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11/17/07
Sangha-MAHA BODHI SOCIETY-Questionnaire No 6 and Answers of First Year Diploma Course conducted by Mahabodhi Academy for Pali and Buddhist Studies
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Sangha

MAHA BODHI SOCIETY-Questionnaire No 6 and Answers of First Year Diploma Course conducted by Mahabodhi Academy for Pali and Buddhist Studies

1. The Bodhisattaa are endowed with the special power of choosing their destiny, meaning how they want to die and where they want to be born etc. Describe how did Bodhisatta Setaketu exercise this power to be born in the human world to accomplish his final objective - Supreme Awakenment.

In His immedeate past life, the Buddha Gotama was born as Setaketu Devaraaja, ruler of Tusita divine realm. He was also known as Santusita, a title for the ruler of this realm. Devine beings are ’spontaneously born’ (opapaatika), that is, without the medium of parents. They spontaneously appear in the devine realm complete with all devine features including dress, decoration, symbols pf position and authority etc. Bodhisatta Setaketu was endowed with ten attributes of a devine soverign, that is, superior qualities of life, such as:

1. Longer life-span

2. More beautiful and healthy physical features,

3. Greater happiness and better frame fo mind,

4. Immense wealth and following,

5. Great authority and power,

6. More acute sense - faculties, e.g. sight,

7. Hearing

8. Smell,

9. Taste,

10. Touch.

Having enjoyed such immense divine bliss and power as Tusita’s ruler, for a full length of his life-time (4000 divine years, equvalent to many crores of human years), he became aware of five predective signs (pubba nimitta), indicating the approaching end of his life. Noting these signs, Bodhisatta Setaketu prepared himself for his next and final state of existence in the human world.

First he chose Mahaamaayaa Devi to be his mother because of her great virtue and compasion. With his devine vision, he beheld his would-be mother who was then fifty-five years and four months old, and who after conceiving the Bodhisatta, had only 10 months and 7 days to live. The Bodhisatta’s mother invariably passes away in a week’s time.

2. Since Setaketu chose to discard the blissful devine existence, and be born in the human plan, as prince Sidhatta Gotama, there have been spurious theories, such as Siddhata being an avatar of some god. Thus some expansionist Hindus have tried to misconstrue the Buddha to be a reincarnation of the god Vishnu. Waht do you think of this sectarian twist?

The Buddha is one who has climbed to the summit state of all spiritual attainments, thus is supreme teacher of both gods and human beings. As such he no longer subject to rebirth or reincarnation.

3. It is saiid Buddhism rejects a creator god, but accepts the existence of infinite number of gods in different divine planes. Do you find it contradictory? If so how, if not, why? explain.

The Buddha is one who has climbed to the summit state of all spiritual attainments, thus is supreme teacher of both gods and human beings.Buddhism rejects a creator god. But does not reject the loving kindness and compassion of celestial beings.

4. What is the motivation underlying the attempt at calling the Buddha an avataar of Vishnu?

The Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa That is The Great Prabuddha Bharath have realised this truth of the Noble Eightfold path and practice of Janas which is the essence of Buddhism and atarted returning to their own homes ‘Ghar waapasee’.This is not tolerated by the Invader’s cults and that is the motivation underlying the attempt at calling the Buddha an avataar of Vishna. And no where in Buddhism the word Vishnu could be found.

5. Briefly describe the following:

i. Dream of Queen Mahaamaya.


Before Siddartha Gautama’s birth, his mother dreamed
of a white elephant presenting her with a lotus flower in its trunk, appearing from the sky and entering into her.She became sublime exultation. The vivid dream etched a deep impression on her mind and she related it to the king next morning with joyous exitement. The king too became filled with gladness and ordered the court astrologers to devine the secret of the dream.

ii. Birth of Prince Siddhatha

The birth of Siddhartha Gautama

Birth

Buddha’s father was Suddhodana, king of the Sakhyas. Buddha’s mother was named Maya. Buddha was born in B.C. 560 and died at the age of eighty in B.C. 480. The place of his birth was a grove known as Lumbini, near the city of Kapilavastu, at the foot of Mount Palpa in the Himalayan ranges within Nepal. This small city Kapilavastu stood on the bank of the little river Rohini, some hundred miles north-east of the city of Varnasi. As the time drew nigh for Buddha to enter the world, the gods themselves prepared the way before him with celestial portents and signs. Flowers bloomed and gentle rains fell, although out of season; heavenly music was heard, delicious scents filled the air. The body of the child bore at birth the thirty-two auspicious marks (Mahavyanjana) which indicated his future greatness, besides secondary marks (Anuvyanjana) in large numbers. Maya died seven days after her son’s birth. The child was brought up by Maya’s sister Mahaprajapati, who became its foster-mother.

iii. What does the White elephant signify as a symbol ?

The vivid dream etched a deep impression on her mind and she related it to the king next morning with joyous exitement. The king too became filled with gladness and ordered the court astrologers to devine the secret of the dream. These experts foretold that a devine being has descended into the Queen and a World-Ruling Monarch, (Chakkavatti Mahaaraajaa), has been conceived. According to the ancient customs, the mother of the Chakkavatti Mahaaraajaa is given the protection of the foetus, that is, she no longer met her husband and was looked after with utter tenderness and care. From now on she spent all her time in spiritual pursuit so that the future monarchwould be righteous.

6. Write down the Prince Siddhatta’s proclamation at birth.

It is also said that, immediately after his birth, the infant stood firmly on the ground and took seven strides to the north, surrounded by gods and men. A white canopy was held over his head. Having walked the seven steps, he stopped to look around and gave out a fearless utterance known as the ‘lion’s roar’ (sihanada). His proclamation may be translated as follows:

“Supreme am I in the world;
“Greatest am I in the world;
“Noblest am I in the world.
“This is my last birth,
“Never shall I be reborn.”

i. What do you understand by this proclamation? why did the baby do so? Describe.

It is possible that the miracles accompanying the Buddha’s birth described in the early commentaries may point to something deeper and more meaningful. Early writers were prone to use such symbolic descriptions to explain certain Dhamma principles, but in later times their true intentions and meanings have become so obscured that an interpretative inquiry is required in order to reveal the real spirit of those cryptic expressions. Thus the baby’s standing on the ground is interpreted as his being well established in the four Virtues of Accomplishment (iddhipada — aspiration, effort, mental application and reasoning); turning northward means the spiritual conquest of the multitudes; the seven steps signify the seven Factors of Enlightenment (bojjhanga — mindfulness, investigation of Dhamma, effort, rapture, calmness, concentration, equanimity); the white canopy suggests the spread of Dhamma that brings peace to the world; looking around indicates the seeing and unveiling of supreme knowledge; the fearlessness of the lion’s roar denotes the utter success in proclaiming the Dhamma; and the last birth means the attainment of Arahantship. This is another way of looking at unusual events described in some Buddhist literature, an interpretative approach, aimed at discovering a deeper meaning in the narration of what may seem extraordinary events beyond our normal range of comprehension.

7. Write an account of the visit of Sage Asita and his prophecy. Why did he laugh and then cry/ Describe this contrdictory scene.

Asita.-Often called the Buddhist Simeon, though the comparison is not quite correct. He was a sage and the chaplain of Sīhahanu, father of Suddhodana. He was the teacher of the Suddhodana, and later his chaplain. He came morning and evening to see the king, Suddhodana, who showed him as great respect as he had while yet his pupil; this, we are told, is a characteristic of Sākiyan kings.

With the king’s leave, Asita renounced the world and lived in the king’s pleasance. In due course he developed various iddhi powers. Thenceforward he would often spend the day in the deva worlds. Once, while in Tāvatimsa, he saw the whole city decked with splendour and the gods engaged in great rejoicing. On inquiry he learnt that Siddhattha Gotama, destined to become the Buddha, had been born. Immediately he went to Suddhodana’s home and asked to see the babe. From the auspicious marks on its body he knew that it would become the Enlightened One and was greatly overjoyed, but realising that he himself would, by then, be born in an Arūpa world and would not therefore be able to hear the Buddha preach, he wept and was sad. Having reassured the king regarding the babe’s future, Asita sought his sister’s son, Nalaka, and ordained him that he might be ready to benefit by the Buddha’s teaching when the time came. Later Asita was born in the Arūpa world (Sn., pp.131-36; SnA.ii.483ff.; J.i.54f).

