chief of the
    Defence forces. The parade moves from Rashtrapati Bhawan to the India
    Gate and ends at the historic Red Fort.

    Apart from the military
    wings, tribal and folk groups representing their respective states also
    take part in the parade. All governmental buildings are lightened for
    the entire week in NCR region and a national holiday is observed
    nationwide.

    The Constitution gave the citizens of India the power to choose their own government and paved the way for democracy.

    Republic Day Images and Wallpapers 2018



    January 26 Indian republic day 2018 Celebration and Its Importance

    Celebration of the Republic day

    Read more https://www.iaspaper.net/india-republic-day/

    comments (0)
    2511 Wed 24 Jan 2018 LESSON 1 Classical Pāḷi Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā 23 Classical English Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University and related NEWS through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org in
105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGE Tipiṭaka Studies for University Students in 86 Classical Slovak-Klasický slovenský,87 Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,88 Classical Somali-Fasalka Soomaliyeed,89 Classical Spanish-Español clásico, 90 Classical Sundanese-Sunda Klasik,
    Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
    Posted by: site admin @ 9:33 am

     2511 Wed 24 Jan 2018 LESSON


    1 Classical Pāḷi


    Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya  http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā


    23 Classical English

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    CLASSICAL LANGUAGE


    Tipiṭaka Studies for University Students

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    https://www.dhamma.ru/sadhu/75-chanting_-_songs


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    https://www.dhamma.ru/sadhu/75-chanting_-_songs
    Theravāda Buddhism Web Directory
    Add Entry
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    86 Classical Slovak
    86 Klasický slovenský

    Analytic Insight Net - bezplatná on-line Tipiṭaka Research and Practice Univerzita a súvisiace NEWS prostredníctvom http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org v 105 Klasické jazyky
    Chanting & Songs
    Sobhana.net - An Audio-Visual Library of Theravada Buddhism
    Website: http://sobhana.net/audio/index.htm
    Description:


    - English Dhamma talks by well known teachers such as Bhikkhu Bodhi and
    Ven. Narada Thera, Bhante Punnaji and Bhante Yogavacara Rahula;
    - Sutta chants in Pali, the original language of the Buddha;
    - Sinhala Dhamma talks by well known teachers such as Madihe Pannasiha Thera, Narada Thera, Gangodawila Soma Thera and others.

    Chanting Guide
    Website: http://www.accesstoinsight.org/…/au…/dhammayut/chanting.html
    Description:


    An online edition of “A Chanting Guide,” translated from Pali to
    English by Phra Ajaan Thanissaro Bhikkhu, Abbot of Wat Metta, and
    published by the Dhammayut Order in the United States of America.
    Includes Pali passages with English translations for various types of
    chants, including reflections and discourses.

    See also: Lay Buddhist Practice
    http://www.accesstoinsight.org/…/a…/khantipalo/wheel206.html
    Audio-Tipitaka
    Website: http://www.audtip.org/
    Description:

    Sutta Readings in Pali, English and More.


    Pali Chanting by the Wat Metta Sangha
    Website: http://dhammatalks.org/chant_index.html
    Description:

    Chants from “A Chanting Guide”, published by The Dhammayut Order in the United States of America.
    Paritta Suttas Protection Discourses
    Website: http://www.softerviews.org/AIM/paritta.html
    Description:


    Parittas, with full Pali texts, recited by Mingun Sayadaw U
    Vicittasara. You can also watch a YouTube video of the same discourses
    recited by Sayadaw U Candasiri.


    Chanting at Wat Pah Nanachat
    Website: http://www.watpahnanachat.org/Mp3/Chanting/
    Description:

    A Night of Shining Prosperity
    Chanting as a practice (Kevali Bhikkhu Oct 18 2010)
    Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta
    Dhammapahansa
    Faith in the Tathagata
    First and Last Words
    Mindfulness of Breathing
    Ovadapatimokkha
    Secure Refuge
    Sharing Merit
    The Noble Eightfold Path

    See also: http://www.watpahnanachat.org/mp3playWPNAudio.php


    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dj87Q4v9PUI
    87 Classical Slovenian
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    https://www.youtube.com/watch…
    The Voice of the Buddha

    Benoy Behl
    Published on Jul 22, 2014
    Film about the International Tripitaka Chanting and other activities of the Light of Buddhadharma Foundation.
    Category
    Film & Animation
    https://www.youtube.com/watch…


    88 Classical Somali
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    Analytical Insight Net - Barta Internetka ee ‘Tipiṭaka Jaamacadda Cilmi-baarista iyo Tababarka’ iyo ‘NEWS’ iyada oo loo marayo http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org ee 105 LANGUAGE LANGUAGE




    Explore the music of Stevie Wonder: https://lnk.to/SeD4G For…

    https://www.youtube.com/watch…

    89 Classical Spanish
    89 Español clásico

    Analytic Insight Net - GRATIS en línea Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University y NOTICIAS relacionadas a través de http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org en 105 IDIOMAS CLÁSICOS


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    Devi Dhyani- Energy Enhancement Meditation Courses; Free Reiki Mastery
    using Secret Meditations decoded from Ancient Symbols
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    Angklung : Sundanese Culture Musical Instruments - West Java



    Posted by Calon Sultan

    Posted on Sunday, December 14, 2014
    with

    Angklung is a musical instrument played by means of bamboo which vibrated. The sound produced is the effect of the collision bamboo tubes that make up the instrument. These instruments are classified into types idiofon or instrument sound source music that comes from the base ingredients. Angklung is generally known from the area of West Java. Since November 2010, UNESCO named him as one of the world cultural heritage, with the category of Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.

    etymology
    The word comes from the angklung supposedly Sundanese (angkleung-angkleungan), which describes the motion of the body of the players Angklung swaying with the rhythm of the sound. However, there are also who believe the word is derived from Klung angklung, an imitation of the sound of the bamboo instrument. While one other theory states, the word angklung” comes from the Balinese language, which is a number and lung. Figures mean tone, while the mean lung broken, or in other words, angklung meaningful tone incomplete.






