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Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā
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Posted by: site admin @ 4:03 pm
LESSON 3038 Sat  22 Jun 2019

Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies (DBS)
Model Question Paper
2018-19
 Q 48  to Q

Buddha Śãsana, which means “Buddha Vacana - the teaching of the
Awakened One with Awareness”. Since in Buddhism there is no divine god
the term is considered more accurate than the word “religion” as it denotes an adaptable philosophy and practice rather than a non-changing divine call from an all knowing god.



Śāsana may also refer to the 5000-year dispensation of a particular Buddha. That is, we are living in the śāsana of the Śakyamuni Buddha.
https://www.budsas.org

Sabbapapassa
akaranam
Kusalassa upasampada
Sacitta pariyodapanam
Etam buddhana sasanam

Every evil
never doing
and in wholesomeness increasing
and one’s heart well-purifying:
this is the Buddhas’ Sasana

  (Dhammapada,
183)

Sabbe satta sada
hontu

avera sukhajivino.
Katam punnaphalam mayham
sabbe bhagi bhavantu te.

May
all living beings always live happily,

free from animosity.
May all share in the blessings
springing from the good I have done.




Wandering monk with alms bowl

David Grubin Productions


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“Go forth, monks, for the happiness of the many, out
of compassion for the world… There are beings whose eyes have little
dust on them, who will perish if they do not hear the teaching. But if
they hear the teaching, they will gain liberation.”are the words of Buddha.

Practicing Meditation learnt and practiced
from the original words of the Buddha the Awakened One with Awareness
will lead to the path to gain liberation and Eternal Bliss as Final
Goal.


http://www.indiaprofile.com/religion-culture/buddhisminkarnataka.htm

The Buddhist Legacy – Buddhism in Karnataka


Under the patronage of the Mauryas and Satvahanas,
Buddhism flourished in Karnataka. Gradually Hinduism assimilated
most of the teachings of Buddha and Buddhism lost its distinct
identity. However, today, there are still numerous places of
Buddhist interest spread across the State.


Our destination, Aihole,
is today an insignificant village in Bijapur district of north
Karnataka and reaching it involves an obstacle course: an
excruciatingly slow passenger train to Badami, an hour’s wait
for a bus and jostling to get on. The vehicle rattles across the
interminable hot plains and flat scrub of north Karnataka. To do
just 46 kilometers from Badami to Aihole, the bus needs four tedious
hours. But alight at Aihole and the travails are forgotten! For
Aihole is one of the most remarkable temple sites in the country with
one hundred and twenty temples, big and small, in different styles,
all in a small village.

There is scope for tourism in each tiny village. Hence, it should be richly developed.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pYyiRLUvmZs

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pYyiRLUvmZs
There is scope for tourism in each tiny village. Hence, it should be richly developed.
Aihole

Karnataka Tourism
Published on Feb 22, 2012
Category
Travel & Events
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Art historians say Aihole
was a workshop for temple architects and sculptors patronized by
early Chalukyan monarchs. Here are some of the earliest structural
temples in stone in the country, dating from 450 AD and, among them,
is one of the four Buddhist shrines in Karnataka. So we make our way
to Aihole’s hillock, Meguti, to the rock cut Buddhist shrine.
It is of special interest to us because it is the most important
surviving Buddhist temple in Karnataka.

The Chaitya, a double
stories structure, is half structural and half excavated in rock.
The sanctum sanctorum is in the upper storey. It has a rectangular
verandah of 8.78 m x 2.15 m. In the centre of the Verandah’s
ceiling is a relief of Buddha in preaching posture. Of the three
Buddha sculptures at Aihole, this is the best preserved and is 61cm
in Height. He is seated on the padmapitha in the
satvaparyankasana, that is, his right hand is placed against
his chest in the vyakhyan mudra while the left is placed on
the right foot with the palm facing upwards. His right shoulder and
right breast are uncovered. There is a triple umbrella above him and
his attendants are nearby.

Chaitya:
A chaitya is a Buddhist shrine or prayer hall with a stupa at one end.
In modern texts on Indian architecture, the term chaitya-griha is often
used to denote an assembly or prayer hall that houses a stupa.
Chaitya
is a religious term, while stupa is an architectural term for a mound
containing a relic of the Buddha and later on of leading Buddhist saints


Definition of Chaitya from all online and printed dictionaries, photos and videos about Chaitya
Buddhist Schools of Art - Part 1

Published on Feb 15, 2013

This
topic explains the Buddhist Schools of arts- The Mauryan School of Art,
The Sunga School of Art, The Mathura or Kushana School of Art and The
Gandhara School of Art.

This is a product of Mexus Education Pvt. Ltd., an education innovations
company based in Mumbai, India.
http://www.mexuseducation.com, http://www.ikenstore.in


Buddhism was founded in
north India in about 500 BC when Siddharth Gautama, born a prince,
achieved awakenment. It is widely held that the religion first
emerged during Mauryan times when there was a missionary zeal. Parts
of Karnataka were subject to the rule of the Mauryas. Chandragupta
Maurya’s son Bindusara (298-273 BC) and Bindusara’s son
Asoka (269-232 BC) caused some of his edicts to be put up here.
Asoka’s grandson Samprati Chandragupta is believed to have come
to Sravanbelagola where he spent his last years. Eleven Asokan
edicts, four in Bellary district, three in Raichur district and three
others in Chitradurga district bear witness to the Mauryan presence
in Karnataka.

Shravanabelagola has two hills, Chandragiri and Vindhyagiri. Acharya Bhadrabahu and his pupil Chandragupta Maurya are believed to have meditated there. Chandragupta Basadi, which was dedicated to Chandragupta Maurya, was originally built there by Ashoka in the third century BC. Chandragiri also has memorials to numerous monks and Śrāvakas who have meditated there since the fifth century AD, including the last king of the Rashtrakuta dynasty of Manyakheta. Chandragiri also has a famous temple built by Chavundaraya.Inscriptions in Prakrit, dating from 981 AD. The inscription praises the king who funded the effort and his general, Chavundaraya.

Some hold the view,
however, that such rock edicts merely prove that Karnataka was within
the jurisdiction of Mauryan kings, but not necessarily the advent of
Buddhism here. The Sinhalese chronicles, Mahavamsa and
Dipavamsa, mention Mangaliputtatissa, a contemporary of Asoka
and reputed to be the emperor’s teacher and mentor. He had sent
missionaries to Mahshaka (southern region of Karnataka) under
Mahadeva, and to Banavasi (the heart of Karnataka) under Rakkhita, to
preach the gospel. That would firmly indicate Buddhist prevalence in
Karnataka.



Indian History and Architecture

Navigating Indian History through its Architecture
image.png

Banavasi – The First Kannada Capital

Chapter I

Past References and Political History

Banavasi holds a very important position
in the history of Karnataka. It enjoys the reputation of being the
capital town of the first indigenous Kannada dynasty, the Kadambas.
Though it rose to the position of a capital town during the Kadambas,
however it was already playing the same role during the rule of the
Chutus who were a feudatories under the Satavahanas.

image.png


Political History – If we exclude the pre-historic period, then
Banavasi might emerge as the oldest town of Karnataka, probably
contemporary to Shravanabelagola. However, its antiquity before the
Mauryas is still not established. One major reason for this missing
piece of information is inadequate number of excavations carried out at
this site.

With the distribution of Ashoka’s inscription in
southern India, it can be safely assumed that Banavasi was under
Ashoka’s dominion. After the disintegration of the Mauryas, there were
different regional powers in north and south India and Banavasi came
under the Satavahanas. Nasik cave inscription of the Satavahana king
Gautamiputra Satakarni was issued from the victorious camp of Banavasi.
Satavahana activities around the Banavasi region is also attested from
various coins and a solo Satavahana memorial inscription found here.


The Chutus ruled after the Satavahanas and Banavasi became their
capital. Though there are not many inscriptions of this dynasty, however
most of those are found in and around Banavasi region only. Many of
their coins have also been discovered here. They were prominently
Buddhists as evident from their inscriptions. After the Chutus, Banavasi
became the celebrated capital of the first indigenous Kannada dynasty,
the Kadambas. Though it was their capital city, however there is only
one Kadamba inscription found here.

While the power of the
Kadambas was on decline, an another south Indian dynasty, the Badami
Chalukyas, was on the rise. Chalukya inscriptions mention defeat of the
Kadambas in the hands of the Chalukya king Kirtivarman I. However it
seems that he was not able to conquer Banavasi as this victory is
attributed to his son, Pulakesi II. In his Aihole prashashti, it is
mentioned that Banavasi appeared to be a water-fort (Jala-durga) due to
its being surrounded by river Varada on three sides.

Since then,
Banavasi remained as a province under the Badami Chalukyas. It would
have been an important province as at one point of time it was being
governed by the brother-in-law of the Chalukya king Vijayaditya. The
Shiggaon plate (Epigraphia Indica vol XXXII) mentions that Vijayaditya
visited Banavasi to see his brother-in-law, the Alupa king Chitravahana
in 708 CE. Chitravahana’s father, Gunasagara, was the first Alupa king
who was made the governor of the Kadamba-mandala by the Chalukya king
Vikramaditya I as evident from Kigga inscription (Epigraphia Carnatica
vol VI).

Though no Rashtrakuta inscription has been found in
Banavasi yet, from various inscriptions it is clear that it was under
the Rashtrakutas, being governed by their feudatories. Shrinivas Ritti
believes that under the Rashtrakuta, the Banavasi region was extended
quite considerably and became Banavasi-12000, comprising of 12000
villages. Marakkarasa family was the first one to govern Banavasi under
the Rashtrakutas. After them, it was Chalukya Rajaditya and Chellaketana
families who governed this region.

With the Kalyana Chalukyas
taking over most of the Karnataka into their control, Banavasi also came
under them. By then Banavasi-12000 had gained a reputation of an
important and coveted place. It was hence administered by important
feudatories under the Kalyana Chalukyas.

Kadambas of Hangal
administered Banavasi-12000 under the Kalyana Chalukyas. They continued
their rule even after the fall of the Kalyana Chalukyas. With the fall
of the Kalyana Chalukyas, Karnataka went into the hands of two powerful
dynasties, the northern part to the Sevunas and the southern to the
Hoysalas. Both these dynasties tried their best to prove their supremacy
but none succeeded.

Due to its strategic location, being
situated at the border of the Hoysala and Sevuna territories, Banavasi
became the point of tussle between these two dynasties. Both had their
small stints over Banavasi however it did not remain with them for long.
Hoysala Vishnuvardhana conquered Banavasi in 1135 CE for a small time
but later driven out by the Kadamba Mallikarjuna. Sevuna Singhana II
also ruled over Banavasi in about 1215 CE.

