For The Gain of the Many and For the Welfare of the Many
Target to generate 10,000 MW power by the end of 11th Five Year Plan : Chief Minister
Lucknow : November 22, 2007 The Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Km. Mayawati has said that improvement in the electricity supply to industries and development was among the top most priorities of the government. The target for power generation in current financial year has been fixed 1250 MW. A target to generate additional power capacity of 10,000 MW has been fixed by the end of the 11th Five Year Plan (year 2012) to solve the power crisis of the state on permanent basis. Addressing the function on the occasion of signing the Memorandum of Understanding for setting up of a new thermal power project of 1320 MW capacity at Meja (Allahabad) between NTPC Ltd. and Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam here today, the Chief Minister attributed the electricity crisis of the state to the previous governments and said that her government was doing its best for increasing power generation in the state. Km. Mayawati said that the signing of MOU between the State Government and NTPC Ltd. for setting up two units of 660 MW each at Meja Allahabad was an important step in the direction of power generation. She hoped that the work of setting up of these units would be completed soon. It may be mentioned that for the first time in the State and the country “Super Critical Boiler” technique is being used for this project. Besides, a unit of 660 MW capacity is also being set up for the first time in the state. Two 1750 MW capacity projects are being set up in the Joint Sector; One with the cooperation of NTPC Ltd. at Meja, Allahabad (the MOU of which was signed today) and another with the BHEL at Obra in Sonebhadra district. Special emphasis is being laid on the power generation in the private sector and capacity of 4600 MW electricity would be set up in this sector. The Roja and Anpara-C are the two projects on which work has been started in private sector. It may be said that the State power generation resources are being overtaxed in the form of the gap of 1500 MW during general hours and 2000-2500 MW less electricity supply during peak hours. Internal resources of the State have the capacity of 2500 MW power generation and 3500 MW is being imported from the Central pool to bridge the gap between demand and supply. A joint enterprise would be set up for Meja Thermal Power Project with NTPC Ltd. under the Companies Act 1956 in the form of Private Limited Company. Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam and NTPC Ltd. would share equal number of nominated directors. The CEO of joint enterprise would be nominated by NTPC Ltd. which would also be responsible for management. The registered and corporate offices of this enterprise would be at Delhi and Allahabad respectively. The speciality of this project would be that State would get 75 per cent of the total power generation of 990 MW. Besides, the NTPC Ltd. would make available 480 MW additional electricity by two other projects through the medium of power purchase agreement. The estimated cost of this project is Rs. 7,200 crore and it is likely to be completed in four years. The Share Capital of Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam and NTPC Ltd. would be 50 per cent each in this joint venture. Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam would invest Rs. 1080 crore in the project. Power generating units of 2240 MW would be set up in Public sector for generating additional power of 10,000 MW in the 11th Five Year Plan which includes Anpara-D in Sonebhadra, Parichha (extension) in Jhansi and Harduaganj (extension) in Aligarh. The Chief Minister said that a power purchase agreement has been signed for four power projects between U.P. Power Corporation Ltd. and NTPC with a view to providing electricity at cheaper rates to the people of the State. She said that purchase agreements were signed for Baadh STPP-II (1320 MW), Baadh STPP-I (1980MW), North Karanpura (1980 MW) and NCTPS, DADRI-II (980 MW), having total capacity of 6260 MW. These projects would be completed during the period of years 2009-10 and 2011-12. With the completion of these projects, about 500 MW electricity would be available at the estimated cost of Rs. 2 or Rs. 2.25 per unit, she added. The officers of U.P. Power Corporation and NTPC Ltd. were present on this occasion. **********
MOU to be signed between NTPC and Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam tomorrow on November 22
Lucknow: November 21, 2007 With a view to bridge the gap between demand and supply of electricity, a memorandum of understanding for setting up 1320 MW Power Project is to be signed in the presence of U.P. Chief Minister Km. Mayawati between NTPC Ltd. and U.P. Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam Ltd. at 5, Kalidas Marg, Lucknow tomorrow on November 22, 2007 at 11.30 A.M. The NTPC Ltd. is setting up 2 units of 660 MW each at Meza in Allahabad district.
|EXL eyes UP for setting up ITeS SEZ|
|Shruti Srivastava / New Delhi/ Lucknow November 23, 2007|
|Information technology enabled service (ITeS) companies are among many others in the process of acquiring a special economic zone (SEZ) status in Uttar Pradesh.|
|Among the front runners is EXL Services, a leading end-to-end business process outsourcing solution provider.|
|“EXL has plans of starting a world-class EXL ITeS/BPO campus in Noida. For this, it has budgeted for purchasing an SEZ in Noida, spread across 15-25 acres,” Rohit Kapoor, chief operating officer (COO) and co-founder, EXL Services, told Business Standard.|
|“Our plan is to establish a large, state-of-the-art infrastructure,” Kapoor said adding that this placement will help in meeting the business requirements of the company.|
|The company has submitted two applications for acquiring SEZ, one in Hyderabad and the other in Greater Noida. “We have not received any approval and have not been granted any land so far,” he added.|
Talking about its expansion plan for Uttar Pradesh, Kapoor said EXL has planned a major investment for infrastructure, as it is the core pre-requisite for any BPO business. It also targets to increase its employee strength in the state.
|“Given our current rate of growth and our ambitious plans for expansion, in the next 3–5 years we would triple the number of employees from today. This would generate additional employment opportunities in Noida and its neighbouring regions,” he added.|
|For the records, currently EXL employs about 6000 people out of its Noida facilities. The company is also coming up with its sixth building by early 2008 to accommodate its increased operations.|
This is also expected to help in creating wealth and entrepreneurial opportunities in the ancillary industries such as transportation.
NTPC, UP Electricity to set up 1,320MW plant in Allahabad
Reliance to convert food stores in UP into other outlets
The company will also launch its first books, CDs and DVDs store in the National Capital Region in December along with a speciality store for footwear in the capital.
According to sources, RRL is converting 15 properties initially booked for ‘Reliance Fresh’, into outlets for other verticals such as footwear, apparel, jewellery, books and other speciality items. These outlets are mainly located in areas such as Ghaziabad and Noida.
When contacted, company officials declined to comment. Earlier, as part of its winding up operations in Uttar Pradesh, the company is understood to have served lease annulment notices for about 150 properties, which it had rented for its vegetables, fruits and grocery format stores.
The company now plans to utilise some of the outlets that had been taken on lease to open Reliance Fresh stores to showcase other formats like Reliance Digital, Reliance Hyper Mart, Reliance Trends, Reliance Footprints, Reliance Jewels and Reliance Apple.
After announcing the launch of its jewellery store in Bangalore, RRL will open the first speciality outlet each for footwear and books, CDs and DVDs in the NCR next month.The company had planned to invest around Rs 8,000-10,000 crore in Uttar Pradesh for its retail operations, including about 200 ‘Reliance Fresh’ stores in three years as also the back-end logistics chain. However, in the wake of the state government asking it to shut down the outlets, the company had decided to put the plans on hold.
|Organised retail has the potential to contribute to the transformation of the country’s moribund agricultural sector. And appropriate policies will help all kinds of customers and big and small retailers, says G. CHANDRASHEKHAR.|
It is clearly a danger signal that opposition to organised retail is beginning to gather momentum, rather than wane. After several attacks on large food retail stores in different parts of the country some months ago, a feeling, albeit feeble, was gaining ground in recent weeks that frayed tempers were cooling. There was belief that small traders and intermediaries were slowly coming to terms with the reality of large-format organised retail.
However, the series of attacks on stores in Navi Mumbai recently may have put paid to any such hope. Obviously, there is simmering discontent among those who feel hurt. Their concerns have to be considered and remedial measures taken. If left unchecked, the anti-organised-retail movement has the potential to snowball into a major law and order situation. This is not to suggest that protests by genuine stakeholders whose livelihood is threatened should be put down with a heavy hand.
It is one thing to control a law and order situation; and quite another to ignore early warning signals and engage in fire fighting later. There is urgent need to quickly go into the root of the problem and examine ways and means to create a win-win situation for all. The State government has a tremendous responsibility in this. Hopefully, Maharashtra will not take a cue from Uttar Pradesh.