According to Buddhaghosa (SnA.ii.483), Asita was so-called because of his dark complexion. He also had a second name, Kanha Devala (SnA.ii.487). Other names for him were Kanha Siri (Sn.v.689), Siri Kanha (SnA.487) and Kāla Devala (J.i.54).

He is evidently to be distinguished from Asita Devala, also called Kāla Devala.

The Lalita Vistara has two versions of Asita’s prophecy, one in prose and one in verse, which, in their chief details, differ but slightly from the Pāli version. In the former his nephew is called Naradatta, and Asita himself is represented as being a great sage dwelling in the Himālaya but unknown to Suddhodana.

Here is evidently a confusion of his story with that of Asita Devala. In the Mahāvastu version (ii.30f) he is spoken of as the son of a brahmin of Ujjeni, and he lives in a hermitage in the Vindhyā mountains. It is noteworthy that in the Jātaka version he is called, not an isi, but a tāpasa, an ascetic practising austerities. And there we are told that when the king brought the boy, the future Buddha, and prepared to make him do reverence to the ascetic, the babe’s feet turned up and placed themselves on the ascetic’s head. For there is no one fit to be reverenced by a Bodhisatta, and had they put the babe’s head at the feet of the ascetic, the ascetic’s head would have split into seven pieces.

The tāpasa could see forty kappas into the past and forty kappas into the future. J.i.54-5. See Thomas, op. cit., pp. 38 ff., on the growth of the Asita legend.

8. Describe the dispute between Devadatta and Siddhattha. How was the dispute resolved and with waht consequence?

Thus, once when he was out walking in the country with his cousin Devadatta who had his bow and arrows with him, Devadatta shot a swan that was flying over their head. His arrow hit the swan and it fluttered down, painfully wounded, to the ground. Both boys ran forward to pick it up, but Siddhattha reached it first and holding it gently, he pulled the arrow out of its wing, put some cool leaves on the wound to stop it from bleeding, and with his soft hand stroked and soothed the hurt and frightened bird. But Devadatta was very much annoyed to see his cousin take the swan from him in this way, and he called to Siddhattha to give the swan to him because he had brought it down with his arrow. Siddhattha, however, refused to give it to him, saying that if the bird had been killed, then it would have been his; but as it was alive and not dead, it belonged to the one who actually secured possession of it, and so he meant to keep it. But still Devadatta maintained that it should belong to him because it was his arrow that had brought it down to the ground.

So Siddhattha proposed and Devadatta agreed that their dispute should be sent for settlement to a full council of the wise men of the country. The council, accordingly, was called and the question put before them; and some in the council argued one way and some the other; some said the bird should be Devadatta’s, and others said that Siddhattha was quite right to keep it. But at last one man in the council whom nobody had ever seen before rose and said: “A life certainly must belong to him who tries to save it; a life cannot belong to one who is only trying to destroy it. The wounded bird by right belongs to the one who saved its life. Let the swan be given to Siddhattha.” All the others in the council agreed with these wise words, and Prince Siddhattha was allowed to keep the swan whose life he thus had saved. And he cared for it tenderly until it was quite cured of its wound; then he set it free and let it fly back once more well and happy to its mates on the forest-lake.

cartoon picture of the Siddhartha and swan

By this compassionate act he justified his future role of’The Saviour of the three worlds’-Tilokanatha!

9. Discribe why Siddhattha choose the Swayambara way of winning a bride? He was known to be very delicate ; what did he want to prove by daring the challengers?

When Siddhattha had grown to youth, his father desired to see him married,
and he sent to all his kinsfolk, commanding them to bring their princesses
that the prince might select one of them as his wife.

But the kinsfolk replied and said:
“The prince is young and delicate;
nor has he learned any of the sciences.
He would not be able to maintain our daughter,
and should there be war he would be unable to cope with the enemy.”

The prince was not boisterous, but pensive in his nature.
He loved to stay under the great jambu-tree in the garden of his father,
and, observing the ways of the world,
gave himself up to meditation.

And the prince said to his father:
“Invite our kinsfolk that they may see me and put my strength to the test.”
And his father did as his son bade him.

When the kinsfolk came, and the people of the city Kapilavatthu had assembled
to test the prowess and scholarship of the prince,
he proved himself manly in all the exercises both of the body and of the mind,
and there was no rival among the youths and men of India
who could surpass him in any test, bodily or mental.

He replied to all the questions of the sages;
but when he questioned them,
even the wisest among them were silenced.

Then Siddhattha chose himself a wife.
He selected Yasodhara, his cousin, the gentle daughter of the king of Koli.
And Yasodhara was betrothed to the prince.

10. It is said having won Yashodhara, the beauty queen of the time, in a hot contest, theirs was love at first sight. What does it mean? Explain

He won the hands of the most beautiful maiden,princess yashodhara, who was famous for her accompilshments.

After winning the bride in the contest, the prince presented to her the priceless Heir-apparent’s preciousgem necklace, signifying the auspicious betrothal. It is said that their’s was love at first sight. Later, as the Supremely Awakened Buddha, he recalled how he and Yashodhara had been intimately associated through many lives in the past.

 

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Sarvajan Hitay Sarvajan Sukhay-For The Gain of The Many and For The Welfare of The Many-Former Cabinet Minister Mr. Satish Chandra Mishra nominated chairman of the council -Sindhia to join BSP on December 23 -BSP rallies -UP Govt denies reports that Rahul was on JeM hit-list-Hardcore criminal held in Gurgaon-Reliance Fresh packs up in UP
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Sarvajan Hitay Sarvajan Sukhay-For The Gain of The Many and For The Welfare of The Many

Former Cabinet Minister Mr. Satish Chandra Mishra nominated chairman of the council

Lucknow : November 16, 2007 The U.P. Chief Minister, Km. Mayawati constituted the U.P. State Advisory Council (U.P.S.A.C.) for reviewing and monitoring the proper implementation of various development programmes and policies of the State Government. She has nominated former cabinet minister Mr. Satish Chandra Mishra as its chairman. This council would give suggestions to strengthen various policies, programmes and legislations of the State. The Chief Secretary, Principal Secretary Finance, Principal Secretary Home, Principal Secretary Planning and Principal Secretary Law would be its members. All these members and the chairman would not be paid any salary, honorarium or other perks. The meetings of the council would be called by the chairman as per the directives of the C.M. According to the order, the council has been constituted with a view to giving suggestions for the rapid development of the State as well as proper implementation of the programmes and policies of the State Government. Besides, it would also give meaningful suggestions for strengthening the law and order of the State. The council has been authorised for the review and monitoring of the programmes and the policies of the State Government formulated for the development. It has also been authorised to give suggestions for the various legislation subjects of the government. It would also look after the various works given by the C.M. According to the order, arrangement for the staff for the functioning of the council would also be made. The council has been authorised to take the services of specialists and educationists as per its requirements. *******


Online edition of India’s National Newspaper
Friday, Nov 16, 2007

Sindhia to join BSP on December 23

Special Correspondent

Bangalore: Kanakapura MLA P.G.R. Sindhia, many former Ministers and MLAs from Janata Dal (Secular), Janata Dal (United) and Congress will join the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) on December 23 here, according to president of the State unit of the party B. Gopal.

Mr. Gopal told presspersons on the sidelines of the inauguration of the party’s legal cell here on Wednesday that over a lakh people would join the party in the presence of Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Mayawati.

Asked to name the important persons who were expected to join the party, Mr. Gopal said he had been requested by the leaders not reveal their names.

But, he said that among those who would join the party were the former MLA, P.S. Prakash, and Trishupani Patel, son of the former Chief Minister, J.H. Patel.

BSP rallies

Chitradurga: The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) will hold bicycle, motorcycle and jeep rallies in the district to highlight the ideologies of the party, and to inform people about the visit of its leader Mayavati to Bangalore on December 23, said State general secretary M. Jayanna. Speaking to presspersons here on Friday, he said that the rallies would be held in all the taluks of the district from November 18. He said that on December 23, a massive convention would be held at Palace Grounds in Bangalore. — Staff Correspondent

UP CIC seeks details on Ambedkar project

State Cabinet Secretary summoned on December 12

Lucknow: Uttar Pradesh’s Chief Information Commissioner (CIC) has summoned the State Cabinet Secretary on December 12 seeking details of the multi-crore Ambedkar memorial project.

