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http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā
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LESSON 3039 Sun 23 Jun 2019 Buddha Śãsana, which means “Buddha Vacana - the teaching of the Awakened One with Awareness”. Since in Buddhism there is no divine god the term is considered more accurate than the word “religion” as it denotes an adaptable philosophy and practice rather than a non-changing divine call from an all knowing god. Śāsana may also refer to the 5000-year dispensation of a particular Buddha. That is, we are living in the śāsana of the Śakyamuni Buddha. https://www.budsas.org Sabbapapassa akaranam Kusalassa upasampada Sacitta pariyodapanam Etam buddhana sasanam Every evil never doing and in wholesomeness increasing and one’s heart well-purifying: this is the Buddhas’ Sasana (Dhammapada, 183) Sabbe satta sada hontu avera sukhajivino. Katam punnaphalam mayham sabbe bhagi bhavantu te. May all living beings always live happily, free from animosity. May all share in the blessings springing from the good I have done. http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html Buddha Vacana — The words of the Buddha — in 05) Classical Pali,08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans,09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,11) Classical Arabic-اللغة العربية الفصحى 12) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,13) Classical Azerbaijani- Klassik Azərbaycan,
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 6:17 pm
LESSON 3039 Sun  23 Jun 2019

Buddha Śãsana, which means “Buddha Vacana - the teaching of the
Awakened One with Awareness”. Since in Buddhism there is no divine god
the term is considered more accurate than the word “religion” as it denotes an adaptable philosophy and practice rather than a non-changing divine call from an all knowing god.


Śāsana may also refer to the 5000-year dispensation of a particular Buddha. That is, we are living in the śāsana of the Śakyamuni Buddha.


https://www.budsas.org



Sabbapapassa
akaranam
Kusalassa upasampada
Sacitta pariyodapanam
Etam buddhana sasanam

Every evil
never doing
and in wholesomeness increasing
and one’s heart well-purifying:
this is the Buddhas’ Sasana

  (Dhammapada,
183)





Sabbe satta sada
hontu

avera sukhajivino.
Katam punnaphalam mayham
sabbe bhagi bhavantu te.

May
all living beings always live happily,

free from animosity.
May all share in the blessings
springing from the good I have done.


in 05) Classical Pali,08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans,09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,11) Classical Arabic-اللغة العربية الفصحى
12) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,13) Classical Azerbaijani- Klassik Azərbaycan,
https://www.reddit.com/r/Buddhism/comments/3g4qn9/buddhas_original_teaching_tipitaka_the_pali_canon/

https://www.reddit.com/…/buddhas_original_teaching_tipitak…/
Buddha’s original Teaching Tipitaka: The Pali Canon
The Buddha’s original teachings were collected, preserved, edited
together in various ways, and finally spread around South Asia until we
end up with a handful of comprehensive compilations.

For most of
these, we have only a few representative Agamas. Then we have the
Theravada version of this early collection in the Nikayas, as well as
the Theravada Abhidhamma & Theravadan Commentaries.


So, the Tipitika is clearly far more than what the historical Buddha
taught; to get at that layer of information, we have to do the best we
can with these Nikayas & Agamas.

Here’s another site: http://www.suttacentral.net
http://suttacentral.net

I think it’s worth remarking that Suttacentral.net is very quickly becoming an indispensable resource for studying the suttas.


Casually digging into the Nikayas in the source language has never been
made more convenient. I hope to see the same level of support for the
Agamas (which I understand to be Chinese transliterations of the
original Sanskrit?) in the years to come.

With respect to quality of translations available in English, though, I have a strong preference for those available on accesstoinsight.org (~ie dhammatalks.org).
I find that Ajahn Geoff as a translator is as cautious as, say, Bhikkhu
Bodhi in not glossing subtleties, but bolder in ironing out
interpretations that hold up to scrutiny. Bhikkhu Bodhi et. al., though,
have managed to complete the collection.

Of course, SuttaCentral does link back to accesstoinsight.org
for many of the suttas, but I suspect that they’re hoping for someone
to do the work of “bringing it in natively” to the site. But this is
mostly armchair musing.
http://www.iep.utm.edu/pudgalav/


https://suttacentral.net/an8.70/en/sujato

70. Earthquakes

At one time the Buddha was staying near Vesālī, at the Great Wood, in the hall with the peaked roof. Then the Buddha robed up in the morning and, taking his bowl and robe, entered Vesālī for alms. Then, after the meal, on his return from alms-round, he addressed Venerable Ānanda: “Ānanda, get your sitting cloth. Let’s go to the Cāpāla shrine for the day’s meditation.”



“Yes, sir,” replied Ānanda. Taking his sitting cloth he followed behind the Buddha.


Then the Buddha went up to the Cāpāla shrine, where he sat on the seat spread out. When he was seated he said to Venerable Ānanda:


“Ānanda, Vesālī is lovely. And the Udena, Gotamaka, Sattamba, Bahuputta, Sārandada, and Cāpāla shrines are all lovely. Whoever
has developed and cultivated the four bases of psychic power—made them a
vehicle and a basis, kept them up, consolidated them, and properly
implemented them—may, if they wish, live on for the eon or what’s left
of the eon.
The
Realized One has developed and cultivated the four bases of psychic
power, made them a vehicle and a basis, kept them up, consolidated them,
and properly implemented them. If he wished, the Realized One could
live on for the eon or what’s left of the eon.”
But Ānanda didn’t get it, even though the Buddha dropped such an obvious hint, such a clear sign. He didn’t beg the Buddha:

“Sir,
may the Blessed One please remain for the eon! May the Holy One please
remain for the eon! That would be for the welfare and happiness of the
people, for the benefit, welfare, and happiness of gods and humans.” For
his mind was as if possessed by Māra.


For a second time … And for a third time, the Buddha said to him: “Ānanda, Vesālī is lovely. And the Udena, Gotamaka, Sattamba, Bahuputta, Sārandada, and Cāpāla shrines are all lovely. Whoever
has developed and cultivated the four bases of psychic power—made them a
vehicle and a basis, kept them up, consolidated them, and properly
implemented them—may, if they wish, live on for the eon or what’s left
of the eon.
The
Realized One has developed and cultivated the four bases of psychic
power, made them a vehicle and a basis, kept them up, consolidated them,
and properly implemented them. If he wished, the Realized One could
live on for the eon or what’s left of the eon.”
But Ānanda didn’t get it, even though the Buddha dropped such an obvious hint, such a clear sign. He didn’t beg the Buddha:



“Sir,
may the Blessed One please remain for the eon! May the Holy One please
remain for the eon! That would be for the welfare and happiness of the
people, for the benefit, welfare, and happiness of gods and humans.” For
his mind was as if possessed by Māra.

Then the Buddha said to Venerable Ānanda:



“Go now, Ānanda, at your convenience.”



“Yes,
sir,” replied Ānanda. He rose from his seat, bowed, and respectfully
circled the Buddha, keeping him on his right, before sitting at the root
of a tree close by.
And then, not long after Ānanda had left, Māra the Wicked said to the Buddha:


“Sir,
may the Blessed One now become fully extinguished! May the Holy One now
become fully extinguished! Now is the time for the Buddha to become
fully extinguished.
Sir, you once made this statement: ‘Wicked
One, I will not become fully extinguished until I have monk disciples
who are competent, educated, assured, learned, have memorized the
teachings, and practice in line with the teachings; not until they
practice appropriately, living in line with the teaching; not until
they’ve learned their tradition, and explain, teach, assert, establish,
open, analyze, and make it clear; not until they can legitimately and
completely refute the doctrines of others that come up, and teach with a
demonstrable basis.’
Today you do have such monk disciples.

May the
Blessed One now become fully extinguished! May the Holy One now become
fully extinguished! Now is the time for the Buddha to become fully
extinguished.
Sir, you once made this statement: ‘Wicked One, I will not become fully extinguished until I have nun disciples who are competent, educated, assured, learned …’ … ‘Wicked
One, I will not become fully extinguished until I have layman disciples
who are competent, educated, assured, learned …’ …
‘Wicked
One, I will not become fully extinguished until I have laywoman
disciples who are competent, educated, assured, learned …’ …
Today you do have such laywoman disciples.


Sir,
may the Blessed One now become fully extinguished! May the Holy One
become fully extinguished! Now is the time for the Buddha to become
fully extinguished.
Sir, you once made this statement: ‘Wicked
One, I will not become fully extinguished until my spiritual path is
successful and prosperous, extensive, popular, widespread, and well
proclaimed wherever there are gods and humans.’
Today
your spiritual path is successful and prosperous, extensive, popular,
widespread, and well proclaimed wherever there are gods and humans.

Sir, may
the Blessed One now become fully extinguished! May the Holy One become
fully extinguished! Now is the time for the Buddha to become fully
extinguished.”



“Relax, Wicked One. The final extinguishment of the Realized One will be soon. Three months from now the Realized One will finally be extinguished.”


So at the Cāpāla tree shrine the Buddha, mindful and aware, surrendered the life force. When he did so there was a great earthquake, awe-inspiring and hair-raising, and thunder cracked the sky. Then, knowing the meaning of this, on that occasion the Buddha was inspired to exclaim:



“Weighing up the incomparable against an extension of life,
the sage surrendered the life force.
Happy inside, serene,
he burst out of this self-made chain like a suit of armor.”


Then Venerable Ānanda thought:



“That was a really big earthquake! That was really a very big earthquake; awe-inspiring and hair-raising, and thunder cracked the sky! What’s the cause, what’s the reason for a great earthquake?”

Then Venerable Ānanda went up to the Buddha, bowed, sat down to one side, and said to him:



“Sir, that was a really big earthquake! That was really a very big earthquake; awe-inspiring and hair-raising, and thunder cracked the sky! What’s the cause, what’s the reason for a great earthquake?”


“Ānanda, there are these eight causes and reasons for a great earthquake. What eight? This
great earth is grounded on water, the water is grounded on air, and the
air stands in space. At a time when a great wind blows, it stirs the
water, and the water stirs the earth.
This is the first cause and reason for a great earthquake.