Banavasi was with the
Kadambas, as the feudatories of the Sevunas, when the Vijayanagara
empire rose. Later it moved to Sode chiefs and from them to Hyder Ali.
With the defeat of Tipu Sultan, Banavasi along with other major portion
of Karnataka came under the British rule in 1799 CE.

image.png

In point of fact,
Buddhist doctrine held sway in Karnataka even before Asoka’s
time. Mahisasana, a form of Hinayana Buddhism, spread after the
first convention of Buddhism in Rajgraha (477 BC) to Avanti, and to
areas south of it to what are today’s Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka,
Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Thus, while Asoka accepted Buddhism only in
268 BC, Buddhism was prevalent in Karnataka two centuries prior to
the Mauryan monarch.


Early on, Buddhism
separated into Sthavarvad (Hinayana) and Mahasanghikvad (Mahayana)
which developed into Mahisasana. This branch stretched upto Banavasi
from 5th century BC to 3rd century BC, that is,
after the very first Buddhist convention in 477 BC and certainly long
before Asoka.


Why then, are there are
no Buddhist relics found from those centuries before Asoka? The
answer is quite simple. There was no idol worship in Buddhism.
There had been no sculptures, carvings nor erection of stupas and
inscriptions before the Asokan stupas at Sanchi and Sarnath. Prior
to them, there were only earthern stupas which could not survive the
ravages of time. There is one exception, however, excavations near
Banavasi in 1971 revealed stupas and bricks that have been dated to
the 2nd and 3rd century BC. A Buddhist
deepasthambha (lamp post) of those times was found at the
village Togarsi near Banavasi. By and large, in Karnataka, the
Hnayana Buddhism that prevailed did not deify Buddha but looked upon
him at human level, as perfect man. Paucity of actual remnants
before Asoka’s time is thus explained.


The Mauryan inscriptions
do not merely indicate the empire’s boundary. They also assert
that Buddhism flourished there because the very purpose of Asoka’s
edicts was to spread universal message to the masses. Buddhism duly
spread and flourished. In sum, the Mauryan was undoubtedly the golden
age of Buddhism.


The Satavahanas were
successors to the Mauryas and ruled in Banavasi, as is evident from
the Nasik inscription of Gautamiputra Satakarni and the copper plates
from Hirehadagali. There is a Prakrit inscription belonging to the
second century on the stone Naga effigy fund at the Madhukesvara
temple, which refers to the fact that Siva-skandanagar-sri, daughter
of Satakarni of Chutukula, the king of Vaijayantipura (i.e. Banavasi)
was responsible for the installation of that Naga effigy, and the
Vihara. A copper plate inscription of 338 AD likens a Banavasi king
to a bodhisattva (reincarnation) in his great compassion towards all
living beings (praninam parama karnikataya bodhisattvo pamanasya).


From 30 BC to the second
century AD, the Satavahanas ruled from Pratisthana (modern day
Paithan) on the bank of Godavari river at Aurangabad. Their support
to Buddhism is evident from Pliny (1st century AD) whose
account mentions Prakrit inscription of Gvinaya Pitaka, referring to
Setakannika, which shows that Buddhism was flourishing in Karnataka.
Mahavagga, a composer after Asoka’s time endorses this.


The Satvahanas may have
been a Karnataka dynasty, as Dharwad and Bellary districts are called
Shantavahani Hara (or Shantavahana region). Some of their kings were
called rulers of Kunthala, the old name for Karnataka. At Sannati
(Gulbarga district), as well as Vadgoan Madhavpur (near Belgaum) and
Brahmagiri (Chitradurga district), there are remains of monuments of
their period. The Uttara Kannada area of Banavasi has their
inscription at Vasan in Dharwad district, and there are remains of a
brick temple. The Chandravalli inscriptions that were unearthed in
1888, strongly suggest that worshipers of Buddha were here during the
early centuries of the Christian era. The leader coins of the
Satvahana kings bear the figure of a humped bull and on the other
side of the coins are the unmistakable emblems of the bodhi tree and
the chaitya (cairn). Small sculptures of Gandharva, a
Buddhist yaksha, are also found.


The earliest epigraphic
evidence in this regard (latter half of second century AD) is the
stone memorial inscribed in Prakrit. It is that of Vasistapura
Sivasiri Pulamari Rajana Mahadevi Sirijantamula, wife of a king of
Banavasi who constructed a stambha and a Vihara for the
Mahisasanas at Nagarjunakonnda.


Another chronicler,
Mahavamso, cites an important event. In the first century,
Dattagamini, King of Ceylon, built a vihara and 80000 bhikus
of Vanavasi had attended! Bhutpala, a merchant of Banavasi, was
responsible for carving the famed Buddhist cave at Karla where an
inscription says it was the best in the whole country.


It is at Sannati,
(Chitapur, taluk, Gulbarga district), on both banks of the river
Bhima, that many Buddhist stupas of the Satvahana times have been
found. It resembles Amravati and was the Buddhist centre of the
Satvahana period of pre-Christian era and is spread over a three
kilometer area. Fine sculptures can be seen all along and the
Buddhist ruins found there are in large numbers. They include
remnants of stupas, stone pottery for holy bones and ayaka stambha
which has symbolic representation of birth, parinishnishkramana,
enlightenment, preaching and nirvana (salvation) of Buddha.
Inscriptions in the Brahmi script contain names of those who gave
grants to sangharama, stupas and viharas. The words –
visiriputa sirisata mahasataraha – show the beginning of
the Christian era and reference to Banavasi is found. There are
stupas carved in stone, and another stupa (1st to 3rd
century AD) has Buddha’s feet.


The Sannatis
(feudatories) of Satvahanas, known as Mahabhojas, had then ruled the
Banavasi area. An inscriptions of that period says: “Nagamulida,
wife of Maharathi, daughter of the Mahabhoja, King of Banavasi,
mother of Khanda Nagashtak, constructed a cave residence at Kanheri
(near today’s Bombay) of Buddhist bhikus.”


After the Satavahanas,
Karnataka fell into the hands of the Pallavas of Kanchi and the
Chuttu Shatkarnis (who were feudatories of the Satavahanas) ruling
from Banavasi after the fall of the Satavahanas. Pallava domination
ended when two dynasties, the Kadambas of Banavasi and the Gangas of
Kolar (345 AD) held sway.


The Gangas, ruling from
Talakadu, followed the vedic religion but were tolerant towards
Buddhism. A Sanskrit copperplate (400 AD) issued by Padangala
Madhava (440-470 AD), a Ganga ruler, indicated land grants to a
Buddhist vihara (gangarajya madhava-sarmanah sasana
Buddha-sattvaya dattam
). There were Buddhist viharas alive and
active and Buddhism was still powerful in the Ganga territory.


Like the Gangas, the
Kadambas were also tolerant towards Buddhism as epigraphic evidence
shows. The Kadamba capital was also Banavasi, (known as Vaijayanti,)
and their century was a prominent one for Buddhism in Karnataka.
Chinese traveller, Hieun Tsang, visited Banavasi in the 7th
century AD and saw 1000 sangharamas and three stupas. He
says: “By the side of the royal palace is a great sangharama
with 300 priests, all men of distinction. This convent has a great
vihara 100 in height.”


Recent excavations of the
site of Banavasi have given the remains of a Buddhist stupa. The
large apsidal structure is what remains and it was planned like a
dharma-chakra.


The Buddhist Chaitya
in front of which we stood at Aihole, is pre western Chalukyan and
indicates the influence of Mahayana. It was built around the 5th
century and is 25 feet high. We now make our way to Badami in
another rickety bus headed toward the erstwhile capital city of the
western Chalukyas in the 6th century. These rulers were
also associated with Buddhism and relics here have survived in the
shape of a Buddhist cave datable to the 6th century.
There is also a figure, identifiable as Padmapani, the Bodhisattva of
the same period. Hieun Tsang has stated that during the time of
Pulakesin II (642 AD) in Banavasi (or Konkanpura), there were 400
Sangharamas and 10000 followers of Buddhism.


In Gadag Taluk, Dharwad
district, at Dambal, there was a Buddhist centre as late as 12th
century. According to an inscription of 1095 AD, a temple of the
Buddhist deity Tara and a Buddhist vihara were built by 16
merchants during the reign of Lakshmidevi, queen of Vikramaditya VI.
Another temple of Tara, built at Dambal was by Sethi Sangarmaya of
Lokkigundi. Karnataka was indeed the place where the worship of Tara
gained ground. Tara became celebrated in Mahayana Buddhism
(especially Mantrayana) and acquired popularity as the mother of the
Buddhas and bodhisattvas, as the power of enlightenment and as the
consort of the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, the patron divinity of the
Mantrayana sect in Nepal, Tibet, Mongolia and China.


Tara’s consort
Avalokitaesvara-bodhisattva is the Siva of the Saiva cult and there
is the correspondence of Tara with Durga. The association between
Tara and Avalokita (Lokesvara) is emphasized in Karnataka. In
Balligame, on the banks of the river Varada, a Buddhist Vihara known
as Jayanti Prabuddha Vihara was built in 1065 by Rupa Byhattaya, the
minister of the Chalukyan king Ahavamalla, and the deities that were
worshipped there were Tara Bhagavati, Kesava, Lokesvara and Buddha.
A Dambala inscription of 1095 AD begins with the customary invocation
namo buddhyana and goes go to describe at length the greatness
of Tara-bhagavati.


In Kolivada, Hubbali
taluk, Dharwad district, an icon of Tara has been discovered
belonging to about the thirteenth century and inscribed on the
pedestal of this icon are the words siddham om namo bhagavatayai
Aryatarayai
, followed by the usual statement of the Buddha’s
teaching in brief.


The Vihara on Kadari Hill
in Mangalore (Dakshina Kannada) was an important site for Mahayana
Buddhism. There are three exquisite bronze statues, now in the
Manjunatha temple, one of which is of the Mahayana deity
Avalokitesvara bodhisattva (consort of Tara) called Lokesvara. The
other two bronzes are those of seated Buddha in contemplation.
Buddhism, which never became prevalent in Tulu-nadu, continued to
survive till the thirteenth century. It gradually got fused with
Saivite ideology.


Thereafter, it became
difficult for Buddhism to survive, especially as it lost its specific
identity and got merged with Saivism. The Buddhist legacy in
Karnataka survives in the teachings of Basaveswar or Basava, a
religious teacher who flourished in the 12th century.


There are estimated to be
75000 Buddhists in Karnataka of which Tibetans form a substantial
portion. Since the year 1900, the South India Buddhist Association
of Madras saw Buddhism taking roots and in Kolar Gold Fields near
Bangalore there is a Buddhist Vihara at Champion Reef. The Mahabodhi
Society of India founded a Buddhist Vihara in Bangalore in 1940 and
since 1956, Buddhism has got a fillip under Acharya Buddha Rakkkhita
who has published over 50 books and founded an institute, a
vidyapeeth and a hospital. Very much in evidence are the four
Tibetan settlements of Karnataka, at Bailkuppe (near Mysore), Mundgod
(in north Kanara district), Cauvery Valley, and at Kollegal. The
most important Tibetan Buddhist monasteries are Thegchay Ling and
Namgoling, both at Bailkuppe.

