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21 05 2012 MONDAY LESSON 615 FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research And Practice UNIVERSITY And THE BUDDHISTONLINE GOOD NEWS LETTER by ABHIDHAMMA RAKKHITA through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org Dhammapada: Verses and Stories Dhammapada Verse 173 Evil Is Overcome By Good
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21 05 2012 MONDAY LESSON
615 FREE
ONLINE eNālāndā Research
And Practice
UNIVERSITY And THE BUDDHISTONLINE GOOD NEWS LETTER by ABHIDHAMMA RAKKHITA through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

Dhammapada: Verses
and Stories

Dhammapada Verse
173

Evil Is Overcome By Good

Verse 173. Evil Is
Overcome By Good

Who by
wholesome kamma
covers up the evil done
illumines the world
as moon when free from clouds.

Explanation: If the evil habits of behaviour of an individual get replaced by
his good behaviour, he will illuminate the world.

 

 

Dhammapada
Verse 173
Angulimalatthera Vatthu

Yassa papam katam kammam


kusalena1 pidhiyati
so’mam lokam pabhaseti

abbha muttova candima.

Verse 173: He who overwhelms with good the evil that he has done
lights up this world (with the light of Magga Insight), as does the moon freed
from clouds.


1.
kusalena: with good deed; the good in this context means Arahatta Magga, the
fourth and final Path knowledge. (The Commentary)


The
Story of Thera Angulimala

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse
(173) of this book, with reference to Thera Angulimala.

Angulimala was the son of the Head Priest in the court of King
Pasenadi of Kosala. His original name was Ahimsaka. When he was of age, he was
sent to Taxila, a renowned university town. Ahimsaka was intelligent and was
also obedient to his teacher. So he was liked by the teacher and his wife; as a
result, other pupils were jealous of him. So they went to the teacher and
falsely reported that Ahimsaka was having an affair with the teacher’s wife. At
first, the teacher did not believe them, but after being told a number of times
he believed them; and so he vowed to have revenge on the boy. To kill the boy
would reflect badly on him; so he thought of a plan which was worse than
murder. He told Ahimsaka to kill one thousand men or women and in return he
promised to give the boy priceless knowledge. The boy wanted to have this
knowledge, but was very reluctant to take life. However, he agreed to do as he
was told.

Thus, he kept on killing people, and not to lose count, he
threaded a finger each of everyone he killed and wore them like a garland round
his neck. In this way, he was known as Angulimala, and became the terror of the
countryside. The king himself heard about the exploits of Angulimala, and he
made preparations to capture him. When Mantani, the mother of Angulimala, heard
about the king’s intention, out of love for her son, she went into the forest
in a desperate bid to save her son. By this time, the chain round the neck of
Angulimala had nine hundred and ninety-nine fingers in it, just one finger
short of one thousand.

Early in the morning on that day, the Buddha saw Angulimala in his
vision, and reflected that if he did not intervene, Angulimala who was on the
look out for the last person to make up the one thousand would see his mother
and might kill her. In that case, Angulimala would have to suffer in niraya
endlessly. So out of compassion, the Buddha left for the forest where
Angulimala was.

Angulimala, after many sleepless days and nights, was very tired
and near exhaustion. At the same time, he was very anxious to kill the last
person to make up his full quota of one thousand and so complete his task. He
made up his mind to kill the first person he met. Suddenly, as he looked out he
saw the Buddha and ran after him with his knife raised. But the Buddha could not
be reached while he himself was completely exhausted. Then, looking at the
Buddha, he cried out, “O bhikkhu, stop! stop!” and the Buddha
replied, “I have stopped, only you have not stopped.”
Angulimala did not get the significance of the words of the Buddha, so he
asked, “O Bhikkhu! Why do you say that you have stopped and I have not
stopped?”

The Buddha then said to him, “I say that I have stopped,
because I have given up killing all beings, I have given up ill-treating all
beings, and because I have established myself in universal love, patience, and
knowledge through reflection. But, you have not given up killing or
ill-treating others and you are not yet established in universal love and
patience. Hence, you are the one who has not stopped.”
On hearing
these words from the mouth of the Buddha, Angulimala reflected, “These are
the words of a wise man. This bhikkhu is so very wise and so very brave ; he
must be the ruler of the bhikkhus. Indeed, he must be the Buddha himself! He
must have come here specially to make me see the light.” So thinking, he
threw away his weapon and asked the Buddha to admit him to the Order of the
bhikkhus. Then and there, the Buddha made him a bhikkhu.

Angulimala’s mother looked for her son everywhere in the forest
shouting out his name, but failing to find him she returned home. When the king
and his men came to capture Angulimala, they found him at the monastery of the
Buddha. Finding that Angulimala had given up his evil ways and had become a
bhikkhu, the king and his men went home. During his stay at the monastery,
Angulimala ardently and diligently practised meditation, and within a short
time he attained arahatship.

Then, one day, while he was on an alms-round, he came to a place
where some people were quarrelling among themselves. As they were throwing
stones at one another, some stray stones hit Thera Angulimala on the head and
he was seriously injured. Yet, he managed to come back to the Buddha, and the
Buddha said to him, “My son Angulimala! You have done away with evil.
Have patience. You are paying in this existence for the deeds you have done.
These deeds would have made you suffer for innumerable years in niraya.”
Soon
afterwards, Angulimala passed away peacefully; he had realized parinibbana.

Other bhikkhus asked the Buddha where Angulimala was reborn, and
when the Buddha replied “My son has realized parinibbana”,
they could hardly believe it. So they asked him whether it was possible that a
man who had killed so many people could have realized parinibbana. To this question,
the Buddha replied, “Bhikkhus! Angulimala had done much evil because he
did not have good friends. But later, he found good friends and through their
help and good advice he had been steadfast and mindful in his practice of the
dhamma. Therefore, his evil deeds have been overwhelmed by good (i e., Arahatta
Magga).

Then
the Buddha spoke in verse as follows
Verse  freed from clouds.









http://awakeningtheindianwithin.com/nalanda-university-restoring-a-glorious-past/

Awakening with Awareness the
Jambudvipan Within





Nalanda University:
Restoring a Glorious Past

Posted on

The ancient
seat of knowledge, Nalanda University had sparkled as a priceless jewel in
the Jambudvipan subcontinent for over five centuries (427-1197 CE).
Patronised by the reigning Kings since the time of Ashoka, it was among the
world’s finest centres of learning and attracted students from all over the
world.





Nalanda University Site

Today, the
site at which the great centre of knowledge once stood stands earmarked as a
World Heritage Site by the UN. The excavated remains of the university forms
a major tourist attraction in the otherwise nondescript district of Nalanda,
nestled in the state of Bihar.  The huge gates of the refreshingly green
campus hold an inviting look to the unsuspecting tourist, who is inevitably
taken by surprise at the grandeur of the ancient remains
According to archeologists, less than a tenth of the area of the
original university has so far been excavated. There are small villages and
settlements over the rest of the area. The excavated part itself is huge. It
consists of maze like corridors bordered by low red brick walls, the numerous
study centres, the huge kitchens where one can still see the ancient chulhas beneath the ground, the
living quarters of the students that comprise of stiff platforms that served
as beds, etc. The most delightful part is however, the library. The numerous
small rooms once contained thousands of books on every discipline. Folklore
has it that the destructive fire started by the Turk, Bakhtiyar Khilji had
raged within the walls of the library for nearly three months, destroying the
vast treasure trove of knowledge. The beautiful arched ceilings of the
library retain a sooty feel. Made of interlocking bricks, that appear to hang
loose without any mortar support, some of them have remained strong for
centuries. There’s a courtyard in the campus that houses rows of small,
richly carved stupas,
enshrining remains of exceptional teachers and prodigious disciples. The
university had housed over two thousand teachers and ten thousand students.
Though now only ruins remain, the entire area retains a pristine aura, with
the religious symbols and figures reminding how knowledge was associated with
sanctity in the olden times. The campus reverberates with the essence of its
glorious past, the grandeur of which is hard to be missed.

Recently,
the Lok Sabha adopted the Nalanda University Bill, that seeks the
establishment of an international university on the lines of the ancient
centre of learning. This is a welcome step, especially in the face of less
than satisfactory performance of existing universities in the country, and
continuous migration of students to universities abroad at higher levels of
education. The establishment of a modern university close to the site of the
original Nalanda, is a joint effort initiated at the East Asian Summit
comprising fifteen countries, aimed at promoting regional peace and
understanding. The Nalanda Mentor Group is chaired by Nobel prize winning
economist Dr. Amartya Sen. The proposed disciplines to be taught and
researched at the university include Buddhist Studies, Philosophy and
Comparative Religions, Historical Studies, International Relations and Peace
Studies, Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development
Studies, Languages and Literature, Ecology and Environmental Studies. The
Nalanda University Bill outlines its objectives as:

“to impart
education and to enable research towards capacity building of the Member
States in the domain of ancient science (in particular, practiced in the
Nalanda several centuries ago),philosophy, language, history and other areas
of higher learning vital for improving the quality of life.”

“to
understand Buddha’s teachings in the contemporary context without excluding
any other thought and practice from any other parts of the world”


“to enhance
research for greater interaction between East Asia, bound by strong
historical commonalities in areas like trade, science, mathematics,
astronomy, religion, philosophy and cross-cultural current.”


“to
contribute to the improvement of the educational system of the Member states
in view of the teaching in Nalanda several centuries ago.”


With this
wonderful initiative, India stands poised not just to make its presence felt
on the world stage in the field of higher education and research, but to
reclaim its position as a world leader in knowledge and excellence.

Business Management in relation to Public
Policy and Development Studies




http://www.indiaedunews.net/Universities/Global_design_competition_for_Nalanda_University_13563/print.asp

Global
design competition for Nalanda University

February
22, 2011





New Delhi: As
the historic Nalanda University is set to be rebuilt, Vice Chancellor Gopa
Sabharwal said on Monday that a global design competition for the building’s
architecture will be announced in three to four months.

Talking to reporters in Delhi at a press
conference, the newly appointed vice chancellor said that the new university
will be built on an area of 446 acres, 10 km from the site of the ancient
university of Nalanda in Bihar.

“The university will be built in
Rajgir, which is 10 km from the site of the historic Nalanda University. A
global designing competition will be announced in coming three or four months
for finalizing the architecture,” Sabharwal said.

The Nalanda University Bill was passed by
the parliament during the monsoon session in August 2010 and a notification
for its creation was issued in November.

While the work for creation of
infrastructure has already begun, the construction of the building and other
details will start once the designs are finalized.

“The design must get ready by next
year. We will try to built it as soon as possible but it is difficult to give
a time frame,” she said.

The university, which will be an
international state-of-the-art institution, will have post graduate courses
in six disciplines.

The course include Buddhist studies,
philosophy and comparative religions, historical studies, international
relations and peace studies, business management in relation to public policy
and development studies, languages and literature and ecology and environmental
studies.

Talking about the courses, Nalanda mentor
group chairman and Nobel laureate Amartya Sen said that the courses like
Buddhist philosophy and religious studies aimed at connecting the modern
university to its historic past when Nalanda was the centre of learning that
attracted students from all over the world.

“Courses like Buddhist studies,
comparative religion, literature and history will connect it to its past. I
hope some day we can also include astronomy in the courses as it was taught in
the ancient Nalanda University,” Sen said.

Asked about the absence of science related
courses, Sen said that creation of infrastructure was one of the main reasons
for this.

“You cannot teach science without a
lab, so infrastructure was one of the main reasons why we have stressed on
humanities. In the course of time, science courses will get included,”
he said.

While the government of India has created
an endowment fund for the creation of the university, the project has also
attracted contributions from many other countries including
Singapore, Australia and China.

“We got $7 million from Singapore, $1 million from China, Australia is funding a chair, while Laos has given $50,000,”
Sabharwal said.

Speaking on the occasion, Foreign Minister
of
Singapore George Yeo said that the aim was to create a university
to facilitate exchange of ideas.

“It will be a place where human beings gather and each contribute to
development of others,” Yeo said. IANS

http://www.bihartimes.in/Newsbihar/2011/Sep/newsbihar15Sep1.html





Nalanda
University: How the Mentor Group degraded the idea

New Delhi,(BiharTimes): On July 6 Patna hosted two
meetings related to Nalanda. But these were utterly unconnected with one
another. The first was the interim Governing Board meeting of the budding
Nalanda University. The other was the meeting of the Nava Nalanda Mahavihara
Society held at Raj Bhawan under the chairmanship of Governor Devanand
Konwar, the Chancellor of the Mahavihara.

The Nava Nalanda Mahavihara, an autonomous institution under the Union
Ministry of Culture, has been thoroughly overlooked by the Ministry of
External Affairs (MEA) in formulating the Nalanda University project. The
Nava Nalanda meeting was attended by Buddhist scholars including Suniti Kumar
Pathak, the well-known Tibetologist from Visva-Bharati University,
Shantiniketan.

The meeting resolved to organize exhibitions and seminars on Buddhist
literature in order to popularize Buddhist literature.

The Nalanda University Governing Board, however, struck a different note. The
chairman Prof Amartya Sen announced that Nalanda University would start with
School of Historical Studies and Environment & Ecology Studies. But he
was not sure when the University would start functioning.

This implied that Buddhist Studies, on which the concept of Nalanda rested,
would not be part of inaugural curriculum. There are reasons to suspect that.
Nalanda will actually have no place for Buddhism, Indology, Tibetology and
Allied Studies. He is merely exploiting the title of Nalanda or a project
that has nothing to do with Nalanda tradition.

All the goodwill the Nalanda University project received at home and abroad
was on account of ancient Nalanda. The identity of ancient Nalanda University
was due to primarily due to Buddhism. Even Amartya Sen himself could not
factually attribute much else to ancient Nalanda than Tantric Buddhism at
98th Indian Science Congress Lecture at Chennai in January. But when it came
to designing the Nalanda University project, he deliberately kept all
exponents of Nalanda traditions, that is, the Tibetans and Himalayan Buddhists
of India out of it. There are numerous Buddhist scholars as well as
recognized Buddhist institutions in India. This includes Nava Nalanda
Mahavihara in Nalanda (Bihar), Central Institute of Buddhist Studies in Leh,
Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies in Varanasi that run under the
Ministry of Culture. Bihar, the epicenter of Buddhist studies in ancient
past, can boast of several top-ranking Buddhist scholars today. They were
never consulted.

Ironically, Mentor Group meetings took place in places like Singapore, Tokyo
and New York. Even the Dalai Lama, no less a Nobel Laureate and commanding
greater following than Amartya Sen was shunned. The Tibetan culture is deeply
imbued with legacy of ancient Nalanda Mahavihara. But they were completely ignored
to propitiate China.

In his June 28, 2007 letter to Amartya Sen, then Foreign Minister Pranab
Mukherjee had said that the Government of India had decided to revive Nalanda
University as a Centre for Buddhist and Secular Learning.

But the Nalanda Mentor Group––crammed with Oxbridge-Harvard people––shunned
Secular Learning and Buddhist Learning.

According to Clause 24 (2) of the Nalanda University Act, the proposed
University would have six schools to begin with: a) Buddhist Studies,
Philosophy and Comparative Religions b) Historical Studies c) International
Relations and Peace Studies d) Business Management in relation to Public
Policy and Development Studies e) Languages and Literature f) Ecology and
Environment Studies.

