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 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā
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Buddha Buddhism TIPITAKA
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 9:29 pm
Buddha Buddhism TIPITAKA


When
a just born baby is kept isolated without anyone communicating with the
baby, after some days the baby will speak a natural language as other
living beings do. That human natural (Prakrit) is Magadhi. The original language of the suttas seems to have been Magadhi, which
Shakyamuni used in preaching. Of all the Indic language versions of suttas
used as Buddhist texts today, those written in Pali are the most numerous
and are widely used in the Southern Buddhist countries Sri Lanka, Burma,
and Thailand. According to Southern Buddhist tradition, Pali is regarded
as the language that Shakyamuni spoke, and therefore is called Magadhi or
the fundamental Natural (Prakrit) language. However, recent studies show that although a little
of the Magadhi influence is still evident in the Pali language, all the other 7,111 languages are the off shoot
of Magadhi. Therefore all languages are classical in nature as per a
research done on the origin of human language.

“The two important language families of India are Indic and Dravidian.
All Buddhist suttas were originally compiled in Indic languages, which developed
in various parts of India over a period of three or four thousand years.
In present day India more than ten major languages- including Hindi, Urdu,
Bengali, Bihari, Marathi, and Punjabi- belong to this family, and together
they number several hundred dialects. Sanskrit and fourteen modern languages
are now officially sanctioned by the Indian constitution, and in a large
house it is possible for several of the recognized languages to be in use,
since servants from different areas and family members would all speak in
their own languages or dialects.

“This rich linguistic heritage was noted in earlier times, when, for
example, in plays one could identify a character’s occupation and social
status through the prescribed language he or she spoke. Kings, ministers,
and Brahmans spoke Sanskrit, the most highly esteemed and inflected language;
queens, princesses, nuns and courtesans spoke a graceful language called
Shauraseni; the general populace, such as merchants and artisans, spoke Magadhi;
and the lower classes spoke Paishachi. Even lyrics had their own pleasant
to the ear language, Maharashtri. 

“The five languages just mentioned originated in the dialects of different
areas, but the languages in Shakyamuni’s time belonged to a period earlier
than that of these five languages. However, even in Shakyamuni’s time, regional
languages already differed, and each language had its own unique characteristics,
as we can see from the edicts of Ashoka, issued about two centuries after
the death of Shakyamuni. Ashoka had his edicts carved on large rocks and
stone pillars, and one particular edict was written in a different language
in each of the eight areas where it has been found. The languages of the
edicts in India, which can be divided into four or five regional groups,
correspond to the five languages used in drama of later periods. In time
they became regional languages of the Apabhramsha family, and still later
they developed into the modern Indic languages. 

“The language Shakyamuni spoke was the one in general use around the
middle reaches of the Ganges, where he was active. Since the area was later
called Magadha, its language was called Magadi (or Old Magadhi), and because
many of Emperor Ashoka’s edicts have been found in this area, we have an
idea of what the Magadhi Shakyamuni spoke was like. 

“In the time of Shakyamuni, the Vedas, the holy scriptures of Brahmanism,
were transmitted in Vedic Sanskrit, which was the forerunner of classical
Sanskrit. Both Vedic Sanskrit and classical Sanskrit are elegant, highly
inflected, complex languages. The Vedic scriptures were transmitted only
to the educated upper classes, never to the lower classes. Shakyamuni, who
wanted his teachings to reach all classes of society equally, thought that
the lower classes would be the focus of his ministry and therefore preached
his teaching in Magadhi, the everyday language of the common people, so that
even the lower classes could understand him.” 



An excerpt from “Bones,
Stones, and Buddhist Monks: Collected Papers on the Archaeology, Epigraphy,
and Texts of Monastic Buddhism in India” by Gregory Schopen


“We know, and have known for some time, that the Pali canon as we have
it- and it is generally conceded to be our oldest source- cannot be taken
back further than the last quarter of the first century BCE, the date of
the Alu-vihara redaction, the earliest redaction that we can have some knowledge
of, and that-for a critical history- it can serve, at the very most only
as a source for the Buddhism of this period. But we also know that even this
is problematic since as Malalasekera has pointed out ‘…how far the Tipitaka
and its commentary reduced to writing at Alu-vihara resembled them as they
have come down to us now, no one can say.’ In fact, it is not until the time
of the commentaries of Buddhaghosa, Dhammapala, and others- that is to say
the fifth to sixth centuries C.E.- that we can know anything definite about
the actual contents of this canon. 


“We also know that there is no evidence to indicate that a canon existed
prior to the Alu-vihara redaction. Although Ashoka in his Dhabra Edict specifically
enjoined both monks and laymen to recite certain texts, which he named, he
nowhere in his records gives any indication that he knew of a canon, or the
classification of texts into nikayas.” 


I personally have great faith in the memory-power of the monks who memorized
the Buddhist Sutras from the time of the Buddha and transmitted them verbally
from generation to generation for about 400 years before they were actually
written down. And in terms of dating the earliest recorded Sutras, it is
my understanding that parts of the Sutta Nipata in Pali and parts of the
Mahavastu in Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit (from the Shravastivadin tradition)
are the oldest known recorded Sutras- both dating back to about 350 years
after the Buddha. Again, I didn’t mean to be too long-winded in this explanation,
but I thought people might be interested in knowing a little more, if they
didn’t know already, about these questions of language and the Buddhist Sutras. 


A little footnote: according to our tradition and the historical records
of Ancient China the earliest Sutra translated from the Indic languages into
Chinese was the Sutra in 42 Sections in 69 C.E. 




https://whyfiles.org/058language/baby_talk.html




How do infants learn language?

Consider the newborn. Thrown abruptly into a blaze of bright lights and
babble of novel noises, it faces the immediate job of understanding and
controlling its world. what are they saying?

Understanding requires the newborn to interpret the strange noises that
apparently occur when those giants open their mouths. And controlling
means breaking that mysterious sound code that those giants use between
themselves and with you.

Crying and fussing may be enough communication for a while, but soon the
infant begins babbling by making a sound and rapidly opening and
closing the mouth. By 11 to 12 months, the baby is making single words
and then joining them into short phrases. By the age of 3 or so, many
babies speak in complete sentences, and can express their needs with
words (at least after shrieking fails).

How does the newborn learn language? Natural language, after all, is so
sophisticated, yet almost all babies learn it faster and more thoroughly
than the baddest computer around. Full of nuances, loaded with meaning
and implication, language is a subtle but comprehensive mode of
communicating.

To most people, it’s a hallmark of being human.


That’s quite a buildup.
So how do infants learn, already?


Recent research, reported at the American Association for the
Advancement of Science meeting in Philadelphia, is putting speculation
about how language originates on an experimental basis. Psychologist
Richard Aslin of the University of Rochester studies the first step: how
infants learn to distinguish individual words. As anyone who’s heard a
foreign language knows, the spaces between words are only obvious once
you know the language. We do not “speak—-like—-this,” but rather
with a fluid stream of words.

wherearethesilencesbetweenwords

  A waveform of a sentence. The silences are not where you would expect them. To hear this sentence click here. Source: Jenny Saffran, University of Wisconsin-Madison Psychology department.


It seems to be a chicken-and-egg problem. You can’t learn the language
until you know the words. But you can’t distinguish the words until you
know the language.


Working with Jenny Saffran at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and
Elissa Newport at the University of Rochester, Aslin has found one way
babies solve this dilemma: by using the pattern of sounds within words
to distinguish the ends of words. Babies “pay attention to sounds that
cohere within words, compared to the less predictive sounds that change
as they span a word boundary,” Aslin says. And when that pattern breaks,
the baby understands that a new word is about to start.


Faced with this mess of abstraction, The Why Files yearned for an
example, and Aslin kindly supplied one — the phrase “pretty baby.”
After the first syllable of pretty (”prih”) the next syllable is more
likely to be something like “tee” than “gond” or “bay.” Hearing the
expected “tee” sound meant that the word was probably not finished. But
when “baby” begins, the unfamiliar pattern (”tee-bay”) alerted the
infant that a second word had begun.


Howzee know?

Like us, you were wondering how he knew this. Capitalizing on the
fact that infants often listen longer to novel sounds rather than boring
ones, Aslin measured how long they listened to known and unknown
sounds. First he exposed 7- to 8-month-old infants to a nonsense language
for two minutes. This musical masterpiece was actually a string of
nonsense syllables with no pauses indicating word endings. The selection
mixed a series of artificial “words” like “pa bee koo,” mixed up in a mass of other syllables.


After hearing the two-minute sequence, the infant would then hear a
series of words. Half were “words” taken from the selection, and half
were a mishmash of syllables in sequences not heard previously.


From the fact that the infants listening more briefly to the “words,”
Aslin concluded that the infants could pick out the known words. And
since the only way they could have identified the words from the
original stream of syllables was by the order of sounds, Aslin asserts
that they were identifying words by recognizing those patterns.


A baby step toward language

Distinguishing words is a necessary step to interpreting them, but it’s
not sufficient. As anybody who’s learned a second language knows, words
can be ambiguous. What, for example, does the sound “bare” mean? Only
the context can tell whether it stands for something hairy, like a “bear
cub,” or to something bright, like a “bare light bulb.”


Before a baby can make these interpretations, he or she must learn to
segment words into clauses, groups of words that go together to make up a
complete thought within a sentence. “To work out the rules of language,
you have to keep stuff together in clauses,” says psychologist Peter
Jucszyk of Johns Hopkins University.


Clauses seem to play a crucial role from the start. Jucszyk says studies
show that 2-month-olds remember words better when they’re presented in a
clause rather than as individual items in a list.


Jucszyk thinks babies distinguish clauses by learning the melody of a
language — the rhythm of sounds and pauses, the varying pitch in the
voice, the different pattern of loudness and softness. (Melody, called
“prosody” in the linguistic trade, also helps infants distinguish one
language from another. At six months, babies will listen just as long
to a foreign language as to their own, but at nine months, they prefer
their native tongue.)


So how do they actually learn to talk?


http://www.greatwesternvehicle.org/pali/Buddhalanguage.htm

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The original language of the Buddha
and his teachings (suttas/sutras)

Extracted from the
book “Buddhist Sutras: Origin Development” by Kogen Mizuno.

“The original language of the sutras seems to have been Magadhi, which
Shakyamuni used in preaching. Of all the Indic language versions of sutras
used as Buddhist texts today, those written in Pali are the most numerous
and are widely used in the Southern Buddhist countries Sri Lanka, Burma,
and Thailand. According to Southern Buddhist tradition, Pali is regarded
as the language that Shakyamuni spoke, and therefore is called Magadhi or
the fundamental language. However, recent studies show that although a little
of the Magadhi influence is still evident in the Pali language, the basic
characteristics of the two languages are different.

“The two important language families of India are Indic and Dravidian.
All Buddhist sutras were originally compiled in Indic languages, which developed
in various parts of India over a period of three or four thousand years.
In present day India more than ten major languages- including Hindi, Urdu,
Bengali, Bihari, Marathi, and Punjabi- belong to this family, and together
they number several hundred dialects. Sanskrit and fourteen modern languages
are now officially sanctioned by the Indian constitution, and in a large
house it is possible for several of the recognized languages to be in use,
since servants from different areas and family members would all speak in
their own languages or dialects.