Furthermore,
there is an ascetic or brahmin with psychic power who has achieved
mastery of the mind, or a god who is mighty and powerful. They’ve
developed a limited perception of earth and a limitless perception of
water. They make the earth shake and rock and tremble.
This is the second cause and reason for a great earthquake.


Furthermore,
when the being intent on awakening passes away from the host of Joyful
Gods, he’s conceived in his mother’s belly, mindful and aware. Then the
earth shakes and rocks and trembles.
This is the third cause and reason for a great earthquake.


Furthermore,
when the being intent on awakening comes out of his mother’s belly
mindful and aware, the earth shakes and rocks and trembles.
This is the fourth cause and reason for a great earthquake.

Furthermore, when the Realized One realizes the supreme perfect awakening, the earth shakes and rocks and trembles. This is the fifth cause and reason for a great earthquake.


Furthermore, when the Realized One rolls forth the supreme Wheel of Dhamma, the earth shakes and rocks and trembles. This is the sixth cause and reason for a great earthquake.


Furthermore, when the Realized One, mindful and aware, surrenders the life force, the earth shakes and rocks and trembles. This is the seventh cause and reason for a great earthquake.


Furthermore,
when the Realized One becomes fully extinguished through the natural
principle of extinguishment, without anything left over, the earth
shakes and rocks and trembles.
This is the eighth cause and reason for a great earthquake. These are the eight causes and reasons for a great earthquake.”


https://www.iep.utm.edu/pudgalav/

Pudgalavada Buddhist Philosophy

buddhaThe
Pudgalavāda was a group of five of the Early Schools of Buddhism. The
name arises from their adherents’ distinctive doctrine (vāda) concerning the self or person (pudgala).
The doctrine holds that the person, in a certain sense, is real. To
other Buddhists, their view seemed to contradict a fundamental tenet of
Buddhism, the doctrine of non-self. However, the Pudgalavādins were
convinced that they had had preserved the true interpretation of the
Buddha’s teaching.

Although now all but forgotten, the Pudgalavāda was one of the
dominant traditions of Buddhism in India during the time that Buddhism
survived there. It was never strong in other parts of Asia, however, and
with the eventual disappearance of Buddhism in India, almost all of the
literature of the Pudgalavāda was lost. It is difficult to reconstruct
their understanding of the self from the few Chinese translations that
have come down to us, and from the summaries of their doctrines and the
critiques of their position that have been preserved by other Buddhist
schools. But there is no doubt that they affirmed the reality of the
self or person, and that with scriptural authority they held that the
self of an enlightened one cannot be described as non-existent after
death, in “complete Nirvana” (Parinirvana), even though the five
“aggregates” which are the basis of its identity have then passed away
without any possibility of recurrence in a further life. These five are
material form, feeling, ideation, mental forces, and consciousness.

It seems, then, that they thought of some aspect or dimension of the
self as transcending the aggregates and may have identified that aspect
with Nirvana, which like most early Buddhists they regarded as an
eternal reality. In its involvement with the aggregates through
successive lives, the self could be seen as characterized by incessant
change; but in its eternal aspect, it could be seen as having an
identity that remains constant through all its lives until it fulfils
itself in the impersonal happiness of Parinirvana. Although their
account of the self seemed unorthodox and irrational to their Buddhist
opponents, the Pudgalavādins evidently believed that only such an
account could do justice to the Buddha’s moral teaching, to the accepted
facts of karma, rebirth and liberation, and to our actual experience of
selves and persons.

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. The Problem of the Self in Buddhism
  3. The Pudgalavādin Characterization of the Self
  4. Reconstruction of the Pudgalavādin Conception of the Self
  5. Pudgalavādin Arguments in Support of their Conception of the Self
  6. Conclusion
  7. References and Further Reading

1. Introduction

The Pudgalavāda was a group of five of the Early Schools of Buddhism,
distinguished from the other schools by their doctrine of the reality
of the self. The group consists of the Vātsīputrīya, the original
Pudgalavādin School, and four others that derived from it, the
Dharmottarīya, the Bhadrayānīya, the Sāmmitīya and the Shannagarika. Of
these, only the Vātsīputrīya and the Sāmmitīya had a large following.
The Vātsīputrīya evidently arose about two centuries after the death of
the Buddha (the Parinirvana). Since the date of the Buddha’s death was
probably in about 486 BCE or 368 BCE (according to which sources one
follows), the rise of the Vātsīputrīya school would have been in the
early third century or toward the middle of the second century BCE.
According to the Chinese monk Xuanzang (Hsüan-tsang), who traveled in
India in the seventh century CE, the Sāmmitīya was at that time by far
the largest of the Shrāvakayāna schools (or Early Schools), equal in
size to all of the other schools combined; and as the monastic
populations of the Shrāvakayāna and the Mahāyāna were roughly the same,
the Sāmmitīya represented about a quarter of the entire Buddhist
monastic population of India. The Vātsīputrīya and a branch of the
Sāmmitīya survived in India at least until the tenth century, but since
the Pudgalavādin schools never spread to any great extent beyond the
subcontinent, when Buddhism died out in India, the tradition of the
Pudgalavāda came to an end.

The name Pudgalavāda came to be applied to these schools because “pudgala” was one of the words which they used for the self whose reality they affirmed. “Pudgala
is a term that appears in the early canonical texts with the meaning of
a person or individual. The Pudgalavāda is thus a Doctrine of the
Person, or Personalism, and Pudgalavādins are accordingly Personalists.
Their use of the term “pudgala” has sometimes given the
impression that they were trying to conceal their unorthodoxy by talking
about a person rather than a self. But in fact they often used other
words for the self, such as “ātman” and “jīva,” and were evidently quite unabashed in declaring that the self is real.

It is hardly necessary to point out the importance, both
philosophically and historically, of a form of Buddhism which differs
strikingly in its interpretation of the Buddha’s teaching from what we
have come to regard as orthodox, and yet was for some time, at least,
the dominant form of Shrāvakayāna Buddhism in India. But the
difficulties facing us in investigating the Pudgalavāda are
considerable. There is no living tradition of Pudgalavāda; there are no
learned monks to whom we can turn for interpretations handed down within
that tradition. There are very few Pudgalavādin texts that have
survived, only two of them with anything to say about the self, and
those only in Chinese translations of poor quality. Apart from these, we
have extensive quotations from their texts (but none, unfortunately,
dealing with the self) in an Indian Buddhist work which has survived
only in Tibetan, some brief summaries of their doctrines in Tibetan and
Chinese translations of Indian works on the formation of the
Shrāvakayāna schools, and finally criticisms of their doctrines in works
from other schools, some of these fortunately available in Pali or
Sanskrit. The evidence we have is thus quite limited, much of it
surviving only in translation, and some of it from hostile sources. Any
interpretation of the Pudgalavādin doctrine of the self will necessarily
be to a considerable extent a reconstruction, and should accordingly be
regarded as a more or less plausible hypothesis rather than anything
like a definitive account.

2. The Problem of the Self in Buddhism

The Buddha taught that no self is to be found either in or outside of
the five skandhas or in their aggregates; the five are material form,
feeling, ideation, mental forces, and consciousness. He rejected the two
extreme positions of a permanent, unchanging self persisting in Samsara
(cycle of death and rebirth) through successive lives, and of a self
which is completely destroyed at death. He taught instead a middle
position of dependent origination (pratītyasamutpāda),
according to which our existence in this life has arisen as a result of
our ethically significant volitional acts (karma) in our last life, and
such volitional acts in our present life will give rise to our existence
(but will not determine our acts) in our next life. What we are now is
thus not the same as what we were, since this is a new life with a
different body, different feelings and so on, but neither is it entirely
separate from what we were, since what we are now is the result of
decisions made in our past life.

In the non-Pudgalavādin schools, which we now think of as orthodox in
this regard, this teaching was interpreted (not unreasonably) as a
denial that there is any substantial self together with an affirmation
of the complex process of evanescent phenomena which at any particular
time we identify as a person. In the opinion of these schools, the
teaching understood in this way offers several advantages: first, it is
true, in the sense that it can be accepted as an accurate account of
what can actually be observed of a person (including the events and
decisions of past lives, which were supposed to be accessible to the
Buddha’s memory); secondly, it removes the basis for selfishness (the
root of both wrong-doing and suffering) by exposing the ultimate
unreality of the self as a substantial entity; and thirdly, it supports
the view that what we do makes a real difference to what we become in
both this life and future lives. It thus offers rational hope for an
eventual dismantling of the otherwise self-perpetuating mechanism of
misunderstanding, craving and suffering in which we are trapped.

But this interpretation of the Buddha’s teaching also involves
certain difficulties. In the first place, even if we can understand the
functional identity of the person as simply the continuity of a causal
process in which the evanescent phenomena of the five aggregates occur
and recur in a gradually changing pattern, it is hard to understand how
this continuity is maintained through death to the birth of the person
in a new life. If rebirth is immediate, as the Theravādins held, how can
the final moments of one life bring about the beginning of a new life
in a place necessarily at some distance from the place of death? But if
there is an intermediate state between death and rebirth, as the
Sarvāstivādins held, how can the person journey from one life to the
next when the aggregates of the old life have passed away and the
aggregates of the new life have not yet arisen? Or if there are
aggregates in the intermediate state, why does this state not constitute
a life interposed between the one that has ended and the one that is to
begin?

In the second place, the denial of the ultimate reality of the self
certainly seems to cut away the basis for selfishness, but it seems in
the same way to cut away the basis for compassion. If the effort to gain
anything for oneself is essentially deluded, how can it not be equally
deluded to try to gain anything for other persons, other selves? If to
be liberated is to realize that there was never anyone to be liberated,
why would that liberation not include the realization that there was
never anyone else to be liberated either? Yet it was out of compassion
that the Buddha, freshly enlightened, undertook to teach in the first
place, and without that compassion there would have been no Buddhism.

