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LESSON 3037 Fri 21 Jun 2019 Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies (DBS) Model Question Paper 2018-19 Q 44 to Q 56 Buddha Śãsana, which means “Buddha Vacana - the teaching of the Awakened One with Awareness”. Since in Buddhism there is no divine god the term is considered more accurate than the word “religion” as it denotes an adaptable philosophy and practice rather than a non-changing divine call from an all knowing god. Śāsana may also refer to the 5000-year dispensation of a particular Buddha. That is, we are living in the śāsana of the Śakyamuni Buddha. Sabbapapassa akaranam Kusalassa upasampada Sacitta pariyodapanam Etam buddhana sasanam Every evil never doing and in wholesomeness increasing and one’s heart well-purifying: this is the Buddhas’ Sasana (Dhammapada, 183) Sabbe satta sada hontu avera sukhajivino. Katam punnaphalam mayham sabbe bhagi bhavantu te. May all living beings always live happily, free from animosity. May all share in the blessings springing from the good I have done.
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LESSON 3037 Fri  21 Jun 2019

Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies (DBS)
Model Question Paper
 Q 44  to Q 56

Buddha Śãsana, which means “Buddha Vacana - the teaching of the
Awakened One with Awareness”. Since in Buddhism there is no divine god
the term is considered more accurate than the word “religion” as it denotes an adaptable philosophy and practice rather than a non-changing divine call from an all knowing god.

Śāsana may also refer to the 5000-year dispensation of a particular Buddha. That is, we are living in the śāsana of the Śakyamuni Buddha.

Kusalassa upasampada
Sacitta pariyodapanam
Etam buddhana sasanam

Every evil
never doing
and in wholesomeness increasing
and one’s heart well-purifying:
this is the Buddhas’ Sasana


Sabbe satta sada

avera sukhajivino.
Katam punnaphalam mayham
sabbe bhagi bhavantu te.

all living beings always live happily,

free from animosity.
May all share in the blessings
springing from the good I have done.

The Buddhist Legacy – Buddhism in Karnataka

Under the patronage of the Mauryas and Satvahanas,
Buddhism flourished in Karnataka. Gradually Hinduism assimilated
most of the teachings of Buddha and Buddhism lost its distinct
identity. However, today, there are still numerous places of
Buddhist interest spread across the State.

Our destination, Aihole,
is today an insignificant village in Bijapur district of north
Karnataka and reaching it involves an obstacle course: an
excruciatingly slow passenger train to Badami, an hour’s wait
for a bus and jostling to get on. The vehicle rattles across the
interminable hot plains and flat scrub of north Karnataka. To do
just 46 kilometers from Badami to Aihole, the bus needs four tedious
hours. But alight at Aihole and the travails are forgotten! For
Aihole is one of the most remarkable temple sites in the country with
one hundred and twenty temples, big and small, in different styles,
all in a small village.

There is scope for tourism in each tiny village. Hence, it should be richly developed.
There is scope for tourism in each tiny village. Hence, it should be richly developed.

Karnataka Tourism
Published on Feb 22, 2012
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Art historians say Aihole
was a workshop for temple architects and sculptors patronized by
early Chalukyan monarchs. Here are some of the earliest structural
temples in stone in the country, dating from 450 AD and, among them,
is one of the four Buddhist shrines in Karnataka. So we make our way
to Aihole’s hillock, Meguti, to the rock cut Buddhist shrine.
It is of special interest to us because it is the most important
surviving Buddhist temple in Karnataka.


The Chaitya, a double
stories structure, is half structural and half excavated in rock.
The sanctum sanctorum is in the upper storey. It has a rectangular
verandah of 8.78 m x 2.15 m. In the centre of the Verandah’s
ceiling is a relief of Buddha in preaching posture. Of the three
Buddha sculptures at Aihole, this is the best preserved and is 61cm
in Height. He is seated on the padmapitha in the
satvaparyankasana, that is, his right hand is placed against
his chest in the vyakhyan mudra while the left is placed on
the right foot with the palm facing upwards. His right shoulder and
right breast are uncovered. There is a triple umbrella above him and
his attendants are nearby.
A chaitya is a Buddhist shrine or prayer hall with a stupa at one end.
In modern texts on Indian architecture, the term chaitya-griha is often
used to denote an assembly or prayer hall that houses a stupa.
is a religious term, while stupa is an architectural term for a mound
containing a relic of the Buddha and later on of leading Buddhist saints
Definition of Chaitya from all online and printed dictionaries, photos and videos about Chaitya
Buddhist Schools of Art - Part 1

Published on Feb 15, 2013

topic explains the Buddhist Schools of arts- The Mauryan School of Art,
The Sunga School of Art, The Mathura or Kushana School of Art and The
Gandhara School of Art.

This is a product of Mexus Education Pvt. Ltd., an education innovations
company based in Mumbai, India.,

Buddhism was founded in
north India in about 500 BC when Siddharth Gautama, born a prince,
achieved awakenment. It is widely held that the religion first
emerged during Mauryan times when there was a missionary zeal. Parts
of Karnataka were subject to the rule of the Mauryas. Chandragupta
Maurya’s son Bindusara (298-273 BC) and Bindusara’s son
Asoka (269-232 BC) caused some of his edicts to be put up here.
Asoka’s grandson Samprati Chandragupta is believed to have come
to Sravanbelagola where he spent his last years. Eleven Asokan
edicts, four in Bellary district, three in Raichur district and three
others in Chitradurga district bear witness to the Mauryan presence
in Karnataka.

