01 05 2012
eNālāndā Research And Practice

Amend statute for job promotions to SCs,
STs: Mayawati

Delhi, April 30 — Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) chief Mayawati Monday called for
amending the constitution to provide reservation in job promotions to the
Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.
in the Rajya Sabha after the Supreme Court Friday overruled the Uttar Pradesh
government’s decision to provide reservations in government job promotions, the
BSP leader demanded a debate in parliament over the issue.
have been such decisions which have affected reservation for SCs and STs. Bring
necessary amendment in the constitution and get it passed in this session, so
that the SCs and STs get their due,” she said.
decision, introduced in 2007 when she led the Uttar Pradesh government, had
caused major furore in the state with over 10 lakh employees being aggrieved by
the decision to reserve promotions in top posts for the Scheduled Castes,
Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes.
the issue in the Rajya Sabha Monday morning, Mayawati sought a debate on the
issue, adding that it was an attack on the rights of the SCs and the STs
te whenever the members want it”.

Demands Constitutional Amendment for SC and ST Quota

NEW DELHI: Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) chief Mayawati on Monday
demanded in the Rajya Sabha that the government bring a constitutional
amendment bill during the current parliament session to ensure that Scheduled
Castes and Scheduled Tribes in Uttar Pradesh continue to get reservation
benefits in promotions.
Mayawati, former Uttar Pradesh chief minister, made the demand
in the wake of the Supreme Court on April 27 quashing the state government’s
decision to provide reservation benefits for SCs and STs in promotions.
Speaking in the Rajya Sabha soon after the house met for the
day, Mayawati also demanded that reservation for SCs and STs should be placed
in the ninth schedule of the constitution so that there is no problem in
implementation of quota provisions for the two communities.
The issue was raised in the Lok Sabha by Congress member P.L.
Punia after the question hour. He received support from several members in the
house from various parties.
Responding to concerns of members, Minister of State in PMO V.
Narayanasamy told the Lok Sabha that discussions were being carried out between
the ministries of law and justice, and social justice and empowerment and the
government will take immediate decision in the matter.
The Supreme Court had last week quashed the Mayawati
government’s decision to provide reservation benefits for SCs, STs and OBCs in
promotions, saying the state failed to furnish sufficient valid data to justify
the move.
Mayawati, who spoke for the first time since taking oath as
Rajya Sabha member last week, said the central government had amended the
constitution in the wake of court decision in Indra Sawhney case in 1992 so
that SCs and STs continue to get reservations in jobs and promotions.
Referring to the apex court verdict in M. Nagaraj case in 2006,
she said the court had said that before making a law concerning promotions for
SCs and STs, the central and state government had to ensure appropriate data on
their representation and backwardness and also examine if reservation in
promotions was affecting administrative efficiency.
She said the Supreme Court had on April 27 termed reservation in
promotion for SCs and STs “unconstitutional” in Uttar Pradesh and had
done so earlier in Rajasthan.
Mayawati said SC and ST employees in two states, who had got
seniority and promotions on the basis of reservation, will have to go back to
their original posts.
“This will have bad and long term consequences,” she
“The central government should get an appropriate amendment
passed in this session to negate the impact of apex court verdict and fulfill
the intention of 77th, 81st, 82nd and 85th amendments,” Mayawati added.
Demanding that reservation provisions should be placed in the
ninth schedule, she said that the central government should first get the issue
examined to address any infirmities.
Maywati also demanded a discussion in the house on the issue and
said that the central government should clear its stance on the matter.
My final words of advice to you are educate, agitate and
organize; have faith in yourself. With justice on our side I do not see how we
can lose our battle. The battle to me is a matter of joy. The battle is in the
fullest sense spiritual. There is nothing material or social in it. For ours is
a battle not for wealth or for power. It is battle for freedom. It is the
battle of reclamation of human personality.