In August, the UP government ordered forced closure of newly set-up large food retail stores in Lucknow following mounting protests from small unorganised retailers and trade intermediaries who perceived the advent of large format grocery stores as a threat to their entrenched interests and livelihood. Always known as a progressive state, Maharashtra should attempt to identify the real issues and address them. The stakeholders in this food chain include farmers, aggregators, processors, distributors, large and small traders as also trade intermediaries such as commission agents, apart from retailers themselves, and consumers.
The corporate world has demonstrably seized the burgeoning business opportunity by pouring huge investments to accelerate the pace of the retail revolution currently sweeping the country. Those with higher disposable incomes are demanding an ‘international shopping experience’ and the retailers are merely meeting the demand by investing in malls and supermarkets.
In the process, such investors help create employment, improve the supply chain, improve the marketability of farmers’ produce and contribute in general to heightened economic activity.
It is becoming increasingly clear that those fiercely opposed to organised food retail are small traders and middlemen. Growers should generally be happy with the advent of big retail because they have more number of buyers to sell to. However, organised retail is prone to be ruthless when it comes to quality and delivery schedule. There is generally no compromise on this because retail has too much at stake — in the form of investment, customer satisfaction and so on. Farmers defaulting on their commitment will not be treated with kid gloves.
Cost is an important consideration in the business plan of any organised retail. Setting up a large format store is capital-intensive, including high real-estate costs. Operational costs too are high because of relatively high wages, power costs, cost of money and so on. On the other hand, customers are cost-and-quality conscious. They have a choice of alternatives.
Then, where will the retailer capture value? It is, more often than not, at the back-end. As uncompetitive prices would drive customers away but friendly prices retain them, the retailer’s degrees of freedom are limited at the front-end.
Therefore, usually retailers try to capture value at the back-end; and at the farthest end is the grower. While organised retail provides a large and ready marketing outlet for growers, there is simply no guarantee that farmers will obtain remunerative prices. They would obtain market-determined prices; and they have little control over the way in which the market price is determined.
This cat-and-mouse game between organised retail and small farmers is often an unequal fight, given the vulnerability of the latter. Free-markets have many votaries, but often those propagating free markets may never have been subjected to the market’s cruelty. Given the unequal nature of the transaction and potential for exploitation, the government needs to step in.
Indeed, it would be prudent for any government to draw economic and political mileage out of organised food retail. Advancing affirmative action can do this.
The experience of many countries shows that food and grocery retail is a driver of higher farm production, better quality, efficient supply chain and, of course, employment.
Organised retail has the potential to contribute to the transformation of the country’s moribund agricultural sector. What can the State do? Many things. The State can actively encourage contract farming, which will bring together hitherto disparate farmers.
A three-way partnership between organised retail, farmer groups and government will accelerate production of market-driven standardised quality. Farmers should be able to obtain quality-related prices, something they never enjoyed.
The three-way partnership will ensure small farmers are not short-changed. Small traders and shopkeepers seem to be the worst hit by organised retail and their interest needs to be protected too. Ironically, in terms of sheer numbers, the traditional ‘mom-and-pop’ shops will cumulatively have more customers than organised large-format retail.
Location, of course, is an important criterion. Small street-corner shops may be less favoured in areas with concentration of high-income groups or upmarket customers. There may be cases of relocation under such circumstances.
The State can support small retail stay in business and earn livelihood. Imparting training to stay in competition with organised retail is necessary. For instance, small shopkeepers must explore innovative customer care methods (like, say, home delivery of goods ordered). Importantly, the State can help small shopkeepers access finance at concessional terms for scaling up operations, improved display, and so on. The State’s affirmative action will go a long way in enabling and empowering growers and small retail.
As the economy expands, so do business opportunities. Importantly, given the skewed income distribution in the country, there is likely to be demand for a wide variety of goods and services at every price point.
There will be consumers all along — from the high-end to the low-end of the market. There will be well-heeled customers favouring organised retail and many others looking for quick, personalised service at competitive rates. Appropriate policies and affirmative action can lead to peaceful co-existence.
Friday, November 23, 2007 : 2100 Hrs
Lucknow (PTI): Terror struck on Friday in Uttar Pradesh when militants triggered near-simultaneous blasts in court premises in Varanasi, Faizabad and the state capital killing 14 people, some of them lawyers, and injuring over 60.
Six bombs — three in Varansi, two in Faizabad and one in Lucknow — some planted on cycles, went off within a span of 15 minutes in the crowded court complexes between 1310 hours and 1325 hours.
A near stampede broke out in and around the blast spots with many injured bleeding profusely running for their life while several other wounded lay on the floor crying for help.
Police rushed to the spots and cordoned off the area and helped people in rushing the injured to various hospitals.
Apart from Uttar Pradesh, security was put on high alert in several parts of the country including the Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore and Hyderabad in the wake of the blasts today.
S B Shirodkar, Senior Superintendent of Police in the temple town of Varanasi, which was the target of a terror strike last year, said nine people were killed and 45 injured, some of them seriously, when two bombs planted on cylcles went off in quick succession.
He said the injured were admitted to four hospitals including Benares Hindu University Hospital. He said the explosives, planted on cyles, went off when the court premises was crowded with lawyers and litigants.
Four of the dead in Varanasi were identified as Bodh Raj Verma (advocate), Yagya Narain Singh, Moolchand Singh and a 11-year-old boy Sanjeev Kumar.
Priyatosh Tripathi of the bomb disposal squad in Varanasi said the two imporvised explosive devices were planted on two new bicycles and placed in the busy area of the court complex.
In Faizabad town, adjoining holy town of Ayodhya, five people were killed and 25 injured when two bombs in bags exploded in two lawyers’ chambers.
Four of the dead were identified as Radhikaprasad Mishra (lawyer), his assistant Babu Ram, Om Prakash Pandey (stamp vendor) and Kesari Prasad (client), officials said.
They said the first explosion was minor in nature while the second claimed casualities ripping through the two advocate chambers. Three of the seriously injured were taken to King George Medical College Hospital in Lucknow.
In Lucknow, the bomb was planted on a cylce near an electricity complex. However, there was no casuality. A live bomb with a timer device attached to it was also found and defused.
Calling it a terror strike, UP Chief Minister Mayawati attributed the serial blasts to the “failure” on the part of central intelligence agencies.
She announced an ex-gratia relief of Rs 2 lakhs to the kin of those killed and Rs 50,000 to the injured.
The blasts came a week after Uttar Pradesh police, along with central security agencies, busted a Jaish-e-Mohammed module who wanted to target Rahul Gandhi. Lawyers had thrashed the three JeM militants when they were being produced before a court here.
Banned Harkat-ul-Jehadi Islamia (HuJI) is believed to be behind the serial blasts.
New Delhi (PTI): Union Minister of State for Home Sriprakash Jaiswal is rushing tonight to Varanasi which was among the three Uttar Pradesh towns where the serial blasts occurred.
Jaiswal, who described the incidents as “pre-planned conspiracy”, said the organisation behind the attack was yet to be identified.
“It is too early to name the organisation behind the incident, but it was certainly a pre-planned conspiracy as three blasts took place simultaneously in the state,” he said.
Besides Varanasi, the blasts occurred in Faizabad and Lucknow leaving 14 people dead and a number of others injured.
Jaiswal said the main motive of the militants was to create panic in the country and disturb communal harmony. “It is time to remain united and reply to the nefarious designs of the anti-social elements,” he said appealing to the people to maintain peace and harmony.
Refuting allegations that police failed on intelligence, he said, “UP police had recently arrested three militants and I am sure the police must have taken all precautionary measures.”
Home Ministry sends alerts to all states, UTs
New Delhi (PTI): Acting swiftly after the serial blasts in Uttar Pradesh, the Union Home Ministry on Friday issued advisories to all states and union territories to step up vigil and surveillance.
Strongly condemning the blasts, Home Minister Shivraj Patil said it was yet another attempt by anti-national elements to spread panic.
“I am confident that peace loving people of the country will give a fitting reply to such elements,” Patil said as he conveyed his sympathies to the bereaved families and prayed for the speedy recovery of the injured.
The Home Minister asserted that the government would continue to fight terrorism in a resolute manner.
The security establishment is in touch with the state government to see if any assistance was required by it from the Centre.
An MHA spokesman said Union Home Secretary Madhukar Gupta was in touch with the Uttar Pradesh police chief on the incident.
Meanwhile, central forensic teams were being rushed to the blasts sites in Uttar Pradesh.