“This rich linguistic heritage was noted in earlier times, when, for
example, in plays one could identify a character’s occupation and social
status through the prescribed language he or she spoke. Kings, ministers,
and Brahmans spoke Sanskrit, the most highly esteemed and inflected language;
queens, princesses, nuns and courtesans spoke a graceful language called
Shauraseni; the general populace, such as merchants and artisans, spoke Magadhi;
and the lower classes spoke Paishachi. Even lyrics had their own pleasant
to the ear language, Maharashtri. 

“The five languages just mentioned originated in the dialects of different
areas, but the languages in Shakyamuni’s time belonged to a period earlier
than that of these five languages. However, even in Shakyamuni’s time, regional
languages already differed, and each language had its own unique characteristics,
as we can see from the edicts of Ashoka, issued about two centuries after
the death of Shakyamuni. Ashoka had his edicts carved on large rocks and
stone pillars, and one particular edict was written in a different language
in each of the eight areas where it has been found. The languages of the
edicts in India, which can be divided into four or five regional groups,
correspond to the five languages used in drama of later periods. In time
they became regional languages of the Apabhramsha family, and still later
they developed into the modern Indic languages. 

“The language Shakyamuni spoke was the one in general use around the
middle reaches of the Ganges, where he was active. Since the area was later
called Magadha, its language was called Magadi (or Old Magadhi), and because
many of Emperor Ashoka’s edicts have been found in this area, we have an
idea of what the Magadhi Shakyamuni spoke was like. 

“In the time of Shakyamuni, the Vedas, the holy scriptures of Brahmanism,
were transmitted in Vedic Sanskrit, which was the forerunner of classical
Sanskrit. Both Vedic Sanskrit and classical Sanskrit are elegant, highly
inflected, complex languages. The Vedic scriptures were transmitted only
to the educated upper classes, never to the lower classes. Shakyamuni, who
wanted his teachings to reach all classes of society equally, thought that
the lower classes would be the focus of his ministry and therefore preached
his teaching in Magadhi, the everyday language of the common people, so that
even the lower classes could understand him.” 



An excerpt from “Bones,
Stones, and Buddhist Monks: Collected Papers on the Archaeology, Epigraphy,
and Texts of Monastic Buddhism in India” by Gregory Schopen

“We know, and have known for some time, that the Pali canon as we have
it- and it is generally conceded to be our oldest source- cannot be taken
back further than the last quarter of the first century BCE, the date of
the Alu-vihara redaction, the earliest redaction that we can have some knowledge
of, and that-for a critical history- it can serve, at the very most only
as a source for the Buddhism of this period. But we also know that even this
is problematic since as Malalasekera has pointed out ‘…how far the Tipitaka
and its commentary reduced to writing at Alu-vihara resembled them as they
have come down to us now, no one can say.’ In fact, it is not until the time
of the commentaries of Buddhaghosa, Dhammapala, and others- that is to say
the fifth to sixth centuries C.E.- that we can know anything definite about
the actual contents of this canon. 

“We also know that there is no evidence to indicate that a canon existed
prior to the Alu-vihara redaction. Although Ashoka in his Dhabra Edict specifically
enjoined both monks and laymen to recite certain texts, which he named, he
nowhere in his records gives any indication that he knew of a canon, or the
classification of texts into nikayas.” 

I personally have great faith in the memory-power of the monks who memorized
the Buddhist Sutras from the time of the Buddha and transmitted them verbally
from generation to generation for about 400 years before they were actually
written down. And in terms of dating the earliest recorded Sutras, it is
my understanding that parts of the Sutta Nipata in Pali and parts of the
Mahavastu in Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit (from the Shravastivadin tradition)
are the oldest known recorded Sutras- both dating back to about 350 years
after the Buddha. Again, I didn’t mean to be too long-winded in this explanation,
but I thought people might be interested in knowing a little more, if they
didn’t know already, about these questions of language and the Buddhist Sutras. 

A little footnote: according to our tradition and the historical records
of Ancient China the earliest Sutra translated from the Indic languages into
Chinese was the Sutra in 42 Sections in 69 C.E. 

Sincerely, in

Dharma, Heng Shun



History of the Pali Canon

from the Pali Text Society’s web
page

Paali is the name given to the language of the texts of Theravaada Buddhism,
although the commentarial tradition of the Theravaadins states that the language
of the canon is Maagadhii, the language spoken by Gotama Buddha. The term
Paali originally referred to a canonical text or passage rather than to a
language and its current use is based on a misunderstanding which occurred
several centuries ago. The language of the Theravaadin canon is a version
of a dialect of Middle Indo-AAryan, not Maagadhii, created by the homogenisation
of the dialects in which the teachings of the Buddha were orally recorded
and transmitted. This became necessary as Buddhism was transmitted far beyond
the area of its origin and as the Buddhist monastic order codified his teachings.

The tradition recorded in the ancient Sinhalese chronicles states that the
Theravaadin canon was written down in the first century B.C.E. The language
of the canon continued to be influenced by commentators and grammarians and
by the native languages of the countries in which Theravaada Buddhism became
established over many centuries. The oral transmission of the Paali canon
continued for several centuries after the death of the Buddha, even after
the texts were first preserved in writing. No single script was ever developed
for the language of the canon; scribes used the scripts of their native languages
to transcribe the texts. Although monasteries in South India are known to
have been important centres of Buddhist learning in the early part of this
millennium, no manuscripts from anywhere in India except Nepal have survived.
Almost all the manuscripts available to scholars since the PTS began can
be dated to the 18th or 19th centuries C.E. and the textual traditions of
the different Buddhist countries represented by these manuscripts show much
evidence of interweaving. The pattern of recitation and validation of texts
by councils of monks has continued into the 20th century.

The main division of the Paali canon as it exists today is threefold, although
the Paali commentarial tradition refers to several different ways of classification.
The three divisions are known as pi.takas and the canon itself as the Tipi.taka;
the significance of the term pi.taka, literally “basket”, is not
clear. The text of the canon is divided, according to this system, into Vinaya
(monastic rules), Suttas (discourses) and Abhidhamma (analysis of the teaching).
The PTS edition of the Tipi.taka contains fifty-six books (including indexes),
and it cannot therefore be considered to be a homogenous entity, comparable
to the Christian Bible or Muslim Koran. Although Buddhists refer to the Tipi.taka
as Buddha- vacana, “the word of the Buddha”, there are texts within
the canon either attributed to specific monks or related to an event post-dating
the time of the Buddha or that can be shown to have been composed after that
time. The first four nikaayas (collections) of the Sutta-pi.taka contain
sermons in which the basic doctrines of the Buddha’s teaching are expounded
either briefly or in detail.

The early activities of the Society centred around making the books of the
Tipi.taka available to scholars. As access to printed editions and manuscripts
has improved, scholars have begun to produce truly critical editions and
re-establish lost readings. While there is much work still needed on the
canon, its commentaries and subcommentaries, the Society is also beginning
to encourage work on a wider range of Paali texts, including those composed
in Southeast Asia.



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Buddhist, Buddhism and Tipitaka

https://banavantey.blogspot.com/2010/05/idea-of-god-or-creator-in-buddhism.html?m=1

The idea of God or Creator in Buddhism

In this modern world we see that
almost all the people believe in God, the one who created this earth and
the universe. He is almighty, the creator of everything, omnipotent,
omnipresent and so and so. I was wondering what Lord Buddha would have
said about this idea.
Recently when I was going
through the Brahma Net Discourse of Tipitaka (the holy book of
Buddhists), I found that it had already been told there about 2600 years
ago! In that Discourse the

1 Buddha said,

“There are, monks, other
matters, profound, hard to see, hard to understand, peaceful, excellent,
beyond mere thought, subtle, to be experienced by the wise, which the
Tathágata, (the Buddha addresses Himself as Tathagata), having realized
them by his own super-knowledge, proclaims, and about which those who
would truthfully praise the Tathágata would rightly speak. And what are
these matters?”

“There comes a time, monks, sooner or later after a long period, when
this world contracts. At a time of contraction, beings are mostly reborn
in the Abhassara Brahma world. And there they dwell, mind-made, feeding
on delight, self-luminous, moving through the air, glorious - and they
stay like that for a very long time.”

“But the time comes, sooner or later after a long period, when this
world begins to expand. In this expanding world an empty palace of
Brahma appears. And then one being, from exhaustion of his life-span or
of his merits, falls from the Abhassara world and arises in the empty
Brahma-palace. And there he dwells, mind-made, feeding on delight,
self-luminous, moving through the air, glorious - and he stays like that
for a very long time.”

“Then in this being who has been alone for so long there arises unrest,
discontent and worry, and he thinks: ‘Oh, if only some other beings
would come here!’ And other beings, from exhaustion of their life-span
or of their merits, fall from the Abhassara world and arise in the
Brahma palace as companions for this being. And there they dwell,
mind-made, … and they stay like that for a very long time.”

“And then, monks, that being who first arose there thinks: “I am Brahma,
the Great Brahma, the Conqueror, the Unconquered, the All-Seeing, the
All-Powerful, the Lord, the Maker and Creator, Ruler, Appointer and
Orderer, Father of All That Have Been and Shall Be. These beings were
created by me. How so? Because I first had this thought: ‘Oh, if only
some other beings would come here!’ That was my wish, and then these
beings came into this existence!” But those beings who arose
subsequently think: “This, friends, is Brahma, Great Brahma, the
Conqueror, the Unconquered, the All-Seeing, the All-Powerful, the Lord,
the Maker and Creator, Ruler, Appointer and Orderer, Father of All That
Have Been and Shall Be. How so? We have seen that he was here first, and
that we arose after him.”

“And this being that arose first is longer-lived, more beautiful and
more powerful than they are. And it may happen that some being falls
from that realm and arises in this world. Having arisen in this world,
he goes forth from the household life into homelessness. Having gone
forth, he by means of effort, exertion, application, earnestness and
right attention attains to such a degree of mental concentration that he
thereby recalls his last existence, but recalls none before that. And
he thinks: ‘That Brahma, … he made us, and he is permanent, stable,
eternal, not subject to change, the same for ever and ever. But we who
were created by that Brahma, we are impermanent, unstable, short-lived,
fated to fall away, and we have come to this world.’ This is the first
case where-by some ascetics and Brahmins are partly Eternalists and
partly Non-Eternalists.”

This is how Jesus and Muhammed
found their Revelation through meditation and thereby recalled their
last existence and said that That God or Allah,…. He made us, He is
permanent, omnipotent and so on. According to Buddhism, this is one of
the 62 wrong views and it serves nothing in the path of deliverance and
freedom.
You can read the discourse here:     http://buddhism.sansayan.com/tipitaka/sp/dn/dns1.php


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yamaka

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Learning Buddha’s Word By Own Dialects Or Magadhi?


Post

by yamaka » Fri Dec 02, 2011 1:38 am

Dear All,

In Vinaya Pitaka>Cula Vagga>Khuddaka Vatthu Khandaka>285(CSCD)

There were two Bhikkhus complained to the Buddha, that some of the
Bhikkhus were reciting the Buddha’s word by not using the Chandaso
language but their own dialects , thus they requested Buddha to unify
the recitation of Buddha’s word by using Chandaso language but refused
by the Buddha, then

2 Buddha has spoke this:


Anujānāmi, bhikkhave, sakāya niruttiyā buddhavacanaṃ pariyāpuṇitu’’nti.