Buddha Jayanti celebration and promotion of Visit Lumbini year 2012


Buddha Purnima 2012

Buddha Jayanti
The festival of Buddha Purnima or Buddha Jayanti celebrates the
birth of Gautam Buddha in 563 BC. Siddhartha Gautama or Gautam Budhha was a
spiritual teacher and the founder of Buddhism.
The most important of all the Buddhist festivals, Buddha Purnima is considered the
most auspicious of all the days in the year. The festival commemorates the
Buddha’s enlightenment and death. Although there are minor regional variations
in the way Buddha Purnima is observed, the festival is generally observed by
lighting oil lamps before the image of the Buddha, by reciting prayers or
reading from the Buddhist scriptures and worshipping the statue of Buddha.
Meditation and offerings of flowers, silk scarves, incense and fruit are also
part of the worship rituals.
Bodhgaya (Bihar) and Sarnath (Uttar Pradesh) are, in particular, known
for the Buddha Purnima celebrations
which are held in these two cities.
Bodhgaya is the place where the Buddha attained enlightenment.
The Mahabodhi Temple in Bodhgaya is decorated with
colorful prayer flags and flowers. The Buddhist sermons offer special prayers
under the Bodhi tree, where the Lord Buddha attained Awakenment with awareness.
Sarnath is the place where the Buddha after attaining
enlightenment in Bodhgaya taught his learning to the followers. A lot of
visitors from around the world come to these places to participate in and
celebrate the festival.
Though Buddhism originated in India, the religion has spread in
places around the world such as Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Cambodia, Indonesia
and Tibet.
Buddha Jayanti or also known as Buddha Purnima is
the most sacred festivals of Buddhist. Buddha Purnima (Buddha Birthday) is
celebrated in remembrance Lord Buddha. Lord Buddha is the founder of Buddhism.
This day is the birth anniversary of Lord Buddha. It falls on the full moon of
the fourth lunar month (month of Vaisakh) i.e. April or May. This day
commemorates three important events of Buddha’s life

- His birth in 623 BC.
- His enlightment i.e. attainment of supreme wisdom, in 588 BC.
- His attainment of Nirvana i.e. the complete extinction of his self at the age
of 80.

This day is a thrice blessed day. Lord Buddha is considered the ninth avatar
(incarnation) of Vishnu (Preserver in the Hindu Holy Trinity of
Creator-Preserver-Destroyer). Gautam Buddha “lived and died in about the
fifth century before the Christian era”. Buddha means “enlightened
one” - someone who is completely freefrom all faults and mental

Gautam Buddha was not a god and the philosophy of Buddhism does not entail any
theistic world-view. The teachings of the Buddha are solely to liberate human
beings from the misery and sufferings of life.

According to the Buddhism, sorrow and desire are the main cause of all the evil
and suffering of this world. Lord Buddha advocated the Eightfold Path
consisting of precepts like right conduct, right motive, right speech, right
effort, right resolve, right livelihood, right attention and right meditation
to gain mastery over suffering. It is only after following this path one can
reach the ultimate aim of Nirvana. Nirvana is the transcendental state of complete
liberation. Gautama Buddha lived and taught in northern Inda in the 6th Century

Buddha travelled far and wide teaching hundreds of followers. Even after death
his disciples continued to spread his teachings.

Rich and poor alike were attracted by the simplicity of Buddha’s teaching and
his emphasis on complete equality of all, a notion antithetical to the existing
Hindu caste system. The Mauryan Emperor Ashoka espoused the Buddhist religion
in the 3rd century B.C. and helped in spreading it far and wide. Sarnath and
Bodhgaya are two of the most important pilgrimage centres for the Buddhists.

Though Buddhism originated in India and the religion has gained tremendous
popularity throughout the Far East in Asia, there are very few practising
Buddhists in the country. The number of Buddhists in the world ranges
“from less than two hundred million, to more than five hundred million,
with the lower number closer to reality.”