48.WriteanessayoftwelvefactorsoftheLaw
ofdependentorigination.
Whatdoesthe dependentoriginationportray?

Q 48 Write an essay of twelve factors of the law of dependent origination. What does the dependent origination portray ?
https://www.budsas.org/ebud/whatbudbeliev/106.htm

Law of Dependent Origination
 



“No God, no Brahma can be found

No matter of this wheel of life
Just bare phenomena roll
Depend on conditions all.(Visuddhi Magga)”


The Law of
Dependent Origination is one of the most important teachings of the Buddha, and it is also
very profound. The Buddha has often expressed His experience of Awakenment in one of
two ways, either in terms of having understood the Four Noble Truths, or in terms of
having understood the nature of the dependent origination. However, more people have heard
about the Four Noble Truths and can discuss it than the Law of Dependent Origination,
which is just as important.


Although the actual insight into dependent origination
arises with spiritual maturity, it is still possible for us to understand the principle
involved. The basis of dependent origination is that life or the world is built on a set
of relations, in which the arising and cessation of factors depend on some other factors
which condition them. This principle can be given in a short formula of four lines:




When this is, that is
This arising, that arises
When this is not, that is not
This ceasing, that ceases.


On this principle of interdependence and relativity rests
the arising, continuity and cessation of existence. This principle is known as the Law of
Dependent Origination in Pali, Paticca-samuppada. This law emphasizes an important
principle that all phenomena in this universe are relative, conditioned states and do not
arise independently of supportive conditions. A phenomenon arises because of a combination
of conditions which are present to support its arising. And the phenomenon will cease when
the conditions and components supporting its arising change and no longer sustain it. The
presence of these supportive conditions, in turn, depend on other factors for their
arising, sustenance and disappearance.


The Law of Dependence Origination is a realistic way
of understanding the universe and is the Buddhist equivalent of Einstein’s Theory of
Relativity. The fact that everything is nothing more than a set of relations is consistent
with the modern scientific view of the material world. Since everything is conditioned,
relative, and interdependent, there is nothing in this world which could be regarded as a
permanent entity, variously regarded as an ego or an eternal soul, which many people
believe in.


The phenomenal world is built on a set of relations, but
is this the way we would normally understand the world to be? We create fictions of its
permanency in our minds because of our desires. It is almost natural for human beings to
cling to what they consider as beautiful or desirable, and to reject what is ugly or
undesirable. Being subjected to the forces of greed and hatred, they are misled by
delusion, clouded by the illusion of the permanency of the object they cling to or reject.
Therefore, it is hard for us to realize that the world is like a bubble or mirage, and is
not the kind of reality we believe it to be. We do not realize that it is unreal in
actuality. It is like a ball of fire, which when whirled around rapidly, can for a time,
create the illusion of a circle.


The fundamental principle at work in dependent origination
is that of cause and effect. In dependent origination, what actually takes place in the
causal process is described in detail. To illustrate the nature of dependent origination
of the things around us, let us consider an oil lamp. The flame in an oil lamp burns
dependent upon the oil and the wick. When the oil and the wick are present, the flame in
an oil lamp burns. If either of these is absent, the flame will cease to burn. This
example illustrates the principle of dependent origination with respect to a flame in an
oil lamp. Or in an example of a plant, it is dependent upon the seed, earth, moisture, air
and sunlight for the plant to grow. All these phenomena arise dependent upon a number of
causal factors, and not independently. This is the principle of dependent origination.


In the Dhamma, we are interested to know how the principle
of dependent origination is applied to the problem of suffering and rebirth. The issue is
how dependent origination can explain why we are still going round in Samsara, or explain
the problem of suffering and how we can be free from suffering. It is not meant to be a
description of the origin or evolution of the universe. Therefore, one must not be
mistaken into assuming that ignorance, the first factor mentioned in the dependent
origination, is the first cause. Since everything arises because of some preceding causes,
there can be no first cause.


According to the Law of Dependent Origination, there are
twelve factors which account for the continuity of existence birth after birth. The
factors are as follows:



Through ignorance are conditioned volitional actions or
kamma-formations.
Through volitional actions is conditioned consciousness.
Through consciousness are conditioned mental and physical phenomena.
Through mental and physical phenomena are conditioned the six faculties(i.e., five
physical sense-organs and mind).
Through the six faculties is conditioned (sensorial and mental) contact.
Through (sensorial and mental)contact is conditioned sensation.
Through sensation is conditioned desire, ‘thirst”.
Through desire (’thirst’) is conditioned clinging.
Through clinging is conditioned the process of becoming.
Through the process of becoming is conditioned birth.
Through birth are conditioned decay, death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair.


This is how life arises, exists and continues, and how
suffering arises. These factors may be understood as sequentially spanning over a period
of three life-times; the past life, the present life, and the future life. In the
dependent origination, ignorance and mental formation belong to the past life, and
represent the conditions that are responsible for the occurrence of this life. The
following factors, namely, consciousness, mental and physical phenomena, the six senses,
contact, sensation, desire, clinging and becoming, are factors involved in the present
life. The last two factors, birth and decay and death, belong to the future life.


In this law, the first factor of Ignorance gives
rise to Volitional Activities (or kamma). Ignorance means not knowing or understanding the
true nature of our existence. Through Ignorance, good or evil deeds are performed which
will lead a person to be reborn. Rebirth can occur in various planes of existence: the
human world, the celestial or higher planes, or even suffering planes depending of the
quality of a person’s kamma. When a person dies, his Volitional Activities will condition
the arising of Consciousness, in this case to mean the re-linking Consciousness which
arises as the first spark of a new life in the process of re-becoming.


Once the re-linking Consciousness has taken place,
life starts once again. Dependent on the Consciousness, there arise Mind and Matter, that
is, a new ‘being’ is born. Because there are Mind and Matter, there arise the six
Sense-organs (the sixth sense is the mind itself). With the arising of the Sense-organs,
there arises Contact. Contact with what? Contact with sights, sounds, smells, tastes,
tactile objects, and mental objects.


These sights, sounds, smells, tastes, tactile objects, and
mental objects can be beautiful, pleasing and enticing. On the other hand, they can be
ugly and distasteful. Therefore, dependent on Contact arises Sensations: feelings that are
pleasant, unpleasant or neutral. Because of these feelings, the laws of attraction
(greed)and repulsion (aversion) are now set in motion. Beings are naturally attracted to
pleasant objects and repelled by unpleasant objects. As a result of Sensation, Desire
arises. A person desires and thirsts for forms that are beautiful and enticing; sounds
that are beautiful and enticing; tastes, smells, touch, and objects which the mind regards
as beautiful and enticing. From these Desires, he develops very strong Clinging to the
beautiful object (or strongly rejects the repulsive object). Now because of this Clinging
and attachment, the next life is conditioned and there arises Becoming. In other words,
the processes of Becoming are set in motion by Clinging.


The next link in this chain of Dependent Origination is
that Becoming conditions the arising of Birth. And finally, dependence on Birth arise
Decay and Death, followed by Sorrow, Lamentation, Pain, Grief and Despair.


The process can be ceased if the formula is taken in
the reverse order: Through the complete cessation of ignorance(through the cultivation of
Insight), volitional activities or kamma-formations cease; through the cessation of
volitional activities, consciousness ceases; °‚ through the cessation of birth, the
other factors of decay, death, sorrow, etc., cease. Therefore, one can be free from the
rounds of rebirth through the eradication of ignorance.


To re-iterate what was mentioned earlier, this doctrine of
Dependent Origination merely explains the processes of Birth and Death, and is not a
theory of the evolution of the world. It deals with the Cause of re-birth and Suffering,
but in no way attempts to show the absolute Origin of Life. Ignorance in Dependent
Origination is the ignorance of the Four Noble Truths. It is very important for us to
understand the Four Noble Truths because it is the ignorance of these Truths that has
trapped us all in the endless cycle of birth and death.


According to the Buddha, while He was speaking to Ananda:
It is by their not being able to comprehend the Dependent Origination, that people are
entangled like a ball of cotton, and not being able to see the Truth, are always afflicted
by Sorrow, –born often into conditions that are dismal and dreary, where confusion and
prolonged suffering prevail. And, they do not know how to disentangle themselves to get
out.



-ooOoo-

49.WritedownthetextofthePaticcaSamuppadabothinPàliandEnglishinforwardand
backwardorders.


Q 49 Write down text of the Paticca Samppada both in Pali and English in forward and backward orders ?

https://www.wisdomlib.org/definition/paticcasamuppada

Paticcasamuppada, aka: Paticca-samuppada, Paṭiccasamuppāda; 7 Definition(s)

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)


[Paticcasamuppada in Theravada glossaries]


Dependent co arising; dependent origination. A map showing the way the
aggregates (khandha) and sense media (ayatana) interact with ignorance
(avijja) and craving (tanha) to bring about stress and suffering
(dukkha). As the interactions are complex, there are several different
versions of paticca samuppada given in the suttas. In the most common
one, the map starts with ignorance. In another common one, the map
starts with the interrelation between name (nama) and form (rupa) on the
one hand, and sensory consciousness (vinnana) on the other.

(Source): Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist Terms

Conditioned
production of the twelve interdependent causes. It is the explanation
of the anatta process, it rules over the appearance and disappearance of
each phenomenon.

See also: paticca samuppada

(Source): Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

‘dependent origination’, is the
doctrine of the conditionality of all physical and psychical phenomena, a
doctrine which, together with that of impersonality (anattā), forms
the indispensable condition for the real understanding and realization of the
teaching of the Buddha. It shows the conditionality and dependent nature of that
uninterrupted flux of manifold physical and psychical phenomena of existence
conventionally called the ego, or man, or animal, etc.

Whereas the doctrine of impersonality, or anattā,
proceeds analytically, by splitting existence up into the ultimate constituent
parts, into mere empty, unsubstantial phenomena or elements, the doctrine of
dependent origination, on the other hand, proceeds synthetically, by showing
that all these phenomena are, in some way or other, conditionally related with
each other. In fact, the entire Abhidhamma Pitaka, as a whole, treats really of
nothing but just these two doctrines: phenomenality - implying impersonality and
conditionality of all existence. The former or analytical method is applied in
Dhammasangani, the first book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka; the latter or
synthetical method, in Patthāna, the last book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka. For a
synopsis of these two works, s. Guide I and VII.

Though this subject has been very frequently treated by
Western authors, by far most of them have completely misunderstood the true
meaning and purpose of the doctrine of dependent origination, and even the 12
terms themselves have often been rendered wrongly.