CIC Justice (retd) M. A. Khan passed the order onThursday while hearing a complaint of former Dy SP Shailendra Singh, who is now heading a task force constituted by the Congress party.

Mr.Khan also said he would hand over the matter to CBI if the State refused to comply with his orders to provide information on the project. Mr. Singh had on July 9 sought an information from the Chief Minister’s office regarding the demolition and reconstruction of the Ambedkar memorial and asked for the blue prints of the original project and the revised one along with the cost for both. He also wanted to know why the memorial for which the BSP government had spent over Rs 100 crore was demolished in just three year’s time. Mr.Singh later moved to the State Information Commission which on September 28 issued a notice to the Government. The CIC, while exempting Chief Secretary P. K. Mishra, has summoned the Cabinet Secretary as he had all the powers.

Mr. Khan also sought to know from the Government on whose order did the Lucknow Development Authority (LDA)demolished and started reconstruction of the memorial.

Mr. Singh has also been asked to file objections, if any, before November 30. The LDA had given a four-page response to Mr. Singh earlier, but he had rubbished it, saying the information was cursory, they said. PTI

http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx?id=6a20dfc4-911e-4859-9cf8-26d2f7821741&ParentID=90df7391-722f-4def-a193-313f0b40ebfc&MatchID1=4586&TeamID1=1&TeamID2=8&MatchType1=1&SeriesID1=1151&MatchID2=4588&TeamID3=3&TeamID4=5&MatchType2=1&SeriesID2=1152&PrimaryID=4586&Headline=UP+Govt+denies+reports+that+Rahul+was+on+JeM+hit-list

iconimg   Sunday, November 18, 2007
UP Govt denies reports that Rahul was on JeM hit-list

Press Trust Of India
Lucknow, November 16, 2007

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Buddha-Insult
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Buddha

Akkosa Sutta
Insult
Translated from the Pali by
Acharya Buddharakkhita
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Once the Blessed One was staying at Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove near the Squirrels’ Feeding Place. Now the brahman Akkosa Bharadvaja heard this: “The brahman Bharadvaja, it seems, has become a monk under the Great Monk Gotama.” Angry and unhappy, he went to where the Blessed One was. Having approached the Blessed One, he abused and criticized the Blessed One in foul and harsh words. Thus reviled, the Blessed One spoke to the brahman Akkosa Bharadvaja: ‘Well, brahman, do friends, confidants, relatives, kinsmen and guests visit you?”

“Yes, Gotama, sometimes friends, confidants, relatives, kinsmen and guests do visit me.”

“Well, brahman, do you not offer them snacks or food or tidbits?”

“Yes, Gotama, sometimes I do offer them snacks or food or tidbits.”

“But if, brahman, they do not accept it, who gets it?”

“If Gotama, they do not accept it, I get it back.”

“Even so, brahman, you are abusing us who do not abuse, you are angry with us who do not get angry, you are quarreling with us who do not quarrel. All this of yours we don’t accept. You alone, brahman, get it back; all this, brahman, belongs to you.

“When, brahman, one abuses back when abused, repays anger in kind, and quarrels back when quarreled with, this is called, brahman, associating with each other and exchanging mutually. This association and mutual exchange we do not engage in. Therefore you alone, brahman, get it back; all this, brahman, belongs to you.”

“People, including the king, know the Venerable Gotama thus: ‘The Monk Gotama is the Worthy One.’ When does the Venerable Gotama become angry?”

Said the Buddha:

“Where is anger for one freed from anger,
Who is subdued and lives perfectly equanimous,
Who truly knowing is wholly freed,
Supremely tranquil and equipoised?
He who repays an angry man in kind
Is worse than the angry man;
Who does not repay anger in kind,
He alone wins the battle hard to win.
He promotes the weal of both,
His own, as well as of the other.
Knowing that the other man is angry,
He mindfully maintains his peace
And endures the anger of both,
His own, as well as of the other,
Even if the people ignorant of true wisdom
Consider him a fool thereby.”

When the Lord proclaimed this, the brahman Akkosa Bharadvaja said this to the Blessed One: “Wonderful, indeed, O Venerable Gotama! Herewith I go to the Venerable Gotama for refuge, to his Teaching and to his Holy Order of Monks. Most venerable sir, may I have the privilege to receive at the hands of the revered Lord Gotama the initial monastic ordination and also the higher ordination of a bhikkhu.”

And the brahman Akkosa Bharadvaja received at the hands of the Blessed One the initial monastic ordination and he also received the higher ordination of a bhikkhu. And within a short time of his ordination, the Venerable Akkosa Bharadvaja, living alone, secluded, diligent, zealous and unrelenting, reached that incomparable consummation of holiness for which sons of noble families, having totally abandoned the household life, take to the life of homelessness. With direct knowledge he realized the ultimate, then and there, and lived having access to it. He saw with his supernormal vision: “Ceased is rebirth, lived is the holy life, completed is the spiritual task and henceforth there is nothing higher to be achieved.”

The Venerable Akkosa Bharadvaja, indeed, became one of the Arahats.

Dhamma-Are minds of Asians and Westerners different?
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Dhamma

Q: Are minds of Asians and Westerners different?

A: Basically there is no difference. Outer customs and language may appear different, but the human mind has natural characteristics which are the same for all people. Greed and hatred are the same in an Eastern or a Western mind. Suffering and the cessation of suffering are the same for all people.

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Sangha-The Buddha’s Passing Away-Questionnaire No 5 and Answers of First Year Diploma Course conducted by Mahabodhi Academy for Pali and Buddhist Studies
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Sangha

The Buddha’s Passing AwayThe Buddha In Mahaparinibbana

Now at that time Subhadda the Wanderer was staying in Kusinara. He heard that ‘Tonight, in the last watch of the night, the total Unbinding of Gotama the contemplative will take place.’ Then this thought occurred to him, ‘I have heard the elder wanderers, teachers of teachers, saying that only once in a long, long time do Tathagatas — worthy ones, rightly self-awakened — appear in the world. Tonight, in the last watch of the night, the total Unbinding of Gotama the contemplative will take place. Now there is a doubt that has arisen in me, but I have faith that he could teach me the Dhamma in such a way that I might abandon that doubt.’

So he went to the Mallan Sal Tree grove and, on arrival, said to Ven. Ananda, ‘I have heard the elder wanderers, teachers of teachers, saying that only once in a long, long time do Tathagatas — worthy ones, rightly self-awakened — appear in the world. Tonight, in the last watch of the night, the total Unbinding of Gotama the contemplative will take place. Now there is a doubt that has arisen in me, but I have faith that he could teach me the Dhamma in such a way that I might abandon that doubt. It would be good, Ven. Ananda, if you would let me see him.’

When this was said, Ven. Ananda said to him, ‘Enough, friend Subhadda. Do not bother the Blessed One. The Blessed One is tired.’

For a second time… For a third time, Subhadda the Wanderer said to Ven. Ananda, ‘…It would be good, Ven. Ananda, if you would let me see him.’

For a third time, Ven. Ananda said to him, ‘Enough, friend Subhadda. Do not bother the Blessed One. The Blessed One is tired.’

Now, the Blessed One heard the exchange between Ven. Ananda and Subhadda the Wanderer, and so he said to Ven. Ananda, ‘Enough, Ananda. Do not stand in his way. Let him see the Tathagata. Whatever he asks me will all be for the sake of knowledge, and not to be bothersome. And whatever I answer when asked, he will quickly understand.’

So Ven. Ananda said to Subhadda the Wanderer, ‘Go ahead, friend Subhadda. The Blessed One gives you his leave.’

Then Subhadda went to the Blessed One and exchanged courtesies, and after the exchange of courtesies sat to one side. As he was sitting there, he said to the Blessed One, ‘Lord, these priests and contemplatives, each with his group, each with his community, each the teacher of his group, an honored leader, well-regarded by people at large — i.e., Purana Kassapa, Makkhali Gosala, Ajita Kesakambalin, Pakudha Kaccayana, Sañjaya Belatthaputta, and the Nigantha Nathaputta: Do they all have direct knowledge as they themselves claim, or do they all not have direct knowledge, or do some of them have direct knowledge and some of them not?’