Shravanabelagola has two hills, Chandragiri and Vindhyagiri. Acharya Bhadrabahu and his pupil Chandragupta Maurya are believed to have meditated there. Chandragupta Basadi, which was dedicated to Chandragupta Maurya, was originally built there by Ashoka in the third century BC. Chandragiri also has memorials to numerous monks and Śrāvakas who have meditated there since the fifth century AD, including the last king of the Rashtrakuta dynasty of Manyakheta. Chandragiri also has a famous temple built by Chavundaraya.Inscriptions in Prakrit, dating from 981 AD. The inscription praises the king who funded the effort and his general, Chavundaraya.

Some hold the view,
however, that such rock edicts merely prove that Karnataka was within
the jurisdiction of Mauryan kings, but not necessarily the advent of
Buddhism here. The Sinhalese chronicles, Mahavamsa and
Dipavamsa, mention Mangaliputtatissa, a contemporary of Asoka
and reputed to be the emperor’s teacher and mentor. He had sent
missionaries to Mahshaka (southern region of Karnataka) under
Mahadeva, and to Banavasi (the heart of Karnataka) under Rakkhita, to
preach the gospel. That would firmly indicate Buddhist prevalence in

Indian History and Architecture

Navigating Indian History through its Architecture

Banavasi – The First Kannada Capital

Chapter I

Past References and Political History

Banavasi holds a very important position
in the history of Karnataka. It enjoys the reputation of being the
capital town of the first indigenous Kannada dynasty, the Kadambas.
Though it rose to the position of a capital town during the Kadambas,
however it was already playing the same role during the rule of the
Chutus who were a feudatories under the Satavahanas.


Political History – If we exclude the pre-historic period, then
Banavasi might emerge as the oldest town of Karnataka, probably
contemporary to Shravanabelagola. However, its antiquity before the
Mauryas is still not established. One major reason for this missing
piece of information is inadequate number of excavations carried out at
this site.

With the distribution of Ashoka’s inscription in
southern India, it can be safely assumed that Banavasi was under
Ashoka’s dominion. After the disintegration of the Mauryas, there were
different regional powers in north and south India and Banavasi came
under the Satavahanas. Nasik cave inscription of the Satavahana king
Gautamiputra Satakarni was issued from the victorious camp of Banavasi.
Satavahana activities around the Banavasi region is also attested from
various coins and a solo Satavahana memorial inscription found here.

The Chutus ruled after the Satavahanas and Banavasi became their
capital. Though there are not many inscriptions of this dynasty, however
most of those are found in and around Banavasi region only. Many of
their coins have also been discovered here. They were prominently
Buddhists as evident from their inscriptions. After the Chutus, Banavasi
became the celebrated capital of the first indigenous Kannada dynasty,
the Kadambas. Though it was their capital city, however there is only
one Kadamba inscription found here.

While the power of the
Kadambas was on decline, an another south Indian dynasty, the Badami
Chalukyas, was on the rise. Chalukya inscriptions mention defeat of the
Kadambas in the hands of the Chalukya king Kirtivarman I. However it
seems that he was not able to conquer Banavasi as this victory is
attributed to his son, Pulakesi II. In his Aihole prashashti, it is
mentioned that Banavasi appeared to be a water-fort (Jala-durga) due to
its being surrounded by river Varada on three sides.

Since then,
Banavasi remained as a province under the Badami Chalukyas. It would
have been an important province as at one point of time it was being
governed by the brother-in-law of the Chalukya king Vijayaditya. The
Shiggaon plate (Epigraphia Indica vol XXXII) mentions that Vijayaditya
visited Banavasi to see his brother-in-law, the Alupa king Chitravahana
in 708 CE. Chitravahana’s father, Gunasagara, was the first Alupa king
who was made the governor of the Kadamba-mandala by the Chalukya king
Vikramaditya I as evident from Kigga inscription (Epigraphia Carnatica
vol VI).

Though no Rashtrakuta inscription has been found in
Banavasi yet, from various inscriptions it is clear that it was under
the Rashtrakutas, being governed by their feudatories. Shrinivas Ritti
believes that under the Rashtrakuta, the Banavasi region was extended
quite considerably and became Banavasi-12000, comprising of 12000
villages. Marakkarasa family was the first one to govern Banavasi under
the Rashtrakutas. After them, it was Chalukya Rajaditya and Chellaketana
families who governed this region.

With the Kalyana Chalukyas
taking over most of the Karnataka into their control, Banavasi also came
under them. By then Banavasi-12000 had gained a reputation of an
important and coveted place. It was hence administered by important
feudatories under the Kalyana Chalukyas.

Kadambas of Hangal
administered Banavasi-12000 under the Kalyana Chalukyas. They continued
their rule even after the fall of the Kalyana Chalukyas. With the fall
of the Kalyana Chalukyas, Karnataka went into the hands of two powerful
dynasties, the northern part to the Sevunas and the southern to the
Hoysalas. Both these dynasties tried their best to prove their supremacy
but none succeeded.

Due to its strategic location, being
situated at the border of the Hoysala and Sevuna territories, Banavasi
became the point of tussle between these two dynasties. Both had their
small stints over Banavasi however it did not remain with them for long.
Hoysala Vishnuvardhana conquered Banavasi in 1135 CE for a small time
but later driven out by the Kadamba Mallikarjuna. Sevuna Singhana II
also ruled over Banavasi in about 1215 CE.

Banavasi was with the
Kadambas, as the feudatories of the Sevunas, when the Vijayanagara
empire rose. Later it moved to Sode chiefs and from them to Hyder Ali.
With the defeat of Tipu Sultan, Banavasi along with other major portion
of Karnataka came under the British rule in 1799 CE.