Schools that accepted this interpretation, such as the Theravāda and
Sarvāstivāda, were of course aware of these difficulties and dealt with
them as well as they could. But it is not surprising that the
Pudgalavādin schools, sensitive to such problems, developed a
fundamentally different interpretation of the Buddha’s teaching about
the self.

3. The Pudgalavādin Characterization of the Self

The Pudgalavādins described the person or self as “inexpressible,”
that is, as indeterminate in its relation to the five aggregates, since
it cannot be identified with the aggregates and cannot be found apart
from them: the self and the aggregates are neither the same nor
different. But whereas other schools took this indeterminacy as evidence
that the self is unreal, the Pudgalavādins understood it to
characterize a real self, a self that is “true and ultimate.” It is this
self, they maintained, that dies and is reborn through successive lives
in Samsara, continuing to exist until enlightenment is attained. Even
in Parinirvana, when the aggregates of the enlightened self have passed
away in death and no new aggregates can arise in rebirth, the self,
though no longer existent with the aggregates of an individual person,
cannot actually be said to be non-existent.

Like most other Shrāvakayāna Buddhists, the Pudgalavādins regarded
Nirvana as a real entity, differing from the realm of dependent
origination (though not absolutely distinct from it) in being uncaused (asamskrita)
and thus indestructible. Accordingly, Nirvana is not something brought
into being at the moment of enlightenment, but is rather an eternally
existing reality which at that moment is finally attained. The
Pudgalavādins held that the self is indeterminate also in its relation
to this eternal reality of Nirvana: the self and Nirvana are neither the
same nor different.

In its indeterminate relationship with the five aggregates and
Nirvana, the self is understood to constitute a fifth category of
existence, the “inexpressible.” The phenomena of the five aggregates and
of temporal existence in general form three categories: past phenomena,
present phenomena and future phenomena. Nirvana, as an eternal,
uncaused reality, is the fourth category. The self or person, not to be
described either as the same as the dependent phenomena of the temporal
world or as distinct from them, is the fifth.

The Pudgalavādins distinguished three ways in which the self can be designated or conceived:

  1. according to the aggregates appropriated as its basis in a
    particular life: In the this case, we have a conception of a particular
    person based on what we know of that person’s physical appearance,
    feelings, thoughts, inclinations and awareness.
  2. according to its acquisition of new aggregates in its transition
    from a past life to its present one, or from the present life to a
    future one: In this case, we would have a conception of a particular
    person as one who was such-and-such a person, with that person’s body,
    feelings and so on, in a previous life, or as one who will be reborn as
    such-and-such a person, with that person’s body, feelings and so on, in a
    future life.
  3. according to the final passing away of its aggregates at death after
    attaining enlightenment: In the this case, we have a conception of a
    person who has attained Parinirvana based on the body, feelings,
    thoughts, inclinations and awareness that have passed away at death
    without any possibility of recurrence.

In this way, all the statements made by the Buddha—and by others on
his authority or on the strength of their own observation, concerning
persons or selves and their past or future existences—can be shown to be
based on the five aggregates from which those persons are inseparable.

Other schools understood the self to be a merely conceptual entity in
the sense that it was simply the diverse phenomena of the five
aggregates comprehended for convenience under a single term such as
“self” or “person.” They supposed its existence to be thus purely
nominal; there is no single, substantial entity corresponding to the
term we use for it. We might expect that the Pudgalavādins, who held
that the self is real, would on the contrary insist that the self is not
merely conceptual or nominal, but substantial. But in fact they seem to
have regarded the self, at lest initially, as conceptual, though “true
and ultimate.” A later source represents them as maintaining that it is
neither conceptual nor substantial, and still later sources ascribe the
view to them that the self is indeed substantial. The difference in
these accounts may be the result of confusion in our sources, but it is
certainly possible that the Pudgalavādins gradually modified their
position under the pressure of criticism from other schools.

The Theravādins and Sarvāstivādins made a clear distinction between
what are traditionally called “two truths,” which in modern parlance is a
distinction between two types of “truth predicates”: ultimate truth (paramārthasatya) and conventional truth (samvritisatya). Ultimate truth distinguishes accurate statements about primary phenomena (dharmas)
and their relationships. Conventional truth distinguishes accurate
statements about persons and other composite entities; they were thus
statements expressed according to the conventions of ordinary usage, and
are true only in the sense that they could in principle be translated
into accurate statements about the constituent phenomena on which such
conventional notions as “person” and so on were based. The two types of
truth predicates (commonly called the “Two Truths”) are to be
distinguished from four important principles taught by the Buddha, which
are not truth predicates, but are called the “Four Noble Truths.” These
“Truths” are: (1) life is suffering (the Truth of Suffering), (2)
suffering arises from desire (the Truth of the Origination of
Suffering), (3) suffering can be stopped (the Truth of Nirvana and the
Cessation of Suffering), (4) the cessation of suffering is brought about
by adherence to the Buddhist Path, which consists of prescriptions such
as the Eight Fold Path (the Truth of the Path).

The Pudgalavādins also distinguished between two kinds of doctrine,
concerning phenomena and concerning persons, but they did not regard
these as related to higher and lower kinds of truth predicates. They
actually recognized three truth predicates: “ultimate truth,,
“characteristical truth,” and “practical truth.” They identified
ultimate truth with the Third Noble Truth, the Truth of Nirvana, and the
cessation of suffering. Characteristical truth distinguishes the First,
Second and Fourth of the Noble Truths, the Truths of Suffering, its
Origin, and the Path leading to its cessation. Because the
characteristical truth predicate was understood as characterizing the
world oriented of the Four Noble Truths, it was understood as also
distinguishing accurate claims about dependent phenomena. The practical
truth predicate distinguished forms of speech and behavior inherited
through local or family traditions or learned through monastic training.
It would seem that the self was subject to all three of these truths,
as the one who eventually attains the cessation of suffering, as the one
who suffers as a result of craving and follows a path leading to the
end of suffering, and as the one who speaks and acts in accordance with
the norms of secular or monastic life.

4. Reconstruction of the Pudgalavādin Conception of the Self

What the Pudgalavādins said (or in some cases are said to have said)
about the self is sufficient to locate their conception of the self in
relation to various Buddhist and non-Buddhist opinions that they
rejected. But the exact nature of their conception of it remains
unclear. Just what was the self supposed to be? Was it simply the five
aggregates taken together as a totality but which was not reducible to
its parts? Or was it a persisting entity distinct from the aggregates
but bound to them so that it could be said to change as the aggregates
connected with it changed? Or was it in fact something else altogether?

If the self was supposed to be conceptual, as the Pudgalavādins seem
initially to have asserted, that would tend to support the view that
they regarded the self as the totality of its constituent aggregates.
This view differed from the Theravādins and Sarvāstivādins in not
thinking that this conceptual whole was reducible to its parts. On the
other hand, if it was supposed to be substantial, as the Pudgalavādins
seem later to have asserted, that would tend to support the view that
they regarded it as an entity in its own right, non-different from the
aggregates only in the sense that it was inseparably bound to them. But
there is a problem that affects both of these interpretations. The
person who has completely passed away in Parinirvana is supposed to be
neither existent nor non-existent. If the self were the aggregates taken
as a whole, then with the final destruction of body, feeling, and so on
the self would simply be non-existent. But if the self were an entity
distinct from the aggregates though bound to them, then in Parinirvana
the self would either come to an end together with the aggregates and
thus be non-existent, or else it would continue to exist without the
aggregates, in spite of allegedly being bound to them, and so would be
simply existent. The former interpretation in fact comes too close to
identifying the self with the aggregates, and the latter, to treating it
as a separate entity.

An analogy that the Pudgalavādins frequently made use of may give
some indication of what they actually had in mind. They say that the
person is to the aggregates as fire is to its fuel. This analogy appears
in a number of the canonical texts and so would have to be accepted by
all Buddhist who accepted these texts, though their understanding of it
would of course be different from the Pudgalavādins’. As the
Pudgalavādins explain it, fire is described in terms of its fuel, as a
wood fire or a straw fire, but the fire is not the same as the fuel, nor
can it continue to burn without the fuel. Similarly, the person is
described in terms of the aggregates, as having such-and-such a physical
appearance and so on, but it is not the same as that particular body,
those feelings and so on, and cannot exist without a body, feelings and
the other aggregates. This analogy makes it clear that although the
aggregates in some sense support the self, they are not actually its
constituents, since a fire, though supported by its fuel, is certainly
not a whole constituted by some particular arrangement of logs.

What the analogy seems not to make clear is why the person in
Parinirvana, no longer supported by the aggregates, is not simply
non-existent like a fire that has gone out when its fuel is exhausted.
But there is reason to think that the Pudgalavādins did not understand
the extinction of the fire as we would. Several of the canonical texts
that use this analogy specifically compare the Buddha after death to a
fire that has gone out and has not gone north, south, east or west, but
is simply extinct; but instead of going on to say that the Buddha is
non-existent, they say that he is “unfathomable”, that he cannot be
described in terms of arising or non-arising, existence or
non-existence. Another text, preserved and accepted as authoritative by
the Theravādins, explains that Nirvana exists eternally and can be
attained even though there is no place where it is “stored up,” just as
fire exists and can be produced by rubbing two sticks together even
though there is no place where it is stored up. The extinction of the
fire can be understood as a transition from its local existence
supported by its fuel to a non-local state which cannot be described as
either existence or non-existence. The Parinirvana of the Buddha will
then be his transition from a local existence supported by the
aggregates to a non-local state which is unfathomable. A canonical text
of the Mahāyāna explicitly describes the non-local form of the Buddha
after his death as his “eternal body,” which is said to be like the fire
that has not gone north, south, east or west, but is simply extinct.

There is no evidence that the Pudgalavādins anticipated this Mahāyāna
doctrine of an eternal body of the Buddha. However, the analogy
understood in this way certainly indicates that the person or self (in
this case, the Buddha) is a local manifestation of something. Could that
“something” have been a supreme self such as we find in the Upanishads
and the Vedānta, and, suitably qualified, in some Mahāyāna texts? There
is no evidence to suggest that it was, and in fact the Pudgalavādins may
have felt that it would be inappropriate to use the term designating a
local, dependent manifestation of that something to refer to the
something itself, which unlike any self was eternal and independent of
the aggregates.