‘Enough, Subhadda. Put this question aside. I will teach you the Dhamma. Listen, and pay close attention. I will speak.’

‘Yes, lord,’ Subhadda answered, and the Blessed One said, ‘In any doctrine and discipline where the noble eightfold path is not found, no contemplative of the first… second… third… fourth order [stream-winner, once-returner, non-returner, arahant ] is found. But in any doctrine and discipline where the noble eightfold path is found, contemplatives of the first… second… third… fourth order are found. The noble eightfold path is found in this doctrine and discipline, and right here there are contemplatives of the first… second… third… fourth order. Other teachings are empty of knowledgeable contemplatives. And if the monks dwell rightly, this world will not be empty of arahants.

At age twenty-nine I went forth,
seeking what might be skillful,
and since my going forth
more than fifty years have past.
	
Outside of the realm
of methodical Dhamma,
there is no contemplative.

And no contemplative of the second… third… fourth order. Other teachings are empty of knowledgeable contemplatives. And if the monks dwell rightly, this world will not be empty of arahants.’

Then Subhadda the Wanderer said, ‘Magnificent, lord, magnificent! In many ways has the Blessed One made the Dhamma clear — just as if one were to place upright what has been overturned, to reveal what has been hidden, to point out the way to one who is lost, or to set out a lamp in the darkness so that those with eyes might see forms. I go to the Blessed One for refuge, and to the Dhamma and to the community of monks. Let me obtain the going forth in the Blessed One’s presence, let me obtain admission.’

‘Anyone, Subhadda, who has previously belonged to another sect and who desires the going forth and admission in this doctrine and discipline must first undergo probation for four months. If, at the end of four months, the monks feel so moved, they give him the going forth and admit him to the monk’s state. But I know distinctions among individuals in this matter.’

‘Lord, if that is so, I am willing to undergo probation for four years. If, at the end of four years, the monks feel so moved, let them give me the going forth and admit me to the monk’s state.’

Then the Blessed One said to Ven. Ananda, ‘Very well then, Ananda, give Subhadda the going forth.’

‘Yes, lord,’ Ananda answered.

Then Subhadda said to Ven. Ananda, ‘It is a gain for you, Ananda, a great gain, that you have been anointed here in the Teacher’s presence with the pupil’s anointing.’

Then Subhadda the Wanderer received the going forth and the admission in the Blessed One’s presence. And not long after his admission — dwelling alone, secluded, heedful, ardent, and resolute — he in no long time reached and remained in the supreme goal of the holy life, for which clansmen rightly go forth from home into homelessness, knowing and realizing it for himself in the here and now. He knew: ‘Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for the sake of this world.’ And thus Ven. Subhadda became another one of the arahants, the last of the Blessed One’s face-to-face disciples…

Then the Blessed One addressed the monks, ‘I exhort you, monks: All processes are subject to decay. Bring about completion by being heedful.’ Those were the Tathagata’s last words.

Then the Blessed One entered the first jhana. Emerging from that he entered the second. Emerging from that, he entered the third… the fourth… the dimension of the infinitude of space… the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness… the dimension of nothingness… the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception… the cessation of perception and feeling.

Then Ven. Ananda said to Ven. Anuruddha, “The Blessed One, sir, has entered total Unbinding.”

“No, friend, the Blessed One has not entered total Unbinding. He has attained the cessation of perception and feeling.”

Then emerging from the cessation of perception and feeling, the Blessed One entered the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception… the dimension of nothingness… the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness… the dimension of the infinitude of space… the fourth jhana… the third… the second… the first jhana. Emerging from the first jhana he entered the second… the third… the fourth jhana. Emerging from the fourth jhana, he entered total Unbinding in the interim…

When the Blessed One had attained total Unbinding, Sakka, ruler of the gods, uttered this stanza:

How inconstant are compounded things!
Their nature: to arise and pass away.
They disband as they are arising.
Their total stilling
is bliss.

Questionnaire No 5 and Answers of First Year Diploma Course conducted by Mahabodhi Academy for Pali and Buddhist Studies

1. Lord Buddha had announced the names of the past Buddhas in the Buddhavamsa Paali.
 Write down their names together with some of the common features of all Buddhas in the
 form of chart.

 The Introductory chapter of the Jataka Atthakatha presents a list of the twenty-five
 Buddhas (excluding the Future Buddha: Metteya), which is as follows:
 i. Dipankara
 ii. Kondanna
 iii. Mangala
 iv. Sumana
 v. Revata vi. Sobhita
 vii. Anomadassi
 viii. Paduma
 ix. Narada
 x. Paduma Uttara
 xi. Sumedha
 xii. Sujata
 xiii. Piyadassi
 xiv. Atthadassi
 xv. Dhammadassi
 xvi. Siddhattha
 xvii. Tissa
 xviii. Phussa
 xix. Vipassi
 xx. Sikhi
 xxi. Vessabhu
 xxii. Kakusandha
 xxiii. Konagamana
 xxiv. Kassapa
 xxv. Gotama
 Sometimes, the tradition also identifies three additional Buddhas, who were born before
 Dipankara. The names of those Buddhas are Tanhankara, Medhankara and Sarankara.
 The Buddhavamsa gives the particulars of each of the Buddhas with the details on their
 first sermons; aura of their bodies; and the description as to which Bodhisatta became
 which Buddha and so on. (See Buddhavamsa Atthakatha for details).

 
2. Write an essay on the Bodhisatta Ideal.
 
 THE BODHISATTA IDEAL
 
 In the teachings of the Buddha, for the realization of the ultimate Goal, there are three
 modes of Enlightenment (Bodhi) one of which an aspirant may choose in accordance
 with his particular temperament. They are Savaka [1]- Bodhi, Pacceka-Bodhi and the
 Samma-Sambodhi.
 
 Savaka-Bodhi
 
 Savaka-Bodhi is the Enlightenment of a disciple. This is known as the Arahant [2] ideal.
 He who aspires to become an Arahant usually seeks the guidance of a superior
 awakened instructor. A slight indication from an understanding teacher would alone
 be sufficient for a morally advanced aspirant to progress on the upward path of
 Awakenment. Venerable Sariputta, for instance, attained the first stage of Sainthood,
 hearing only half a stanza from the Arahant Assaji. The sorrow-afflicted Patacara, who
 lost all those dear to her under tragic circumstances, attained Arahantship by watching
 the water that washed her feet.. The child-like Kisagotami who implored the Buddha for
 a cure for her dead infant, attained Sainthood by watching a lamp that was being
 extinguished. Cula Panthaka, who could not memorize a verse for four months, attained
  Arahantship by meditating on imper-manence while handling a clean piece of white
 cloth in his hand, gazing at the sun.
 
 After achieving his goal, an Arahant devotes the remainder of his life to serving other
 seekers of peace by example and by precept. First he purifies himself, and then he tries
 to purify others by expounding to them the teachings which he himself has followed.
 An Arahant is more qualified to teach the Dhamma than ordinary worldling teachers,
 who have no realization of Truth, since he speaks from personal experience.
 
 There is nothing selfish in the noble ideal of Arahantship, for Arahantship is gained only
 by eradicating all forms of selfishness. Self-illusion and Egoism are some of the fetters
 that have to be discarded in order to attain Arahantship. The wise men and women who
 lived in the time of the Buddha, and others later, benefited by the golden opportunity
 offered by Him to gain their enlightenment in this present life itself.
 
 Pacceka-Bodhi
 
 Pacceka-Bodhi is the independent Enlightenment of a highly evolved person who
 achieves his goal by his own efforts without seeking any external aid. Such a holy
 person is termed a Pacceka (Private) Buddha because he lacks the power to purify and
 serve others by expounding the Dhamma which he himself has discovered. Nevertheless
 he teaches morality.
 
 Pacceka Buddhas arise only during those periods when the Teaching does not exist.
 Their number is not limited only to one at a particular time as in the case of
 Samma-Sambuddhas.
 
 Although the Buddha Gotama of the present era has passed away we are still living in a
 Buddha cycle, for the Teaching still exists in its pristine purity. Accordingly no Pacceka
 Buddhas arise during this period. In the Khaggavisana Sutta of the Sutta Nipata are
 treasured some beautiful sayings of Pacceka Buddhas. A few of their wise utterances
 are quoted below:–
 
 1. Leaving aside the cudgel towards all beings, harming none of them, let him not yearn
 for sons or friends, but wander alone like a rhinoceros.
 