But it has come to light that the MEA propagated a different version of
Nalanda University abroad even after the enactment of the Nalanda University
Act, 2010. The brochure Nalanda University prepared by Indian Public
Diplomacy, an arm of the MEA, is a case in point. There the School of
Buddhist Studies, Philosophy and Comparative Religions has been listed as
No-5 below the School of Information Sciences and Technology, which otherwise
finds no mention in the Act.

The attempt seems to cast Nalanda University in the mould of modern western
universities. If one were to build modern university one wonders what at the
need for a Mentor Group. It could easily have been done through HRD Ministry,
ensuring greater compliance with rules. Bihar would have got a genuine
Central University, a long standing demand. Foreign students already come to
study in various universities of India.

The Oxbridge-Harvard Mentor Group, led by Prof Amartya Sen, appears diffident
about Nalanda’s Buddhist connection. They are working to manipulate the idea of
Nalanda University. Dr Gopa Sabharwal & Co seems to be diffident about
backward Nalanda district. Thus they want to run Nalanda University from New
Delhi.

http://www.academics-india.com/Nalanda.htm

 Nalanda
University boundry wall coming up

From Our
Correspondent


NALANDA : Construction activity has begun here at the Nalanda International
University and the first pillars were clearly visible when this correspondent
visited the site on January 9.

A signboard at the construction site said that Rs 10.19 crore has been
sanctioned for the boundary wall of the proposed university, which would come
up on a 450-acre plot located on the eastern Rajgir-Chhabilapur Road in the
district.

The boundary wall is
being erected by a private construction company called Allied Infrastructure
Pvt Ltd which, in turn has been assigned the job by Bihar Rajya Pul Nirman
Nigam Ltd, an undertaking of the state road construction department. The
construction work began on December 22, 2011, following the finalisation of
the agreement on December 20.

The vice-chancellor designate Gopa Sabharwal says that the architectural

design of the new
institution would be finalised by the end of this year.

Construction company sources said the boundary wall of the university would
be constructed in seven months, while the process to prepare the master plan
would begin in three months. The master plan will take care of land usage for
construction of academic and residential buildings as well as landscaping of
the entire campus.

“The boundary wall
would stretch over 8.5 km. About 90 men are at present working at the
site” the source said.

Nalanda sub-divisional officer Seema Tripathi said more labourers would start
work by the end of January. “The work will pick up pace once the temperature
rises a little. Work would continue even at night. Since the temperature is
very low now, the labourers are working only during the day,” she said.

Though Sabharwal was non-committal on the date when academic activities would
begin at the proposed university, she was specific about the schools that
would

be built in the first phase.

“A school of
historical studies and another of environment and ecology would be the first
two institutions to be built in the first phase of academic activities of the
university. The nature and structure of the schools, including course
structure, specialisation, methodology of faculty selection and constitution
of an advisory committee, are being worked out at present. Moreover, the
process of faculty selection would be undertaken simultaneously with building
construction process. The aim is to make the faculty ready for the schools by
the time the building construction work was finalised,” Sabharwal said.

Nalanda varsity Bill gets Lok Sabha approval

NEW DELHI :
On August
26 the Lok Sabha adopted the Nalanda University Bill, 2010, which has already
been approved by the Rajya Sabha, to set up a Rs 1,005 crore international
university at Nalanda in Bihar, where a varsity for Buddhist learning existed
over 800 years ago.

Replying to the debate, Minister of State for
External Affairs Preneet Kaur said the Ministry had taken upon itself to
establish the university because it was an international effort by the East
Asian Summit comprising 15 countries. The Union government would provide land
for the university, which would be established through voluntary funding from
the East
Asian Summit members.

Singapore had
announced funding of $ 4 million - $5 million for the Nalanda university’s
library through private donations .

Ms. Kaur said the Bill provided only a framework and structure for the
university and that further constitution of the institution and its rules and
regulations would be done later.

In the beginning, the
university would have six schools for different studies, but the Board of
governors had envisaged opening another school for information technology.

The Nalanda Mentor Group, chaired by Professor
Amartya Sen, will draft the statutes for the university. It will have schools
of Buddhist Studies; Philosophy and Comparative Religions; Historical
Studies; International Relations and Peace Studies; Business Management in
relation to Public Policy and Development Studies; Languages and Literature;
and Ecology and
Environmental Studies.

Till
such time the varsity becomes sustainable on its own, it will function as a
public-private partnership. The Bihar government has acquired 500 acres of
land in Rajgir,
near the original Nalanda University site.

http://ontheuniversity.com/2011/03/21/india-ancient-university-resurrection-a-step-closer/

http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20110225204643928

INDIA

INDIA: Ancient university resurrection a step closer

India’s dream of resurrecting one of the
world’s oldest seats of learning, Nalanda University, came a step closer on
Tuesday with the first meeting of the board of governors. The governing body
announced that the university, which has lain in ruins for 800 years since
being razed by foreign invaders, will be functional (tentatively) by 2013.

Five countries - Japan, China, Singapore, Thailand and India - have
undertaken to build the new Nalanda, which will start with a strong focus on
postgraduate education and research in the humanities.

Other departments will include information sciences and technology, business
management in relation to public policy and development, and ecology and
environment, in addition to languages and literature, religion and philosophy,
historical studies, international relations and peace studies, and Buddhist
studies.

“There has been immense interest from the international community.
Scholars not just from East Asia, but from the West have expressed interest
in collaborating with the project,” said newly-appointed Vice-chancellor
Gopa Sabharwal.

A global design competition for the university’s architecture will soon be
launched, Sabharwal announced.

“The idea is too big and we need the best brains in the world right from
the design to the teaching. A lot of thought has gone into the resurrection
of the university and I don’t think attracting the best will be a
challenge,” she said.

Sabharwal said the immediate challenge would be turning Nalanda into the
natural choice for students and teachers.

“The past glory is there. But as a university we have to build the
reputation of our courses, teaching and research so that it is the preferred
choice for everyone. A lot of thought has gone into planning. A world-class
university is not built in a few years.

“We will also have to coordinate with our international partners as
Nalanda is an Asian project and not an India one,” Sabhrawal said.

The Nalanda Mentor Group was set up in 2007 and has spent three years
brainstorming and debating the vision of the university.

Speaking to local media in New Delhi, Amartya Sen, the renowned economist and
Nobel laureate and chair of the governing board, said Nalanda was not a
diplomatic exercise but an academic venture.

As the project recaptures its past glory and élan, it will boost Asia’s
confidence in its intellectual and academic capacities and dent the heavy
reliance that exists today on Western universities like Oxford, Cambridge and
Harvard for Asian scholars’ professional credibility and recognition, Sen
said.

Historians believe that the university, in Bihar, once catered for 10,000
students and scholars from across the Asia, studying subjects ranging from
science and philosophy to literature and mathematics. Founded in the third
century, it gained an international reputation before being destroyed and its
vast library burnt down in 1193, when Oxford was only just coming into
existence.

Piles of red bricks and some marble carvings are all that remain at the site,
90 kilometres from Bihar’s capital Patna.

“Nalanda was one of the highest intellectual achievements in the history
of the world and we are committed to revive it,” Sen said.

http://nalanda-international-university-news.blogspot.in/2011_03_01_archive.html

News about world’s
first university of higher learning(5th to 12th century) and newly reviving
world class “Nalanda University”. That had eight separate
department compounds,classrooms,it accommodated over 10,000 students and
2,000 professors. Nalanda’s great library was located in a nine storied building
where meticulous copies of research papers were stored.”Contemporary
global intellectuals are ‘Crazy’ about Nalanda University”.Let’s
contribute to re-build that 1st amazing world university.

Sunday, March 27, 2011

Nalanda
International University to be operational by 2013


The revived Nalanda University plans to start its first session at a new campus
by 2013.

The tentative timetable was announced here today after a meeting of the
Nalanda Mentor Group, the Amartya Sen-headed panel tasked with the revival
plan, for the first time since the university’s act came into force.

Sen said he was delighted the ancient university could be revived in his
lifetime. “Excellence and fairness in educating people in courses which are
intellectually challenging and practically useful would be the guiding
principles of the university,” the Nobel laureate said.

Vice-chancellor Gopa Sabharwal said in the first stage, the courses would
include Buddhist studies, philosophy and comparative religion, historical
studies and international relations and peace studies.

Some of the other programmes that could be offered in the initial phase
include business management in relation to public policy and development
studies, language and literature, ecology and environment studies and
information technology.

The vice-chancellor said infrastructure work had started at the 446-acre plot
that the Nitish Kumar government in Bihar had given for the campus, which is
around 10km from the site of the ancient varsity.

Sabharwal said they were getting “fantastic” support and co-operation from
the Bihar government for the project. An international competition has been
announced to select an architect to design the new campus.

Sen’s group is working on a plan to ensure that villagers around the site
benefit from the new varsity. The efforts follow recent protests by some 200
villagers who had objected to the land acquisition. Officials said the
problem has since been sorted out.

Sabharwal recalled that villagers supported the ancient varsity by giving
donations and food to the students — most of them Buddhist monks.

Now, the plan being prepared by Sen and his team will propose ways to develop
the area by, for instance, sending the students to teach in schools and
helping set up cottage industries.

Sen himself dwelt on the theme, saying the university would not only generate
skills and technical knowledge in Bihar but also throw up employment
opportunities while the state got a “world-class university in the process”.

Today’s meeting of the mentor group was attended by Singapore foreign
minister George Yeo.

Nalanda’s revival is being carried out under an international initiative
spearheaded by the East Asia Summit, a bloc of which India is a member along
with China, Singapore and 13 other nations. India is contributing over Rs
1,000 crore.

Sen expressed confidence that the university would be “recognised for its
achievements 20 years down the line”.





http://news.biharprabha.com/2011/02/nalanda-international-university-to-be-operational-by-2013/

Nalanda International University to be operational by 2013

New Delhi, Feb. 21:
The revived Nalanda University plans to start its first session at a new
campus by 2013.

The tentative
timetable was announced here today after a meeting of the Nalanda Mentor
Group, the Amartya Sen-headed panel tasked with the revival plan, for the
first time since the university’s act came into force.

Sen said he was
delighted the ancient university could be revived in his lifetime.
“Excellence and fairness in educating people in courses which are
intellectually challenging and practically useful would be the guiding
principles of the university,” the Nobel laureate said.

Vice-chancellor Gopa
Sabharwal said in the first stage, the courses would include Buddhist
studies, philosophy and comparative religion, historical studies and
international relations and peace studies.

Some of the other
programmes that could be offered in the initial phase include business
management in relation to public policy and development studies, language and
literature, ecology and environment studies and information technology.

The vice-chancellor
said infrastructure work had started at the 446-acre plot that the Nitish
Kumar government in Bihar had given for the campus, which is around 10km from
the site of the ancient varsity.

Sabharwal said they
were getting “fantastic” support and co-operation from the Bihar government
for the project. An international competition has been announced to select an
architect to design the new campus.

Sen’s group is
working on a plan to ensure that villagers around the site benefit from the
new varsity. The efforts follow recent protests by some 200 villagers who had
objected to the land acquisition. Officials said the problem has since been
sorted out.

Sabharwal recalled
that villagers supported the ancient varsity by giving donations and food to
the students — most of them Buddhist monks.

Now, the plan being
prepared by Sen and his team will propose ways to develop the area by, for
instance, sending the students to teach in schools and helping set up cottage
industries.

Sen himself dwelt on
the theme, saying the university would not only generate skills and technical
knowledge in Bihar but also throw up employment opportunities while the state
got a “world-class university in the process”.

Today’s meeting of
the mentor group was attended by Singapore foreign minister George Yeo.

Nalanda’s revival is
being carried out under an international initiative spearheaded by the East
Asia Summit, a bloc of which India is a member along with China, Singapore
and 13 other nations. India is contributing over Rs 1,000 crore.

Sen expressed
confidence that the university would be “recognised for its achievements 20
years down the line”.

Must Read

·        
Nalanda University
Governing council inspects the proposed site

·        
Govt approves
presentation of Nalanda University Bill in Parliament

·        
Lok Sabha nod to
Nalanda university

·        
Nalanda
International University seeks reports of past excavations

·        
Rajya Sabha
discusses Nalanda University bill

http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/article596265.ece

Lok Sabha adopts Nalanda University Bill

The Lok Sabha
on Thursday adopted the Nalanda University Bill, 2010, which has already been
approved by the Rajya Sabha, to set up a Rs.1,005-crore international
university at Nalanda in Bihar, where a varsity for Buddhist learning existed
over 800 years ago.

Replying to
the debate, Minister of State for External Affairs Preneet Kaur said the
Ministry had taken upon itself to establishing the university because it was
an international effort by the East Asian Summit comprising 15 countries. The
Union government would provide land for the university, which would be
established through voluntary funding from the East Asian Summit members.

Singapore had
announced funding of $ 4 million - $5 million for the Nalanda university’s
library through private donations .

Ms. Kaur said
the Bill provided only a framework and structure for the university and that
further constitution of the institution and its rules and regulations would
be done later. In the beginning, the university would have six schools for
different studies, but the Board of governors had envisaged opening another
school for information technology.

According to
the Bill, the university aimed at contributing to the promotion of regional
peace and vision by bringing together the future leaders of East Asia who by
relating to their past could enhance their understanding of each other’s
perspectives and share that understanding globally.

The Nalanda Mentor Group, chaired by Professor Amartya Sen, will draft
the statutes for the university. It will have schools of Buddhist Studies;
Philosophy and Comparative Religions; Historical Studies; International
Relations and Peace Studies; Business Management in relation to Public Policy
and Development Studies; Languages and Literature; and Ecology and
Environmental Studies. Till such time the varsity becomes sustainable on its
own, it will function as a public-private partnership. The Bihar government
has acquired 500 acres of land in Rajgir, near the original Nalanda
University site.

http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2010-08-22/india/28278538_1_nalanda-university-nalanda-mentor-group-ancient-seat

Upper House OKs bill for Nalanda univ

TNN Aug 22, 2010, 03.50am IST

NEW DELHI:
After a well-informed debate over three hours, erudite in parts, Rajya Sabha
on Saturday passed the Bill to establish the transnational university at
Nalanda in Bihar with the hope that it will become “an icon of Asian
renaissance”, much like the famous seat of learning in ancient India.

Junior
external affairs Preneet Kaur, who introduced the Bill in Rajya Sabha, said
the Nalanda University would be established as a non-State, non-profit,
secular and self-governing international institute with a continental focus.

With the
support of 16 countries in East Asia, India aims to resurrect the ancient
seat of Buddhist learning at its original site in Rajgir to attract students
and faculty from across South and South-East Asia. The Bihar government, on
its part, has already acquired 446 acres of land for the new Nalanda
University.

Noting the
ancient Nalanda university was an international symbol of India’s eminence in
the field of knowledge, senior Congress leader Dr Karan Singh said,
“Now, 800 years later, we are re-establishing another Nalanda. Let it be
a genuinely transnational university. Let us re-establish the links between
India and South and South-East Asia that were shattered by centuries of
colonial rule.”

Sitaram
Yechury (CPI-M), in turn, said he was “very excited” at the
prospect of the new university, not in terms of correcting wrongs of history,
but in terms of building the future. “It’s towards the adventure of
ideas that we must move,” he said.