But there is some evidence which points in another direction. One of
our Pudgalavādin sources speaks of the person in Parinirvana as having
attained the “unshakeable happiness”, and another source says that the
Pudgalavādins held that although Nirvana has the nature of
non-existence, because there is no body, faculty or thought there, it
also has the nature of existence, because the supreme, ever-lasting
happiness is there. So Nirvana is characterized by eternal happiness,
but it is a happiness unaccompanied by any body, faculty or thought.
Moreover, another source ascribes to the Pudgalavādins the view that
Nirvana is the quiescence of the person’s previous “coming and going” in
Samsara; it seems to say, then, that Nirvana is a state that the person
achieves. This “state” cannot be something that comes into being when
Nirvana is attained; otherwise Nirvana would be dependent and so in
principle impermanent. And in Parinirvana there are no aggregates, and
thus no person, in any normal sense, of which this quiescence could be a
state. But if this quiescence is Nirvana, it cannot be simply the
non-existence of the person, since we are told explicitly that the
person is not nonexistent in Parinirvana (though of course not existent,
either). Nirvana must be quiescence in the sense in which it is the
“cessation of suffering,” not as a state that arises at the moment of
enlightenment and is completed at death, but as an already existing
reality whose attainment puts an end to suffering and the coming and
going of Samsara.

But in what sense is this eternal happiness “attained” by the person
who at death ceases to exist as a self supported by body, faculties and
thought? And in what sense is a person who has attained this eternal
happiness “not non-existent” after death, even though the five
aggregates have passed away once and for all? If even without the
aggregates the person somehow survives to enjoy the eternal happiness,
why do the Pudgalavādins deny that the person is existent in
Parinirvana? But if the person does not survive and there is supposed to
be only eternal happiness without anyone who enjoys it, in what sense
does the person attain it?

The difficulty arises from the assumption that the self or person and
Nirvana are two different things, the one impermanent and the other
eternal. But the Pudgalavādins say that the self and Nirvana are neither
the same nor different. Even while suffering in Samsara the self is not
distinct from the eternal happiness of Nirvana, and when the person’s
body, feelings and so on have passed away in Parinirvana, the self is
still not entirely non-existent. That is because Nirvana, which is not
distinct from the self, continues to exist. The relationship between the
self and Nirvana, then, seems to be similar to that between the local
manifestation of fire and the fire in its non-local state. The
“something” that is locally manifested as a self on the basis of the
aggregates would thus be Nirvana.

5. Pudgalavādin Arguments in Support of their Conception of the Self

The Pudgalavādins, like other Buddhist philosophers, saw it as their
task to present what they believed to be the best interpretation of the
teaching of the Buddha and to support that interpretation through
rational argument. The correctness of the Buddha’s teaching was beyond
question; what could be debated was the adequacy of this or that
interpretation as an explanation of his meaning. Accordingly, their
arguments were broadly of two kinds: appeals to the canonical texts
(sutras) in which the Buddha’s teaching had been preserved, and
arguments on the basis of consistency with acknowledged fact. These
were not entirely distinct, since the Buddha’s teaching was supposed to
be based not on divine revelation but on the exercise of human faculties
developed to an extraordinary degree, and “acknowledged fact” was
understood to include generally accepted Buddhist doctrines concerning,
for example, karma and rebirth.

Appeals to the canonical texts were not entirely straightforward.
These texts had been transmitted orally for several centuries before
being committed to writing. Each school preserved its own versions of
these texts, and although the versions agreed to a considerable extent,
there were also differences, in some cases involving whole sutras. It
was not enough, then, for the Pudgalavādins and their opponents to quote
sutras from their own versions of the canon; they had to make sure that
the sutra they quoted was also included in their opponents’ version.
Otherwise, their opponents would feel free to dismiss it as quite
possibly a forgery.

The Pudgalavādins often quoted passages in which the Buddha spoke of
persons or the self as existing. In most cases, these could be readily
explained by their opponents on the basis of the two truths: the Buddha
spoke conventionally of persons and the self, but elsewhere made it
clear that ultimately there are only the phenomena of the five
aggregates. In the view of such non-Pudgalavādin schools as the
Theravādins and Sarvāstivādins, these passages merely serve to explain
how the Pudgalavādins have come to misunderstand the Buddha’s teaching;
they give no support at all to the misinterpretation.

But there is one case at least in which the Buddha’s way of
expressing himself is more difficult to account for, and the Theravādin
and Sarvastivādin explanations of it show signs of strain. Here the
Buddha speaks of the five aggregates as the burden, and identifies the
bearer of the burden as the person. Certainly it is possible to explain
this in terms, for example, of decisions made by the aggregates of a
past life whose consequences are then a burden to the aggregates of this
life. But the more natural and obvious reading is to take it as
distinguishing between the person who transmigrates from life to life,
and the aggregates which the person takes up with each life and carries
as a burden.

In another passage to which the Pudgalavādins referred, the Buddha
indicates that the idea that one has no self is a mistake. Their
opponents were quick to point out that in the same passage he also
indicates that the idea that one has a self is a mistake; the meaning,
they would suggest, is that it is a mistake to affirm the ultimate
existence of the self, but a mistake also to deny its conventional
existence. This is certainly not unreasonable; but neither is the
Pudgalavādins’ explanation: that it is a mistake to affirm the existence
of a self that is either the same as the aggregates or separate from
them (these being the two ways in which the self is usually imagined).
but a mistake also to deny that there is any self at all.

The fact that the Buddha seems to have been generally unwilling to
say outright that the self does not exist is something of an
embarrassment for the Pudgalavādins’ opponents. The Buddha
characteristically said that the self is not to be found in the
aggregates or apart from them. The Theravādins, Sarvāstivādins and
others take this to mean that there is no self at all (except nominally
or conventionally); but the Pudgalavādins take it as characterizing an
existing self which is neither the aggregates themselves nor something
apart from them. Whenever the Buddha says that the aggregates in
particular or phenomena (dharmas) in general are non-self, the
Pudgalavādins understand this only as a denial that the self can be
simply identified with them. The view of the Theravādins and
Sarvāstivādins, that what we call the self is simply the ever-changing
aggregates spoken and thought of for convenience as a persisting entity,
seems to the Pudgalavādins to be equivalent to identifying the self
with its aggregates, a view which the Buddha explicitly rejected.

Apart from appeals to the canonical texts, the Pudgalavādins also
offered arguments pointing out what they saw as the inadequacy of their
opponents’ view to account for some of the facts of personal existence
and self-cultivation which were generally accepted by Buddhists. They
argued, for example, that if there were no person distinguishable from
the aggregates, there would be no real basis for identifying oneself, as
the Buddha did, with the person that one was in a previous life, since
the aggregates in the two lives would be completely different. They
evidently felt that the causal relationship that was supposed to obtain
between the aggregates of a past life and those of the present life was
insufficient to establish a personal identity persisting through the
successive lives.

They also argued that one of the meditations recommended by the
Buddha, in which the meditator cultivates the wish that all sentient
beings may be happy, presupposes the existence of real sentient beings,
of persons, to be the objects of the meditator’s benevolence. They
rejected their opponents’ opinion that the aggregates are the real
object of benevolence, and insisted that if that were the case, the
Buddha’s recommendation to wish that all sentient beings may be happy
would not have been “well said”. In their opponents’ view, this was
simply another case in which the Pudgalavādins failed to recognize that
the Buddha spoke conventionally of sentient beings and persons when it
would have been inconvenient to speak in terms of the aggregates, which
were all that was ultimately there. But to the Pudgalavādins it seemed
clear that benevolence toward a sentient being or person is not the same
thing as benevolence (if it is possible at all) toward a series of
constantly changing aggregates.

They argued also that the operation of karma is incomprehensible if
the person is nothing more than an assemblage of phenomena. Destroying a
particular arrangement of particles of clay in the form of an ox is not
killing anything and has in itself no karmic consequences; but
destroying a particular arrangement of aggregates in the form of a
living ox is killing something and has unfortunate consequences for the
person who killed it. If the ox is really nothing but an arrangement of
aggregates, destroying that arrangement, rearranging the aggregates,
should have no more moral and karmic significance than smashing the clay
image of an ox. Their thought seems to have been something like this:
the phenomena (dharmas) which are supposed to be the ox’s
constituents cannot, strictly speaking, be destroyed, since their
existence is in any case momentary; all that can be destroyed is the
arrangement in which these phenomena have been occurring, and that, in
the view of their opponents, is nothing real. As Buddhists, their
opponents agree with the Pudgalavādins in accepting the effectiveness of
karma, but their denial of the reality of the self makes nonsense of
what they accept.

The analogy with fire was important in explaining the indeterminacy
of the self or person in relation to the aggregates, but they did not
offer it as an argument in its own right for the reality of the self.
Its function was rather to clarify the nature of the relationship
between the self and the aggregates, and to serve as evidence that at
least one instance of such a relationship could be recognized in the
world around us, so that there could be no justification for rejecting
their position out of hand as manifestly impossible.

6. Conclusion

The view of the Pudgalavādins, that the self is a real entity which
is neither the same as the aggregates nor different from them, is
certainly paradoxical and seems to have been regarded by their opponents
as fundamentally irrational. But they evidently felt that only such a
view did justice to our actual experience of personal existence and to
what in the Buddhist tradition were the accepted facts of karma, rebirth
and final liberation. To some extent they were able to explain the
paradox by pointing to the ways in which the self seems limited to a
particular body, particular feelings and so on and the ways in which it
also seems to transcend these, but the self in their view remains
something mysterious and only partially amenable to the principles of
rational thought.

The Theravādins, Sarvāstivādins and others naturally saw the
Pudgalavādins’ account of the self as not so much paradoxical as
incoherent. They were sure that the reason that the Pudgalavādins could
not really make sense of the self they affirmed was that no such self is
possible. But there was after all some justification for the
Pudgalavādins’ view, that their opponents, if they achieved consistency,
did so to some extent at the expense of the facts. And the insistence
of the Theravādins and Sarvāstivādins on the precise determinacy of
anything that they were prepared to regard as real brought its own
problems, as the dialectic of the Mādhyamikas would show.