Translated by Prof.Rhys Davids & Oldenberg:

“I allow you, oh Bhikkhus, to learn the words of the Buddha, each in his own dialect”

But in the other hand, the Pali Tipitaka commentator, Ven. Bhadanta Achariya Buddhagosha in his commentary:

Sakāya niruttiyāti ettha sakā nirutti nāma sammāsambuddhena vuttappakāro māgadhiko vohāro.
“I ordain the words of the Buddha to be learnt in his own language (in Māgadhī, the language used by the Buddha himself)”.

So, which context is correct?

:anjali:

Last edited by yamaka on Fri Dec 02, 2011 7:49 am, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Learning Buddha’s Word By Own Dialects Or Buddha’s Language?


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by DNS » Fri Dec 02, 2011 4:06 am

I have not seen that commentary, nor do I have a
copy of it. But assuming it is correct and there is a conflict between
the Buddha’s words and Buddhaghosa’s words, I’d go with the Buddha.

:buddha2:

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Re: Learning Buddha’s Word By Own Dialects Or Buddha’s Language?


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by retrofuturist » Fri Dec 02, 2011 4:20 am

Greetings,

I don’t think it’s a case of Buddhavacana vs Buddhaghosa, but whether
Buddhaghosa or Prof.Rhys Davids & Oldenberg made the appropriate
translation of the the Buddha’s recorded words.

I recall reading recently someone making an argument in favour of
Buddhaghosa’s rendering but I can’t quite remember where I read that. If
I work it out, I’ll bring it here.

Wasn’t the context behind this quote in relation to avoiding exclusivity
in the Dhamma through transmission in language/texts/scripts known and
used only by certain classes? Sorry if that’s a bit hazy - my brain has
shut up shop for the day.

Metta,
Retro. :)

“The uprooting of identity is seen by the noble ones as pleasurable; but this contradicts what the whole world sees.” (Snp 3.12)

“It is natural that one who knows and sees things as they really are is disenchanted and dispassionate.” (AN 10.2)

“Truth does not change according to our ability to stomach it.” (Flannery O’Connor)


Post

by Gena1480 » Fri Dec 02, 2011 4:37 am

my mistake
both are speaking of samething
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Re: Learning Buddha’s Word By Own Dialects Or Buddha’s Language?


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by yamaka » Fri Dec 02, 2011 6:12 am

David N. Snyder wrote:I
have not seen that commentary, nor do I have a copy of it. But assuming
it is correct and there is a conflict between the Buddha’s words and
Buddhaghosa’s words, I’d go with the Buddha.

:buddha2:

David,

The topic is about rendering of Ven.Buddhagosha’s vs prof. Rhys Davids & Oldenberg regarded to the said Vinaya texts.

:anjali:

Last edited by yamaka on Fri Dec 02, 2011 6:15 am, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Learning Buddha’s Word By Own Dialects Or Buddha’s Language?


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by yamaka » Fri Dec 02, 2011 6:14 am

Gena1480 wrote:my mistake
both are speaking of samething

Gena,

What did you mean by same thing? Own dialects=Magadhi(The Asoka’s official Language?)

:anjali:


Post

by Bhikkhu Pesala » Fri Dec 02, 2011 7:55 am

Nirutti in the PTS also means pronunciation. If that is what it means here it makes sense in both contexts.

The discourses need to be learnt in Pali (Magadhi), not English, Thai,
Sinhala, or Burmese. The pronunciation is sure to vary between those
with different mother tongues. Unless the pronunciation is completely
wrong, there won’t be any confusion about the meaning. However, if we
were to learn the teachings in English (for example), which translation
would we use?

BlogPāli FontsIn This Very LifeBuddhist ChroniclesSoftware (Upasampadā: 24th June, 1979)
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Re: Learning Buddha’s Word By Own Dialects Or Magadhi?


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by yamaka » Fri Dec 02, 2011 8:07 am

Another instances from the Vinaya commentary:(Samantapadasika- Vinaya Atthakatha)

“…Dhammoti Pāḷi…”
“… Pāḷi is, therefore, the Dhamma Language of the Buddha…”


Post

by gavesako » Fri Dec 02, 2011 12:10 pm

You can read more about this in this article which explains the underlying idea behind the World Tipitaka project:

http://society.worldtipitaka.org/mds/co … ew/226/49/” onclick=”window.open(this.href);return false;

The Unique Characteristics of Pāḷi

See in particular their take on “sakaya niruttiya…” (a kind of
“linguistic elitism”) which is in marked contrast to the modern
scholarly view.

Bhikkhu Gavesako
Kiṃkusalagavesī anuttaraṃ santivarapadaṃ pariyesamāno… (MN 26)

Access to Insight - Theravada texts
Ancient Buddhist Texts - Translations and history of Pali texts
Dhammatalks.org - Sutta translations


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by daverupa » Fri Dec 02, 2011 12:36 pm

retrofuturist wrote:Wasn’t
the context behind this quote in relation to avoiding exclusivity in
the Dhamma through transmission in language/texts/scripts known and used
only by certain classes?

Basically, the Buddha wasn’t dealing with different languages, only
dialects. Therefore the statement has to be drawn out to apply to a
scenario with different languages; this perspective is reported by
Gombrich in What the Buddha Thought.
He believes, as do I (and as did Walpola Rahula) that the Dhamma can be
taught without a single foreign word, yet I think this is best done by
extrapolating from the Pali afresh, rather than sticking with one
translation from the Pali and plowing ahead.

  • 3 “And
    how is it, bhikkhus, that by protecting oneself one protects others? By
    the pursuit, development, and cultivation of the four establishments of
    mindfulness. It is in such a way that by protecting oneself one
    protects others.


    4 “And how is it, bhikkhus, that by protecting others one protects
    oneself? By patience, harmlessness, goodwill, and sympathy. It is in
    such a way that by protecting others one protects oneself.

- Sedaka Sutta [SN 47.19]
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Re: Learning Buddha’s Word By Own Dialects Or Magadhi?


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by Alex123 » Fri Dec 02, 2011 4:42 pm

yamaka wrote:
Translated by Prof.Rhys Davids & Oldenberg:

“I allow you, oh Bhikkhus, to learn the words of the Buddha, each in his own dialect”

I wonder about the exact translation and meaning of “his own”. his own = ours, or the Buddha’s?

“Life
is a struggle. Life will throw curveballs at you, it will humble you,
it will attempt to break you down. And just when you think things are
starting to look up, life will smack you back down with ruthless
indifference…”
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Re: Learning Buddha’s Word By Own Dialects Or Magadhi?


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by Kare » Fri Dec 02, 2011 5:31 pm

Alex123 wrote:
yamaka wrote:
Translated by Prof.Rhys Davids & Oldenberg:

“I allow you, oh Bhikkhus, to learn the words of the Buddha, each in his own dialect”

I wonder about the exact translation and meaning of “his own”. his own = ours, or the Buddha’s?

The wording in Pali is ambiguous. That is, as long as we focus narrowly
on “sakāya niruttiyā” - “in own dialect/speech” - it can be interpreted
in two different ways. But once we look at the context, once we look at
the whole story where this saying occurs, the meaning is clear. The
Buddha was asked about the different dialects of monks from different
clans, families, etc., so naturally his answer also must point to those
different dialects that he was asked about. The context gives no room
for doubt here, so the Commentary is mistaken on this point.

On the other hand, if that misunderstanding helped contribute to
preserving the texts in Pali, I, for one, am very happy for that
misunderstanding! :D

Mettāya,
Kåre


Post

by Gena1480 » Fri Dec 02, 2011 10:53 pm

Do you mean MaggaPali?

Tree


Suttas word by word


This page lists the suttas in which each Pali word has its own info·bubble.