    Angklung History
    According to Dr. Groneman, Angklung has been there in the land of the archipelago, even before the era of Hinduism. According to Jaap Kunst in his book Music in Java, other than in West Java, Angklung can also be found in South Sumatra and Kalimantan. Beyond that, the people of Lampung, East Java and Central Java are also familiar with the instrument.

    In the Hindu era, the era of the Kingdom of Sunda, Angklung become an important instrument in various celebrations, especially with regard to the rites of planting, especially rice. In the neighborhood of the Kingdom of Sunda, recorded since the 7th century, Angklung played as a form of worship to Dewi Sri (the goddess of rice / goddess of fertility), that He bestows his blessing on plants and people’s lives. Not only as a medium of worship of the gods, in the days of the Kingdom of Sunda, Angklung is also a musical instrument played as morale boosters in the war, including the Bubat War, as told in the Song of Sunda.

    Today, an instrument Angklung Angklung gubrag oldest preserved. Angklung is made in the 17th century in Jasinga, Bogor. Other ancient angklung can still track down there in Sri Baduga Museum, London. Meanwhile, the old tradition of Angklung that can be found in communities Baduy (Baduy), precisely in Lebak, Banten. To this day, they are still functioning as the angklung which inherited his ancestors, which accompany the rite planting.

    In 1938, Daeng Soetigna, citizens of Bandung, create angklung with diatonic scales. Angklung Daeng Sutigna innovation is different from the angklung in general are based on scales trradisional pelog or salendro. Innovation is then made freely angklung can be played in harmony with Western musical instruments, and even can be presented in the form of an orchestra. Since then, more and reap Angklung popularity, until finally the United Nations, through UNESCO, on 18 November 2012, recognizing it as a world heritage that must be preserved. After Daeng Soetigna, one of his students, Udjo Ngalagena, continuing efforts to popularize Angklung Master findings, with the established “Saung Angklung in Bandung. To this day, the place came to be known as the Saung Angklung Udjo is still a center of creativity with regard to Angklung

    Types of Angklung

         angklung Kanekes

    Angklung Angklung Kanekes is played by the public Baduy (Baduy), in Banten. As mentioned earlier, Angklung traditions that exist in Baduy community is fairly ancient, and still preserved as exemplified function of their ancestors, which accompany the rite planting (rice). In Kanekes community, which is divided into two groups, ie groups Outer Baduy (Kajeroan) and group Baduy (Kaluaran Affairs), which is entitled to make Angklung just Jero Bedouin citizens, it was not everyone, but only those who become children of Angklung maker. Meanwhile, residents of Outer Baduy not make Angklung, but just bought it from Bedouin citizens Jero. The names of Angklung in Kanekes of the largest are: ovaries, ringkung, Dongdong, gossip, engklok, ovary leutik, torolok, and roel.

          

       Angklung Dogdog Lojor

    Art Dogdog Lojor contained in Kasepuhan Pancer Pangawinan communities, which inhabit about Mountain Mist, which borders the region of Jakarta, Bogor and Lebak. Lojor Dogdog term itself actually taken from the name of one of the instruments in this tradition, namely Dogdog Lojor. However, Angklung also get a portion that is no less important here, especially in the function of tradition, ie, as a companion planting rites. Having people there to Islam, in its development, the arts are also used to accompany circumcision and marriage. In Dogdog Lojor art, there are two instruments Dogdog Lojor and 4 large angklung instruments.

         angklung Badeng

    Badeng an Angklung art that uses as its main instrument. There Badeng Art Sanding Village, District Malangbong, Garut. Along with the development of Islam, Art Badeng also used for the purposes of propaganda and entertainment. However, it is believed in the art Badeng Angklung also have the same roots, namely as a companion planting rites. In Badeng arts, played 9 pieces Angklung, namely 2 roel angklung, angklung kecer 1, 4 Angklung Angklung ovary and father, 2 children angklung; 2 pieces dogdog, 2 fruit fly or Gembyung, and 1 manacle.
    In addition to the three above Angklung arts tradition, many other areas in West Java which also inherited the tradition of Angklung, call it Angklung Beans (Priangan / Bandung), Angklung Badud (East Priangan / Kudat), and Angklung Bungko (Indramayu).

          

     

     angklung Padaeng

    Angklung Angklung Padaeng is now widely known, namely Angklung Daeng Soetigna results innovation, which uses diatonic scales. In line with the theory of music, specifically the Angklung Padaeng grouped into two, namely: Angklung Angklung melody and accompaniment. Angklung melody is specifically consists of two tubes with different voice tones one octave. In one unit of angklung, generally there are 31 small and 11 Angklung Angklung melody great melody. Meanwhile, Angklung Angklung accompaniment is used as a companion to play tones harmony. Voice tube consists of 3 to 4, according to the diatonic chord. After Daeng Soetigna innovation, other reforms to the angklung continues to grow. Some of them are: Angklung Sarinande, Arumba, Angklung Toel, and Angklung Sri Murni.

    Angklung Playing Techniques



    Plays an angklung is basically very simple, ie, one hand holding the frame angklung, and the other hand swing to produce sound. There are three basic techniques wiggle angklung, namely:

         Kurulung (shakes), is the most common technique used, where one hand holding the frame angklung, and the other shaking the angklung for the desired tone, until the tubes one after clashing bamboo and produce sound.
         Trowel (jerky), which is a technique in which the base tube is pulled quickly by the fingers into the palm of the right hand, so angklung will beep once (stacato).
         Tengkep, ie similar techniques as kurulung, but one of the tubes being held not vibrating.



    92) Classical Sundanese

    2438 Jumatatu 12 Novemba 2017 Somo

    Tipitaka

    Tipitaka (Pali, “tatu,” + pitaka, “vikapu”),
    au canon ya Pali, ni mkusanyiko wa maandiko ya lugha ya msingi ya Pali ambayo
    fanya msingi wa mafundisho ya Buddha ya Theravada. Tipitaka na
    maandishi ya Paracanonical Pali (maoni, historia, nk) pamoja ni mwili kamili wa maandiko ya Theravada.