The very considerable success of the Pudgalavādins in India surely
indicates that there were many who regarded their doctrine as a viable
interpretation of the Buddha’s teaching. At the very least, it was an
interpretation which, though different from what we now regard as
orthodox, had significant strengths as well as weaknesses. Perhaps
belief in a real though indeterminate self would tend, as their
opponents argued, to reinforce our inveterate selfishness; but the
Pudgalavādins held that the self once realized to be indeterminate could
not be a basis for the self-love and craving that are the source of
suffering. Their conception of a persisting self, moreover, could be
felt to give a stronger sense of our investment in the person that we
are to become, and thus a greater appreciation of the significance of
our actions in this life. Finally, belief in the reality of other selves
would seem to make it more difficult to ignore the suffering of others
than if all persons were thought to be essentially an illusion. That
there was in fact a danger that belief in the unreality of the self
might lead to an attitude of indifference to other sentient beings is
evident from the endless admonishments to cultivate compassion that we
find in the works of the Mahāyāna.

As a theory of the self, the Pudgalavāda was naturally shaped and so
in some measure limited by the concerns of Buddhism; the Pudgalavādins
were interested in the nature of selfhood only to the extent that it had
a bearing on the problem of suffering. But their interpretation of the
Buddha’s teaching offers a perspective which is also of more general
interest. Even in the fragmentary evidence that has come down to us, we
can see at least the rough outline of a view which gives full weight to
the instinctive conviction that as persons we are neither reducible to
our apparent constituents, whether these are conceived to be dharmas or
molecules, nor separable from our particular, concrete presence in the
physical world. It is a view that reminds us of the experiential
immediacy of our awareness of other selves, and that confirms our
natural resistance to regarding a person as nothing more than a
construct of the understanding. Finally, it renews in us the sense of
something mysterious and perhaps ultimately unfathomable in the mere
fact of our selfhood and of our existence in the world as conscious
beings.

7. References and Further Reading

  • Aung, Shwe Zan and C.A.F. Rhys Davids. Points of Controversy. (English translation of the Kathāvatthu. ) London: Pali Text Society, 1915. Reprinted 1960.
  • Bareau, André. “Trois traités sur les sectes bouddhiques attribués à Vasumitra, Bhavya et Vinītadeva.” Journal Asiatique, 242 (1954), 229–66; 244 (1956), 167–200.
  • Bareau, André. Les sectes bouddhiques du petit véhicule. Paris: École Française d’ Extrême-Orient, 1955.
  • Conze, Edward. Buddhist Thought in India. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1962. Reprinted 1967, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • Demiéville, Paul. “L’origine des sectes bouddhiques d’après Paramartha.” Mélanges chinois et bouddhiques, 1 (1932),15–64. Reprinted 1973 in Choix d’études bouddhiques (1928–1970), Leiden: E.J. Brill, 80–130.
  • Dube, S.N. Cross Currents in Early Buddhism. New Delhi: Manohar, 1980.
  • Duerlinger, James. Indian Buddhist Theories of Persons: Vasubandhu’s “Refutation of the Theory of a Self”. London, New York: Routledge Curzon, 2003.
  • Dutt, Nalinaksha. Buddhist Sects in India. Calcutta: K.L. Mukhopadhyay, 1970.
  • Hurvitz, Leon. “The Road to Buddhist Salvation as Described by Vasubhadra.” (Includes a translation of part of the Siehanmu chaojie, Kumarabuddhi’s Chinese translation of the Tridharmakhandaka.) Journal of the American Oriental Society, 87.4 (1967), 434–86.
  • Jha, Ganganatha. The Tattvasamgraha of Sāntaraksita with the Commentary of Kamalasīla. (English translation of Shāntarakshita’sTattvasamgraha..) Baroda: Oriental Institute, 1937.
  • La Vallée Poussin, Louis de. L’Abhidharmakosa de Vasubandhu. (French translation from Xuanzang’s Chinese version of Vasubandhu’s Abhidharmakoshabhāshya.) Mélanges chinoises et bouddhiques, 16 (1923–31). Reprinted 1971.
  • La Vallée Poussin, Louis de. “La controverse du temps et du pudgala
    dans le Vijnānakāya.” (French translation of the first chapter of
    Xuanzang’s Chinese version of Devasharman’s Vijnānakāya.) Études Asiatiques, 20 (1923), 343–76.
  • Law, B.C. The Debates Commentary. (English translation of the Kathāvatthuppakarana-atthakathā.) London: Pali Text Society, 1940. Reprinted 1969.
  • Masuda, Jiryo. “Origin and Doctrines of Early Indian Buddhist
    Schools: a translation of the Hsüan-chwang version of Vasumitra’s
    treatise.” Asia Major, 2 (1925), 1–78.
  • Priestley, Leonard C.D.C. Pudgalavāda Buddhism: The Reality of the Indeterminate Self. Toronto: Centre for South Asian Studies, University of Toronto, 1999.
  • Sastri, N. Aiyaswami. Satyasiddhi of Harivarman, Vol. II. (English translation of Kumārajīva’s Chinese version of Harivarman’s Tattvasiddhi or Satyasiddhi.) Baroda: Oriental Institute, 1978.
  • Schayer, S. “Kamalasīlas Kritik des Pudgalavāda.” Rocnik Orientalistyczny, 10 (1934), 68–93.
  • Skilling, Peter. “History and Tenets of the Sāmmatīya School.” Linh-SonPublications d’études bouddhiques, 19 (1982), 38–52.
  • Skilling, Peter. “The Samskrtāsamskrta-Viniscaya of Dasabalasrīmitra.” Buddhist Studies Review, 4.1 (1987), 3–23.
  • Stcherbatsky, T. Soul Theory of the Buddhists. (Includes an English translation from the Tibetan of the ninth chapter of Vasubandhu’s Abhidharmakoshabhāshya, the “Pudgalavinishcaya”.) Bulletin de l’Academie des Sciences de Russie, 1919: 823–54, 937–58. Reprinted 1970, Varanasi: Bharatiya Vidya Prakasan.
  • Thich Thien Chau, Bhikshu. The Literature of the Personalists of Early Buddhism. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1999. English translation by Sara Boin-Webb of Les Sectes personnalistes (Pudgalavâdin) du bouddhisme ancien, Thèse pour le Doctorat d’ État ès-Lettres et Sciences humaines, Université de la Sorbonne Nouvelle (Paris III), 1977.
  • Venkataramanan, K. “Sāmmitīyanikāya Sāstra.” (English translation of the Sāmmitīyanikāyashāstra..) Visva-Bharati Annals, 5 (1953), 155–243.
  • Walleser, Max. Die Sekten des alten Buddhismus. (Die buddhistische Philosophie in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung, Part 4.) Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1927.

Author Information

Leonard Priestley
Email: leonard.priestley@utoronto.ca
University of Toronto
Canada





-

image.png
pali canon


Buddhist GIF ☸️ Nirvana is this moment seen directly. There is no where else than here. The only gate is now. The only doorway is your own body and mind. There’s nowhere to go. There’s nothing else to be. There’s no destination. It’s not something to aim for in the afterlife. It’s simply the quality of this moment. -Gautama Buddha

05) Classical Pali,

Sabbapapassa
akaranam
Kusalassa upasampada
Sacitta pariyodapanam
Etam buddhana sasanam

(Dhammapada,
183)

Sabbe satta sada
hontu
avera sukhajivino.
Katam punnaphalam mayham
sabbe bhagi bhavantu te.



Bhavissanti bhikkhū anāgatam·addhānaṃ, ye te suttantā tathāgata·bhāsitā
gambhīrā gambhīr·atthā lok·uttarā suññata·p·paṭisaṃyuttā, tesu
bhaññamānesu na sussūsissanti na sotaṃ odahissanti na aññā cittaṃ
upaṭṭhāpessanti na ca te dhamme uggahetabbaṃ pariyāpuṇitabbaṃ
maññissanti.

Ye pana te suttantā kavi·katā kāveyyā citta·kkharā citta·byañjanā bāhirakā sāvaka·bhāsitā,
tesu bhaññamānesu sussūsissanti, sotaṃ odahissanti, aññā cittaṃ
upaṭṭhāpessanti, te ca dhamme uggahetabbaṃ pariyāpuṇitabbaṃ maññissanti.

Evam·etesaṃ, bhikkhave, suttantānaṃ tathāgata·bhāsitānaṃ gambhīrānaṃ
gambhīr·atthānaṃ lok·uttarānaṃ suññata·p·paṭisaṃyuttānaṃ antaradhānaṃ
bhavissati.


Tasmātiha, bhikkhave, evaṃ sikkhitabbaṃ: ‘ye te suttantā
tathāgata·bhāsitā gambhīrā gambhīr·atthā lok·uttarā
suññata·p·paṭisaṃyuttā, tesu bhaññamānesu sussūsissāma, sotaṃ
odahissāma, aññā cittaṃ upaṭṭhāpessāma, te ca dhamme uggahetabbaṃ
pariyāpuṇitabbaṃ maññissāmā’ti. Evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabbanti.


08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans,


08) Klassieke Afrikaans-Klassieke Afrikaans

Boeddha
Śãsana, wat beteken “Boeddha Vacana - die onderrig van die Ontwaakte
Een met Bewustheid”. Aangesien daar geen goddelike god in die Boeddhisme
is nie, word die term meer akkuraat as die woord “godsdiens” beskou,
aangesien dit ‘n aanpasbare filosofie en praktyk aandui eerder as ‘n
nie-veranderende goddelike oproep van ‘n alwetende god.

Śāsana
kan ook verwys na die 5000-jarige bedeling van ‘n bepaalde Boeddha. Dit
is, ons leef in die śāsana van die Śakyamuni Boeddha.