The formula of dependent origination runs as follows:

  • 1. Avijiā-paccayā sankhārā: “Through ignorance
    are conditioned the sankhāras,” i.e. the rebirth-producing volitions (cetanā),
    or ‘karma-formations’ .
  • 2. Sankhāra-paccayā viññānam: “Through the
    karma-formations (in the past life) is conditioned consciousness (in the
    present life).”
  • 3. Viññāna-paccayā nāma-rūpam: “Through
    consciousness are conditioned the mental and physical phenomena (nāma-rūpa),”
    i.e. that which makes up our so-called individual existence.
  • 4. Nāma-rūpa-paccayā salāyatanam: “Through the
    mental and physical phenomena are conditioned the 6 bases,” i.e. the 5
    physical sense-organs, and consciousness as the sixth.
  • 5. Salāyatana-paccayā phasso: “Through the six
    bases is conditioned the (sensorial mental) impression.”
  • 6. Phassa-paccayā vedanā: “Through the
    impression is conditioned feeling.”
  • 7. Vedanā-paccayā tanhā: “Through feeling is
    conditioned craving.”
  • 8. Tanhā-paccayā upādānam: “Through craving is
    conditioned clinging.”
  • 9. Upādāna-paccayā bhavo: “Through clinging is
    conditioned the process of becoming,” consisting in the active and the
    passive life process, i.e. the rebirth-producing karma-process
    (kamma-bhava) and, as its result, the rebirth-process (upapatti-bhava).
  • 10. Bhava-paccayā jāti: “Through the
    (rebirth-producing karma-) process of becoming is conditioned rebirth.”
  • 11. Jāti-paccayā jarāmaranam, etc.: “Through
    rebirth are conditioned old age and death (sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief
    and despair). Thus arises this whole mass of suffering again in the
    future.”

 

The following diagram shows the relationship of dependence
between three successive lives:

PAST

  • 1 Ignorance (avijjā)
  • 2 Karma-formations (sankhārā)

Karma-Process (kammabhava)
5 causes: 1,2,8,9,10

PRESENT

  • 3 Consciousness (viññāna)
  • 4 Mind & Matter (nāma-rūpa)
  • 5 Six Bases (āyatana)
  • 6 Impression (phassa)
  • 7 Feeling (vedanā)

Rebirth-Process (upapattibhava)

5 results: 3-7

  • 8 Craving (tanhā)
  • 10 Process of Becoming (bhava)

Karma-Process (kammabhava)
5 causes: 1,2,8,9,10

FUTURE

  • 11 Rebirth (jāti)
  • 12 Old Age and Death (jarā-marana)

Rebirth-Process (upapattibhava)
5 results: 3-7

Before taking up the study of the following exposition, it is
suggested that the reader first goes thoroughly through the article on the 24
conditions (s. paccaya). For a thorough understanding of the paticcasamuppāda
he should know the main modes of conditioning, as decisive support, co-nascence,
pre-nascence, etc.

For a closer study of the subject should be consulted:

  • Vis.M.
    XVII;
  • Fund. III;
  • Guide (Ch. VII and Appendix);
  • Dependent Origination, by Piyadassi Thera (WHEEL 15);
  • The Significance of Dependent Origination (WHEEL 140).
(Source): Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines


Paticcasamuppada is Pali language, a combination of three words, i.e.
Patticca means because” and “dependent upon.” Sam means well, Uppada
means arising of effect through cause, so dependent on cause there
arises effect, hence it is known in English as Law of Dependent
Origination or Cycle of Rebirth.

(Source): This is Myanmar: The Doctrine of Paticcasammupada


Paticcasamuppada is Pali language, a combination of three words, i.e.
Patticca means because” and “dependent upon.” Sam means well, Uppada
means arising of effect through cause, so dependent on cause there
arises effect, hence it is known in English as Law of Dependent
Origination or Cycle of Rebirth.

(Source): This is Myanmar: The Doctrine of Paticcasammupada

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

Discover the meaning of paticcasamuppada in the context of Theravada from relevant books on Exotic India


Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary


[Paticcasamuppada in Pali glossaries]

paṭiccasamuppāda : (m.) causal genesis; dependent origination.

(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Paṭicca-samuppāda,
(p. +samuppāda, BSk. prātītyasamutpāda, e.g. Divy 300, 547) “arising on
the grounds of (a preceding cause)” happening by way of cause, working
of cause & effect, causal chain of causation; causal genesis,
dependent origination, theory of the twelve causes.—See on this Mrs. Rh.
D. in Buddhism 90 f. , Ency. Rel. & Ethics, s. v. & KS. II, , preface. Cpd.
p. 260 sq. with diagram of the “Wheel of Life”; Pts. of Controversy,
390 f.—The general formula runs thus: Imasmiṃ sati, idaṃ hoti,
imass’uppādā, idaṃ uppajjati; imasmiṃ asati, idaṃ na hoti; imassa
nirodhā, idaṃ nirujjhati. This being, that becomes; from the arising of
this, that arises; this not becoming, that does not become: from the
ceasing of this, that ceases M. II, 32; S. II, 28 etc. The term usually occurs applied to dukkha
in a famous formula which expresses the Buddhist doctrine of evolution,
the respective stages of which are conditioned by a preceding cause
& constitute themselves the cause of resulting effect, as working
out the next state of the evolving (shall we say) “individual” or
“being, ” in short the bearer of evolution. The respective links in this
chain which to study & learn is the first condition for a
“Buddhist” to an understanding of life, and the cause of life, and which
to know forward and backward (anuloma-paṭilomaṃ manas’âkāsi Vin. I, 1) is indispensable for the student, are as follows. The root of all, primary cause of all existence, is avijjā ignorance; this produces saṅkhārā: karma, dimly conscious elements, capacity of impression or predisposition (will, action, Cpd.; synergies Mrs. Rh. D.), which in their turn give rise to viññāṇa thinking substance (consciousness, Cpd.; cognition Mrs. Rh. D.), then follow in succession the foll. stages: nāmarūpa individuality (mind & body, animated organism Cpd.; name & form Mrs. Rh. D.), saḷāyatana the senses (6 organs of sense Cpd.; the sixfold sphere Mrs. Rh. D.), phassa contact, vedanā feeling, taṇhā thirst for life (craving), upādāna clinging to existence or attachment (dominant idea Cpd.; grasping Mrs. Rh. D.), bhava (action or character Cpd.; renewed existence Mrs. Rh. D.), jāti birth (rebirth conception Cpd.), jarāmaraṇa
(+soka-parideva-dukkhadomanass’ûpayāsā) old age & death
(+tribulation, grief, sorrow, distress & despair). The BSk. form is
pratītya-samutpāda, e.g. at Divy 300, 547.

The Paṭicca-samuppāda is also called the Nidāna (“basis, ” or “ground, ” i.e. cause) doctrine, or the Paccay’ākāra (“related-condition”), and is referred to in the Suttas as Ariya-ñāya (“the noble method or system”). The term paccay’ākāra is late and occurs only in Abhidhamma-literature.—The oldest account is found in the Mahāpadāna Suttanta of the Dīgha Nikāya (D. II, 30 sq.; cp. Dial.
II. 24 sq.), where 10 items form the constituents of the chain, and are
given in backward order, reasoning from the appearance of dukkha in this world of old age and death towards the original cause of it in viññāṇa. The same chain occurs again at S. II, 104 sq.—A later development shows 12 links, viz. avijjā and saṅkhārā added to precede viññāṇa (as above). Thus at S. II, 5 sq.—A detailed exposition of the P. -s. in Abhidhamma literature is the exegesis given by Bdhgh at Vism.
XVII. (pp. 517—586, under the title of Paññā-bhūmi-niddesa), and at
VbhA. 130—213 under the title of Paccayākāra-vibhaṅga. ‹-› Some passages
selected for ref. : Vin. I, 1 sq.; M. I, 190, 257; S. I, 136; II, 1 sq. , 26 sq. , 42 sq. , 70, 92 sq. , 113 sq.; AI. 177; V, 184; Sn. 653; Ud. 1 sq.; Ps. I, 50 sq.; 144; Nett 22, 24, 32, 64 sq.; DA. I, 125, 126.

—kusala skilled in the (knowledge of the) chain of causation M. III, 63; Nd1 171; f. abstr. °kusalatā D. III, 212. (Page 394)

(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
context information

Pali
is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda
Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to
Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Discover the meaning of paticcasamuppada in the context of Pali from relevant books on Exotic India

50.GivedetailsaccountofAshoka’sNinemessangersofDhammadispatchedtonine
countries?


Q 50 Give details account of Ashoka’s Nine messengers of Dhamma dispatched to nine countries ?

http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/budhist/asoka.htm
The lions from Sarnath, a monument from Ashoka period
King Ashoka was responsible for a number of Buddhist monuments

Emperor Ashoka (B.C. 304-239)
Emperor Ashoka (B.C. 304-239)
Emperor Ashoka as a great ruler of India and as promoter of Buddhism holds an important role in the history of the world.

Logo

 

 Global Vipassana Pagoda


Asoka

and

the

spread

of

Dhamma



History shows that during the time of the Buddha, the Kings
Bimbisara, Suddhodana, and Prasenajita received great benefit from their
practice of the Dhamma, and naturally wanted to share this benefit with
others. They enthusiastically supported the dissemination of the
Buddha’s teaching in their respective kingdoms. Yet the fact remains
that the Dhamma spread to the masses not only because of this royal
patronage but because of the efficacy of the technique itself. This
technique enables anyone who applies it to come out of misery by rooting
out the mental impurities of greed (lobha), hatred (dosa), and delusion (moha).
A simple and universal technique, it can be practised by men and women
from any class, any sect, any communal group, with the same results.
Suffering is universal: unwanted things happen and desired things may or
may not happen. A universal malady must have a universal remedy: Dhamma
is this remedy. The Buddha compassionately and freely distributed the
Dhamma throughout northern India, attracting a large number of people in
what was then called Majjhima Desa.

Similarly after the time of the Buddha, during the time of Emperor
Asoka in the third century B.C., the Dhamma spread widely. Again this
was mainly because of the practical, applied aspect of the teaching (Dhamma paipatti).
Several Asokan rock edicts prove this fact. Asoka must have himself
experienced the beneficial results of this technique, and he propagated
the Dhamma with great zeal. It was out of the volition to serve others,
which develops when the mind becomes purified, that he put forth so much
effort to help his subjects in both the mundane as well as the
supramundane spheres. On the Pillar Edict #7  he points out two reasons
why he succeeded in this. One was the rule of law and order in his
kingdom (Dhammaniyamani), but he gave more emphasis to the second reason which was the practice of meditation (nijhatiya),
the practical aspect of the Dhamma. This shows that he appreciated the
fact that the practice of the Dhamma is the main reason for its spread.

It was after the Third Council under Asoka’s patronage that fully
liberated arahant monks were sent out of northern India to nine
different areas to make the Dhamma available to more people. These monks
were called Dhamma dutas (Dhamma messengers). They naturally gave
emphasis to the practical aspect of the Dhamma by which they themselves
had become free from mental impurities. Filled with love and compassion,
they attracted large numbers of people to the path of liberation.