A sudden bang, blood and bodies all over…
Lucknow (PTI): It was a calm Friday afternoon with lawyers having consultations with their clients in the court premises here. Suddenly, there was a bang and blood and bodies all around.
Profusely bleeding people started running helter skelter as they tried to come to terms as to what had happened.
Before it came to be known that that a bomb had exploded, six people were killed and several were wounded.
Similar scenes were witnessed in the court premises in Varanasi and Faizabad, which took were rocked by the serial bomb blasts — six in all.
The bombs, most of them planted on cycles, went off blowing away the tin sheets near the lawyers chambers.
“I was talking to my client when a bomb exploded and for few seconds I was unable to think what has happended. It took me minutes to realise that it was a bomb blast,” said a woman lawyer at the Lucknow court.
The lawyer said she saw people were running here and there. “My body is still shivering with the sound of the blast,” the shocked advocate said.
The vehicles in the court parking area were strewn everywhere and seats of some of the vehicles were thrown in the air.
“As soon as I entered the court premises on my motorcycle, I heard a loud sound. First, I did not understand what was it. Then I saw steel pellets scattered in about ten meters of the area,” a man, who visited the court in Faizabad, said.
Another lawyer in Varanasi said the blasts took them unawares as they were “busy talking to the clients”.
“We did not understand what was happening. Suddenly I heard loud cries and some people who were profusely bleeding running. When I came out I saw a seat of a cycle in the air. The seat of lawyers were also blown off,” a lawyer at Varanasi court complex said.
Militants triggered near-simultaneous blasts in court premises in Varanasi, Faizabad and the state capital of Lucknow killing 14 people, some of them lawyers and injuring over 50 others.
Six bombs — three in Varansi, two in Faizabad and one in Lucknow — some planted on cycles, went off within a span of 15 minutes in the crowded court complexes between 1310 and 1325 hours.
HuJI suspected to be behind serial blasts
New Delhi (PTI): Banned Harkat-ul-Jehadi Islamia (HuJI) is believed to be behind the serial blasts that rocked the Uttar Pradesh on Friday killing over a dozen people besides injuring several others.
Sources in the security agencies said the terror strike could be seen as a revenge by the banned outfit for the assault on its members including the recent incident when lawyers manhandled three Jaish-e-Mohammed militants arrested in Lucknow last week.
They said Jaish could have sought the help of HuJI as both the outfits followed the Deoband sect of Islam.
HuJI, which is being mainly run from Bangaldesh, has managed to establish cells in the Uttar Pradesh and that the outfit was responsible for previous major terror attacks.
All three court premises in Lucknow, Faizabad and Varanasi, targeted on Frioday by the militants, had seen an incident of manhandling of militants or activists of anti-Ram temple in Ayodhya by lawyers.
Last week three JeM militants were roughed up by lawyers and the bar association refused to take up their cases.
Faizabad court premises was witness to an altercation between activists of a Babri Masjid organisation and lawyers. The local bar association had banned its advocates from taking up their case.
The court premises in Varanasi was witness last year to beating of a Waliullah Khan, the main accused in the Sankat Mochan temple explosions.
In a related development, an outfit by the name of Al-Hind Mujahideen had claimed responsibility about the attacks and sent emails to some media houses.
|Noida Authority’s appeal is dismissed|
New Delhi: The Supreme Court on Thursday directed the Central Bureau of Investigation to continue its probe into the ‘Noida land scam’ reported during the Mulayam Singh Yadav regime in 2005. Several politicians, bureaucrats, judges and their kin were said to be beneficiaries in the scam.
“Since the Noida Authority and UPDESCO [Uttar Pradesh Development System Corporation Ltd] have no objection to complying with the Allahabad High Court order, the appeal does not survive,” said a Bench consisting of Justices H.K. Sema and Justice Aftab Alam.Housing plots allotment
The Bench was hearing a petition filed by the NOIDA Authority, which challenged the High Court order directing the CBI probe into alleged irregularities in a controversial draw of lots in which the names of the daughter-in-law of the former Chief Justice of India Y. K. Sabharwal and the son of the acting Chief Justice of the Chhattisgarh High Court Jagdish Bhalla also figured.
Among the politicians who were declared successful in the draw of lots for allotment of around 1,250 residential plots were Munni Devi, Rewti Raman Singh, Rashid Masood, Jai Prakash (Samajwadi Party) and Ashok Pradhan (BJP).Interim order
The apex court, in its interim order on November 11, 2005, stayed the CBI investigation, which was ordered by the High Court on October 4, 2005 on a bunch of public interest litigation petitions.
However, soon after assuming office this year, the Mayawati government recommended to the Centre that a CBI inquiry be held into the alleged misconduct of the officials responsible for the controversial draw of lots.
Taking note of the State’s revised stand, the apex court Bench dismissed the appeal filed by the NOIDA Authority against the High Court order.
U.P. Govt. signs pact for mega power project
|NTPC will set up the thermal unit in Allahabad district|
LUCKNOW: The National Thermal Power Corporation, now known simply as NTPC, will set up the 1320-megawatt ( 2 X 660 MW ) thermal power plant in Meja tehsil of Allahabad district in Uttar Pradesh. A joint venture agreement was signed on Thursday between the UP Government, NTPC and UP Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam Limited (UPRVUNL) to establish and operate the Meja power station.
The Memorandum of Understanding was signed in the presence of UP Chief Minister Mayawati at a function held at her 5, Kalidas Marg residence. UPRVUNL Chairman G. B. Patnaik, State Principal Secretary (Energy) V. N. Garg and NTPC Chairman and Managing Director T. Sankaralingam were the signatories to the agreement which envisages a joint venture company.
To be built at an estimated cost of about Rs.6,000 crore, the project is likely to be completed in 2011. UP will get 75 per cent of the total power generated by the Meja power unit. The share capital of UPRVUNL and NTPC would be 50 per cent each in the joint venture with the Utpadan Nigam to invest Rs.1,080 crore in the project. About 2,500 acres of land near Koharar Ghat in Meja tehsil has been identified for the plant, township and ash disposal area and about 100 cusecs of water for the project would be drawn from the rivers Tons and Ganga.
For the first time in the State, the “super critical boiler” technique would be used in the Meja project.
Addressing the gathering, the Chief Minister said her Bahujan Samaj Party was aware that power is the most critical input for the development of the State and improving electric supply was one of the priority areas of her government. She said a target of creating an additional capacity of 1,250 MW had been fixed in the current financial year. An additional capacity of around 10,000 MW would be created by the end of the 11th Five Year Plan in 2012.
Describing the MoU as a positive beginning towards ending the power crisis, Ms. Mayawati blamed the previous governments for UP’s power woes.
Mr. Sankaralingam said the Meja power project would act as a catalyst for all-round development of UP. Terming UP as the “mother State” of NTPC, he said it was in Singrauli that the Corporation built its first power station and 7,180 MW alone was contributed by NTPC’s power plants in the State.
The NTPC CMD said in addition to setting up the Meja unit, the expansion of the Tanda thermal power station in Ambedkar Nagar district would be undertaken at an estimated cost of Rs.6,000 crore. The first 660-MW units of Meja and Tanda will begin power generation by the end of the 11th Plan, he added.
Meanwhile, two Power-Purchase Agreements were signed on Wednesday between the UP Power Corporation Limited and NTPC for enabling the State to get 500 MW power from NTPC’s units in Baadh (Bihar) and North Karanpura (Jharkhand).
According to Mr. Patnaik, who is also the Chairman of UP Power Corporation Limited, 200 MW from the Baadh unit would be available in 2009 with another 300 MW from the North Karanpura plant in 2010.
Noble Eightfold Path
“And what is right view? Knowledge with regard to stress, knowledge with regard to the origination of stress, knowledge with regard to the cessation of stress, knowledge with regard to the way of practice leading to the cessation of stress: This is called right view.”
“And how is right view the forerunner? One discerns wrong view as wrong view, and right view as right view. This is one’s right view. And what is wrong view? ‘There is nothing given, nothing offered, nothing sacrificed. There is no fruit or result of good or bad actions. There is no this world, no next world, no mother, no father, no spontaneously reborn beings; no priests or contemplatives who, faring rightly & practicing rightly, proclaim this world & the next after having directly known & realized it for themselves.’ This is wrong view…
“One tries to abandon wrong view & to enter into right view: This is one’s right effort. One is mindful to abandon wrong view & to enter & remain in right view: This is one’s right mindfulness. Thus these three qualities — right view, right effort, & right mindfulness — run & circle around right view.”
