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09 05 2012 WEDNESDAY LESSON 603 FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research And Practice UNIVERSITY And THE BUDDHISTONLINE GOOD NEWS LETTER by ABHIDHAMMA RAKKHITA through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org Dhammapada: Verses and Stories Dhammapada Verse 161 . The Unwise Person Comes To Grief On His Own
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09 05 2012 WEDNESDAY LESSON 603 FREE
ONLINE
eNālāndā Research And Practice
UNIVERSITY And THE BUDDHISTONLINE GOOD NEWS LETTER by ABHIDHAMMA RAKKHITA through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

Dhammapada: Verses and
Stories

Dhammapada
Verse 161
. The Unwise Person Comes To Grief On His Own

Verse
161. The Unwise Person Comes To Grief On His Own

By oneself is evil done,
it’s born of self and self-produced.
Evil grinds the unwise one
as diamond does the hardest gem.

Explanation:
The diamond is born of, produced and is
sprung from stone. But it cut the precious stone. The evil action is born of,
produced by, and sprung from the evil doer.


Taming Tiger Lohan (Chinese:
伏虎羅漢;
pinyin:
Fúhǔ Luóhàn)

VOICE OF
SARVAJAN

http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/uttar-pradesh-braces-for-showdown-over-promotion-quota/1/187819.html

India Today

Uttar Pradesh braces for
showdown over promotion quota

Akhilesh
Yadav plans to scrap quota in promotions policy started by Mayawati.

The supporters and opponents of reservation in promotion
in government jobs are bracing for a showdown in Uttar Pradesh.

While one group has shot off a letter to governor B.L.
Joshi to stop the Akhilesh Yadav-led Samajwadi Party (SP) government from
scrapping the erstwhile Mayawati government’s decision to ensure quota in
promotion to scheduled castes (SCs) and scheduled tribes (STs), the other group
has written to Prime Minister Manmohan Singh stating that any such move would
be taken as an attack on the rights of the upper castes.

The Arakshan Bachao Sangharsh Samiti (ABSS), a union of
the SC, ST employees of UP, has said in its letter to the governor that the SP
government appeared in a hurry to implement the decision of the apex court
quashing quota in promotion to the socially deprived class employees in state
government services.

“The UPA government in the Centre is preparing for a
constitutional amendment to continue with quota in promotions; we have moved a
review petition in the SC against its judgment of April 27 and various organisations
were weighing every legal and political option. But the SP government in UP has
done away with promotion quota in a hurry. This proves that chief minister
Akhilesh Yadav and his party are anti-SC/ST,” ABSS chief Awadhesh Verma
said.

He said there was widespread discontent against the state
government and the SC/STs in UP - who constitute 21 per cent of the state’s
population - could resolve to launch a statewide movement.

“We have decided to hold a meeting of the SC/ST
employees in every district to mobilise them and finally take a decision with
regard to our strategy at a state-level meeting in Lucknow on May 13. We also
expect the support of Mayawati and her Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) because of her
committed SC/ST vote bank,” he added.

On the other hand, the Sarvajan Hitaya Sanrakshan Samiti
(SHSS) has written to the PM stating that any move to bring amendment in the
Constitution to ensure quota in promotion would be resisted by the upper caste
employees at every level.

“We stand by the state government against any quota
in promotion. Mayawati had started this in 2008,Since the SC has corrected it
now, we want the UPA government in the Centre to follow it,” SHSS president
Shailendra Dubey said.

According to an estimate, there were over 700 SC
employees who have got the benefit of quota in promotion in UP since 2008.

The policy was implemented in 2008 after an amendment in
the UP Public Service (Reservation for SC, ST and OBC) Act 1994 and was
immediately challenged by various individuals and organisations in the court.

Durga Prasad Yadav says even god
can’t control crime in Uttar Pradesh

Even god would not be able to control crime in Uttar Pradesh.

Minister for stamp, court fees and registration Durga Prasad
Yadav made this profound and “divine” statement in Gorakhpur -
echoing the Samajwadi
Party
government’s sheer helplessness.

“Such (crime) incidents are routine. Crime will
continue even if god forms a government in UP. Bhagwan bhi aa jaaein toh bhi
nahi rok payenge (even god will not be able to stop such incidents),” Yadav,
a history-sheeter with over two dozen cases registered against him, said.

The MLA for Azamgarh allegedly killed four persons in a
hospital eight years ago. He won his first election in 2002 from prison.

Before he reached the town for a meeting, about half-a-dozen
goons fired at a car on a busy crossing. A child was among three persons who
were wounded in the firing.


VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner

Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa,
i.e, PraBuddha Bharath
science
entific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative
Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace
Studies;

Business Management in relation to
Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

Jambudvipa,
i.e, PraBuddha Bharath
scientific thoughts

inntific


jambudvipa at Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary Of Explained:
jambudvipa


3[ jambu-dvipa ] m. the central one of the 7 continents surrounding


the mountain Meru ( = India cf. Buddh.




—> named so either from the Jambu trees abounding in it , or from an


enormous Jambu tree on Mount Meru visible like a standard to the whole


continent ) cf. MBh. cf. Hariv. &c.

—> [ -prajJapti ]f. ‘ ( mythical ) geography of Jambudvīpa ‘ , N. of
Up^aga
vi of the Jaina canon

—> [ -vara- ] [ locana ] m. N. of a Samādhi cf. Kāraṇḍ. xxiii , 148
f.

===============================================================================

jambUdvIpa

3[ jambU-dvIpa ] m. = °bu-d°

—> [ -prajJapti ] f. = °bu-d°

===============================================================================


 

 

  

I. Vairocana Buddha

At that time, Vairocana Buddha began speaking in general
about the Mind-Ground for the benefit of the Great Assembly. What he said
represents but an infinitesimal part, the tip of a hair, of His innumerable
teachings — as numerous as the grains of sand in the river Ganges.

He concluded: “The Mind-Ground has been explained, is
being explained and will be explained by all the Buddhas — past, present, and
future. It is also the Dharma Door (cultivation method) that all the
Bodhisattvas of the past, present, and future have studied, are studying and
will study.”

“I have cultivated this Mind-Ground Dharma Door for
hundreds of eons. My name is Vairocana. I request all Buddhas to transmit my
words to all sentient beings, so as to open this path of cultivation to
all.”

At that time, from his Lion’s Throne in the Lotus Treasury
World, Vairocana Buddha emitted rays of light. A voice among the rays is heard
telling the Buddhas seated on thousands of lotus petals, “You should
practice and uphold the Mind-Ground Dharma Door and transmit it to the
innumerable Sakyamuni Buddhas, one after another, as well as to all
sentient beings. Everyone should uphold, read, recite, and singlemindedly put
its teachings into practice.”

After receiving the Dharma-door of the Mind-Ground, the
Buddhas seated atop the thousands of lotus flowers along with the innumerable
Sakyamuni Buddhas all arose from their Lion seats, their bodies emitting
innumerable rays of light. In each of these rays appeared innumerable Buddhas
who simultaneously made offerings of green, yellow, red and white celestial
flowers to Vairocana Buddha. They then slowly took their leave.

The Buddhas then disappeared from the Lotus Treasury World,
entered the Essence-Nature Empty Space Floral Brilliance Samadhi and returned
to their former places under the Bodhi-tree in this world of Jambudvipa. They
then arose from their samadhi, sat on their Diamond Thrones in Jambudvipa and
the Heaven of the Four Kings, and preached the Dharma of the “Ten Oceans
of Worlds.”

Thereupon, they ascended to Lord Shakya’s palace and
expounded the “Ten Dwellings,” proceeded to the Suyama Heaven and
taught the “Ten Practices,” proceeded further to the Fourth Heaven
and taught the “Ten Dedications,” proceeded further to the
Transformation of Bliss Heaven and taught the “Ten Dhyana Samadhi,”
proceeded further to the Heaven of Comfort From Others’ Emanations and taught
the “Ten Grounds,” proceeded further to the First Dhyana Heaven and
taught the “Ten Vajra Stages,” proceeded further to the Second Dhyana
Heaven and taught the “Ten Patiences,” and proceeded further to the
Third Dhyana Heaven and taught the “Ten Vows.” Finally, in the Fourth
Dhyana Heaven, at Lord Brahma’s Palace, they taught the “Mind-Ground
Dharma-Door” chapter, which Vairocana Buddha, in eons past, expounded in
the Lotus Treasury World (the cosmos).

All the other innumerable transformation Sakyamuni Buddhas
did likewise in their respective worlds as the chapter “Auspicious
Kalpa” has explained.

II. Sakyamuni Buddha

At that time, Sakyamuni Buddha, after first appearing in
the Lotus Treasury World, proceeded to the east and appeared in the Heavenly
King’s palace to teach the “Demon Transforming Sutra.” He then
descended to Jambudvipa to be born in Kapilavastu — his name being Siddhartha
and his father’s name Suddhodana. His mother was Queen Maya. He achieved
Enlightenment at the age of thirty, after seven years of cultivation, under the
name of Sakyamuni Buddha

The Buddha spoke in ten assemblies from the Diamond Seat at
Bodhgaya to the palace of Brahma.

At that time, he contemplated the wonderful Jewel Net hung
in Lord Brahma’s palace and preached the Brahma Net Sutra for the Great
Assembly. He said:

“The innumerable worlds in the cosmos are like the
eyes of the net. Each and every world is different, its variety infinite. So
too are the Dharma Doors (methods of cultivation) taught by the Buddhas.

“I have come to this world eight thousand times. Based
in this Saha World, seated upon the Jeweled Diamond Seat in Bodhgaya and all
the way up to the palace of the Brahma King, I have spoken in general about the
Mind-Ground Dharma Door for the benefit of the great multitude.

“Thereafter, I descended from the Brahma King’s palace
to Jambudvipa, the Human World. I have preached the Diamond Illuminated Jeweled
Precepts (the Bodhisattva precepts) from beneath the Bodhi-tree for the sake of
all sentient beings on earth, however dull and ignorant they may be. These precepts
were customarily recited by Vairocana Buddha when he first developed the Bodhi
Mind in the causal stages. They are precisely the original source of all
Buddhas and all Bodhisattvas as well as the seed of the Buddha Nature.

“All sentient beings possess this Buddha Nature. All
with consciousness, form, and mind are encompassed by the precepts of the
Buddha Nature. Sentient beings possess the correct cause of the Buddha Nature
and therefore they will assuredly attain the ever-present Dharma Body.

For this reason, the ten Pratimoksa (Bodhisattva) precepts
came into being in this world. These precepts belong to the True Dharma. They
are received and upheld in utmost reverence by all sentient beings of the Three
Periods of Time — past, present and future.

“Once again, I shall preach for the Great Assembly the
chapter on the Inexhaustible Precept Treasury. These are the precepts of all
sentient beings, the source of the pure Self-Nature.”

*

**

Now, I, Vairocana Buddha

Am sitting atop a lotus pedestal;

On a thousand flowers surrounding me

Are a thousand Sakyamuni Buddhas.

Each flower supports a hundred million worlds;

In each world a Sakyamuni Buddha appears.

All are seated beneath a Bodhi-tree,

All simultaneously attain Buddhahood.

All these innumerable Buddhas

Have Vairocana as their original body.

These countless Sakyamuni Buddhas

All bring followers along — as numerous as

motes of dust.

They all proceed to my lotus pedestal

To listen to the Buddha’s precepts.

I now preach the Dharma, this exquisite nectar.

Afterward, the countless Buddhas return to

their respective worlds

And, under a Bodhi-tree, proclaim these

major and minor precepts

Of Vairocana, the Original Buddha.

The precepts are like the radiant sun and moon,

Like a shining necklace of gems,

Bodhisattvas as numerous as motes of dust

Uphold them and attain Buddhahood.

These precepts are recited by Vairocana,

These precepts I recite as well.

You novice Bodhisattvas

Should reverently accept and uphold them.

And once you have done so,

Transmit and teach them to sentient beings.

Now listen attentively as I recite

The Bodhisattva Pratimoksa — the source of all precepts in
the Buddha Dharma.

All of you in the Great Assembly should firmly believe

That you are the Buddhas of the future,

While I am a Buddha already accomplished.

If you should have such faith at all times,

Then this precept code is fulfilled.

All beings with resolve

Should accept and uphold the Buddha’s precepts.

Sentient beings on receiving them

Join forthwith the ranks of Buddhas.

They are in essence equal to the Buddhas,

They are the true offspring of the Buddhas.

Therefore, Great Assembly,

Listen with utmost reverence

As I proclaim the Bodhisattva Moral Code.

*

* *

III. The Buddha Reciting the Bodhisattva Precepts

At that time, when Sakyamuni Buddha first attained Supreme
Enlightenment under the Bodhi tree, he explained the Bodhisattva precepts. The
Buddha taught filial piety toward one’s parents, Elder Masters and the Triple
Jewel. Filial piety and obedience, he said, are the Ultimate Path [to
Buddhahood]. Filial piety is called the precepts — and it means restraint and
cessation.

The Buddha then emitted limitless lights from his mouth.
Thereupon, the whole Great Assembly, consisting of innumerable Bodhisattvas,
the gods of the eighteen Brahma Heavens, the gods of the six Desire Heavens,
and the rulers of the sixteen great kingdoms all joined their palms and
listened singlemindedly to the Buddha recite the Mahayana precepts.

The Buddha then said to the Bodhisattvas: Twice a month I
recite the precepts observed by all Buddhas. All Bodhisattvas, from those who
have just developed the Bodhi Mind to the Bodhisattvas of the Ten Dwellings,
the Ten Practices, the Ten Dedications, and the Ten Grounds also recite them.
Therefore, this precept-light shines forth from my mouth. It does not arise
without a cause. This light is neither blue, yellow, red, white, nor black. It
is neither form, nor thought. It is neither existent nor nonexistent, neither
cause nor effect. This precept-light is precisely the original source of all
Buddhas and all members of this Great Assembly. Therefore all you disciples of
the Buddha should receive and observe, read, recite and study these precepts
with utmost attention.

Disciples of the Buddha, listen attentively! Whoever can
understand and accept a Dharma Master’s words of transmission can receive the
Bodhisattva precepts and be called foremost in purity. This is true whether
that person is a king, a prince, an official, a monk, a nun, or a god of the
eighteen Brahma Heavens, a god of the six Desire Heavens, or a human, a eunuch,
a libertine, a prostitute, a slave, or a member of the Eight Divisions of
Divinities, a Vajra spirit, an animal, or even a transformation-being.

IV. The Ten Major Precepts

The Buddhas said to his disciples, “There are ten
major Bodhisattva precepts. If one receives the precepts but fails to recite
them, he is not a Bodhisattva, nor is he a seed of Buddhahood. I, too, recite
these precepts.

“All Bodhisattvas have studied them in the past, will
study in the future, and are studying them now. I have explained the main
characteristics of the Bodhisattva precepts. You should study and observe them
with all your heart.”

The Buddha continued:

1. First Major Precept

On Killing

A disciple of the Buddha shall not himself kill, encourage
others to kill, kill by expedient means, praise killing, rejoice at witnessing
killing, or kill through incantation or deviant mantras. He must not create the
causes, conditions, methods, or karma of killing, and shall not intentionally
kill any living creature.

As a Buddha’s disciple, he ought to nurture a mind of
compassion and filial piety, always devising expedient means to rescue and
protect all beings. If instead, he fails to restrain himself and kills sentient
beings without mercy, he commits a Parajika (major) offense.

2. Second Major Precept

On Stealing

A disciple of the Buddha must not himself steal or
encourage others to steal, steal by expedient means, steal by means of
incantation or deviant mantras. He should not create the causes, conditions,
methods, or karma of stealing. No valuables or possessions, even those
belonging to ghosts and spirits or thieves and robbers, be they as small as a
needle or blade of grass, may be stolen.

As a Buddha’s disciple, he ought to have a mind of mercy,
compassion, and filial piety — always helping people earn merits and achieve
happiness. If instead, he steals the possessions of others, he commits a Parajika
offense.

3. Third Major Precept

On Sexual Misconduct

A disciple of the Buddha must not engage in licentious acts
or encourage others to do so. [As a monk] he should not have sexual relations
with any female — be she a human, animal, deity or spirit — nor create the
causes, conditions, methods, or karma of such misconduct. Indeed, he must not
engage in improper sexual conduct with anyone.

A Buddha’s disciple ought to have a mind of filial piety –
rescuing all sentient beings and instructing them in the Dharma of purity and
chastity. If instead, he lacks compassion and encourages others to engage in
sexual relations promiscuously, including with animals and even their mothers,
daughters, sisters, or other close relatives, he commits a Parajika offense.