Abhijāna Sutta (SN 22.24)
Two
conditions (doubled as four with synonyms) for the destruction of
suffering: full understanding and abandoning. One should remain aware
not to focus on only one of these two.
Abhinanda Sutta (SN 35.20)
There is no escape for whoever delights in sense objects.
Accharāsaṅghāta Peyyāla (AN 1.53-55)
Practicing goodwill makes one worthy of gifts.
Adantāgutta Sutta (SN 35.94)
Here
is one of those advises which are so easy to understand with the
intellect, yet so difficult to understand at deeper levels because our
wrong views constantly interfere in the process. Therefore we need to
get it repeated often, even though that may seem boring to some.
Ajjhattānattahetu Sutta (SN 35.142)
How
investigating the causes for the arising of the sense organs, in which
the characteristic of nonself may be easier to understand, allows a
transfer of this understanding to their case.
Akammaniya Vagga (AN 1.21-30)
The mind can be our worst enemy or our best friend.
Ānāpānassati Sutta (MN 118)
The famous sutta about the practice of ānāpānassati, and how it
leads to the practice of the four satipaṭṭhānas and subsquently to the
fulfillment of the seven bojjhaṅgas.
Anattalakkhana Sutta (SN 22.59)
In this very famous sutta, the Buddha expounds for the first time his teaching on anatta.
Aṅga Sutta (SN 55.50)
The four sotāpattiyaṅgas (factors for stream-entry).
Āṇi Sutta (SN 20.7)
A
very important thing is reminded to us by the Buddha: for our own
benefit as well as for the benfit of the generations yet to come, we
must give most importance to his own actual words, and not so much to
whoever else pretends nowadays or has pretended in the past to be a
proper (Dhamma) teacher.
Aniccanibbānasappāya Sutta (SN 35.147)
Here
are hardcore vipassanā instructions dealing with the perception of
impermanence for advanced meditators who are looking forward to
attaining Nibbāna.
Avijjāpahāna Sutta (SN 35.53)
A very simple discourse, yet very deep, on what to know and see to abandon ignorance and produce knowledge.
Bahuvedanīya Sutta (MN 59) {excerpt}
In this short excerpt, the Buddha defines the five kāmaguṇās and makes an important comparison with another type of pleasure.
Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta (SN 56.11)
This is certainly the most famous sutta in the Pali litterature. The Buddha expounds the four ariya-saccas for the first time.
Dhammānupassī Sutta (AN 6.118)
It is worth having repeated the message given in this sutta: six
habits without abandoning which it is not possible to practice the
satipaṭṭhānas properly. Quite some cleaning may be advisable here.
Gītassara Sutta (AN 5.209)
This
sutta has been largely overlooked by the various buddhist traditions:
the Buddha explains why he does not allow the bhikkhus to perform any
melodic chanting.
Indriyabhāvanā Sutta (MN 152)
This sutta offers three approaches to the practice of sense restraint, that contain additional instructions complementing the Indriyesu Guttadvāratā formulae.
Kālāmā Sutta (AN 3.66)
See Kesamutti Sutta.
Kammapatha Sutta (AN 3.164)
It is demonstrated here that the view according to which there is nothing wrong in being non-vegetarian is erroneous.
Kasiṇa Sutta (AN 10.25)
This is the standard description of the practice on the ten kasiṇas.
Kesamutti [aka Kālāmā] Sutta (AN 3.66)
In
this famous sutta, the Buddha reminds us to ultimately trust only our
own direct experience of the reality, not what is declared by others,
even if they happen to be our ‘revered teacher’.
Khajjanīya Sutta (SN 22.79) {excerpt}
This sutta provides a succinct definition of the five khandhas.
Kusala Sutta (SN 46.32)
All that is advantageous unite in one thing.
Kusala Suttas (AN 1.56-73)
What produces and what eliminates wholesome and unwholesome mental states.
Mahānāma Sutta (AN 8.25) {excerpt}
Mahānāma asks the Buddha to define what is a lay follower and in what respect a lay follower is expected to be virtuous.
Mahāparinibbāna Sutta (DN 16) {excerpts}
This sutta gathers various instructions the Buddha gave for the
sake of his followers after his passing away, which makes it be a very
important set of instructions for us nowadays.
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22)
This sutta is widely considered as a fundamental reference for meditation practice.
Mahāvedalla Sutta (MN 43) {excerpt}
Sāriputta answers various interesting questions asked by āyasmā
Mahākoṭṭhika, and in this excerpt, he explains that Vedanā, Saññā and
Viññāṇa are not clearly delineated but deeply interwoven.
Migajāla Sutta Sutta (SN 35.64) {excerpt}
Some
neophytes (and we may often count ourselves among them) sometimes want
to believe that it is possible to delight in sensual pleasures without
giving rise to attachment nor suffering. The Buddha teaches Migajāla
that this is downright impossible.
Nanda Sutta (AN 8.9) {excerpt}
The Buddha describes how Nanda, though being prey to fierce
sense desire, practices throroughly in accordance to his instructions.
This sutta contains a definition of satisampajañña.
Nandikkhaya Sutta (SN 22.51)
How to operate the destruction of delight.
Nirāmisa Sutta (SN 36.31) {excerpt}
We can understand here that pīti, though being often listed as a
bojjhaṅga, can also sometimes be akusala. This passage also includes a
definition of the five kāmaguṇā.
Nīvaraṇa Sutta (AN 9.64)
How to remove the five hindrances.
Nīvaraṇappahāna Vagga (AN 1.11-20)
The five dhammas that nourish most efficiently the five hindrances, and the five most effective ways to dispell them.
Padhāna Sutta (AN 4.13)
In this sutta, the Buddha gives a definition of the sammappadhānas.
Padīpopama Sutta (SN 54.8)
Here the Buddha explains ānāpānassati and recommands it for
various purposes: from abandoning gross impurities, through developing
all the eight jhānas.
Pamādavihārī Sutta (SN 35.97)
What makes the difference between one who lives with negligence and one who lives with vigilance.
Pamādādi Vagga (AN 1.81-97)
The Buddha repetedly warns us against heedlessness.
Paṭisallāna Sutta (SN 56.2)
The Buddha exhorts the bhikkhus to practice paṭisallāna, for it
leads to understanding the four noble truths in their true nature.
Phassamūlaka Sutta (SN 36.10)
The three types of feelings are rooted in three types of contacts.
Pubbesambodha Sutta (SN 35.13)
The
Buddha defines what he means by allure, drawback and emancipation in
the case of the internal sense spheres, and then declares that his
awakening was nothing more nor less than understanding them.
Ruṇṇa Sutta (AN 3.108)
Here
the Buddha explains what is singing and dancing in the discipline of
the noble ones, and then gives his instrunction regarding laughing and
smiling.
Rūpādi Vagga (AN 1.1-10)
There are five types of sense objects that overpower the mind of (most) human beings more than any others.
Rūpārāma Sutta (SN 35.137)
The
Buddha explains for us once more, in yet another way, the cause and the
cessation of suffering. It takes place right in the middle of what we
keep doing all day and all night.
Sabbupādānapariññā Sutta (SN 35.60)
The Buddha, while expounding the complete understanding of all
attachment, gives a deep and yet very clear explanation: contact arises
on the basis of three phenomena.
Sakkapañhā Sutta Sutta (SN 35.118)
The
Buddha gives a rather simple answer to Sakka’s question: what is the
reason why some people attain the final goal while others don’t?
Samādhi Sutta (SN 56.1)
The Buddha exhorts the bhikkhus to practice samādhi, for it leads to understanding the four noble truths in their true nature.
Samādhi Sutta (SN 22.5)
The
Buddha exhorts his followers to develop concentration so that they can
practice insight into the arising and passing away of the five
aggregates, after which he defines what he means by arising and passing
away of the aggregates, in terms of dependent origination.
Samādhibhāvanā Sutta (AN 4.41)
The
four types of concentration that the Buddha commends. It is quite
obvious here that no clear distinction is made between samādhi and
paññā.
Saṅkhitta Sutta (AN 8.53)
The Buddha gives here to his former nurse eight criteria to
discriminate whether a given statement belongs to his teaching or not,
which may happen to be handy nowadays.
Sati Sutta (SN 47.35)
In this sutta, the Buddha reminds the bhikkhus to be satos and sampajānos, and then defines these two terms.
Satthusāsana Sutta (AN 7.83)
Here is a very concise sevenfold instruction to discriminate what is the Teaching of the Buddha from what is not.
Sikkhādubbalya Sutta (AN 9.63)
What to do if one is not yet perfect in the five precepts.
Sikkhattaya Sutta (AN 3.90)
The Buddha defines the three trainings, i.e. adhisīlasikkhā, adhicittasikkhā and adhipaññāsikkhā.
Sikkhattaya Sutta (AN 3.91)
Here the Buddha gives an alternate definition of adhipaññāsikkhā.
Siṃsapāvana Sutta (SN 56.31)
The
famous sutta where the Buddha states that he has no interest in baroque
teachings which are not immediately connected with attaining the goal.
Upādāparitassanā Sutta (SN 22.8)
The arising and cessation of suffering takes place in the five aggregates.
Vibhaṅga Sutta (SN 12.2)
A detailed explanation of paṭicca samuppāda, with a definition of each of the twelve links.
Vibhaṅga Sutta (SN 45.8)
Here the Buddha defines precisely each factor of the eightfold noble path.
Vibhaṅga Sutta (SN 47.40)
The satipaṭṭhānas taught in short.
Vijjābhāgiya Sutta (AN 2.32)
Here the Buddha relates Samatha with rāga and cetovimutti, and Vipassanā with avijjā and paññāvimutti.
Vipallāsa Sutta (AN 4.49)
In this sutta, the Buddha describes the fourfold distortion of saññā, citta and diṭṭhi.
Vitthata Sutta (AN 5.14)
Here are defined the five balas.

Bodhi leaf



   
Home > Chaṭṭha Saṅgāyana

Chaṭṭha Saṅgāyana
The Six Dhamma Councils

The authentic teachings of Gotama the Buddha have been preserved
and handed down to us and are to be found in the Tipiṭaka. The Pāli
word, Tipiṭaka’, literally means `the three baskets’ (ti=three +
piṭaka=collections of scriptures). All of the Buddha’s teachings were
divided into three parts.

1.The first part is known as the Vinaya Piṭaka and it contains all the rules which Buddha laid down for monks and nuns.
2.The second part is called the Suttaṅta Piṭaka and it contains the Discourses.
3.The third part is known as the Abhidhamma Piṭaka and comprises the psycho-ethical teachings of the Buddha.

It is known, that whenever the Buddha gave a discourse to his
ordained disciples or lay-followers or prescribed a monastic rule in the
course of his forty-five year ministry, those of his devoted and
learned monks, then present would immediately commit his teachings word
for word to memory. Thus the Buddha’s words were preserved accurately
and were in due course passed down orally from teacher to pupil. Some of
the monks who had heard the Buddha preach in person were Arahants, and
so by definition, `pure ones’ free from passion, ill-will and delusion
and therefore, was without doubt capable of retaining, perfectly the
Buddha’s words. Thus they ensured that the Buddha’s teachings would be
preserved faithfully for posterity.

Even those devoted monks who had not yet attained Arahantahood but
had reached the first three stages of sainthood and had powerful,
retentive memories could also call to mind word for word what the Buddha
had preached and so could be worthy custodians of the Buddha’s
teachings. One such monk was Ānanda, the chosen attendant and constant
companion of the Buddha during the last twenty-five years of the his
life. Ānanda was highly intelligent and gifted with the ability to
remember whatever he had heard. Indeed, it was his express wish that the
Buddha always relate all of his discourses to him and although he was
not yet an Arahanta he deliberately committed to memory word for word
all the Buddha’s sermons with which he exhorted monks, nuns and his lay
followers. The combined efforts of these gifted and devoted monks made
it possible for the Dhamma and Vinaya, as taught by the Buddha to be
preserved in its original state.

The Pāli Tipiṭaka and its allied literature exists as a result of
the Buddha’s discovery of the noble and liberating path of the pure
Dhamma. This path enables all those who follow it to lead a peaceful and
happy life. Indeed, in this day and age we are fortunate to have the
authentic teachings of the Buddha preserved for future generations
through the conscientious and concerted efforts of his ordained
disciples down through the ages. The Buddha had said to his disciples
that when he was no longer amongst them, that it was essential that the
Saṅgha should come together for the purpose of collectively reciting the
Dhamma, precisely as he had taught it. In compliance with this
instruction the first Elders duly called a council and systematically
ordered all the Buddha’s discourses and monastic rules and then
faithfully recited them word for word in concert.

The teachings contained in the Tipiṭaka are also known as the
Doctrine of the Elders [Theravāda]. These discourses number several
hundred and have always been recited word for word ever since the First
Council was convened. Subsequently, more Councils have been called for a
number of reasons but at every one of them the entire body of the
Buddha’s teaching has always been recited by the Saṅgha participants, in
concert and word for word. The first council took place three months
after the Buddha’s attainment of Mahāparinibbāṇa and was followed by
five more, two of which were convened in the nineteenth and twentieth
centuries. These collective recitations which were performed by the
monks at all these Dhamma Councils are known as the `Dhamma Saṅgītis’,
the Dhamma Recitations. They are so designated because of the precedent
set at the First Dhamma Council, when all the Teachings were recited
first by an Elder of the Saṅgha and then chanted once again in chorus by
all of the monks attending the assembly. The recitation was judged to
have been authentic, when and only when, it had been approved
unanimously by the members of the Council. What follows is a brief
history of the Six Councils.

The First Council

King Ajātasattu sponsored the First Council. It was convened in
544 B.C. in the Sattapaāāī Cave situated outside Rājagaha three months
after the Buddha had passed away. A detailed account of this historic
meeting can be found in the Cūllavagga of the Vinaya Piṭaka. According
to this record the incident which prompted the Elder Mahākassapa to call
this meeting was his hearing a disparaging remark about the strict rule
of life for monks. This is what happened. The monk Subhadda, a former
barber, who had ordained late in life, upon hearing that the Buddha had
expired, voiced his resentment at having to abide by all the rules for
monks laid down by the Buddha. Many monks lamented the passing of the
Buddha and were deeply grieved. However, the Elder Mahākassapa heard
Subhadda say: “Enough your Reverences, do not grieve, do not lament. We
are well rid of this great recluse (the Buddha). We were tormented when
he said, `this is allowable to you, this is not allowable to you’ but
now we will be able to do as we like and we will not have to do what we
do not like'’. Mahākassapa was alarmed by his remark and feared that the
Dhamma and the Vinaya might be corrupted and not survive intact if
other monks were to behave like Subhadda and interpret the Dhamma and
the Vinaya rules as they pleased. To avoid this he decided that the
Dhamma must be preserved and protected. To this end after gaining the
Saṅgha’s approval he called to council five hundred Arahants. Ānanda was
to be included in this provided he attained Arahanthood by the time the
council convened. With the Elder Mahākassapa presiding, the
five-hundred Arahant monks met in council during the rainy season. The
first thing Mahākassapa did was to question the foremost expert on the
Vinaya of the day, Venerable Upāli on particulars of the monastic rule.
This monk was well qualified for the task as the Buddha had taught him
the whole of the Vinaya himself. First of all the Elder Mahākassapa
asked him specifically about the ruling on the first offense [pārājika],
with regard to the subject, the occasion, the individual introduced,
the proclamation, the repetition of the proclamation, the offense and
the case of non-offense. Upāli gave knowledgeable and adequate answers
and his remarks met with the unanimous approval of the presiding Saṅgha.
Thus the Vinaya was formally approved.