N K Singh
(JD-U), a member of Nobel laureate Amartya Sen-led Nalanda Mentor Group,
said, “The new university will become an icon of Asian
renaissance.” It, like the older one, could reflect “the confluence
of East and South Asia“, as also
become a trendsetter “for the power of soft diplomacy”.

Making his
maiden speech, Pramod Kureel of BSP said, “For me, Nalanda is not just a
university. To me, it encapsulates, epitomises the universal values of global
peace, brotherhood, fraternity and equality.”

Apart from
making Buddhist religion, philosophy, art and values the “focus” of
the academia curricula to establish continuity with the ancient Nalanda, the
proposed university should have chairs in the name of “great
exponents” of Buddhism like Ashoka, Kanishka, Ambedkar and others.
Kureel also demanded that Tibetan spiritual leader Dalai Lama should be made
a member of the university’s governing body.

Balavant Apte
of BJP, on his part, said, “We are, again, going towards the idea of
this country being the hub of knowledge and learning. This is very relevant
in the 21st Century, where we are talking about knowledge societies.”

The new
university will have schools of education for Buddhist studies, philosophy
and comparative religions; historical studies; international relations and
peace studies; business management in relation to public policy and
development studies; languages and literature; and ecology and environmental
studies.

“The
Nalanda Mentor Group has proposed that an additional school of information
sciences and technology should also be set up,” said Kaur.

http://indiacurrentaffairs.org/reviving-ancient-glory-nalanda-international-university-satyen-mohapatra/

Reviving Ancient Glory : Nalanda International University – Satyen
Mohapatra

 

 

Students
and scholars from all over the world will soon be converging again at ancient
capital
of Magadha kings -  Rajgir,  Bihar to
study at the new  Nalanda International  University.

The name “Nalanda” in Sanskrit means “giver of knowledge”: a
combination of “nalam” (lotus, representing knowledge) and “da” (“to
give”). Nalanda University of yore  was founded
according to historians in the fifth century (427 A.D.) as a place of
learning for Buddhist monks and is known to have been one of the first great
residential  universities in recorded history.
Today Nalanda is a World Heritage site. The ruins of the monastery
are located about 55 miles south east of the modern Indian city of
Patna

The University taught a wide range of subjects besides Buddhism
including fine arts, medicine, mathematics, astronomy, war tactics, and
politics. Over ten thousand students were taught by a faculty of 2000
in the  idyllic forested green surroundings. The ruins
at Nalanda even today attracts a large number of tourists .

As part of an international effort the world renowned
ancient Nalanda university is nowbeing  revived with
the setting up of a modern university as an international centre of
excellence .

The Nalanda International  University is
scheduled to begin academic activities from the 2013-14 session from rented
premises with two subjects – Historical studies and Environment and
Ecological studies – till the construction of its own campus is
completed  work on which is continuing.

Way back in 2006 former President APJ
Abdul Kalam while addressing the Bihar Legislature on March
28,2006 stressed the need for establishing a
new Nalanda University that would be a place for meeting of minds
from the national and international arenas, to carry out research that would
link philosophy to science, to technology, economy and spirituality and
integrate both ancient and modern thinking.

As Bihar Government was also
toying with  the idea it unanimously passed
the Universityof Nalanda Bill  in March
2007.  In the mid-March 2006 Singapore showed interest in
the development ofNalanda as part of Buddhist circuit for the growth of
tourism and as a site for a twenty first century learning institution linking
South and East Asia.

It was in the  East Asia Summit held
in Thailand in Oct 2009 that a decision was finally taken by the
member countries which included the ten ASEAN countries
and  Australia, China, India, Japan,Korea,
and New Zealand, to set up the university. Later several other countries
including the US too hasgiven its support to the move.

The Nalanda University Bill was cleared by the Indian
Parliament in  2010 to set up the University with a cost
of Rs.1005 crore.

The University is initially going to have schools
for  Buddhist Studies, Philosophy and Comparative Religions;
Historical Studies; International Relations and Peace Studies; Business
Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies; Languages
and Literature; Ecology and Environmental Studies.
There are  also plans to add one on Information
Technology.

Initially the Planning Commission has allocated Rs.
50 crore as endowment fund in the form of a special grant for the
commencement of activities and till such time
the Nalanda University becomes sustainable on its own.

Both the  External Affairs Ministry
which  is acting as the nodal Ministry for this project
andBihar government are closely monitoring the development of this
prestigious international project. Thegovernment
. of Bihar has already acquired about 500 acres of
land in Rajgir close to the originalNalanda. An international
architecture competition is to be held to finalise the design
of NalandaInternational University.

It is envisaged that the  revival of the
University will lead to the growth of  Buddhist circuit giving a
boost to the tourism industry.

Harking back to the time when Nalanda University was
the biggest centre of learning in theMagadha empire the modern
university too would like to associate and build linkages with
the people living  in the 200 odd villages
surrounding Nalanda since ancient times. Setting up cottage
industries and teaching students of the  villages is
being undertaken.

The University shall function as a public-private partnership
and the funds shall be provided on voluntary basis by the Government of
Member States of East Asia Summit.

The Nalanda International University planned
to be a seat of learning, scholarship, philosophy and
statecraft will  be a non-state, non-profit, secular and
self-governing international institution with a focus to attract the
brightest and the most dedicated students from all countries ofAsia. The
objective of the university is “aimed at advancing the concept of an Asian
community…and rediscovering old relationships.”

Several countries
like Thailand, Australia, Singapore, Japan ,China,
have shown interest in funding the University. Singapore has
pledged US$4-5 million for building a library at NalandaUniversity. The
huge library of ancient Nalanda University had been burned
down.    On December 16, 2010, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao contributed
US$ 1 million dollars for the Nalanda University during his
visit to India.

Eminent Sociologist  Gopa Sabharwal has been
appointed the first Vice Chancellor ofNalanda International
University.  Professor of Sociology
at Lady Shri Ram College, Dr Gopa Sabharwalis an  alumnus of
Delhi School of Economics and had  set up the Department of
Sociology in Lady ShriRam College of Delhi University in 1993.

The Nobel laureate Amartya Sen who is the
Chairman of  the Governing Board says, “Excellence and
fairness in educating people in courses which are intellectually challenging
and practically useful would be the guiding principles of the university.”

The University aims at contributing to the promotion of regional
peace and understanding by bringing together future leaders of the
region and  reminding them of their shared history. (PIB
Features)

 

 

http://india.nydailynews.com/article/e15e1c2e68c08ed07ecfda732dd47ad6/law-and-order-breakdown-in-uttar-pradesh-mayawati

law and order breakdown in Uttar Pradesh:
Mayawati

New Delhi, May 19 —
After a studied silence of two months, Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) president
Mayawati Saturday came down heavily on the Samajwadi Party government in
Uttar Pradesh, claiming a complete breakdown of law and order in the state.

At a press conference
here, she attacked the two-month-old government of Akhilesh Yadav and said
loot, arson, murder, kidnapping, extortion and dacoity had become routine and
people were regretting having voted for the Samajwadi Party.

True to her style,
she read out from a written text and dished out statistics to strengthen her
case.

She said in the past
two months, 800 murders, 270 rapes, 256 kidnappings and 720 cases of loot had
take place, and criminals who were behind bars when she was in office had
been released.

“We always knew
that people of UP would within one year repent voting SP to power. But now
within two months, the disappointment is writ large on their faces,” the
former chief minister said.

Accusing Chief
Minister Akhilesh Yadav of toeing his father Mulayam Singh Yadav’s line,
Mayawati said people were scared in the state to venture out in the evening.

Charging the
government with political vendetta, she said a Samajwadi Party flag on a car
amounted to “a licence to kill”.

She accused Akhilesh
Yadav of managing the media to highlight the government’s so-called achievements.

“This government
is working on paper and through loud pronouncements only,” she said,
adding the new government had ended 26 welfare schemes run by her government
in 13 departments.

Asked why she was
still supporting the United Progressive Alliance when Congress had campaigned
against her in the state, Mayawati said that for her, “personal welfare
comes later and national interest first”.

Who will the BSP
support as the next presidentIJ Mayawati said her party would reveal its
cards at an “appropriate time.”

“We are waiting
for the NDA (National Democratic Alliance) and the UPA to announce their
candidates. We will according decide whom to support,” she said.

IANS

http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-05-19/india/31777739_1_bsp-chief-mayawati-p-l-punia-political-vendetta

Mayawati accuses SP
govt of indulging in political vendetta

NEW DELHI: Hitting out at the Samajwadi Party government
over alleged “anti-SC/ST” activities, BSP chief Mayawati on Sunday said it
was ordering probes into the works done during her tenure in Uttar Pradesh
due to “political vendetta”.

The former UP chief minister also made it clear
she herself takes the policy decisions in her party and not her close
advisors or officers as being publicised outside.

Mayawati said that P L Punia, the former chief
secretary to her when she was chief minister, after leaving BSP and joining
Congress had spread rumours that it was he who used to discharge all
responsibilities when she was chief minister thrice from 1995 to 2002.

She noted that her opponents had created a similar
opinion about her cabinet secretary Shashank Shekhar Singh during her fourth
stint as chief minister.

“Now I am having apprehensions that after I
have become a member of Rajya Sabha, my opponents may start spreading
misinformation.

Mayawati added that in reality it is she, who
mostly prepares the key points for her party leaders to speak in Parliament
or at press conferences.

Insisting that her rise in the BSP is from the
grassroots and she is in the command of party decisions, she said,
“Unlike in some other parties, I have not been imposed as party’s
national leader or president on the basis of any inheritance or lineage. I
have been always connected with the ground and the party movement.”

On the Samajwadi Party rule in Uttar Pradesh,
Mayawati claimed that people are now repenting bringing this government in
power and blamed the “wrong” political stand of Congress and BJP
for ensuring Samajwadi Party’s win in Uttar Pradesh.

http://www.indiablooms.com/NewsDetailsPage/2012/newsDetails190512o.php

The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) supremo said law
and order situation has deteriorated in the state in the past few months
since Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav-led SP came into power.


“If this government manages to
stay in power for the next five years then during this period Uttar Pradesh
will move back by several years in every sector,” Mayawati said while
addressing a press conference in New Delhi.

Speaking about the Presidential election, Mayawati said:
“We are keeping an eye on the movements of other parties. We are waiting
to see the candidates fielded by National Democratic Alliance (NDA) and
United Progressive Alliance (UPA).”

“After they reveal their candidates then we will also
clarify whom we will support in the election,” she said.

The Presidential election has dragged a lot of attention
in recent times with names like Union Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee and
Vice President Hamid Ansari making rounds for the top post.

Coming out in full support of PA Sangma, Tamil Nadu Chief
Minister J Jayalalithaa on Friday appealed to all political parties to ‘rise
above political considerations’ and back the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP)
leader and former Lok Sabha Speaker as candidate for the Presidential
election.

The Biju Janata Dal (BJD) and All India Anna Dravida
Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) on Thursday said they will back Sangma as
candidate for the Presidential election.

The election is scheduled to take place in July.

 

http://zeenews.india.com/news/nation/presidential-polls-mayawati-to-wait-and-watch_776305.html

Presidential polls:
Mayawati to ‘wait and watch’

Zeenews Bureau

New Delhi: Former Uttar Pradesh chief minister Mayawati on Saturday refused
to disclose her party’s choice for the upcoming Presidential Polls
candidates, preferring to wait for the other parties to declare their
candidates first.

“It will not be right to comment of the issue right now. We will disclose our
candidates for the Presidential Elections only after the UPA and NDA declare
their candidates,” Mayawati said at a press conference held here today.

When asked whether the UPA government will be able to complete its 5-year
term, Mayawati said that the question should be asked from the government and
their alliance partners.

Calling the situation in Uttar Pradesh as pitiable, she lashed out at the SP
describing them anti-SC/ST. She further said that the present situation in UP
is that of lawlessness with crimes like murder, rape and extortions on the
rise.

She said in the past two months, 800 murders, 270 rapes, 256 kidnappings and
720 cases of loot had take place, and criminals who were behind bars when she
was in office had been released.

Commenting on the recent move of the SP government changing names of various
schemes, Mayawati said that the move is a result of petty thinking. “The SP
government is trying to close down all the welfare schemes that were started
by my government.”

She accused Akhilesh Yadav of managing the media to highlight the
government’s so-called achievements. “This government is working on
paper and through loud pronouncements only,” she said, adding the new
government had ended 26 welfare schemes run by her government in 13
departments.

Asked why she was still supporting the United Progressive Alliance when
Congress had campaigned against her in the state, Mayawati said that for her,
“personal welfare comes later and national interest first”.


Mayawati also said that PL Punia was appointed as chief
secretary so that he could work for SC/STs, but he hardly did anything for
them. “But the reality was otherwise as he belonged to the Gandhi school of
thought instead of Ambedkar’s.”

Mayawati
also termed the various probe committees against her as “baseless”.

http://www.telegraphindia.com/1120520/jsp/nation/story_15510995.jsp

No third front for me: Maya

RADHIKA
RAMASESHAN

New Delhi, May 19: Mayawati today said she would reveal her choice for
President after the UPA and the NDA named their candidates, and indicated she
would steer clear of “third front” politics.

The
Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) president hinted that her presidential candidate
would be someone committed to the SC/ST cause. “Whoever the candidate is, I
will first assess his credentials on the Bahujan movement,” she said.

The former
Uttar Pradesh chief minister’s comments came at her first news conference in
Delhi.

“I am
waiting to see who the UPA and the NDA field. Only after that shall I reveal my
plans,” she told a questioner.

Asked to
comment on Pranab Mukherjee, who is being mentioned as a possible consensus
candidate, she said: “It is inappropriate to jump the gun and respond to mere
speculation.”

On P.A.
Sangma, sponsored by the AIADMK and the Biju Janata Dal, she said: “I learnt of
it from the newspapers but the scenario is unclear.”

Mayawati
made it clear that her priority was to fight the Samajwadi Party government in
Uttar Pradesh, and not to get entangled in “third front” politics at the
Centre.

A
political aide said Mayawati would focus on the BSP’s “high growth” states in
the heartland and Maharashtra and try to maximise her gains in the next Lok
Sabha polls on her own.

“No third
front for me,” Mayawati said today. Her previous experiment with such a front —
when the Left tried to bring her onto the national centre-stage in 2009 — had
ended with the bitter taste of defeat.

The BSP
chief arrived at the venue. A security retinue and confidant Satish Mishra were
in tow. She occupied the lone seat placed on the dais and read out a long
opening statement.

She
answered the queries patiently.

Asked how
her successor Akhilesh Yadav compared with his father Mulayam Singh, Mayawati
said: “You may draw your inferences from the reports filtering out of the state
every day. Father and son share the same mindset and adhere to the same party
line on policies and issues, so there is no change in their style of thinking
and functioning.”

She
accused the Samajwadi government of allowing law and order to spin out of
control and alleged that in the two months of its existence, nearly 800 murders,
270 rapes, 245 armed robberies and 256 kidnappings had been reported.

“These
are crimes that have come to light because FIRs were filed. Because of
political pressure, many crimes go unrecorded. You can imagine what a
disastrous condition the state will be in by the time this government completes
its term,” Mayawati said.

“Businessmen
and traders feel insecure. Nobody wants to step out of their homes after
sunset. If a family’s male member does so, the women cannot sleep peacefully
till he returns.”

Most
people, especially women, had lauded Mayawati for restoring the rule of law in
Uttar Pradesh.