4. Fourth Major Precept

On Lying and False Speech

A disciple of the Buddha must not himself use false words
and speech, or encourage others to lie or lie by expedient means. He should not
involve himself in the causes, conditions, methods, or karma of lying, saying
that he has seen what he has not seen or vice-versa, or lying implicitly
through physical or mental means.

As a Buddha’s disciple, he ought to maintain Right Speech
and Right Views always, and lead all others to maintain them as well. If
instead, he causes wrong speech, wrong views or evil karma in others, he
commits a Parajika offense.

5. Fifth Major Precept

On Selling Alcoholic Beverages

A disciple of the Buddha must not trade in alcoholic
beverages or encourage others to do so. He should not create the causes,
conditions, methods, or karma of selling any intoxicant whatsoever, for
intoxicants are the causes and conditions of all kinds of offenses.

As a Buddha’s disciple, he ought to help all sentient
beings achieve clear wisdom. If instead, he causes them to have upside-down,
topsy-turvy thinking, he commits a Parajika offense.

6. Sixth Major Precept

On Broadcasting the Faults of the Assembly

A disciple of the Buddha must not himself broadcast the
misdeeds or infractions of Bodhisattva-clerics or Bodhisattva-laypersons, or of
[ordinary] monks and nuns — nor encourage others to do so. He must not create
the causes, conditions, methods, or karma of discussing the offenses of the
assembly.

As a Buddha’s disciple, whenever he hears evil persons,
externalists or followers of the Two Vehicles speak of practices contrary to
the Dharma or contrary to the precepts within the Buddhist community, he should
instruct them with a compassionate mind and lead them to develop wholesome
faith in the Mahayana.

If instead, he discusses the faults and misdeeds that occur
within the assembly, he commits a Parajika offense.

7. Seventh Major Precept

On Praising Oneself and Disparaging Others

A disciple of the Buddha shall not praise himself and speak
ill of others, or encourage others to do so. He must not create the causes,
conditions, methods, or karma of praising himself and disparaging others.

As a disciple of the Buddha, he should be willing to stand
in for all sentient beings and endure humiliation and slander — accepting
blame and letting sentient beings have all the glory. If instead, he displays
his own virtues and conceals the good points of others, thus causing them to
suffer slander, he commits a Parajika offense.

8. Eighth Major Precept

On Stinginess and Abuse

A disciple of the Buddha must not be stingy or encourage
others to be stingy. He should not create the causes, conditions, methods, or
karma of stinginess. As a Bodhisattva, whenever a destitute person comes for
help, he should give that person what he needs. If instead, out of anger and
resentment, he denies all assistance — refusing to help with even a penny, a needle,
a blade of grass, even a single sentence or verse or a phrase of Dharma, but
instead scolds and abuses that person — he commits a Parajika offense.

9. Ninth Major Precept

On Anger and Resentment

A disciple of the Buddha shall not harbor anger or
encourage others to be angry. He should not create the causes, conditions,
methods, or karma of anger.

As a disciple of the Buddha, he ought to be compassionate
and filial, helping all sentient beings develop the good roots of
non-contention. If instead, he insults and abuses sentient beings, or even
transformation beings [such as deities and spirits], with harsh words, hitting
them with his fists or feet, or attacking them with a knife or club — or harbors
grudges even when the victim confesses his mistakes and humbly seeks
forgiveness in a soft, conciliatory voice — the disciple commits a Parajika
offense.

10. Tenth Major Precept

On Slandering the Triple Jewel

A Buddha’s disciple shall not himself speak ill of the
Triple Jewel or encourage others to do so. He must not create the causes,
conditions, methods or karma of slander. If a disciple hears but a single word
of slander against the Buddha from externalists or evil beings, he experiences
a pain similar to that of three hundred spears piercing his heart. How then
could he possibly slander the Triple Jewel himself?

Hence, if a disciple lacks faith and filial piety towards
the Triple Jewel, and even assists evil persons or those of aberrant views to
slander the Triple Jewel, he commits a Parajika offense.

V. Conclusion: The Ten Major Precepts

As a disciple of the Buddha, you should study these ten
parajika (major) precepts and not break any one of them in even the slightest
way — much less break all of them! Anyone guilty of doing so cannot develop
the Bodhi Mind in his current life and will lose whatever high position he may
have attained, be it that of an emperor, Wheel-Turning King, Bhiksu, Bhiksuni
– as well as whatever level of Bodhisattvahood he may have reached, whether
the Ten Dwellings, the Ten Practices, the Ten Dedications, the Ten Grounds –
and all the fruits of the eternal Buddha Nature. He will lose all of those
levels of attainment and descend into the Three Evil Realms, unable to hear the
words “parents” or “Triple Jewel” for eons! Therefore,
Buddha’s disciples should avoid breaking any one of these major precepts. All
of you Bodhisattvas should study and observe the Ten Precepts, which have been
observed, are being observed, and will be observed by all Bodhisattvas. They
were explained in detail in the chapter, “The Eighty Thousand Rules of
Conduct.”

***

VI. The Forty-eight Secondary Precepts

Then the Buddha told the Bodhisattvas, “Now that I
have explained the Ten Major Precepts, I will speak about the forty-eight
secondary precepts
.”

1. Disrespect toward Teachers and Friends

A disciple of the Buddha who is destined to become an
emperor, a Wheel-Turning King, or high official should first receive the
Bodhisattva precepts. He will then be under the protection of all guardian
deities and spirits, and the Buddhas will be pleased.

Once he has received the precepts, the disciple should
develop a mind of filial piety and respect. Whenever he meets an Elder Master,
a monk, or a fellow cultivator of like views and like conduct, he should rise
and greet him with respect. He must then respectfully make offerings to the
guest-monks, in accord with the Dharma. He should be willing to pledge himself,
his family, as well as his kingdom, cities, jewels and other possessions.

If instead, he should develop conceit or arrogance,
delusion or anger, refusing to rise and greet guest-monks and make offerings to
them respectfully, in accordance with the Dharma, he commits a secondary
offense.

2. On Consuming Alcoholic Beverages

A disciple of the Buddha should not intentionally consume
alcoholic beverages, as they are the source of countless offenses. If he but
offers a glass of wine to another person, his retribution will be to have no
hands for five hundred lifetimes. How could he then consume liquor himself!
Indeed, a Bodhisattva should not encourage any person or any other sentient
being to consume alcohol, much less take any alcoholic beverages himself. A
disciple should not drink any alcoholic beverages whatsoever. If instead, he
deliberately does so or encourages others to do so, he commits a secondary
offense.

3. On Eating Meat

A disciple of the Buddha must not deliberately eat meat. He
should not eat the flesh of any sentient being. The meat-eater forfeits the
seed of Great Compassion, severs the seed of the Buddha Nature and causes
[animals and transcendental] beings to avoid him. Those who do so are guilty of
countless offenses. Therefore, Bodhisattvas should not eat the flesh of any
sentient beings whatsoever. If instead, he deliberately eats meat, he commits a
secondary offense.

4. On Five Pungent Herbs

A disciple of the Buddha should not eat the five pungent
herbs — garlic, chives, leeks, onions, and asafoetida.This is so even if they
are added as flavoring to other main dishes. Hence, if he deliberately does so,
he commits a secondary offense.

5. On Not Teaching Repentance

If a disciple of the Buddha should see any being violate
the Five Precepts, the Eight Precepts, the Ten Precepts, other prohibitions, or
commit any of the Seven Cardinal Sins or any offense which leads to the Eight
Adversities — any violations of the precepts whatever — he should counsel the
offender to repent and reform.

Hence, if a Bodhisattva does not do so and furthermore
continues to live together in the assembly with the offender, share in the
offerings of the laity, participate in the same Uposatha ceremony and recite
the precepts — while failing to bring up that person’s offense, enjoining him
to repent — the disciple commits a secondary offense.

6. Failing to Request the Dharma or Make Offerings

If an Elder Master, a Mahayana monk or fellow cultivator of
like views and practice should come from far away to the temple, residence,
city or village of a disciple of the Buddha, the disciple should respectfully
welcome him and see him off. He should minister to his needs at all times,
though doing so may cost as much as three taels of gold! Moreover, the disciple
of the Buddha should respectfully request the guest-master to preach the Dharma
three times a day by bowing to him without a single thought of resentment or
weariness. He should be willing to sacrifice himself for the Dharma and never
be lax in requesting it.

If he does not act in this manner, he commits a secondary
offense.

7. Failing to Attend Dharma Lectures

A Bodhisattva disciple who is new to the Order should take
copies of the appropriate sutras or precept codes to any place where such
sutras, commentaries, or moral codes are being explained, to listen, study, and
inquire about the Dharma. He should go anywhere, be it in a house, beneath a
tree, in a temple, in the forests or mountains, or elsewhere. If he fails to do
so, he commits a secondary offense.

8. On Turning Away from the Mahayana

If a disciple of the Buddha disavows the eternal Mahayana
sutras and moral codes, declaring that they were not actually taught by the
Buddha, and instead follows and observes those of the Two Vehicles and deluded
externalists, he commits a secondary offense.

9. On Failure to Care for the Sick

If a disciple of the Buddha should see anyone who is sick,
he should wholeheartedly provide for that person’s needs just as he would for a
Buddha. Of the eight Fields of Blessings, looking after the sick is the most
important. A Buddha’s disciple should take care of his father, mother, Dharma
teacher or disciple — regardless of whether the latter are disabled or
suffering from various kinds of diseases.

If instead, he becomes angry and resentful and fails to do
so, or refuses to rescue the sick or disabled in temples, cities and towns,
forests and mountains, or along the road, he commits a secondary offense.

10. On Storing Deadly Weapons

A disciple of the Buddha should not store weapons such as
knives, clubs, bows, arrows, spears, axes or any other weapons, nor may he keep
nets, traps or any such devices used in destroying life.

As a disciple of the Buddha, he must not even avenge the
death of his parents — let alone kill sentient beings! He should not store any
weapons or devices that can be used to kill sentient beings. If he deliberately
does so, he commits a secondary offense.

The first ten secondary precepts have just been described.
Disciples of the Buddha should study and respectfully observe them. They are
explained in detail in the six chapters [now lost] following these precepts.

11. On Serving as an Emissary

A disciple of the Buddha shall not, out of personal benefit
or evil intentions, act as a country’s emissary to foster military
confrontation and war causing the slaughter of countless sentient beings. As a
disciple of the Buddha, he should not be involved in military affairs, or serve
as a courier between armies, much less act as a willing catalyst for war. If he
deliberately does so, he commits a secondary offense.

12. On Unlawful Business Undertakings

A disciple of the Buddha must not deliberately trade in
slaves or sell anyone into servitude, nor should he trade in domestic animals,
coffins or wood for caskets. He cannot engage in these types of business
himself much less encourage others to do so. Otherwise, he commits a secondary
offense.

13. On Slander and Libel

A disciple of the Buddha must not, without cause and
with evil intentions
, slander virtuous people, such as Elder Masters, monks
or nuns, kings, princes or other upright persons, saying that they have
committed the Seven Cardinal Sins or broken the Ten Major Bodhisattva Precepts.
He should be compassionate and filial and treat all virtuous people as if they
were his father, mother, siblings or other close relatives. If instead, he
slanders and harms them, he commits a secondary offense.

14. On Starting Wildfires

A disciple of the Buddha shall not, out of evil intentions,
start wildfires to clear forests and burn vegetation on mountains and plains,
during the fourth to the ninth months of the lunar year. Such fires [are
particularly injurious to animals during that period and may spread] to
people’s homes, towns and villages, temples and monasteries, fields and groves,
as well as the [unseen] dwellings and possessions of deities and ghosts. He
must not intentionally set fire to any place where there is life. If he
deliberately does so, he commits a secondary offense.

15. Teaching Non-Mahayana Dharma

A disciple of the Buddha must teach one and all, from
fellow disciples, relatives and spiritual friends, to externalists and evil
beings, how to receive and observe the Mahayana sutras and moral codes. He
should teach the Mahayana principles to them and help them develop the Bodhi
Mind — as well as the Ten Dwellings, the Ten Practices and the Ten
Dedications, explaining the order and function of each of these Thirty Minds
(levels).

If instead, the disciple, with evil, hateful intentions,
perversely teaches them the sutras and moral codes of the Two Vehicle tradition
as well as the commentaries of deluded externalists, he thereby commits a
secondary offense.

16. Unsound Explanation of the Dharma

A Bodhisattva Dharma Master must first, with a wholesome
mind
, study the rules of deportment, as well as sutras and moral codes of the
Mahayana tradition, and understand their meanings in depth. Then, whenever
novices come from afar to seek instruction, he should explain, according to the
Dharma, all the Bodhisattva renunciation practices, such as burning one’s body,
arm, or finger [as the ultimate act in the quest for Supreme Enlightenment]. If
a novice is not prepared to follow these practices as an offering to the
Buddhas, he is not a Bodhisattva monk. Moreover, a Bodhisattva monk should be
willing to sacrifice his body and limbs for starving beasts and hungry ghosts
[as the ultimate act of compassion in rescuing sentient beings].

After these explanations, the Bodhisattva Dharma Master
should teach the novices in an orderly way, to awaken their minds. If instead,
for personal gain, he refuses to teach or teaches in a confused manner, quoting
passages out of order and context, or teaches in a manner that disparages the
Triple Jewel, he commits a secondary offense.

17. On Exacting Donations

A disciple of the Buddha must not, for the sake of food,
drink, money, possessions or fame, approach and befriend kings, princes, or
high officials and [on the strength of such relationships], exact money, goods
or other advantages. Nor may he encourage others to do so. These actions are
called untoward, excessive demands and lack compassion and filial piety. Such a
disciple commits a secondary offense.

18. On Serving as an Inadequate Master

A disciple of the Buddha should study the Twelve Divisions
of the Dharma and recite the Bodhisattva precepts frequently. He should
strictly observe these precepts in the Six Periods of the day and night and
fully understand their meaning and principles as well as the essence of their
Buddha Nature.

If instead, the disciple of the Buddha fails to understand
even a sentence or a verse of the moral code or the causes and conditions
related to the precepts, but pretends to understand them, he is deceiving both
himself and others. A disciple who understands nothing of the Dharma, yet acts
as a teacher transmitting the precepts, commits a secondary offense.

19. On Double-tongued Speech

A disciple of the Buddha must not, with malicious intent
gossip or spread rumors and slander, create discord and disdain for virtuous
people. [An example is] disparaging a monk who observes the Bodhisattva
precepts, as he [makes offerings to the Buddhas by] holding an incense burner
to his forehead. A disciple of the Buddha who does so commits a secondary
offense.

20. Failure to Liberate Sentient Beings

A disciple of the Buddha should have a mind of compassion
and cultivate the practice of liberating sentient beings. He must reflect thus:
throughout the eons of time, all male sentient beings have been my father, all
female sentient beings my mother. I was born of them, now I slaughter them, I
would be slaughtering my parents as well as eating flesh that was once my
own
. This is so because all elemental earth, water, fire and air — the
four constituents of all life — have previously been part of my body, part of
my substance. I must therefore always cultivate the practice of liberating
sentient beings and enjoin others to do likewise — as sentient beings are
forever reborn, again and again, lifetime after lifetime. If a Bodhisattva sees
an animal on the verge of being killed, he must devise a way to rescue and
protect
it, helping it to escape suffering and death. The disciple should
always teach the Bodhisattva precepts to rescue and deliver sentient
beings.

On the day his father, mother, and siblings die, he should
invite Dharma Masters to explain the Bodhisattva sutras and precepts. This will
generate merits and virtues and help the deceased either to achieve rebirth in
the Pure Lands and meet the Buddhas or to secure rebirth in the human or
celestial realms. If instead, a disciple fails to do so, he commits a secondary
offense.

You should study and respectfully observe the above ten
precepts. Each of them is explained in detail in the chapter “Expiating
Offenses.

21. On Violence and Vengefulness

A disciple of the Buddha must not return anger for anger,
blow for blow. He should not seek revenge, even if his father, mother,
siblings, or close relatives are killed — nor should he do so if the ruler or
king of his country is murdered. To take the life of one being in order to
avenge the killing of another is contrary to filial piety [as we are all
related through the eons of birth and rebirth].

Furthermore, he should not keep others in servitude, much
less beat or abuse them, creating evil karma of mind, speech and body day after
day — particularly the offenses of speech. How much less should he
deliberately commit the Seven Cardinal Sins. Therefore, if a Bodhisattva-monk
lacks compassion and deliberately seeks revenge, even for an injustice done to
his close relatives, he commits a secondary offense.