The Elder Mahākassapa then turned his attention to Ānanda in
virtue of his reputable expertise in all matters connected with the
Dhamma. Happily, the night before the Council was to meet, Ānanda had
attained Arahantship and joined the Council. The Elder Mahākassapa,
therefore, was able to question him at length with complete confidence
about the Dhamma with specific reference to the Buddha’s sermons. This
interrogation on the Dhamma sought to verify the place where all the
discourses were first preached and the person to whom they had been
addressed. Ānanda, aided by his word-perfect memory was able to answer
accurately and so the Discourses met with the unanimous approval of the
Saṅgha. The First Council also gave its official seal of approval for
the closure of the chapter on the minor and lesser rules, and approval
for their observance. It took the monks seven months to recite the whole
of the Vinaya and the Dhamma and those monks sufficiently endowed with
good memories retained all that had been recited. This historic first
council came to be known as the Paācasatika because five-hundred fully
enlightened Arahants had taken part in it.

The Second Council

The Second Council was called one hundred years after the Buddha’s
Parinibbāṇa in order to settle a serious dispute over the `ten points’.
This is a reference to some monks breaking of ten minor rules. they
were given to:

    1. Storing salt in a horn.
    2. Eating after midday.
    3. Eating once and then going again to a village for alms.
    4. Holding the Uposatha Ceremony with monks dwelling in the same locality.
    5. Carrying out official acts when the assembly was incomplete.
    6. Following a certain practice because it was done by one’s tutor or teacher.
    7. Eating sour milk after one had his midday meal.
    8. Consuming strong drink before it had been fermented.
    9. Using a rug which was not the proper size.
    10. Using gold and silver.

Their misdeeds became an issue and caused a major controversy as
breaking these rules was thought to contradict the Buddha’s original
teachings. King Kāḷāsoka was the Second Council’s patron and the meeting
took place at Vesāli due to the following circumstances. One day,
whilst visiting the Mahāvana Grove at Veāsli, the Elder Yasa came to
know that a large group of monks known as the Vajjians were infringing
the rule which prohibited monk’s accepting gold and silver by openly
asking for it from their lay devotees. He immediately criticized their
behavior and their response was to offer him a share of their illegal
gains in the hope that he would be won over. The Elder Yasa, however
declined and scorned their behavior. The monks immediately sued him with
a formal action of reconciliation, accusing him of having blamed their
lay devotees. The Elder Yasa accordingly reconciled himself with the lay
devotees, but at the same time, convinced them that the Vijjian monks
had done wrong by quoting the Buddha’s pronouncement on the prohibition
against accepting or soliciting for gold and silver. The laymen
immediately expressed their support for the Elder Yasa and declared the
Vajjian monks to the wrong-doers and heretics, saying “the Elder Yasa
alone is the real monk and Sākyan son. All the others are not monks, not
Sākyan sons'’.

The Stubborn and unrepentant Vajjian monks then moved to suspend
the Venerable Yasa Thera without the approval of the rest of the Saṅgha
when they came to know of the outcome of his meeting with their lay
devotees. The Elder Yasa, however escaped their censure and went in
search of support from monks elsewhere, who upheld his orthodox views on
the Vinaya. Sixty forest dwelling monks from Pāvā and eighty monks from
the southern regions of Avanti who were of the same view, offered to
help him to check the corruption of the Vinaya. Together they decided to
go to Soreyya to consult the Venerable Revata as he was a highly
revered monk and an expert in the Dhamma and the Vinaya. As soon as the
Vajjian monks came to know this they also sought the Venerable Revata’s
support by offering him the four requisites which he promptly refused.
These monks then sought to use the same means to win over the Venerable
Revata’s attendant, the Venerable Uttara. At first he too, rightly
declined their offer but they craftily persuaded him to accept their
offer, saying that when the requisites meant for the Buddha were not
accepted by him, Ānanda would be asked to accept them and would often
agree to do so. Uttara changed his mind and accepted the requisites.
Urged on by them he then agreed to go and persuade the Venerable Revata
to declare that the Vajjian monks were indeed speakers of the Truth and
upholders of the Dhamma. The Venerable Revata saw through their ruse and
refused to support them. He then dismissed Uttara. In order to settle
the matter once and for all, the Venerable Revata advised that a council
should be called at Vāḷikārāma with himself asking questions on the ten
offenses of the most senior of the Elders of the day, the Thera
Sabbjakāmi. Once his opinion was given it was to be heard by a committee
of eight monks, and its validity decided by their vote. The eight monks
called to judge the matter were the Venerables Sabbakāmi, saḷha,
Khujjasobhita and Vāsabhagāmika, from the East and four monks from the
West, the Venerables Revata, Sambhuta-Sāṇavāsī, Yasa and Sumana. They
thoroughly debated the matter with Revata as the questioner and
sabbakāmī answering his questions. After the debate was heard the eight
monks decided against the Vajjian monks and their verdict was announced
to the assembly. Afterwards seven-hundred monks recited the Dhamma and
Vinaya and this recital came to be known as the Sattasatī because
seven-hundred monks had taken part in it. This historic council is also
called, the Yasatthera Sangīti because of the major role the Elder Yasa
played in it and his zeal for safeguarding the Vinaya. The Vajjian monks
categorically refused to accept the Council’s decision and in defiance
called a council of there own which was called the Mahāsaṅgiti.

The Third Council

The Third Council was held primarily to rid the Saṅgha of
corruption and bogus monks who held heretical views. The Council was
convened in 326 B.C. At Asokārāma in Paṭaliputta under the patronage of
Emperor Asoka. It was presided over by the Elder Moggaliputta Tissa and
one thousand monks participated in this Council. Tradition has it that
Asoka had won his throne through shedding the blood of all his father’s
son’s save his own brother, Tissa Kumāra who eventually got ordained and
achieved Arahantship.

Asoka was crowned in the two hundred and eighteenth year after the
Buddha’s Mahaparinibbāna. At first he paid only token homage to the
Dhamma and the Saṅgha and also supported members of other religious
sects as his father had done before him. However, all this changed when
he met the pious novice-monk Nigrodha who preached him the
Appamāda-vagga. Thereafter he ceased supporting other religious groups
and his interest in and devotion to the Dhamma deepened. He used his
enormous wealth to build, it is said, eighty-four thousand pagodas and
vihāras and to lavishly support the Bhikkhus with the four requisites.
His son Mahinda and his daughter Saṅghamittā were ordained and admitted
to the Saṅgha. Eventually, his generosity was to cause serious problems
within the Saṅgha. In time the order was infiltrated by many unworthy
men, holding heretical views and who were attracted to the order because
of the Emperor’s generous support and costly offerings of food,
clothing, shelter and medicine. Large numbers of faithless, greedy men
espousing wrong views tried to join the order but were deemed unfit for
ordination. Despite this they seized the chance to exploit the Emperor’s
generosity for their own ends and donned robes and joined the order
without having been ordained properly. Consequently, respect for the
Saṅgha diminished. When this came to light some of the genuine monks
refused to hold the prescribed purification or Uposatha ceremony in the
company of the corrupt, heretical monks.

When the Emperor heard about this he sought to rectify the
situation and dispatched one of his ministers to the monks with the
command that they perform the ceremony. However, the Emperor had given
the minister no specific orders as to what means were to be used to
carry out his command. The monks refused to obey and hold the ceremony
in the company of their false and `thieving’ companions
[theyyasinivāsaka]. In desperation the angry minister advanced down the
line of seated monks and drawing his sword, beheaded all of them one
after the other until he came to the King’s brother, Tissa who had been
ordained. The horrified minister stopped the slaughter and fled the hall
and reported back to the Emperor Asoka was deeply grieved and upset by
what had happened and blamed himself for the killings. He sought Thera
Moggaliputta Tissa’s counsel. He proposed that the heretical monks be
expelled from the order and a third Council be convened immediately. So
it was that in the seventeenth year of the Emperor’s reign the Third
Council was called. Thera Moggaliputta Tissa headed the proceedings and
chose one thousand monks from the sixty thousand participants for the
traditional recitation of the Dhamma and the Vinaya, which went on for
nine months. The Emperor, himself questioned monks from a number of
monasteries about the teachings of the Buddha. Those who held wrong
views were exposed and expelled from the Saṅgha immediately. In this way
the Bhikkhu Saṅgha was purged of heretics and bogus bhikkhus.

This council achieved a number of other important things as well.
The Elder Moggaliputta Tissa, in order to refute a number of heresies
and ensure the Dhamma was kept pure, complied a book during the council
called the Kathāvatthu. This book consists of twenty-three chapters, and
is a collection of discussion (kathā) and refutations of the heretical
views held by various sects on matters philosophical. It is the fifth of
the seven books of the Abhidhamma Piṭaka. The members of the Council
also gave a royal seal of approval to the doctrine of the Buddha, naming
it the Vibhajjavāda, the Doctrine of Analysis. It is identical with the
approved Theravāda doctrine. One of the most significant achievements
of this Dhamma assembly and one which was to bear fruit for centuries to
come, was the Emperor’s sending forth of monks, well versed in the
Buddha’s Dhamma and Vinaya who could recite all of it by heart, to teach
it in nine different countries. These Dhammadūta monks included the
Venerable Majjhantika Thera who went to Kashmir and Gandhāra. He was
asked to preach the Dhamma and establish an order of monks there. The
Venerable Mahādeva was sent to Mahinsakamaṇḍaḷa (modern Mysore) and the
Venerable Rakkhita Thera was dispatched to Vanavāsī (northern Kanara in
the south of India.) The Venerable Yonaka Dhammarakkhita Thera was sent
to Upper Aparantaka (northern Gujarat, Kathiawar, Kutch and Sindh].

The Venerable Mahārakkhita Thera went to Yonaka-loka (the land of
the lonians, Bactrians and the Greeks.) The Venerable Majjhima Thera
went to Himavanta (the place adjoining the Himalayas.) The Venerable
Soṇa and the Venerable Uttara were sent to Suvaṇṇabhūmi [now Myanmar].
The Venerable Mahinda Thera, The Venerable Ittiya Thera, the Venerable
Uttiya Thera, the Venerable Sambala Thera and the Venerable Bhaddasāla
Thera were sent to Tambapaṇṇi (now Sri Lanka). The Dhamma missions of
these monks succeeded and bore great fruits in the course of time and
went a long way in ennobling the peoples of these lands with the gift of
the Dhamma and influencing their civilizations and cultures.