In point of fact,
Buddhist doctrine held sway in Karnataka even before Asoka’s
time. Mahisasana, a form of Hinayana Buddhism, spread after the
first convention of Buddhism in Rajgraha (477 BC) to Avanti, and to
areas south of it to what are today’s Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka,
Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Thus, while Asoka accepted Buddhism only in
268 BC, Buddhism was prevalent in Karnataka two centuries prior to
the Mauryan monarch.

Early on, Buddhism
separated into Sthavarvad (Hinayana) and Mahasanghikvad (Mahayana)
which developed into Mahisasana. This branch stretched upto Banavasi
from 5th century BC to 3rd century BC, that is,
after the very first Buddhist convention in 477 BC and certainly long
before Asoka.

Why then, are there are
no Buddhist relics found from those centuries before Asoka? The
answer is quite simple. There was no idol worship in Buddhism.
There had been no sculptures, carvings nor erection of stupas and
inscriptions before the Asokan stupas at Sanchi and Sarnath. Prior
to them, there were only earthern stupas which could not survive the
ravages of time. There is one exception, however, excavations near
Banavasi in 1971 revealed stupas and bricks that have been dated to
the 2nd and 3rd century BC. A Buddhist
deepasthambha (lamp post) of those times was found at the
village Togarsi near Banavasi. By and large, in Karnataka, the
Hnayana Buddhism that prevailed did not deify Buddha but looked upon
him at human level, as perfect man. Paucity of actual remnants
before Asoka’s time is thus explained.

The Mauryan inscriptions
do not merely indicate the empire’s boundary. They also assert
that Buddhism flourished there because the very purpose of Asoka’s
edicts was to spread universal message to the masses. Buddhism duly
spread and flourished. In sum, the Mauryan was undoubtedly the golden
age of Buddhism.

The Satavahanas were
successors to the Mauryas and ruled in Banavasi, as is evident from
the Nasik inscription of Gautamiputra Satakarni and the copper plates
from Hirehadagali. There is a Prakrit inscription belonging to the
second century on the stone Naga effigy fund at the Madhukesvara
temple, which refers to the fact that Siva-skandanagar-sri, daughter
of Satakarni of Chutukula, the king of Vaijayantipura (i.e. Banavasi)
was responsible for the installation of that Naga effigy, and the
Vihara. A copper plate inscription of 338 AD likens a Banavasi king
to a bodhisattva (reincarnation) in his great compassion towards all
living beings (praninam parama karnikataya bodhisattvo pamanasya).

From 30 BC to the second
century AD, the Satavahanas ruled from Pratisthana (modern day
Paithan) on the bank of Godavari river at Aurangabad. Their support
to Buddhism is evident from Pliny (1st century AD) whose
account mentions Prakrit inscription of Gvinaya Pitaka, referring to
Setakannika, which shows that Buddhism was flourishing in Karnataka.
Mahavagga, a composer after Asoka’s time endorses this.

The Satvahanas may have
been a Karnataka dynasty, as Dharwad and Bellary districts are called
Shantavahani Hara (or Shantavahana region). Some of their kings were
called rulers of Kunthala, the old name for Karnataka. At Sannati
(Gulbarga district), as well as Vadgoan Madhavpur (near Belgaum) and
Brahmagiri (Chitradurga district), there are remains of monuments of
their period. The Uttara Kannada area of Banavasi has their
inscription at Vasan in Dharwad district, and there are remains of a
brick temple. The Chandravalli inscriptions that were unearthed in
1888, strongly suggest that worshipers of Buddha were here during the
early centuries of the Christian era. The leader coins of the
Satvahana kings bear the figure of a humped bull and on the other
side of the coins are the unmistakable emblems of the bodhi tree and
the chaitya (cairn). Small sculptures of Gandharva, a
Buddhist yaksha, are also found.

The earliest epigraphic
evidence in this regard (latter half of second century AD) is the
stone memorial inscribed in Prakrit. It is that of Vasistapura
Sivasiri Pulamari Rajana Mahadevi Sirijantamula, wife of a king of
Banavasi who constructed a stambha and a Vihara for the
Mahisasanas at Nagarjunakonnda.

Another chronicler,
Mahavamso, cites an important event. In the first century,
Dattagamini, King of Ceylon, built a vihara and 80000 bhikus
of Vanavasi had attended! Bhutpala, a merchant of Banavasi, was
responsible for carving the famed Buddhist cave at Karla where an
inscription says it was the best in the whole country.

It is at Sannati,
(Chitapur, taluk, Gulbarga district), on both banks of the river
Bhima, that many Buddhist stupas of the Satvahana times have been
found. It resembles Amravati and was the Buddhist centre of the
Satvahana period of pre-Christian era and is spread over a three
kilometer area. Fine sculptures can be seen all along and the
Buddhist ruins found there are in large numbers. They include
remnants of stupas, stone pottery for holy bones and ayaka stambha
which has symbolic representation of birth, parinishnishkramana,
enlightenment, preaching and nirvana (salvation) of Buddha.
Inscriptions in the Brahmi script contain names of those who gave
grants to sangharama, stupas and viharas. The words –
visiriputa sirisata mahasataraha – show the beginning of
the Christian era and reference to Banavasi is found. There are
stupas carved in stone, and another stupa (1st to 3rd
century AD) has Buddha’s feet.

The Sannatis
(feudatories) of Satvahanas, known as Mahabhojas, had then ruled the
Banavasi area. An inscriptions of that period says: “Nagamulida,
wife of Maharathi, daughter of the Mahabhoja, King of Banavasi,
mother of Khanda Nagashtak, constructed a cave residence at Kanheri
(near today’s Bombay) of Buddhist bhikus.”