The following are the names of the elder monks (Theras) and the nine areas where they went to teach Dhamma:

Majjhantika Thera: Kasmira and Gandhara (Kashmir, Afghanistan, Peshawar and Rawalpindi in Northwest Pakistan)

Mahadeva Thera: Mahisamandala (Mysore)

Rakkhita Thera: Vanavasi (North Kanara in South India)

Yonaka Dhammarakkhita Thera: Aparantaka (Modern Northern Gujarat Kathiavar, Kachcha and Sindh)

Mahadhamma Rakkhita Thera: Maharattha (parts of Maharashtra around the source of Godavari)

Maha Rakkhita Thera: Yonakaloka (Ancient Greece)

Majjhima Thera: Himavanta Padesa Bhaga (Himalayan region)

Sona and Uttara Theras: Suvanna Bhumi (Burma)

Mahinda Thera and others: Tambapannidipa (Sri Lanka) 

Asoka also sent teachers to as far away as present day Syria and
Egypt. He paved the way for coming generations to spread the sublime
Dhamma to the entire world.

His lead was followed by King Kanishka who sent teachers such as the
Theras Kumarajiva and Bodhidhamma to Central Asia and China.

From there the Dhamma went to Korea in the early 4th century A.D.,
and then to Japan. In India, Dhamma Universities—Takkasila, Nalanda,
Vikkamasila, and others—developed, flourished, and attracted learned
people from as far away as China. Dhamma also spread throughout
Southeast Asia. Large numbers of people started practising in Thailand,
Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and Indonesia. Tibet also received the Dhamma,
through the service of Santirakshita, Padmasambhava, Atisha, and
Kamalashila.

Today the technique which the Buddha taught 2,500 years ago is once
again flourishing, and is giving the same results now as it did then.
Thousands of people in India and in countries around the world are
learning Vipassana. What is attracting so many different types of people
to the Dhamma is the same as what attracted them 2,500 years ago: the
very practical nature of the teaching which is vivid, tangible,
wholesome, easily understood, giving benefit here and now, leading one
step-by-step to the goal.

As many people start to practise Dhamma once again, we can begin to
imagine what life in the time of the Buddha, and later in the time of
Asoka, was like: a society full of peace and harmony as millions of
people became established in love, compassion, and wisdom through the
practice of Dhamma.

May all beings be happy. May peace and harmony prevail.


51WriteanessayontheAditapariyāyasutaexplainingtheimportantfeatures?


Q 51 Write an essay on the Aditta Pariyaya sutta explaining the important features ?

https://damsara.org/dhamma-talks-in-sinhala/most-ven-u-dhammajiva-maha-thero/adiththa-pariyaya-sutta_may-2014/
Damsara

Adittapariyaya Sutta

Bhikkhus, all is burning. And what is the all that is burning?
Bhikkhus, all is burning. And what is the all that is burning?
Several months after his
Awakening, the Buddha delivered this sermon to an audience of 1,000
previously fire-worshipping ascetics. In his characteristically
brilliant teaching style, the Buddha uses a metaphor that quickly
penetrates to the heart of the audience – in this case, the metaphor of
fire. At the end of the discourse the thousand monks, erstwhile jatilas,
who had been listening, became Arahants.
included a PDF file of the Thera Gatha from Buddha Jayanthi Tripitaka Publication. Please click here to download the PDF file.

To listen directly:  Please
left click on the link to listen directly. Once the link is clicked,
you will be directed to a separate page containing the talk. Usually the
file starts to play in that window. If it doesn’t, you could highlight
the browser window and click ‘reload this page’. It will start to play. 

 To download: You could download the file by right clicking on the link and then selecting “save as” from the drop down menu.

  1. 01 RET 72_ Adittapariyaya Sutta_QandA 01_08-05-2014
  2. 02 RET 72_Adittapariyaya Sutta_Dhamma Talk 01_08-05-2014
  3. 03 RET 72_Adittapariyaya Sutta_Dhamma Talk 02_09-05-2014
  4. 04 RET 72_Aditta Pariyaya Sutta_Interview 01_09-05-2014
  5. 05 RET 72_Aditta Pariyaya Sutta_QandA 02_10-05-2014
  6. 06 RET 72_Adittapariyaya Sutta_Dhamma Talk 03_10-05-2014
  7. 07 RET 72_Adittapariyaya Sutta_Dhamma Talk 04_11-05-2014
  8. 08 RET 72_Adittapariyaya Sutta_Interview 02_11-05-2014
52.WhatisDhammapada,inwhichpitakaitappears?Howmanychaptersandversesare
there?


Q 52 What id Dhammapada, in which pitaka it appears ? How many chapters and verses are there ?

https://www.tipitaka.net/tipitaka/dhp/
The Dhammapada: Verses and Stories

The Dhammapada: Verses and Stories

Translated by Daw Mya Tin, M.A.

Edited by Editorial Committee, Burma
Tipitaka Association
Rangoon, Burma, 1986

Courtesy of Nibbana.com
For free distribution only, as a gift of dhamma.



Preface

     Dhammapada is one of the best
known books of the Pitaka. It is a collection of the teachings of the Buddha
expressed in clear, pithy verses. These verses were culled from various
discourses given by the Buddha in the course of forty-five years of his
teaching, as he travelled in the valley of the Ganges (Ganga) and the
sub-mountain tract of the Himalayas. These verses are often terse, witty and
convincing. Whenever similes are used, they are those that are easily understood
even by a child, e.g., the cart’s wheel, a man’s shadow, a deep pool, flowers.
Through these verses, the Buddha exhorts one to achieve that greatest of all
conquests, the conquest of self; to escape from the evils of passion, hatred and
ignorance; and to strive hard to attain freedom from craving and freedom from
the round of rebirths. Each verse contains a truth (dhamma), an exhortation, a
piece of advice.

Dhammapada Verses

     Dhammapada verses are often quoted by many in
many countries of the world and the book has been translated into many
languages. One of the earliest translations into English was made by Max Muller
in 1870. Other translations that followed are those by F.L. Woodward in 1921, by
Wagismara and Saunders in 1920, and by A.L. Edmunds (Hymns of the Faith) in
1902. Of the recent translations, that by Narada Mahathera is the most widely
known. Dr. Walpola Rahula also has translated some selected verses from the
Dhammapada and has given them at the end of his book “What the Buddha
Taught,” revised edition. The Chinese translated the Dhammapada from
Sanskrit. The Chinese version of the Dhammapada was translated into English by
Samuel Beal (Texts from the Buddhist Canon known as Dhammapada) in 1878.

     In Burma, translations have been made into
Burmese, mostly in prose, some with paraphrases, explanations and abridgements
of stories relating to the verses. In recent years, some books on Dhammapada
with both Burmese and English translations, together with Pali verses, have also
been published.

     The Dhammapada is the second book of the
Khuddaka Nikaya of the Suttanta Pitaka, consisting of four hundred and
twenty-three verses in twenty-six chapters arranged under various heads. In the
Dhammapada are enshrined the basic tenets of the Buddha’s Teaching.

     Verse (21) which begins with “Appamado
amatapadam” meaning “Mindfulness is the way
to Nibbana, the Deathless,”
is a very important and significant
verse. Mindfulness is the most important element in Tranquillity and Insight
Meditation. The last exhortation of the Buddha just before he passed away was
also to be mindful and to endeavour diligently (to complete the task of
attaining freedom from the round of rebirths through Magga and Phala).
It is generally accepted that it was on account of this verse on mindfulness
that the Emperor Asoka of India and King Anawrahta of Burma became converts to
Buddhism. Both kings had helped greatly in the propagation of Buddhism in their
respective countries.

     In verse (29) the Buddha has coupled his call
for mindfulness with a sense of urgency. The verse runs: “Mindful
amongst the negligent, highly vigilant amongst the drowsy, the wise man advances
like a race horse, leaving the jade behind.”

     Verses (1) and (2) illustrate the immutable law
of Kamma, under which every deed, good or bad, comes back to the doer. Here, the
Buddha emphasizes the importance of mind in all our actions and speaks of the
inevitable consequences of our deeds, words and thoughts.

     Verses (153) and (154) are expressions of
sublime and intense joy uttered by the Buddha at the very moment of his
Enlightenment. These two verses give us a graphic account of the culmination of
the Buddha’s search for Truth. They tell us about the Buddha finding the
‘house-builder,’ Craving, the cause of repeated births in Samsara. Having rid of
Craving, for him no more houses (khandhas) shall be built by Craving, and there
will be no more rebirths.

     Verses (277), (278) and (279) are also
important as they tell us about the impermanent, unsatisfactory and the non-self
nature of all conditioned things; it is very important that one should perceive
the true nature of all conditioned things and become weary of the khandhas, for
this is the Path to Purity.

     Then the Buddha shows us the Path leading to
the liberation from round of rebirths, i.e., the Path with eight constituents (Atthangiko
Maggo) in Verse (273). Further, the Buddha exhorts us to make our own effort
in Verse (276) saying, “You yourselves should make
the effort, the Tathagatas only show the way.”
Verse (183) gives
us the teaching of the Buddhas. It says, “Do no evil,
cultivate merit, purify one’s mind; this is the teaching of the Buddhas.”

     In Verse (24) the Buddha shows us the way to
success in life, thus: “If a person is energetic,
mindful, pure in thought, word and deed, if he does everything with care and
consideration, restrains his senses; earns his living according to the Dhamma
and is not unheedful, then, the fame and fortune of that mindful person
increase.”

     These are some of the examples of the gems to
be found in the Dhammapada. Dhammapada is, indeed, a philosopher, guide and
friend to all.

     This translation of verses is from Pali into
English. The Pali text used is the Dhammapada Pali approved by the Sixth
International Buddhist Synod. We have tried to make the translation as close to
the text as possible, but sometimes it is very difficult, if not impossible, to
find an English word that would exactly correspond to a Pali word. For example,
we cannot yet find a single English word that can convey the real meaning of the
word “dukkha” used in the exposition of the Four Noble Truths. In this
translation, wherever the term “dukkha” carries the same meaning as it
does in the Four Noble Truths, it is left untranslated; but only explained.

     When there is any doubt in the interpretation
of the dhamma concept of the verses or when the literal meaning is vague or
unintelligible, we have referred to the Commentary (in Pali) and the Burmese
translation of the Commentary by the Nyaunglebin Sayadaw, a very learned thera.
On many occasions we have also consulted the teachers of the Dhamma
(Dhammacariyas) for elucidation of perplexing words and sentences.

     In addition we have also consulted Burmese
translations of the Dhammapada, especially the translation by the Union Buddha
Sasana Council, the translation by the Sangaja Sayadaw (1805-1876), a
leading Maha thera in the time of King Mindon and King Thibaw, and also the
translation by Sayadaw U Thittila, an Ovadacariya Maha thera of the Burma Pitaka
Association. The book by the Sangaja Sayadaw also includes paraphrases and
abridgements of the Dhammapada stories.

Dhammapada Stories

     Summaries of the Dhammapada stories are given
in the second part of the book as it is generally believed that the Dhammapada
Commentary written by Buddhaghosa (5th century A.D.) is a great help towards a
better understanding of the Dhammapada. Three hundred and five stories are
included in the Commentary. Most of the incidents mentioned in the stories took
place during the life-time of the Buddha. In some stories, some facts about some
past existences were also retold.