    Ya
    Pali Canon ni mwili mkubwa wa vitabu: tafsiri ya Kiingereza the
    maandiko huongeza hadi maelfu ya kurasa zilizochapishwa. Wengi (lakini si wote) wa
    Canon tayari imechapishwa kwa Kiingereza zaidi ya miaka. Ingawa
    sehemu ndogo ndogo ya maandiko haya inapatikana kwenye tovuti hii, hii
    ukusanyaji unaweza kuwa mahali pazuri kuanza.

    Migawanyiko matatu ya Tipitaka ni:

    Vinaya Pitaka
        
    Mkusanyiko wa maandiko kuhusu sheria za maadili zinazosimamia
    mambo ya kila siku ndani ya Sangha - jumuiya ya bhikkhus (watawala
    waliowekwa rasmi) na bhikkhunis (waliowekwa
        
    wasomi). Mbali zaidi ya orodha tu ya sheria, Vinaya Pitaka pia
        
    inajumuisha hadithi nyuma ya asili ya kila utawala, kutoa
        
    maelezo ya kina ya ufumbuzi wa Buddha kwa swali la jinsi ya
        
    kudumisha umoja wa jumuiya ndani ya kiroho kubwa na tofauti
        
    jumuiya.
    Sutta Pitaka
        
    Ya
        
    ukusanyaji wa sutta, au mazungumzo, yaliyotokana na Buddha na wachache
        
    wa wanafunzi wake wa karibu, yaliyo na mafundisho yote ya kati ya
        
    Buddha ya Theravada. (Tafsiri zaidi ya elfu moja ya sutta ni
        
    inapatikana kwenye tovuti hii.) Suttas imegawanywa kati ya nikayas tano (makusanyo):

            Digha Nikaya - “mkusanyiko mrefu”
            
    Majjhima Nikaya - “ukusanyaji wa urefu wa katikati”
            
    Samyutta Nikaya - “ukusanyaji wa makundi”
            
    Anguttara Nikaya - “mkusanyiko wa zaidi”
            
    Khuddaka Nikaya - “ukusanyaji wa maandiko madogo”:
                
    Khuddakapatha
                
    Dhammapada
                
    Udana
                
    Itivuttaka
                
    Sutta Nipata
                
    Vimanavatthu
                
    Petavatthu
                
    Theragatha
                
    Therigatha
                
    Jataka
                
    Niddesa
                
    Patisambhidamagga
                
    Apadana
                
    Buddhavamsa
                
    Cariyapitaka
                
    Nettippakarana (ni pamoja na tu katika toleo la Kiburma la Tipitaka)
                
    Petakopadesa (””)
                
    Milindapañha (””)

    Abhidhamma Pitaka
        
    Ya
        
    ukusanyaji wa maandiko ambayo misingi ya mafundisho ya msingi
        
    iliyotolewa katika Pitta ya Sutta inafanywa upya na kuandaliwa upya katika
        
    mfumo wa utaratibu ambao unaweza kutumika kwa uchunguzi katika
        
    asili ya akili na suala.



    English Subtitles Singers: Babul Supriyo, Mahalakshmi Iyer,…
    youtube.com

    https://www.youtube.com/watch…
    Sai Htee Saing - စဥ္းစားပါဦး (Sinn Sarr Par Own)
    2,021,857 views
    91 Classical Swahili

    Uchambuzi Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Utafiti na Mazoezi Chuo Kikuu na NEWS kuhusiana na http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org katika 105 LANGUAGES CLASSICAL
    Yukon Sai
    Published on Sep 1, 2010
    The song is from the Unplugged Live of U Sai Htee Saing. Title
    “စဥ္းစားပါဦး (Sinn Sarr Par Own)” means “Pls,, Think”. The Lyrics is so
    cool ~~~
    Category
    Music


    The song is from the Unplugged Live of U Sai Htee Saing. Title…

    comments (0)
    2511 Wed 24 Jan 2018 LESSON 1 Classical Pāḷi Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā 23 Classical English Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University and related NEWS through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org in
105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGE Tipiṭaka Studies for University Students in 92 Classical Swedish-klassisk svenska,93 Classical Tajik-тоҷикӣ классикӣ,94 Classical Tamil-செம்மொழி தமிழ்,94 Classical Telugu-క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు
    Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
    Posted by: site admin @ 8:42 am


     2511 Wed 24 Jan 2018 LESSON


    1 Classical Pāḷi




    23 Classical English

    Analytic Insight  Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University
    and related NEWS through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org in
105
    CLASSICAL LANGUAGE


    Tipiṭaka Studies for University Students

    in

    92 Classical Swedish-klassisk svenska,93 Classical Tajik-тоҷикӣ классикӣ,94 Classical Tamil-செம்மொழி தமிழ்,94 Classical Telugu-క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు

    https://www.youtube.com/watch…

    92 Classical Swedish
    92 klassisk svenska

    Analytisk Insight Net - GRATIS Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University och relaterade NYHETER via http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org i 105 klassiska språk


    Swedish Radio Symphony Orcestra. Esa-Pekka Salonen. Overture from’ Pastoral Suite’ Lars Erik Larsson’s Pastoral Suite is music…

    https://www.youtube.com/watch…

    93 Classical Tajik
    93 тоҷикӣ классикӣ

    Аналитик Insight Net - Бюллетенҳои онлайн дар сомонаҳои тадқиқотӣ ва таҷрибаомӯзӣ ва NEWS аз тариқи http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org дар 105 лингвистикӣ классикӣ
    (Tajik Music) Jurabek Murodov | Munojot
    18,933 views
    xorasun
    Published on Jun 28, 2009
    One of the most popular tenors of Tajik classical music - Shashmaqom -
    Jurabek Murodov brings you this song for your enjoyable listening.
    Jurabek Murodov was born in 1942 in Tajikistan. He earned a
    highly-esteemed title of the People’s Artist of the USSR in 1979.