“In a person of wrong view, wrong resolve comes into being. In a person of wrong resolve, wrong speech. In a person of wrong speech, wrong action. In a person of wrong action, wrong livelihood. In a person of wrong livelihood, wrong effort. In a person of wrong effort, wrong mindfulness. In a person of wrong mindfulness, wrong concentration. In a person of wrong concentration, wrong knowledge. In a person of wrong knowledge, wrong release.
“This is how from wrongness comes failure, not success.”
“When a person has right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration, right knowledge, & right release, whatever bodily deeds he undertakes in line with that view, whatever verbal deeds… whatever mental deeds he undertakes in line with that view, whatever intentions, whatever vows, whatever determinations, whatever fabrications, all lead to what is agreeable, pleasing, charming, profitable, & easeful. Why is that? Because the view is auspicious.
“Just as when a sugar cane seed, a rice grain, or a grape seed is placed in moist soil, whatever nutriment it takes from the soil & the water, all conduces to its sweetness, tastiness, & unalloyed delectability. Why is that? Because the seed is auspicious. In the same way, when a person has right view… right release, whatever bodily deeds he undertakes in line with that view, whatever verbal deeds… whatever mental deeds he undertakes in line with that view, whatever intentions, whatever vows, whatever determinations, whatever fabrications, all lead to what is agreeable, pleasing, charming, profitable, & easeful. Why is that? Because the view is auspicious.”
“There is the case where an uninstructed, run-of-the-mill person… does not discern what ideas are fit for attention, or what ideas are unfit for attention. This being so, he does not attend to ideas fit for attention, and attends instead to ideas unfit for attention… This is how he attends inappropriately: ‘Was I in the past? Was I not in the past? What was I in the past? How was I in the past? Having been what, what was I in the past? Shall I be in the future? Shall I not be in the future? What shall I be in the future? How shall I be in the future? Having been what, what shall I be in the future?’ Or else he is inwardly perplexed about the immediate present: ‘Am I? Am I not? What am I? How am I? Where has this being come from? Where is it bound?’
“As he attends inappropriately in this way, one of six kinds of view arises in him: The view I have a self arises in him as true & established, or the view I have no self… or the view It is precisely by means of self that I perceive self… or the view It is precisely by means of self that I perceive not-self… or the view It is precisely by means of not-self that I perceive self arises in him as true & established, or else he has a view like this: This very self of mine — the knower that is sensitive here & there to the ripening of good & bad actions — is the self of mine that is constant, everlasting, eternal, not subject to change, and will endure as long as eternity. This is called a thicket of views, a wilderness of views, a contortion of views, a writhing of views, a fetter of views. Bound by a fetter of views, the uninstructed run-of-the-mill person is not freed from birth, aging, & death, from sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair. He is not freed, I tell you, from suffering & stress.
“The well-instructed disciple of the noble ones… discerns what ideas are fit for attention, and what ideas are unfit for attention. This being so, he does not attend to ideas unfit for attention, and attends [instead] to ideas fit for attention… He attends appropriately, This is stress… This is the origination of stress… This is the cessation of stress… This is the way leading to the cessation of stress. As he attends appropriately in this way, three fetters are abandoned in him: identity-view, doubt, and grasping at precepts & practices.”
[Kaccayana:] “Lord, ‘Right view, right view,’ it is said. To what extent is there right view?”
[The Buddha:] “By & large, Kaccayana, this world is supported by (takes as its object) a polarity, that of existence & non-existence. But when one sees the origination of the world as it actually is with right discernment, ‘non-existence’ with reference to the world does not occur to one. When one sees the cessation of the world as it actually is with right discernment, ‘existence’ with reference to the world does not occur to one.
“By & large, Kaccayana, this world is in bondage to attachments, clingings (sustenances), & biases. But one such as this does not get involved with or cling to these attachments, clingings, fixations of awareness, biases, or obsessions; nor is he resolved on ‘my self.’ He has no uncertainty or doubt that, when there is arising, only stress is arising; and that when there is passing away, only stress is passing away. In this, one’s knowledge is independent of others. It is to this extent, Kaccayana, that there is right view.”
“Don’t go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering views, by probability, or by the thought, ‘This contemplative is our teacher.’ When you know for yourselves that, ‘These qualities are unskillful; these qualities are blameworthy; these qualities are criticized by the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried out, lead to harm & to suffering’ — then you should abandon them…
“When you know for yourselves that, ‘These qualities are skillful; these qualities are blameless; these qualities are praised by the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried out, lead to welfare & to happiness’ — then you should enter & remain in them.”
Noble Eightfold Path
In his analysis of this factor, the Buddha explains that there are three kinds of right intentions:
a) The intention of renunciation
b) The intention of non-aversion or loving kindness.
c) The intention of non-injury or compassion.
These are opposed to the three wrong intentions, the intention of sensuality, the intention of aversion and intention of harmfulness or cruelty.
Right intention, as we said, follows naturally from right view. Whenever we gain right view, insight into the fact of Dukkha, then we become motivated to renounce our attachments, our clinging to pleasure, wealth, power and fame. We don’t have to suppress the desire for them. The desire falls off naturally by itself. When we look at other beings through the lens of the Four Noble Truths, we see that others are also caught up in the net of suffering. This perception brings about a deep identification with others, a feeling of oneness with them, which leads to loving kindness and compassion. As these attitudes arise they motivate us to renounce aversion and hatred and all violence and cruelty.
This second factor counteracts the two unwholesome roots of actions, greed and aversion.
With the next three factors, we learn to translate right intention into action. These we get the three factors of right speech, right action, and right livelihood.
Noble Eightfold Path
“And what is right speech? Abstaining from lying, from divisive speech, from abusive speech, & from idle chatter: This is called right speech.”
“Monks, a statement endowed with five factors is well-spoken, not ill-spoken. It is blameless & unfaulted by knowledgeable people. Which five?
“It is spoken at the right time. It is spoken in truth. It is spoken affectionately. It is spoken beneficially. It is spoken with a mind of good-will.”
“For the person who transgresses in one thing, I tell you, there is no evil deed that is not to be done. Which one thing? This: telling a deliberate lie.”
The person who lies, who transgress in this one thing, transcending concern for the world beyond: there's no evil he might not do.
“One should speak only that word by which one would not torment oneself nor harm others. That word is indeed well spoken.
“One should speak only pleasant words, words which are acceptable (to others). What one speaks without bringing evils to others is pleasant.”
“And how is one made pure in four ways by verbal action?
“There is the case where a certain person, abandoning false speech, abstains from false speech. When he has been called to a town meeting, a group meeting, a gathering of his relatives, his guild, or of the royalty, if he is asked as a witness, ‘Come & tell, good man, what you know’: If he doesn’t know, he says, ‘I don’t know.’ If he does know, he says, ‘I know.’ If he hasn’t seen, he says, ‘I haven’t seen.’ If he has seen, he says, ‘I have seen.’ Thus he doesn’t consciously tell a lie for his own sake, for the sake of another, or for the sake of any reward. Abandoning false speech, he abstains from false speech. He speaks the truth, holds to the truth, is firm, reliable, no deceiver of the world.
“Abandoning divisive speech he abstains from divisive speech. What he has heard here he does not tell there to break those people apart from these people here. What he has heard there he does not tell here to break these people apart from those people there. Thus reconciling those who have broken apart or cementing those who are united, he loves concord, delights in concord, enjoys concord, speaks things that create concord.
“Abandoning abusive speech, he abstains from abusive speech. He speaks words that are soothing to the ear, that are affectionate, that go to the heart, that are polite, appealing & pleasing to people at large.
“Abandoning idle chatter, he abstains from idle chatter. He speaks in season, speaks what is factual, what is in accordance with the goal, the Dhamma, & the Vinaya. He speaks words worth treasuring, seasonable, reasonable, circumscribed, connected with the goal.
“This is how one is made pure in four ways by verbal action.”
“And how is right view the forerunner? One discerns wrong speech as wrong speech, and right speech as right speech. And what is wrong speech? Lying, divisive tale-bearing, abusive speech, & idle chatter. This is wrong speech…
“One tries to abandon wrong speech & to enter into right speech: This is one’s right effort. One is mindful to abandon wrong speech & to enter & remain in right speech: This is one’s right mindfulness. Thus these three qualities — right view, right effort, & right mindfulness — run & circle around right speech.”