After the Satavahanas,
Karnataka fell into the hands of the Pallavas of Kanchi and the
Chuttu Shatkarnis (who were feudatories of the Satavahanas) ruling
from Banavasi after the fall of the Satavahanas. Pallava domination
ended when two dynasties, the Kadambas of Banavasi and the Gangas of
Kolar (345 AD) held sway.

The Gangas, ruling from
Talakadu, followed the vedic religion but were tolerant towards
Buddhism. A Sanskrit copperplate (400 AD) issued by Padangala
Madhava (440-470 AD), a Ganga ruler, indicated land grants to a
Buddhist vihara (gangarajya madhava-sarmanah sasana
Buddha-sattvaya dattam
). There were Buddhist viharas alive and
active and Buddhism was still powerful in the Ganga territory.

Like the Gangas, the
Kadambas were also tolerant towards Buddhism as epigraphic evidence
shows. The Kadamba capital was also Banavasi, (known as Vaijayanti,)
and their century was a prominent one for Buddhism in Karnataka.
Chinese traveller, Hieun Tsang, visited Banavasi in the 7th
century AD and saw 1000 sangharamas and three stupas. He
says: “By the side of the royal palace is a great sangharama
with 300 priests, all men of distinction. This convent has a great
vihara 100 in height.”

Recent excavations of the
site of Banavasi have given the remains of a Buddhist stupa. The
large apsidal structure is what remains and it was planned like a

The Buddhist Chaitya
in front of which we stood at Aihole, is pre western Chalukyan and
indicates the influence of Mahayana. It was built around the 5th
century and is 25 feet high. We now make our way to Badami in
another rickety bus headed toward the erstwhile capital city of the
western Chalukyas in the 6th century. These rulers were
also associated with Buddhism and relics here have survived in the
shape of a Buddhist cave datable to the 6th century.
There is also a figure, identifiable as Padmapani, the Bodhisattva of
the same period. Hieun Tsang has stated that during the time of
Pulakesin II (642 AD) in Banavasi (or Konkanpura), there were 400
Sangharamas and 10000 followers of Buddhism.

In Gadag Taluk, Dharwad
district, at Dambal, there was a Buddhist centre as late as 12th
century. According to an inscription of 1095 AD, a temple of the
Buddhist deity Tara and a Buddhist vihara were built by 16
merchants during the reign of Lakshmidevi, queen of Vikramaditya VI.
Another temple of Tara, built at Dambal was by Sethi Sangarmaya of
Lokkigundi. Karnataka was indeed the place where the worship of Tara
gained ground. Tara became celebrated in Mahayana Buddhism
(especially Mantrayana) and acquired popularity as the mother of the
Buddhas and bodhisattvas, as the power of enlightenment and as the
consort of the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, the patron divinity of the
Mantrayana sect in Nepal, Tibet, Mongolia and China.

Tara’s consort
Avalokitaesvara-bodhisattva is the Siva of the Saiva cult and there
is the correspondence of Tara with Durga. The association between
Tara and Avalokita (Lokesvara) is emphasized in Karnataka. In
Balligame, on the banks of the river Varada, a Buddhist Vihara known
as Jayanti Prabuddha Vihara was built in 1065 by Rupa Byhattaya, the
minister of the Chalukyan king Ahavamalla, and the deities that were
worshipped there were Tara Bhagavati, Kesava, Lokesvara and Buddha.
A Dambala inscription of 1095 AD begins with the customary invocation
namo buddhyana and goes go to describe at length the greatness
of Tara-bhagavati.

In Kolivada, Hubbali
taluk, Dharwad district, an icon of Tara has been discovered
belonging to about the thirteenth century and inscribed on the
pedestal of this icon are the words siddham om namo bhagavatayai
, followed by the usual statement of the Buddha’s
teaching in brief.

The Vihara on Kadari Hill
in Mangalore (Dakshina Kannada) was an important site for Mahayana
Buddhism. There are three exquisite bronze statues, now in the
Manjunatha temple, one of which is of the Mahayana deity
Avalokitesvara bodhisattva (consort of Tara) called Lokesvara. The
other two bronzes are those of seated Buddha in contemplation.
Buddhism, which never became prevalent in Tulu-nadu, continued to
survive till the thirteenth century. It gradually got fused with
Saivite ideology.

Thereafter, it became
difficult for Buddhism to survive, especially as it lost its specific
identity and got merged with Saivism. The Buddhist legacy in
Karnataka survives in the teachings of Basaveswar or Basava, a
religious teacher who flourished in the 12th century.

There are estimated to be
75000 Buddhists in Karnataka of which Tibetans form a substantial
portion. Since the year 1900, the South India Buddhist Association
of Madras saw Buddhism taking roots and in Kolar Gold Fields near
Bangalore there is a Buddhist Vihara at Champion Reef. The Mahabodhi
Society of India founded a Buddhist Vihara in Bangalore in 1940 and
since 1956, Buddhism has got a fillip under Acharya Buddha Rakkkhita
who has published over 50 books and founded an institute, a
vidyapeeth and a hospital. Very much in evidence are the four
Tibetan settlements of Karnataka, at Bailkuppe (near Mysore), Mundgod
(in north Kanara district), Cauvery Valley, and at Kollegal. The
most important Tibetan Buddhist monasteries are Thegchay Ling and
Namgoling, both at Bailkuppe.

Top Ten Famous Buddhist Monasteries in India

Buddhism is one of the religion of Indian subcontinent and teaches
the different practices of spiritual development, meditation and
philosophy. Buddhism is arose from the Magadha area and spread
throughout of India even beyond by Siddhartha Gautama or the Buddha and
its followers. There are so many Buddhist Monasteries in India located
at the different corner of the country, Mahabodhi Temple Gaya is the
most famous Buddhist site in India and the top 15 major Buddhist Stupas in India are located at Sanchi, Sarnnath and Kushinagar.