Elke boosheid
nooit doen nie
en in die gesondheid verhoog
en jou hart is reinigend:
dit is die boeddha se sasana

(Dhammapada,
183)

Mei
alle lewende wesens leef altyd gelukkig,
vry van vyandigheid.
Mag almal deel in die seëninge
spring uit die goeie wat ek gedoen het.

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html

 Boeddha Vacana
- Die woorde van die Boeddha -

Hul
begrip van die Boeddha Vacana sal baie meer presies word, aangesien
hulle die woorde en belangrike formules wat fundamenteel in die Boeddha
se onderrig is, op eenvoudige manier leer en memoriseer. Hul leer en die
inspirasie wat hulle daaruit kry, sal dieper groei namate hul
ontvanklikheid vir die boodskappe van die onderwyser sal verbeter.

In
die toekoms sal daar bhikkhus wees wat nie luister na die uitspraak van
sulke diskoerse wat woorde van die Tathāgata is nie, diepgaande,
diepgaande in betekenis, wat buite die wêreld lei (konsekwent) in
verband met leegheid, hulle sal nie leen nie sal nie hul verstand op
kennis toepas nie, hulle sal nie daardie leerstellings oorweeg om
opgeneem en bemeester te word nie.

Inteendeel, hulle sal luister
na die uitspraak van sulke diskoerse wat literêre komposisies van
digters, geestige woorde, geestige letters, deur mense van buite of die
woorde van dissipels is, hulle sal leen, hulle sal hul verstand op
kennis toepas , hulle sal daardie leerstellings oorweeg om opgeneem en
bemeester te word.

Dus, bhikkhus, die diskoerse wat woorde van
die Tathāgata is, diepgaande, diepgaande in betekenis, wat oor die
wêreld lei (konsekwent) wat verband hou met leegheid, sal verdwyn.

Daarom,
bhikkhus, moet jy dus oplei: ‘Ons sal luister na die uitspraak van
sulke diskoerse, wat woorde van die Tathāgata is, diepgaande, diepgaande
in betekenis, wat oor die wêreld lei (konsekwent) in verband met
leegheid, ons sal leen, ons sal ons verstand op kennis toepas, ons sal
daardie leerstellings oorweeg om opgeneem en bemeester te word. ‘ So
moet jy jouself oplei, bhikkhus.

- Āṇi Sutta -

09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,
09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,

Buda
Śsana, që do të thotë “Buda Vacana - mësimi i të zgjuarit me vetëdije”.
Meqenëse budizmi nuk ka perëndi hyjnor, termi konsiderohet më i saktë
se fjala “fe” pasi që nënkupton një filozofi dhe praktikë të adaptueshme
sesa një thirrje hyjnore që nuk ndryshon nga një zot i gjithëdijshëm.

Şsana mund t’i referohet dispensimit 5000-vjeçar të një Buda të veçantë. Kjo është, ne jetojmë në śāsana të Budës së Śakyamunit.

Çdo të keqe
kurrë nuk bën
dhe në rritje të shëndetit
dhe zemra e një njeriu që pastron mirë:
kjo është Sasana e Buddhas

(Dhammapada,
183)

Mund
të gjitha qeniet e gjalla jetojnë gjithmonë të lumtur,
pa armiqësi.
Të gjithë mund të marrin pjesë në bekimet
që buron nga e mira që kam bërë.

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html

 Buda Vacana
- Fjalët e Budës -

Kuptimi
i tyre për Buda Vacanën do të bëhet shumë më i saktë, pasi ata mësojnë
lehtë dhe mësojnë përmendësh fjalët dhe formulat e rëndësishme që janë
themelore në mësimin e Budës, nëpërmjet mënyrave të leximit të rregullt.
Të mësuarit e tyre dhe frymëzimi që ata marrin prej saj do të rriten më
thellë, ndërsa pranueshmëria e tyre ndaj mesazheve të Mësuesit do të
përmirësohet.

Në të ardhmen, do të ketë bhikush i cili nuk do të
dëgjojë shprehjen e fjalimeve të tilla që janë fjalë të Tathagatit, të
thellë, të thellë në kuptim, që udhëhiqen përtej botës, (vazhdimisht) të
lidhura me boshllëkun, ata nuk do t’i kushtojnë vëmendje, nuk do të
zbatojnë mendjen e tyre në njohuri, ata nuk do të konsiderojnë këto
mësime që të merren dhe të zotohen.

Përkundrazi, ata do të
dëgjojnë thënien e fjalimeve të tilla që janë kompozime letrare të bëra
nga poetë, fjalë të urtë, letra të mprehtë, nga njerëz jashtë, ose
fjalët e dishepujve, ata do t’i kushtojnë vëmendje, ata do të zbatojnë
mendjen e tyre në njohuri , ata do t’i konsiderojnë ato mësime që të
merren dhe të zotohen.

Kështu, bhikkhus, fjalimet që janë fjalë
të Tathagata, të thella, të thella në kuptimin, që çojnë përtej botës,
(vazhdimisht) të lidhura me boshllëkun, do të zhduken.

Prandaj,
bhikkhus, duhet të stërviteni në këtë mënyrë: ‘Ne do të dëgjojmë
shprehjen e fjalimeve të tilla që janë fjalë të Tathagatit, të thellë,
të thellë në kuptimin, që udhëhiqen përtej botës (vazhdimisht) të
lidhura me boshllëkun, do të zbatojmë mendjen tonë në njohuri, ne do t’i
shqyrtojmë ato mësime që të merren dhe të zotohen. ‘ Kështu, bhikkhus,
duhet të stërviteni.

- Āṇi Sutta -

https://www.youtube.com/watch…
Buddham Saranam Gachami - Angulimal
Harshavardhan Devde
Published on Nov 7, 2008
A song from the old Hindi movie which was made in 1980 , Bharat Bhushan
in & as Angulimala., its a historic .This is the selected
part/songs of the old Hindi movie which was made in 1980 , Bharat
Bhushan in & as Angulimala., its a historical story of how a noble
youth Ahinsak(which means non violent )turn in to mass murderer then
after he meets Buddha he reverts to
humanity following foot steps of Buddha becomes enlightened Arhat.

If you want to download life book of Angulimala check this, the first one

http://www.buddhanet.net/ebooks_child

With All my metta,

your friend in Dhamma,

Harshavardhan.
Category
Nonprofits & Activism

youtube.com
A
song from the old Hindi movie which was made in 1980 , Bharat Bhushan
in & as Angulimala., its a historic .This is the selected part/songs
of the old…


10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AFbPbjRrSB0&start_radio=1&list=RDAFbPbjRrSB0&t=2


ቲፒፒታካ (ሮማን)
ቲፒፒታካ (ሙላህ)
Vinayapiṭaka
ሱታፒፒታካ
ዲጂንኪያ
Silkkhandhavaggapḷii

Awesome Ethiopian Classical music: Amharic instrumental, Tizita classical 2018 | HD Kirar Tube


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Published on May 14, 2018
WATCH MORE & DOWNLOAD here 👉https://bit.ly/2BnNLXF

New Ethiopian classical music with beautiful landscape. Best Ethiopian and Eritrean classical instrumental song 2018!
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friends! Here we have made New Ethiopian and Eritrean classical,
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WHAT IS INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC?

An
instrumental is a musical composition or recording without lyrics, or
singing, although it might include some inarticulate vocals, such as
shouted backup vocals in a Big Band setting. The music is primarily or
exclusively produced by musical instruments. An instrumental can exist
in music notation, after it is written by a composer; in the mind of the
composer (especially in cases where the composer himself will perform
the piece, as in the case of a blues solo guitarist or a folk music
fiddle player); as a piece that is performed live by a single
instrumentalist or a musical ensemble, which could range in size from a
duo or trio to a large Big Band, concert band or orchestra.

ABOUT ETHIOPIAN Traditional instruments

Ethiopian
traditional music is best expressed with its musical instruments,
besides the contribution of the renowned vocalists. The most
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the washint, the begena, the kebero, and the tom-tom.
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https://www.youtube
.com/watch?v=ABKREkB8Ngg&list=RDAFbPbjRrSB0&index=2

youtube.com/watch… … Awesome Ethiopian Classical music: Amharic instrumental, Tizita classical 2018 | HD Kirar Tube10) አንጋፋ አርቃቂ አማርኛ- አንጋፋላዊ አማርኛ,

ቡድሃ
ሰስሳና “ቡቃያ ሻሃና - የአዋቂው ትምህርት ማስተዋል” ማለት ነው. በቡድሂዝም ውስጥ ምንም ዓይነት መለኮታዊ
አምላክ የለም ቃሉ <ሃይማኖት> ከሚለው ቃል የበለጠ ትክክል ነው ተብሎ የሚወሰድ በመሆኑ እንደማንኛውም
የማያውቀው አምላክ የማይለዋወጥ መለኮታዊ ጥሪ ሳይሆን አስተሳሰባችን ፍልስፍና እና ልምምድ ነው.

ሹሳና የአንድ የተወሰነ የቡድሃ የ 5000 ዓመት ዓመት ስርጥትን ሊያመለክት ይችላል. ያ ሆነን የምንኖረው በ <Šakyamuni ቡዲ> ኡሣራቱ ውስጥ ነው.

ሁሉም ክፉ
ፈጽሞ አይሰራም
እና መልካም በሆኑ ነገሮች እየጨመረ ነው
ነገር ግን እያንዳንዱ ባልንጀራው ከራሱ ይልቅ እንዲሻል በትሕትና ይቍጠር;
ይህ የቡድኖች ሳሳና ነው

(ዳሃማዳ,
183)

ግንቦት
ሁሉም ህይወት ያላቸው ፍጥረታት ሁልጊዜ በደስታ ይኖራሉ,
ከጠላትነት ነጻ.
ሁሉም በረከቶቹን ይካፈሉ
እኔ ካደረግኩት መልካም ነገር እየበታተኑ.