 “In the case of words that the Tathagata knows to be unfactual, untrue, unbeneficial (or: not connected with the goal), unendearing & disagreeable to others, he does not say them.
 “In the case of words that the Tathagata knows to be factual, true, unbeneficial, unendearing & disagreeable to others, he does not say them.
 “In the case of words that the Tathagata knows to be factual, true, beneficial, but unendearing & disagreeable to others, he has a sense of the proper time for saying them.
 “In the case of words that the Tathagata knows to be unfactual, untrue, unbeneficial, but endearing & agreeable to others, he does not say them.
 “In the case of words that the Tathagata knows to be factual, true, unbeneficial, but endearing & agreeable to others, he does not say them.
 “In the case of words that the Tathagata knows to be factual, true, beneficial, and endearing & agreeable to others, he has a sense of the proper time for saying them. Why is that? Because the Tathagata has sympathy for living beings.”
Speak only the speech that neither torments self nor does harm to others. That speech is truly well spoken. Speak only endearing speech, speech that is welcomed. Speech when it brings no evil to others
[The Buddha speaks to his son, Rahula:] “Whenever you want to perform a verbal act, you should reflect on it: ‘This verbal act I want to perform — would it lead to self-affliction, to the affliction of others, or to both? Is it an unskillful verbal act, with painful consequences, painful results?’ If, on reflection, you know that it would lead to self-affliction, to the affliction of others, or to both; it would be an unskillful verbal act with painful consequences, painful results, then any verbal act of that sort is absolutely unfit for you to do. But if on reflection you know that it would not cause affliction… it would be a skillful verbal action with happy consequences, happy results, then any verbal act of that sort is fit for you to do.
“While you are performing a verbal act, you should reflect on it: ‘This verbal act I am doing — is it leading to self-affliction, to the affliction of others, or to both? Is it an unskillful verbal act, with painful consequences, painful results?’ If, on reflection, you know that it is leading to self-affliction, to the affliction of others, or to both… you should give it up. But if on reflection you know that it is not… you may continue with it.
“Having performed a verbal act, you should reflect on it… If, on reflection, you know that it led to self-affliction, to the affliction of others, or to both; it was an unskillful verbal act with painful consequences, painful results, then you should confess it, reveal it, lay it open to the Teacher or to a knowledgeable companion in the holy life. Having confessed it… you should exercise restraint in the future. But if on reflection you know that it did not lead to affliction… it was a skillful verbal action with happy consequences, happy results, then you should stay mentally refreshed and joyful, training day and night in skillful mental qualities.”
“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are addicted to talking about lowly topics such as these — talking about kings, robbers, ministers of state; armies, alarms, and battles; food and drink; clothing, furniture, garlands, and scents; relatives; vehicles; villages, towns, cities, the countryside; women and heroes; the gossip of the street and the well; tales of the dead; tales of diversity [philosophical discussions of the past and future], the creation of the world and of the sea, and talk of whether things exist or not — he abstains from talking about lowly topics such as these. This, too, is part of his virtue.
“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are addicted to debates such as these — ‘You understand this doctrine and discipline? I’m the one who understands this doctrine and discipline. How could you understand this doctrine and discipline? You’re practicing wrongly. I’m practicing rightly. I’m being consistent. You’re not. What should be said first you said last. What should be said last you said first. What you took so long to think out has been refuted. Your doctrine has been overthrown. You’re defeated. Go and try to salvage your doctrine; extricate yourself if you can!’ — he abstains from debates such as these. This, too, is part of his virtue.”
“There are these ten topics of [proper] conversation. Which ten? Talk on modesty, on contentment, on seclusion, on non-entanglement, on arousing persistence, on virtue, on concentration, on discernment, on release, and on the knowledge & vision of release. These are the ten topics of conversation. If you were to engage repeatedly in these ten topics of conversation, you would outshine even the sun & moon, so mighty, so powerful — to say nothing of the wanderers of other sects.”
“O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who desires to admonish another should do so after investigating five conditions in himself and after establishing five other conditions in himself. What are the five conditions which he should investigate in himself?
 “Am I one who practices purity in bodily action, flawless and untainted…?
 “Am I one who practices purity in speech, flawless and untainted…?
 “Is the heart of goodwill, free from malice, established in me towards fellow-farers in the holy life…?
 “Am I or am I not one who has heard much, who bears in mind what he has heard, who stores up what he has heard? Those teachings which are good alike in their beginning, middle, and ending, proclaiming perfectly the spirit and the letter of the utterly purified holy life — have such teachings been much heard by me, borne in mind, practiced in speech, pondered in the heart and rightly penetrated by insight…?
 “Are the Patimokkhas [rules of conduct for monks and nuns] in full thoroughly learned by heart, well-analyzed with thorough knowledge of their meanings, clearly divided sutta by sutta and known in minute detail by me…?
“These five conditions must be investigated in himself.
“And what other five conditions must be established in himself?
 “Do I speak at the right time, or not?
 “Do I speak of facts, or not?
 “Do I speak gently or harshly?
 “Do I speak profitable words or not?
 “Do I speak with a kindly heart, or inwardly malicious?
“O bhikkhus, these five conditions are to be investigated in himself and the latter five established in himself by a bhikkhu who desires to admonish another.”
Noble Eightfold Path
“And what is right action? Abstaining from taking life, abstaining from stealing, abstaining from unchastity. This is called right action.”
“One tries to abandon wrong action & to enter into right action: This is one’s right effort. One is mindful to abandon wrong action & to enter & remain in right action: This is one’s right mindfulness. Thus these three qualities — right view, right effort, & right mindfulness — run & circle around right action.”
“Having thus gone forth, following the training & way of life of the monks, abandoning the taking of life, he abstains from the taking of life. He dwells with his rod laid down, his knife laid down, scrupulous, kind, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings. Abandoning the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given. He takes only what is given, accepts only what is given, lives not by stealth but by means of a self that has become pure. Abandoning uncelibacy, he lives a celibate life, aloof, refraining from the sexual act that is the villager’s way.”
“And how is one made pure in three ways by bodily action? There is the case where a certain person, abandoning the taking of life, abstains from the taking of life. He dwells with his rod laid down, his knife laid down, scrupulous, merciful, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings. Abandoning the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given. He does not take, in the manner of a thief, things in a village or a wilderness that belong to others and have not been given by them. Abandoning sensual misconduct, he abstains from sensual misconduct. He does not get sexually involved with those who are protected by their mothers, their fathers, their brothers, their sisters, their relatives, or their Dhamma; those with husbands, those who entail punishments, or even those crowned with flowers by another man. This is how one is made pure in three ways by bodily action.”
Noble Eightfold Path
One of the most basic of Buddhist teachings is that of right livelihood. Right livelihood is part of the 8-fold way, the way Buddha encouraged believers to live their lives.
In Buddhist thinking, right livelihood means to work, earn money and spend it in such as way that it does the least harm possible. It means to select work consciously, choosing work that will help other people and the world. It means not being greedy, but accepting payment sufficient to meet one’s needs. It also refers to careful consumption, using just what one needs, and not accumulating.
This Buddhist story illustrates right livelihood –
Once there was a fabulous palace. The people who lived in the palace were given warm meals, fine clothing, private baths and everything they needed to live in luxury.
Just outside the palace gate, an old man lived in a one room shack he made himself, slept on an old mat and ate simply.
One day, the old man sat outside the palace eating his dinner of lentils and rice, and a guard came to talk to him. “Foolish man” he said, “if you would serve the king you could feast every night.”
The old man smiled and replied “Dear sir, if you would eat lentils and rice, you wouldn’t need to serve the king.”
In today’s world we are encouraged to serve the king we call money. We are considered good citizens when we earn money, pay taxes and eventually spend the money. Our country is considered strong when we spend and weak when we save.
The idea of right livelihood makes us ask whether the things we spend money on really making people stronger? Right livelihood makes us ask whether we really want to buy expensive clothing or buy just what we need and use the extra money to clothe others?
The idea of right livelihood invites us to re-evaluate life choices, career options and possessions. Being content with what you have, fulfilling your natural purpose in life and showing compassion towards others is the road to happiness and the spirit of right livelihood in the Buddhist tradition.
Noble Eightfold Path
“And what, monks, is right effort?
[i] “There is the case where a monk generates desire, endeavors, activates persistence, upholds & exerts his intent for the sake of the non-arising of evil, unskillful qualities that have not yet arisen.