     In writing summaries of stories we have not
tried to translate the Commentary. We have simply culled the facts of the
stories and have rewritten them briefly: A translation of the verses is given at
the end of each story.

     It only remains for me now to express my deep
and sincere gratitude to the members of the Editorial Committee, Burma Pitaka
Association, for having meticulously gone through the script; to Sayagyi
Dhammacariya U Aung Moe and to U Thein Maung, editor, Burma Pitaka Association,
for helping in the translation of the verses.

May the reader find the Path to Purity.

Daw Mya Tin
20th April, 1984



Burma Pitaka
Association

Editorial Committee

Doctrinal Adviser Sayadaw U Kumara, BA, Dhammcariya (Siromani, Vatamsaka).
   
Chairman U Shwe Mra, BA., I.C.S. Retd.,
Former Special Adviser, Public Administration Division, E.S.A., United
Nations Secretariat.
   
Members U Chan Htoon, LL.B., Barrister-at-law;
Former President, World Fellowship of Buddhists.
  U Nyun, B.A., I.C.S. Retd.,
Former Executive Secretary, United Nations Economic Commission for
Asia and the Far East;
Vice-President, World Fellowship of Buddhists.
  U Myint Too, B.Sc., B.L., Barrister-at-law,
Vice-President, All Burma Buddhist Association.
  Daw Mya Tin, M.A.,
Former Head of Geography Department, Institute of Education, Rangoon.
   
Doctrinal Consultant U Kyaw Htut, Dhammacariya;
Former Editor-in-chief of the Board for Burmese Translation of the
Sixth Synod Pali Texts.
   
Editors U Myo Min, M.A., B.L.,
Former Professor of English, Rangoon University.
  U Thein Maung, B.A., B.L
  U Hla Maung, B.A., B.L.
   
Secretary U Tin Nwe, B.Sc.

Dhammapada

Preface

I.Yamakavagga
Verse 001
Verse 002
Verse 003
Verse 005
Verse 006
Verse 007
Verse 009
Verse 011
Verse 013
Verse 015
Verse 016
Verse 017
Verse 018
Verse 019

II.Appamadavagga
Verse 021
Verse 024
Verse 025
Verse 026
Verse 028
Verse 029
Verse 030
Verse 031
Verse 032


III.Cittavagga

Verse 033
Verse 035
Verse 036
Verse 037
Verse 038
Verse 040
Verse 041
Verse 042
Verse 043


IV.Pupphavagga

Verse 044
Verse 046
Verse 047
Verse 048
Verse 049
Verse 050
Verse 051
Verse 053
Verse 054
Verse 056
Verse 057
Verse 058


V.Balavagga

Verse 060
Verse 061
Verse 062
Verse 063
Verse 064
Verse 065
Verse 066
Verse 067
Verse 068
Verse 069
Verse 070
Verse 071
Verse 072
Verse 073
Verse 075


VI.Panditavagga

Verse 076
Verse 077
Verse 078
Verse 079
Verse 080
Verse 081
Verse 082
Verse 083
Verse 084
Verse 085
Verse 087


VII.Arahantavagga

Verse 090
Verse 091
Verse 092
Verse 093
Verse 094
Verse 095
Verse 096
Verse 097
Verse 098
Verse 099


VIII.Sahassavagga

Verse 100
Verse 101
Verse 102
Verse 104
Verse 106
Verse 107
Verse 108
Verse 109
Verse 110
Verse 111
Verse 112
Verse 113
Verse 114
Verse 115


IX.Papavagga

Verse 116
Verse 117
Verse 118
Verse 119
Verse 121
Verse 122
Verse 123
Verse 124
Verse 125
Verse 126
Verse 127
Verse 128


X.Dandavagga

Verse 129
Verse 130
Verse 131
Verse 133
Verse 135
Verse 136
Verse 137
Verse 141
Verse 142
Verse 143
Verse 145


XI.Jaravagga

Verse 146
Verse 147
Verse 148
Verse 149
Verse 150
Verse 151
Verse 152
Verse 153
Verse 155

XII.Attavagga
Verse 157
Verse 158
Verse 159
Verse 160
Verse 161
Verse 162
Verse 163
Verse 164
Verse 165
Verse 166

XIII.Lokavagga
Verse 167
Verse 168
Verse 170
Verse 171
Verse 172
Verse 173
Verse 174
Verse 175
Verse 176
Verse 177
Verse 178


XIV.Buddhavagga

Verse 179
Verse 181
Verse 182
Verse 183
Verse 186
Verse 188
Verse 193
Verse 194
Verse 195


XV.Sukhavagga

Verse 197
Verse 200
Verse 201
Verse 202
Verse 203
Verse 204
Verse 205
Verse 206


XVI.Piyavagga

Verse 209
Verse 212
Verse 213
Verse 214
Verse 215
Verse 216
Verse 217
Verse 218
Verse 219


XVII.Kodhavagga

Verse 221
Verse 222
Verse 223
Verse 224
Verse 225
Verse 226
Verse 227
Verse 231

XVIII.Malavagga
Verse 235
Verse 239
Verse 240
Verse 241
Verse 242
Verse 244
Verse 246
Verse 249
Verse 251
Verse 252
Verse 253
Verse 254


XIX.Dhammatthavagga

Verse 256
Verse 258
Verse 259
Verse 260
Verse 262
Verse 264
Verse 266
Verse 268
Verse 270
Verse 271


XX.Maggavagga

Verse 273
Verse 277
Verse 280
Verse 281
Verse 282
Verse 283
Verse 285
Verse 286
Verse 287
Verse 288

XXI.Pakinnakavagga
Verse 290
Verse 291
Verse 292
Verse 294
Verse 296
Verse 302
Verse 303
Verse 304
Verse 305

XXII.Nirayavagga
Verse 306
Verse 307
Verse 308
Verse 309
Verse 311
Verse 314
Verse 315
Verse 316
Verse 318

XXIII.Nagavagga
Verse 320
Verse 323
Verse 324
Verse 325
Verse 326
Verse 327
Verse 328
Verse 331


XXIV.Tanhavagga

Verse 334
Verse 338
Verse 344
Verse 345
Verse 347
Verse 348
Verse 349
Verse 351
Verse 353
Verse 354
Verse 355
Verse 356


XXV.Bhikkhuvagga

Verse 360
Verse 362
Verse 363
Verse 364
Verse 365
Verse 367
Verse 368
Verse 377
Verse 378
Verse 379
Verse 381
Verse 382


XXVI.Brahmanavagga

Verse 383
Verse 384
Verse 385
Verse 386
Verse 387
Verse 388
Verse 389
Verse 391
Verse 392
Verse 393
Verse 394
Verse 395
Verse 396
Verse 397
Verse 398
Verse 399
Verse 400
Verse 401
Verse 402
Verse 403
Verse 404
Verse 405
Verse 406
Verse 407
Verse 408
Verse 409
Verse 410
Verse 411
Verse 412
Verse 413
Verse 414
Verse 415
*Verse 416
*Verse 416
Verse 417
Verse 418
Verse 419
Verse 421
Verse 422
Verse 423

*These two stories have the same verse.


53.Explain Dhpd.verse no.42 & Verse no 43 with back ground story and
give your comments?

Q 53 Explain Dhpd. Verse no 42 & Verse no. 43 with back ground story and give your comments ?

Verse 42. All Wrong Issue Out Of Evil Mind

Whatever foe may do to foe,
or haters those they hate
the ill-directed mind indeed
can do one greater harm
.

Explanation: When one bandit see another, he attacks the second
bandit. In the same way, one person sees someone he hates, he also
does harm to the hated person. But what the badly deployed mind does
to the possessor of that mind is far worse than what a bandit would
do to another bandit or what one hater will do to another hater.

Verse 43. Well-Trained Mind Excels People

What one’s mother, what one’s father,
whatever other kin may do,
the well directed mind indeed
can do greater good.

Explanation: Well directed thoughts can help a person better
than one’s father or one’s mother.



54.ExplainDhpdverseno.127and128withbackgroundstory?


Q 54 Explain Dhpd. Verse no 127 and 128 with background story ?



Verse 127. Shelter Against Death

Neither in sky nor surrounding by sea,
nor by dwelling in a mountain cave,
nowhere is found that place in earth
where one’s from evil kamma free.

Explanation: There is not a single spot on Earth an evil-doer
can take shelter in to escape the results of evil actions. No such
place is seen out there in space, or in the middle of the ocean. Neither
in an opening, a cleft or a crevice in a rocky mountain can he shelter
to escape the results of his evil action.

Verse 128. No Escape From Death

Neither in sky nor surrounding by sea,
nor by dwelling in a mountain cave,
nowhere is found that place in earth
where one’s by death not overcome.

Explanation: Not in the sky, nor in the ocean midst, not even
in a cave of a mountain rock, is there a hiding place where one could
escape death.



55.W rite down in pāliany 10 verses from citta vagga?


Q 55 Write down in Pali any 10 verses from citta vagga ?

Treasury of Truth: Chapter 3, Mind

Verse 33. The Wise Person Straightens The Mind

Mind agitated, wavering,
hard to guard and hard to check,
one of wisdom renders straight
as arrow-maker a shaft.

Explanation: In the Dhammapada there are several references
to the craftsmanship of the fletcher. The Buddha seems to have observed
the process through which a fletcher transforms an ordinary stick
into an efficient arrow-shaft. The disciplining of the mind is seen
as being a parallel process. In this stanza the Buddha says that the
wise one straightens and steadies the vacillating mind that is difficult
to guard, like a fletcher straightening an arrow-shaft.

Verse 34. The Fluttering Mind

As fish from watery home
is drawn and cast upon the land,
even so flounders this mind
while Mara’s Realm abandoning.

Explanation: When making an effort to abandon the realm of
Mara (evil), the mind begins to quiver like a fish taken out of the
water and thrown on land.

Verse 35. Restrained Mind Leads To Happiness

The mind is very hard to check
and swift, it falls on what it wants.
The training of the mind is good,
a mind so tamed brings happiness.

Explanation: The mind is exceedingly subtle and is difficult
to be seen. It attaches on whatever target it wishes. The wise guard
the mind. The guarded mind brings bliss.

Verse 36. Protected Mind Leads To Happiness

The mind is very hard to see
and find, it falls on what it wants.
One who’s wise should guard the mind,
a guarded mind brings happiness.

Explanation: The mind moves about so fast it is difficult
to get hold of it fully. It is swift. It has a way of focusing upon
whatever it likes. It is good and of immense advantage to tame the
mind. The tame mind brings bliss.

Verse 37. Death’s Snare Can Be Broken By Tamed Mind

Drifting far, straying all alone,
formless, recumbent in a cave.
They will be free from Mara’s bonds
who restrain this mind.

Explanation: The mind is capable of travelling vast distances
- up or down, north or south, east or west - in any direction. It
can travel to the past or the future. It roams about all alone. It
is without any perceptible forms. If an individual were to restrain
the mind fully, he will achieve freedom from the bonds of death.