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html

 ቡሻ ሻላዋ
- የቡድሃ ቃላቶች -

የቡድሃ
ሻካራ ግንዛቤዎቻቸው በተሻለ መንገድ በትክክል የሚረዱት በቋሚው የቡድሃ (የቡድሃ) ትምህርት ውስጥ የሚገኙትን
ቃላቶችና ጠቃሚ የሆኑትን ቀመሮች በቃላቸው በማጥናት ነው. መምህሩ የሚያድጋቸው መልዕክቶች እንዲሻሻሉ ስለሚረዱ
ያገኙት መማሪያ እና የእነሱ አነሳሽነት ጠለቅ ያለ ይሆናል.

ወደፊት በሚመጣው ጊዜ, የቲታካታ ቃላት,
ጥልቅ ትርጉም, ጥልቅ ትርጓሜ, ከኣለም ባሻገር እና ከከንፈር ጋር የተገናኘ, እነዚህም ንግግሮቻቸውን የማይቀበሉ
እና የማይሰሙ ከሆነ, እነሱ አይሰሙም, አዕምሮአቸውን በእውቀት ላይ አይተገብራቸውም, እነዚያን ትምህርቶች
እንዲወሰዱ እና የተካኑ እንደሆኑ አይመለከቷቸውም.

በተቃራኒው, እነዚህ ባለቅኔዎች ባለቅኔዎች, ትልልቅ
ቃላትን, ከትክክለኛ ደብዳቤዎች, ከውጭ ሰዎች ወይም ደቀ-መዝሙሮች የሚናገሩት እንዲህ ያሉ ንግግሮችን ሲያዳምጡ
ያዳምጣሉ, ጆሮ ይስጡ, እነሱ በእውቀት ላይ ተግባራዊ ያደርጋሉ , እነዚያን ትምህርቶች እንዲይዙ እና የተካኑ
እንዲሆኑ ይማራሉ.

ስለዚህም, ባንኩዎች, የቲታካታ ቃላት, ጥልቀት, ትርጉም ያለው, ከዓለማዊ ነገሮች በላይ የሆነ (ከቋሚነት) ጋር ባዶነት ጋር የሚገናኙ ንግግሮች ይጠፋሉ.

ስሇዚህ
ባክቲካዎች (እንዱህ) ሉያጠኑ ያህሌ እንዱህ እንዱሰሌጥሌ ማዴረግ አሇብዎት: - ‘የቲታካታ ቃሊት የሆኑትን, በጣም
ጥሌቅ, ትርጉም የሚሰጡ, ከዓሇም ውጭ እንዱመሩ, (ከቋሚነት) ጋር ያህሌን ያካትታለ, እኛም እንጎሇያለን,
በእውቀት ላይ አዕምሮአችንን ይጠቀማል, እነዚያን ትምህርቶች እንደተወሰዱ እና የተካኑ እንደሆኑ እንመለከታለን. ‘
ብቸኛ, እራሳችሁን ማሰልጠን አለባችሁ.

- ኤምሪ ሱት -

11) Classical Arabic-

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HC7Nefuv7Bo
عالم_المرح: أغنية اللغة العربية | Arabic language song
Marah l مرح
Published on Dec 18, 2018
مرحبا أصدقائي، أنا مرح
اليوم هو يوم اللغة العربية العالمي ، استمتعوا بأغنية اللغة العربية

أغنية اللغة العربية
كلمات: عبد الرزاق الطوباسي
ألحان و غناء : رغد الطوباسي
توزيع: عبد الحليم أبو حلتم
رسوم: منال محمد
تصميم الفيديو: نور الطوباسي
التدقيق اللغوي : مريم الأرناؤوط


مرح هي قناة على اليوتيوب تحتوي أناشيد و قصص للأطفال. تتميز مرح بأن
جميع محتواها ترفيهي آمن وهادف فكل فيديو يحتوي على قيمة تعليمية أو
أخلاقية.
اضغطوا زر الاشتراك و اضغطوا على زر الجرس الموجود بجانب كلمة اشتراك ، لتصلكم الأغاني الجديدة.

تابعونا على مواقع التواصل الإجتماعي:
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سناب شات : marahworld
Category
Music
11) اللغة العربية الفصحى- اللغة العربية الفصحى


بوذا امسانا ، وهو ما يعني “بوذا فاكانا - تعليم الشخص المستيقظ مع
الوعي”. بما أنه لا يوجد إله إلهي في البوذية ، فإن المصطلح يعتبر أكثر دقة
من كلمة “دين” لأنه يشير إلى فلسفة وممارسة قابلة للتكيف بدلاً من دعوة
إلهية غير متغيرة من إله معروف بالكامل.

قد تشير سانا أيضًا إلى الإعفاء الذي دام 5000 عام لبوذا بعينه. وهذا هو ، نحن نعيش في ساسانا من بوذا ساكياموني.

كل شر
لا تفعل أبدا
وفي زيادة متزايدة
وقلب واحد تنقية جيدا:
هذا هو بوذا ساسانا

(الدامابادا،
183)

قد
جميع الكائنات الحية تعيش دائمًا بسعادة ،
خالية من العداء.
قد يشارك الجميع في النعم
نبع من الخير لقد فعلت.

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html

بوذا فاكانا
- كلمات بوذا -


سوف يصبح فهمهم لبوذا فاكانا أكثر دقة نظرًا لأنهم يتعلمون دون جهد
ويحفظون الكلمات والصيغ المهمة التي تعد أساسية في تعليم بوذا ، عن طريق
القراءة المنتظمة. سوف يتعمق تعلمهم والإلهام الذي يحصلون عليه منه ، حيث
ستتحسن تقبلاهم لرسائل المعلم.

في وقت لاحق ، سيكون هناك bhikkhus
الذين لن يستمعوا إلى كلام مثل هذه الخطابات التي هي كلمات Tathāgata ،
عميقة ، عميقة في المعنى ، الرائدة خارج العالم ، (باستمرار) متصلة مع
الفراغ ، فإنها لن يقرعوا ، لن يطبقوا رأيهم على المعرفة ، ولن يفكروا في
هذه التعاليم التي يتم تناولها وإتقانها.

على العكس من ذلك ، سوف
يستمعون إلى كلام مثل هذه الخطابات التي هي مؤلفات أدبية صُنعت من قبل
الشعراء ، والكلمات البارعة ، والرسائل البارعة ، من قبل أشخاص من الخارج ،
أو كلمات التلاميذ ، وسيقدمون الأذنين ، وسيطبقون رأيهم على المعرفة ، سوف
ينظرون في تلك التعاليم على أنها تُتقن وتتقن

وهكذا ، bhikkhus ،
الخطابات التي هي كلمات Tathāgata ، عميقة ، عميقة في المعنى ، الرائدة
خارج العالم ، (باستمرار) مرتبطة بالفراغ ، سوف تختفي.

لذلك ،
bhikkhus ، يجب أن تتدرب على هذا النحو: “سنستمع إلى كلام مثل هذه الخطابات
التي هي كلمات Tathāgata ، عميقة ، عميقة في المعنى ، الرائدة خارج العالم
، (باستمرار) متصلة مع الفراغ ، ونحن سنقرع ، سوف نطبق تفكيرنا على
المعرفة ، وسننظر في تلك التعاليم على أنها تُتقن وتتقن “. هذه هي الطريقة ،
bhikkhus ، يجب عليك تدريب أنفسكم.

- Si Sutta -


youtube.com
مرحبا
أصدقائي، أنا مرح اليوم هو يوم اللغة العربية العالمي ، استمتعوا بأغنية
اللغة العربية أغنية اللغة العربية كلمات: عبد الرزاق الطوباسي ألحان و
غناء : رغد ا…
اللغة العربية الفصحى



12) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն
12) դասական հայերեն- դասական հայերեն,

Բուդդա
Śãsana, որը նշանակում է «Բուդդա Վաքսանա. Awakened One- ի ուսուցումն
իրազեկվածությամբ»: Քանի որ բուդդիզմում չկա աստվածային աստված, այս
տերմինը ավելի ճշգրիտ է համարվում, քան «կրոնը» բառը, քանի որ դա նշանակում
է հարմարվող փիլիսոփայություն եւ պրակտիկա, այլ ոչ թե փոփոխվող աստվածային
կոչում `բոլոր ճանաչող աստվածից:

Śāsana- ն կարող է վերաբերել նաեւ
որոշակի Բուդդայի 5000 տարվա շահագործմանը: Այսինքն, մենք ապրում ենք
Սաքամիամի Բուդդայի śsana- ում:

Ամեն չարիք
երբեք չի անում
եւ ամբողջ ծավալի աճով
եւ սիրտը լավ մաքրագործող:
Սա Բուդդայի Սասանա է

(Dhammapada,
183)

Մայիս
բոլոր կենդանի էակները միշտ ապրում են երջանիկ,
ազատ թշնամանքից:
Թող որ բոլորը կիսվեք օրհնությունների մեջ
գորովելով լավը ես արել եմ:

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html

 Buddha Vacana
- Բուդդայի խոսքերը -

Բուդդա
Vacana- ի նրանց պատկերացումները շատ ավելի ճշգրիտ կդառնան, քանի որ նրանք
հեշտորեն սովորում եւ հիշում են Բուդդայի ուսմունքում հիմնարար բառեր եւ
կարեւոր բանաձեւեր, կանոնավոր ընթերցման ուղիներով: Նրանց ուսումը եւ
դրանցից ստացված ոգեշնչումը կաճեն ավելի խորը, քանի որ Ուսուցիչի
ուղերձների ընդունելիությունը կբարելավվի:

Հետագայում կլինեն
բխիկքուս, որը չի լսելու այն տեքստերը, որոնք խոսում են Տաթագաթայի
խոսքերը, խորը, խորը իմաստով, աշխարհից դուրս (հետեւողականորեն)
դատարկության հետ կապված, նրանք չեն դառնա ականջը: գիտելիքի վրա չեն դնի
իրենց միտքը, նրանք չեն ընդունի այդ ուսմունքները, որոնք պետք է վերցվեն եւ
տիրեն:

Ընդհակառակը, նրանք կլսեն լսելու բանաստեղծությունների,
խելամիտ բառերի, խայտառակ տառերի, դրսից մարդկանց կողմից արված գրական
ստեղծագործությունները կամ աշակերտների խոսքերը, լսելու ականջը, նրանք
կկանգնեն իրենց գիտելիքները գիտելիքի մասին , նրանք կքննարկեն այդ
ուսմունքները, որոնք պետք է վերցվեն եւ տիրեն:

Այսպիսով, bhikhus,
բառախաղերը, որոնք Tathāgata բառեր են, խորը, խորը իմաստով, աշխարհից դուրս
(հետեւողականորեն) դատարկության հետ կապված, կվերանա:

Հետեւաբար,
բխիկք, պետք է ուսուցանեք այսպես. «Մենք կլսենք այնպիսի բառեր, որոնք
խոսում են Տաթագաթայի խոսքերը, խորը, խոր իմաստով, աշխարհից դուրս,
հետեւողականորեն կապված է դատարկության հետ, մենք կկատարենք ականջը: մեր
միտքը կիրականացնի գիտելիքի վրա, մենք կքննարկենք այդ ուսմունքները, որոնք
պետք է վերցնել եւ տիրապետել »: Այսպիսով, bhikkhus, դուք պետք է պատրաստեք
ինքներդ ձեզ:

- Օրացույց Sutta -


Image result for Brahmajala Sutta Discourse on the Net of Perfect Wisdom in Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն  chantings, pictures & videos


13) Classical Azerbaijani- Klassik Azərbaycan,


13) Klassik Azərbaycan - Klassik Azərbaycan,

Buddha
Śãsana, “Buddha Vacana - Awakened One Awareness ilə tədris” deməkdir.
Buddizmdə ilahi bir tanrı olmadığından, sözü “din” sözündən daha doğru
sayılır, çünki bu, bütün bilən tanrının qeyri-dəyişən ilahi zəngindən
daha uyğun bir fəlsəfə və təcrübədir.

Śana da müəyyən bir Buddanın 5000 illik müalicəsinə istinad edə bilər. Yəni, biz Śakyamuni Buddha śsana ildə yaşayırıq.

Hər şey pisdir
heç vaxt
və bütünlükdə artmaqdadır
və birinin ürəyini yaxşı təmizləyir:
bu Budaların Sasana

(Dhammapada,
183)

Bilər
bütün canlılar həmişə xoşbəxt yaşayır,
hüsumətdən azaddır.
Bütün xeyirlərə xeyir verin
Mən yaxşı işlərdən bəhs edirəm.

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html

 Buddha Vacana
- Budanın sözləri -

Buddha
Vacana onların anlayışı, Buddha’nın təlimində əsaslı olan sözləri və
mühüm formulları, müntəzəm oxu yolları ilə asanlıqla öyrəndikləri və
yadda saxladığı qədər daha dəqiq olacaqlar. Onların öyrənməsi və ondan
əldə etdiyi ilham daha da dərinləşəcək, çünki Müəllimin mesajlarına
münasibətini yaxşılaşdıracaqlar.

Gələcək dövrdə, Tatikanın
sözləri, dərin, dərin mənada, dünyadan kənara çıxan (ardıcıl) boşluqla
əlaqəli, qulağa borc verməyəcək sözlər söyləyən bxikhus olacaqdır.
onların fikrini biliklərinə tətbiq etməyəcəklər, bu təlimləri qəbul
etmək və mənimsəmə kimi qiymətləndirməyəcəklər.

Əksinə, onlar
şairlər tərəfindən hazırlanmış ədəbi əsərlər, ağılsız sözlər, incə
məktublar, kənardan gələnlər və ya şagirdlərin sözləri, qulağa borc
verəcəklər, öz fikirlərini biliklərinə tətbiq edəcəklər. bu təlimləri
qəbul etmək və mənimsəmə kimi qiymətləndirəcəklər.

Beləliklə,
bxikhus, Tathāgata sözləri olan, dərin, dərin mənada, dünyadan kənara
çıxan (ardıcıl) boşluqla bağlı olan sözlər ortadan qalxacaq.

Buna
görə, bxikhus, beləliklə məşq etməliyik: “Biz, Tathiqata sözləri,
dərin, dərin mənada, dünyadan kənara çıxan (ardıcıl) boşluqla əlaqəli
sözlər söyləyəcəyik, qulağımıza borc verəcəyik. zehinimizi biliklərimizə
tətbiq edəcəyik, bu təlimləri nəzərdən keçirəcəyik və mənimsədim “.
Bhikhus, budur, özünüzü hazırlamalısınız.

- Āṇi Sutta -


from

Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online and Offline Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
 in
 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES


Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās
“No entanto, muitas palavras sagradas que você lê, no entanto, muitos que você fala, que bem eles vão fazer você Se você não


668,
5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka
India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com

up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level

Buddhasasana

“In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone,
battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a
message to
mankind universal in character.”

http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally there  are 84,000 Dhamma Doors - 84,000 ways to get
Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of
practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue
those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1).

There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate
addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I
received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the
priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are
divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into
361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses
including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are
divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and
29,368,000 separate letters.


Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS)



in 01) Classical Magahi Magadhi,


02) Classical Chandaso language,
03)Magadhi Prakrit,


04) Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),
05) Classical Pali,
06) Classical Devanagari,Classical Hindi-Devanagari- शास्त्रीय हिंदी,

07) Classical Cyrillic
08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans

09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,
10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,
11) Classical Arabic-اللغة العربية الفصحى
12) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,
13) Classical Azerbaijani- Klassik Azərbaycan,
14) Classical Basque- Euskal klasikoa,
15) Classical Belarusian-Класічная беларуская,
16) Classical Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,
17) Classical  Bosnian-Klasični bosanski,
18) Classical Bulgaria- Класически българск,
19) Classical  Catalan-Català clàssic
20) Classical Cebuano-Klase sa Sugbo,

21) Classical Chichewa-Chikale cha Chichewa,

22) Classical Chinese (Simplified)-古典中文(简体),

23) Classical Chinese (Traditional)-古典中文(繁體),

24) Classical Corsican-Corsa Corsicana,

25) Classical  Croatian-Klasična hrvatska,

26) Classical  Czech-Klasická čeština,
27) Classical  Danish-Klassisk dansk,Klassisk dansk,

28) Classical  Dutch- Klassiek Nederlands,
29) Classical English,Roman
30) Classical Esperanto-Klasika Esperanto,

31) Classical Estonian- klassikaline eesti keel,

32) Classical Filipino,
33) Classical Finnish- Klassinen suomalainen,

34) Classical French- Français classique,

35) Classical Frisian- Klassike Frysk,

36) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,
37) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,

38) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,
39) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,
40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
41) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl,

42) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,
43) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,

44) Classical Hebrew- עברית קלאסית
45) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,

46) Classical Hungarian-Klasszikus magyar,

47) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,
48) Classical Igbo,

49) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,

50) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,
51) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,
52) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,
53) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,
54) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,
55) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,

56) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,
57) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,

58) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),

59) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,
60) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,
61) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,

62) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latviešu valoda,

63) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių kalba,

64) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch,

65) Classical Macedonian-Класичен македонски,
66) Classical Malagasy,
67) Classical Malay-Melayu Klasik,

68) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,

69) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Malti,
70) Classical Maori-Maori Maori,
71) Classical Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी,

72) Classical Mongolian-Сонгодог Монгол,

73) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မြန်မာ (ဗမာ),

74) Classical Nepali-शास्त्रीय म्यांमार (बर्मा),
75) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,

76) Classical Pashto- ټولګی پښتو

77) Classical Persian-کلاسیک فارسی
78) Classical Polish-Język klasyczny polski,

79) Classical Portuguese-Português Clássico,
80) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,
81) Classical Romanian-Clasic românesc,
82) Classical Russian-Классический русский,
83) Classical Samoan-Samoan Samoa,
84) Classical Scots Gaelic-Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,
85) Classical Serbian-Класични српски,
86) Classical Sesotho-Seserbia ea boholo-holo,
87) Classical Shona-Shona Shona,
88) Classical Sindhi,
89) Classical Sinhala-සම්භාව්ය සිංහල,

90) Classical Slovak-Klasický slovenský,
91) Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,
92) Classical Somali-Soomaali qowmiyadeed,
93) Classical Spanish-Español clásico,
94) Classical Sundanese-Sunda Klasik,
95) Classical Swahili,
96) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,
97) Classical Tajik-тоҷикӣ классикӣ,

98) Classical Tamil-பாரம்பரிய இசைத்தமிழ் செம்மொழி,
99) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,
100) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,
101) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,
102) Classical Ukrainian-Класичний український,
103) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو
104) Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’zbek,
105) Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việt cổ điển,

106) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,
107) Classical Xhosa-IsiXhosa zesiXhosa,
108) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש


109) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,


110) Classical Zulu-I-Classical Zulu






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Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get
Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of
practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue
those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There
are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate
addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I
received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the
priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are
divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into
361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses
including both those of
Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras,
containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.


ESSENCE OF TIPITAKA
http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html

Positive Buddha Vacana — The words of the Buddha —
Interested in All Suttas  of Tipitaka as Episodes in visual format including 7D laser Hologram 360 degree Circarama presentation

from
Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice
University
in
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Please Visit: http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

LESSONS

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPydLZ0cavc
for
 Maha-parinibbana Sutta — Last Days of the Buddha

The Great Discourse on the Total Unbinding

This
wide-ranging sutta, the longest one in the Pali canon, describes the
events leading up to, during, and immediately following the death and
final release (parinibbana) of the Buddha. This colorful narrative
contains a wealth of Dhamma teachings, including the Buddha’s final
instructions that defined how Buddhism would be lived and practiced long
after the Buddha’s death — even to this day. But this sutta also
depicts, in simple language, the poignant human drama that unfolds among
the Buddha’s many devoted followers around the time of the death of
their beloved teacher.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bDkKT54WbJ4
for
Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ (Pali) - 2 Kāyānupassanā ānāpānapabbaṃ

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/digha.html
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