St. Anthony plagued by demons, as imagined by Martin
, in the 1480s.
A demon is a
supernatural, often malevolent being prevalent in various
religions, occultisms, literature, and folklore. The original
Greek word
daimon does not carry the negative connotation initially understood by
implementation of the
Koine δαιμόνιον (daimonion),[1]
and later ascribed to any cognate words sharing the root.
In Ancient Near Eastern religions as well as in
Abrahamic traditions, including ancient and medieval Christian demonology, a demon is considered an “unclean spirit” which
may cause
demonic possession, calling for an exorcism. In Western occultism and Renaissance
, which grew out of an amalgamation of Greco-Roman
, Jewish
, and Christian tradition,[2] a demon is a spiritual entity that may be conjured and
3.2 Judaism3.3 Christian demonology3.4 Islam3.5 Hinduism
3.6 Bahá’í Faith4 See also5 Notes6 References7 Further reading8 External links
DaemonAgathodaemonCacodemonDaimonic, and Eudaimonia
Buer, the 10th spirit, who teaches “Moral and Natural
Philosophy” (from a 1995 Mathers edition. Illustration by
Louis Breton from Dictionnaire Infernal).
The Ancient Greek word δαίμων daimōn denotes a “spirit” or “divine power”, much
like the
Latin genius or numen. Daimōn most likely came from the Greek verb daiesthai
(”to divide, distribute”).
[3] The Greek
conception of a daimōns notably appears in the works of
Plato, where it describes the divine inspiration of
Socrates. To
distinguish the classical Greek concept from its later Christian
interpretation, the former is usually anglicized as either daemon or daimon
rather than demon.
The Greek term does not have any connotations of evil or
malevolence. In fact, ε
δαιμονία eudaimonia, (lit.
“good-spiritedness”) means “happiness”. The term first
acquired its negative connotations in the
Septuagint translation
of the
Hebrew Bible, which drew on the mythology of ancient Semitic religions. This was then inherited by the Koine text of
New Testament. The Western medieval and neo-medieval conception of a
“demon” (see the Medieval
grimoire called the Ars
) derives seamlessly from the ambient popular culture of Late
(Roman) Antiquity. The Hellenistic “daemon” eventually came to
include many Semitic and Near Eastern gods as evaluated by Christianity.
The supposed existence of demons is an important concept in many
modern religions[who?]
and occultist traditions. Demons are still feared as a popular
superstition, largely due
to their alleged power to
possess living creatures. In the contemporary Western occultist
tradition (perhaps epitomized by the work of
), a demon (such as Choronzon, the
“Demon of the Abyss”) is a useful metaphor for certain inner
psychological processes (”inner demons”), though some may also regard
it as an objectively real phenomenon. Some scholars
[4] believe that large portions of the demonology (see Asmodai) of Judaism, a key influence on Christianity and Islam, originated from a later form of Zoroastrianism, and were
transferred to Judaism during the Persian era.
Japanese demon, an ogre-like creature which often has horns.
Psychologist Wilhelm Wundt remarked that
“among the activities attributed by myths all over the world to demons,
the harmful predominate, so that in popular belief bad demons are clearly older
than good ones.”
[5] Sigmund Freud developed
this idea and claimed that the concept of demons was derived from the important
relation of the living to the dead: “The fact that demons are always
regarded as the spirits of those who have died recently shows better
than anything the influence of mourning on the origin of the belief in
M. Scott Peck, an American psychiatrist, wrote two books on the subject, People
of the Lie: The Hope For Healing Human Evil
and Glimpses of the Devil: A Psychiatrist’s Personal Accounts of Possession,
Exorcism, and Redemption
[7] Peck describes in some detail several cases
involving his patients. In People of the Lie he provides identifying
characteristics of an evil person, whom he classified as having a character
disorder. In Glimpses of the Devil Peck goes into significant detail
describing how he became interested in
exorcism in order to
debunk the “myth” of
possession by evil spirits – only to be convinced otherwise after
encountering two cases which did not fit into any category known to
psychology or psychiatry. Peck came to
the conclusion that possession was a rare phenomenon related to evil, and that
possessed people are not actually evil; rather, they are doing battle with the
forces of evil.
Although Peck’s earlier work was met with widespread popular
acceptance, his work on the topics of evil and possession has generated
significant debate and derision. Much was made of his association with (and
admiration for) the controversial
Malachi Martin, a Roman Catholic priest and a
Jesuit, despite the
fact that Peck consistently called Martin a liar and manipulator.
[9][10] Richard Woods, a Roman Catholic priest and theologian,
has claimed that Dr. Peck misdiagnosed patients based upon a lack of knowledge
dissociative identity disorder (formerly
known as multiple personality disorder), and had apparently transgressed the
boundaries of
professional ethics by attempting to persuade his patients into
accepting Christianity.
[9] Father Woods
admitted that he has never witnessed a genuine case of demonic possession in
all his years.