    She’r az Tughral. Enjoy the song!
    Category
    Music


    One of the most popular tenors of Tajik classical music - Shashmaqom - Jurabek Murodov brings you this song for your…


    https://www.youtube.com/watch…
    Divine Chants of Buddha By Hariharan
    http://www.tipitaka.org/taml/
    Tipiṭaka (Tamil)
    திபிடக (மூல)
    அட்ட²கதா²
    டீகா
    அன்ய


    Bhajan: Buddham Sharanam Gachchami I The Three Jewels Of Buddhism
    Album Name: Buddham Sharanam Gachchami
    Singer: Hariharan
    Music Director: Shailendra Bhartti
    Lyrics: Traditional
    Voice: O.P. Rathore
    Music Label: T-Series

    Subscribe: http://www.youtube.com/tseriesbhakti
    Bhakti Sagar: http://www.facebook.com/tseriesbhakti
    To set popular Bhakti Dhun as your HelloTune, Airtel subscribers Dial 57878881 (toll free)
    For Spiritual Voice Alerts, Airtel subscribers Dial 589991 (toll free)


    https://www.galatta.com/…/class…/ancient-buddha-chants/1153/
    Ancient Buddha Chants
    94 Classical Tamil
    94 செம்மொழி தமிழ்

    பகுப்பாய்வு இன்சைட் நிகர - இலவச ஆன்லைன் Tipiṭaka ஆராய்ச்சி மற்றும் பயிற்சி பல்கலைக்கழகம் மற்றும் தொடர்புடைய செய்திகள் மூலம் http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 105 கிளாசிக் மொழிகளில்

    # Tracks Singers Length Likes
    1
    Biddham Saranam Gacchami
    2.35
    2
    Buddhavandana
    26.52
    3
    Dhammam Saranam Gacchami
    2.83
    4
    Dhammapada
    2.58
    5
    Dhammavandana
    0.88
    6
    Namo Tassa Bhagavato
    0.88
    7
    Pancha Sheelang
    1.37
    8
    Sangaham Saranam Gachaami
    0.80
    9
    Sanghavandana
    1.38
    10
    Vandana
    19.08

    Inline image 2


    https://www.youtube.com/watch…
    http://www.tipitaka.org/telu/

    94 Classical Telugu


    94 క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు

    విశ్లేషణాత్మక
    ఇన్సైట్ నెట్ - ఉచిత ఆన్లైన్ Tipiṭaka రీసెర్చ్ అండ్ ప్రాక్టీస్
    విశ్వవిద్యాలయం మరియు సంబంధిత న్యూస్ ద్వారా http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
    105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

    Tipiṭaka (Telugu)
    తిపిటక (మూల)
    అట్ఠకథా
    టీకా
    అన్య
    Meditation Buddhist Chants - Indian Version
    71,459 views
    Anakaric Dharma
    Published on Jun 9, 2012
    Words have the power to both destroy and heal. When words are both true and kind, they can change our world.

    By Buddha
    Category
    Music


    Words have the power to both destroy and heal. When words are both true and kind, they can change our world. By Buddha
    comments (0)
    2511 Wed 24 Jan 2018 LESSON 1 Classical Pāḷi Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā 23 Classical English Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University and related NEWS through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org in
105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGE Tipiṭaka Studies for University Students in 92 Classical Swedish-klassisk svenska,93 Classical Tajik-тоҷикӣ классикӣ,94 Classical Tamil-செம்மொழி தமிழ்,94 Classical Telugu-క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు
    Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
    Posted by: site admin @ 8:32 am


     2511 Wed 24 Jan 2018 LESSON


    1 Classical Pāḷi



    23 Classical English

    Analytic Insight  Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University
    and related NEWS through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org in
105
    CLASSICAL LANGUAGE


    Tipiṭaka Studies for University Students

    in

    92 Classical Swedish-klassisk svenska,93 Classical Tajik-тоҷикӣ классикӣ,94 Classical Tamil-செம்மொழி தமிழ்,94 Classical Telugu-క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు

    https://www.youtube.com/watch…

    92 Classical Swedish
    92 klassisk svenska

    Analytisk Insight Net - GRATIS Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University och relaterade NYHETER via http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org i 105 klassiska språk


    Swedish Radio Symphony Orcestra. Esa-Pekka Salonen. Overture from’ Pastoral Suite’ Lars Erik Larsson’s Pastoral Suite is music…

    https://www.youtube.com/watch…

    93 Classical Tajik
    93 тоҷикӣ классикӣ

    Аналитик Insight Net - Бюллетенҳои онлайн дар сомонаҳои тадқиқотӣ ва таҷрибаомӯзӣ ва NEWS аз тариқи http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org дар 105 лингвистикӣ классикӣ
    (Tajik Music) Jurabek Murodov | Munojot
    18,933 views
    xorasun
    Published on Jun 28, 2009
    One of the most popular tenors of Tajik classical music - Shashmaqom -
    Jurabek Murodov brings you this song for your enjoyable listening.
    Jurabek Murodov was born in 1942 in Tajikistan. He earned a
    highly-esteemed title of the People’s Artist of the USSR in 1979.

    She’r az Tughral. Enjoy the song!
    Category
    Music


    One of the most popular tenors of Tajik classical music - Shashmaqom - Jurabek Murodov brings you this song for your…


    https://www.youtube.com/watch…
    Divine Chants of Buddha By Hariharan
    http://www.tipitaka.org/taml/
    Tipiṭaka (Tamil)
    திபிடக (மூல)
    அட்ட²கதா²
    டீகா
    அன்ய


    Bhajan: Buddham Sharanam Gachchami I The Three Jewels Of Buddhism
    Album Name: Buddham Sharanam Gachchami
    Singer: Hariharan
    Music Director: Shailendra Bhartti
    Lyrics: Traditional
    Voice: O.P. Rathore
    Music Label: T-Series

    Subscribe: http://www.youtube.com/tseriesbhakti
    Bhakti Sagar: http://www.facebook.com/tseriesbhakti
    To set popular Bhakti Dhun as your HelloTune, Airtel subscribers Dial 57878881 (toll free)
    For Spiritual Voice Alerts, Airtel subscribers Dial 589991 (toll free)


    https://www.galatta.com/…/class…/ancient-buddha-chants/1153/
    Ancient Buddha Chants
    94 Classical Tamil
    94 செம்மொழி தமிழ்