22. Arrogance and Failure to Request the Dharma

A disciple of the Buddha who has only recently left home
and is still a novice in the Dharma should not be conceited. He must not refuse
instruction on the sutras and moral codes from Dharma Masters on account of his
own intelligence, worldly learning, high position, advanced age, noble lineage,
vast understanding, great merits, extensive wealth and possessions, etc.
Although these Masters may be of humble birth, young in age, poor, or suffering
physical disabilities, they may still have genuine virtue and deep
understanding of sutras and moral codes.

The novice Bodhisattva should not judge Dharma Masters on
the basis of their family background and refuse to seek instructions on the
Mahayana truths from them. If he does so, he commits a secondary offense.

23. On Teaching the Dharma Grudgingly

After my passing, if a disciple should, with a wholesome
mind, wish to receive the Bodhisattva precepts, he may make a vow to do so
before the images of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas and practice repentance before
these images for seven days. If he then experiences a vision, he has received
the precepts. If he does not, he should continue doing so for fourteen days,
twenty-one days, or even a whole year, seeking to witness an auspicious sign.
After witnessing such a sign, he could, in front of images of Buddhas and
Bodhisattvas, formally receive the precepts. If he has not witnessed such a
sign, although he may have accepted the precepts before the Buddha images, he
has not actually received the precepts.

However, the witnessing of auspicious signs is not
necessary if the disciple receives the precepts directly from a Dharma Master
who has himself received the precepts. Why is this so? It is because this is a
case of transmission from Master to Master and therefore all that is required
is a mind of utter sincerity and respect on the part of the disciple.

If, within a radius of some three hundred fifty miles, a
disciple cannot find a Master capable of conferring the Bodhisattva precepts,
he may seek to receive them in front of Buddha or Bodhisattva images. However,
he must witness an auspicious sign.

If a Dharma Master, on account of his extensive knowledge
of sutras and Mahayana moral codes as well as his close relationship with
kings, princes, and high officials, refuses to give appropriate answers to
student-Bodhisattvas seeking the meaning of sutras and moral codes, or does so
grudgingly, with resentment and arrogance, he commits a secondary offense.

24. Failure to Practice Mahayana Teachings

If a disciple of the Buddha fails to study Mahayana sutras
and moral codes assiduously and cultivate correct views, correct nature and the
correct Dharma Body, it is like abandoning the Seven Precious Jewels for [mere
stones]: worldly texts and the Two-Vehicle or externalist commentaries. To do
so is to create the causes and conditions that obstruct the Path to
Enlightenment and cut himself off from his Buddha Nature. It is a failure to
follow the Bodhisattva path. If a disciple intentionally acts in such a manner,
he commits a secondary offense.

25. Unskilled Leadership of the Assembly

After my passing, if a disciple should serve as an abbot,
elder Dharma Master, Precept Master, Meditation Master, or Guest Prefect, he
must develop a compassionate mind and peacefully settle differences within the
Assembly — skillfully administering the resources of the Three Jewels,
spending frugally and not treating them as his own property. If instead, he
were to create disorder, provoke quarrels and disputes or squander the
resources of the Assembly, he would commit a secondary offense.

26. Accepting Personal Offerings

Once a disciple of the Buddha has settled down in a temple,
if visiting Bodhisattva Bhiksus should arrive at the temple precincts, the
guest quarters established by the king, or even the summer retreat quarters, or
the quarters of the Great Assembly, the disciple should welcome the visiting
monks and see them off. He should provide them with such essentials as food and
drink, a place to live, beds, chairs, and the like. If the host does not have
the necessary means, he should be willing to pawn himself or cut off and sell
his own flesh.

Whenever there are meal offerings and ceremonies at a
layman’s home, visiting monks should be given a fair share of the offerings.
The abbot should send the monks, whether residents or guests, to the donor’s
place in turn [according to their sacerdotal age or merits and virtues]. If
only resident monks are allowed to accept invitations and not visiting monks,
the abbot is committing a grievous offense and is behaving no differently than
an animal. He is unworthy of being a monk or a son of the Buddha, and is guilty
of a secondary offense.

27. Accepting Discriminatory Invitations

A disciple of the Buddha must not accept personal
invitations nor appropriate the offerings for himself. Such offerings rightly
belong to the Sangha — the whole community of monks and nuns of the Ten
Directions. To accept personal offerings is to steal the possessions of the
Sangha of the Ten Directions. It is tantamount to stealing what belongs to the
Eight Fields of Blessings: Buddhas, Sages, Dharma Masters, Precept Masters,
monks/nuns, mothers, fathers, the sick. Such a disciple commits a secondary
offense.

28. Issuing Discriminatory Invitations

A disciple of the Buddha, be he a Bodhisattva monk, lay
Bodhisattva, or other donor, should, when inviting monks or nuns to conduct a
prayer session, come to the temple and inform the monk in charge. The monk will
then tell him: “Inviting members of the Sangha according to the proper
order is tantamount to inviting the Arhats of the Ten Directions. To offer a
discriminatory special invitation to [such a worthy group as] five hundred
Arhats or Bodhisattva-monks will not generate as much merit as inviting one
ordinary monk, if it is his turn.

There is no provision in the teachings of the Seven Buddhas
for discriminatory invitations. To do so is to follow externalist practices and
to contradict filial piety [toward all sentient beings]. If a disciple
deliberately issues a discriminatory invitation, he commits a secondary
offense.

29. On Improper Livelihoods

A disciple of the Buddha should not, for the sake of gain
or with evil intentions, engage in the business of prostitution, selling the
wiles and charms of men and women. He must also not cook for himself, milling
and pounding grain. Neither may he act as a fortune-teller predicting the
gender of children, reading dreams and the like. Nor shall he practice sorcery,
work as a trainer of falcons or hunting dogs, nor make a living concocting hundreds
and thousands of poisons from deadly snakes, insects, or from gold and silver.
Such occupations lack mercy, compassion, and filial piety [toward sentient
beings]. Therefore, if a Bodhisattva intentionally engages in these
occupations, he commits a secondary offense.

30. On Handling Business Affairs for the Laity

A disciple of the Buddha must not, with evil intentions,
slander the Triple Jewel while pretending to be their close adherent –
preaching the Truth of Emptiness while his actions are in the realm of
Existence. Furthermore, he must not handle worldly affairs for the laity,
acting as a go-between or matchmaker — creating the karma of attachment.
Moreover, during the six days of fasting each month and the three months of
fasting each year, a disciple should strictly observe all precepts,
particularly against killing, stealing and the rules against breaking the fast.
Otherwise, the disciple commits a secondary offense.

A Bodhisattva should respectfully study and observe the ten
preceding precepts. They are explained in detail in the Chapter on
“Prohibitions”
.

31. Rescuing Clerics Along with Sacred Objects

After my passing, in the evil periods that will follow,
there will be externalists, evil persons, thieves and robbers who steal and
sell statues and paintings of Buddhas, Bodhisattvas and [those to whom respect
is due such as] their parents. They may even peddle copies of sutras and moral
codes, or sell monks, nuns or those who follow the Bodhisattva Path or have
developed the Bodhi Mind to serve as retainers or servants to officials and
others.

A disciple of the Buddha, upon witnessing such pitiful
events, must develop a mind of compassion and find ways to rescue and protect
all persons and valuables, raising funds wherever he can for this purpose. If a
Bodhisattva does not act in this manner, he commits a secondary offense.

32. On Harming Sentient Beings

A disciple of the Buddha must not sell knives, clubs, bows,
arrows, other life-taking devices, nor keep altered scales or measuring
devices. He should not abuse his governmental position to confiscate people’s
possessions, nor should he, with malice at heart, restrain or imprison others
or sabotage their success. In addition, he should not raise cats, dogs, foxes,
pigs and other such animals. If he intentionally does such things, he commits a
secondary offense.

33. On Watching Improper Activities

A disciple of the Buddha must not, with evil intentions,
watch people fighting or the battling of armies, rebels, gangs and the like,
should not listen to the sounds of conch shells, drums, horns, guitars, flutes,
lutes, songs or other music, nor should he be party to any form of gambling,
whether dice, checkers, or the like. Furthermore, he should not practice
fortune-telling or divination nor should he be an accomplice to thieves and
bandits. He must not participate in any of these activities. If instead, he intentionally
does so, he commits a secondary offense.

34. Temporary Abandoning of the Bodhi Mind

A disciple of the Buddha should observe the Bodhisattva
precepts every day, whether walking, standing, reclining or seated — reading
and reciting them day and night. He should be resolute in keeping the precepts,
as strong as a diamond, as desperate as a shipwrecked person clinging to a
small log while attempting to cross the ocean, or as principled as the
“Bhiksu bound by reeds”. Furthermore, he should always have a
wholesome faith in the teachings of the Mahayana. Conscious that sentient
beings are Buddhas-to-be while the Buddhas are realized Buddhas, he should
develop the Bodhi Mind and maintain it in each and every thought, without
retrogression.

If a Bodhisattva has but a single thought in the direction
of the Two Vehicles or externalist teachings, he commits a secondary offense.

35. Failure to Make Great Vows

A Bodhisattva must make many great vows — to be filial to
his parents and Dharma teachers, to meet good spiritual advisors, friends, and
colleagues who will keep teaching him the Mahayana sutras and moral codes as
well as the Stages of Bodhisattva Practice (the Ten Dwellings, the Ten
Practices, the Ten Dedications, and the Ten Grounds). He should further vow to
understand these teachings clearly so that he can practice according to the
Dharma while resolutely keeping the precepts of the Buddhas. If necessary, he
should lay down his life rather than abandon this resolve for even a single
moment. If a Bodhisattva does not make such vows, he commits a secondary
offense.

36. Failure to Make Resolutions

Once a Bodhisattva has made these Great Vows, he should
strictly keep the precepts of the Buddhas and make the following resolutions:

1.- I would rather jump into a raging blaze, a deep abyss,
or into a mountain of knives, than engage in impure actions with any woman,
thus violating the sutras and moral codes of the Buddhas of the Three Periods
of Time.

2.- I would rather wrap myself a thousand times with a red-hot
iron net, than let this body, should it break the precepts, wear clothing
provided by the faithful.

I would rather swallow red hot iron pellets and drink
molten iron for hundreds of thousands of eons, than let this mouth, should it
break the precepts, consume food and drink provided by the faithful.

I would rather lie on a bonfire or a burning iron net than
let this body, should it break the precepts, rest on bedding, blankets and mats
supplied by the faithful.

I would rather be impaled for eons by hundreds of spears,
than let this body, should it break the precepts, receive medications from the
faithful.

I would rather jump into a cauldron of boiling oil and
roast for hundreds of thousands of eons, than let this body, should it break
the precepts, receive shelter, groves, gardens, or fields from the faithful.

3.- I would rather be pulverized from head to toe by an
iron sledge hammer, than let this body, should it break the precepts, accept
respect and reverence from the faithful.

4.- I would rather have both eyes blinded by hundreds of
thousands of swords and spears, rather than break the precepts by looking at
beautiful forms. [In the same vein, I shall keep my mind from being sullied by
exquisite sounds, fragrances, food and sensations.]

5.- I further vow that all sentient beings will achieve
Buddhahood.

If a disciple of the Buddha does not make the preceding
great resolutions, he commits a secondary offense.

37. Traveling in Dangerous Areas

[As a cleric], a disciple of the Buddha should engage in
ascetic practices twice each year. He should sit in meditation, winter and
summer, and observe the summer retreat. During those periods, he should always
carry eighteen essentials such as a willow branch (for a toothbrush), ash-water
(for soap), the traditional three clerical robes, an incense burner, a begging
bowl, a sitting mat, a water filter, bedding, copies of sutras and moral codes
as well as statues of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas.

When practicing austerities and when traveling, be it for
thirty miles or three hundred miles, a cleric should always have the eighteen
essentials with him. The two periods of austerities are from the 15th of the
first lunar month to the 15th of the third month, and from the 15th of the
eighth lunar month to the 15th of the tenth month. During the periods of
austerities, he requires these eighteen essentials just as a bird needs its two
wings.

Twice each month, the novice Bodhisattva should attend the
Uposattha ceremony and recite the Ten Major and Forty-eight Secondary Precepts.
Such recitations should be done before images of the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas.
If only one person attends the ceremony, then he should do the reciting. If
two, three, or even hundreds of thousands attend the ceremony, still only one
person should recite. Everyone else should listen in silence. The one reciting
should sit on a higher level than the audience, and everyone should be dressed
in clerical robes. During the summer retreat, each and every activity should be
managed in accordance with the Dharma.

When practicing the austerities, the Buddhist disciple
should avoid dangerous areas, unstable kingdoms, countries ruled by evil kings,
precipitous terrains, remote wildernesses, regions inhabited by bandits,
thieves, or lions, tigers, wolves, poisonous snakes, or areas subject to
hurricanes, floods and fires. The disciple should avoid all such dangerous
areas when practicing the austerities and also when observing the summer
retreat. Otherwise, he commits a secondary offense.

38. Order of Seating Within the Assembly

A disciple of the Buddha should sit in the proper order
when in the Assembly. Those who received the Bodhisattva precepts first sit
first, those who received the precepts afterwards should sit behind. Whether
old or young, a Bhiksu or Bhiksuni, a person of status, a king, a prince, a
eunuch, or a servant, etc., each should sit according to the order in which he
received the precepts. Disciples of the Buddha should not be like externalists
or deluded people who base their order on age or sit without any order at all
– in barbarian fashion. In my Dharma, the order of sitting is based on
seniority of ordination.

Therefore, if a Bodhisattva does not follow the order of
sitting according to the Dharma, he commits a secondary offense.

39. Failure to Cultivate Merits and Wisdom

A disciple of the Buddha should constantly counsel and
teach all people to establish monasteries, temples and pagodas in mountains and
forests, gardens and fields. He should also construct stupas for the Buddhas
and buildings for winter and summer retreats. All facilities required for the
practice of the Dharma should be established.

Moreover, a disciple of the Buddha should explain Mahayana
sutras and the Bodhisattva precepts to all sentient beings. In times of
sickness, national calamities, impending warfare or upon the death of one’s
parents, brothers and sisters, Dharma Masters and Precept Masters, a
Bodhisattva should lecture and explain Mahayana sutras and the Bodhisattva
precepts weekly for up to seven weeks.

The disciple should read, recite, and explain the Mahayana
sutras and the Bodhisattva precepts in all prayer gatherings, in his business
undertakings and during periods of calamity — fire, flood, storms, ships lost
at sea in turbulent waters or stalked by demons … In the same vein, he should
do so in order to transcend evil karma, the Three Evil Realms, the Eight
Difficulties, the Seven Cardinal Sins, all forms of imprisonment, or excessive
sexual desire, anger, delusion, and illness.

If a novice Bodhisattva fails to act as indicated, he
commits a secondary offense.

*

**

The Bodhisattva should study and respectfully observe the
nine precepts just mentioned above, as explained in the “Brahma
Altar” chapter.

40. Discrimination in Conferring the Precepts

A disciple of the Buddha should not be selective and show
preference in conferring the Bodhisattva precepts. Each and every person can
receive the precepts — kings, princes, high officials, Bhiksus, Bhiksunis,
laymen, laywomen, libertines, prostitutes, the gods in the eighteen Brahma
Heavens or the six Desire Heavens, asexual persons, bisexual persons, eunuchs,
slaves, or demons and ghosts of all types. Buddhist disciples should be
instructed to wear robes and sleep on cloth of a neutral color, formed by
blending blue, yellow, red, black and purple dyes all together.

The clothing of monks and nuns should, in all countries, be
different from those worn by ordinary persons.

Before someone is allowed to receive the Bodhisattva
precepts, he should be asked: “have you committed any of the Cardinal Sins?”
The Precept Master should not allow those who have committed such sins to
receive the precepts.

Here are the Seven Cardinal Sins: shedding the Buddha’s
blood, murdering an Arhat, killing one’s father, killing one’s mother,
murdering a Dharma Teacher, murdering a Precept Master or disrupting the
harmony of the Sangha.

Except for those who have committed the Cardinal Sins,
everyone can receive the Bodhisattva precepts.

The Dharma rules of the Buddhist Order prohibit monks and
nuns from bowing down before rulers, parents, relatives, demons and ghosts.

Anyone who understands the explanations of the Precept
Master can receive the Bodhisattva precepts. Therefore, if a person were to
come from thirty to three hundred miles away seeking the Dharma and the Precept
Master, out of meanness and anger, does not promptly confer these precepts, he
commits a secondary offense.

41. Teaching for the Sake of Profit

If a disciple of the Buddha, when teaching others and
developing their faith in the Mahayana, should discover that a particular
person wishes to receive the Bodhisattva precepts, he should act as a teaching
master and instruct that person to seek out two Masters, a Dharma Master and a
Precept Master.