[ii] “He generates desire, endeavors, activates persistence, upholds & exerts his intent for the sake of the abandonment of evil, unskillful qualities that have arisen.
[iii] “He generates desire, endeavors, activates persistence, upholds & exerts his intent for the sake of the arising of skillful qualities that have not yet arisen.
[iv] “He generates desire, endeavors, activates persistence, upholds & exerts his intent for the maintenance, non-confusion, increase, plenitude, development, & culmination of skillful qualities that have arisen: This, monks, is called right effort.”
“Abandon what is unskillful, monks. It is possible to abandon what is unskillful. If it were not possible to abandon what is unskillful, I would not say to you, ‘Abandon what is unskillful.’ But because it is possible to abandon what is unskillful, I say to you, ‘Abandon what is unskillful.’ If this abandoning of what is unskillful were conducive to harm and pain, I would not say to you, ‘Abandon what is unskillful.’ But because this abandoning of what is unskillful is conducive to benefit and pleasure, I say to you, ‘Abandon what is unskillful.’
“Develop what is skillful, monks. It is possible to develop what is skillful. If it were not possible to develop what is skillful, I would not say to you, ‘Develop what is skillful.’ But because it is possible to develop what is skillful, I say to you, ‘Develop what is skillful.’ If this development of what is skillful were conducive to harm and pain, I would not say to you, ‘Develop what is skillful.’ But because this development of what is skillful is conducive to benefit and pleasure, I say to you, ‘Develop what is skillful.’”
“One tries to abandon wrong view & to enter into right view: This is one’s right effort…
“One tries to abandon wrong resolve & to enter into right resolve: This is one’s right effort…
“One tries to abandon wrong speech & to enter into right speech: This is one’s right effort…
“One tries to abandon wrong action & to enter into right action: This is one’s right effort…
“One tries to abandon wrong livelihood & to enter into right livelihood: This is one’s right effort.”
As Ven Sona was meditating in seclusion [after doing walking meditation until the skin of his soles was split & bleeding], this train of thought arose in his awareness: “Of the Blessed One’s disciples who have aroused their persistence, I am one, but my mind is not released from the effluents through lack of clinging/sustenance. Now, my family has enough wealth that it would be possible to enjoy wealth & make merit. What if I were to disavow the training, return to the lower life, enjoy wealth, & make merit?”
Then the Blessed One, as soon as he perceived with his awareness the train of thought in Ven. Sona’s awareness — as a strong man might stretch out his bent arm or bend his outstretched arm — disappeared from Vulture Peak Mountain, appeared in the Cool Wood right in front of Ven. Sona, and sat down on a prepared seat. Ven. Sona, after bowing down to the Blessed One, sat to one side. As he was sitting there, the Blessed One said to him, “Just now, as you were meditating in seclusion, didn’t this train of thought appear to your awareness: ‘Of the Blessed One’s disciples who have aroused their persistence, I am one, but my mind is not released from the effluents… What if I were to disavow the training, return to the lower life, enjoy wealth, & make merit?’”
“Now what do you think, Sona. Before, when you were a house-dweller, were you skilled at playing the vina?”
“And what do you think: when the strings of your vina were too taut, was your vina in tune & playable?”
“And what do you think: when the strings of your vina were too loose, was your vina in tune & playable?”
“And what do you think: when the strings of your vina were neither too taut nor too loose, but tuned (lit: ‘established’) to be right on pitch, was your vina in tune & playable?”
“In the same way, Sona, over-aroused persistence leads to restlessness, overly slack persistence leads to laziness. Thus you should determine the right pitch for your persistence, attune (’penetrate,’ ‘ferret out’) the pitch of the [five] faculties [to that], and there pick up your theme.”
“Yes, lord,” Ven. Sona answered the Blessed One. Then, having given this exhortation to Ven. Sona, the Blessed One — as a strong man might stretch out his bent arm or bend his outstretched arm — disappeared from the Cool Wood and appeared on Vulture Peak Mountain.
So after that, Ven. Sona determined the right pitch for his persistence, attuned the pitch of the [five] faculties [to that], and there picked up his theme. Dwelling alone, secluded, heedful, ardent, & resolute, he in no long time reached & remained in the supreme goal of the holy life for which clansmen rightly go forth from home into homelessness, knowing & realizing it for himself in the here & now. He knew: “Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for the sake of this world.” And thus Ven. Sona became another one of the arahants.
Noble Eightfold Path
“And what is right mindfulness? There is the case where a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world. He remains focused on feelings in & of themselves… the mind in & of itself… mental qualities in & of themselves — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world. This is called right mindfulness…
“This is the direct path for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow & lamentation, for the disappearance of pain & distress, for the attainment of the right method, & for the realization of Unbinding — in other words, the four frames of reference.”
“One is mindful to abandon wrong view & to enter & remain in right view: This is one’s right mindfulness…
“One is mindful to abandon wrong resolve & to enter & remain in right resolve: This is one’s right mindfulness…
“One is mindful to abandon wrong speech & to enter & remain in right speech: This is one’s right mindfulness…
“One is mindful to abandon wrong action & to enter & remain in right action: This is one’s right mindfulness…
“One is mindful to abandon wrong livelihood & to enter & remain in right livelihood: This is one’s right mindfulness…”
“Suppose, monks, that a large crowd of people comes thronging together, saying, ‘The beauty queen! The beauty queen!’ And suppose that the beauty queen is highly accomplished at singing & dancing, so that an even greater crowd comes thronging, saying, ‘The beauty queen is singing! The beauty queen is dancing!’ Then a man comes along, desiring life & shrinking from death, desiring pleasure & abhorring pain. They say to him, ‘Now look here, mister. You must take this bowl filled to the brim with oil and carry it on your head in between the great crowd & the beauty queen. A man with a raised sword will follow right behind you, and wherever you spill even a drop of oil, right there will he cut off your head.’ Now what do you think, monks: Will that man, not paying attention to the bowl of oil, let himself get distracted outside?”
“I have given you this parable to convey a meaning. The meaning is this: The bowl filled to the brim with oil stands for mindfulness immersed in the body. Thus you should train yourselves: ‘We will develop mindfulness immersed in the body. We will pursue it, hand it the reins and take it as a basis, give it a grounding, steady it, consolidate it, and undertake it well.’ That is how you should train yourselves.”
“Mindfulness of death, when developed & pursued, is of great fruit & great benefit. It plunges into the Deathless, has the Deathless as its final end. Therefore you should develop mindfulness of death.”
“Mindfulness of in-&-out breathing, when developed & pursued, is of great fruit, of great benefit. Mindfulness of in-&-out breathing, when developed & pursued, brings the four frames of reference to their culmination. The four frames of reference, when developed & pursued, bring the seven factors for Awakening to their culmination. The seven factors for Awakening, when developed & pursued, bring clear knowing & release to their culmination.
“Now how is mindfulness of in-&-out breathing developed & pursued so as to bring the four frames of reference to their culmination?
“There is the case where a monk, having gone to the wilderness, to the shade of a tree, or to an empty building, sits down folding his legs crosswise, holding his body erect, and setting mindfulness to the fore. Always mindful, he breathes in; mindful he breathes out.
“ Breathing in long, he discerns that he is breathing in long; or breathing out long, he discerns that he is breathing out long.  Or breathing in short, he discerns that he is breathing in short; or breathing out short, he discerns that he is breathing out short.  He trains himself to breathe in sensitive to the entire body, and to breathe out sensitive to the entire body.  He trains himself to breathe in calming the bodily processes, and to breathe out calming the bodily processes.
“ He trains himself to breathe in sensitive to rapture, and to breathe out sensitive to rapture.  He trains himself to breathe in sensitive to pleasure, and to breathe out sensitive to pleasure.  He trains himself to breathe in sensitive to mental processes, and to breathe out sensitive to mental processes.  He trains himself to breathe in calming mental processes, and to breathe out calming mental processes.
“ He trains himself to breathe in sensitive to the mind, and to breathe out sensitive to the mind.  He trains himself to breathe in satisfying the mind, and to breathe out satisfying the mind.  He trains himself to breathe in steadying the mind, and to breathe out steadying the mind.  He trains himself to breathe in releasing the mind, and to breathe out releasing the mind.