    பகுப்பாய்வு இன்சைட் நிகர - இலவச ஆன்லைன் Tipiṭaka ஆராய்ச்சி மற்றும் பயிற்சி பல்கலைக்கழகம் மற்றும் தொடர்புடைய செய்திகள் மூலம் http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 105 கிளாசிக் மொழிகளில்

    # Tracks Singers Length Likes
    1
    Biddham Saranam Gacchami
    2.35
    2
    Buddhavandana
    26.52
    3
    Dhammam Saranam Gacchami
    2.83
    4
    Dhammapada
    2.58
    5
    Dhammavandana
    0.88
    6
    Namo Tassa Bhagavato
    0.88
    7
    Pancha Sheelang
    1.37
    8
    Sangaham Saranam Gachaami
    0.80
    9
    Sanghavandana
    1.38
    10
    Vandana
    19.08

    Inline image 2


    https://www.youtube.com/watch…
    http://www.tipitaka.org/telu/

    94 Classical Telugu


    94 క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు

    విశ్లేషణాత్మక
    ఇన్సైట్ నెట్ - ఉచిత ఆన్లైన్ Tipiṭaka రీసెర్చ్ అండ్ ప్రాక్టీస్
    విశ్వవిద్యాలయం మరియు సంబంధిత న్యూస్ ద్వారా http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
    105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

    Tipiṭaka (Telugu)
    తిపిటక (మూల)
    అట్ఠకథా
    టీకా
    అన్య
    Meditation Buddhist Chants - Indian Version
    71,459 views
    Anakaric Dharma
    Published on Jun 9, 2012
    Words have the power to both destroy and heal. When words are both true and kind, they can change our world.

    By Buddha
    Category
    Music


    Words have the power to both destroy and heal. When words are both true and kind, they can change our world. By Buddha
    comments (0)
    2511 Wed 24 Jan 2018 LESSON 1 Classical Pāḷi Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā 23 Classical English Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University and related NEWS through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org in
105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGE Tipiṭaka Studies for University Students in 95 Classical Thai-คนไทยคลาสสิก,96 Classical Turkish- Klasik Türk,97 Classical Ukrainian-класичний український,98 Classical Urdu-کلاسیکی اردو95 Classical Thai-คนไทยคลาสสิก,96 Classical Turkish- Klasik Türk,97 Classical Ukrainian-класичний український,98 Classical Urdu-کلاسیکی اردو 99 Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’zbek,
    Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
    Posted by: site admin @ 5:23 am

     2511 Wed 24 Jan 2018 LESSON


    1 Classical Pāḷi


    Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya  http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā


    23 Classical English

    Analytic Insight  Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University
    and related NEWS through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org in
105
    CLASSICAL LANGUAGE


    Tipiṭaka Studies for University Students

    in
    95 Classical Thai-คนไทยคลาสสิก,96 Classical Turkish- Klasik Türk,97 Classical Ukrainian-класичний український,98 Classical Urdu-کلاسیکی اردو95 Classical Thai-คนไทยคลาสสิก,96 Classical Turkish- Klasik Türk,97 Classical Ukrainian-класичний український,98 Classical Urdu-کلاسیکی اردو

    99 Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’zbek,




    Pali in Thai Script

    https://www.youtube.com/watch…

    เพลงพระคาถาชินบัญชร(ทำนองสงบเย็น)
    289,695 views
    Ray T
    Published on Aug 14, 2010
    Category
    Music
    Pali in Thai Script

    95 Classical Thai
    95 คนไทยคลาสสิก

    Analytic Insight Net - ฟรีออนไลน์Tipiṭakaวิจัยและการปฏิบัติมหาวิทยาลัยและข่าวที่เกี่ยวข้องผ่าน http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org ใน 105 ภาษาคลาสสิก

    Pali Chanting in Thai Script …
    … in Romanized Pali and
    with English Translation

    Collecting and publishing the Theravada
    Chantings as recited in Thailand is the
    purpose of this blog.

    best viewed with Mac and Firefox
    In case you want to download this text in Excel, please
    use the Font Lucida Grande

    Much more information, Audio and pdf files :

    Pali Sutta, Gatha and Paritta in Thai Script
    pdf file of the Pali Chantings
    Audio files, information etc

    CONTENT:
    The Pali Alphabet
    The Vowels
    The Consonants


    Different Texts and Chantings
    1_Abhaya Gaathaa Paritta / Abhaya Gāthā
    2_ Tisarana / Namo Tassa
    3_ The Three Refuges
    4_ Attha Sila - The Eight Precepts
    4.1_Panca Sila - The Five Precepts


    Morning chanting
    5_ Salutation to the Triple Gem - Ratanattaya Vandanaa
    6_Bowing to the Triple Gem
    7_Tisarana / Namo Tassa
    8_Buddha Bhithuti - Praise to the Buddha
    9_Dhamma Bhithuti / Praise to the Dhamma
    10_Sangha Bhithuti - Praise to the Sangha
    11_Ratanattayapanaamagaathaa - Salutation to the triple gem
    ……..and passages for dispassioneteness
    12_Samvega Parikittanapaatha - Passages conducive to
    …… dispassionateness


    Evening Chanting

    13_Buddha Nussati - Recollection on the Buddha
    14_Buddha Bhigiiti - Hymn to the Buddha
    15_Dhamma Nussati - Recollection on the Dhamma
    16_Dhamma Bhigiiti - Hymn to the Dhamma
    17_Sangha Nussati - Recollection on the Sangha
    18_Sangha Bhigiiti - Hymn to the Sangha (end of evening chanting)

    Other Texts
    Contemplation of the Body - 31 Body Parts

    Five Subjekts for Frequent Recollection - Abhinhapacca
    … vekkhanāpātha

    Phra Gāthā Ākāravattāsūtra - itipi so
    ….. bhagavā parts 1. + 17.