Mayawati
accused Akhilesh of targeting the SC/STs. “Police stations are out of bounds
for SC/STs. Samajwadi musclemen are grabbing land that was allotted to SC/STs.
At least 2,000 SC/ST officials were shunted out to the boondocks,” she said.

On the
probe Akhilesh has initiated into the various “scams” associated with her rule,
Mayawati said: “If an investigation is unbiased and transparent, I have no
problems.”

She added: “When my party
came to power, we inherited the corrupt legacies bequeathed by previous
governments. We tried to clean the rot; I took action against errant ministers,
MLAs and officials. The Samajwadi dispensation has stooped to an unprecedented
low and is doing cheap politics in the guise of cleaning the system up.”

http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/mayawati-slams-akhilesh-over-lawlessness-in-uttar-pradesh/1/189567.html

Mayawati slams Akhilesh Yadav government
over breakdown of law and order in Uttar Pradesh

The
Mayawati juggernaut has arrived in Delhi.The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) chief
has assumed centrestage in the national Capital.

On Saturday, she held a press conference at a five-star hotel,
her first in Delhi in the past three years, and launched a blistering attack on
the Akhilesh Yadav-led Samajwadi Party (SP) government in UP for “complete
breakdown of law and order”.

Mayawati, who she shifted base to the Capital after becoming a
Rajya Sabha member last month, also lashed out at the Congress and the
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). But it was the SP that was her main target.

Her ‘chargesheet’

Mayawati brought out a long list of charges against the Akhilesh
government: People are scared in the state to venture out in the evening; a SP
flag on a car amounts to the licence to kill; Akhilesh is managing the media to
highlight his government’s non-xistent achievements and to malign her rule; the
government is ordering probes into her decisions with an anti- SC/ST agenda.

True to her style, she dished out statistics - reading out from
a seven-page text written in Hindi - to claim that “loot, arson, murder,
kidnapping, extortion and dacoity” had become routine since the SP came to
power.

Mayawati alleged that in the past two months, 800 murders, 270
rapes, 256 kidnappings and 720 cases of loot had taken place in Uttar Pradesh
and the criminals who were behind bars when she was in office had been
released.

Accusing the SP of carrying out the politics of vendetta, she
alleged that the Akhilesh government was ordering probes into her government’s
policies and decisions to deflect attention from these issues. She said the SP
had scrapped 26 welfare schemes run by her government in 13 departments.

Mayawati said the Congress and the BJP shared the blame for this
state of affairs because their “false propaganda” against her party
and government ensured the SP’s win.

“We always knew that the people of UP would, within one
year, repent voting the SP to power. But within two months, disappointment is
writ large on their faces,” the former CM said.

Eye on 2014

Analysts said the sinking law and order situation in UP within
two months of the SP’s comeback appeared to have emboldened Mayawati. The BSP
chief’s eyes are set on the 2014 Lok Sabha polls. Her goal, they said, would be
to stop Mualayam Singh from winning enough seats to try his luck as the next
Prime Minister.

Indicating her plans to consolidate the BSPcontinuing with
’sarvajan’ politics, Mayawati said: “I am not going to move even an inch
from the line of party’s movement.”

On the presidential polls, Mayawati was dismissive of the
candidatures of P. A. Sangma and Pranab Mukherjee and indicated that the BSP
would prefer a Dalit or minority. “We will support a candidate who is
suitable to us in the line of our party’s movement. We’ll support whoever fits
in our party line of movement,” she said.

Party leaders not spared

When these two leaders S. C. Mishra and Dara Singh Chauhan.or any
MP of my party speaks… the main points are mostly prepared by me.

“When I was the CM, I used to send briefs to my MPs. The
situation sometimes was that the MPs could not speak on the correct party line
and I had to call a press meet in Lucknow to specify the correct party
line,” she said

Mayawati said that P. L. Punia, her former chief secretary who
later joined the Congress, had spread rumours that it was he who used to
discharge all responsibilities.

 

 

 

 

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20 05 2012 SUNDAY LESSON 614 FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research And Practice UNIVERSITY And THE BUDDHISTONLINE GOOD NEWS LETTER by ABHIDHAMMA RAKKHITA through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org Dhammapada: Verses and Stories Dhammapada Verse 172 Sammajjanatthera Vatthu The Diligent Illumine The World
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20
05 2012 SUNDAY
LESSON 614 FREE ONLINE eNālāndā
Research And Practice UNIVERSITY And THE BUDDHISTONLINE GOOD NEWS LETTER by ABHIDHAMMA RAKKHITA through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

Dhammapada:
Verses and Stories

Dhammapada
Verse 172 Sammajjanatthera Vatthu The Diligent Illumine The World

http://www.buddhanet.net/dhammapada/images/IDP172@50dpiRGB.jpg

Verse 172. The Diligent Illumine The World

Whoso was heedless formerly
but later lives with heedfulness
illuminates the world
as moon when free of clouds.

Explanation: An individual may have been deluded in the past. But
later corrects his thinking and becomes a disillusioned person. He, therefor,
is like the moon that has come out from behind a dark cloud; thus, he
illuminates the world.

Dhammapada
Verse 172
Sammajjanatthera Vatthu

Yo ca pubbe pamajjit va


pacchi so nappamajjati
so’mam lokam pabhaseti
abbha muttova candima.

Verse 172: He, who has been formerly unmindful, but is mindful
later on, lights up the world with the light of Magga Insight as does the moon
freed from clouds.


The
Story of Thera Sammajjana

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse
(172) of this book, with reference to Thera Sammajjana.

Thera Sammajjana spent most of his time sweeping the precincts of
the monastery. At that time, Thera Revata was also staying at the monastery;
unlike Sammajjana, Thera Revata spent most of his time in meditation or deep
mental absorption. Seeing Thera Revata’s behaviour, Thera Sammajjana thought
the other thera was just idling away his time. Thus, one day Sammajjana went to
Thera Revata and said to him, “You are being very lazy, living on the food
offered out of faith and generosity; don’t you think you should sometimes sweep
the floors or the compound or some other place?” To him, Thera Revata
replied, “Friend, a bhikkhu should not spend all his times sweeping. He
should sweep early in the morning, then go out on the alms-round. After the
meal, contemplating his body he should try to perceive the true nature of the
aggregates, or else, recite the texts until nightfall. Then he can do the
sweeping again if he so wishes.” Thera Sammajjana strictly followed the
advice given by Thera Revata and soon attained arahatship.

Other bhikkhus noticed some rubbish piling up in the compound and
they asked Sammajjana why he was not sweeping as much as he used to, and he
replied, “When I was not mindful, I was all the time sweeping; but now I
am no longer unmindful.” When the bhikkhus heard his reply they were
sceptical; so they went to the Buddha and said, “Venerable Sir! Thera
Sammajjana falsely claims himself to be an arahat; he is telling lies.” To
them the Buddha said, “Sammajjana has indeed attained arahatship; he is
telling the truth.”

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:


Verse 172: He, who has been formerly unmindful, but is
mindful later on, lights up the world with the light of Magga Insight as does
the moon freed from clouds.

International Relations and Peace Studies

http://www.gmu.edu/programs/icar/ijps/vol11_1/11n1Yeh.pdf

THE
WAY TO PEACE: A BUDDHIST PERSPECTIVE

Theresa
Der-lan Yeh

Abstract

This article provides a survey of the
Buddhist vision of peace in the light of peace studies. According to

the Buddha’s teaching of Dependent
Origination, everything, including the psychophysical compound

that we call individual, exists only in
relation to other beings and things and undergoes constant changes

responding and reacting to them. The
next section examines the Buddhist perspective on the causes of

violence and ways to prevent violence
and realize peace. The last section explores the potentials of

Buddhist contributions to the
peacemaking efforts and the promotion of a culture of peace in today’s

world. Believing that the root of
violence is located within the mind, Buddhism has placed a greater

urgency upon inner reflection. With the
awakening to the interdependent reality, selfish compulsive

responses will be replaced by
loving-kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy, and equanimity. On the

behavioral level, one practices peace daily
by observing the Five Precepts. To prevent in-group disputes,

the Buddha teaches the six principles
of cordiality in any community. As for inter-group or international

affairs, Buddhist scriptures are rift
with stories that teach nonviolent intervention. The article concludes

the Buddhist worldview is surprisingly
in accordance with the insights of peace studies in its processoriented

paradigm, its insistence on peace by
peaceful means, and its holistic framework of peace, which

would play a vital role in the efforts
of bringing the culture of peace into existence around the world.

Introduction

Buddhism has long been celebrated as a
religion of peace and non-violence. With

its increasing vitality in regions
around the world, many people today turn to Buddhism

for relief and guidance at the time
when peace seems to be a deferred dream more than

ever, with the wars in the Middle East
and Africa, and the terrorist activities expanding

into areas where people never expected
that scope of violence before such as Bali,

London, and New York. Yet this is never
a better time to re-examine the position of

Buddhism, among those of other world
religions, on peace and violence in the hope that

it can be accorded in the global
efforts to create new sets of values regarding the ways

people manage conflict and maintain
peace via nonviolent means.

This article tends to provide a review
of the Buddhist vision of peace in the light

of peace studies. It also addresses the
Buddhist perspective on the causes of violence and

ways to prevent violence and to realize
peace. The last section explores the potentials of Buddhist contributions to
the peacemaking efforts and the promotion of a culture of peace

in today’s world. Buddhism, having
enjoyed a long history and enrichment by

generations of people in various
traditions, ranges north and south with branches across

many cultures and regions. However, a
common core of Buddha’s teaching and practice

is observed in major Buddhist
traditions and considered essentials of Buddhism. In this

article, the term Buddhism is used to
refer to the common core teachings across the

current major traditions of Buddhism.

The
Concept of Peace in the Buddhist Worldview

Buddhists believe that the Buddha
(meaning “the awakened”) awakened to the

laws of the universe, which are said to
be operating eternally, whether the Buddha

discovered them or not. The most
fundamental among these laws is the law of karma, or,

in Buddhist terminology, dependent
origination, which explains the genuine condition of

things that exist in the universe. In
its simplest straightforward form, dependent

origination claims that anything
(including sentient and insentient beings) can only exist

in relation to everything else; if the
causes of its existence disappear, then it ceases to

exist. Nothing can exist on its own and
everything is dependent on other things. All

elements, all entities, all phenomena
are thus related directly and indirectly to one another

in the universe. Any change in this
huge interconnected compound of existence would

definitely, eventually exerts influence
on everything else. Derived from the principle of

dependent origination is the Buddhist
view of the cosmic world and the human being.

At the macro level, the uni verse is
represented and seen from a Buddhist

viewpoint as a network of jewels, an
interconnected and interdependent web of nodes,

each of which simultaneously reflects
all other hundreds of thousands of nodes in the

web. All other nodes would
simultaneously reflect this specific node. This network is

named “the Indra’s Net” in the Avatamsaka
Sutra
(Taisho 9: 278). Each node can contain

another web-like universe within itself
and so forth with an infinite number of webs, i.e.

universes. In this vast, endless
cosmos, everything is still interrelated even in the most

remote sense. According to the Buddhist
beliefs, many of us cannot see or be aware of

this relatedness as we are confined by
all sorts of limitations due to our past experiences

and actions. Yet the connections are
always there.

Down to the micro level, the human
being is viewed as a string of processes

governed by the principle of dependent
origination. Since everything within a human

being (including physicality and
thoughts) depends on other things to exist, nothing

within this human being is genuinely
independent (autonomous). This doctrine of no-self

(Pali: anatta; Skt. anatman),
however, does not rule out the existence of temporary

aggregates capable of responding to
environmental stimuli, i.e., our body and mind.

Also, it recognizes the diversity among
all beings and the uniqueness of each since each

being undergoes constant changes while
responding and reacting in its own way to all other beings and things around.
The ever-changing quality in any beings denotes a vast

capacity for change and development
possible in either directions, for better or worse.

Yet the potentials to transform the
status quo are always looming in the horizon.

The principle of dependent origination
and the Buddhist view of the universe and

the human beings undergird an
imperative for people who realize the interdependent

nature of their existence and the
interconnection among all things — they would develop

a strong sense of responsibility for
their own behaviors, as well as appreciation and

empathy for others. It is from this
realization of the true nature of existence that nonharming,

compassionate, altruistic action would
arise. In the openings of many sutras,

the Buddha, the one who awakened to the
cosmic reality, is described as naturally

expounding four basic mental faculties
(Brahmaviharas, “Divine Abidings”; also named

appamanacetovimutti, “immeasurable deliverance of mind”):
loving-kindness (metta),

compassion (karuna), sympathetic
joy (mudita), and equanimity (upekkha). The Buddha

teaches that these four mental
faculties, together with the Four Noble Truths, are to be

cultivated by all bhikkhus (Skt.
bhiksus) and later all Buddhists through reflecting upon

the sentient beings of infinite numbers
who are on their way to become a buddha (see

Taisho 1: 26). Yet the altruistic mental
faculties are combined with the wisdom

developed along with the gradually
deepening reflection. This is the guiding principle of

all Buddhist practices – the middle
way. Through these mindful actions conducted with

moderation can an ideal Buddhist state
of existence come true—living in harmony with

everything (sentient or non-sentient)
in the universe.

This Buddhist way of looking at the
world comes, in the opinion of Johan Galtung

(1993: 23), a Norwegian peace studies
pioneer, closest to the one dynamic, complex

peace theory he proposes, in which the
world is “precisely a process based on diversity in

symbiotic (mutually influential)
interaction.” In this world of multi-leveled plurality,

according to Galtung, peace is not a
stable, end state but a more interactive process of a

series of changing and balancing acts,
an on-going dialectic between our actions and the

world. This contingent view of peace,
as shared by many peace scholars and activists in

the field, is similar to what Buddhist
perceives peace to be. In fact, the complexity and

the collectiveness in causes leading to
peace or war have long been recognized in the

morphological construction of those
words. According to Sanskrit dictionaries

(Hirakawa, 1997; Ogiwara, 1979), the
words samnipata, samgri, and samgama, all refer

to the concept of peace. These words
share the root sam-vii meaning people do things

together, which is also shared by the
Sanskrit wo rd referring to war (samit). On the basis

of this morphological derivation, both
peace and war are produced by the collective,

rather than individuals. No single nor
simple explanation of what builds peace or create

war would suffice.

The view of peace as a collective
product is well in line with the Buddhist

worldview based on the principle of
dependent origination which emphasizes the mutual

influence of all the elements involved
in any situation. With this interdependent frame of

reference, Buddhists would prefer a
holistic view of peace, instead of peace in separate contexts such as schools,
families, or the environment. This is again very close to what

many peace studies scholars have
advocated as the ultimate vision of peace (Brock-Utne,

1997; Galtung, 1993; Galtung &
Ikeda, 1995; Turpin & Kurtz, 1997). From the holistic

perspective, the connection between the
concept of negative and positive peace becomes

clear and imperative in the light of
the Buddhist law of nature, dependent origination.

Absence of war and direct violence only
constitutes a temporary peace if there is no

justice present in the socio-economic
international structure. The injustice and the

violence causing suffering in every
other node in the web of existence would inevitably

and eventually weigh the negative peace
away. Though the negative peace is only

temporary, unstable and fragile, it is
absolutely indispensable on the way to the positive

peace. Since each human being and each
level of systems are interconnected, to create a

positive peace compels efforts of
everyone at every level of human structures. The

Buddhist view of the interconnected
world demands that the ideal of world peace is less

rhetoric at the negotiation tables
among some “superpowers” in the international level

than starting a personal transformation
of one’s daily living. And this peacemaking effort

is a continued striving at the every
very moment because of the dynamic, constant

changing nature of all the possible
causal forces in this world.