“ He trains himself to breathe in focusing on inconstancy, and to breathe out focusing on inconstancy.  He trains himself to breathe in focusing on dispassion [literally, fading], and to breathe out focusing on dispassion.  He trains himself to breathe in focusing on cessation, and to breathe out focusing on cessation.  He trains himself to breathe in focusing on relinquishment, and to breathe out focusing on relinquishment.”
“And what is right concentration? There is the case where a monk — quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful (mental) qualities — enters & remains in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. With the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, he enters & remains in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation — internal assurance. With the fading of rapture, he remains in equanimity, is mindful & alert, and senses pleasure with the body. He enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones declare, ‘Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasurable abiding.’ With the abandoning of pleasure & pain — as with the earlier disappearance of elation & distress — he enters & remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither pleasure nor pain. This is called right concentration.”
“I tell you, the ending of the mental fermentations depends on the first jhana… the second jhana… the third… the fourth… the dimension of the infinitude of space… the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness… the dimension of nothingness. I tell you, the ending of the mental fermentations depends on the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception.”
“These are the four developments of concentration. Which four? There is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to a pleasant abiding in the here & now. There is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to the attainment of knowledge & vision. There is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to mindfulness & alertness. There is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to the ending of the effluents.
(1) “And what is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to a pleasant abiding in the here & now? There is the case where a monk — quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful qualities — enters & remains in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. With the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, he enters & remains in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation — internal assurance. With the fading of rapture, he remains in equanimity, is mindful & alert, and senses pleasure with the body. He enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones declare, ‘Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasurable abiding.’ With the abandoning of pleasure & pain — as with the earlier disappearance of elation & distress — he enters & remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither pleasure nor pain. This is the development of concentration that… leads to a pleasant abiding in the here & now.
(2) “And what is the development of concentration that… leads to the attainment of knowledge & vision? There is the case where a monk attends to the perception of light and is resolved on the perception of daytime [at any hour of the day]. Day [for him] is the same as night, night is the same as day. By means of an awareness open & unhampered, he develops a brightened mind. This is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to the attainment of knowledge & vision.
(3) “And what is the development of concentration that… leads to mindfulness & alertness? There is the case where feelings are known to the monk as they arise, known as they persist, known as they subside. Perceptions are known to him as they arise, known as they persist, known as they subside. Thoughts are known to him as they arise, known as they persist, known as they subside. This is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to mindfulness & alertness.
(4) “And what is the development of concentration that… leads to the ending of the effluents? There is the case where a monk remains focused on arising & falling away with reference to the five clinging-aggregates: ‘Such is form, such its origination, such its passing away. Such is feeling… Such is perception… Such are fabrications… Such is consciousness, such its origination, such its disappearance.’ This is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to the ending of the effluents.
“These are the four developments of concentration.”
“Now what, monks, is noble right concentration with its supports & requisite conditions? Any singleness of mind equipped with these seven factors — right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, & right mindfulness — is called noble right concentration with its supports & requisite conditions.”
“Over there are the roots of trees; over there, empty dwellings. Practice jhana, monks. Don’t be heedless. Don’t later fall into regret. This is our message to you.”
At the stage of the once-returner, one has eradicated six of the nine illusions of desire in the world of desire. Due to the remaining illusions, one will be born next in the realm of heavenly beings and then once again in the human world before entering nirvana; hence the name once-returner.
Vajracchedika Prajna Paramita
(1) Thus have I heard. One morning, when the Buddha was staying near Shravasti in the jeta grove of Anathapindika’s estate, He and His company of twelve hundred and fifty monks went into the city to beg for their breakfast; and after they returned and finished their meal, they put away their robes and bowls and washed their feet. Then the Buddha took His seat and the others sat down before Him.
(2) From the midst of this assembly rose the Venerable Subhuti. He bared his right shoulder, knelt upon his right knee, and, pressing his palms together, bowed to the Buddha. “Lord,” he said, “Tathagata! World Honored One! How wonderful it is that by Thy mercy we are protected and Instructed! Lord, when men and women announce that they desire to follow the Bodhisattva Path and ask us how they should proceed, what should we tell them?”
(3) “Good Subhuti,” answered the Buddha, “whenever someone announces, ‘I want to follow the Bodhisattva Path because I want to save all sentient beings; and it does not matter whether they are creatures which are formed in a womb or hatched from an egg; whether their life cycles are as observable as those of garden worms, insects and butterflies; or whether they appear as miraculously as mushrooms or gods; or whether they are capable of profound thoughts or of no thoughts at all, for I vow to lead every individual being to Nirvana; and not until they are all safely there will I reap my reward and enter Nirvana!’ then, Subhuti, you should remind such a vow-taker that even if such uncountable numbers of beings were so liberated, in reality no beings would have been liberated. A Bodhisattva does not cling to the illusion of separate individuality or ego-entity or personal identification. In reality, there is no “I” who liberates and no “they” who are liberated.
(4) “Furthermore, Subhuti, a Bodhisattva should be detached from all desires, whether they be for the sight or sound, the smell, the touch or taste of something, or whether they be for leading multitudes to enlightenment A Bodhisattva does not savor ambition. His love is infinite and cannot be Limited by personal attachments or ambitions. When love is infinite its merits are incalculable.
“Tell me, Subhuti. Can you measure the eastern sky?”
“No, Lord. I cannot.
“Can you measure all the space that lies southward, westward, northward or even up or down?”
“No, Lord. I can not.”
“Neither can you measure the merits of a Bodhisattva who loves, works and gives without desire or ambition.”
“Bodhisattvas should pay particular attention to this instruction.
(5) “Subhuti, what do you think? Is it possible to describe the Tathagata? May He be recognized by material characteristics?”
“No, Lord; it is not possible to submit the Tathagata to differentiations or comparisons.” Then the Lord said, “Subhuti, in the fraud of Samsara, all things are differently regarded and attributed but in the truth of Nirvana no such differentiation is possible. The Tathagata cannot be described.
“Whoever perceives that all qualities are not, in fact, determined qualities perceives the Tathagata.”
(6) Subhuti asked the Buddha, “World Honored One, will there always be men who understand this teaching?”
The Lord replied, “Subhuti, never doubt it! There will always be Bodhisattvas who are virtuous and wise; and, in the eons to come, these Bodhisattva will place their roots of merit under many Bodhi trees. They will receive this teaching and they will respond with serene faith for there will always be Buddhas to inspire them. The Tathagata will see and recognize them with His Buddha-eye because in these Bodhisattvas there will be no obstructions, no perception of an individual self, no perception of a separate being, no perception of a soul, and no perception of a person. And these Bodhisattvas will also neither perceive of things as containing intrinsic qualities nor as being devoid of intrinsic qualities. Neither will they discriminate between good and evil. The discrimination of virtuous or non-virtuous conduct must be used as one uses a raft. Once it delivers the stream-crosser to the other side it is abandoned.
(7) “Tell Me, Subhuti. Has the Tathagata attained that Perfect Enlightenment which Transcends Comparisons? If so, is there something about it that the Tathagata can teach?”
Subhuti answered, “As I understand the teaching it cannot be attained or grasped nor can it be taught. Why? Because the Tathagata has said that Truth is not a thing that can be differentiated or contained and therefore Truth cannot be grasped or expressed. The Truth neither is nor is not.
(8) Then the Lord asked, “If anyone fill three thousand galaxies with the seven treasures - gold, silver, lapis-lazuli, crystal, agate, red pearls and cornelian - and gave away all that he had in gifts of alms, would he gain great merit?”
Subhuti answered, ‘’Lord, great merit, indeed, would accrue to him even though, in truth, he does not have a separate existence to which merit could accrue.”
Then Buddha said, “Suppose someone understood only four lines of our Discourse but nevertheless took it upon himself to explain these lines to someone else; then, Subhuti, his merit would be greater than the alms-giver’s. Why? Because this Discourse can produce Buddhas! This Discourse reveals the Perfection of Enlightenment Which Transcends Comparisons!
(9) “Tell me, Subhuti. Does a disciple who begins to cross the Stream say to himself, ‘I am entitled to the honors and rewards of a Stream-Entrant.’?”
“No, Lord. A true Stream-Entrant would not think of himself as a separate ego-entity that could be deserving of anything. Only that disciple who does not differentiate himself from others, who pays no regard to name, shape, sound, odor, taste, touch or any quality can be called a Stream-entrant.”