    Pali Chanting Videos with subtitles
    Please scroll down….

    https://www.youtube.com/watch…

    96 Classical Turkish
    96 Klasik Türk

    Analytic Insight Net - ÜCRETSİZ Çevrimiçi Tipiṭaka Araştırma ve Uygulama Üniversitesi ve 105 ile ilgili http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org aracılığıyla HABERLER KLASİK DİLLER

    Pure Turkish Classical Ottoman Music: 19 th Century - Ada Ciftetelli
    17,390 views


    Ottoman classical music (Turkish: Türk sanat müziği — turkish art…
    youtube.com

    https://www.youtube.com/watch…

    Medley of Ukrainian Folk Songs
    97 Classical Ukrainian
    97 класичний український

    Аналітичний Insight Net - БЕЗКОШТОВНИЙ Онлайн Науково-практичний університет Типітака та пов’язані новини через http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org в 105 класичних мовах.


    Spot your favourites! українські народні пісні украинские народные песни Ukrainian State Folk Ensemble “Kalyna” 0:07 -…

    https://www.youtube.com/watch…
    Ukrainian Folk Song - Marichka
    George Stone
    Published on Jun 22, 2011
    My parents instilled the love of Ukrainian culture in me while I was
    growing up in NYC. I’ve never been to Ukraine but some day I hope to go.

    See more

    My
    parents instilled the love of Ukrainian culture in me while I was
    growing up in NYC. I’ve never been to Ukraine but some day I…

    https://www.youtube.com/watch…

    98 Classical Urdu
    98 کلاسیکی اردو

    تجزیاتی انٹرویو نیٹ - مفت آن لائن ٹپتاٹاکا ریسرچ اینڈ پریکٹس یونیورسٹی اور متعلقہ خبریں 105 کلاسیکی زبانوں میں http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org کے ذریعے


    Finally found this!

    https://quizlet.com/24…/intro-to-world-music-31-flash-cards/
    Intro. to World Music 3.1
    99 Classical Uzbek
    99 Klassik o’zbek

    Analitik tushuncha aniq - bepul onlayn tipiṭaka Tadqiqot va amaliyot universiteti va http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org orqali 105 ta klassik tilda
    Maghrib
    Literally, “the time or place of the sunset.” The Arabic name
    designating the region from present-day Libya west through Morocco.
    Mashriq
    Literally, “the time or place of the sunrise.” The Arabic name
    designating the parts of Asia (and Egypt) conquered and populated by the
    Arabs.
    Arabic
    A Semitic language originating with the Arab
    ethnic group; also, the holy language of Islam, and a musical tradition
    whose history is intricately linked with the spread of the language.
    Ottoman Empire
    A powerful Turkish dynasty that ruled over various parts of West Asia,
    Eastern Europe, and Northern Africa from the thirteenth to the early
    twentieth century.
    Takht
    An Arabic music ensemble including
    zithers, bowed and plucked lutes, drums, aerophones, and sometimes
    non-traditional instruments.
    Kanun
    (also, qanun) A plucked zither used in Turkish and Arabic music traditions, prominent in takht ensembles.
    Raqs Sharqi
    The Arabic name for what is commonly referred to by outsiders as “belly dance.”
    Tarab
    Arabic word for a state of emotional transformation or ecstasy achieved through music.
    Dhikr
    (also, Zikr) A Sufi ritual in which believers chant the name of God with the goal of entering an ecstasy state.
    Jalal Al-Din Muhammad Rumi
    Sufi saint of Islamic mysticism known for his poems and as the founder of the Mevlevi religious order.
    Adhan
    The islamic call to prayer.
    Shiah
    The minority branch of Islam.
    Muhammad
    Muslim prophet and Arab leader who during his lifetime (571 A.D. - 632
    A.D.) spread the religion of Islam and unified a great deal of the
    Arabian Peninsula.
    Sunni
    The mainstream or majority branch of Islam.
    Sufi
    The mystical branch of Islam.
    UD
    (Also, Al ‘Ud) A fretless, plucked pear-shaped lute that is found in
    Arabic music traditions and is the origin of certain lutes of Africa,
    Asia, and Europe.
    Maquam
    (Also, Makam) Arabic/Turkish mode or system of rules and expectations for composition and improvisation.
    Santur
    A hammered zither from the Persian classical tradition.
    Dastgah
    Persian mode or system of rules and expectations for composition and improvisation.
    Dynasty
    In china, a ruling family, like the Ming, and the era characterized by that family’s dominance.
    Overtone
    One of the ascending group of tones that form the harmonic series derived from the fundamental pitch.
    Khoomei
    Throat or overtone singing from Mongolia.
    Dung Chen
    A long metal trumpet with low tones blown during Tibetan ritual.
    Munojaat Yulicheeva
    leading performer of classical Uzbek music, always accompanied by her master Shawqat Mizaev, famous rubab player
    Sarakhbori Dugox
    national eastern dance that Munojaat performs
    Sevara Nazarkhan
    Uzbek singer, songwriter, and musician of pop music
    Hector Zazou
    Real World Records - was a prolific French composer and record producer
    who worked with, produced, and collaborated with an international array
    of recording artists.
    Yol Bolsin
    pop song by Sevara Nazarkhan (Uzbek singer)
    Ashot Petrosiants
    lead acoustician in folk orchestra, founded the conservatory
    Doyra
    Membranophone, A medium sized frame drum with jingles (Uzbekistan / Central Asia)
    Dutor
    Chordophone, long necked, two stringed lute. (Uzbekistan / Central Asia)
    Kashgar Rubob
    chordophone from uzbekistan
    Gijak
    chordophone from uzbekistan
    Arranged Folklore
    The practice of collecting tunes from rural communities, codifying, and
    harmonizing them for polyphonic performance by large ensembles.
    Estrada
    popular music in Uzbekistan, combo of national instruments and synthesized sounds
    Usul
    name for all rhythmic modes/patterns in Turkish classical music
    Gardun
    8 Beats common in uzbek music
    Mog’ulchai
    One of the main personalities in the Book of Esther in the Hebrew Bible. He was the son of Jair, of the tribe of Benjami
    Sarahbor