These two Masters should ask the Precept candidate whether
he has committed any of the Seven Cardinal Sins in this life. If he has, he
cannot receive the precepts. If not, he may receive the precepts.

If he has broken any of the Ten Major Precepts, he
should be instructed to repent before the statues of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas.
He should do so six times a day and recite the Ten Major and Forty-eight Minor
Precepts, paying respect with utter sincerity to the Buddhas of the Three
Periods of Time. He should continue in this manner until he receives an
auspicious response, which could occur after seven days, fourteen days,
twenty-one days, or even a year. Examples of auspicious signs include:
experiencing the Buddhas rub the crown of one’s head, or seeing lights, halos,
flowers and other such rare phenomena.

The witnessing of an auspicious sign indicates that the
candidate’s karma has been dissipated. Otherwise, although he has repented, it
was of no avail. He still has not received the precepts. However, the merits
accrued will increase his chances of receiving the precepts in a future
lifetime.

Unlike the case of a major Bodhisattva precept, if a
candidate has violated any of the Forty-eight Secondary Precepts, he can
confess his infraction and sincerely repent before Bodhisattva-monks or nuns.
After that, his offense will be eradicated.

The officiating Master, however, must fully understand the
Mahayana sutras and moral codes, the secondary as well as the major Bodhisattva
precepts, what constitutes an offense and what does not, the truth of Primary
Meaning, as well as the various Bodhisattva cultivation stages — the Ten
Dwellings, the Ten Practices, the Ten Dedications, the Ten Grounds, and Equal
and Wonderful Enlightenment.

He should also know the type and degree of contemplation
required for entering and exiting these stages and be familiar with the Ten
Limbs of Enlightenment as well as a variety of other contemplations.

If he is not familiar with the above and, out of greed for
fame, disciples or offerings, he makes a pretense of understanding the sutras
and moral codes, he is deceiving himself as well as others. Hence, if he
intentionally acts as Precept Master, transmitting the precepts to others, he
commits a secondary offense.

42. Reciting the Precepts to Evil Persons

A disciple of the Buddha should not, with a greedy
motive
, expound the great precepts of the Buddhas before those who have not
received them, externalists or persons with heterodox views. Except in the case
of kings or supreme rulers, he may not expound the precepts before any such
person.

Persons who hold heterodox views and do not accept the
precepts of the Buddhas are untamed in nature. They will not, lifetime after
lifetime, encounter the Triple Jewel. They are as mindless as trees and stones;
they are no different from wooden stumps. Hence, if a disciple of the Buddha
expounds the precepts of the Seven Buddhas before such persons, he commits a
secondary offense.

43. Thoughts of Violating the Precepts

If a disciple of the Buddha joins the Order out of pure
faith, receives the correct precepts of the Buddhas, but then develops thoughts
of violating the precepts, he is unworthy of receiving any offerings from the
faithful, unworthy of walking on the ground of his motherland, unworthy of
drinking its water.

Five thousand guardian spirits constantly block his way,
calling him “Evil thief!” These spirits always follow him into
people’s homes, villages and towns, sweeping away his very footprints. Everyone
curses such a disciple, calling him a “Thief within the Dharma.” All
sentient beings avert their eyes, not wishing to see him.

A disciple of the Buddha who breaks the precepts is no
different from an animal or a wooden stump. Hence, if a disciple intentionally
violates the correct precepts, he commits a secondary offense.

44. Failure to Honor the Sutras and Moral Codes

A disciple of the Buddha should always singlemindedly
receive, observe, read and recite the Mahayana sutras and moral codes. He
should copy the sutras and moral codes onto bark, paper, fine cloth, or bamboo
slats and not hesitate to use his own skin as paper, draw his own blood for ink
and his marrow for ink solvent, or split his bones for use as pens. He should
use precious gems, priceless incense and flowers and other precious things to
make and adorn covers and cases to store the sutras and codes.

Hence, if he does not make offerings to the sutras and
moral codes, in accordance with the Dharma, he commits a secondary offense.

45. Failure to Teach Sentient Beings

A disciple of the Buddha should develop a mind of Great
Compassion. Whenever he enters people’s homes, villages, cities or towns, and
sees sentient beings, he should say aloud, “You sentient beings should all
take the Three Refuges and receive the Ten [Major Bodhisattva] Precepts.”
Should he come across cows, pigs, horses, sheep and other kinds of animals, he
should concentrate and say aloud, “You are now animals; you should develop
the Bodhi Mind.” A Bodhisattva, wherever he goes, be it climbing a
mountain, entering a forest, crossing a river, or walking through a field
should help all sentient beings develop the Bodhi Mind.

If a disciple of the Buddha does not wholeheartedly teach
and rescue sentient beings in such a manner, he commits a secondary offense.

46. Preaching in an Inappropriate Manner

A disciple of the Buddha should always have a mind of Great
Compassion to teach and transform sentient beings. Whether visiting wealthy and
aristocratic donors or addressing Dharma gatherings, he should not remain
standing while explaining the Dharma to laymen, but should occupy a raised seat
in front of the lay assembly.

A Bhiksu serving as Dharma instructor must not be standing
while lecturing to the Fourfold Assembly. During such lectures, the Dharma
Master should sit on a raised seat amidst flowers and incense, while the
Fourfold Assembly must listen from lower seats. The Assembly must respect and
follow the Master like filial sons obeying their parents or Brahmans
worshipping fire. If a Dharma Master does not follow these rules while
preaching the Dharma, he commits a secondary offense.

47. On Regulations Against the Dharma

A disciple of the Buddha who has accepted the precepts of
the Buddhas with a faithful mind, must not use his high official position (as a
king, prince, official, etc.) to undermine the moral code of the Buddhas. He
may not establish rules and regulations preventing the four kinds of lay
disciples from joining the Order and practicing the Way, nor may he prohibit
the making of Buddha or Bodhisattva images, statues and stupas, or the printing
and distribution of sutras and codes. Likewise, he must not establish rules and
regulations placing controls on the Fourfold Assembly. If highly placed lay
disciples engage in actions contrary to the Dharma, they are no different from
vassals in the service of [illegitimate] rulers.

A Bodhisattva should rightfully receive respect and
offerings from all. If instead, he is forced to defer to officials, this is
contrary to the Dharma, contrary to the moral code.

Hence, if a king or official has received the Bodhisattva
precepts with a wholesome mind, he should avoid offenses that harm the Three
Jewels. If instead, he intentionally commits such acts, he is guilty of a
secondary offense.

48. On Destroying the Dharma

A disciple of the Buddha who becomes a monk with wholesome
intentions must not, for fame or profit, explain the precepts to kings or
officials in such a way as to cause monks, nuns or laymen who have received the
Bodhisattva precepts to be tied up, thrown into prison or forcefully
conscripted. If a Bodhisattva acts in such a manner, he is no different from a
worm in a lion’s body, eating away at the lion’s flesh. This is not something a
worm living outside the lion can do. Likewise, only disciples of the Buddhas
can bring down the Dharma — no externalist or demon can do so.

Those who have received the precepts of the Buddha should
protect and observe them just as a mother would care for her only child or a
filial son his parents. They must not break the precepts.

If a Bodhisattva hears externalists or evil-minded persons
speak ill of, or disparage, the precepts of the Buddhas, he should feel as
though his heart were pierced by three hundred spears, or his body stabbed with
a thousand knives or thrashed with a thousand clubs. He would rather suffer in
the hells himself for a hundred eons than hear evil beings disparage the
precepts of the Buddha. How much worse it would be if the disciple were to
break the precepts himself or incite others to do so! This is indeed an
unfilial mind! Hence, if he violates the precepts intentionally, he commits a
secondary offense.

The preceding nine precepts should be studied and
respectfully observed with utmost faith.

 

VII. Conclusion

The Buddha said, “All of you disciples! These are the
Forty-eight Secondary Precepts that you should observe. Bodhisattvas of
the past have recited them, those of the future will recite them, those of the
present are now reciting them.

“Disciples of the Buddha! You should all listen! These
Ten Major and Forty-eight Secondary Precepts are recited by all Buddhas
of the Three Periods of Time — past, present, and future. I now recite them as
well.”

 

VIII. Epilogue

The Buddha continued: “Everyone in the Assembly –
kings, princes, officials, Bhiksus, Bhiksunis, laymen, laywomen and those who
have received the Bodhisattva precepts — should receive and observe, read and
recite, explain and copy these precepts of the eternal Buddha Nature so that
they can circulate without interruption for the edification of all sentient
beings. They will then encounter the Buddhas and receive the teachings from
each one in succession. Lifetime after lifetime, they will escape the Three
Evil Paths and the Eight Difficulties and will always be reborn in the human
and celestial realms.”

I have concluded a general explanation of the precepts of
the Buddhas beneath this Bodhi Tree. All in this Assembly should singlemindedly
study the Pratimoksa precepts and joyfully observe them.

These precepts are explained in detail in the exhortation
section of the “Markless Celestial King” chapter.

At that time, the Bodhisattvas of the Three Thousand World
System (cosmos) sat listening with utmost reverence to the Buddha reciting the
precepts. They then joyously received and observed them.

As Buddha Sakyamuni finished explaining the Ten
Inexhaustible Precepts of the “Mind-Ground Dharma Door” chapter,
(which Vairocana Buddha had previously proclaimed in the Lotus Flower Treasury
World), countless other Sakyamuni Buddhas did the same.

As Sakyamuni Buddha preached in ten different places, from
the Mahesvara Heaven Palace to the Bodhi Tree, for the benefit of countless
Bodhisattvas and other beings, all the countless Buddhas in the infinite lands
of the Lotus Treasury World did the same.

They explained the Buddha’s Mind Treasury (the Thirty
Minds), Ground Treasury, Precept Treasury, Infinite Actions and Vows Treasury,
the Treasury of the Ever-Present Buddha Nature as Cause and Effect of
Buddhahood. Thus, all the Buddhas completed their expositions of the countless
Dharma Treasuries.

All sentient beings throughout the billions of worlds
gladly receive and observe these Teachings.

The characteristics of the Mind-Ground are explained in
greater detail in the chapter “Seven Forms of Conduct of the Buddha Floral
Brilliance King.”

 

IX. Verses of Praise

The sages with great samadhi and wisdom

Can observe this teaching;

Even before reaching Buddhahood

They are blessed with five benefits:

First, the Buddhas of the Ten Directions

Always keep them in mind and protect them.

Secondly, at the time of death

They hold correct views with a joyous mind.

Third, wherever they are reborn,

The Bodhisattvas are their friends.

Fourth, merits and virtues abound as

The Paramita of Precepts is accomplished.

Fifth, in this life and in succeeding ones,

Observing all precepts, they are filled with

merits and
wisdom.


Such disciples are sons of the Buddha.

Wise people should ponder this well.

Common beings clinging to marks and self

Cannot obtain this teaching.

Nor can followers of the Two Vehicles,

abiding in
quietude,


Plant their seeds within it.

To nurture the sprouts of Bodhi,

To illuminate the world with wisdom,

You should carefully observe

The True Mark of all dharmas:

Neither born nor unborn,

Neither eternal nor extinct,

Neither the same nor different,

Neither coming nor going.

In that singleminded state

The disciple should diligently cultivate

And adorn the Bodhisattva’s practices and deeds

In sequential order.

Between the teachings of study and non-study,

One should not develop thoughts of discrimination.

This is the Foremost Path —

Also known as Mahayana.

All offenses of idle speculation and meaningless debate

Invariably disappear at this juncture;

The Buddha’s omniscient wisdom

Also arises from this.

Therefore, all disciples of the Buddha

Should develop great resolve,

And strictly observe the Buddha’s precepts

As though they were brilliant gems.

All Bodhisattvas of the past

Have studied these precepts;

Those of the future will also study them.

Those of the present study them as well.

This is the path walked by the Buddhas,

And praised by the Buddhas.

I have now finished explaining the precepts,

The body of immense merit and virtue.

I now transfer them all to sentient beings;

May they all attain Supreme Wisdom;

May the sentient beings who hear this Dharma

All attain Buddhahood.

 

X. Verses of Dedication

In the Lotus Treasury World,

Vairocana explained an infinitesimal part of the
Mind-Ground Door,

Transmitting it to the Sakyamunis:

Major and minor precepts are clearly delineated,

All sentient beings receive immense benefits.

Homage to Vairocana Buddha,

Lord of the Brahma Net.

http://online.sfsu.edu/~rone/Buddhism/Yogacara/Basicasanga.htm

BASIC TEACHINGS OF THE CONSCIOUSNESS-ONLY
SCHOOL OF BUDDHISM

Compiled by Ron Epstein

Copyright 1992 by Ron Epstein 


II. Asanga (Bodhisattva)

    
Together with his teacher the Bodhisattva Maitreya, Asanga was the founder of
the Yogacara, or Consciousness-Only, School of Mahayana Buddhism.

 The
oldest of three sons, all called Vasubandhu, born in Purusapura (Peshwar) who
were members of the Kausika family of Indian brahmins.  All three became
Buddhist Bhikshus. Asanga’s youngest brother was known as Virincivatsa, while
the middle brother was known merely as Vasubandhu (see below).

 
Asanga was a man who was endowed with the innate character of a
Bodhisattva.  He became a Bhikshu of the Sarvastivada School, but
afterwards he practiced meditation and became free from desire.  Though he
investigated the doctrine of emptiness, he could not understand it.  He
was about to commit suicide. Pindola, an Arhat, who was then in Eastern
Purvavideha, having perceived this, came to him from that region and expounded
the doctrine of emptiness peculiar to the Hinayana.  He arranged his
thoughts according to what he was taught and at once comprehended it. 
Though he had attained the doctrine of emptiness peculiar to the Hinayana, he,
nevertheless, did not find comfort in it.  Thinking that it would not be
right to drop the matter altogether, he went up to the Tusita Heaven using the
supernatural power peculiar to the Hinayana and inquired of Maitreya, the
Bodhisattva, who expounded for him the doctrine of emptiness belonging to the
Mahayana.  When he returned to Jambudvipa, he investi-gated according to
the methods explained to him and soon became enlightened.  While he was
engaged in investigation, the earth began to quake (of its own accord) in six
ways.  Since he understood the doctrine of emptiness, he called himself
“Asanga”, which means “without attachment”. He afterwards
often went up to the Tusita Heaven in order to ask Maitreya about the doctrines
of the Mahayana sutras.  The Bodhisattva explained them extensively for
him.  Whenever he acquired any new understanding, he would come back to Jambudvipa
and teach it to others. Most of those hearing him did not believe him. 
Asanga, Teacher of the Dharma, then prayed, saying, “I now intend to bring
all beings to believe fully in the doctrine of the Mahayana.  I only pray
that you, O Great Master, come down to Jambudvipa to expound the Mahayana so
that all beings may become fully convinced of its truth.” Maitreya,
thereupon, in accordance with his prayer, came down to Jambudvipa at night,
flooding it with great rays of light, had a large assembly of those connected
with the Dharma called in a lecture hall, and began to recite the
Saptadasabhumi-sutra.  After having recited a passage, he would explain
its purport.  The seventeen bhumis were finished during the nights of four
months.  Although all were together in one and the same hall listening to
the discourse, it was, neverthe-less, only Asanga, Teacher of the Dharma,, who
had access to the Bodhisattva Maitreya, while the others could merely hear him
from afar.  At night, all together heard the religious discourse by
Maitreya, while in the daytime Asanga, Teacher of the Dharma, commented once
again, for the sake of others, upon what had been taught by the
Bodhisattva.  In this way all the people could hear and believe in the
doctrine of the Mahayana.  Maitreya, the Bodhisattva, taught Asanga,
Teacher of the Dharma, to learn the “sunlight” samadhi.  As he
learned according to what he had been taught, he subsequently attained entry
into that samadhi.  After he attained entry into that samadhi, what he formerly
could not understand all became intelligible.  Whatever he heard or saw
was never forgotten, his memory having become retentive, whereas he formerly
could not fully understand the sutras of the Mahayana, such as the Avatamsaka,
previously taught by the Buddha. Maitreya explained for him all these in the
Tusita heaven; thus the Teacher of the Dharma became well-versed in them and
remembered them all.  Afterwards in Jambudvipa he composed several upadesa
on the sutras of the Mahayana, in which he expounded all the teachings of the
Mahayana taught by the Buddha. (Paramartha, “The Life of Vasubandhu”,
J. Takakusu, tr. [with some editing], pp. 273-275)



Return to
“Table of Contents”

http://www.cttbusa.org/ess/earthstore5.htm

THE
SAGELY CITY OF TEN THOUSAND BUDDHAS

Chapter
V

The Names of the Hells

At that time, Universal Worthy Bodhisattva Mahasattva said to Earth Store
Bodhisattva, “Humane One, for the sake of gods and dragons, those in the
Fourfold Assembly, and all other beings of the present and future, please tell
us the names of the hells where beings in the Saha world on the continent of
Jambudvipa must suffer retributions for offenses they commit. Please also
describe what happens during retributions undergone for evil deeds, so that
beings in the future Dharma Ending Age will know what those retributions are.”