With the spread of Dhamma through the words of the Buddha, in due
course India came to be known as Visvaguru, the teacher of the world.

The Fourth Council

The Fourth Council was held in Tambapaṇṇi [Sri Lanka] in 29 B.C.
under the patronage of King Vaṭṭagāmaṇi. The main reason for its
convening was the realization that is was now not possible for the
majority of monks to retain the entire Tipiṭaka in their memories as had
been the case formerly for the Venerable Mahinda and those who followed
him soon after. Therefore, as the art of writing had, by this time
developed substantially, it was thought expedient and necessary to have
the entire body of the Buddha’s teaching written down. King Vaṭṭagāmaṇi
supported the monk’s idea and a council was held specifically to reduce
the Tipiṭaka in its entirety to writing. Therefore, so that the genuine
Dhamma might be lastingly preserved, the Venerable Mahārakhita and five
hundred monks recited the words of the Buddha and then wrote them down
on palm leaves. This remarkable project took place in a cave called, the
Āloka lena, situated in the cleft of an ancient landslip near what is
now Matale. Thus the aim of the Council was achieved and the
preservation in writing of the authentic Dhamma was ensured. Later, in
the Eighteenth Century, King Vijayarājasīha had images of the Buddha
created in this cave.

The Fifth Council

The Fifth Council took place in Māndalay, Burma now known as
Myanmar in 1871 A.D. in the reign of King Mindon. The chief objective of
this meeting was to recite all the teachings of the Buddha and examine
them in minute detail to see if any of them had been altered, distorted
or dropped. It was presided over by three Elders, the Venerable
Mahāthera Jāgarābhivaṃsa, the Venerable Narindābhidhaja, and the
Venerable Mahāthera Sumaṅgalasāmi in the company of some two thousand
four hundred monks (2,400). Their joint Dhamma recitation lasted for
five months. It was also the work of this council to cause the entire
Tipiṭaka to be inscribed for posterity on seven hundred and twenty-nine
marble slabs in the Myanmar script after its recitation had been
completed and unanimously approved. This monumental task was done by
some two thousand four hundred erudite monks and many skilled craftsmen
who upon completion of each slab had them housed in beautiful miniature
`piṭaka’ pagodas on a special site in the grounds of King Mindon’s
Kuthodaw Pagoda at the foot of Māndalay Hill where this so called
`largest book in the world’, stands to this day.

The Sixth Council

The Sixth Council was called at Kaba Aye in Yangon, formerly
Rangoon in 1954, eighty-three years after the fifth one was held in
Mandalay. It was sponsored by the Burmese Government led by the Prime
Minister, the Honorable U Nu. He authorized the construction of the Mahā
Pāsāna Gūhā, the great cave that was built from the ground up, to serve
as the gathering place much like India’s Sattapānni Cave–the site of
the first Dhamma Council. Upon its completion, the Council met on the
17th of May, 1954. As in the case of the preceding councils, its first
objective was to affirm and preserve the genuine Dhamma and Vinaya.
However it was unique in so far as the monks who took part in it came
from eight countries. These two thousand five hundred learned Theravāda
monks came from Myanmar, Cambodia, India, Laos, Nepal, Sri Lanka,
Thailand and Vietnam. The late Venerable Mahāsi Sayadaw was appointed
the noble task of asking the required questions about the Dhamma of the
Venerable Bhadanta Vicittasārābhivaṃsa Tipiṭakadhara Dhammabhaṇḍāgārika
who answered all of them learnedly and satisfactorily. By the time this
council met, all the participating countries had the Pāli Tipiṭaka
rendered into their native scripts, with the exception of India.

The traditional recitation of the Dhamma Scriptures took two years
during which the Tipiṭaka and its allied literature in all the scripts
were painstakingly examined. Any differences found were noted down, the
necessary corrections were made and all the versions were then collated.
Happily, it was found that there was not much difference in the content
of any of the texts. Finally, after the Council had officially approved
them, all the volumes of the Tipiṭaka and their Commentaries were
prepared for printing on modern presses and published in the Myanmar
(Burmese) script. This notable achievement was made possible through the
dedicated efforts of the two thousand five hundred monks and numerous
lay people. Their work came to an end in May, 1956, two and a half
millennia after the Lord attained Parinibbāna. This council’s work was
the unique achievement of representatives from the entire Buddhist
world. The version of the Tipiṭaka which it undertook to produce has
been recognized as being true to the pristine teachings of Gotama the
Buddha and the most authoritative rendering of them to date.

The volumes printed after the Sixth Saṅgāyana were printed in
Myanmar script. In order to make the volumes to the people of India,
Vipassana Research Institute started the project to print the Tipiṭaka
with its Aṭṭhakathās and ṭikas in Devanagari in the year 1990.

This Chaṭṭha Saṅgāyana CD-ROM which is a reproduction of the text
authenticated in the Sixth Saṅgāyana is now being presented to the world
so that the words of the Buddha are easily made available to the
devotees and the scholars. The Chaṭṭha Saṅgāyana CD-ROM can presently be
viewed in the following scripts Devanagari, Myanmar and Roman.,  Sri
Lankan, Thai and Mongol scripts.

May All beings be happy

Tipiṭaka Scripts
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Devanagari Web | PDF
Gujarati Web
Kannada Web
Malayalam Web
Roman Web | PDF
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Other Scripts
(Bengali, Gurmukhi, Khmer, Myanmar, Sinhala, Thai, Tibetan)

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The Buddha and His Teachings

Buddhism is a major world religion. It attracts interest
all over the world. Today observant Buddhists are found all over the
world. The Buddha or the Enlightened One, was born Siddhartha—the son of
the royal Sakya clan—in India during the sixth century BCE. Prince
Siddhartha was unsatisfied with the luxury and splendor of palace life.
Seeking inner peace and deeper happiness he became a wandering ascetic.
He sought the guidance of the leading spiritual teachers of his day yet
did not find the path to the goal through such teachings. He came to
reflect on his own experience and practices and realized through
contemplation the Middle Path and realized the goal of Nibbana—perfect
inner peace and happiness.

The teachings of the Buddha transcend time, place and culture. They
are particularly resonant today. The Buddha is not a savior but a guide
or teacher. In the Buddha’s own words: “You do your work. The Buddhas
only show the way.” A human can decide his own destiny according to the
Buddha. “Be a refuge unto yourself” he instructed. The Buddha’s
discussion with the Kalamas of the small town of Kesaputta sets out in
clear and simple terms an important aspect of his teachings:

‘Sir, There are some recluses and Brahmins who visit Kesaputta. They
explain and illumine their own doctrines, and despise, condemn and spurn
others’ doctrines. Then come other recluses and Brahmins, and they too,
in turn, explain and illumine only their own doctrine, and despise,
condemn and spurn others’ doctrines. But, for us, Sir, we have always
doubt and perplexity as to who among these venerable recluses and
Brahmins spoke the truth, and who spoke falsehood.’

Then the Buddha gave them this advice, unique in the history of religions:

‘Yes, Kalamas, it is proper that you have doubt, that you have
perplexity, for a doubt has arisen in a matter which is doubtful. Now,
look you Kalamas do not be led by reports, or tradition, or hearsay. Be
not led by the authority of religious texts, nor by mere logic or
inference, nor by considering appearances, nor by the delight in
speculative opinions, not by seeming possibilities, nor by the idea:
‘this is our teacher.’ But, O Kalamas, when you know for yourselves that
certain things are unwholesome, and wrong and bad then give them up…and
when you know for yourselves that certain things are wholesome, and
good then accept them and follow them.’

 

Theravada Buddhism

By John Bullitt

Theravada (pronounced — more or less — “terra-VAH-dah”), the
“Doctrine of the Elders,” is the school of Buddhism that draws its
scriptural inspiration from the Tipitaka, or Pali canon, which scholars
generally agree contains the earliest surviving record of the Buddha’s
teachings. For many centuries, Theravada has been the predominant
religion of continental Southeast Asia (Thailand, Myanmar/Burma,
Cambodia, and Laos) and Sri Lanka. Today Theravada Buddhists number well
over 100 million worldwide. In recent decades Theravada has begun to
take root in the West.

Many Buddhisms, One Dhamma-vinaya

The Buddha — the “Awakened One” — called the religion he founded
Dhamma-vinaya — “the doctrine and discipline.” To provide a social
structure supportive of the practice of Dhamma-vinaya (or Dhamma for
short [Sanskrit: Dharma]), and to preserve these teachings for
posterity, the Buddha established the order of bhikkhus (monks) and
bhikkhunis (nuns)— the Sangha — which continues to this day to pass his
teachings on to subsequent generations of laypeople and monastics,
alike.

As the Dhamma continued its spread across India after the Buddha’s
passing, differing interpretations of the original teachings arose,
which led to schisms within the Sangha and the emergence of as many as
eighteen distinct sects of Buddhism.3 One of these schools eventually
gave rise to a reform movement that called itself Mahayana (the “Greater
Vehicle”)4 and that referred to the other schools disparagingly as
Hinayana (the “Lesser Vehicle”). What we call Theravada today is the
sole survivor of those early non-Mahayana schools.5 To avoid the
pejorative tone implied by the terms Hinayana and Mahayana, it is common
today to use more neutral language to distinguish between these two
main branches of Buddhism. Because Theravada historically dominated
southern Asia, it is sometimes called “Southern” Buddhism, while
Mahayana, which migrated northwards from India into China, Tibet, Japan,
and Korea, is known as “Northern” Buddhism.6

Pali: The Language of Theravada Buddhism

The language of the Theravada canonical texts is Pali (lit., “text”),
which is based on a dialect of Middle Indo-Aryan that was probably
spoken in central India during the Buddha’s time.7 Ven. Ananda, the
Buddha’s cousin and close personal attendant, committed the Buddha’s
sermons (suttas) to memory and thus became a living repository of these
teachings.8 Shortly after the Buddha’s death (ca. 480 BCE), five hundred
of the most senior monks — including Ananda — convened to recite and
verify all the sermons they had heard during the Buddha’s forty-five
year teaching career.9 Most of these sermons therefore begin with the
disclaimer, “Evam me sutam” — “Thus have I heard.”

After the Buddha’s death the teachings continued to be passed down
orally within the monastic community, in keeping with an Indian oral
tradition that long predated the Buddha.10 By 250 BCE the Sangha had
systematically arranged and compiled these teachings into three
divisions: the Vinaya Pitaka (the “basket of discipline” — the texts
concerning the rules and customs of the Sangha), the Sutta Pitaka (the
“basket of discourses” — the sermons and utterances by the Buddha and
his close disciples), and the Abhidhamma Pitaka (the “basket of
special/higher doctrine” — a detailed psycho-philosophical analysis of
the Dhamma). Together these three are known as the Tipitaka, the “three
baskets.” In the third century BCE Sri Lankan monks began compiling a
series of exhaustive commentaries to the Tipitaka; these were
subsequently collated and translated into Pali beginning in the fifth
century CE. The Tipitaka plus the post-canonical texts (commentaries,
chronicles, etc.) together constitute the complete body of classical
Theravada literature.