 2. Affection arises from intimacy, and sorrow results thereby. Realizing the evil born of
 affection wander alone like a rhinoceros.
 
 3. We certainly praise the value of comradeship. One should associate with superiors or
 equals. Failing them, lead a blameless life and wander alone like a rhinoceros.
 4. Variegated, sweet, and enchanting are sensual pleasures. In diverse forms they
 seduce the heart. Recognizing their menace, wander alone like a rhinoceros.
 
 5. Cold and heat, hunger, thirst, wind, sun, mosquitoes and snakes — overcome them all,
 and wander alone like a rhinoceros.
 
 6. Like a lion that does not tremble at every sound, like the wind that does not cling to the
 meshes of a net, like the lotus that is unsoiled by the mud, wander alone like a rhinoceros.
  7. In due season cultivate loving-kindness, equanimity, compassion, release,
 appreciative joy, and unthwarted by the world, wander alone like a rhinoceros.
 
 Samma-Sambodhi
 
 Samma-Sambodhi is the supreme Enlightenment of a most developed, most
 compassionate, most loving, all-knowing perfect being. He who attains this Bodhi is
 called a Samma-Sambuddha, literally, a fully self-enlightened One. He is so called
 because he not only comprehends the Dhamma by his own efforts and wisdom but also
 expounds the doctrine to seekers of truth to purify and save them from this ever-recurring
  cycle of birth and death. Unlike the Private Buddhas, only one Supreme Buddha arises at
 a particular time, just as on certain trees one flower alone blooms.
 
 He who aspires to attain Samma-Sambuddhahood is called a Bodhisatta. This Bodhisatta
  ideal is the most refined and the most beautiful that could ever, in this ego-centric world,
 be conceived for what is nobler than a life of service and purity?
 
 Those who, in the course of their wanderings in Samsara, wish to serve others and reach
 ultimate perfection, are free to pursue the Bodhisatta ideal, but there is no compulsion
 that all must strive to attain Buddhahood, which, to say the least, is practically
  impossible. Critics who contend that the Bodhisatta ideal was evolved to counteract the
 tendency to a cloistered, placid and inert monastic life, only reveal ignorance of the pure
 Buddha-Dhamma.

 The Abbisamayalankara-Aloka, a later Samskrit work, a sub-commentary to the Prajna
 Paramita, states:-
 
 ”The great disciples (Sravakas), having attained the two kinds of Awakenment
 (i.e., of the Sravaka proper and the Pratyeka Buddha) with and without residue, remain
 with their minds full of fear, since they are deprived of great compassion and highest
 wisdom (uru karuna prajna vaikal-yena). Owing to the cessation of the force of life,
 produced by the previous Biotic force, the attainment of Nirvana becomes possible.
 But in reality (the Hinayanist saints) are possessed only of that seeming Nirvana which is
 called the Nirvana resembling an extinguished light. The births in the three spheres of
 existence have ceased, but, after their worldly existence has taken an end, the Arahants
 are born in the most pure sphere of Buddhist activity in the unaffected plane
 (anasravadhatu), in state of perpetual trance and abiding within the petals of lotus
 flowers (padmaphutesu jAyante). Thereafter the Buddha Amitabha and other Buddhas
 resembling the sun arouse them in order to remove the undefiled ignorance
 (akilishta ñana). Thereupon the Arahants make their creative effort for Supreme
 Awakenment and, though they abide in a state of deliverance, they act
 (in the phenomenal world) as if they were making a descent to hell. And gradually, having
  accumulated all the factors for the attainment of Enlightenment, they become teachers
 of living beings (i.e., Buddhas).”
  This is an absolutely fantastic view completely foreign to the spirit of the original
 teachings of the Buddha.
 
 It is argued that Arahantship is selfish and that all must strive to attain Buddhahood to
 save others. Well, one might ask:– What is the object of attaining Buddhahood ? Is it to
 make others attain Arahantship and save them? If so, the logical conclusion is that
 Buddhahood itself fosters selfishness which is absurd.
 
 Buddhahood is indisputably the best and the noblest of all the three ideals, but all are
 not capable of achieving this highest ideal. Surely all scientists cannot be Einsteins and
 Newtons. There must also be lesser scientists who help the world according to their
 capabilities.
 
 The Pali term Bodhisatta is composed of Bodhi which means “wisdom” or
 ”awakenment”, and “Satta” which means “devoted to” or “intent on.” A Bodhisatta,
 therefore, means one who is devoted to, or intent on, wisdom or enlightenment. The
 Samskritised form should be Bodhishakta but the popular term is Bodhisattva which
 means “wisdom being” or a being aspiring to become a Buddha.
 
 This term is generally applied to anyone who is striving for Awakenment, but, in the
 strictest sense of the term, should be applied only to those who are destined to become
 supremely Awakened Ones.
 
 In one sense all are potential Buddhas, for Buddhahood is not the special prerogative of
 specially graced persons.
 
 It should be noted that Buddhists do not believe that there lies dormant in us all a divine
 spark that needs development, for they deny the existence of a Creator, but they are
 conscious of the innate possibilities and the creative power of man.
 
 Buddhism denies too the existence of a permanent soul that transmigrates from life to
 life, acquiring all experiences. Instead of an unchanging soul, the so-called essence of
 man, it posits a dynamic life-flux where there is an identity in process.
 
 As a man Prince Siddharta, by his own will, wisdom and love, attained Buddhahood, the
 highest state of perfection any being could aspire to, and He revealed to mankind the
 only path that leads thereto. A singular characteristic of Buddhism is that anyone may
 aspire to the state of the teacher himself if only he makes the necessary exertion. The
 Buddha did not claim any monopoly of Buddhahood. It is not a sort of evolutionary
 process. It may be achieved by one’s own effort without the help of another. The Buddha
 does not condemn men by calling them wretched sinners, but, on the contrary,
 encourages them saying that they are pure in heart at conception. Instead of
 disheartening followers, creating an inferiority complex, and reserving the exalted state
 of Buddha to Himself, He encourages them and inspires them to emulate Him.
 
 A Bodhisatta need not necessarily be a Buddhist. We may find ever-loving Bodhisattas
 among Buddhists today, though they may be unaware of their lofty aspirations, and
 Bodhisattas may also be found among other religionists as well.
 
 Three Types of Bodhisattas
 
 According to Buddhism there are three types of Bodhisattas — namely, Intellectual
 Bodhisattas (Pañña-dhika). Devotional Bodhisattas (Saddhadhika) and Energetic
 Bodhisattas (Viriyadhika). These three kinds of Bodhisattas correspond to mana Yogi,
 Bhakti Yogi and Karma Yogi of the Hindus.
 
 Intellectual Bodhisattas are less devotional and more energetic; devotional ones are less
 energetic and more intellectual; energetic ones are less intellectual and more devotional.
  Seldom, if ever, are these three characteristics harmoniously combined in one person.
 The Buddha Gotama is cited as one of the intellectual group.
 
 According to the Books the intellectual ones attain Buddhahood within a short period,
 devotional ones take a longer time, and energetic ones take longer still.
 
 Intellectual Bodhisattas concentrate more on the development of wisdom and on the
 practice of meditation than on the observance of external forms of homage. They are
 always guided by reason and accept nothing on blind belief. They make no
 self-surrender, and are not slaves either to a book or to an individual. They prefer lonely
 meditation. With their silent but powerful thoughts of peace radiating from their solitary
 retreats they render moral help to suffering humanity.
 
 The element of piety — Saddha or Trustful Confidence– is predominant in the Devotional
 Bodhisattas. With Saddha as their companion they achieve their goal..
 
 These Bodhisattas take a keen interest in all forms of homage. The image of the Buddha
 is a great inspiration to them.
 