Earth Store Bodhisattva replied, “Humane One, based on the awesome spiritual
power of the Buddha and relying on your strength, great Bodhisattva, I will
give a general list of the names of the hells and describe some of what happens
during retributions undergone for offenses and evil deeds.

“Humane One, in eastern Jambudvipa there is a mountain range called Iron Ring.
That mountain range is pitch black because the light of the sun and moon does
not shine on it. A great hell named Ultimately Relentless is located there.
Another hell is called Great Avici. There is also a hell called Four Horns, a
hell called Flying Knives, a hell called Fiery Arrows, a hell called Squeezing
Mountains, a hell called Piercing Spears, a hell called Iron Carts, a hell
called Iron Beds, a hell called Iron Oxen, a hell called Iron Clothing, a hell
called Thousand Blades, a hell called Iron Asses, a hell called Molten Copper,
a hell called Embracing Pillar, a hell called Flowing Fire, a hell called
Plowing Tongues, a hell called Hacking Heads, a hell called Burning Feet, a hell
called Pecking Eyes, a hell called Iron Pellets, a hell called Quarreling, a
hell called Iron Ax, and a hell called Massive Hatred.”

Earth Store Bodhisattva said, “Humane One, within the Iron Ring are endless
hells like that. There is also the Hell of Crying Out, the Hell of Pulling
Tongues, the Hell of Dung and Urine, the Hell of Copper Locks, the Hell of Fire
Elephants, the Hell of Fire Dogs, the Hell of Fire Horses, the Hell of Fire
Oxen, the Hell of Fire Mountains, the Hell of Fire Rocks, the Hell of Fire
Beds, the Hell of Fire Beams, the Hell of Fire Eagles, the Hell of Sawing
Teeth, the Hell of Flaying Skin, the Hell of Drinking Blood, the Hell of
Burning Hands, the Hell of Burning Feet, the Hell of Hanging Hooks, the Hell of
Fire Rooms, the Hell of Iron Cells, and the Hell of Fire Wolves.

“Each of those hells contains lesser hells numbering from one, two, three,
four, to hundreds of thousands. Each of those lesser hells has its own name.”

Earth Store Bodhisattva told Universal Worthy Bodhisattva, “Humane One, such
are the karmic responses of beings in Jambudvipa who commit evil deeds. The
power of karma is extremely great. It rivals Mount Sumeru in its heights. It
surpasses the great oceans in its depths. It obstructs the path leading to
sagehood. For that reason, beings should never think that minor bad deeds are
unimportant or assume that they do not count as offenses. After death, there
will be retributions to undergo that reflect all those details. Fathers and
sons have the closest relationship, but their roads diverge and each must go
his own way. Even if they met, neither would consent to undergo suffering in
the other’s place. Now, based on the awesome spiritual power of the Buddha, I
will describe some of the retributions for offenses that take place in the
hells. Please, Humane One, listen for a moment to what I am going to say.”

Universal Worthy replied, “I have long known of the retributions that come
about in the Three Evil Paths. My hope in asking the Humane One to describe
them is that when beings in the future Dharma-Ending Age who are committing
evil deeds hear the Humane One’s descriptions, they will be moved to take
refuge with the Buddha.”

Earth Store said, “Humane One, this is what happens during retributions in the
hells. Offenders may go to a hell in which their tongues are stretched out and
plowed through by cattle; or to a hell in which their hearts are pulled out and
eaten by yakshas; or to a hell in which their bodies are cooked in cauldrons of
boiling oil; or to a hell in which they are forced to embrace red-hot copper
pillars; or to a hell in which they are burned by a fire that constantly
pursues them; or to a hell in which cold and ice are all-pervasive; or to a
hell in which  excrement and urine are endless; or to a hell in which
flying maces are unavoidable; or to a hell in which fiery spears stab them
repeatedly; or to a hell in which they are constantly beaten on the chests and
backs; or to a hell in which their hands and feet are burned; or to a hell in
which they are bound by iron snakes that coil around them; or to a hell in
which they are pursued by racing iron dogs; or to a hell in which their bodies
are stretched by iron mules.

“Humane One, to inflict these retributions in each hell, hundreds of thousands
of instruments made of copper, iron, stone, or fire arise from karmic forces.
Those four materials come into being in response to the kinds of karma that
offenders create. If I were to explain in detail what happens during
retributions in the hells, then I would need to tell of the hundreds of
thousands of sufferings that must be undergone in each specific hell. How much
more would that be the case for the sufferings in all the many hells! Now,
having based myself upon the awesome spiritual power of the Buddha, I have
given a general answer to the Humane One’s question, for if I were to speak in
detail, it would take eons.”

http://www.ambedkar.org/books/dob15.htm

DECLINE AND FALL OF BUDDHISM
(A tragedy in Ancient India)


Chapter 15


CONCLUSION
To summarize

Depicting
Buddha as Hindu by RSS, specially to the international community, and
pretending to respect Him, is a stategy to hoodwink the mases, as was done
about Ambedkar. The process started long time back by declaring Buddha as an
avatara of god in some times around eighth century and finalised till 12th
century. Manohar Joshi, the then Chief Minister of Maharashtra, writing in the
Introduction of Dr. Ambedkar’s W&S vol. 16, (1998) does mention Buddha as
tenth incarnation of God, knowingly that the Buddhists all over the world do
not believe in God, let alone its incarnations. At the same time, an average
Brahmin takes a great pride that Buddhism was driven away from this land by
Adi- Sankara. They ignore that a non-existent religion can not die.

Declaring
the Buddha as ninth avatara of Vishnu, by the Brahmanic Puranas, was
meant to cause confusion in the minds of people with the result that Buddhism
came to be treated as a “heretical” and “aesthetic” branch
of Brahmanism. The modern scholars like Kane, Radhakrishnan, Swami Vivekanand
and Tilak, have pushed this confusion further back to the time of origin of
Buddhism, by saying that Upanishadas are the origin of Buddhist thought, thus
claiming both that Buddhism was just a refined “Hinduism”, and also
claiming with pride that Buddhism was driven away by the Brahmanas and it has
died down,

As a
non-existent tradition or way of life can not die, and as the decline of
Buddhism in India is a historical fact, the theory of its origin as a
“reformed” Brahmanism is false. If Buddhism was a sect of
“Hinduism”, then one may well ask the proud supporters of
Shankaracharya, what was that religion which was “driven out by Adi
Sankara”, as they claim? Was it also Hinduism? This proves that Buddhism
is not a sect of Hinduism, which was nonexistant till Muslim conquest.

Buddhism was the national Religion of India

Buddhism
was the first organized religion in the modern sense of the term
“religion”. It succeeded in driving out the Brahman religion of
sacrifices, but gradually succumbed to the influences of the religion of
masses, who had by then, set up Buddha’s images and started temple worship. The
fact that at one time Buddhism was the national religion of India and was
followed by the majority of population, is almost ignored. There is a feeling
in the minds of many, that India is and was a Hindu country having always had a
majority of Hindus. This again is a misconception. In historical times the
population of India never had majority of Hindus. Swami Vivekananda, estimated
Buddhists to be two thirds of population [L.M.Joshi: 1977: 358] and Dr.
Ambedkar says Buddhist were in majority. [W&S, 7, 345] Then there were
Jains and Veerashaivas and Tribal religions in addition to Muslims, Sikhs and
Christians coming in the later times. Brahmins had lost all the respect of
masses as well as princely rulers. They were smarting under this defeat.
[Untouchables, W&S vol.7, p.346] They did everything in their power to
finish off Buddhism and after Muslim invasion, succeeded in it.

Buddhism
was the national religion of India, not only because the Buddha was an Indian,
but because it was the source and inspiration of the national awakening of
Indian empires and for the first time, united India in a common cultural
synthesis and organization and because unlike Brahmanism, which was the
religion of the privileged classes, Buddhism was the first religion of the
common people, not forced on them, but accepted by their free will and
pleasure; and because Buddhism caused progress in science and art, literature
and religion, commerce and industry, internal progress and international
reputation; and lastly, because no other religion has till this day been able
to make India a great nation as Buddhism did. [Swami Dharmatirtha, p. 76]

Brahmins usurped Buddhism

Brahmans
became the leaders of Buddhism because of their learning, and first disfigured
it thoroughly with ritualism and images, and then destroyed its separate
organization of monasteries and monks with the help of the foreign masters who
came into power. But the Buddhism of Harsha and Nagarjuna did not disappear, it
formed the nucleus of the later Hinduism, superadded with horrors of caste.
To become the sole leaders of the country and
to enforce their system of castes, has always been the prime motive of
Brahmanism, and if Buddhist order of monks and monasteries had survived, the
Brahmins could not have achieved this goal. So they completely destroyed the
external institution of Buddhism, the monks and monasteries. Brahmins became
the undisputed leaders, and a new popular religion, Hinduism, emerged with
important aspect of caste,
as Dharmatitha observed:

“…
Caste is an entirely independent social order which was neither in the ancient
Aryan religion nor in primitive Indian religion nor in Buddhism.
It is the unique contribution of the Brahman
priests, and none else ever wanted it, until the country lost its national
religion and political freedom, and the Brahmans succeeded in imposing the
system upon the people almost at the point of the bayonet with of alien
masters.
[Swami Dharmatirtha, p. 110]

Brahmanism does not mean Brahmins alone

As the
British Imperialism does not mean the British people and symbolizes a vast
system and has numerous votaries among Indians also, Brahmanism, similarly,
does not signify the Brahmins exclusively, but an ancient order of things of
which the Brahmins are the leaders and champions. It stands for the aggregate
of ideals, institutions and past history of the socio-religious constitution of
the Hindu society. We have to serve the welfare of the entire nation and not
the sentiment of separate castes, though Brahmans, or Kshatriyas or others must
accept a larger share of the blame for the disaster which has befallen us all.
We have to understand that it is the pernicious system which is throttling us all
equally, and is the subject of our criticism. A prominent thinker of
Maharashtra, Raosaheb Kasbe, has elaborated the subject by saying that,
Brahmins are fortunte that, “Brahmin” is a name of Caste as well as
of a “Varna”, thereby implying Class, this status being bestowed upon
them by Smritis. As a class and as a power structure, Brahmins have developed
vested interests. Dalit writers divide the history as Brahmin Vs. non- Brahmin,
instead of Vedic Vs. non-Vedic, and
when
the words having Brahmin as one of their components are used by them to
criticise these vested interests, the meaning implied is against the power
structure and not agaist the caste. If this is a blameworthy mistake, the
mistake is committed by the authors of Smritis, specially “Yama smriti”,
and they and the later authors desrve the blame.
[Kasbe Raosaheb, “hindu
muslim prashna aani sawarkara cha hindu rastravaad”
, (marathi) Sugawa
Publ. 1994, p.242 ff.]

Causes of fall of Buddhism

We saw
M. M. Kane’s views and those of other scholars. Caliber of Vajrayani Buddhists
was not the cause, neither was the Tantric practices. Buddhist Siddhas were the
forerunners of Bhakti cult, which now Hindus claim to be theirs. In this
respect Brahmin books must not be relied upon.

Techniques
of imposing slavery over the population by the Brahmins were studied. In
present times the struggle is amongs the followers of Phule, Shahu, Ambedkar
Versus those of Tilak Gandhi Golwalkar. We saw the Brahmanic tendency to find
faults with Buddhism for country’s ills, like Sawarkar in his “saha soneri
pane” blaming Buddhist Ahimsa and ignorng the real reason being Chaturvarna.

Position
of women in ancient india has been studied in detail in Pre-Vedic and Vedic
times and Buddhist Doctrines and Laws about them contrasted and Manu’s role in
their degradation stressed. This continued in Rajput and in middle ages in
pre-British times, and got worst during Peshawa rule.

Even today Buddhism is the national Religion
of India

We saw
how Buddhism was the national religion of India and that it is flourishing even
now in the garb of Hinduism with superadded Chaturvarna. We saw Buddhism
is not a sect of Hinduism, irrespective of false propaganda of RSS. As Dr.
Tulsiram, Associate Proffesor, School of International Studies, JNU and editor
of Hindi monthly ‘Vishwa Ashvaghosah’, observes the Vishwa Hindu Parishad, has
organised a number of “World Hindu Buddhist Conferences”, at
Haridwar, Modi Puram, Sarnath, Rajgir, Buddha Gaya, and Lumbini. At these
conferences, it is falsely claimed that since Buddhism is an essential part of
Hinduism, those who want to embrace Buddhism should embrace Hinduism directly.
Also the text books are manipulated e.g. in a class IX book, the Sangha Parivar’s
Government in Gujrath has inserted that “the caste system is the greatest
gift of Aryans to humankind.” One of the reasons of reasserting Sankrit is
preservation of caste. He observes:

“…
The religion based on caste system has annihilated millions of Dalits over the
centuries. About three million Dalit women have been raped and around one
million Dalits killed from the time of Independence. This is 25 times more than
number of soldiers killed during the wars fought after independence. That is
why Dalits do not need Aryan culture or Hindu Dharma based on caste any more.
…” [Dr. Tulsiram, “The Pioneer”, 30 Jan. 2000]

Two Orphans of Humanity

Jesus
and Buddha were both ignored in their own countries and thus two Orphans in the
world of Nations as Swami Dharma Tirtha has compared condition of Indians with
Jews. Only that presently, the Jews have progressed, but we did not.
Vedantists’ claim that Vedanta alone can save the world and humanity has proved
false and let alone saving the world, Hindus did not cultivated any superior
virtues and ideals, and deny justice and humanity to their own kith and kin.
Failure of Socialist Reformers was because they are steeped in the culture of
caste and the religion of deception and exploitation. Same is the condition of
the so called Nationalists, who only cultivated regionalism and language
struggle and a good number of our Socialists and Nationalists turned out to be
rank Capitalists and fanatical Communalists. Of many revolutions against
Brahmanism, only work of Guru Govind Singh and Sikhism seems to have survived,
at least to some extent, being influenced by saints like Kabir and Nanak, all
under spirit of Buddhism.

Hindus became Hindus by Conversion

The
derogatory sense of the word “Hindu” is forgotten, it is also
forgotten that Brahmins did not like to be called as Hindus, not a long time
back and that Hindus became Hindus by a sort of mass conversion or mass
classification by the Muhammadans, and the various castes acquired their status
by a similar process of mass classification behind their backs by the Brahman
first and lastly by the British Government by laws made for them. We saw that
Hinduism is not a religion in the sense in which Buddhism Muhammadanism and
Christianity are. It is a loose conglomeration of castes, which is described by
one author as a “grocery shop”, where the comodity called
“grocery” is not sold.
Therefore,
all those who are not Muhammadans or Christians are treated as Hindus, where
all types of worship is allowed, as long as Brahin supremacy is maintained.

Even for these Christians and Mohamedans, Brahmins have plans to incorporate in
Hinduism and terms like “Mohemadi Hindus” are already coined for
them, and full preparations are going on for its implementation. Also plans are
afoot to create new ‘Swastika’ temples for such “purified”
Christians. Thus the vagueness of
Hinduism is a virtue for them, and language of Vedanta is the garb of
camaflouge of equality, which help in the desire of Brahmin elites to govern
the OBCs.
Arrogance of Brahmins, who rule Hindus, did not change since
the times of Abbe Dobois, neither did their attitude towards women.

Suggestions for nation building

The
constructive thoughts and efforts and guiding as to what must be done as
advised by Swamiji are summerised in the ability to evolve new ideals and
institutions to embody the spirit of the collective life and will and avoid an
obstinate clinging to mere existence and past glories. India had been suffering
under the two imperialisms, Brahmanical and British placed one above the other,
and three tests of Hindu Nationalism should be (1) Opposition to caste, (2)
opposition to priestcraft and idolatry, and (3) Inter-religious tolerance and
fraternisation. It must be realised that more nationalism persisted in the past
before the British arrived, and there was more fellow feeling in teachings of
saints, inspired by Buddhism.