Namgyal Monastery -Dharamsala


The Namgyal Monastery is located in the Dharamshala district of
Himachal Pradesh. Namgyal Monastery is associated with the Dalai Lamas
and offers buddhism in the state. Its is one of the major tourist
attraction along with the lakes, Kangra valley and McLeodGanj.

Thikse Monastery -Leh


The Thikse Monastery is located near the Leh in the Indus valley of
Ladakh. Thikse Monastery is a Tibetan Buddhist monastery and the largest
Monastery in Ladakh. Thiksey Gompa of Ladakh is also considered as Mini
Potala Palace and home to a good number of monks.

Hemis Monastery -Ladakh


The Hemis Monastery is one of the largest Buddhist monastery and most
famous monastery in India. Hemis gompa is located in Ladakh and has
rich collection of ancient remnants. Famous Hemis gompa festival is
celebrated here every year with many attractions like Mask Dances of
Ladakh and tantric worship from Monks.

Shashur Monastery -Spiti


The Buddhist monastery Shashur is located in the Lahaul valley of
Spiti in Himachal Pradesh. Shashur Monastery is one of the ancient
monastery and covered with blue pines around it.

Mindrolling Monastery -Dehradun


The Mindrolling Monastery is one of the largest Buddhist center in
India, located in the Clement Town near to Rajaji National Park in
Dehradun district of Uttarakhand. Buddha temple of Dehradun is one of
major tourist attraction and a great place of architectural marvel. It
has one of the incredibly tallest statue of Lord Buddha with an height of 107 ft and one of the tallest stupa in India.

Ghum Monastery -Darjeeling


The Ghum Monastery is situated at the hill regions of Eastern
Himalaya range in Darjeeling,West Bengal. Ghum Monastery is known as
Yogachoeling Gompa is the oldest Tibetan Buddhist monastery and one of
the largest in the state.

Rumtek Monastery -Gangtok


There are more then 7 mind blowing buddhist monasteries in Sikkim and Rumtek Monastery is located at the hilltop of Gangtok, Sikkim. Rumtek Monastery is one of the largest in the state and surrounding with beautiful area.

Tawang Monastery -Tawang


The Tawang Monastery is the largest Monastery in India, located in
the Tawang Town of Arunachal Pradesh state India. Tawang Monastery also
known in Tibetan as Galden Namgey Lhatse is one of the biggest Tibetan
Buddhist monastery in India and in the world too. Tawang also gives you
one of the top 51 reason to visit north east India.

Namdroling Monastery -Mysore


The Namdroling Monastery is the largest Buddhist center in the world,
located in the Mysore district of Karnataka state. Namdroling Monastery
is one of the most beautiful Buddhist temple with Tibetan mythology
paintings and arts.

Bodhimanda Vihara Monastery -Bodhgaya


Bodhimanda Vihara is the main monastery of Bodh Gaya now known as the
Mahabodhi Temple. The Mahabodhi Temple is located in Gaya district of
Bihar state where the Buddha have attained enlightenment, Its now a
UNESCO World Heritage Site. Bodh Gaya is one of the four most important
pilgrimage sites of Buddhist along with the other three being
Kushinagar, Lumbini, and Sarnath.


Q 44 How can the Middle path be explained in terms of ethics, psychology and philisophy ?

The Middle Way

[Photo by Giusepe Milo/CC BY]

Throughout the 2,500-year history of Buddhism, the concept of the
Middle Way has seen multiple interpretations, but, simply, it describes
the way or path that transcends and reconciles the duality that
characterizes most thinking.

In the broadest sense, the Middle Way refers to the Buddha’s
enlightened view of life and also the actions or attitudes that will
create happiness for oneself and others; it is found in the ongoing,
dynamic effort to apply Buddhist wisdom to the questions and challenges
of life and society. In this sense, the search for the Middle Way can be
considered a universal pursuit of all Buddhist traditions—the quest for
a way of life that would give the greatest value to human existence and
help relieve the world of suffering. It is for this reason that
Buddhism itself is sometimes referred to as the “Middle Way.”

The Rejection of Extremes

Shakyamuni’s life exemplifies a basic interpretation of the Middle
Way as the path between two extremes, close to Aristotle’s idea of the
“golden mean” whereby “every virtue is a mean between two extremes, each
of which is a vice.”

Born a prince, Shakyamuni enjoyed every physical comfort and
pleasure. However, dissatisfied with the pursuit of fleeting pleasures,
he set out in search of a deeper, more enduring truth. He entered a
period of extreme ascetic practice, depriving himself of food and sleep,
bringing himself to the verge of physical collapse. Sensing the
futility of this path, however, he began meditating with the profound
determination to realize the truth of human existence, which had eluded
him as much in a life of asceticism as it had in a life of luxury. It
was then, in his rejection of both self-mortification and
self-indulgence, that Shakyamuni awakened to the true nature of life—its
eternity, its deep wellspring of unbounded vitality and wisdom.

Unification of the Three Truths

In sixth-century China, the Buddhist scholar T’ien-t’ai (Chih-i),
based on his extensive study of Shakyamuni’s teachings in the Lotus
Sutra, described life and phenomena in terms of three “truths.” These
articulate the reality of all phenomena from three separate dimensions.

The truth of temporary existence indicates the physical or material
aspects of life including appearance, form and activities. The truth of
non-substantiality refers to the invisible aspects of life, such as our
mental and spiritual functions, which lay dormant in our lives until
they are manifested. T’ien-t’ai proposed a third truth, the essence or
substance of life that transcends and encompasses these opposites. He
defined this as the Middle Way.