 It should be understood that Buddhists do not worship an image. They pay homage to
 what it represents and reflect on the virtues of the Buddha. The more they think of the
 Buddha the more they love Him. This is the reason why Buddhism does not denounce
 these external forms of homage (amisa paja) though undoubtedly practice
 (patipatti paja) is more commendable and indisputably superior. But dry intellect has to
 be flavoured with Saddha (faith) to obtain satisfactory results. As excessive Saddha
 
 ents and reflect on the virtues of the Buddha. The more they think of the Buddha the more they love Him. This is the reason why Buddhism does not denounce these external forms of homage (amisa puja) though undoubtedly practice (patipatti puja) is more commendable and indisputably superior. But dry intellect has to be flavoured with Saddha (faith) to obtain satisfactory results. As excessive Saddha might also sometimes be detrimental, it has to be restrained by wisdom.
 
 The energetic ones always seek opportunities to be of service to others. Nothing gives
 them greater delight than active service. “For them work is happiness, and happiness is
 work.” They are not happy unless they are active. As King Sanghabodhi of Sri Lanka said
 they “bear this body of flesh and blood for the good and happiness of the world.”
 They live not only for themselves but for others as well.
 
 This spirit of selfless service is one of the chief characteristics of all Bodhisattas.
 With relentless energy they work not as slaves but as masters. They crave for neither
 fame nor name. They are interested only in service. It is immaterial to them whether
 others recognize their selfless service or not. They are utterly indifferent to praise or
 blame,
 
 They forget themselves in their disinterested service to others. They would sacrifice even
 life itself could such action save another fellow-being.
 
 A Bodhisatta who forgets himself in the service of others should practise Karuna and
 Metta (compassion and loving-kindness) to an exceptionally high degree.
 
 A Bodhisatta desires the good and welfare of the world. He loves all beings as a mother
 loves her only child. He identifies himself with all. To him nothing gives more delight
 than to think that all are his brothers and sisters. He is like a mother, a father, a friend,
 a teacher, to all beings.
 
 ”The compassion of a Bodhisatta consists in realizing the equality of oneself with others
 (para atma-samata) and also the substitution of others for oneself
 (para-atma-parivartana).” When he does so he loses his I-notion and finds no difference
 between himself and others.. He returns good for evil, and helps even unasked the very
 persons who have wronged him, for he knows that “the strength of a religious teacher is
 his patience.”
 
 ”Being reviled, he reviles not; being beaten, he beats not; being annoyed, he annoys not.
 His forgiveness is unfailing even as the mother earth suffers in silence all that may be
 done to her.”

  A Gift of Dhamma 
 
  might also sometimes be detrimental, it has to be restrained by wisdom.
 
 The energetic ones always seek opportunities to be of service to others. Nothing gives
 them greater delight than active service. “For them work is happiness, and happiness is
 work.” They are not happy unless they are active. As King Sanghabodhi of Sri Lanka said
 they “bear this body of flesh and blood for the good and happiness of the world.”
 They live not only for themselves but for others as well.
 
 This spirit of selfless service is one of the chief characteristics of all Bodhisattas.
 With relentless energy they work not as slaves but as masters. They crave for neither
 fame nor name. They are interested only in service. It is immaterial to them whether
 others recognize their selfless service or not. They are utterly indifferent to praise or
 blame,
 
 They forget themselves in their disinterested service to others. They would sacrifice
 even life itself could such action save another fellow-being.
 
 A Bodhisatta who forgets himself in the service of others should practise Karuna and
 Metta (compassion and loving-kindness) to an exceptionally high degree.
 
 A Bodhisatta desires the good and welfare of the world. He loves all beings as a mother
 loves her only child. He identifies himself with all. To him nothing gives more delight
 than to think that all are his brothers and sisters. He is like a mother, a father, a friend,
 a teacher, to all beings.
 
 ”The compassion of a Bodhisatta consists in realizing the equality of oneself with others
 (para atma-samata) and also the substitution of others for oneself
 (para-atma-parivartana).” When he does so he loses his I-notion and finds no difference
 between himself and others. He returns good for evil, and helps even unasked the very
 persons who have wronged him, for he knows that “the strength of a religious teacher is
 his patience.”
 
 ”Being reviled, he reviles not; being beaten, he beats not; being annoyed, he annoys not.
 His forgiveness is unfailing even as the mother earth suffers in silence all that may be
 done to her.”
 
 A Gift of Dhamma 
 
3. Which book of Tipitaka contains the story of Sumedha Pandita?
4. What was Sumeda’s reaction when he heard the word ‘Buddha‘? Give an account of this
 encounter with Lord Dipankara Buddha.
 
 NAMO TASSA BHAGAVATO ARAHATO SAMMA-SAMBUDDHASSA
 ”HOMAGE TO THE EXALTED ONE, FREED FROM ALL BONDAGES AND FULLY ENLIGHTENED”
 
 Pre Dawn Era
        
 The Dawn of Buddhism was sparked off in the deep past covering a period of four
 Asankheyyas and one hundred thousand aeons ago. There was even an actual pre-dawn
 era to signal the germination of the Buddha Aspiration. Viewing the glory of the Buddha
 is a very traumatic experience and may involve the arousing of the Buddhist Righteous
 Wish (Dhamma Canda) and the very great inspiration to become a Buddha Supreme.
  This happened to our Gotama Buddha who, in the Buddhist history, began practising the
 Act of Wishing (Mano Panidhana) by thought, to become a Buddha. Gotama did this in
 the presence of the numerous Supremely Enlightened Buddhas whom he met in the
 journey of the cycle of birth and death (Samsara). This would ensure that he was firmly
 and mentally resolute to become a Buddha.
       
Then he practised the Act of Wishing by verbal expression (Vaci Panidhana), to become a
 Buddha in the presence of the very many Supremely Awakened Buddhas whom he met
 during his journey in Samsara (the cycle of birth and death). This would ensure that he
 was firmly rooted in speech and not to deviate from his aspiration to become a Buddha.
        The mental and verbal Acts of his wish could be only completed when the bodily
 (physical) expression (Kaya Panidhana) to become Buddha was duly performed. This he
 did upon meeting the Dipankara Buddha in the “Sara Manda Kappa” which means ”
 a Five-Buddha aeon” when he made the “Kaya Panidhana” act by offering his body to the
 Dipankara Buddha as a bridge to walk across the muddy hole along the Buddha’s path.
       
 Although it is extremely difficult to become a Supreme Awakened Buddha, it should be
 everyone’s aim to become awakened.
       
 At that moment of declaring and practising the “Kaya Panidhana” (the physical
 manifestation to become a Buddha) before a living Supreme Buddha, He became a
 confirmed Bodhisatta or a future Buddha possessing the following inherent factors:
      
        1. He must be born as a human being.
        2. He must be of the male sex
        3. He must be qualified to attain Arahatship and be prepared to renounce that in favour of
  becoming a Bodhisatta instead. This is a Crucial Qualification to be a qualified
 Bodhisatta.
        4. He must aspire in the presence of a Supreme Buddha. It would be futile to aspire before
 a Pacceka Buddha or an Arahant.
        5. He must have had renounced everything (all his worldly possessions) and be a hermit
 or a recluse during the dispensation of a Buddha.
        6. He must have the Supernormal Powers (such as Divine Eyes, Divine Ear, etc., etc.,),
 together with the full jhanic ecstasy.
        7. He must be so selfless as to even sacrifice his life for the Buddha and the Ariyan Noble
 Truth.
        8. He must also have the enduring fortitude and energy to uphold and practise the
 Bodhisatta ideals (Paramitas) until successfully and completely accomplished.
        So our Gotama Buddha as the Sumedha Pandit was repleted with the above eight
 requisite qualifications to walk the path of the Buddha-to-be, then received the universal
 declaration from Dipankara Buddha that in future, Sumedha would definitely become a
 Buddha himself. This unique declaration made Sumedha the hermit, an officially
 qualified Bodhisatta. Thus ended the pre-Dawn Buddhism of Gotama Buddha.
 Dawn of Buddhism
        Long, long ago, measuring in many millions of years, there was an ancient royal city
 named Amaravati, a place of great splendour. People living there were very happy,
 prosperous and enjoyed long life.
      
  Among the richest in Amaravati, was a family who had an only son, named Sumedha who
 was endowed with profound prudence.
   
     At the age of sixteen, young Sumedha was very learned and talented. His parents died
 when he was young and so the vast family inheritance was put in the care of an appointed
 treasurer. When he came of age, the treasurer handed over all his family inheritance and
 showed him the vast extent of his properties.
    