Modus operandi of Brahmins to enslave Hindus

That
the kalivarjya was the method of brahmins to tackle the Buddhist
influence over the masses and impose their supremacy. All laws and rules, were
amended including Civil, Criminal, Revenue and Personal laws, without actually
condemning them. Who suffered in Kalivarjya were the OBCs due to failure of
export of their productions. These are the masses of which Indian society is
made of, and it is the need of the day to educate them. The process of
emancipation of masses was started by Mahatma Phule, strengthened by Shahu, and
put in Indian Constitution by Dr. Ambedkar. Now it is the duty of masses to
protect the Constitution, if they want to protect themselves from oncoming
Brahmanic tyranny.

Decline and fall of Buddhism

Techniques
in causing decline and fall of buddhism, the Caliber of Vajrayani Buddhists,
the methods of Brahmanic Conquest by peaceful means, the domestic and sexual
invasion in Kerala are discussed, and the role of Shankara explained. Various
techniques of Brahmanic controls, the difference between Local and Regional
Brahmanism the admission of kings to Varna System, the extension of Varna
system, the Extension of Sanskritic deities, the creation and developement of
ceremonial and the Sanskritisation of names of places discussed and the social
self of Brahmin explained. It was seen how Buddha’s Sangha was captured by
Brahmins, and how Brahmins destroyed Buddhism from outside also and how
Kautilya checked growth of Buddhism and how Buddhism tried to thwart attempts
of Brahmanism and how Brahmanism crushed Nationalism.

Foreign invasions

The
foreigners like Shakas, Pahlavas Hunas etc. were assimilated by Buddhist ideals
and not the Brahmanic, and the Hindu Muslim Conflict would not have been there
if Buddhism was alive at the time of Muslim invasion. We saw the Brahmins had
comunications links with foreign forces and that they obtained foreign help to
topple kings unwanted for them.

About
the conditions at the time of arrival of Europeans, Raja Sekhar Vundru, IAS,
former JNU student writes:

“Vasco
da Gama landed in 1498 in India, a veritable social hell for the dalits. Dalits
feeding on carcasses, lurking like animals in the day with a status worse than
an animal and conditions of life worse than a million genocides of a Hitler.
The greatness of Dalits lies in their confidence to accept the ultra sub-human
existence and breed dasyus, menials, slave, asuras, chandalas and untouchables:
unparalleled and unrecorded in the history of world civilizations.” [Raja
Sekhar Vundru, “The Pioneer”, Dalit Millennium Issue, 30 Jan. 2000]

How Hindus enjoyed Brahmanic slavery?

The
evils of Hindu caste system are well known. The theory of karma
castrated the society and deprived all the masses from the motivation to revolt
against the domination and atrocities of the priestly class, making all the
Hindus the slaves of Brahmins. We know that Rigvedic Society had only three
Varnas. The fourth varna, i.e. of Shudras was added by “purusha-sukta“,
late in Buddhist times and was a planned to destroy the egalatarian Buddhist
society, to stop Kshatriya revolt against Brahmins and to stop the flow of
Shudras towards Buddha’s Dhamma.

We
discussed the sexual behaviour of Aryans and how the ancient Aryan society did
not have the marriage institution as we believe it today, or rather had no
marriage institution at all. The barbarous Aryan society considered no
relationship like brother- sister, father-daughter. Rajwade has explained how
the priests had to satisfy the sexual demand of any woman approaching them at
the time of yajnyas, then and there in open ground, in presence of Vedic
fire. The Buddha fought against this and included vow to abstain from mithyachara,
i.e. improper behaviour in sexual matters, among the five shilas.

Conversion
from three varna society to four varna society was a great revolution in Aryan
society, and entry of shudras into Chaturvana system, transformed savage
society to rural one, claims Rajwade. But the Buddha discarded Varna System,
where Shudras were made the beasts of burden with all the forced labour duties
and no rights. Buddhists had no caste and Ashokan Society was integrated and
that caste revived on the decay of Buddhism and emergence of Shaivism and
Vaishnavism around 8th century A.D.

The
productive castes suffered in Kalivarjya, one of the means adopted by Brahmins
to dominate non-brahmins. The national Religion was destroyed by Caste System
and Caste hierarchy with Brahmins having vested interests. They grew most
powerful with the duty of kings being enjoined to worship Brahmins, whose
arrogance was not an empty claim and Brahmins ruled over masses also not only
the kings. Free Lands and houses were given to them, with no taxes and no fear
of punishments. Secular powers were also exercised by Brahmins and Brahman
Sabhas had power over all castes. Dharma Sastras were recasted in Muslim Rule
and laws amended to establish Brahmin supremacy. Means employed by Brahmins to
enslave Hindus included Punishments and Ordeals on Caste basis, and false
philosophies created to support immoral acts to distort the religion. Buddhism
had tried to save masses from Brahmanic slavery but in vain. We discussed how
Vijaynagar Empire was a seat of exploitation of masses and Brahmanism was
punished for the crimes.

Scheduled Tribes (aadivaasi)

Fall
of Buddhism saw the rise of untouchables, the so called criminal tribes and
Aadivaasis. Their problems are discussed, explaining differences between Castes
and Tribes and origins of various names. Their history is traced from
Prehistoric Period and it is explained that they are not remenents of Neolithic
Age but are post Buddhistic. We saw how Indus Valley civilization did not
belong to Aryans, how India was land of Naagas and its language Tamil, and how
Vratyas were Naagas. We saw history of the Sisunaaga Dynasty, that Naaga
worship is non-Vedic and Naagas were Buddhists. There was a casteless society
among the Naaga culture, Naagas having their Republics. We saw the denegration
of Naagas in Mahabharata, which opens with a curse on Naagas. We discussed
Naaga Rajas in Kashmir and Rise of Buddhism there with Ahimsa of Buddha, and
studied Serpent worship during Mauryan Dynasty, the times of Naagaarjuna and
Kanishka, the Buddhist Sculptures and that Ayrans created writings, whereas
Naagas created structures. We studied importance of Tribal Population in Sanchi
and Amaravati Stupas and antiquity of Naaga clans.

Other effects of Fall of Buddhism

We saw
other efects of Caste culture were deprivation of Education and spread of
illiteracy and how fall of Buddhism directly affected the multitudes of
population, who were denied education. How Gurukul system was detrimental to
the interests of masses is explained and how a most educated country, where
foreign scholars were coming to take higher education in Indian Universities,
became the most illiterate country of the world due to fall of Buddhism is
explained.

We saw
how position of women detoriated and ultimately reached to the stage of burning
of widows. We saw that Rajput Age was Dark Age of India and how Brahmins
created Rajputs to get hold over the population, and how it caused the
degradation and fall of Indian masses.

Kulin
system of Bengal: How this was created to increase the population who would be
willing to accept the supremacy of Brahmins and all the ill effects of this
System is explained.

Sambandham
System of Kerala: How Brahmins managed to gain control over the Buddhist Nayars
by this method of “Cultural fertilization” and how it destroyed the
cultural fabric of old Kerala society is discussed.

Devadasis:
A system of Religious prostitution is discussed. It was put forward by the
present author, for the first time, that Devadasis were degraded Buddhist nuns,
in his book in 1991, “Tirupati Balaji was a Buddhist Shrine”. The
subject is discussed more fully here.

Fall
of Science: How Science was on zenith in Buddhist India and how Brahmins
purposefully caused its fall to uphold their own supremacy after the fall of
Buddhism.

Kashmir
Problem: How a Buddhist country of Kashmir became Mohammedan country, thereby
leading to all the present problems is discussed.

Language
Problem: How a country, which speaking one language and one or two scripts
during the Buddhist period was divided into a country of multiple languages and
scripts is discussed.

The Remedies

The
reason why need to know the history is to guide us in future. If that purpose
is not served, it has no meaning. The rulers of the society know it. Therefore,
those who like that the oppressors should keep on oppressing and sufferers
should go on suffering, never wish that the masses should know the real history.
They present only those aspects of history which suits them, even distorting
the facts. To find the cure, one has to know and understand the cause of
ailments. If the interpretation of the history is on proper lines, the remedies
would be correct. There is no doubt that now all realize that the real cause of
all the ills of this country has been its religion. If this is realized, the
ills can be cured and Indian masses can see the bright future. We narrate the
views of some of the prominent thinkers.

Views of A. H. Salunkhe

In key
note address at the recent “Bahujan Conference” at Nagpur by A. H.
Salunkhe, a prominent OBC thinker and writer, expressed his views on the future
course of action to be taken by OBCs. He stressed the importance of realizing
the principle that OBCs and the dalits are co-sufferers. They should make it a
point that they will neither tolerate the injustice done by others, nor would
commit injustice against others. Vedic culture came into being after the
destruction of Indus Culture. Among those who opposed Vedic culture, prominent
was the Buddha and his movement was much more powerful than that of Phule,
Shahu and Ambedkar. [’Prabuddha Bharat‘, 30.4.2000]

Amartya
Sen got the Nobel Prize, Salunkhe said, but did not get enough publicity in
Indian media, not even as much as the Beauty Contests did. The reason was that
while discussing the Asian cultural history, Sen pointed out that the main
reason why education did not reach the grass root levels in India was that
machinery of education remained in the hands of fistful of priests, and that as
contrasted against this, education reached the people at bottom levels of society
in the other neighbouring nations like Ceylon and others, because they were
following Buddhism. The Bahujans must realize that a person who declares these
facts would not get any appreciation from the established society here. [’Prabuddha
Bharat
‘, 30.4.2000]

Amartya
Sen, when questioned by journalists about his preceptor and the father of his
ideals on Welfare State, had acknowledged the Buddha as his ‘guru’ and
Ashoka as his ideal, a fact which never appeared in any Brahmanical media.
[Speech by P. S. Changole at Aurangabad, ‘Prabuddha Bharat‘, 30.4.2000]

Salunkhe
explained how
Indus Culture was
followed by Vedic onslaught, how Buddhism was followed by Counter-revolution by
Manu, how Saints and Shivaji was followed by Peshawai and now how after the
revolution of Phule, Shahu and Ambedkar we are faced with danger of destruction
of this system by Brahmanic counter- revolution by the R.S.S.
If we wish
to avert this calamity the Bahujans and Dalits must sort out the points of
conflicts and unite. [’Prabuddha Bharat‘, 30.4.2000]

Salunkhe
urged the OBCs to discard Wamana as an incarnation, and questioned how he can
be our ideal instead of Bali. He also opined that
OBC youths should reexamine the ‘Gita‘, and if it teaches you to
follow the duties of ‘Chaturvarnya‘, you would be required to throw it
away. ‘Gita‘ talks of ’swadharma’, which does not mean Hindu or Islam
religion, it means ‘Chaturvarna dharma‘’.
He asked OBCs to
evaluate the history of the Buddha through their own values instead of those of
Manu, Shankara or Brahmanic books. He asked them to examine their own religion
and ask themselves what exactly, it offers them. It offers nothing but slavery,
he stressed. [’Prabuddha Bharat‘, 30.4.2000]

Salunkhe
averred that it is a false history, taught to us that Shankara defeated
Buddhism, but if he had evolved some strategy and helped its decline, not only
for Dalits, but also even for people in grass root level, and for those who
call themselves as Kshatriyas and for Marathas and Kunbis and OBCs, it was not
a golden day of glory but it is was a moment of pushing them into darkness and
slavery. He advised that the sufferings of Dalits are the sufferings of OBCs,
and vice versa.
We are not
fighting against any caste, not even Brahmins, but against a system of inequality
imposed over Dalits and OBCs by the religious books.
Some OBCs think
they are Kshatriyas, and should side with Brahmins because of our scriptures
which condemn the ‘Shudras’ and not the ‘Kshatriyas’. Their mentality is to
accept the slavery of Brahmins but not to consider Dalits equal to themselves.
But if you inspect the reality, you would find that not only Ekalavya and
Shambuka suffered but also Tukaram, who was an OBC, suffered. For the
scriptures, Dalits and OBCs are both ‘Shudras’ and both deserve
condemnation and are deprived from their rights. Today OBCs are projected as
neo- Kshatriyas and made to fight against Muslims and Dalits, but they must not
forget that they are being used as tools and will the thrown away after their
utility ends. If the merit is
important, there is no doubt that Shivaji’s merit as a ‘Kshatriya‘ was
proved. Why then his coronation was opposed by the Brahmins of Maharashtra.
Today Dalits honour Shivaji and Shahu with full reverence, not as a strategy or
convenience, but from the bottom of their hearts, then why OBCs should not
honour Ambedkar likewise?
[’Prabuddha Bharat‘, 30.4.2000] Similar
views are expressed by him later in “First Maratha Sahitya Sammelan”
held very recently at Amravati in Vidarbha. This literary meet of Marathas was
highly maligned by Brahmanical press and scholars.

Views of Prakash Ambedkar

He
explained the two ideologies in India, one of RSS and other of ‘Varkaris’
and stressed importance of unity among the OBCs. He questioned why the post of
‘Shankaracharya’ is not given to an OBC and suggested to launch an agitation
about this in social fora. How much success he gets in his endeavour remains to
be seen.

Brahmanic attitude towards Dalitbahujans

Shri
Raja Sekhar Vundru describes the attitude of elitist media towards these
people.

“Media
explosion finds news value in dalits only when they are killed. Dalits do not
see themselves as victims of atrocities. Atrocities are part of their daily
life. For Dalits persecution is as old as Shambuka, denial as old as Eklavya;
revolution as old as Buddha; valor as old as Asura; slavery as old as dasyu and
untouchability as old as touch. Nevertheless, Manudharma’s tentacles are wide
spread and all-compassing.” [Raja Sekhar Vundru, “The Pioneer”,
Dalit Millennium Issue, 30 Jan. 2000]

When
Dr. Ambedkar was trying for “Hindu Code Bill”, which was to remove
the injustice on Hindu women, Jereshastri the then Shankarachrya of Sankeswara
Pitha, wrote:

“…
Milk or Ganges water may be holy, but if it comes through a nallah or a
gutter, it can not be considered sacred. Similarly, the ‘Dharmasastra’
howsoever it may be authentic, it can not be considered authentic because it
has come from a ‘Mahar’ like Dr. Ambedkar. Ambedkar is a scholar, it is said
that his study of scriptures is great, but he is an ‘antyaja’.
How can the Ganga of Scriptures comming from
the nallah of Ambekar be holy?
It must be discardable like milk comming
from the gutter…”

Quoting
this passage from ‘Nav Bharat‘, daily, 21 Jan. 1950, Yashwant Manohar
observes, even the women for whose liberation was this Bill opposed it. We see
today these women participating in hindutwavadi organizations. They opposed
Mandal Commission, and they still oppose the reservation of OBC and other
women, however, they demand right to priesthood. [Yashwant Manohar:, 1999:
p.73]

Our religion and Constitution must not have
contradictions

In his
last speech during Sarnath visit in 1956, Dr. Ambedkar spoke to students, as
reported by Nanak Chand Rattu, in Benares University Hall. Speaking on Adi
Shankara philosophy, he said that if the Brahman pervaded all, a Brahmin
and an untouchable were equal. But Shankara did not apply his doctrine of Brahman
to social organization and kept the discussions only on Vedantic level. Had he
applied it on a social level and preached social equality, his proposition
would have been profound and worth consideration, in spite of his belief in the
world being an illusion. Rattu reports:

“He,
therefore, asked the students whether they would follow Hindu scriptures which
supported graded inequality propounded by Purush Sukta and give
religious sanction to social inequality or whether they would stand by the
principles of liberty, equality and fraternity propounded in the Constitution,
and refute the graded inequality preached by the Hindu scriptures.”
[Rattu: 1997: 99]

How Buddhist Books reached West

Arrogance
and hatred against Buddhism is seen by the fact that around 1816 A.D. after
Nepal was settled under British rule, Brian Hodgson came there as Assisant to
the Resident in a newly opened Office. He obtained many MSS from Buddhist
pundits like Amrutananda, and sent the collection to Asiatic Society of Bengal
and to India House in Paris and other libraries. Once, Minister Rana Bahadur
Jang of Nepal seized a Buddhist Vihar and threw away all the books in the
street. Dr. Wrights, who was Physician to British Resident got it collected and
presented to the Cambridge University. From these sourses Burnuff and his
disciple Max Muller compiled early history of Buddhism. [Kasbe: 1996: 315]

How Upnishads reached West

It is
also interesting to know that it was Dara Shukoh, brother of Emperor Aurangjeb,
who got many Upnishads translated into Persian through pundits of Kashi. These
were later translated into Latin. Duparron obtained a copy from a French
scholar M. Gentyl in court of Sirajuddolah, and later Burneere took it to
France on his trip to Bengal in 1775 A.D., and translated into French, and
later published in Latin. Weber commented on these in his “Indian
Studies”. The South Indian collection was published for the first time in
1851 by W. Elliot in Journal of Asiatic Society in Bengal, and later translated
and incorporated in ‘Bibliotheca India’. [Kasbe: 1996: 228]

Jabalopnishad

That
the main target of Brahmanism was the OBCs, in ancient times as it is today, is
clear from more sourses than one. Kasbe describes one instance where OBCs are
equated with impotents etc. According to him, “Jabaloupnishad”, which
is a later Upnishad, is highly venomous to the orthdox as they believe it
planted the seeds of starting of Buddhism and destruction of Vedic religion.
The reason was it had allowed renunciation of household duties and accepting
the “pravajya” any time, wihout going through the tradional Ashramas.
Ahitagni Shankar Ramchandra Rajwade, a Vedic scholar, criticised bitterly this
upnishad in his criticism of ‘nasdiya sukta bhashya‘, saying that when a
sentence ‘yadahrev virjettdahrev pravajet‘ appeared in this upnishad, it
paved the way for all the “bungled and botched” ‘vratyas’, ‘patitas’
etc. for a life of “Liberty-Equality- Fraternity”, thereby reducing
the importance of Brahmins in the society. Though Jabalopnishad advocated ‘sanyas
at any age, there were upnishands that time in existence asking for taking
sanyas after all three ashramas, and also upnishadas which included the ‘Kumbhar
(potter), and ‘Teli‘ (oilmen) among the list of those for whom ‘sanyas
was prohibited, like to impotent, outcaste, deaf, dumb etc. [Raosaheb Kasbe, “manav
aani dharm chintan”
, Sugawa, Pune, 1996, p. 223]

A neglected message from Dr. Ambedkar to OBCs

An
article was published recently in Marathi local magazine by Suhas Sonwane based
on daily Loksatta. The following is a gist of it, translated from
Marathi.