Buddhist
Perspective on Causes of Violence/Conflict/War

Buddhism, being a religion with a claim
of the reality of existence, has well

acknowledged causal forces that could
constitute the hindrance to a harmonious living on

every level of human actions. Violence
and conflict, from the perspective of Buddhist

principle of dependent origination,
are, same with everything else in the world, a product

of causes and conditions. To eliminate
violence and conflict, all we have to do is to

resolve the underlying causes and
conditions. Using human body/consciousness as a

division, the Buddhist analysis of the
causes of violence and conflict is arrayed along

three domains: the external, the
internal, and the root (Shih Yin-shun, 1980).

The External Causes of Violence and
Conflicts

The Buddha looks at the external causes
of conflict as consequences derived from

a general orientation common to all
living beings: avoiding harm and obtaining

happiness. Anything contrary to this
would result in disturbing one’s peace and lead to

conflict. If people want to live an
ultimately happy life with no harms toward themselves

at all, the Buddha teaches, they should
start with avoiding causing harm to others,

physically and verbally at the personal
level, since people are afraid of physical violence

and resent harsh words; and the
physical and verbal harm we inflict upon others usually

leads to hate and conflicts that, in
turn, would bring harm to us and cost our happiness.

As stated in one
Buddhist Scripture,

 

http://www.bluepinebooks.com/peace-justice.htm

http://www.bluepinebooks.com/BluePineLogo1.JPG

Buddhist Exploration of Peace and Justice
Edited by Chanju Mun & Ronald S. Green




Introduction

[NOTE: The titles and academic
institutions listed in association with the contributors represent the
positions they held in 1995, that is, at the time of the seventh seminar.]

This book is composed of the five special
speeches and twenty-three articles presented in the Fifth International
Seminar on Buddhism and Leadership for Peace on the theme of
“Exploration of Ways to Put Buddhist Thought into Social Practice for
Peace and Justice,” during November 18 - 21, 1991. The seminar was held
under the joint auspice of the Dae Won Sa Buddhist Temple of Hawaii and the
Korean Buddhist Research Institute of Dongguk University. Professor Jeongil
Do from the Department of English Literature of the Kyung Hee University
directed the seminar. More than sixty peace leaders, social scientists, human
scientists, religious leaders, Buddhist scholars, literary men and so forth
from thirteen nations participated in the international conference.

They delivered
special speeches, presented articles or attended as panel members. The Most
Venerable Uihyeon Seo, President of the Korean Buddhist Jogye Order and Chair
of the Federation of Korean Buddhist Sects, Mr. Daejung Gim, currently
opposition leader of the Democratic Party and later President of the Republic
of Korea, and Dr. Byong-chun Min, President of the Dongguk University hosted
the dinner party during the seminar respectively.

The titles and
academic affiliations of participants are listed according to their status in
1991, when the fifth seminar was held. Among them, there are many local, Korean
participants including: Mr. Eun Koh, Korea’s admired poet, novelist and
democratic leader; Professor Yongjeong Gim, Vice President of the Dongguk
University; Mr. Jiha Gim, the nationally renowned poet and democratic leader;
Dr. Hak-joon Kim, Chief Assistant to the President for Policy Research; Dr.
Byong-chun Min, President of the Dongguk University; Mr. Wan-il Park, President
of the Federation of Korean Lay Buddhist Associations; Ven. Wolju Song, Former
President of the Federation of Korean Buddhist Sects; Professor Jae-ryong Shim,
Department of Philosophy, Seoul National University; Dr. Eul-byong Chang,
President of the Sunggyunkwan University; Dr. Ki-young Lee, President of the
Korean Institute for Buddhist Studies; Professor Byeongjo Jeong, Department of
Ethics, Dongguk University; Ven. Jin-wol Lee; Ven. In-hwan Chae, Director of
the Korean Buddhist Research Institute, Dongguk University; Professor Seungjik
Hong, Director of the Center for Asian Affairs, Korea University; Professor
Useong Heo, Department of Philosophy, Kyung Hee University and others.

Many people
participated in this seminar from the United States and one from Canada as
follows: Professor Glenn D. Paige, Department of Political Science, University
of Hawaii - Manoa; Professor Sung-bae Park, Program in Korean Studies,
Department of Comparative Studies, State University of New York - Stony Brook;
Professor David J. Kalupahana, Department of Philosophy, University of Hawaii -
Manoa; Professor Jamie Hubbard, Department of Religious Studies, Smith College;
Ms. Jean Sadako King, Former Lieutenant Governor of the State of Hawaii;
Professor David Chappell, Department of Religious Studies, University of Hawaii
- Manoa; Ven. Daewon Ki, Abbot of the Dae Won Sa Buddhist Temple of Hawaii;
Professor George Bond, Department of Religious Studies, Northwestern
University; Professor Bernard Faure, Department of Religious Studies, Stanford
University; Professor Taisetsu Unno, Department of Religious Studies, Smith
College; Mr. J. C. Cleary, worldwide famous writer and translator; Professor
Padmanabh S. Jaini, Department of South Asian Studies, University of California
- Berkeley; Professor Graeme MacQueen, Department of Religious Studies,
McMaster University, Canada and others.

There were many
participants from Asia including the following: Professor Tadashige Takamura,
Director of the Peace Research Institute, Soka University, Japan; Professor
Hiroharu Seki, Dean of the Faculty of International Relations, Ritsumeikan
University, Japan; Ven. Medagoda Sumanatissa, Principal of the International
Theravada Buddhist Centre, Sunethra Maha Devi (University) Privena,
Boralesgamuwa, Sri Lanka; Professor Suwanna Satha-Anand, Department of
Political Science, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand; Dr. Chatsumarn
Kabilsingh, Department of Philosophy, Faculty of Liberal Arts, Thammasat
University, Thailand; K. S. Vimala Devi, G. Ramachandran Institute of
Nonviolence, India; N. Radhakrishnan, Director of the Gandhi Smriti &
Darshan Samiti, India; Professor Baoxu Zhao, Department of International
Politics, Beijing University, China; Professor Jiwen Du, Institute for Research
on World Religions, the Chinese Academy of Social Science, China; Ven. Thich
Minh Chau, Vice President of the ABCP (Asian Buddhist Conference for Peace) and
Vice Chairman of the Vietnamese Buddhist Sangha, Vietnam; Dr. G. Lubsantseren,
Secretary General, ABCP, Mongolia and so on.

Several people
attended this seminar from Europe as follows: Dr. Johan Galtung, Professor of
Peace Studies, Spark M. Matsunaga Institute for Peace, University of Hawaii -
Manoa and Olof Palme Professor of Peace Studies, HSFR, Sweden; Professor Sanje
D. Dylykov, Institute of Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences of the USSR and
Vice President of the World Fellowship of Buddhists, USSR; Dr. Eremey Parnov,
President of the European Society of Science Fiction, USSR; Mr. Erdem Mytypov,
Secretary, Central Religious Board of Soviet Buddhists, Datsan Ivolginsk,
Buryat ASSR and so forth.

This book is divided
into two parts: “Special Speeches” and “Buddhist Explorations of
Peace and Justice.” In the first part, there are five special speeches by
five Korean dignitaries. First, Byong-chun Min presented “Welcoming
Address”; second, Daewon Ki’s “Buddhism’s Role in Modern
Society”; third, Eun Koh’s “What is Buddhism to Peace?”; fourth,
Eul-byong Chang’s “World Peace, Korean Unification and Democracy”;
and fifth, Wan-il Park, “Social Function of Buddhism.” Unfortunately,
we were not able to include some of the special speeches delivered in Korean
without English translations, by some of the Korean dignitaries.

The second part of
the book contains twenty-three articles. Of the original contributions, some
valuable articles in this group also had to be omitted. Since the time of the
seminar, some presenters have passed away. Others could not be reached to
review their articles for publication. The article by the late Ki-young Rhi has
been included in this book even though there are no footnotes. The book also
includes an article by Dr. Hak-joon Kim even though it is outdated in its
discussion of the international situation surrounding the Korean peninsula in
late 1980’s and early 1990’s. Even so, the article is very good for readers to
understand the ROK’s policies to build a peaceful Northeast Asia just after the
Cold War period. General articles on peace and justice in Buddhist contexts are
arranged in the earlier part and articles related to Korean Buddhism in the
later part of the book.

This is the most
comprehensive book on the theme of peace and justice in Buddhist contexts to
date. The number of distinguished contributors nearly equally came from the two
major Buddhist traditions, Theravada and Mahayana. The array of speeches and
articles thoroughly investigate peace and justice from many different Buddhist
traditions.

Ven. Daewon Ki, abbot
of Dae Won Sa Buddhist Temple of Hawaii, held seven international seminars on
Buddhism and Leadership for Peace, which have gained worldwide repute for
leading academic discussions on the subject. Of them, the fifth seminar
comprehensively explored ways to put Buddhist thought into social practice for
peace and justice. The scope of the fifth seminar was the widest among them.
More than sixty peace activists and Buddhist scholars from thirteen nations
participated and discussed peace and justice.

Peace
activists, Buddhists and non-Buddhists, may draw upon the academic information
and the knowledge shared by these profound thinkers, to build peace and promote
social justice in this struggling and problematic world. The book is intended
for social scientists, peace activists, Buddhist scholars, engaged Buddhists
and all people concerned about social conditions. We hope they may incorporate
Buddhist wisdom on peace and justice to broaden their understanding and to
discover ways of bring about happiness in this world of conflict and injustice.


CONTENTS

NOTES

ABBREVIATIONS

PREFACE

ACKNOWLEGEMENTS

INTRODUCTION


Part 1. Special Speeches

1. Welcoming Address
- - - - - - - - Byong-chun Min

2. Buddhism’s Role in
Modern Society
- - - - - - - - Daewon Ki

3. What is Buddhism
to Peace?
- - - - - - - - Eun Koh

4. World Peace,
Korean Unification and Democracy
- - - - - - - - Eul-byong Chang

5. Social Function of
Buddhism
- - - - - - - - Wan-il Park

1. Real Happiness in the Dharma
2. Law of Dependent Origination
3. Man Who Falls to the Ground
4. Practice of Six Paramitas


Part 2. Buddhist Explorations of Peace and Justice

6. Exploration of
Right Livelihood as One Path to Peace and Justice
- - - - - - - - Jean Sadako King

7. So Many Different
Worlds
- - - - - - - - J. C. Cleary

8. For Contribution
to the Cause of Peace and Justice
- - - - - - - - G. Lubsantseren

9. The Ring of World
and Buddhism
- - - - - - - - Yeremei Parnov

10. Bodhisattva’s
Social Ethics
- - - - - - - - David W. Chappell

1. Fangdeng Bodhisattva Precepts
2. Fanwang jing Bodhisattva Precepts
3. Theory and Practice
4. Appendix

11. What the Modern
World Should Search for in Buddhism
- - - - - - - - In-hwan Chae

12. The Therava-da
Buddhist Experience of Social Practice for Peace and Justice
- - - - - - - - Medagoda Sumanatissa

13. Reading Buddhist
Texts with New Light
- - - - - - - - Chatsumarn Kabilsingh

14. Bodhisattva
Action in the New World Order
- - - - - - - - Graeme MacQueen

1. Introduction
2. The New World Order
3. The Bodhisattva Metanarrative
4. Bodhisattvic Action in the First World
5. Choosing Our Stories

15. Toward the
Establishment of a Fundamental Doctrine of Human Rights
- - - - - - - - Tadashige Takamura

1. Introduction
2. Human Rights as the Key Concept
2.1. Human Rights as a Purpose
2.2. Peace and Development for Human Rights
3. Third Generation of Human Rights
4. Evaluation of the Doctrine “Third Generation of Human Rights”
5. The Buddhist View on Human Rights
5.1. The Dignity of Life
5.2. Equality
5.3. Nonviolence
5.4. Self-Restraint
5.5. Self-fulfillment
6. For the Spiritual Uplifting of the Respect for Human Right

16. Language and
Peace: The Early Buddhist Perspective
- - - - - - - - David J. Kalupahana

17. The Approaches of
the Buddha and Gandhi towards Religious Tolerance
- - - - - - - - K.S. Vimala Devi

18. Buddhism: The
Messenger of Peace, Contact and Understanding
- - - - - - - - Jiwen Du & Baoxu Zhao

19. Putting Buddhist
Ideas into Social Practice for Peace and Justice:
The Truth of the Conventional
- - - - - - - - Jamie Hubbard

1. Introduction
2. The Impulse to Practice: Breaking with the Social
2.1. Renunciation
2.2. The Mahayana and the Bodhisattva Ideal
3. Doctrinal Considerations
3.1. Buddhism and History
3.2. Disjunction of the Ultimate
3.3. Relativism
3.4. Upaya as Social and Cultural Relativism
4. A Conventional Basis for Buddhist Social Involvement
4.1. Future Gain (vipa-ka)
4.2. Merit
5. Conclusions

20. Buddhism for
Social Justice in Thai Society: An Analysis of Buddhadassa’s Teachings
- - - - - - - - Suwanna Satha-Anand

1. Introduction
2. Graphic Image of Buddhist Social Hierarchy
3. Buddhism as a Cultural Basis for Social Justice
4. A Concluding Note

21. The Sermon of the
Buddha to Spread the Dharma and Its Relevance for Peace
- - - - - - - - Padmanabh S. Jaini

22. Buddhism and Peace
- - - - - - - - Jae-ryong Shim

1. Preliminary Remarks
2. Buddhism and Peace
2.1. The Traditional Indian Concept of Righteous War
2.2. Buddhist Idea of Peace
2.2.1. The Buddhist Concept of Peace
2.2.1.1. A Peaceful Society
2.2.1.2. Peaceful Human Relationships
2.2.1.3. A Peaceful Heart
2.2.2. A Buddhist Analysis of the Factors Inhibiting Peace
2.3. Why do Buddhist Societies have Wars?
2.4. The Buddhist Way to Peace: the Complete Achievement of Non-violence and
Non-killing

23. The Imperative of
the Practice of Ahimsa Today: A Gandhian Perspective
- - - - - - - - N. Radhakrishnan

24. Buddhist Ethics
and a New Moral Order
- - - - - - - - Thich Minh Chau

25. Wonhyo’s Ideal on
Peace and Union
- - - - - - - - Ki-young Rhi

1. Time of Dispute
2. Religion as the Way of Life to Dispel the Dispute
3. Ilseung (Ekayana) as the Ultimate Reality
4. How to Arrive at This Ultimate Reality, Ilseung?

26. Wonhyo’s Theory
of Harmonization
- - - - - - - - Sung-bae Park

27. Master Yongseong’s
Life and Works: An Engaged Buddhism of Peace and Justice
- - - - - - - - Jin-wol Lee

1. Introduction
2. Yongseong’s Life and Works
2.1. Historical Environment
2.2. Life
2.3. Yongseong’s Works
2.3.1. Books
2.3.2. Books in Translation, Chinese into Korean
2.3.3. Articles
2.3.4. Editorial Work
2.3.5. Record of Yongseong
3. Yongseong’s Thoughts and Practices for Peace and Justice
3.1. Thought
3.2. Practices
4. Conclusions

28. The Republic of
Korea’s Policies to Build a Peaceful Northeast Asia
- - - - - - - - Hak-joon Kim

1. Republic of Korea’s Northern Policy
2. Impact of the ROK-Soviet Rapprochement on Inter-Korean Relations
3. Republic of Korea’s Reunification Policy
4. Concluding Remarks

 

PHOTOS

Photo 1: Group picture of contributors taken at the
Sheraton Walker Hill.