    At that juncture, he realized within himself: “My parents and their forebears were unable
 to take even a single coin along with them when they died, but I should find a way to take
 along with me all the inheritance in my possession! So I am giving away all my entire
 possession to the welfare and benefit of all!” He threw open the doors of his thousands of
 warehouses containing silver, gold, diamonds and other treasures to the public who
 could take away anything they wanted. He freed his serfs and made them very rich.
    
    After giving away all his wealth, he went forth to the Himalaya mountains and became
 an ascetic in the forest there. He earnestly practised estatic meditation and attained
 supernatural powers within seven days. He soon became a well-known and respected
 powerful ascetic.
 
        It was when the people of Amaravati were busily preparing to welcome the Dipankara
 Buddha for alms-giving, that the ascetic Sumedha also participated in the joyous event.
        
Among the welcoming crowd, there was a young lady named Sumitta who was also
 an eager participant. When she saw the ascetic, she was so happy and delighted. She had
 with her eight lotus blooms of which she gave five to the ascetic, leaving three in her
 hand for offering to the Dipankara Buddha.
      
  Having offered the flowers, the ascetic made a wish with the firm resolution to become a
 Buddha in future and the lady also made a wish that she would always accompany the
 ascetic until he fulfilled his quest.
      
  At this juncture, the Dipankara Buddha foretold that the ascetic Sumedha would become
 a Buddha in four Asankheyyas and one hundred thousand aeons when He was passing
 over the body of ascetic Sumedha, being offered as a bridge over a muddy hole on the
 road.
 
5. After Sumedha was consecrsted as a Bodhisatta by Buddha Dipankara, how did he
 contemplate on the prerequisites of Buddhahood, namely, on the thirty paramis?
6. Write clearly an account of what Sumedha thought concerning each Parami
 
 The Life of a Bodhisatta
     
   Since he became a Bodhisatta, he set about fulfilling the three grades of the Ten
 Perfections, the Five Sacrifices and the Three Modes of Conduct in every life, whether in
 the human world or in heavens and elsewhere. His epic Bodhisatta journey which began
 straight away from the Buddha Dipankara was to last four Asankheyyas and one hundred
 thousand aeons. During his life as a practising Bodhisatta from the time he met the
 Dipankara Buddha until he became a Samma Sambuddha, he met the following Buddhas
 during his journey:
   
     1. DIPANKARA BUDDHA - when Bodhisatta was Ascetic Sumedha
        2. KONDANNA BUDDHA - when Bodhisatta was Raja or King
        3. MANGALA BUDDHA - when Bodhisatta was wise man
        4. SUMANA BUDDHA - when Bodhisatta was King
        5. REVATA BUDDHA - when Bodhisatta was wise man
        6. SOBHITA BUDDHA - when Bodhisatta was wise man
        7. ANOMADASSI - when Bodhisatta was Devil King
        8. PADUMA BUDDHA - when Bodhisatta was Bodhisatta Lion
        9. NARADA BUDDHA - when Bodhisatta was an ascetic
        10. PADUMUTTARA BUDDHA - when Bodhisatta was wise man
        11. SUMEDHA BUDDHA - when Bodhisatta was wise man
        12. SUJATA BUDDHA - when Bodhisatta was wise rich man
        13. PIYADASSI BUDDHA - when Bodhisatta was wise man
        14. ATTHADASSI BUDDHA - when Bodhisatta was an ascetic
        15.DHAMMADASSI BUDDHA - when Bodhisatta was Heavenly King
        16. SIDDHATTHA BUDDHA - when Bodhisatta was wise man
        17. TISSA BUDDHA - when Bodhisatta was wise man
        18. PHUSSA BUDDHA - when Bodhisatta was Raja or King
        19. VIPASSI BUDDHA - when Bodhisatta was Raja or King
        20. SIKHI BUDDHA - when Bodhisatta was Raja or King
        21. VESSABHU BUDDHA - when Bodhisatta was Bhikkhu (monk)
        22. KAKUSSANDHA BUDDHA - when Bodhisatta was Bhikkhu (monk)
        23. KONAGAMANA BUDDHA - when Bodhisatta was wise rich man
        24. KASSAPA BUDDHA - when Bodhisatta was Bhikkhu (monk)
     
   Whereupon he repeated his affirmation to become a Buddha just like them. They too
 repeated their declaration that he was a confirmed Bodhisatta to become a Samma
 Sambuddha in due course. His Bodhisatta journey in the cycle of birth and death began
 with ascetic Sumedha and finally ended with his life as King Vessantara. Thus he had
 completed Bodhisatta-ship fulfilling the Perfections, Sacrifices and Mode of Conduct as
 he was duty bound to do so.
 The Birth of a Bodhisatta
      
 Thereafter he was born in Tusita Heaven, as a deity named Setaketu, enjoying a contented
  and blissful life. He was also known as Santussita deva the name derived from the divine
 abode he was staying in.
      
 Nearing the end of his divine life-span, all the divine beings from the ten thousand
 universes cordially requested him saying: “Dear Bodhisatta deva, it is the right time for
 you to become a Buddha in the human world, for the welfare and benefit of all beings!”
    
    First he reviewed the Five Great Observations and thereafter he consented to their
 request.
       
 From Tusita heaven, he passed away and was duly conceived in the womb of Queen
 Maha, the Chief Consort of King Suddhodana.
 
7. Write down Sangha Vandana in Pali as well as in English.
 
Kindly visit:
http://www.kmspks.org/activities/bbc/chant_5.htm
 
  07-chant-07.mp3 306 KB Sangha Vandana - Homage to the Disciples of the Buddha.

Supati-panno Bhagavato sâvaka sangho
The Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples has entered on the good way;
Uju pati-panno Bhagavato sâvaka sangho
The Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples has entered on the straight way;
Ñâya-patipanno Bhagavato sâvaka sangho
The Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples has entered on the true way;
Sâmîci-patipanno Bhagavato sâvaka sangho
The Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples has entered on the proper way;
Yadidam cattâri purisa yugâni attha-purisa-puggalâ
that is to say : the Four Pairs of Men, the Eight Types of Persons;
Esa Bhagavato sâvaka sangho
the Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples
Âhu-neyyo Pâhu-neyyo
is fit for gifts, fit for hospitality,
Dakkhi-neyyo Añjalikaranîyo
fit for offerings, and fit for reverential salutation,
Anuttaram puññakkhettam lokassâti.
as the incomparable field of merit for the world.

Sangham jivita pariyantam saranam gacchâmi
Until life’s end, to the Sangha I go for refuge.

Ye ca Sanghâ atitâ ca - Ye ca Sanghâ anagatâ
Those Sanghas of the ages past, those Sanghas that are yet to come,
Paccuppannâ ca ye Sanghâ - Aham vandâmi sabbadâ
those Sanghas of the present time, forever do I revere.

Natthi me saranam aññam - Sangho me saranam varam
No other refuge do I seek, the Sangha is my refuge true;
Etena sacca vajjena - Hotu me jayamangalam
by the speaking of this Truth, may peaceful victory be mine!

Uttamangena vandê’ham - Sangham ca tividhuttamam
I revere with my head, the Sangha peerless in three ways,
Sanghe yo khalito doso - Sangho khamatu tam mamam
if the Sangha I have wronged may the Sangha forgive me.

 
8. Write an essay on what you understand about the meaning of each of the
 nine qualities of the sangha.
 

THE NINE QUALITIES OF THE SANGHA

1. Suppati panno bagavato savaka samgho: Community of virtuous society of Sanghas, who practices and contemplates the truth

2. Ujuppatipannno bagavato savaka samgho: practices and contemplates the truth with integrity

3. Nayappatipanno baghavato savaka samgho: arduously practices to attain liberation in Nibbana

4. Samisippatipanno baghavato savaka samgho: practice worthy of respect
Yadidam cattari purisa yugani attha purisa puggala esa bagahavato savaka sangho: followers of the Buddha; posses the following characters: four qualities and eight characteristics of manhood; maintain morality, samadhi and wisdom and therefore suitable to receive alms and donations.

5. Ahuneyyo, 6. Pahuneyyo: as visiting sangha, maintain morality, samadhi and wisdom, and therefore suitable to receive alms and donations.