By tradition

Ancient Near East


winged bull, otherwise known as a
According to the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia,
Chaldean mythology the seven evil deities were known as shedu, storm-demons, represented in ox-like form.” [14] They were represented as winged bulls, derived from the colossal bulls used as protective
jinns of royal palaces.
From Chaldea, the term shedu traveled
to the Israelites. The writers of the Tanach applied the word as a
dialogism to Canaanite deities.
There are indications that demons in popular
Hebrew mythology were believed to come from the nether world.
[16] Various diseases and ailments were ascribed to them,
particularly those affecting the brain and those of internal nature. Examples
include the catalepsy, headache, epilepsy, and nightmares. There also existed a
demon of blindness, “Shabriri” (lit. “dazzling glare”) who
rested on uncovered water at night and blinded those who drank from it.
Demons supposedly entered the body and
caused the disease while overwhelming or “seizing” the victim. To
cure such diseases, it was necessary to draw out the evil demons by certain
incantations and talismanic performances, which the
Essenes excelled at. Josephus, who spoke of demons as “spirits of the wicked
which enter into men that are alive and kill them”, but which could be
driven out by a certain root,
[17] witnessed such a performance in the presence of the
Emperor Vespasian
[18] and ascribed its origin to King Solomon.

Hebrew Bible

Demons in the Hebrew Bible are of two classes: the se’irim (”hairy
beings”) and the shedim.[
citation needed] The se’irim,
to which some
Israelites offered sacrifices in the open fields, were satyr-like creatures, described as dancing in the wilderness (Isaiah 13:21, 34:14).
Some benevolent shedim were used in
kabbalistic ceremonies (as with the
golem of Rabbi Yehuda Loevy), and malevolent shedim (mazikin,
from the root meaning “to damage”) were often credited with
possession. Similarly, a shed might inhabit an otherwise inanimate


According to some rabbinic sources, demons
were believed to be under the dominion of a king or chief, either
Asmodai[19] or, in the older Haggadah, Samael (”the angel
of death”, also
called the
“chief of the devils”), who killed via poison. Occasionally a demon
was called
satan: “Stand not in the way of an ox when coming from
the pasture, for Satan dances between his horns”.
Demonology never became an essential feature
of Jewish theology.[citation
However, the existence of demons was never
questioned by the
Talmudists and late rabbis, nor did most of the medieval thinkers
question their reality. Only rationalists like
Maimonides and Abraham ibn Ezra explicitly denied their existence. Their point of view
eventually became mainstream Jewish understanding.
Rabbinical demonology has three classes of demons, though they are
scarcely separable one from another. There were the shedim, the
im (”harmers”), and the ruin (”spirits”). There were also lilin
(”night spirits”),
elane (”shade”, or “evening spirits”), iharire (”midday spirits”), and afrire (”morning spirits”), as well as the
“demons that bring famine” and “such as cause storm and

Christian demonology

Main article: Christian demonology
In the Gospels, particularly the Gospel of Mark, Jesus cast out many demons
or evil spirits from those afflicted with various ailments. He also lent this
power to some of his disciples (
Luke 10:17). The demons were cast out by
the utterance of a name, according to
Matthew 7:22, with some groups insisting
original pronunciation of the name “Jesus”
be used. The demons or unclean spirits themselves were said to often recognize
Jesus as the Messiah. In
Matthew 12:43, Jesus taught that when
demons were driven from a human, they went through dry places as disembodied
spirits seeking respite, although on some occasion he would send them into a
herd of swine. Through all accounts, Jesus had never failed in his exorcism of
a demon.
By way of contrast, in Acts,
a group of Judaistic exorcists known as the sons of Sceva attempted to cast out
a powerful spirit without belief in Jesus, but fail with disastrous
Revelation 12:7-17 describes a battle between
God’s army and Satan’s followers and the latter’s subsequent expulsion from
Heaven to Earth in order to persecute humans.[
clarification needed] Luke 10:18 mentions a power granted by
Jesus to cast out demons made Satan “fall like lightning from
Apuleius, by Augustine of
, is ambiguous as to whether daemons had become
‘demonized’ by the early 5th century:
He [Apulieus]
also states that the blessed are called in Greek eudaimones, because
they are good souls, that is to say, good demons, confirming his opinion that
the souls of men are demons.
The contemporary Roman Catholic Church unequivocally teaches that
angels and demons are real beings rather than just symbolic devices. The
Catholic Church has a cadre of officially sanctioned exorcists which perform
exorcisms each year. The exorcists of
the Catholic Church teach that demons attack humans continually but that
afflicted persons can be effectively healed and protected either by the formal
rite of exorcism, authorized to be performed only by bishops and those they
designate, or by prayers of deliverance, which any Christian can offer for
themselves or others.
Building upon the few references to daemons in the New
Testament, especially the poetry of the Book of Revelation, Christian writers
apocrypha from the 2nd century onwards
created a more complicated tapestry of beliefs about “demons” that was
largely independent of Christian scripture.
At various times in Christian history, attempts have been made to
classify demons according to various proposed
demonic hierarchies.
According to Christian
, demons will be eternally punished and
never will reconcile with God. Other theories postulate a
, in which Satan, the fallen angels, and the
souls of the dead that were condemned to Hell reconcile with God. This doctrine
is today often associated with the
. Origen, Jerome, and Gregory of Nyssa also mentioned this
In contemporary Christianity, demons are generally considered to be angels who fell from grace by rebelling against God.[citation needed]
However, Genesis mentions that
Nephilim are a result of the sexual
relationships between fallen angels and human women (
Genesis 6:2). When these hybrids died
they left behind disembodied spirits that “roam[ed] the earth in search of
rest” (
Luke 11:24). Many non-canonical
historical texts describe in detail these unions and the consequences thereof.
This belief is repeated in other major ancient religions and mythologies.
Christians who reject this view do so by ascribing the description of
“Sons of God” in
Genesis 6 to be the sons of Seth (one
of Adam’s sons).