Photo 2: Taken at the Office of President Min Byong-chun
of Dongguk University, co-organizer of the 5th International Seminar on
Buddhism and Leadership for Peace together with the Korean Buddhist Dae Won
Sa Temple of Hawaii.

Photo 3: A dinner photo taken at the Sheraton Walker
Hill with former South Korean President Gim Daejung and the seminar
representatives. President Gim Daejung delivered a special speech to the
seminar participants.

Contributors

[NOTE: The titles and
academic institutions listed in association with the contributors represent the
positions they held in 1995, that is, at the time of the seventh seminar.]

Dr. Byong-chun Min, President, Dongguk
University, Seoul, ROK

Ven. Daewon Ki, Abbot, Dae Won Sa Buddhist Temple
of Hawaii, USA

Mr. Eun Koh, Korea’s admired poet,
novelist and democratic leader

Dr. Eul-byong Chang, President,
Sunggyunkwan University, Seoul, ROK

Mr. Wan-il Park, President, Federation of
Korean Lay Buddhist Associations, Seoul, ROK

Dr. Hak-joon Kim, Chief Assistant to the
President for Policy Research, Seoul, ROK

Prof. Jae-ryong Shim, Department of
Philosophy, Seoul National University, Seoul, ROK

Ven. Jin-wol Lee, Dharmic Teacher, Dae Won
Sa Buddhist Temple of Hawaii, USA

Ven. Dr. In-hwan Chae, Director, Korean
Buddhist Research Institute, Dongguk University, Seoul, ROK

Dr. Ki-young Lee, President, Korean
Institute for Buddhist Studies, Seoul, ROK

Dr. Sung-bae Park, Director, Program in
Korean Studies, Department of Comparative Studies, State University of New York
- Stony Brook, USA

Prof. David J. Kalupahana, Department of
Philosophy, University of Hawaii - Manoa, USA

Prof. Jamie Hubbard, Department of Religious
Studies, Smith College, USA

Ms. Jean Sadako King, Former Lieutenant
Governor of the State of Hawaii, USA

Prof. David Chappell, Department of
Religious Studies, University of Hawaii - Manoa, USA

Prof. George Bond, Department of Religious
Studies, Northwestern University, USA

Mr. J. C. Cleary, worldwide famous writer
and translator

Prof. Padmanabh S. Jaini, Department of
South Asian Studies, University of California - Berkeley, USA

Prof. Graeme MacQueen, Department of
Religious Studies, McMaster University, Canada

Prof. Tadashige Takamura, Director, Peace
Research Institute, Soka University, Japan

Ven. Medagoda Sumanatissa, Principal,
International Theravada Buddhist Centre, Sunethra Maha Devi (University)
Privera, Boralesgamuwa, Sri Lanka

Prof. Chatsumarn Kabilsingh, Department of
Philosophy, Faculty of Liberal Arts, Thammasat University, Thailand

Prof. Suwanna Satha-Anand, Department of
Political Science, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand

K. S. Vimala Devi, G. Ramachandran
Institute of Nonviolence, India

N. Radhakrishnan, Director, Gandhi
Smriti and Darshan Samiti, India

Prof. Baoxu Zhao, Department of
International Politics, Beijing University, China

Prof. Jiwen Du, Institute for Research on
World Religions, Chinese Academy of Social Science, China

Ven. Thich Minh Chau, Vice President of the
ABCP (Asian Buddhist Conference for Peace) and Vice Chairman of the Vietamese
Buddhist Sangha, Vietnam

Dr. G. Lubsantseren, Secretary General,
ABCP, Mongolia

Dr. Eremey Parnov, President, European
Society of Science Fiction, USSR

Coeditors

Ven. Chanju Mun is the founder and chief
editor of Blue Pine Books and is currently teaching East Asian Buddhist Studies
at the University of the West in Los Angeles. He received a Ph.D. in Buddhist
Studies from the University of Wisconsin - Madison in 2002 and a Master’s
Degree in Philosophy from Seoul National University in 1991. He has been a
researcher at exiled Tibetan Drepung Monastic University in South India and at
the University of Tokyo. His recent publications include The History of
Doctrinal Classification in Chinese Buddhism: A Study of the Panjiao Systems
(Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 2006), “Tibetan Monastic
Education Curriculum and its Theoretical Background” (Buddhist
Soteriology, 2005), “Wonhyo (617-686): A Critic of Sectarian Doctrinal
Classifications” (Hsi Lai Journal of Humanistic Buddhism 6, 2005) and
“Historical Introduction to Minjung Buddhism (Korean Liberation
Buddhism)” (Kankoku bukkyo semina - 9, 2003) and others.

Dr. Ronald S. Green is editor of Blue Pine
Books, USA. He received a Ph.D. in Buddhist Studies from the University of
Wisconsin - Madison in 2003. He also holds a Master of Arts Degree in Japanese
Literature from the University of Oregon and a Master of Science Degree in
Sociology from Virginia Tech. In addition to his interest in engaged Buddhism,
his research focuses on the lives and practices of East Asain Buddhists past
and present.

All fear death.

None are unafraid of sticks and knifes.

Seeing yourself in others,

Don’t kill don’t harm

(Dhammapada, 18; translated by
the author from Taisho 4: 210).

Bad words blaming others.

Arrogant words humiliating others.

From these behaviors

Come hatred and resentme nt.

Hence conflicts arise,

Rendering in people malicious thoughts

(Dhammapada, 8; translated by
the author from Taisho 4: 210).

And these malicious thoughts would, in
due term, result in harm upon us since none are

really exempt from the influences of
all others, including the people we harmed. The

Buddhist principle of dependent
origination crystallizes the imperative of many peace

workers’ advocacy for nonviolent
interpersonal communication and interactions as they

are indispensable to what human pursue
– a life of happiness. That is, practicing

nonviolence in speech and action would
ultimately benefit the practitioner.

In larger contexts, Buddhism recognizes
the indirect form of violence in the social

systems to be external causes of
conflicts as well. Violence, conflict and war caused by

injustice in political and economic
structures bring even more harms to people on a grand

scale (Shih Yin-shun, 1980; Sivarksa,
1992; Sumanatissa, 1991). How to promote human

rights and equality along the social,
legal, political, and economic dimensions of our

collective structures, not for the
benefits of ourselves but for all’s, thus becomes part of

the Buddhist mission to eliminate the
potential causal forces of violence and peace.

Recognizing the material needs for
sustaining human living, Buddhism postulates the

principle of Middle Way as a criterion
in making decisions on all levels of activities and

encourages frugality as a positive
virtue. The relentless pursuit of economic development

and personal property regardless of
environmental or moral consequences is considered

not in accordance with the Middle Way
since it destroys the balance between

consumption and resources, as well as
material gain and spiritual growth.

The Internal Causes of Violence and
Conflicts

Albeit external verbal and physical
wrongdoings as well as social injustice are

causing conflicts and violence,
Buddhism contends that these behaviors and structures

originate all from the state of human
mind, since the violence and injustice are responses

toward external stimuli produced by
people’s inner mind operation. That is, the deeper causes of any conflict lie
internally in the mental operations within each being. For

example, confronted with the threat of
physical and verbal harm, it is natural for us to feel

fear, dislike, resentment, anger or
hate. Out of this negative caste of mind, we would

again resort to a violent response, and
hence a conflict arises. Similarly, institutions or

groups would respond to adversity with
establishing policies or laws trying to protect

whatever interest they perceive to be
under threat or attack, which would cause conflicts

since others’ interest and well-being
might be undermined by these measures. In other

words, physical and structural violence
are the product of human mental status such as

fear, anger, and hate, which are
considered in Buddhism to be the internal causes to

violence and conflicts.

Even when no threat of personal safety
or collective interest is in presence,

conflicts may occur, from the Buddhist
perspective, as a result of our two major mental

attachments to, first, subjective
views, opinions and, second, the desire for materials,

relationships. The stronger the
attachment is, the more obsessive one would be, the more

extreme behaviors one would engage, and
the more severe the conflict would become.

The attachment to views refers to
insistence on the correctness of one’s own views, ideas,

and ways of doing things. It would
elapse into prejudice, polarity, negating other views

and ways of life and ultimately
negating people who are different from “us”. The Buddha

sees this attachment to difference as
one major cause of in-group and inter-group

conflicts. Two thousand years later,
this has also been identified by modern scholars as

central to conflicts between ethnic,
social, religious groups and individuals (Blumberg,

1998; Myers, 1999). The second major
cause of conflicts, the attachment to desire, refers

to want for material goods and longing
for affection and belonging in human beings. It

can easily go beyond the level of
necessity and become greed. The greedy desire to have

and to own drives individuals, groups,
and nations into competition for what they want,

followed by conflicts and even wars. As
depicted in Vibhasa-sastra:

For the sake of greedy desire, kings
and kings are in conflict,

So are monks and monks, people and
people, regions and regions, states and

states (The Middle Length Discourses
of the Buddha, Taisho
28: 1547).

This competition is discerned by the
Buddha as a lose-lose situation:

If we win, we incur resentment toward
ourselves.

If we lose, our self-esteem is hurt (Dhammapada,
Taisho 4: 210).

None benefits from this competition
derived from greediness. Even winners accrue

negative feelings from the lost party
that inevitably plants seeds of future conflicts. The

internal cause of violence and
conflicts as analyzed through a Buddhist perspective,

corresponds to many peace educators’
emphasis on intrapersonal peace building and the

United Nations’ campaign for a culture
of peace. The focus on individual and inner transformation of attitudes on and
interpretations of what happens externally, which in

turn would motivate appropriate change
in behaviors, is considered more effective in

eliminating the causes leading to
violence and conflicts on all levels of human

interactions.

The Root Cause of Violence and
Conflicts

Behind the mental, behavioral and
structural causes of violence and conflict,

Buddhism goes even further to the
ultimate fundamental cause leading to all the suffering

inflicted by violence and conflict.
Buddha attributes all our attachments, the resulting

harming behaviors and the suffering
hence caused, to the human ignorance (avijja), that

is, we can not see the world as it is
and see our self as such. We are ignorant to the

cosmic reality that everything in the
world is inter-related, interdependent. Not adopting

the Buddhist worldview, we thought we
are separate from others as an independent

entity: our views are different from
theirs; our properties are certainly not theirs. Hence

we develop our attachments to views and
desires through the reinforcing notions of “me”

and “mine.” We are not impartial in
looking at things. We tend to focus on the harm that

is done to us, instead of examining the
whole event in its context with all the causes and

conditions conducive to its happening.
This ignorance to the principle of dependent

origination alienates us from what
really happens in the situation and the complex set of

conditions around any given event, and
thus rids us of the possibility of making correct

assessment of the event and react
accordingly in time. Without the lucidity to discern the

causes, development and effects of
specific events, we are inevitably causing conflicts

and doing harm to others as well as
ourselves all the time. Even wars between states

come out of great fear and the
collective ignorance (Thich Nhat Hanh, 2003). This

ignorance is what Buddhism identifies
as the very root cause of violence, conflict, and

war, which prevents human beings to
live a peaceful life.

Approaches
to Peace in the Buddha’s Teaching

The Buddha’s teaching, though
encompassing a wide range of complex belief

systems, started with the Buddha’s
first preaching which is conventionally equated with

the essence of his teaching — the Four
Noble Truths (catur-aryasatya). The first two

truths discern the Causes of violence
and conflict and the suffering caused thereby: First,

life inevitably involves
suffering/dissatisfaction (duhkha-satya); and Second,

suffering/dissatisfaction originates in
desires (samudaya-satya). The third and the fourth

prescribe the cure for this unpleasant
way of living, that is, how to promote a peaceful

way of living and ultimately live in
peace: Third, suffering/dissatisfaction will cease if all

desires cease (nirodha-satya);
and Fourth, this state can be realized by engaging in the

Noble
Eightfold Path (marga-satya).

In fact, all the Buddhist practices are
de veloped in accordance with the Four Noble

Truths; that is, they are designed to
enable people to alleviate this suffering and to realize

a peaceful state of existence at all
levels. In this section, the Buddhist approaches to

peace can be categorized in four
dimensions in the holistic/integrated model of peace in

the field of peace studies:
intra-personal, interpersonal, in-group, and inter-group.

Insightful Reflection as the Practice
of Intra-personal Peace

To achieve peace within a person, the
Buddhist approach is to observe and reflect

upon the conditions in the external and
mental operations, and then to decide on the most

appropriate course of action as
response to the outer and inner environments. With the

most adequate response, we would not do
harm to ourselves as well as not harbor

negative feelings and thoughts toward
other. Before taking any external action to realize

peace, the first step for any Buddhist
would be to look at ourselves and the events

happening around us carefully and
honestly, “not sugarcoating anything about the

realities of life, consciousness, or
culture” (Sivaraksa, 1999: 42). The greater urgency

placed by Buddhism upon the inner
reflection finds its doctrinal basis on the Buddhist

analysis of the roots of violence and
conflicts within the mind. As the Buddha teaches,

You should carefully guard your mind,

Maintaining the mindfulness all the
time,

In order to cease conflicts

(The Middle Length Discourses of the
Buddha, Taisho
1: 26).

This is the starting point for the
Buddha’s disciples to live in peace since peace depends

not so much on what happens to people,
but on what attitude, comprehension, and

response they give to the happenings.
An understanding of the complex set of plural

forces, causes and conditions that have
brought the event into being and have shaped our

immediate perception of, feelings for,
and reaction to the event, only comes possible from

the insight (vipassana) we
develop from inner reflection in the light of the principle of

dependent origination. As the Buddha
testifies,

Once I dwell in peace (= awakened to
the universal),

In adversity I react with no anger;

Living among angry people,

I act with no anger (Dhammapada,
Taisho
4: 210).

With a clearer view of what happened
through practice of inner reflection, we are

empowered with proactiveness; that is,
we no longer would respond compulsively, but

would be capable of choosing a course
of actions more appropriate and beneficial to all

parties
involved, with no anger or hate harbored within ourselves.

This approach does not only work on the
personal level, many contemporary

Buddhist leaders of peace movements
give first priority to inner transformation within

individuals on the path to peace in
larger contexts. The Venerable Thich Nhat Hanh

(1999: 159) encourages people who would
like to engage themselves in peace activism to

prepare themselves in advance by
developing awareness and mindfulness for practicing

peace, that is, reacting “calmly and
intelligently, in the most nonviolent way possible.”

Inner practice on nonviolence is hence
considered a prerequisite to peace workers and

educators. Further relating the impact
of individual practice to the whole picture, the

Venerable Shih Sheng-yen (1999: 175)
stresses the influence of few on many, in that

“peace in society begins with peace
within oneself”, since the widening circle of

influence of each individual would
expand from their immediate sphere gradually to the

larger contexts. Without this “internal
disarmament” (as The Dalai Lama called it; see

Hopkins, 2000: 194), our negative
emotions derived from the ignorance to the true

operating principle behind all
phenomena (including our own feelings and thoughts), the

fear, anger and confusion in the state
of mind, would rise as reactions to the adversary

conditions, and would prevent us from
acting nonviolently and living harmoniously with

other people in the world.