7. Dakhi neyyo: because of virtuous life they lead, are suitable to receive meritorious donations.

8. Anjali karaniyo: worthy of respect by all beings

9. Anuttaram puna khettam lokasa: they are the fertile grounds for furthering the incomparable meritorious deeds.

 
9. What was Siddhattha in his immediate past life? What was his role?
 
 
 
The Lineage of The Buddha








 
 

You may wonder what is the history behind the 24 Buddhas (with specific and different names) who are venerated at Mahindarama Buddhist Temple. The ‘24 Buddhas’ in this instance is not the same as the thousand upon thousand of Buddhas’ that some are trying to portray in edifices and pictures. The chronology of events surrounding the 24 Buddhas is not unknown but have been passed down from The Buddha to His disciples, the Elders (Maha Theras); and subsequently documented and authenticated in the Pali Texts. You will soon see that the epochs of the 24 Buddhas are closely woven with the ultimate aspiration of the Bodhisatta Gotama to become the Supreme One, the Sammasambuddha, The Conqueror of Conquerors1. No other saga in the annals of the universe comes close to the epochs of The Conqueror.

This lineage of The Buddhas was told by The Buddha Gotama Himself - a tradition that is not guesswork, writer’s flight of fancy, fable, or legend. Read on and be inspired, and be instilled with a deeper wise confidence (saddha) in The Buddha, the Supreme Master.

Buddha Gotama, by virtue of his Supreme Omniscience, Sabbata Nuna Nana2, was able to relate about the beginnings and the journey of His own ascent to become the Sammasambuddha, the Perfect One. Such events had happened in eras so distant that it is impossible for us to say this much or that much of years, just as it is impossible for us to say how much grains of sands are there in the oceans.

The length of time spanning the life history of a Bodhisatta’s unrelenting quest to become the Perfect One represents only a minute section of the incalculable passage of time in Samsara. Such an endeavour can only be heard of from a Sammasambuddha who can recall with distinct clarity His own struggle to become what He is, a Perfect One.

The first arousing of an altruistic and determined thought in the aspirant Gotama—aspiring to become someone who can save himself and others but not certain as yet of what ‘someone’ he could become—to save himself and beings from danger happened at the most unexpected place—the ocean. [ETC]

Once in the distant past, the aspirant Gotama was born as a poor man who made a living by selling wood and leaves as fuel; and supported his mother too. His father was no more in the world. He was strong and industrious. One day while taking a rest from the enervating summer heat after carrying a heavy load of firewood he reflected that his livelihood depended on his physical strength which were susceptible to decay and ill-health. Thus, he planned to venture to a particular land far away that brimmed with opportunities to earn a better livelihood so that that he could wait upon his mother in comfort.

Both son and mother then embarked on a sea voyage paid by the wages of the son’s work on board the merchant ship. On the seventh day at sea the ship was wrecked in stormy weather, and there were no survivors except the aspirant Gotama and his mother. The brave and determined man managed to keep himself and his mother afloat at sea. A Brahma of the Suddhavasa3 abode beheld the altruistic feat of such a man and caused a compassionate resolve (aspiration) to arise in the aspirant’s mind:

“I will cross the ocean fraught with many dangers and take others across safely, I will become enlightened and enlighten others; I will be released and release others.”

After three days both mother and son finally reached the shore safely. The aspirant continued to attend to his mother. After cessation of his life in the world, the aspirant was reborn in a celestial realm. After the celestial existence, the aspirant was reborn in the human realm as a king named King Sattutapa. He loved elephants and one day a new addition to the stables was acquired.

The king took a ride on the bull-elephant driven by a mahout and went on an inspection tour of the city. Coincidentally, at that time some wild elephants from the forest had created wanton destruction in the park and the king set out to inspect it too. While in the park, the bull-elephant became inflamed by the scent of a she-elephant. It hurled the mahout off its back and chased the she-elephant. The king, still riding the elephant, was unable to control it though he prodded the creature with an elephant hook. He saved himself by grasping onto an overhanging tree branch.

Later, back in the palace, the king summoned the mahout and accused the man of murderous intent. The mahout explained that the bull-elephant, though a well-trained animal, was overcome by lust; after satiating its desire, it would surely return to its stable. True enough, days later the elephant returned to the palace. The mahout said that the power of sense desires impelled the elephant so much so that the animal disregarded the pain from the prodding; and such strong sensual desires was also common among humans.

The king was moved by this reality and it’s accompanying dangers and suffering. He made a mental aspiration to find the way to release from sense desires and its attending dangers, and then lead others to gain release from these things too. Later, the king gave up his kingdom and renounced worldly life to become an ascetic and remained so until the end of his life. He was reborn in the heavens after death.

Subsequently, after his celestial existence when he was reborn in the human realm, the aspirant was a prodigal son of a brahmin endowed with a complexion of golden hue and was thus named Brahma Kumara. At age sixteen, he became accomplished in the arts, sciences, and spiritual texts and later had five hundred male youths as his pupils. Instead of living comfortably from his parents’ immense wealth, he gave it away and became an ascetic.

He had a following of pupils who practised well and were accomplished in supernormal powers. The most senior of his pupils was another aspirant to Enlightenment just like him. He was Bodhisatta Metteya4.

One day the aspirant Gotama and his disciples were out for alms together. They happened to catch sight of an emaciated tigress with her cubs at the foot of a steep clearing. The tigress was moaning for want of food and was very weak. Apparently, the tigress was so hungry that it would at any time made a meal of her cubs.

The aspirant Gotama told his pupil Bodhisatta Metteya to look for the leftovers of what has been eaten by predators. After Bodhisatta Metteya left, Bodhisatta Gotama was reflecting on his body that was a basis of diverse ills and a cause of misery. He then perceived that it was not possible to attain to the highest fruit of training without accomplishing the most difficult task, without making a sacrifice hard to perform and without giving away a gift difficult to give.

Thus, he aroused within himself a mental aspiration: “As a result of this meritorious deed, may I become perfectly enlightened in the future, and lead beings from, the misery of existence to the Deathless5. With these last thoughts, the aspirant leapt into the steep clearing where the tigress and her cubs were and sacrificed his life. The tigress ate the body of the Bodhisatta and thus the lives of the cubs were spared.

After his passing away, the Bodhisatta was reborn in heaven. During a certain world period6, the Bodhisatta Gotama was reborn in a royal family as a step-sister7 of another Bodhisatta who became a Perfect Awakened One called Buddha Purana Dipankara in that life. Buddha Purana Dipankara also had made a confirmation upon an ascetic Pacchima-Dipankara that the latter would gain Perfect Awakenment as Buddha Dipankara after having fulfilled the Ten Perfections8 for sixteen asankheyyas9 and a 100,000 kappas beyond the present time.

The princess (Bodhisatta Gotama) was inspired by Buddha Purana Dipankara and offered a gift of mustard oil and made a mental aspiration to become a Sammasambuddha in future. Her aspiration was conveyed by the ascetic Pacchima-Dipankara. Buddha Purana Dipankara, using His Omniscience, said in a future time Bodhisatta Gotama would be confirmed by Dipankara Buddha (the ascetic).

The above episodes are only the chronology of events that aroused the making of mental aspiration by the Bodhisatta Gotama. A time will come to pass that the Bodhisatta, as a man, will have the good fortune to meet a Sammasambuddha face to face and become inspired by the example and personality of The Exalted One — a role model of what the aspirant would aspire to become! The foregoing paragraphs explain the three epochs of the aspiration of Bodhisatta Gotama beginning from the first time he made his first mental aspiration in the presence of a Sammasambuddha, Brahmadeva Buddha.

10. Give an account of Bodhisatta Setaketu.

The Life of Prince Siddhattha, the Future Buddha

The Demise from the Abode of Devas

          After being prophesied by the Dipaakara Buddha and the other twenty three Buddhas who appeared during four Asankhyeyyas and one hundred thousand world cycles as well, the Bodhisatta fulfilled the Perfections. He had accumulated the ten Perfections completely in the life of King Vessantara. And then he was reborn as Deva Setaketu in the abode of Tusita. The Deva enjoyed the supreme divine bliss throughout his life. When the end of his life drew near, the Devas and the Brahmas from ten thousand universes gathered and approached him. They requested, “Dear Deva, it is the right time for you to become a Buddha. May you be reborn in the human abode.”

 

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