“Does an adept who is subject to only one more rebirth say to himself, ‘I am entitled to the honors and rewards of a Once-to-be-reborn.’?”
“No, Lord. ‘Once-to-be-reborn’ is merely a name. There is no passing away nor coming into existence. Only one who realizes this can be called an adept.” “Does a Venerable One who will never more be reborn as a mortal say to himself, ‘I am entitled to the honor and rewards of a Non-returner.’?” “No, World Honored One. ‘Non-returner’ is merely a name. There is no returning and no non-returning.”
“Tell me, Subhuti. Does a Buddha say to himself, ‘I have obtained Perfect Enlightenment.’?”
“No, Lord. There is no such thing as Perfect Enlightenment to obtain. Lord, if a Perfectly Enlightened Buddha were to say to himself, ’such am I’ he would be admitting to an individual identity, a separate self and personality and in such case would not be a Perfectly Enlightened Buddha.
“Oh, World-honored One! Thou hast declared that I, Subhuti, excel amongst Thy holy men in knowing the bliss of samahdi, in being perfectly content in seclusion, and in being free from passions. Yet I do not say to myself that I am so for if I ever thought of myself as such then it would not be true that I escaped ego delusion. I know that in truth there is no Subhuti and therefore Subhuti abides nowhere, that he neither knows nor is ignorant of bliss, and that he neither is free nor enslaved by passions.”
(10) Buddha said, “Subhuti, what do you think? In the past, when the Tathagata was with Dipankara, the Fully Enlightened One, did He learn any doctrines from him?”
“No, Lord. There is no such thing as a doctrine to be learned.”
“Subhuti, know also that if any Bodhisattva would say, ‘I will create a paradise,’ he would speak falsely.
And why? Because a paradise cannot be created nor can it not be uncreated.
“Know then, Subhuti, that all Bodhisattva lesser and greater, should experience the pure mind which follows the extinction of ego. Such a mind does not discriminate and make Judgment upon sound, flavor, touch, odor, or any quality. A Bodhisattva should develop a mind which forms no attachment or aversion to anything.
“Suppose that a man were endowed with a huge body, so huge that he had a personal presence like Sumeru, king of mountains. Would his personal existence be great?”
“Yes, Lord. It would be great but ‘personal existence’ is just a name. In reality, he would neither exist nor not exist.”
(11) “Subhuti, if there were as many Ganges rivers as there are grains of sand in the Ganges riverbed, would the total of their grains of sand be many?”
“Many, indeed, World Honored One. It would be impossible to count all the Ganges Rivers much less than the combined total of sand-grains in them all!”
“Subhuti, I will tell you a great truth If someone filled three thousand galaxies with the seven treasures for each grain of sand in all of those Ganges rivers and gave all away as alms, would he gain great merit?”
“Great, Indeed, Lord.”
Then the Buddha declared, “Nevertheless, Subhuti, if someone studies our Discourse and understands only four lines of it but then explains those lines to someone else, the consequent merit would be far greater.
(12) “Furthermore, Subhuti, in whatever place those four lines were proclaimed, that place should be venerated as a Buddha Shrine. And the veneration would be proportionately greater as the number of lines explained was greater!
“Anyone who understands and explains this Discourse in its entirety attains the highest and most wonderful of all truths. And wherever that explanation is given, there, in that place, you should conduct yourself as though you are in the presence of the Buddha. In such a place you should bow and offer flowers and incense.”
(13) Then Subhuti asked, “World Honored One, by what name should this Discourse be known?”
Buddha answered, “This Discourse should be known as The Vajracchedika Prajna Paramita - The Diamond Cutter of Transcendental Wisdom - for it is the Teaching that is hard and sharp like a diamond that cuts through misconception and delusion.”
(14) At this point the impact of the Dharma moved Subhuti to tears. Then, wiping his face, he said, “Lord, how precious it is that Thou hast delivered this profound Discourse! It has been a long time since my eye of wisdom was first opened; but not from that day until this have I heard such a wonderful explanation of the nature of Fundamental Reality.
“Lord, I know that in years to come there will be many men and women who, learning of our Discourse, will receive it with faith and understanding. They will be free from the idea of an ego-entity, free from the idea of a personal soul, free from the idea of individual being or separate existence. What a remarkable achievement such freedom will be!”
(16) “Subhuti, though in this world there have been millions upon millions of Buddhas, and all deserving of great merit, the greatest merit of all will come to that man or woman who, as our Buddha Epoch draws near to its close in the last five hundred year period, receives this Discourse, considers it, puts his faith in it, and then explains it to someone else, and thereby rescues our Good Doctrine from final collapse.”
(17) “Lord, how then should we instruct those who wish to take the Bodhisattva vow?”
“Tell them that if they wish to attain that Perfect Enlightenment which Transcends Comparisons they must be resolved in their attitudes. They must be determined to liberate each living being yet they must understand that in reality there are no individual or separate living beings.
“Subhuti, to be called a Bodhisattva in truth, a Bodhisattva must be completely devoid of any conceptions of separate selfhood.
(18) “Tell me, Subhuti. Does the Tathagata possess the human eye?”
“Yes, Lord He does.”
“Does the Tathagata possess the divine eye?”
“Yes, Lord. He does.”
“Does the Tathagata possess the gnostic eye?”
“Yes, World Honored One.”
“And does He possess the eye of transcendent wisdom?”
“And does the Tathagata possess the Buddha-eye of omniscience?”
“Yes, Lord. He does.”
“Subhuti, though there be uncountable Buddha Lands and uncountable beings with many different minds in those Buddha Lands, the Tathagata understands them all with his Encompassing Mind. But as to their minds, they are merely called ‘mind.’ Such minds have no real existence. Subhuti, it is impossible to retain past mind, impossible to hold on to present mind, and impossible to grasp future mind for in none of its activities does the mind have substance or existence.
(32) “And finally, Subhuti, again know that if one man gave away all that he had - treasure enough to fill innumerable worlds - and another man or woman awakens to the pure thought of Enlightenment and takes only four lines from this Discourse, recites them, considers them, understands them and then, for the benefit of others, spreads these lines abroad and explains them, his or her merit will be the greatest of all.
“Now, what should a Bodhisattva’s manner be when he explains these lines? He should be detached from the fraudulent things of Samsara and should abide in the eternal truth of Reality. He should know that the ego is a phantom and that such delusion need not long persist.
“And so he should regard the ego’s temporal world -
‘As a falling star, or Venus chastened by the Dawn,
A bubble in a stream, a dream,
A candle-flame that sputters and is gone.’”
When the Buddha finished, the Venerable Subhuti and the others in the assembly were filled with joy by His teaching; and, taking it sincerely to heart, they went their ways.
Experience of an ArahantWhile living in the state of liberation an Arahant still continues to perform the necessary functions of life. He sleeps, wakes up in the morning, eats, talks, performs various duties etc. Though he has to go through his daily life he has completely uprooted defilements; greed, hatred and ignorance. In his psycho-physical organism there is no more craving, which sustains the process of becoming leading to future existences. From the effective side of human experience, the state of Nibbana is a state of complete happiness, freedom from sorrow, worry and fear. The Arahant feels bodily pains, but it does not disturb his mind. It does not cause him annoyance or sorrow. Arahant is also in a state of complete fearlessness. All fear comes from the notion of self or ego. When we are frightened, what we are afraid of is a threat to the security of the self, to “my self” or those things I believe belong to me. But for an Arahant who had completely uprooted the notion of self, there comes liberation from all fear. With the abandoning of all forms of attachments the Arahant is free of agitation, restlessness and worry. Again an Arahant is in a state of complete equanimity, with perfect balance of mind. He is not shaken by the eight worldly winds: gain and loss, fame and dishonour, praise and blame, pleasure and pain. Arahant’s state of equanimity is not a state of indifference. The Arahant’s mind is pervaded with immeasurable loving kindness and boundless compassion. This is the state of Nibbana in terms of feeling and emotion. Further, having completely eliminated ignorance, an Arahant acquires no kamma . His willed actions do not have the potency of producing future rebirth. He still performs volitional actions but they are mere activities. They do not leave a trace on the mind, just as the flight of birds flying across the sky leaves no footprints. The Arahant still reaps the results of the kammas performed by him before enlightenment, but these do not disturb his mind. He has complete knowledge and understanding. He is fully awakened. He sees things as they truly are. He is no longer misled by the distortions, projections, perversions born of ignorance.