In addition to ridding ourselves of the
negative, non-peaceful feeling and thoughts

within us, through the practice of
reflection upon the dependently originated reality (i.e.

seeing and experiencing the
interconnections and mutual dependence that run through

everything in this world), concerns for
other beings woul d evolve and slowly become as

natural as concerns for self in the
process. Such conceptions would facilitate the

cultivation of four positive emotional
faculties (Pali: appamañña or Brahmavihara):

metta (loving-kindness), karuna (compassion),
mudita (sympathetic joy), and upekkha

(equanimity). These pro-social
qualities derived from the understanding of the

interdependent reality would compel a
natural drive for altruistic actions:

The one who dwells in compassion would
not have a conflictual volition;

The one who dwells in loving-kindness
would always act most appropriately

(Dhammapada, Taisho 4:
210).

Though internally generated, these
positive, prosocial qualities contain an outward

orientation. That is, the intrapersonal
practice of insightful reflection is closely connected

with the external practice of
nonviolence and mutually enhances each other since the

inner nonviolence and peace would be
manifested in the five precepts, the fundamental

code
of conduct for all Buddhists to live in harmony with other beings in the world.

according to Schumacher (1975): to
utilize and develop one’s faculties, to overcome

one’s ego-centeredness by working with
others, and to bring forth the goods and services

needed for existence. Only work in line
with the Precepts is the right livelihood, which

hence excludes butchery, production of
and trade in armaments, intoxicants, slaves and

prostitutes, and any economic
activities taking what is not given or given in a dishonest

way. Not only guiding people to assume
economic obligation to the society, this

requirement also echoes the
peacemakers’ protest against the humongous militaryindustrial-

economic compound in today’s global
economy.

Six Principles of Cordiality as the
Practice of In-group Peace

The Buddha’s disciples (monks and,
later, nuns) live a communal life since the

Buddha does not encourage monks and
nuns to live in solitude all the time, hence without

opportunities to cultivate the four
immeasurable deliverances of mind, loving-kindness,

compassion, sympathetic joy, and
equanimity. Within any groups, including Buddhist

ones, exists the possibility of
disputes and conflicts. To prevent harm and suffering

caused by disputes and conflicts among
people, the Buddha teaches the six principles of

cordiality (Pali: cha dhamma
saraniya
) that would “create love and respect and conduce

to cohesion, to non-dispute, to
concord, and to unity” (Kosambiya Sutta, 6, The Middle

Length Discourse of the Buddha: 420) in a community. Similar to other
Buddhist codes

of conducts that aim at cultivating
inner states of mind as well as regulating external

behaviors, the principles of cordiality
prescribe that in private and in public, one

maintains 1) bodily acts, 2) verbal
acts and 3) mental acts of loving-kindness toward

other group members, 4) shares material
gains with others, 5) follows the same codes of

conducts, and 6) holds the same view
that woul d lead “one who practices in accordance

with it to the complete destruction of
suffering” (Kosambiya Sutta, 6, The Middle Length

Discourse of the Buddha: 421).

While the first three principles focus
on the direct impact of individual group

member’s acts upon other members, the
last three refer to the indirect structural and

cultural impact. The fourth principle,
equally sharing material goods with each other,

denotes a fair distribution of
resources among members within a community. The

economic and financial justice could
further reduce the attachment to material and

monetary possessions as a root cause of
conflicts. The fifth one, following the same

codes of conducts, refers to the
regulations of an organization, or legal systems in a

nation-state. The Buddha also demands
that the regulations should be “not

misapprehended, justly, unbiasedly
stipulated with the purpose to completely alleviate

suffering” (The Middle Length
Discourse of the Buddha
: 420-1).

The last principle, sharing the same
view, deals with the deviance in opinions

among group members. In the Buddhist sangha,
sharing the same view does not mean

ruling out the diversity or
disagreement (for examples, see the Kinti Sutta, The Middle

Length Discourse of the Buddha: 103.4ff; and the Bhaddali Sutta,
The Middle Length Discourse of the Buddha: 65.7ff). In the original sangha
operation, when disputes arise,

social harmony within the community is
built on small group dialogue in which diversity

can be expressed and discussed. At the
same time, through dialectic exchange in the

assemblies, members would find and
confirm their common ground resorting to the

ultimate goal of complete destruction
of suffering. In the scripture (Mahaparinibbana

Sutta, The Long Discourses of the
Buddha:
ii.154),
the Buddha places a high value on

these meetings. In the seven criteria
he uses to evaluate the social strength of each

monastic order, holding regular and
frequent assembly meetings is ranked as first, the

primary criterion. And the second
criterion states that sangha members are supposed to

conduct their business in harmony
during the meetings. To ensure fairness and harmony,

the sangha assembly meeting
procedures, recorded in the Vinaya (For example, in Taisho

22: 1428 and Taisho 23: 1438),
depict a democratic nature of these meetings — shared

authority, distributed responsibility,
balanced participation, and decision aspiring to

consensus (Chappell, 2003; De, 1955;
Khongchinda, 1993; Thich Nhat Hanh, 2003).

These procedures are very similar to
those advocated by conflict management and

organizational communication scholars
of our own time. Many peace education activities

engaging people in participatory
decision-making, problem-solving, consensus building

and open discussion bear a remarkable
resemblance to what Buddhist bhikkhus have been

doing in their assemblies since the
days of the Buddha (for examples of modern training

activities, see Macy, 1983; Schilling,
1993; Schroeder, 1995). This is no coincidence at

all, since the genuine benefits of
small group operation as the basis of organizational

harmony have been well documented in
the field of sociology, economics and

anthropology (Chappell, 1999; Galtung,
1990; Loy, 2002; Myers, 1999; Schumacher,

1975; Turpin and Kurtz, 1997).

Recognizing the benefits of small group
operation within a larger context, a peace

activist in Thailand, Sulak Sivaraksa,
forms small groups of social relief supporting

orphaned children, single mothers,
ecological concerns or inter-religious cooperation.

His work is now expanding to include
micro enterprises and more than 400 micro banks,

improving the economic and social
conditions of hundreds of thousands of Thai people

(Sivaraksa, 1992, 1999). This bottom-up
Buddhist approach stresses open

communication and interdependence among
group members and even across group lines

onto the inter-group and organizational
level, which can also be seen in other Buddhist

organizations, such as the Tzu-Chi
Foundation of the Venerable Cheng-Yen in Taiwan

and the Japan-originated Soka Gakkai
International led by Daisaku Ikeda.

Nonviolence Intervention as the
Practice of Inter-group/International Peace

In the inter-group or international
affairs, the Buddhist insistence on dialogue and

nonviolence still rings true. The
Buddha once tells a story of the King of Longevity to

illustrate his stance on war and
retribution while facing violence or foreign invasion. In

the story, the king, when his country
was invaded by another king, gave up the armory defense to protect the lives of
his people. He also asked his son not to seek revenge for

the brutal death of him and his wife.
Later, when the son had three opportunities to kill

the enemy king, he did not do so,
following his father’s last words, and explained

everything to the enemy king. The enemy
king, deeply moved, regretted his past

wrongdoing and returned the land he had
invaded. As the moral of the story, the Buddha

concludes that “if one seeks
retribution for vengeance through vengeance, the chain can

never be broken” (Taisho 1: 26).
This emphasis on absolute nonviolence is exemplified

in the Buddha’s intervention while his
home country of the Sakyans was to be invaded by

a neighboring country. The Buddha in
his old age sat at the border of the two kingdoms

to try to talk the warlike king out of
his plan. His persuasive argument successfully

convinced the king for two times but
the third time he failed. The king marched his army

and killed almost all the Sakyans who,
following the Buddha’s teaching of not taking life,

did not fight back at all. Yet the
story did not end in a negative tone since the principle of

dependent origination was brought in
and the causes and conditions leading to the

horrific suffering of the Sakyan clan
were explained (Taisho 2: 125).

This absolute insistence on
non-violence in the face of violence has incurred

criticism of Buddhism being passive
pacifism which could not prevent human suffering.

Yet a very recent event may add a more
positive angle to the nonviolence principle in

practice. For the first time in ten
years, China resumed dialogue with a delegation from

Dharamsala’s Tibetan
Government-in-Exile in September 2002. The Dalai Lama has

long insisted on peaceful means in
dealing with China on the sovereign of Tibet. His

unwavering commitment to non-violence
has accrued worldwide respect and sympathy

for the Tibetan people. Instead of
expressing anger and determination in seeking

revenge, the Dalai Lam found common
ground with the Chinese by recognizing that the

Chinese are just like him — wanting no
suffering but happiness, and they are also

conditioned by the principle of
dependent origination as the Tibetan people (Chappell,

2003).

His insight into the current situation
and his capacity to empathize with the

perpetrators have enabled him to find
alternative ways of responding to the harms and

damages done to the Tibetan people. The
Dalai Lama advocated a “Middle Way” for

Tibet: not full independence but
self-governed by a democratically elected government,

as well as vision of Tibet as a Zone of
Ahimsa (Herskovits, 2002: 5). The latter refers to

“a sanctuary of peace and nonviolence
where human beings and nature can live in peace

and harmony” (the Dalai Lama, 1989). In
this vision of Tibet, based on the guideline of

ahimsa (non-harming), no manufacture,
testing or storage of armament is permitted. The

entire land is to become designated a
national park where animals, plants and natural

resources in the ecosystems are
protected against exploitation. No technologies

producing hazardous wastes would be
developed (Powers, 2000). And this persevering

effort is finally met with a positive
reaction from the other overwhelmingly powerful

party, as the leading representative of
the delegation visiting China “said he was

impressed
by the flexibility of the Chinese” (Herskovits, 2002).

What the Dalai Lama practices and
achieves not only demonstrates a realistic

alternative to the international
politics but also provides a living proof of the feasibility of

the Buddhist principle of peace in
today’s world that is very different from the one

Buddhism evolved. From the intrapersonal
to the international, Buddhist approaches to

peace at different levels can be well
situated in an integrated model of peace building and

peace keeping in the contemporary world
(the Dalai Lama, 2001, 2002). As the

integrated peace is often criticized to
be too much an umbrella term spanning too wide a

spectrum, the feasibility to achieve
such a vision of peace is doubted. The Buddhist

approaches to peace can substantiate
this model of peace by proving that nonviolence

does work and can strengthen the
beliefs that absence of violence is never productive

without non-violence practiced at all
levels of human activities.

Translating
Buddhism into Peace Research and Activism

To explore new dimensions of
peacemaking and peacekeeping, as peace

researchers do all the time, is to
reflect back upon one fundamental of human culture —

religious traditions and beliefs. This
need is more pressing than ever since we live in a

world of plural religious traditions
that, from time to time, are accredited as causing

conflicts, even wars. Buddhism with its
worldview characterized by dynamic

interdependence and its behavioral
codes stressing non-violence and loving-kindness

offers rich resources for peacemaking
techniques. For example, the extended six

principles of cordiality could be the
ideological buttresses that many peace activists need

in resistance against the structural
violence (Cabezón, 1999; Galtung, 1990).

Furthermore, in examining the
development in the field of peace studies, the Buddhist

worldview is surprisingly in
accordance, and hence worthy of further studies in at least

three areas: the process-oriented
paradigm, peace by peaceful means, and the micromacro

linking in a holistic framework of
peace.

The Process-Oriented Paradigm

The Buddhist principle of dependent
origination mandates a world composed of

dynamic exchanges and interconnections
among all entities existing in the world. The

complex web of causes and conditions in
any given event engenders a focus on process

and causes, over a focus on end
results. In the past, peace used to be reified as an

absolute ultimate: transcendent,
idealistic, and thus unreal, unattainable. People

worshipped peace with awe but knew
deeply in their hearts that peace is unlikely to be

realized in this world. Nowadays, most
peace researchers agree that peace is no more a

stable state to be reached at the end
of the tunnel, but a composite of dynamic interactions

demanding continued striving because of
the constantly changing conditions of all

forces/factors involved. Therefore, in
efforts to build peace, seemingly not directly relevant factors and conditions
conducive to peace could be just important as conflict

resolution or other direct intervention
measures in dealing with conflicts. This new way

of looking at peace building and
peacekeeping is in perfect accordance with the Buddhist

worldview, as substantiated by the
Sanskrit morphology of words referring to peace and

war as collective products.

The positive orientation and the shift
to cultivating causes of peace and preventing

causes of violence bring a new focus to
peace work. By working with everyday,

mundane issues regarding interpersonal
relations, human rights and the environmental

concerns, peace activists are advancing
on both the direct and indirect causes of peace; in

other words, they are creating peace
and furthering the realization of a culture of peace at

every moment. Even if peace makers seem
to do little about the immediate and direct

violence in their surroundings, this
process-oriented perspective empowers those who

strive for peace, especially in those
war-torn regions of the world such as Croatia, Israel

(“Peace: How realistic is it?”, 2003),
and Northern Ireland (Stewart, 2002), where people

might feel helpless, powerless when
only small changes toward peace can be produced in

a conflict and violence-ridden
environment.

While the process view of peace has
been embraced by many peace activists and

educators, its full implications for
peace research is yet to be explored. Johan Galtung is

among the first scholars that have
incorporated the Buddhist perspective into his peace

research, which is most obvi ous in his
works after the 1980’s (Lawler, 1995). To Galtung

(1993, 1990), the Buddhist principle of
dependent origination and the derived worldview

have enriched the peace research in its
fundamental design. Peace research has become

more an ongoing process requiring
corroboration from a wide range of perspectives, a

series of “many small but coordinated
efforts along several dimensions at the same time,

starting in all kinds of corners of
material and spiritual reality,” instead of single-shot

research on time and place-specific
events, because the system would “hit back in a

complex web of interrelations”
(Galtung, 1993: 24). And in order to capture the constant

changing in the multi-causal
conditions, he emphasizes the necessity of making regular

dialogues between all the parties
involved, on the international and non-government

organizational levels, rather than
inter-group negotiation with the imminent threat of war

on the side. As the world is gradually
entering “a new era of cooperative politics and

international conflict resolution”
(Galtung, Jacobsen, & Brand-Jacobsen, 2002: 70), the

Buddhist emphasis on process and the
ever-changing, interdependent nature of the reality

have inspired peace builders and
scholars to discover innovative means to peace and

strengthened the confidence in their
daily work on advancing direct and indirect causes of

peace.

Peace by Peaceful Means

With the shifting emphasis from results
to causes/process, the notion of “peace by

peaceful means,” longtime valued among
peace-makers, is rejuvenated with more persuasion from the perspective of
Buddhism. Substantialized in the light of the principle

of dependent origination, not only does
the old belief “violence begets violence” become

a mandate to prevent the destructive
pattern of accelerated violence, but the impact and

the ramifications of the peaceful means
employed in the process would eventually

contribute to peace. The peaceful
means, in the Buddhist eyes, must include both the

external behaviors and campaigns, and
the inner state of mind of the peace activists.

While the nonviolence resistance has
been widely adopted by people working for peace,

negative feelings and conflicts may
exist within and between the peace-making groups.