Mr.
Gawande, a close friend of Dr. Ambedkar, who was then the Law Minister in Nehru
Cabinet in 1947, asked for a message for the Maratha people to be published in
the Souvenir of “Maratha Mandir” of Bombay. Ambedkar declined saying
that he had no relation with the Organization or the Marathas, but on
persistent insistence, a message was given and published in the souvenir on
23rd March 1947. It was made available by Shri Vijay Survade recently and was
undocumented till now. Dr. Ambedkar said:

“This
principle will apply not only to Marathas but all Backward Castes. If they do
not wish to be under the thumb of others they should concentrate on two things,
one is politics and the other is education.”

“One
thing I like to impress on you is that the community can live in peace only
when it has enough moral but indirect pressure over the rulers. Even if a
community is numerically weak, it can keep its pressure over the rulers and
create its dominance as is seen by the example of status of present day
Brahmins in India. It is essential that such a pressure is maintained, as
without it, the aims and policies of the state can not have proper direction,
on which depends the development and progress of the state.”

“At
the same time, it must not be forgotten that education is also important. Not
only elementary education but higher education is most essential to keep ahead
in competition of communities in their progress.”

“Higher
education, in my opinion, means that education, which can enable you to occupy
the strategically important places in State administration. Brahmins had to
face a lot of opposition and obstacles, but they are overcoming these and
progressing ahead.”

“I
can not forget, rather I am sad, that many people do not realize that the Caste
system is existing in India for centuries because of inequality and a wide gulf
of difference in education, and they have forgotten that it is likely to
continue for some centuries to come. This gulf between the education of
Brahmins and non-Brahmins will not end just by primary and secondary education.
The difference in status between these can only be reduced by higher education.
Some non-Brahmins must get highly educated and occupy the strategically
important places, which has remained the monopoly of Brahmins since long. I
think this is the duty of the State. If the Govt. can not do it, institutions
like “Maratha Mandir” must undertake this task.”

“I
must emphasize one point here that middle class tries to compare itself with
the highly educated and well placed and well to do community, whereas lower
class all over the world has same fault. The middle class is not as liberal as
upper one, and has no ideology as lower one, which makes it enemy of both the
classes. The middle class Marathas of Maharashtra also have this fault. They
have only two ways out, either to join hands with upper classes and prevent the
lower classes from progress, and the other is to join hands with lower classes
and both together destroy the upper class power coming against the progress of
both. There was a time, they used to be with lower classes, now they seem to be
with the upper class. It is for them to decide which way to go. The future of
not only Indian masses but also their own future depends upon what decision the
Maratha leaders take. As a matter of fact it all should be left to the skill
and wisdom of the leaders of Marathas. But there seems to be a lack of such
wise leadership among the Marathas.”

What
he said about Marathas, equally applies to all OBCs, and still holds true after
half a century. Dr. Ambedkar wrote much to educate the OBCs. It is only now
that OBCs are awakening gradually. It must not be forgotten that the future of
this country depends on them.

Buddhist “Bahujan” meant
Non-Brahmin

Vedic
social stucture was created for supremacy of Brahmins and it was not possible
to liberate all the non-Brahmin masses without destroying it. “Bahujan
Samaj” of Buddha was not the middle castes like Kunbis, Telis and Malis
but comprised of all non-Brahins - Kunbis Telis to Mang Mahars and Nomadic and
ex- Criminal tribes, opined Ambedkarite laureate Yashwant Manohar. [’Prabuddha
Bharat
‘, 30.4.2000]

OBC Problem

It is
not properly realized that the ultimate fate of India depends upon what course
of action the OBCs take. The dalits have already made their choice, that they
do not wish to lead a life of Slavery under the Brahmins. As a matter of fact,
they always wished to free themselves from it one way or the other.
If the present movement of Ambedkar for
conversion to Buddhism is sabotaged and if it fails, they would find other
alternatives.
It is for the OBCs to decide what they wish to do, whether
to join Ambedkarite movement or to join Brahmanical movement. That the
political power in Independent democratic India is mostly in the hands of the
OBCs, is technically speaking, true. But the real power evades them. What is
the reason? There is a lot of awakening among them, these days, and everybody
seems to be searching for the solution, but the real reason is elluding them.
The real reason, in our opinion, is that these people are not concerned with
their “Cultural Slavery” under the Brahmins.

Examples of Brahmanic hostility towards OBCs OBC youth in Maharashtra had
demanded of the Government that certain books which had deroatory remarks about
OBCs be banned. The then Govt. of Maharashtra under Sharad Pawar had declared
the ban. But perhaps it was not effected. The President of Marathi Sahitya
Sammelan held at Panaji (Goa) a few years back, Shri Ram Shewalkar, then
criticised the Maharashtra Govt. for this decision as, he claimed, it was
against the “freedom of speech”, going out of the way by speaking
what was not in the written speech.

The
then Chairman of the Marathi Sanskruti Mandal, a Govt. organization for
promotion of literature, criticised that an OBC saint Tukdoji Maharaj, who
played a great role during Independance movement, is termed as “Rashtra
Sant”
, and in his opinion, only a Brahmin saint Ramdas deserved this
appellation.

Recently
the word “Kunbi” was shown to have been included in a dictionary
mentioned having derogatory meaning, for which the publisher had to apologige.

At all
these times, OBCs had protested. Sometimes, in their caste functions, they talk
of denouncing the Brahmanic slavery. They talk that Eklavya was deceived by
Dronacharya, that killing of Shambuka was wrong. But they can not deny the grip
of cultural slavery on their minds. They can not demand that the name of
Dronacharya given to the highest award in Sports be withdrawn. They can not
stop participating in “Ganesh Festival” started by B. G. Tilak, and
which was then criticised by the Mahatma Phule’s followers in Satya Shodhak
Samaj and requested a ban on it.

As a
matter of fact, the relationship of dalitbahujans to ‘upper’ castes in all the
political parties run by Brahmins, as various teams from A to E of Brahmanism
in Kanshiram’s terms, is like Ram and Hanuman, as put forward by Kancha Ilaiah,
whose observation about Congress applies to all parties under Brahmanic
control:

“…The
Congress was systematically moulded into being a bhadralok party. They talked
about the welfare of the Dalitbahujan castes, while all the state resources
were cornered by the Hindus. The relationship between an ‘upper’ caste man and
a Dalitbahujan caste man within Congress was like that between Rama and
Hanuman. It is a common knowledge that Hanuman was a South Indian Dalit who
joined the imperial army of Rama to fight against the South Indian Nationalist
ruler - Ravana. Hanuman worked day in and day out in the interest of ‘Ramrajya’
(an anti-Dalitbahujan and anti-woman kingdom), yet his place in the
administration was marginal and subservient. Similarly, all the Dalitbahujan
activists who joined the Congress party were given subservient places in the
party hierarchy. Their main task was to mobilize the masses, and organize the ‘praise
melas’
of ‘upper’ caste Congress leaders in whose name they would carry the
party flag. They would organize the photographers to publicize the images of
‘upper’ caste Congress leaders. The aim of an average ‘upper’ caste Congress
leader would be to mould every Dalitbahujan into a trustworthy Hanuman. While
Ambedkarism was creating a small force of conscious people among Dalitbahujans
who were trying to organize into an autonomous political force, a large number
were (perhaps for the sake of fringe benefits that the Congress administration
could offer, perhaps for other reasons) willing to be Hanumans. [p.58]

Kancha
Ilaiah, himself an OBC, has very convincingly put forward that the process of
“Sanskritisation”, i.e. elevating one’s own caste, without
demolishing the framework of Chaturvarna can never end the Brahmanic
domination. Describing how various methods of Sanskritisation are futile, he
observed:

“…Sanskritization
process did not dilute caste identities and caste based humiliations. Many
Dalitbahujans who got Sanskritized later realized that Sanskritization is no
solution to Hindu barbarity. This is the why Ambedkar embraced Buddhism to
build a counterculture to Hinduism, and Periyar Ramasamy Naiker attempted to
establish the hegemony of Dravida culture by attacking Hindu culture and Hindu
Gods.” [Kancha Ilaiah, “Why I am not a Hindu”, publ.
Samaya, Calcutta, third reprint 1998, p.70]

Kancha
Ilaiah, strongly advocates ‘dalitization’ - signifying dignity of labour rather
than of leisure and combining physical and mental knowledge as dalitbahujans do
- rather than hinduization, of the civil society, state and administrative
apparatus, which is the real solution to the problems of India. He feels that
only through liberation of dalitbahujans that the rest of the society, namely,
the ‘upper castes’ can be liberated. And this process, which could be
“very painful and tortuous” should start with addressing to the UC
women, who also feel that dalitbahujans are the “others”, but are
receptive to Dalitbahujan questions, as they seem to prefer “divorce and
remarriage” of dalitbahujans to “wife-murder” policy of UCs.
[p.129]

Second
thing he recommends is the capture of Hindu temples by expelling Brahmins, for
the wealth they hold, convert them into centres of public education, taking
care that the Brahmanical god culture does not get assimilated into
Dalitbahujan culture. It is comparatively easier for neo-Kshatriyas to unlearn
many things than baniyas and brahmins, but he warns that this anti-caste
revolution may be more tortuous than the ‘proletarian cultural revolution’ in
China. He avers about the NRIs that the post capitalist markets into which
these NRIs are integrated did not de-caste them as is very clear from their
pro-Hindutva proclamations from abroad. [Kancha, p.131]

Examples of OBC awakening

Apart
from Dr. Salunkhe’s advice to OBCs, there are other indicaters of OBC
awakening. A recent literary meet of “Mana” community in Maharashtra
declared themselves to be of “Naaga” clan and associated themselves
with the Buddhist culture, denying the Brahmanic one. The important Adivasis
are already dissociating themselves from the hindutvavadis and associating with
Ambedkarites, in spite of strong propaganda by BSO of converting them into
“Vanavasis”. Everybody is realizing that the way of liberation is the
fight against the caste and Brahmin supremacy.

Ambedkar’s Efforts for Adivasis

All
these people are now realizing that Dr. Ambedkar had struggled a lot for
Adivasis also. We must strive for upliftment of BCs and Adivasis said Dr.
Ambedkar. The purpose of keeping them in sub-clause (2) of Hindu Code Bill was
to make some provision for them and Hindu Law would “apply to them only if
it is proved that Hindu customs and Hindu usages are prevallent in that
class”, and it will not apply to them unless “they have adopted the
customs.” [W&S, vol. 14 part 2, p.886-7]

Ambedkar
asked for right of Adult franchise for Adivasis, in 1928, Simon Commision
Statemnt, commenting that Legislatures are the places where “social
battles have to be fought, previlages have to be destroyed, and rights have to
be won”. He avered that their illeteracy should not come in way of giving
them right to vote, as even an illiterate is intellegent and knows his welfare.
[W&S, vol.2, p.471]

Disagreeing
with the Britishers’ idea of keeping the Adivasis segregated, during the
evidence taken before the joint Committee on Indian Constitutional Reforms in
1933, he professed the ideal that these primitive people should not remain
primitive and they should cease to be an isolated part of humanity and take
part in the public affairs of this country like others. That they must not
loose their lands and be landless labourers and their lands be protected from
money lendes by suitable Laws. The education is more neccesary for BCs and
Adivasis, more than anybody else, he said, and wanted adequate representation
for them in legislature assuring the friendship of many BCs. [W&S, vol.2,
p.737 ff.]

Stand of “Dalit Voice”

V. T.
Rajshekhar, for last three years or so is recommending that each caste should
consolidate itself and advocates breaking of SCs into some categories for
purpose of reservations also,
he claims
this will destroy Brahmanism, a tall claim which is based on unproven logic.

Everybody is entitled to his own opinion. But the tragic part is he ascribes
his logic to Kanshiram and Mayawati and erroneously says they also subscribe to
this view. The present author has repeatedly opposed this stand, so have many
prominent Ambedkarites including Bhoja Tarakam and N. G. Uke.

“Jati Todo Samaj Jodo”

One of
the senior Ambedkarites, Dr. Vellu Annamalai from USA ascribes motives of
vested interests to VTR’s attitude. This may or may not be true, but one thing
is sure that Mayawati and Kanshiram do not ascribe to this view. They talk of
Jati Todo Samaj Jodo“, which does not mean, as VTR seems to
suggest, that they advocate consolidation of each caste. On the contrary, they
say break your own caste, forget about wellbeing of only your caste and strive
for making up a “Bahujan Samaj” identity, which alone can
convert the minority into majority as Brahmanism has broken the society into
various castes numbering about six thousand. It should be our aim to unite
these various castes into one identity of “Bahujan”. They believe
that political solution is the most important method and quote Ambedkar that
political power is the master key to all the ailments of non-Brahmins. They
point out to the tremendous work that has been done in U.P. in a short span of
her rule there. They have not tried to strengthen only Chamar caste, as is
presumed by VTR. They have asked to strengthen all Bahujans to come together
and work for common good of all Bahujans including dalits. They never worked
for “separate but equal” castes. Neither Dr. Ambedkar, nor Shahu, nor
Phule worked on the lines mentioned by VTR. They always worked to bring all
together, demolishing walls among the castes, never ever, they advocated
salvation of any individual caste or that of an individual person within a
caste. A well known letter by Dr. Ambedkar to a Mang youth is proof thereof.

G. P.
Deshpande, Prof. Of International politics at JNU and a theater personality in
Delhi advises that a caste-group is never a leader and Dr. Ambedkar never
thought so either. What he identified was central contradiction in Indian
society epitomised in and by the Varna and Jati system. The transformative
movement that India needs so badly today should take note of this
understanding. Ambedkar’s relevance lies precisely in this approach in building
a wider social base. The present Dalit movement, Deshpande comments, is yet to
define itself and demonstrate that it is conscious of the whole within which it
is to function, and avers that it has as much relevance for Savarnas and upper
castes as it has for the Dalits and other classes. He concludes:

“Dalits,
today, have to realise that it is all a question of hegemony. He also has to
realise that in matters of politics and culture, he will provide leadership
only if his politics is of genuine ‘jatyanta’ (end of caste).
Interests of caste have to be secondary to
the interests of end of caste.
” [G. P. Deshpande, “The
Pioneer”, Dalit Millennium Issue, 30 Jan. 2000]

Kancha Ilaiah

He
laments that dalitbahujans are the oldest people of the globe, and yet have no
calender of their own and a largest group in the world without the own
individual dates of birth. They invented through their scientific approach to
production by counting seeds, birds and animals the ‘concept of zero’, which
was “patented” by Bana Bhatta, an Aryan Brahmin. These first
invaders, the Aryan Hindus, condemned the discovery of tool making, leather
making, and wool weaving as Chandala processes.