Majlis al Jinn cave in Oman, literally “Meeting place of the Jinn“.
Islam recognizes the existence of jinn, which are sentient beings with free will that can
co-exist with humans (though not the genies of modern lore). In Islam, evil
jinns are referred to as the shayātīn, or devils, with
Iblis (Satan) is their chief. Iblis was one of the first
jinn; he disobeyed God and did not bow down before Adam refusing to acknowledge
a creature made of “clay”. Thus, Iblis was condemned to hell. He
asked for respite until the last day (Judgement Day), when he vowed to make
mankind fall and deny the existence of their creator, to which God replied that
Iblis would only be able to mislead those who were not righteous believers, warning
that Iblis and all who followed him in evil would be punished in Hell.


Hinduism includes numerous varieties of
spirits that might be classified as demons, including
Vetalas, Bhutas and Pishachas. Rakshasas and Asuras are often also taken as demons.


Army of Super Creatures - from The Sougandhika Parinaya Manuscript (1821 CE)
Originally, Asura, in the earliest
hymns of the
Rig Veda, meant any supernatural spirit, either good or bad.
Since the /s/ of the Indic linguistic branch is cognate with the /h/ of the
Early Iranian languages, the word Asura, representing a category of
celestial beings, became the word Ahura (Mazda), the Supreme God of the
Zoroastrians. Ancient Hinduism
tells that
Devas (also called suras)
Asuras are half-brothers, sons of the same father Kasyapa;
although some of the Devas, such as
Varuna, are also called Asuras. Later, during Puranic age, Asura and Rakshasa came to exclusively mean any of a race of
anthropomorphic, powerful, possibly evil beings. Daitya (lit. sons of the
mother “Diti”), Rakshasa (lit. from “harm to be guarded
against”), and Asura are incorrectly translated into English as
In Hindu mythology, pious, highly
enlightened Asuras, such as
Prahlada and Vibheeshana, are not uncommon. The Asura are not fundamentally
against the Gods, nor do they tempt humans to fall. This is markedly different
from the traditional Western notions of demons as a rival army of God but
comparable with the concept of the
jinns in Islam.[contradiction] Many
people metaphorically interpret the Asura as manifestations of the ignoble
passions in the human mind and as a symbolic devices. There were also cases of
power-hungry Asuras challenging various aspects of the Gods, but only to be
defeated eventually and seek forgiveness—see
Surapadman and Narakasura.

Evil spirits

Hinduism advocates the reincarnation and
transmigration of souls according to one’s
karma. Souls (Atman) of the dead are
adjudged by the
Yama and are accorded various purging punishments before
being reborn. Humans that have committed extraordinary wrongs are condemned to
roam as lonely, often evil, spirits for a length of time before being reborn.
Many kinds of such spirits (Vetalas,
Pishachas, Bhūta) are recognized in the later Hindu texts. These beings,
in a limited sense, can be called demons

Bahá’í Faith

In the Bahá’í Faith, demons are not
regarded as independent evil spirits as they are in some faiths. Rather, evil
spirits described in various faiths’ traditions, such as Satan, fallen angels,
demons, and jinns, are metaphors for the base character traits a human being
may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God and follows his lower
nature. Belief in the existence of ghosts and earthbound spirits is rejected
and considered to be the product of superstition.
See also