Moreover, the strong attachment to
particular views, which is considered one of the two

undesirable habits of mind in Buddhism,
may further enhance an attitude of selfrighteousness

not only in confronting violence and
injustice, but when interacting with

one’s own comrades, which usually
conduces to dissatisfaction, impatience and, hence,

anger and resentment. A constant,
regular reflection upon our own thoughts and feelings

would serve as the first step to purge
those of the negative and unproductive nature out of

us and thus we would be able to pursue
our quest for peace with peaceful means,

internally and externally.

Besides, anger and other negative
emotions at times could be so strong and

overwhelming that one might forget the
interdependent nature of all the phenomena. As a

member of the human race, we all
contribute directly or indirectly, with action or

inaction, to violence, be it war,
conflict, or exploitation. This realization unveils the share

we have in participating in the web of
violence, and hence could weaken the “us” versus

“them”, the “good guys” versus “the bad
guys” dichotomy in minds of many peace

makers and allows them to face the
adversary with a more inclusive, understanding

attitude, thus opening to more creative
non-violent alternatives of promoting peace, a

genuine peace by peaceful means.

The Holistic Framework of Peace and the
Micro/Macro Linking Within

Also derived from the principle of
dependent origination and the interconnected

worldview is a holistic view of peace
and the micro/macro linkage between violence at

all levels, which has perhaps the most
potential among all Buddhist contributions in

influencing peace research and peace
activism. While peace studies has been

characterized as interdisciplinary
since its inception, the boundaries or conceptual frames

of different academic disciplines
inevitabl y compartmentalize the study of peace. And

the study of violence at different
levels has never been balanced in significance to the

public as well as financial funding
received. For example, criminal violence is more

extensively investigated than violence
against women and children, while the latter, in

turn, has accrued more attention than
the consequences of various forms of violence upon

the collective public health (Turpin
& Kurtz, 1997).

In the Buddhist conception of peace,
all causes of violence and peace are

interrelated and mutually influential;
and the interrelations between violence at all levels are assumed and hence
demands a multi-lateral comprehensive approach to stopping

violence and promoting peace at all levels.
One recent common trend in research on

peace and violence is to explore the
links between interpersonal, collective, national, and

global levels of violence. An
increasing number of scholars (Alexander et al., 1987;

Brock-Utne, 1997; Galtung & Ikeda, 1995;
Kurtz & Turpin, 1989; Reardon, 1993) have

attempted to posit a relationship
between the causes of peace and violence at the micro

level and those at the macro level.
Their work has certainly further illuminated the

micro-macro linkage between different
levels of peace and violence.

The relationship between direct,
structural and cultural violence also entered the

research agenda of peace and violence
studies. Witnessing the horrible brutality

pervasive in modern societies during
his forty years of research on war and international

conflicts, Galtung contends that the
domestic policy on violence would be reflected in a

nation’s foreign policy, and “the
family in general and marriage in particular are tests we

must pass in order to contribute to
peace in the larger setting of world society” (Galtung

& Ikeda, 1995: 24). The violence
against women in so-called peace time and during the

war (Boulding, 1992 & 2000;
Tickner, 1992), the economic exploitation in the domestic

society as well as the international
society (Brock-Utne, 1997; Loy, 2002), religious

tolerance for or even endorsement of
use of violence as the most efficacious solution to

the problem (Ellison & Bartkowski,
1997; Gilligan, 1990; Gamson, 1984), all lead

scholars to reexamine the concepts of
peace, equality, national security and social

harmony in a more holistic framework.
Their research findings echo the claim of the

micro-macro linkage of violence at all
levels, and the claim that the inequitable social

arrangements and cultural value systems
produce harm upon the less privileged people

even in the absence of physical and
verbal violent behaviors. The notion of peace

equaling the absence of direct violence
or war is only temporary and fragile since many

people still suffer from the injustice
and violence legitimized in the inappropriate

political, economical, and social
institutions rooted in existing values, or ideologies. That

is exactly what the Dalai Lama (1989)
asserts in his inaugural speech of the Noble Peace

Prize: absence of war is not true peace
while many still suffer from poverty and human

rights abuses. Only multilateral peace
making efforts conceptualizing causes and

consequences of violence as connected
and interrelated along the micro/macro continuum

under the holistic model of peace would
afford the genuine, positive peace in the world.

To further actualization of the
multi-level organic notion of peace in human

society, the Buddhist emphasis on inner
transformation of a person’s state of mind and its

cosmic scope in conceptualizing harmony
finally completes the holistic model of peace.

Reflecting upon negative feelings and
thoughts within oneself as well as applying the

insight to the real life conditions
adds an intra-personal level to peace movement and

peace education. Once recognizing the
diverse and usually contradictory feelings and

thoughts rising and disappearing within
our own minds and their possible manifestations

at the behavioral level, we would be
more likely to be tolerant and patient and therefore

in a better position to deal with the
vast range of diversity out there in the world that might come into conflict
with us, or with one another. On the other hand, the holistic

framework Buddhism employs to explain
the human existence would lead us to seek

harmonious coexistence with others.
Between humans and the nature, the Buddhist view

of natural environment as a result of
our collective doings in the past results in a sense of

imminence which entails a feeling of
obligation in seeking harmony since we all

participate in either destruction or
protection of the nature. The scale of the universe and

the sense of awe implied in the notion
of the Indra’s Net, coincided with the modern

astronomical discoveries, compel us to
rethink the common ground we share as human

beings living on this one planet (among
billions of billions), which makes it easier to

transcend our differences on the way to
create a culture of peace.

Future Strategies

The potentials that these perspective
and practices that Buddhism may enrich the

fields of peace studies and peace
activism of course certainly merit further investigation

in theories as well as in practicum.
Along with the longtime criticism of Buddhism as a

passive and individualistic religion
which encourages people to withdraw from the real

world (for a review of criticisms, see
Queen, 2000), over-emphasis on the role of inner

transformation and the widening circle
of individual influence as approaches to peace in

larger contexts may seem slow and
procrastinating in the eyes of those who consider

immediate effort is needed in working
for social justice and conflict intervention.

Whereas the compassion and
loving-kindness cultivated within individuals can certainly

be necessary for transformation into a
new culture of peace, specific areas of problem,

such as class/race oppression and
environmental degradation need to be adequately

addressed and fully explored.

The introduction of the concept of nirvana
into the West since the early days may

also cause misunderstanding of peace as
the ultimate existence in Buddhism. In some

Buddhist branches, the state of nirvana
equals with ultimate peacefulness (Jayatilleke,

1969), or it is considered as an
ultimate solution for conflicts (Galtung, Jacobsen, &

Brand-Jacobsen, 2002). Since nirvana
is extremely difficult to attain for almost all

Buddhists, the equation (peace = nirvana)
renders peace a remote, unattainable label that

would not be conducive to any present
peacemaking efforts. Along the same line of

thinking, interpreting “right
concentration” (one of the Noble Eightfold Path) as being

peace would be easily misunderstood to
be that one can only stay in peace on the

meditation mat, if without adequate
background in the Buddhist traditions. These two

cases would call for greater efforts in
trying to translating Buddhist concepts into peace

studies.

Besides the problems of modern
interpretations and translations across cultures

and languages, in practice, the
Buddhist monastic orders are often criticized as

ingratiating themselves with
authorities in exchange with advantages (Galtung, 1993;

Sivaraksa, 1999). A group aiming at
liberating self and others could in this world turn out to be part of the
oppressive structure. Together with the fact that violence and conflicts

still exist in countries where Buddhism
is the state or majority religion (Little, 1994), the

relations between Buddhism, political
authorities, and nationalism as well as

discrepancies between the Buddhist
doctrine and its manifestations would need to be

carefully observed and further studied,
if an integrated model of peace is to be realized.

Concluding
Remarks

This article examines the Buddha’s
fundamental teachings that contribute to

peace-building and peacekeeping in the
world. A Buddhist worldview based on the

principle of dependent origination, its
analysis of the causes of conflicts and violence,

and the open communication and
participatory decision-making procedures in social

organizations, would inform and provide
useful paths for theoretical approaches and

research-based applications in peace
studies. In particular, the Buddhist observation and

reflection techniques developed for
more than 2,500 years may start an “inner revo lution”

(Thurman, 1998) among warring people as
well as peace activists: enabling them to see

more clearly the multilateral forces
operating in the situation, and reexamining the

appropriateness of own causes and
behaviors. The true value of nonviolence, compassion

and altruism advocated by Buddhism
would also inspire all people on the path of peace.

Given the will, the insight, the
perseverance, and the proactive creativity to realize the

infinite possibilities latent in the
dependently originated reality, peace, from the Buddhist

perspective, is realistic and
achievable; and, aiming at making a more just and humane

world, peacemaking is an imminent,
common responsibility mandated by the

interdependent nature of our existence
and therefore to be shared by every one of us.

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http://www.telegraphindia.com/1120520/jsp/nation/story_15510995.jsp

 

No third front for me: Maya

RADHIKA
RAMASESHAN

New Delhi, May 19: Mayawati today said she would reveal her choice for
President after the UPA and the NDA named their candidates, and indicated she
would steer clear of “third front” politics.

The Bahujan Samaj Party
(BSP) president hinted that her presidential candidate would be someone
committed to the SC/ST cause. “Whoever the candidate is, I will first assess
his credentials on the Bahujan movement,” she said.

The former Uttar
Pradesh chief minister’s comments came at her first news conference in Delhi.

“I am waiting to see
who the UPA and the NDA field. Only after that shall I reveal my plans,” she
told a questioner.

Asked to comment on
Pranab Mukherjee, who is being mentioned as a possible consensus candidate, she
said: “It is inappropriate to jump the gun and respond to mere speculation.”

On P.A. Sangma,
sponsored by the AIADMK and the Biju Janata Dal, she said: “I learnt of it from
the newspapers but the scenario is unclear.”

Mayawati made it clear
that her priority was to fight the Samajwadi Party government in Uttar Pradesh,
and not to get entangled in “third front” politics at the Centre.

A political aide said
Mayawati would focus on the BSP’s “high growth” states in the heartland and
Maharashtra and try to maximise her gains in the next Lok Sabha polls on her
own.

“No third front for
me,” Mayawati said today. Her previous experiment with such a front — when the
Left tried to bring her onto the national centre-stage in 2009 — had ended with
the bitter taste of defeat.

The BSP chief arrived
at the venue. A security retinue and confidant Satish Mishra were in tow. She
occupied the lone seat placed on the dais and read out a long opening
statement.

She answered the
queries patiently.

Asked how her successor
Akhilesh Yadav compared with his father Mulayam Singh, Mayawati said: “You may
draw your inferences from the reports filtering out of the state every day.
Father and son share the same mindset and adhere to the same party line on
policies and issues, so there is no change in their style of thinking and
functioning.”

She accused the
Samajwadi government of allowing law and order to spin out of control and
alleged that in the two months of its existence, nearly 800 murders, 270 rapes,
245 armed robberies and 256 kidnappings had been reported.

“These are crimes that
have come to light because FIRs were filed. Because of political pressure, many
crimes go unrecorded. You can imagine what a disastrous condition the state
will be in by the time this government completes its term,” Mayawati said.

“Businessmen and
traders feel insecure. Nobody wants to step out of their homes after sunset. If
a family’s male member does so, the women cannot sleep peacefully till he
returns.”

Most people, especially
women, had lauded Mayawati for restoring the rule of law in Uttar Pradesh.

Mayawati accused
Akhilesh of targeting the SC/STs. “Police stations are out of bounds for
SC/STs. Samajwadi musclemen are grabbing land that was allotted to SC/STs. At
least 2,000 SC/ST officials were shunted out to the boondocks,” she said.

On the probe Akhilesh
has initiated into the various “scams” associated with her rule, Mayawati said:
“If an investigation is unbiased and transparent, I have no problems.”

She added: “When my party came to power, we
inherited the corrupt legacies bequeathed by previous governments. We tried to
clean the rot; I took action against errant ministers, MLAs and officials. The
Samajwadi dispensation has stooped to an unprecedented low and is doing cheap
politics in the guise of cleaning the system up.”

http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/mayawati-slams-akhilesh-over-lawlessness-in-uttar-pradesh/1/189567.html

Mayawati slams Akhilesh Yadav government
over breakdown of law and order in Uttar Pradesh

Read more at: http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/mayawati-slams-akhilesh-over-lawlessness-in-uttar-pradesh/1/189567.html

The
Mayawati juggernaut has arrived in Delhi.The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) chief
has assumed centrestage in the national Capital.

On
Saturday, she held a press conference at a five-star hotel, her first in Delhi
in the past three years, and launched a blistering attack on the Akhilesh
Yadav-led Samajwadi Party (SP) government in UP for “complete breakdown of
law and order”.

Mayawati,
who she shifted base to the Capital after becoming a Rajya Sabha member last
month, also lashed out at the Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).
But it was the SP that was her main target.

Her
‘chargesheet’

Mayawati
brought out a long list of charges against the Akhilesh government: People are
scared in the state to venture out in the evening; a SP flag on a car amounts
to the licence to kill; Akhilesh is managing the media to highlight his
government’s non-xistent achievements and to malign her rule; the government is
ordering probes into her decisions with an anti- SC/ST agenda.

True
to her style, she dished out statistics - reading out from a seven-page text
written in Hindi - to claim that “loot, arson, murder, kidnapping,
extortion and dacoity” had become routine since the SP came to power.

Mayawati
alleged that in the past two months, 800 murders, 270 rapes, 256 kidnappings
and 720 cases of loot had taken place in Uttar Pradesh and the criminals who
were behind bars when she was in office had been released.

Accusing
the SP of carrying out the politics of vendetta, she alleged that the Akhilesh
government was ordering probes into her government’s policies and decisions to
deflect attention from these issues. She said the SP had scrapped 26 welfare
schemes run by her government in 13 departments.

Mayawati
said the Congress and the BJP shared the blame for this state of affairs
because their “false propaganda” against her party and government
ensured the SP’s win.

“We
always knew that the people of UP would, within one year, repent voting the SP
to power. But within two months, disappointment is writ large on their
faces,” the former CM said.

Eye
on 2014

Analysts
said the sinking law and order situation in UP within two months of the SP’s
comeback appeared to have emboldened Mayawati. The BSP chief’s eyes are set on
the 2014 Lok Sabha polls. Her goal, they said, would be to stop Mualayam Singh
from winning enough seats to try his luck as the next Prime Minister.

Indicating
her plans to consolidate the BSPcontinuing with ’sarvajan’ politics, Mayawati
said: “I am not going to move even an inch from the line of party’s
movement.”

On
the presidential polls, Mayawati was dismissive of the candidatures of P. A.
Sangma and Pranab Mukherjee and indicated that the BSP would prefer a Dalit or
minority. “We will support a candidate who is suitable to us in the line
of our party’s movement. We’ll support whoever fits in our party line of
movement,” she said.

Party
leaders not spared

When
these two leaders S. C. Mishra and Dara Singh Chauhan.or any MP of my party
speaks… the main points are mostly prepared by me.

“When
I was the CM, I used to send briefs to my MPs. The situation sometimes was that
the MPs could not speak on the correct party line and I had to call a press
meet in Lucknow to specify the correct party line,” she said

Mayawati
said that P. L. Punia, her former chief secretary who later joined the
Congress, had spread rumours that it was he who used to discharge all
responsibilities.

Read more at: http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/mayawati-slams-akhilesh-over-lawlessness-in-uttar-pradesh/1/189567.html

 

 

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