Verse 38. Wisdom Does Not Grow If the Mind Wavers

One of unsteady mind,
who doesn’t know True Dhamma,
who is of wavering confidence
wisdom fails to win.

Explanation: If the mind of a person keeps on wavering, and
if a person does not know the doctrine, if one’s enthusiasm keeps
on fluctuating or flagging,, the wisdom of such a person does not
grow.

Verse 39. The Wide-Awake Is Unfrightened

One of unflooded mind,
a mind that is not battered,
abandoning evil, merit too,
no fear for One Awake.

Explanation: For the person who’s mind is not dampened
by passion, unaffected by ill-will and who has risen above both good
and evil, there is no fear because he is wide-awake.

Verse 40. Weapons To Defeat Death

Having known this urn-like body,
made firm this mind as fortress town,
with wisdom-weapon one fights Mara
while guarding booty, unattached.

Explanation: It is realistic to think of the body as vulnerable,
fragile, frail and easily disintegrated. In fact, one must consider
it as a clay vessel. The mind should be thought of as a city. One
has to be perpetually mindful to protect the city. Forces of evil
have to be fought with the weapons of wisdom. After the battle, once
you have achieve victory, live without being attached to the mortal
self.

Verse 41. Without The Mind, Body Is Worthless

Not long alas, and it will lie
this body, here upon the earth.
Discarded, void of consciousness,
useless as a rotten log.

Explanation: Soon, this body, without consciousness, discarded
like a decayed worthless log, will lie on the earth.

Verse 42. All Wrong Issue Out Of Evil Mind

Whatever foe may do to foe,
or haters those they hate
the ill-directed mind indeed
can do one greater harm
.

Explanation: When one bandit see another, he attacks the second
bandit. In the same way, one person sees someone he hates, he also
does harm to the hated person. But what the badly deployed mind does
to the possessor of that mind is far worse than what a bandit would
do to another bandit or what one hater will do to another hater.

Verse 43. Well-Trained Mind Excels People

What one’s mother, what one’s father,
whatever other kin may do,
the well directed mind indeed
can do greater good.

Explanation: Well directed thoughts can help a person better
than one’s father or one’s mother.




56.Whatarethefourprotectivemediationsandhowdoesonecanpracticeindialylife?
W rtie s h o rt N o te s o n e a c h A ra k k h ā b h a v a n a i.e . B u


d d h a ā n u s s a ti, m e t tā , a s u b h ā a n d


Q
56 What are the four protective meditations and how does one can
practice in daily life ? Write short Notes on each Arakkha bhavana ie.,
Buddhaanusatti, metta, ashubha and maranussati?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=63XPDqgxx3M

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=63XPDqgxx3M
Four protective meditations - Part 1-1 Recollection of the Bhikkhu Buddhadatta

BAUS Chuang Yen Monastery
Published on Aug 29, 2016
The Four Protective Meditations:A Five-Week Course
with Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi

Week 1 July 23, 2016 Part 1-1 Recollection of the Buddha


The four protective meditations are a group of meditation topics
designed to establish a firm foundation for growth in the Dhamma. The
four are: recollection of the Buddha, meditation on loving-kindness,
mindfulness of the bodily parts, and recollection of death. Over five
Saturdays in late July and August, Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi will conduct a
course of day-long sessions on these subjects.
Category
Education
THE FOUR PROTECTIVE MEDITATIONS


As anyone who has done a retreat knows, the mind is a difficult beast
to tame. During the course of a session, it is inevitable that various
difficulties will arise. These can take many forms; boredom, pain,
desire and restlessness are among the most familiar. If the yogin
doesn’t have skillful means for dealing with these states, they can lead
to such discontent as to force an early end to the session. Leaving a
retreat early because of such mind states is to be defeated by the
defilements.

Meditation is a skill, and like any other skill part
of the learning process involves mastering various techniques. Dealing
with negative mind-states requires the judicious use of specific
preactises, just as medical skill requires the use of specific medicines
for various ailments of the body. To this end, a meditator should
develop a repertoire of secondary practises to supplement the primary
exercise. One special family of such meditations are called the “Four
Protective Meditations.”

They are given this name because they
guard the mind against the arising of negativity. To continue the
medical analogy, these are preventative medicine. In this regard, the
recommendation is to do some of each exercise on the first day of a
retreat, or before beginning a period of insight work. They plant seeds
in the mind that will help later on. A brief word about each;
LOVING-KINDNESS


The sign of this meditation is an emotional state, an open-hearted
acceptance and feeling of goodwill towards all sentient beings. The
traditional formula is the wish that “all beings be well and happy.” It
can be developed in a variety of ways, but the method most suitable in
the context of protective meditation is the method of general pervasion.
This refers to the spreading of loving-kindness out into the universe
in increasing circles, beginning with love extended towards yourself,
then out towards all beings in the room, in the locality, the province,
the country etc. through to all beings on the planet earth and then out
into the greater universe.

The initial stage of extending
loving-kindness toward yourself is absolutely crucial. Many people these
days have negative self-images and find it difficult to really love
themselves, so it may take work to raise the feeling. Don’t be concerned
that this may be “selfish.” It isn’t. You cannot love anyone else in
depth unless you love yourself, and conversely, if you do manage to
arouse genuine loving-kindness toward yourself, you will be unable to
withhold it from others. It will spontaneously overflow.

Remember
from the outset that the wish is “may this being (or all beings) be
well and happy.” It has nothing to do with approval or liking. This is
important because to be effective loving-kindness must be universal. The
meditator must learn to love all beings without discrimination between
the near and far, the liked and disliked, the good and evil or any other
pair of dualities. The liberating effect comes from the boundlessness
of the meditation.
CONTEMPLATION OF THE BUDDHA

The second
protective meditation is the contemplation of the Buddha. This is both a
devotional and an inspirational practise. The meditator should make
himself familiar with the attributes of the Buddha and contemplate them.
This can be combined with a puja.

Some preliminary research to
gain knowledge of the Buddha’s attributes is essential. The traditional
method is to work through the list given in the “Mirror of the Dhamma,”
that is the chant beginning itipi so… For a full description of the
attributes, see my article on doing Buddhanusati But here is a
bare-bones translation;

Araham - Perfected One, Arahant
Sammasambuddho - Perfectly Enlightened by His Own Effort
Vijjacaranasampanno - Perfect in Knowledge and Conduct
Sugato - The Fortunate One
Lokavidu - Knower of the Worlds
Anuttaro Purisadammasarathi - Unsurpassed Trainer of the Untrained
Sattha Devamanussanam - The Teacher of Gods and Humans
Buddho - Awake
Bhagava - The Blessed One


The meditator goes through the list, using creative imagination to
visualize what a Buddha would be like. This should be combined with
visualization of the Buddha. The idea is to imagine what it would mean
for someone to be completely purified and awake. The practise is best
done in front of a shrine, using a Buddha image as a point of reference.
MEDITATION ON FOULNESS


The third contemplation is one that is not as widely practised as it
ought to be. This is the meditation on the body, focussing on the
“unlovely” aspect. The traditional method is to visualize the corruption
of a dead body. In the East, real corpses are still occassionally used
for this purpose. The monk will sit by the corpse in the open air,
preferably at night. If a corpse in its natural state has been seen and
contemplated, it can be stored in the mind as a memory image for later
use.

Photographs can also be used, and often are. You do however,
lose the effect of the smell. It is also possible to simply use one’s
imagination. One method is to visualize a corpse decaying through
stages. The suttas list the following;

a corpse cast away in a charnel ground — one day, two days, three days dead — bloated, livid, and festering
a corpse picked at by crows, vultures, and hawks, by dogs, hyenas, and various other creatures
a skeleton smeared with flesh and blood, connected with tendons
a fleshless skeleton smeared with blood, connected with tendons
a skeleton without flesh or blood, connected with tendons
bones detached from their tendons, scattered in all directions;
here a hand bone, there a foot bone, here a shin bone, there a thigh
bone, here a hip bone, there a back bone, here a rib, there a chest
bone, here a shoulder bone, there a neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a
tooth, here a skull
the bones whitened, somewhat like the color of shells
the bones piled up, more than a year old
the bones decomposed into a powder


One very effective variation is to start with the image of your own
body freshly dead and to go through these stages, continuing the
decomposition until –poof– nothing at all is left. This is to go from a
shocking, almost violent image through increasing peacefulness to
emptiness.
THE MEDITATION ON DEATH

This is not the same as
the above. This is a contemplation on impermanence. The meditator is
trying to face the stark reality that she will die. One method is to
think of beings known to one who have already died and to raise the
thought; “just as this one died and is no more, so I too will not escape
that fate.” If this method is used, the yogin should be very careful
not to dwell on the death of loved ones which will lead to sorrow or
regret. Instead, neutral beings should be used. Think of people you once
knew who are now gone and realize this is a universal fate.

The Visuddhimagga also gives a more detailed method with a list of eight separate aspects to contemplate.


These meditations protect the mind of the meditator in a very profound
way. If these four contemplations, two joyful and two sobering, are
taken into the depth then many painful negativities can be avoided. The
meditation on loving-kindness opens the mind to a joyous acceptance and
prevents the arising of the painful states based on ill-will, such as
anger, self-criticism etc. The meditation on the qualities of the Buddha
fills the mind with light and bliss and overcomes a host of
negativities. The meditation on foulness allows a perception of the seed
of corruption inherent in all flesh, and thereby helps to prevent
discontent arising through sensual desire. Finally, the meditation on
death should arouse a sense of urgency and prevent the arising of sloth
and boredom.

These benefits, however, as important as they are,
are not the whole of the story. The paragraph above deals with the
protections strictly from a psychological viewpoint. There is another
side to the protections. It is taught that they will establish
harmonious relations with the unseen beings, protecting one from ghosts
and other malevolent entities, at the same time attracting the help and
protection of the devas. To this end, the first two are especially
powerful and in particular the meditator should not neglect to extend
loving-kindness to the devas of heaven and earth. This is the literally
protective aspect of these meditations.


youtube.com
The Four Protective Meditations:A Five-Week Course with Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi Week 1 July 23, 2016 Part…


Cattāro Jhānā

— The four jhānas —
[cattāra jhāna]

The practice of the four jhānas plays he key role in the
teaching of the Buddha for practicioners. (He frequently urges the
bhikkhus to pratice meditation in order to gain the four jhānas at will.
For example, at the end of a discourse, he sometimes gives this
exhortation (15 occurences): Etāni, bhikkhu, rukkhamūlāni, etāni
suññāgārāni.{1} Jhāyatha, bhikkhu, mā pamādattha.{2})



Note: info·bubbles on all words

First Jhāna | Second Jhāna | Third Jhāna | Fourth Jhāna


≈170 occurences

Bhikkhu vivicc·eva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi sa·vitakkaṃ sa·vicāraṃ viveka·jaṃ pīti·sukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.

A bhikkhu, detached from{1} sensuality, detached from unwholesome states, having entered in the first jhāna, remains therein, with thoughts, with thought processes, exaltation and well-being engendered by detachment.