T’ien-t’ai observed that the three truths are unified in all
phenomena and thus clarified the indivisible interrelationship between
the physical and the spiritual. From this viewpoint stem the Buddhist
principles of the inseparability of body and mind and of self and

Life’s Inherent Dignity as the Guiding Principle

related article

Buddhism and Human Dignity
Buddhism and Human Dignity
the Buddhist understanding of human dignity is rooted in the idea that
we are able to choose the path of self-perfection.

Similar to T’ien-t’ai, Nichiren described life as an “elusive reality
that transcends both the words and concepts of existence and
nonexistence. It is neither existence nor nonexistence, yet exhibits the
qualities of both.” In other words, life itself is the ultimate
expression of the harmony of contradictions. Like the lotus flower that
blooms unsullied by the muddy waters in which it grows, Nichiren
maintained that human beings possess tremendous potential and the life
condition of Buddhahood which they can bring forth in direct proportion
to the depth of confusion and predicament they face. He encouraged
individuals to perceive the inherent dignity of all life—their own and
others’—and strive to make this the guiding principle of their actions.

From this perspective, to pursue the Middle Way is not a compromise.
It is to bravely confront life’s challenges—identify root causes and
seek means of resolution—while summoning the transformative strength and
wisdom of Buddhahood from within one’s life to create harmony.
Moreover, the Middle Way does not equate to society’s definition of what
may be accepted or considered “normal” at any given time. Rather, it
transcends subjective values and accords with something more
fundamental—our humanity. At the social and political level, the Middle
Way could be expressed as the commitment to upholding respect for the
dignity of life and placing it before adherence to a particular
political or economic ideology. This approach is expressed by Gandhi in
his well-known words: “Recall the face of the poorest and the weakest
man whom you may have seen, and ask yourself if the step you contemplate
is going to be of any use to him.”

The vision of the SGI is that individuals committed to this sustained
effort to orient their lives in a positive direction will inevitably
begin to move society itself in the direction of happiness and
harmonious coexistence. SGI President Daisaku Ikeda writes that the
Middle Way is a process of “living and making one’s mark on society
while constantly interrogating one’s own actions to ensure that they
accord with the path of humanity.”

The historian Eric Hobsbawm titled his volume on the 20th century The Age of Extremes.
Indeed, the violence and grotesque imbalances of that era drive home
the need to find a guiding principle for the peace and fulfillment of
humankind. The Middle Way of reverence for the dignity and sanctity of
life, making the welfare of people and the planet the starting point and
final goal of every human endeavor, can provide a path forward.
Buddhism itself is sometimes referred to as “the Middle Way,” indicating a…

Ratanainthiscontext,i.e.,whyareBuddha,Dhammaand SanghacaledTreasureGems?

45 Describe when the Buddha Ratana, Dhamma Ratana, and Sangha Ratana
arose. What is the significance of the term Ratana in this context,
i.e., why are Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha called Treasure Gems ?

Buddha Chanting| Lesson 3: Ti-Ratana Vandana by Dhammachari Chandrabodhi |Monkey Sage Pictures

Published on May 31, 2019

Lesson 3: Ti-Ratana Vandana by Dhammachari Chandrabodhi
(Three Jewels: Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha)

#Tiratana #DhammachariChandrabodhi #BuddhistChanting #LordBudhha

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4 6 . W h a t th e e s s e n tia l p o in ts o f th e D is c o u rs e o n
N o n -s e lf a s fo u n d in h is s e c o n d

Q 46 What is the essential points of the Discourse on non-self as found in his second discourse ?

In Buddhism, the term anattā (Pali) refers to the doctrine of “non-self”, that there is no unchanging, permanent self, soul or essence in living beings. It is one of the seven beneficial perceptions in Buddhism, and along with dukkha (suffering) and anicca (impermanence), it is one of three Right Understandings about the three marks of existence.

The Buddhist concept of anatta  is one of the fundamental differences between Buddhism and Hinduism, with the latter asserting that atman (self, soul) exists.

The Buddhist denial of “any Soul or Self” is what distinguishes Buddhism
from major religions of the world such as Christianity and Hinduism,
giving it uniqueness, asserts the Theravada tradition. With the doctrine of Anattā, stands or falls the entire Buddhist structure, asserts Nyanatiloka

Insight into the teaching of anatta is held to
have two major loci in the intellectual and spiritual education of an
individual as s/he progresses along the Path. The first part of this insight is to avoid sakkayaditthi
(Personality Belief), that is converting the “sense of I which is
gained from introspection and the fact of physical individuality” into a
theoretical belief in a self.
“A belief in a (really) existing body” is considered a false belief and
a part of the Ten Fetters that must be gradually lost. The second loci
is the psychological realisation of anatta, or loss of “pride or
conceit”. This, states Collins, is explained as the conceit of asmimana
or “I am”; (…) what this “conceit” refers to is the fact that for the
unenlightened man, all experience and action must necessarily appear
phenomenologically as happening to or originating from an “I”.
When a Buddhist gets more awakened, this happening to or originating
in an “I” or sakkdyaditthi is less. The final attainment of
enlightenment is the disappearance of this automatic but illusory “I”.