Pali was originally a spoken language with no alphabet of its own. It
wasn’t until about 100 BCE that the Tipitaka was first fixed in
writing, by Sri Lankan scribe-monks who wrote the Pali phonetically
using their own Sinhala alphabet.11 Since then the Tipitaka has been
transliterated into many different scripts (Devanagari, Thai, Burmese,
Roman, Cyrillic, to name a few). Although English translations of the
most popular Tipitaka texts abound, many students of Theravada find that
learning the Pali language — even just a little bit here and there —
greatly deepens their understanding and appreciation of the Buddha’s
teachings.

No one can prove that the Tipitaka contains any of the words actually
uttered by the historical Buddha. Practicing Buddhists have never found
this problematic. Unlike the scriptures of many of the world’s great
religions, the Tipitaka is not regarded as gospel, as an unassailable
statement of divine truth, revealed by a prophet, to be accepted purely
on faith. Instead, its teachings are meant to be assessed firsthand, to
be put into practice in one’s life so that one can find out for oneself
if they do, in fact, yield the promised results. It is the truth towards
which the words in the Tipitaka point that ultimately matters, not the
words themselves. Although scholars will continue to debate the
authorship of passages from the Tipitaka for years to come (and thus
miss the point of these teachings entirely), the Tipitaka will quietly
continue to serve — as it has for centuries — as an indispensable guide
for millions of followers in their quest for Awakening.

Buddhist Teachings

Summary of the Buddha’s Teachings

A Brief Summary of the Buddha’s Teachings

The Four Noble Truths

Shortly after his Awakening, the Buddha delivered his first sermon,
in which he laid out the essential framework upon which all his later
teachings were based. This framework consists of the Four Noble Truths,
four fundamental principles of nature (Dhamma) that emerged from the
Buddha’s radically honest and penetrating assessment of the human
condition. He taught these truths not as metaphysical theories or as
articles of faith, but as categories by which we should frame our direct
experience in a way that conduces to Awakening:

  • Dukkha: suffering, unsatisfactoriness, discontent, stress;
  • The cause of dukkha: the cause of this dissatisfaction is craving
    (tanha) for sensuality, for states of becoming, and states of no
    becoming;
  • The cessation of dukkha: the relinquishment of that craving;
  • The path of practice leading to the cessation of dukkha: the Noble
    Eightfold Path of right view, right resolve, right speech, right action,
    right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right
    concentration.

Because of our ignorance (avijja) of these Noble Truths, because of
our inexperience in framing the world in their terms, we remain bound to
samsara, the wearisome cycle of birth, aging, illness, death, and
rebirth. Craving propels this process onward, from one moment to the
next and over the course of countless lifetimes, in accordance with
kamma (Skt. karma), the universal law of cause and effect. According to
this immutable law, every action that one performs in the present moment
— whether by body, speech, or mind itself — eventually bears fruit
according to its skillfulness: act in unskillful and harmful ways and
unhappiness is bound to follow; act skillfully and happiness will
ultimately ensue.12 As long as one remains ignorant of this principle,
one is doomed to an aimless existence: happy one moment, in despair the
next; enjoying one lifetime in heaven, the next in hell.

The Buddha discovered that gaining release from samsara requires
assigning to each of the Noble Truths a specific task: the first Noble
Truth is to be comprehended; the second, abandoned; the third, realized;
the fourth, developed. The full realization of the third Noble Truth
paves the way for Awakening: the end of ignorance, craving, suffering,
and kamma itself; the direct penetration to the transcendent freedom and
supreme happiness that stands as the final goal of all the Buddha’s
teachings; the Unconditioned, the Deathless, Unbinding — Nibbana (Skt.
Nirvana).

The Eightfold Path and the Practice of Dhamma

Because the roots of ignorance are so intimately entwined with the
fabric of the psyche, the unawakened mind is capable of deceiving itself
with breathtaking ingenuity. The solution therefore requires more than
simply being kind, loving, and mindful in the present moment. The
practitioner must equip him- or herself with the expertise to use a
range of tools to outwit, outlast, and eventually uproot the mind’s
unskillful tendencies. For example, the practice of generosity (dana)
erodes the heart’s habitual tendencies towards craving and teaches
valuable lessons about the motivations behind, and the results of,
skillful action. The practice of virtue (sila) guards one against
straying wildly off-course and into harm’s way. The cultivation of
goodwill (metta) helps to undermine anger’s seductive grasp. The ten
recollections offer ways to alleviate doubt, bear physical pain with
composure, maintain a healthy sense of self-respect, overcome laziness
and complacency, and restrain oneself from unbridled lust. And there are
many more skills to learn.

The good qualities that emerge and mature from these practices not
only smooth the way for the journey to Nibbana; over time they have the
effect of transforming the practitioner into a more generous, loving,
compassionate, peaceful, and clear-headed member of society. The
individual’s sincere pursuit of Awakening is thus a priceless and timely
gift to a world in desperate need of help.

Discernment (pañña)

The Eightfold Path is best understood as a collection of personal
qualities to be developed, rather than as a sequence of steps along a
linear path. The development of right view and right resolve (the
factors classically identified with wisdom and discernment) facilitates
the development of right speech, action, and livelihood (the factors
identified with virtue). As virtue develops so do the factors identified
with concentration (right effort, mindfulness, and concentration).
Likewise, as concentration matures, discernment evolves to a still
deeper level. And so the process unfolds: development of one factor
fosters development of the next, lifting the practitioner in an upward
spiral of spiritual maturity that eventually culminates in Awakening.

The long journey to Awakening begins in earnest with the first
tentative stirrings of right view — the discernment by which one
recognizes the validity of the four Noble Truths and the principle of
kamma. One begins to see that one’s future well-being is neither
predestined by fate, nor left to the whims of a divine being or random
chance. The responsibility for one’s happiness rests squarely on one’s
own shoulders. Seeing this, one’s spiritual aims become suddenly clear:
to relinquish the habitual unskillful tendencies of the mind in favor of
skillful ones. As this right resolve grows stronger, so does the
heartfelt desire to live a morally upright life, to choose one’s actions
with care.

At this point many followers make the inward commitment to take the
Buddha’s teachings to heart, to become “Buddhist” through the act of
taking refuge in the Triple Gem: the Buddha (both the historical Buddha
and one’s own innate potential for Awakening), the Dhamma (both the
Buddha’s teachings and the ultimate Truth towards which they point), and
the Sangha (both the unbroken monastic lineage that has preserved the
teachings since the Buddha’s day, and all those who have achieved at
least some degree of Awakening). With one’s feet thus planted on solid
ground, and with the help of an admirable friend or teacher
(kalyanamitta) to guide the way, one is now well-equipped to proceed
down the Path, following in the footsteps left by the Buddha himself.

Virtue (sila)

Right view and right resolve continue to mature through the
development of the path factors associated with sila, or virtue —
namely, right speech, right action, and right livelihood. These are
condensed into a very practical form in the five precepts, the basic
code of ethical conduct to which every practicing Buddhist subscribes:
refraining from killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, and using
intoxicants. Even the monks’ complex code of 227 rules and the nuns’ 311
ultimately have these five basic precepts at their core.

Concentration (samadhi)

Having gained a foothold in the purification of one’s outward
behavior through the practice of sila, the essential groundwork has been
laid for delving into the most subtle and transformative aspect of the
path: meditation and the development of samadhi, or concentration. This
is spelled out in detail in the final three path factors: right effort,
by which one learns how to favor skillful qualities of mind over
unskillful ones; right mindfulness, by which one learns to keep one’s
attention continually grounded in the present moment of experience; and
right concentration, by which one learns to immerse the mind so
thoroughly and unwaveringly in its meditation object that it enters
jhana, a series of progressively deeper states of mental and physical
tranquillity.

Right mindfulness and right concentration are developed in tandem
through satipatthana (”frames of reference” or “foundations of
mindfulness”), a systematic approach to meditation practice that
embraces a wide range of skills and techniques. Of these practices,
mindfulness of the body (especially mindfulness of breathing) is
particularly effective at bringing into balance the twin qualities of
tranquillity (samatha) and insight (vipassana), or clear-seeing. Through
persistent practice, the meditator becomes more adept at bringing the
combined powers of samatha-vipassana to bear in an exploration of the
fundamental nature of mind and body.13 As the meditator masters the
ability to frame his immediate experience in terms of anicca
(inconstancy), dukkha, and anatta (not-self), even the subtlest
manifestations of these three characteristics of experience are brought
into exquisitely sharp focus. At the same time, the root cause of dukkha
— craving — is relentlessly exposed to the light of awareness.
Eventually craving is left with no place to hide, the entire karmic
process that fabricates dukkha unravels, the eightfold path reaches its
noble climax, and the meditator gains, at long last, his or her first
unmistakable glimpse of the Unconditioned — Nibbana.

Awakening

This first enlightenment experience, known as stream-entry
(sotapatti), is the first of four progressive stages of Awakening, each
of which entails the irreversible shedding or weakening of several
fetters (samyojana), the manifestations of ignorance that bind a person
to the cycle of birth and death. Stream-entry marks an unprecedented and
radical turning point both in the practitioner’s current life and in
the entirety of his or her long journey in samsara. For it is at this
point that any lingering doubts about the truth of the Buddha’s
teachings disappear; it is at this point that any belief in the
purifying efficacy of rites and rituals evaporates; and it is at this
point that the long-cherished notion of an abiding personal “self” falls
away. The stream-enterer is said to be assured of no more than seven
future rebirths (all of them favorable) before eventually attaining full
Awakening.

But full Awakening is still a long way off. As the practitioner
presses on with renewed diligence, he or she passes through two more
significant landmarks: once-returning (sakadagati), which is accompanied
by the weakening of the fetters of sensual desire and ill-will, and
non-returning (agati), in which these two fetters are uprooted
altogether. The final stage of Awakening — arahatta — occurs when even
the most refined and subtle levels of craving and conceit are
irrevocably extinguished. At this point the practitioner — now an
arahant, or “worthy one” — arrives at the end-point of the Buddha’s
teaching. With ignorance, suffering, stress, and rebirth having all come
to their end, the arahant at last can utter the victory cry first
proclaimed by the Buddha upon his Awakening:

“Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done! There is nothing further for the sake of this world.”

[MN 36]

The arahant lives out the remainder of his or her life inwardly
enjoying the bliss of Nibbana, secure at last from the possibility of
any future rebirth. When the arahant’s aeons-long trail of past kamma
eventually unwinds to its end, the arahant dies and he or she enters
into parinibbana — total Unbinding. Although language utterly fails at
describing this extraordinary event, the Buddha likened it to what
happens when a fire finally burns up all its fuel.

“The serious pursuit of happiness”

Buddhism is sometimes naïvely criticized as a “negative” or
“pessimistic” religion and philosophy. Surely life is not all misery and
disappointment: it offers many kinds of happiness and sublime joy. Why
then this dreary Buddhist obsession with unsatisfactoriness and
suffering?

The Buddha based his teachings on a frank assessment of our plight as
humans: there is unsatisfactoriness and suffering in the world. No one
can argue this fact. Dukkha lurks behind even the highest forms of
worldly pleasure and joy, for, sooner or later, as surely as night
follows day, that happiness must come to an end. Were the Buddha’s
teachings to stop there, we might indeed regard them as pessimistic and
life as utterly hopeless. But, like a doctor who prescribes a remedy for
an illness, the Buddha offers both a hope (the third Noble Truth) and a
cure (the fourth). The Buddha’s teachings thus give cause for
unparalleled optimism and joy. The teachings offer as their reward the
noblest, truest kind of happiness, and give profound value and meaning
to an otherwise grim existence. One modern teacher summed it up well:
“Buddhism is the serious pursuit of happiness.”