    Nola
    Pitch-bending ornaments on on voice or instruments that are often micro
    tonal (in between notes) and are considered highly expressive
    Ouge
    the climatic point in a piece of classical uzbek / tajik music like the shashmaqom
    Shashmaqom
    a set of repertoire of uzbek / tajik classical music that originated in
    the city of bukhara, traditionally played heterphonically, both
    instrumental and vocal
    Sufi
    a Muslim who represents the mystical dimension of Islam
    Gusheh
    Secondary melodies associated with a dastgah
    Each dastgah can have many gushehs (collection of short memories)
    Firqa
    large orchestral ensembles consisting of traditional Arabia instruments found in the middle east
    Ney
    Flute instrument, performed slightly off to the right, not directly in
    front of player, breathy or pure sound (middle eastern flute)
    Buzuq
    long necked lute of the takht ensemble, with 24 movable frets. (chordophone from Turkey)
    Musiqa/non-musiqa
    In Islamic theory, expressions that combine pitch and rhythm are
    divided into a higher-level category called non-musiqa, and a
    lower-level category called Musiqa. Non-musiqa is considered legitimate
    and includes readings from the Qu’ran. Musiqa includes familial,
    celebratory, occupational, and military band music, and is discouraged
    by fundamentalist Muslims.
    Layali
    a vocal improvisational form in Arabic music traditions
    Taqasim
    in Arabic classical music, instrumental improvisations that may either
    be extended items in a recital or short introductions to, or bridges
    between, composed pieces
    Masnavi
    an extensive poem written in
    persian by Jalal al-Din Muhammad rumi. Spiritual writing that teaches
    Sufis how to reach their goal of being in union w/ God
    Umm Kulthum
    1950s-70s
    Very popular pop singer when Egypt was emerging towards independence
    Voice of the people
    Musical training started at school reciting the Koran
    Gave radio concerts on Sunday nights and the whole country shut down to listen to her sing
    Gamal Abdel Nasser
    Arab leader, set out to modernize Egypt and end western domination,
    nationalized the Suez canal, led two wars against the Zionist state,
    remained a symbol of independence and pride, returned to socialism,
    nationalized banks and businesses, limited economic policies
    Chinggis Khan
    born in 1170s in decades following death of Kabul Khan; elected khagan
    of all MOngol tribes in 1206; responsible for conquest of northern
    kingdoms of China, territories as far west as the Abbasid regions; died
    in 1227 prior to conquest of most of the Islamic world
    Urtyn duu
    a monglian love song, long songs…associated with formal celebrations and rituals…free expansive rhythms
    Morin huur
    fiddle, large bowed instrument of the lute type (Chordophone from Mongolia)
    Dalai Lama
    chief lama and once ruler of Tibet (universal priest)
    Yunchen Lhamo
    most acclaimed Tibetan singer-songwriter living in NYV in exile
    Incantation and Mani
    Ritual recitation of verbal charms or spells to produce a magic effect
    Om mani padme hum
    Buddhist Mantra that invokes the powerful benevolent attention and blessings of Chenrezig, the embodiment of compassion.
    Kang dung
    aerophone from tibet (trumpet)
    Dung kar
    aerophone from tibet (conch shell trumpet)
    Rom/rol mo
    an ethnic group originating in India characterized by a semi-nomadic lifestyle; known as gypsies
    gyaling
    a double reed aerophone traditional to Tibet. It is used specifically in Tibetan monasteries during chanting and prayer
    Drilbu
    idiophone from tibet (Bell)
    On ikki maqom
    A muqam is the melody type used in Uyghur music, that is, a musical
    mode and set of melodic formulas used to guide improvisation and
    composition.
    The muqam system developed among the Uyghur in
    northwest China and Central Asia over approximately the last 1500 years
    from the Arabic maqam modal system that has led to many musical genres
    among peoples of Eurasia and North Africa
    Rawap
    stringed
    instrument (chordophone) 5 stringed instrument. A mobile instrument,
    taken by farmers, part of the nomadic tradition. Has 3 main parts and is
    played as part of everyday life, very cherished by the Uyghurs.
    Cultural Revolution
    Campaign in China ordered by Mao Zedong to purge the Communist Party of
    his opponents and instill revolutionary values in the younger
    generation.(p. 848)
    Bayin
    Chinese organological system based on 8 materials
    Sizhu
    Chinese music(silk and bamboo) of the Jiangnan region, featuring erhu,
    pipa, gu/zheng. Played in tea shops (silk and bamboo ensembles)
    Jiangnan Sizhu
    Chinese chamber instrumental ensemble made up of strings and winds
    popular around the areas of Shanghai. Played by amateurs for their own
    enjoyment. Like other traditional Chinese music it is considered a kind
    of background music to enhance the ambiance of a pleasant social
    environment.
    Qin
    (Guqin), A people and state in the Wei Valley
    of eastern China that conquered rival states and created the first
    Chinese empire (221-206 B.C.E.). The Qin ruler, Shi Huangdi,
    standardized many features of Chinese society and enslaved subjects.
    (163)
    Tablature
    a notational system (written for lute) that
    tells the player which strings to pluck and where to place the fingers
    on the strings, rather than indicating what pitches will result.
    Jianpu
    (cipher notation) a musical notation system widely used among the Chinese people
    Jingju
    Beijing Opera
    Yangbanxi
    (model revolutionary opera), translates to “model revolutionary opera”.
    The Chinese term for Opera infused with Communist and Nationalist
    political messages during the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) (there
    were only 8 model operas)
    P’ansori
    one man opera story telling
    Samul-nori
    genre of traditional percussion music originating in Korea
    Sheng/Dan/Jing/Chou
    Sheng — Male Role; Dan — Female Role; Jing — Painted Face Male; Chou — The Comedy Role.
    Erhu
    Bowed, two-string fiddle from China, with its bow hairs fixed between the strings; rests on the leg while playing.
    Yangqin
    A Chinese hammered dulcimer with a trapezoidal sound box and metal strings that are struck with bamboo sticks.
    Pipa