The Theravada tradition has long considered the understanding and application of the Anatta
doctrine to be a complex teaching, whose “personal, introjected
application has always been thought to be possible only for the
specialist, the practising monk”. The tradition, states Collins, has
“insisted fiercely on anatta as a doctrinal position”, while in practice
it may not play much of a role in the daily religious life of most
Buddhists. The Suttas present the doctrine in three forms. First, they apply the
“no-self, no-identity” doctrine to all phenomena as well as any and all
objects, yielding the idea that “all things are not-self” (sabbe dhamma anatta).
Second, the Suttas apply the doctrine to deny self of
any person, treating conceit to be evident in any assertion of “this is
mine, this I am, this is myself” (etam mamam eso ‘ham asmi, eso me atta ti). Third, the Theravada texts apply the doctrine as a nominal reference,
to identify examples of “self” and “not-self”, respectively the Wrong
view and the Right view; this third case of nominative usage is properly
translated as “self” (as an identity) and is unrelated to “soul”,  The first two usages incorporate the idea of soul.The Theravada doctrine of Anatta,
or not-self not-soul, inspire meditative practices for monks, states
Donald Swearer, but for the lay Theravada Buddhists in Southeast Asia,
the doctrines of kamma, rebirth and punna (merit) inspire a wide range of ritual practices and ethical behavior.

The Anatta doctrine is key to the concept of nibbana in the Theravada tradition. The liberated nirvana state, is the state of Anatta, a state that is neither universally applicable nor can be explained, but can be realized.


Q 47 What is the Noble Eightfold Path ? Analyse in terms of 3 modes of Spiritual training ?
The Eightfold Path: The Way to Enlightenment in Buddhism
The Path comprises eight teachings Buddhists follow in their everyday lives

The Eightfold Path of Buddhism is the means by which enlightenment may
be realized. The historical Buddha first explained the Eightfold Path in
his first sermon after his enlightenment.

Most of the Buddha’s
teachings deal with some part of the Path. You might think of it as an
outline that pulls together all the Buddha’s teachings.
The Eightfold Path

The Eightfold Path is composed of eight primary teachings that Buddhists follow and use in their everyday lives:

Right View or Right Understanding: Insight into the true nature of reality
Right Intention: The unselfish desire to realize enlightenment
Right Speech: Using speech compassionately
Right Action: Using ethical conduct to manifest compassion
Right Livelihood: Making a living through ethical and nonharmful means
Right Effort: Cultivating wholesome qualities and releasing unwholesome qualities
Right Mindfulness: Whole body-and-mind awareness
Right Concentration: Meditation or some other dedicated, concentrated practice

The word translated as “right” is samyanc (Sanskrit) or samma (Pali),
which means “wise,” “wholesome,” “skillful,” and “ideal.” It also
describes something that is complete and coherent. The word “right”
should not be taken as a commandment, as in “do this, or you are wrong.”

Another way to think of “right” in this case is in the sense of
equilibrium, like a boat riding the waves and remaining “right.”
Practice of the Path

The Eightfold Path is the fourth Truth of the Four Noble Truths. Very
basically, the truths explain the nature of our dissatisfaction with

The Buddha taught that we must thoroughly understand the
causes of our unhappiness in order to resolve it. There is no quick fix;
there is nothing we can obtain or hang on to that will give us true
happiness and inner peace. What is required is a radical shift in how we
understand and relate to ourselves and the world. Practice of the Path
is the way to achieve that.

Practice of the Path reaches into all
aspects of life and every moment. It’s not just something you work on
when you have time. It’s also important to understand that these eight
areas of practice are not separate steps to master one at a time. The
practice of each part of the Path supports the other parts.

The Path is divided into three main sections: wisdom, ethical conduct, and mental discipline.
The Wisdom Path

Right View and Right Intention comprise the wisdom path. Right View
isn’t about believing in doctrine, but about perceiving the true nature
of ourselves and the world around us. Right Intention refers to the
energy and commitment one needs to be fully engaged in Buddhist
The Ethical Conduct Path

Right Speech, Right
Action, and Right Livelihood are the ethical conduct path. They call us
to take care in our speech, our actions, and our daily lives to do no
harm to others and to cultivate wholesomeness in ourselves. This part of
the path ties into the Precepts, which describe the way an enlightened
being naturally lives.
The Mental Discipline Path

Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right Concentration we develop the
mental discipline to cut through delusion. Many schools of Buddhism
encourage seekers to meditate to achieve clarity and focus of mind.
The Eightfold Path is the Buddha’s prescription for finding enlightenment…
Whatdoesthe dependentoriginationportray?

Q 48 Write an essay of twelve factors of the law of dependent origination. What does the dependent origination portray ?


Q 49 Write down text of the Paticca Samppada both in Pali and English in forward and backward orders ?


Q 50 Give details account of Ashoka’s Nine messengers of Dhamma dispatched to nine countries ?


Q 51 Write an essay on the Aditta Pariyaya sutta explaining the important features ?


Q 52 What id Dhammapada, in which pitaka it appears ? How many chapters and verses are there ?

53.Explain Dhpd.verse no.42 & Verse no 43 with back ground story and
give your comments?

Q 53 Explain Dhpd. Verse no 42 & Verse no. 43 with back ground story and give your comments ?


Q 54 Explain Dhpd. Verse no 127 and 128 with background story ?

55.W rite dow n in pāliany 10 verses from cit ta vagga?

Q 55 Write down in Pali any 10 verses from citta vagga ?

W rtie s h o rt N o te s o n e a c h A ra k k h ā b h a v a n a i.e . B u

d d h a ā n u s s a ti, m e t tā , a s u b h ā a n d

56 What are the four protective meditations and how does one can
practice in daily life ? Write short Notes on each Arakkha bhavana ie.,
Buddhaanusatti, metta, ashubha and maranussati?