Theravada Comes West

Until the late 19th century, the teachings of Theravada were little
known outside of southern Asia, where they had flourished for some two
and one-half millennia. In the past century, however, the West has begun
to take notice of Theravada’s unique spiritual legacy in its teachings
of Awakening. In recent decades this interest has swelled, with the
monastic Sangha from various schools within Theravada establishing
dozens of monasteries across Europe and North America. Increasing
numbers of lay meditation centers, founded and operated independently of
the monastic Sangha, strain to meet the demands of lay men and women —
Buddhist and otherwise — seeking to learn selected aspects of the
Buddha’s teachings.

The turn of the 21st century presents both opportunities and dangers
for Theravada in the West: Will the Buddha’s teachings be patiently
studied and put into practice, and allowed to establish deep roots in
Western soil, for the benefit of many generations to come? Will the
current popular Western climate of “openness” and cross-fertilization
between spiritual traditions lead to the emergence of a strong new form
of Buddhist practice unique to the modern era, or will it simply lead to
confusion and the dilution of these priceless teachings? These are open
questions; only time will tell.

Spiritual teachings of every description inundate the media and the
marketplace today. Many of today’s popular spiritual teachings borrow
liberally from the Buddha, though only rarely do they place the Buddha’s
words in their true context. Earnest seekers of truth are therefore
often faced with the unsavory task of wading through fragmentary
teachings of dubious accuracy. How are we to make sense of it all?

Fortunately the Buddha left us with some simple guidelines to help us
navigate through this bewildering flood. Whenever you find yourself
questioning the authenticity of a particular teaching, heed well the
Buddha’s advice to his stepmother:

[The teachings that promote] the qualities of which you may know,
‘These qualities lead to passion, not to dispassion; to being fettered,
not to being unfettered; to accumulating, not to shedding; to
self-aggrandizement, not to modesty; to discontent, not to contentment;
to entanglement, not to seclusion; to laziness, not to aroused
persistence; to being burdensome, not to being unburdensome’: You may
definitely hold, ‘This is not the Dhamma, this is not the Vinaya, this
is not the Teacher’s instruction.’

[As for the teachings that promote] the qualities of which you may
know, ‘These qualities lead to dispassion, not to passion; to being
unfettered, not to being fettered; to shedding, not to accumulating; to
modesty, not to self-aggrandizement; to contentment, not to discontent;
to seclusion, not to entanglement; to aroused persistence, not to
laziness; to being unburdensome, not to being burdensome’: You may
definitely hold, ‘This is the Dhamma, this is the Vinaya, this is the
Teacher’s instruction.’

[AN VIII.53]

The truest test of these teachings, of course, is whether they yield
the promised results in the crucible of your own heart. The Buddha
presents the challenge; the rest is up to you.
.

______________________________________________________________

Copyright © John Bullitt

You can find the original article at accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/bullitt/theravada.html

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261XVII THREE BASKETS (TIPITAKA) I BUDDHISMCO TE TS 1. What is the Tipitaka? 2. Language of Buddha’s words(Buddhavacana) 3. What is Pali? 4. The First Council 5. The Second Council 6. The Great Schism 7. Origin of the Eighteen ikayas (Schools of Buddhism) 8. The Third Council 9. Committing the Tipitaka to Memory 10. Fourth Council: Committing the Tipitaka to Writing 11. Fifth and Sixth Councils in Myanmar 12. Conclusion 13. Appendix: Contents of the Tipitaka or Three Baskets 14. Explanatory Notes 15. References

The Dhammapada: Verses and Stories


Dhammapada Verse 141
Bahubhandika Bhikkhu Vatthu

Na naggacariya na jata na panka
nanasaka thandilasayika va
rajojallam ukkutikappadhanam
sodhenti maccam avitinnakankham.

Verse 141: Not going naked, nor having matted hair, nor smearing oneself with
mud, nor fasting, nor sleeping on bare ground, nor covering oneself with dust,
nor striving by squatting can purify a being, who has not yet overcome doubt.


The Story of Bhikkhu Bahubhandika

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (141) of
this book, with reference to Bahubhandika, a bhikkhu with many possessions.

Once there was a rich man in Savatthi. After the death of his wife, he
decided to become a bhikkhu. But before he entered the Order, he built a
monastery, which included a kitchen and a store room. He also brought his own
furniture, utensils and a large stock of rice, oil, butter and other provisions.
Whatever dishes he wanted was cooked for him by his servants. Thus, even as a
bhikkhu he was living in comfort, and because he had so many things with him, he
was known as ‘Bahubhandika.’ One day, other bhikkhus took him to the Buddha, and
in his presence told the Buddha about the many things he had brought along with
him to the monastery, and also how he was still leading the luxurious life of a
rich man. So, the Buddha said to Bahubhandika, “My son, I have been
teaching all of you to live an austere life; why have you brought so much
property with you?”
When reprimanded even this much, that bhikkhu lost
his temper and said angrily, “Indeed, Venerable Sir! I will now live as you
wish me to.” So saying, he cast off his upper robe.

Seeing him thus, the Buddha said to him, “My son, in your last
existence you were an ogre; even as an ogre you had a sense of shame and a sense
of fear to do evil. Now that you are a bhikkhu in my Teaching, why do you have
to throw away the sense of shame, and the sense of fear to do evil?”

When he heard those words, the bhikkhu realized his mistake; his sense of shame
and fear to do evil returned, and he respectfully paid obeisance to the Buddha
and asked that he should be pardoned. The Buddha then said to him,
“Standing there without your upper robe is not proper; just discarding your
robe etc., does not maker you an austere bhikkhu; a bhikkhu must also discard
his doubt.”

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 141: Not going naked, nor having matted hair,
nor smearing oneself with mud, nor fasting, nor sleeping on bare
ground, nor covering oneself with dust, nor striving by squatting can
purify a being, who has not yet overcome doubt.

At the end of the discourse many attained Sotapatti Fruition.

Dhammapada

Preface

I.Yamakavagga
Verse 001
Verse 002
Verse 003
Verse 005
Verse 006
Verse 007
Verse 009
Verse 011
Verse 013
Verse 015
Verse 016
Verse 017
Verse 018
Verse 019

II.Appamadavagga
Verse 021
Verse 024
Verse 025
Verse 026
Verse 028
Verse 029
Verse 030
Verse 031
Verse 032


III.Cittavagga

Verse 033
Verse 035
Verse 036
Verse 037
Verse 038
Verse 040
Verse 041
Verse 042
Verse 043


IV.Pupphavagga

Verse 044
Verse 046
Verse 047
Verse 048
Verse 049
Verse 050
Verse 051
Verse 053
Verse 054
Verse 056
Verse 057
Verse 058


V.Balavagga

Verse 060
Verse 061
Verse 062
Verse 063
Verse 064
Verse 065
Verse 066
Verse 067
Verse 068
Verse 069
Verse 070
Verse 071
Verse 072
Verse 073
Verse 075


VI.Panditavagga

Verse 076
Verse 077
Verse 078
Verse 079
Verse 080
Verse 081
Verse 082
Verse 083
Verse 084
Verse 085
Verse 087


VII.Arahantavagga

Verse 090
Verse 091
Verse 092
Verse 093
Verse 094
Verse 095
Verse 096
Verse 097
Verse 098
Verse 099


VIII.Sahassavagga

Verse 100
Verse 101
Verse 102
Verse 104
Verse 106
Verse 107
Verse 108
Verse 109
Verse 110
Verse 111
Verse 112
Verse 113
Verse 114
Verse 115


IX.Papavagga

Verse 116
Verse 117
Verse 118
Verse 119
Verse 121
Verse 122
Verse 123
Verse 124
Verse 125
Verse 126
Verse 127
Verse 128


X.Dandavagga

Verse 129
Verse 130
Verse 131
Verse 133
Verse 135
Verse 136
Verse 137
Verse 141
Verse 142
Verse 143
Verse 145


XI.Jaravagga

Verse 146
Verse 147
Verse 148
Verse 149
Verse 150
Verse 151
Verse 152
Verse 153
Verse 155

XII.Attavagga
Verse 157
Verse 158
Verse 159
Verse 160
Verse 161
Verse 162
Verse 163
Verse 164
Verse 165
Verse 166

XIII.Lokavagga
Verse 167
Verse 168
Verse 170
Verse 171
Verse 172
Verse 173
Verse 174
Verse 175
Verse 176
Verse 177
Verse 178


XIV.Buddhavagga

Verse 179
Verse 181
Verse 182
Verse 183
Verse 186
Verse 188
Verse 193
Verse 194
Verse 195


XV.Sukhavagga

Verse 197
Verse 200
Verse 201
Verse 202
Verse 203
Verse 204
Verse 205
Verse 206


XVI.Piyavagga

Verse 209
Verse 212
Verse 213
Verse 214
Verse 215
Verse 216
Verse 217
Verse 218
Verse 219


XVII.Kodhavagga

Verse 221
Verse 222
Verse 223
Verse 224
Verse 225
Verse 226
Verse 227
Verse 231

XVIII.Malavagga
Verse 235
Verse 239
Verse 240
Verse 241
Verse 242
Verse 244
Verse 246
Verse 249
Verse 251
Verse 252
Verse 253
Verse 254


XIX.Dhammatthavagga

Verse 256
Verse 258
Verse 259
Verse 260
Verse 262
Verse 264
Verse 266
Verse 268
Verse 270
Verse 271


XX.Maggavagga

Verse 273
Verse 277
Verse 280
Verse 281
Verse 282
Verse 283
Verse 285
Verse 286
Verse 287
Verse 288

XXI.Pakinnakavagga
Verse 290
Verse 291
Verse 292
Verse 294
Verse 296
Verse 302
Verse 303
Verse 304
Verse 305

XXII.Nirayavagga
Verse 306
Verse 307
Verse 308
Verse 309
Verse 311
Verse 314
Verse 315
Verse 316
Verse 318

XXIII.Nagavagga
Verse 320
Verse 323
Verse 324
Verse 325
Verse 326
Verse 327
Verse 328
Verse 331


XXIV.Tanhavagga

Verse 334
Verse 338
Verse 344
Verse 345
Verse 347
Verse 348
Verse 349
Verse 351
Verse 353
Verse 354
Verse 355
Verse 356


XXV.Bhikkhuvagga

Verse 360
Verse 362
Verse 363
Verse 364
Verse 365
Verse 367
Verse 368
Verse 377
Verse 378
Verse 379
Verse 381
Verse 382


XXVI.Brahmanavagga

Verse 383
Verse 384
Verse 385
Verse 386
Verse 387
Verse 388
Verse 389
Verse 391
Verse 392
Verse 393
Verse 394
Verse 395
Verse 396
Verse 397
Verse 398
Verse 399
Verse 400
Verse 401
Verse 402
Verse 403
Verse 404
Verse 405
Verse 406
Verse 407
Verse 408
Verse 409
Verse 410
Verse 411
Verse 412
Verse 413
Verse 414
Verse 415
*Verse 416
*Verse 416
Verse 417
Verse 418
Verse 419
Verse 421
Verse 422
Verse 423

*These two stories have the same verse.



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