Bhikkhu vivicc·eva kāmehi A bhikkhu, detached from{1} sensuality,

vivicca akusalehi dhammehi detached from unwholesome states,

{having entered in the first jhāna, remains therein,}

sa·vitakkaṃ sa·vicāraṃ with thoughts, with thought processes,

viveka·jaṃ pīti·sukhaṃ exaltation and well-being engendered by detachment.

{paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati}




——————oooOooo——————

Bodhi leaf



First Jhāna | Second Jhāna | Third Jhāna | Fourth Jhāna


≈170 occurences

Vitakka·vicārānaṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodi·bhāvaṃ a·vitakkaṃ a·vicāraṃ samādhi·jaṃ pīti·sukhaṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.

With the stilling of thoughts and thought processes, having entered in the second jhāna, he remains therein with inner tanquilization,{1} unification of the mind,{2} without thoughts, without thought processes, with exaltation and well-being engendered by concentration.


Vitakka·vicārānaṃ vūpasamā With the stilling of thoughts and thought processes,

{having entered in the second jhāna, he remains therein}

ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodi·bhāvaṃ with inner tanquilization,{1} unification of the mind,{2}

a·vitakkaṃ a·vicāraṃ without thoughts, without thought processes,

samādhi·jaṃ pīti·sukhaṃ with exaltation and well-being engendered by concentration.

{dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.}




——————oooOooo——————

Bodhi leaf



First Jhāna | Second Jhāna | Third Jhāna | Fourth Jhāna


≈155 occurences

Pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati sato ca sampajāno, sukhañ·ca kāyena paṭisaṃvedeti yaṃ taṃ ariyā ācikkhanti:upekkhako satimā sukha·vihārīti tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.

And with the fading away{1} of exaltation, he remains equanimous, mindful and endowed with thorough understanding, and he feels in the body the well-being that the noble ones describe:one who is equanimous and mindful abides in well-being’, having entered in the third jhāna, he remains therein.{2}


Pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati And with the fading away{1} of exaltation, he remains equanimous,

sato ca sampajāno, mindful and endowed with thorough understanding,

sukhañ·ca kāyena paṭisaṃvedeti and he feels in the body the well-being

yaṃ taṃ ariyā ācikkhanti: that the noble ones describe:

upekkhako satimā sukha·vihārīti one who is equanimous and mindful abides in well-being’,

tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. having entered in the third jhāna, he remains therein.{2}



——————oooOooo——————

Bodhi leaf



First Jhāna | Second Jhāna | Third Jhāna | Fourth Jhāna


≈150 occurences

Sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubb·eva somanassa·domanassānaṃ atthaṅgamā a·dukkham·a·sukhaṃ upekkhā·sati·pārisuddhiṃ catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.

Abandoning pleasantness and abandoning unpleasantness, gladness and affliction having previously disappeared, having entered in the fourth jhāna, which is without unpleasantness nor pleasantness and is purified by mindfulness due to equanimity, he remains therein.


Sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā Abandoning pleasantness and abandoning unpleasantness,

pubb·eva somanassa·domanassānaṃ atthaṅgamā gladness and affliction having previously disappeared,

{having entered in the fourth jhāna,}

a·dukkham·a·sukhaṃ which is without unpleasantness nor pleasantness

upekkhā·sati·pārisuddhiṃ and is purified by mindfulness due to equanimity,

{catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja} viharati. he remains therein.


——————oooOooo——————

Bodhi leaf


Invitation to Bhikkhus, Bhikkunis, Upakakas, Upasikas of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies




Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS)
Just
0.1% intolerant, violent, militant, number one terrorists of the world,
ever shooting, mob lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded foreigners from
Bene Israel chitpavan brahmins of RSS (Rowdy Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks)
remotely controlling the Murderer of democratic institutions &
Master of diluting institutions (Modi) of BJP (Brashtachar Jhoothe
Psychopaths) have chitpavan brahminised EVMs, Yoga,Tripple Taqlaq,
hindutva Rama, Aiyodia, CJI, CEC, etc., after gobbling the Master Key by
tampering the fraud EVMs. 99.9% All Awakened Aboriginal Societies never
recognised, nor recognise nor will recognise these chitpavan brahmins
full of hatred, anger, jealousy, delusion, stupidity which are
defilement of the mind requiring mental treatment at mental asylums in
Bene Israel along with their stooges, slaves, chamchas, chelas,
bootlickers and own mother’s flesh eaters belonging to Brashtachar
Jhoothe Psychopaths who are buffoons, clowns, comedy pieces and salesmen
and agents of chitpavan brahmins.

Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) chitpavan brahminised EVMs,
hindutva and yoga - ஜனநாயக நிறுவனங்களின் கொலைகாரன் (மோடி) ஈ.வி.எம்,
இந்துத்துவா மற்றும் யோகாவை சித்பவன் பிராமணப்படுத்தினார்

மோசடி ஈ.வி.எம்-களால் தேர்ந்தெடுக்கப்பட்ட அரசாங்கத்தை கலைக்கவும்- காகித
வாக்குகளுடன் தேர்ந்தெடுக்கவும், பின்னர்

with their gracious presence and blessings

for our

OPENING CEREMONY

of

TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI



TBSKPB


White Home for TIPITAKA

 to DO GOOD BE MINDFUL which is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness


Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta —
Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ] MEDITATION PRACTICE in
BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare, happiness and peace on the path of
Eternal Bliss as Final Goal


Day and Date will be announced



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Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās
“No entanto, muitas palavras sagradas que você lê, no entanto, muitos que você fala, que bem eles vão fazer você Se você não


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Buddhasasana

“In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone,
battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a
message to
mankind universal in character.”

http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally there  are 84,000 Dhamma Doors - 84,000 ways to get
Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of
practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue
those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1).

There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate
addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I
received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the
priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are
divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into
361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses
including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are
divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and
29,368,000 separate letters.


Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS)


in 01) Classical Magahi Magadhi,
02) Classical Chandaso language,
03)Magadhi Prakrit,
04) Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),
05) Classical Pali,
06) Classical Devanagari,Classical Hindi-Devanagari- शास्त्रीय हिंदी,

07) Classical Cyrillic
08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans

09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,
10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,
11) Classical Arabic-اللغة العربية الفصحى
12) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,
13) Classical Azerbaijani- Klassik Azərbaycan,
14) Classical Basque- Euskal klasikoa,
15) Classical Belarusian-Класічная беларуская,
16) Classical Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,
17) Classical  Bosnian-Klasični bosanski,
18) Classical Bulgaria- Класически българск,
19) Classical  Catalan-Català clàssic
20) Classical Cebuano-Klase sa Sugbo,

21) Classical Chichewa-Chikale cha Chichewa,

22) Classical Chinese (Simplified)-古典中文(简体),

23) Classical Chinese (Traditional)-古典中文(繁體),

24) Classical Corsican-Corsa Corsicana,

25) Classical  Croatian-Klasična hrvatska,

26) Classical  Czech-Klasická čeština,
27) Classical  Danish-Klassisk dansk,Klassisk dansk,

28) Classical  Dutch- Klassiek Nederlands,
29) Classical English,Roman
30) Classical Esperanto-Klasika Esperanto,

31) Classical Estonian- klassikaline eesti keel,

32) Classical Filipino,
33) Classical Finnish- Klassinen suomalainen,

34) Classical French- Français classique,

35) Classical Frisian- Klassike Frysk,

36) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,
37) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,

38) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,
39) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,
40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
41) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl,

42) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,
43) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,

44) Classical Hebrew- עברית קלאסית
45) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,

46) Classical Hungarian-Klasszikus magyar,

47) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,
48) Classical Igbo,

49) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,

50) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,
51) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,
52) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,
53) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,
54) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,
55) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,

56) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,
57) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,

58) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),

59) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,
60) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,
61) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,

62) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latviešu valoda,

63) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių kalba,

64) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch,

65) Classical Macedonian-Класичен македонски,
66) Classical Malagasy,
67) Classical Malay-Melayu Klasik,

68) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,

69) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Malti,
70) Classical Maori-Maori Maori,
71) Classical Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी,

72) Classical Mongolian-Сонгодог Монгол,

73) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မြန်မာ (ဗမာ),

74) Classical Nepali-शास्त्रीय म्यांमार (बर्मा),
75) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,

76) Classical Pashto- ټولګی پښتو

77) Classical Persian-کلاسیک فارسی
78) Classical Polish-Język klasyczny polski,

79) Classical Portuguese-Português Clássico,
80) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,
81) Classical Romanian-Clasic românesc,
82) Classical Russian-Классический русский,
83) Classical Samoan-Samoan Samoa,
84) Classical Scots Gaelic-Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,
85) Classical Serbian-Класични српски,
86) Classical Sesotho-Seserbia ea boholo-holo,
87) Classical Shona-Shona Shona,
88) Classical Sindhi,
89) Classical Sinhala-සම්භාව්ය සිංහල,

90) Classical Slovak-Klasický slovenský,
91) Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,
92) Classical Somali-Soomaali qowmiyadeed,
93) Classical Spanish-Español clásico,
94) Classical Sundanese-Sunda Klasik,
95) Classical Swahili,
96) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,
97) Classical Tajik-тоҷикӣ классикӣ,

98) Classical Tamil-பாரம்பரிய இசைத்தமிழ் செம்மொழி,
99) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,
100) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,
101) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,
102) Classical Ukrainian-Класичний український,
103) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو
104) Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’zbek,
105) Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việt cổ điển,

106) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,
107) Classical Xhosa-IsiXhosa zesiXhosa,
108) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש
109) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,
110) Classical Zulu-I-Classical Zulu






Dove-02-june.gif (38556 bytes)


http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get
Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of
practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue
those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There
are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate
addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I
received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the
priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are
divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into
361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses
including both those of
Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras,
containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.


ESSENCE OF TIPITAKA
http://www.buddha-vacana.org/index.html

Positive Buddha Vacana — The words of the Buddha —
Interested in All Suttas  of Tipitaka as Episodes in visual format including 7D laser Hologram 360 degree Circarama presentation

from
Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice
University
in
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Please Visit: http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

LESSONS

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPydLZ0cavc
for
 Maha-parinibbana Sutta — Last Days of the Buddha

The Great Discourse on the Total Unbinding

This
wide-ranging sutta, the longest one in the Pali canon, describes the
events leading up to, during, and immediately following the death and
final release (parinibbana) of the Buddha. This colorful narrative
contains a wealth of Dhamma teachings, including the Buddha’s final
instructions that defined how Buddhism would be lived and practiced long
after the Buddha’s death — even to this day. But this sutta also
depicts, in simple language, the poignant human drama that unfolds among
the Buddha’s many devoted followers around the time of the death of
their beloved teacher.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bDkKT54WbJ4
for
Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ (Pali) - 2 Kāyānupassanā ānāpānapabbaṃ

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/digha.html
Use
http://www.translate.google.com/

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