Invitation to Bhikkhus, Bhikkunis, Upakakas, Upasikas of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies

Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS)

with their gracious presence and blessings

for our





White Home for TIPITAKA

 to DO GOOD BE MINDFUL which is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta —
Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ] MEDITATION PRACTICE in
BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare, happiness and peace on the path of
Eternal Bliss as Final Goal

Day and Date will be announced


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Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās
“No entanto, muitas palavras sagradas que você lê, no entanto, muitos que você fala, que bem eles vão fazer você Se você não

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“In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone,
battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a
message to
mankind universal in character.”

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally there  are 84,000 Dhamma Doors - 84,000 ways to get
Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of
practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue
those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1).

There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate
addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I
received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the
priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are
divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into
361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses
including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are
divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and
29,368,000 separate letters.

Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS)

in 01) Classical Magahi Magadhi,
02) Classical Chandaso language,
03)Magadhi Prakrit,
04) Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),
05) Classical Pali,
06) Classical Devanagari,Classical Hindi-Devanagari- शास्त्रीय हिंदी,

07) Classical Cyrillic
08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans

09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,
10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,
11) Classical Arabic-اللغة العربية الفصحى
12) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,
13) Classical Azerbaijani- Klassik Azərbaycan,
14) Classical Basque- Euskal klasikoa,
15) Classical Belarusian-Класічная беларуская,
16) Classical Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,
17) Classical  Bosnian-Klasični bosanski,
18) Classical Bulgaria- Класически българск,
19) Classical  Catalan-Català clàssic
20) Classical Cebuano-Klase sa Sugbo,

21) Classical Chichewa-Chikale cha Chichewa,

22) Classical Chinese (Simplified)-古典中文(简体),

23) Classical Chinese (Traditional)-古典中文(繁體),

24) Classical Corsican-Corsa Corsicana,

25) Classical  Croatian-Klasična hrvatska,

26) Classical  Czech-Klasická čeština,
27) Classical  Danish-Klassisk dansk,Klassisk dansk,

28) Classical  Dutch- Klassiek Nederlands,
29) Classical English,Roman
30) Classical Esperanto-Klasika Esperanto,

31) Classical Estonian- klassikaline eesti keel,

32) Classical Filipino,
33) Classical Finnish- Klassinen suomalainen,

34) Classical French- Français classique,

35) Classical Frisian- Klassike Frysk,

36) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,
37) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,

38) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,
39) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,
40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
41) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl,

42) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,
43) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,

44) Classical Hebrew- עברית קלאסית
45) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,

46) Classical Hungarian-Klasszikus magyar,

47) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,
48) Classical Igbo,

49) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,

50) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,
51) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,
52) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,
53) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,
54) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,
55) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,

56) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,
57) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,

58) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),

59) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,
60) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,
61) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,

62) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latviešu valoda,

63) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių kalba,

64) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch,

65) Classical Macedonian-Класичен македонски,
66) Classical Malagasy,
67) Classical Malay-Melayu Klasik,

68) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,

69) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Malti,
70) Classical Maori-Maori Maori,
71) Classical Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी,

72) Classical Mongolian-Сонгодог Монгол,

73) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မြန်မာ (ဗမာ),

74) Classical Nepali-शास्त्रीय म्यांमार (बर्मा),
75) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,

76) Classical Pashto- ټولګی پښتو

77) Classical Persian-کلاسیک فارسی
78) Classical Polish-Język klasyczny polski,

79) Classical Portuguese-Português Clássico,
80) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,
81) Classical Romanian-Clasic românesc,
82) Classical Russian-Классический русский,
83) Classical Samoan-Samoan Samoa,
84) Classical Scots Gaelic-Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,
85) Classical Serbian-Класични српски,
86) Classical Sesotho-Seserbia ea boholo-holo,
87) Classical Shona-Shona Shona,
88) Classical Sindhi,
89) Classical Sinhala-සම්භාව්ය සිංහල,

90) Classical Slovak-Klasický slovenský,
91) Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,
92) Classical Somali-Soomaali qowmiyadeed,
93) Classical Spanish-Español clásico,
94) Classical Sundanese-Sunda Klasik,
95) Classical Swahili,
96) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,
97) Classical Tajik-тоҷикӣ классикӣ,

98) Classical Tamil-பாரம்பரிய இசைத்தமிழ் செம்மொழி,
99) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,
100) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,
101) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,
102) Classical Ukrainian-Класичний український,
103) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو
104) Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’zbek,
105) Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việt cổ điển,

106) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,
107) Classical Xhosa-IsiXhosa zesiXhosa,
108) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש
109) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,
110) Classical Zulu-I-Classical Zulu

Dove-02-june.gif (38556 bytes)

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get
Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of
practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue
those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There
are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate
addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I
received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the
priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are
divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into
361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses
including both those of
Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras,
containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.


Positive Buddha Vacana — The words of the Buddha —
Interested in All Suttas  of Tipitaka as Episodes in visual format including 7D laser Hologram 360 degree Circarama presentation

Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice

 Maha-parinibbana Sutta — Last Days of the Buddha

The Great Discourse on the Total Unbinding

wide-ranging sutta, the longest one in the Pali canon, describes the
events leading up to, during, and immediately following the death and
final release (parinibbana) of the Buddha. This colorful narrative
contains a wealth of Dhamma teachings, including the Buddha’s final
instructions that defined how Buddhism would be lived and practiced long
after the Buddha’s death — even to this day. But this sutta also
depicts, in simple language, the poignant human drama that unfolds among
the Buddha’s many devoted followers around the time of the death of
their beloved teacher.
Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ (Pali) - 2 Kāyānupassanā ānāpānapabbaṃ


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as Final Goal through Electronic Visual Communication Course on

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of facebook, twitter etc., to propagate TPSTEEM thru FOA1TRPUVF.


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lying, walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, martial arts etc., for

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