    Pear-shaped, plucked chordophone with four strings. Chinese instrument
    of Central Asian heritage; close historical association with the zheng.
    Sheng
    the male role of the Xiqu theatre, where companies would be composed of
    all men. The old men were called the lao sheng, the young men were
    called the xiao sheng, and the warrior was called wu sheng.
    Jinghu
    lead instrument in beijing opera, a fiddle pitched an octave higher than the erhu, high fiddle
    Suona
    Traditional Chinese instrument with a double reed, similar to the Western oboe.
    Dizi
    transverse bamboo flute
    Buk
    membranophone from korea
    Sarod
    North indian (Hindustani) string instrument that is plucked with a plectrum of ivory or coconut shell
    Sitar
    a stringed instrument of India
    Tabla
    a set of two drums
    Tanpura
    A long-necked plucked lute (a stringed instrument found in different
    forms and in many places). The body shape of the tambura somewhat
    resembles that of the sitar, but it has no frets - only the open strings
    are played to accompany other musicians. It has four or five (rarely
    six) wire strings, which are plucked one after another in a regular
    pattern to create a harmonic resonance on the basic note (bourdon or
    drone function).
    Harmonium
    a free-reed instrument in which air is forced through the reeds by bellows
    Veena
    fretted string. played by Saraswati (Indian goddess of music/learning)
    Sruti box
    A drone instrument comprised of a small wooden box with tuned reeds (like a reed organ), with air provided by a hand bellows.
    Mrindangam
    Membranophone, Barrel-shaped drum (South India)
    Tavil
    double headed cylindrical drum
    Ghatam
    A large clay pot played with fingers and hands.
    Kriti
    a genre of devotional hindu poetry from south India
    Gamakam
    An ornamentation that is used in the performance of Indian classical
    music. The unique character of each raga is given by its gamakas, making
    their role essential rather than decorative in Indian music. Translates
    to ‘ornamented note’
    Guru
    a Hindu or Buddhist religious leader and spiritual teacher
    Tyagaraja
    South Indian who gave legitimacy to south indian musicians.
    Syama Sastri
    is among the most renowned composers of Carnatic music
    Hindustani
    a form of Hindi spoken around Delhi
    Carnatic
    “Classical” music of southern India, dates back to palaces of rajas and
    maharajas, but took shape during late eighteenth and early nineteenth
    centuries
    Filmi
    (Filmi Git), popular music taken from films in india
    Lata Mangeshkar
    famous filmi singer from india
    Raga
    In Indian classical music, a complete and self-contained melodic system
    that serves as the basis for all the melodic materials in any
    composition or performance created in that raga.
    Mode
    how something is done or how it happens
    Tala
    Metric cycle in Indian music. Begins and ends on same (1st and last).
    Certain number of beats (matras). Organized in vibhags (larger units,
    groups). Vibhags demonstrated with claps (strongest) waves and finger
    counts.
    Bols
    mnemonic syllables corresponding to drum strokes in indian drumming traditions
    Tintal
    A 16-beat metric cycle (i.e., tala) used in Hindustani raga and other types of North Indian music.
    Solfege
    a voice exercise
    Sargam
    the syllables of the seven notes of Indian music- Sa re ga ma pa dha ni
    Alap
    can refer to the entire opening of a North Indian classical piece; consists of alap, jor, and jhela
    Jhala
    refers to a set of drone strings on indian chordophones
    Gat
    The main part of a Hindustani raga performance following the alap; a
    tala (metric cycle) serves as its metric/rhythmic foundation; the entry
    of a rhythmic accompaniment part (usually played on tabla) marks the
    commencement of the gat.
    Aashish Khan
    Indian classical musician, known for his virtuosity on the Sarode. Also a professor of Indian classical music at UCSC
    Rasa
    “Flavor,” or powerful feeling, essence or individuality to which the
    audience must surrender themselves during Indian dramatics.There are
    eight in a drama: erotic, comic, compassionate, furious, heroic,
    terrifying, disgusting and awesome.
    Bhajan
    A particular class of Hindu devotional songs and hymns with close ties to the historical development of Indian classical music.
    Muezzin
    The muslim official of a mosque who summons the faithful to prayer from a minaret five times a day.
    Tahrir
    An ornament used by vocalists; specifically a thrill or rapid
    oscillation between a different vocal register; fluttering of the voice.
    Tar
    Guitar-shaped instrument, heavy -sounding, not much rhythm, flash flourishes of notes; fast repetition.
    Zarb/Tombak
    Membranophone; goblet-shaped drum.
    indigenization
    The creative recombination and transformation of local cultural features with features from elsewhere.
    aradhana
    Annual Hindu festival observed in many parts of the world; means connecting with the universal self.
    Bollywood
    Indian version of Hollywood; centered in Mumbai (Bombay)
    Ravi Shankar
    Indian sitar player who popularized classical indian music in the west. 1920.
    Mantra
    The repetition of mystic incantations in Hinduism and Buddhism.
    Tanbur
    Chordophone; Plucked Turkish lute.
    Gongche Notation
    Common notation for instruments other than qin. Pitch
    syllables/characters; read from top to down, right to left; no rhythmic
    indication.
    Amateur vs Pro. Musicians

    Civil vs Military Sections
    Civilian - soft, quiet instruments; military - louder instruments
    Pungmul
    Korean folk music tradition that includes drumming, dancing, and
    singing. Most performances are outside, with tons of players, all in
    constant motion.
    nongak
    Associated with Agraran rites; prayers for a bountiful harvest; involves drums, gongs, and an hour glass drum.
    Turgun Alimatov
    Uzbek musician who learned music from father and never took a formal
    music lesson; strongly identified with sentiments of Uzbek nationalism.


    135
    terms · Maghrib → Literally, “the time or place…, Mashriq → Literally,
    “the time or place…, Arabic → A Semitic language originating…, Ottoman
    Empire → A powerful Turkish dynasty tha…, Takht → An Arabic music
    ensemble inclu…

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