The
degradation of dalitbahujans was achieved through two methods - danda
and mantra, first ‘Danda’ i.e. violence and second ‘Mantra’ i.e. by
developing the consent systems. As an example of second, he observes:

“Did
not Hinduism make us do the same thing when it forced us to celebrate the birthday
of Rama as Ramnavami, a dateless day, a man who killed my ancestors Tataka,
Vali, Shambhuka and Ravana, and cut off the nose and earlobes of most beautiful
woman of India, Shurpanakha? Jesus Christ’s noble soul did not kill even his
enemies. What a difference in godhood.” [Kancha Ilaiah, “The
Pioneer”, 30 Jan. 2000]

“Post
independent India has not given the dalitbahujans anything except a saga of
atrocities. The Hinduism that rendered this country calenderless is forcing all
dalitbahujans to call themselves Hindus. I made my position very clear that
“I am not a Hindu” as I cannot worship the very gods who killed my
ancestors.
My predicament is that of
Angada, the son of Bali who was killed by Rama and while his father’s dead body
lying there he was forced to worship the killer of his father, Rama. I refuse
to do that.
” [Kancha Ilaiah, “The Pioneer”, 30 Jan. 2000]

Describing
the sufferings of dalitbahujans for last two thousand years, Kancha Ilaiah
describes:

“In
the first millennium, the Shudras along with the Chandalas suffered all kinds
of atrocities at the hands of the Hindu rulers who constructed a Swarna Yuga
(golden age) of their own during political rule of Guptas. It was during this
period that the scientific temper the Shudras constructed among themselves was
destroyed and they were pushed into most dark period of their life. During the
first millennium Manu Dharma as law and Kauttilya’s brutal state craft were
brought into force and they destroyed all the creative ability of the Shudras,
Chandalas and Adivasis (SCAs). Except the text ‘Mritchakatika‘ by
Shudraka, all other texts including ‘Megha Sandesha’ by Kalidasa were
written in the image of Brahmanical leisure- centered classes. The history of
SCAs from then was rendered invisible and non-existent.” [Kancha Ilaiah,
“The Pioneer”, 30 Jan. 2000]

“…
By the beginning of the second millennium, Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas
(BKVs) had eaten away the vitals of Subcontinent. These three leisure and
pleasure centered castes lived in celestial and spiritual luxuries and sexual
orgies. During this period, the BKVs destroyed the Buddhist ethical and
productive life and also symbols of that civilization and errected erotic
temples translating the sexual pleasure-centered discourse of Vatsayana’s ‘Kamasutra’
culture into sculpture at the cost of enormous labour power of the unpaid
sculptors. All the sculptors came from the SCA backgrounds. Investment of
wealth and labour on constructing structures like Khajuraho and Konark
reflected the negative cultural mould of the ruling castes/classes. No single
structure that reflected the productive culture of people was errected during
the period.” [Kancha Ilaiah, “The Pioneer”, 30 Jan. 2000]

Gail Omvedt

Today
as India heads into new millennium, its own sixth millennium of civilization,
it has no clear vision of where it is going, kind of society it wants and how
it proposes to build it, she laments and emphasizes, the fervor of freedom
fighters and Nehruvian socialism are gone and “Gandhian version of Hinduism
is empty now”, and its modern ‘avatar‘, the environmentalists wish
the revival of traditional forms of production and culture in the form of
“Ram Raj”. She feels that neither Gandhism, nor socialism are more
than empty terms in India, and Hindutva Nationalism alternative is itself based
upon the Brahmanic version of Indian tradition. She recommends five new visions
for the Dalitbahujan masses of India:

“1. Alternative enlightenment” - based on moralism,
rationalism, whether religious or aesthetic or agnostic, a genuine democratic
socialism can have its roots only in “Ambedkar’s Buddhism”.

“2. Alternative spirituality” - “…Even before Ambedkar
chose Buddhism in 1956, it had emerged with Pandit Iyothee Thass and Tamil
Buddhism; with Srilanka’s Anagarika Dharmapala, Brahmanand Reddy of Andhra and
Acchutananda of Uttar Pradesh. Phule took Buddhism as an important source of
’shudra-ati-shudra’ tradition. …”

“3. Alternative Economics” - “…Ambedkar’s economic
trajectory went from conventional welfare liberal economics in twenties to
endorsement of state socialism that lasted upto 1947, to a final
disillusionment of Soviet model and efforts to seek alternative Buddhist
economics, described variously as democratic socialism, liberal socialism, a
mixed economy or simply as beyond labels. …”

“4. Alternative Nationalism” - Only Ambedkar realized the
need for English to unite all dalits in India. “This illustrates that real
nationalism in India must (be) realized in the language of the people, not in
the Sanskritised Hindi taught in schools or link language of cinema.”

“5. Empowerment of women” - In contrast to Brahmanic
subordination of women, Dalitbahujan leaders projected a vision of women as
equal citizens with rights to individual fulfillment. [Gail Omvedt, “The
Pioneer”, 30 Jan. 2000]

V. P. Singh

Asked
about effects of globalization on Dalits, he remarked that he was not in favour
of blind liberalization, but certain licenses, quotas and regulations have to
go. However state can not refrain from human investment. Second stage of
justice should be education, which is a key to empowerment. With
commercialization of education, future decision makers will come only from
effluent sections. Social justice is a continuous, self corrective process,
where the neglected will fight and correct the system. [V. P. Singh “The
Pioneer”, 30 Jan. 2000]

Hindu Muslim Unity

Arvind
Das, the editor of New Delhi review journal, “Biblio”, commenting on
the attitude of elites, observe that any of those who demand that Christians
apologize for the Inquisition or Muslims be sorry for being designated “Babur
ki aulad”
do not express the slightest regret for the centuries of
oppression that they have practiced on the dalits, and there is only a
thundering silence in that respect. [Arvind Das, “The Pioneer”, 30
Jan.2000]

Syed
Shahabuddin, editor of Muslim India and former M.P. observes that the Draft
constitution had declared Muslims and SCs as minorities and provided
reservations for both. But Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel moved resolution and
Muslims were denied facilities. He observes:

“…
The goal of Dalit Muslim unity is neither racial kinship nor religious
uniformity but political unity. … Even if the forward Shudras were not
included, the EBCs (the Backward backwards), SCs, STs, and Muslims alone form
about 67.5 percent of the population. … a majority that lives below the
poverty line. They own less than 15 per cent of national resources and have a
long way to go before they become equal partners in the national enterprise -
in power sharing as well as effective participation in decision making.”
[Syed Shahabuddin, “The Pioneer”, 30 Jan. 2000]

He
advocates alliance of deprived, but thinks it is unrealistic to think on
national level. But in MLA segments, where the strength of these people exceeds
fifty percent, it can be tried. In UP BSP and in Maharashtra RPI represent
Dalits, but there is no party of Muslims anywhere, he laments, and stresses the
need for “composite leadership”. He also stresses the need of common
agenda, and feels that the Brahmanical order is on the decline, but not so
Brahmanism. He laments that every emergent class tends to be reborn as a
Neo-Brahmin aspiring for social domination. Those who stand for social justice
cannot accept such succession and, therefore, the battle for Identity, Dignity
and Equality will go on, he avers. [Syed Shahabuddin, “The Pioneer”,
30 Jan. 2000]

Communism and Dalitbahujans

A lot
has been written by Dr. Ambedkar discarding Communist idiology. Prof. T. K.
Oomen at JNU, explains layers of Dalit movement. There are people who
concentrate on economic side and others on caste basis. But he feels that all
Dalits are not proletarians and a small substratum among this traditionally
unprivileged class has undergone a process of elitisation. In addition, Dalit
consciousness is qualitatively different from proletarian or caste
consciousness. Stressing the importance of cultural enlightenment, he comments
that
it is no accident that Dalit
protests in India first crystallized against socio- cultural oppression like
untouchability, which was followed by mobilization for political
enfranchisement and finally protests against economical exploitations were
heard.
[T. K. Oomen, “The Pioneer”, 30 Jan. 2000]

Dalit Unity is not enough

Without
in any way denigrating the efforts of those who are striving for Dalit Unity, I
feel, even if all the Dalits of India, of all castes, shades and colours,
unite, they cannot achieve any power without the help of other oppressed
castes, as they are only about 16% or so. And if there is no power, caravan of
Ambedkar will be on retrograde journey. Many non-dalit non- brahmin castes are
realizing the mischief done by Caste system, they are having dialogue with
Dalits and uniting with them, as is seen in North Indian states. And the
message is spread broad and wide and all regions of this country are awakening.

Should we not destroy our identity?

Are
various leaders ready to give up their identities on argument that Dalit
liberation must get priority over all other demands? One does not have to give
up ones identity, if we are talking at this stage of only political unity. But
if we unite only politically at this stage, a time will come, when we have to
unite religiously and socially also. At that time, I would like to ask these
leaders, “Can they afford not to dissolve their identities?” If they
did, their castes would be wiped out by the BSO. One has only to see the way
these sub-castes are fighting among themselves just for crumbs, they have
forgotten that their real enemy, BSO, is safe and secure in its own citadel.
Even at this stage, infighting among the sub-castes is counter productive and
injurious to the interest of their own caste.

Role of Jains and Osho

There
are always some sporadic news items keep appearing in papers that, some youths
have started a social movement to assert that Jains are not Hindus. We read
that at one time Jainism was a revolutionary religion, and they had to suffer
for it at the hands of BSO. K.A.N.Sastri tells us how eight thousand Jains were
put to death by impalement by a Saiva King and how a festival is celebrated
every year, even now, to commemorate this event in a temple at Madura. [K.
Jamanadas, “Tirupati Balaji was a Buddhist Shrine” p.134]. Whether
same revolutionary spirit will be revived among the Jains again, is more than I
can predict.

I only
know of one Jain revolutionary in modern times. He is Osho Rajnish, who said
about the glass of orange juice given by Robindranath Tagore to break the fast
of M. Gandhi at the conclusion of Poona Pact, “But this orange juice, this
one glass of orange juice, contains millions of people’s blood!” [“Dr.
Ambedkar aur Osho”
, Hindi, by Sandesh Bhalekar p. 43] He had the
courage to denounce Manu in no uncertain terms that if we could forget
Manusmriti whole world would call us more liberal and broad minded; Manu is
sitting on our chest like a big stone. [p.51] Some Ambedkarite scholars like
Lokhande and Bhalekar project him as ‘in lineage of Phule, Shahu and Ambedkar’.
Other equally prominent scholars like Yashwant Manohar call such projections as
pollution (pradushan) in Dalit literature. What role, if any, the followers of Osho,
the world over, will play in opposing BSO in future, is a question better left
alone for the future generations to work out.

Future of Buddhism in India

The
struggle for destruction of Caste is the precursor of the spread of Buddhism,
but need not be a precondition. Equitable distribution of land and fast
implementation of Land Reforms is the need of the day. They know that this will
dilute the hegemony of Brahmins, and so such reforms are not implemented. With
this attitude, one may contrast the honesty of the British, who knew that
imparting education to lower castes will, one day, enable these people to drive
away the alien rulers, but still they did not keep us ignorant. Under such
circumstances we conclude this tract with the prophesy of Dr. Ambedkar about
future of Indian Buddhism.

After
comparing Buddhism with Hinduism, while comparing Buddhism with other non-Hindu
religions, Dr. Ambedkar observes:

(i)
The society must have either the sanction of law or the sanction of morality to
hold it together. Without either society is sure to go pieces. He explains that
in all societies law plays a very small part. It is intended to keep the
minority within the range of social discipline. The majority is left and has to
be left to sustain its social life by the postulates and sanction of morality.
Religion in the sense of morality, must
therefore, remain the governing principle in every society.

(ii)
That religion as defined in the first proposition must be in accord with
science. Religion is bound to lose its respect and therefore become the subject
of ridicule and thereby not merely lose its force as a governing principle of
life but might in course of time be disintegrated and lapse if it is not in
accord with science.
In other words,
religion if it is to function, must be in accord with reason which is merely
another name for science.

(iii)
That religion as a code of social morality,
must recognize the fundamental tenets of liberty, equality and
fraternity.
Unless a religion recognize these three fundamental
principles of social life religion will be doomed.

(iv) That religion must not sanctify or ennoble
poverty.
Renunciation of riches by those who have it may be a blessed
state. But poverty can never be. To declare poverty to be a blessed state is to
pervert religion, to perpetuate vice crime, to consent to make earth a living
hell.

Which
religion fulfills all these requirement, he asks, emphasing that the days of
the Mahatmas are gone and the world cannot have a new Religion and choice is
limited to existing ones, and avers that the only religion which satisfies all
these tests is Buddhism. Buddhism is the only religion which the whole world
can have. The new world needs religion far more than the old world did, and it
can only be religion of the Buddha. The confusion is because most of those who
have written about the Buddha have propagated the idea that the only thing
Buddha taught was Ahimsa. Without minimizing its importance, as it is a great
doctrine and the world can not be saved unless it, he emphasized that Buddha
taught many other things besides Ahimsa. He observed:

“… He taught as a part of religion,
social freedom, intellectual freedom, economic freedom and political freedom.
He taught equality, equality between man and man but between man and woman.
It would be difficult to find a
religious teacher to compare with Buddha whose teachings embrace so many
aspects of the social life of a people whose doctrines are so modern and whose
main concern was to give salvation to man in his life on earth and not to
promise it to him in heaven after he is dead.” [Buddha and future of his
religion”, p. 9]

http://www.vivekananda150jayanti.org/activity-prabuddha-bharat

PraBuddha
Bharat

When a man has
begun to be ashamed of his ancestors, the end has come.
Here am I, Buddha sasana race, yet proud of my
race, proud of my ancestors. I am proud to call myself a Buddhist, I am proud
that I am one of your unworthy servants. I am proud that I am a countryman of
yours, you the descendants of the Buddha sasana, you the descendants of the
most glorious Sages the world ever saw.

They
alone live who live for others; the rest are more dead than alive.

                                                             
-
Abhidhamma Rakkhita

http://manak.org.in/wp-content/uploads/pdf-manak/BUDDHISM%20ITS%20ORIGIN%20AND%20DEVELOPMENT.pdf

BUDDHISM ITS ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT

 

UPASAKA JAGATHEESAN CHNADRASEKHARAN

 

Though a
lotus flower grows in the murky water, it breaks the surface and fragrantly
blooms.

Thus the
wise are born in worldly society yet they rise above it and realize Nibbana -
The Buddha.

Be a Lotus
Flower; follow The Buddha’s Five Precepts and Eightfold Path. The Buddha was

well-acquainted
with all this diversity and tried to provide proper guidance to the society.
His ideas wereat once traditional and revolutionary, transformative and
emancipating. That is why he became easily acceptable to the masses and the
elites. Many kings like Pasenadi of Kosala came to him to seek advice and
tranquility and peace of mind. There are many stories available in the early
literature about Pasenadi’s marriage with a woman of low caste by deceit and
Buddha’s advice to the king to adopt the policy of ‘forget and forgive’. The
Buddha opposed jativada. He was well steeped in the Vedic lore. The contribution
of Buddhism to jambudvipa, that is, the Great Prabudha Bharathian thought and
culture is immense. Buddha was born and brought up in the cultural soil of
Jambudvipa, that is, Prabuddha Bharath, purified the soil to enable blossoming
of the best flowers and fruits in the cultural garden of Jambudvipa, that is,
Prabuddha Bharath. Buddhism has not only awakened Jambudvipa, that is,
Prabuddha Bharath, but also the whole of Asia in the ancient times, and now it
is awakening the whole world in the modern times. Buddhism has been the best
product of Jambudvipa, that is, Prabuddha Bharathian culture to be offered to
the world at large. There is a need to re-establish Buddhism in its pure and
pristine form, and

that will
help Jambudvipa, that is, Prabuddha Bharath and also the world.

 

Buddhism had
an extremely humble beginning for a religion that is now known throughout the

world.
Having its origin in the 6th century B.C.E., makes Buddhism one of the oldest
religions in the world as well. The teachings of Buddhism developed, in many
ways. From one man’s awakenment to our modern world of today, Buddhism has
evolved and adapted to the various cultures and countries it has encountered,
which has enabled it to survive into the 21st century.

In 563
B.C.E., a prince was born into the clan of the Shakyas at the beginning of the
Magadha

period
(564-324 B.C.E.) in the southern Himalayan town of Lumbini, which is in
Southern

Nepal/Northern
Jambudvipa, that is, Prabuddha Bharath. His name was Siddhartha Gautama, but he
would later be known simply as the Buddha, which means “the awakened one.”
Gautama’s father sought to keep his son isolated from the realities of the
world - including old age, death, and suffering - and he succeeded for
approximately 30 years. Despite the best efforts of his father, he began to
come into contact with the outside world and the realities of human existence.

Siddhartha
Gautama discovered the Buddhist Middle Way—a path of moderation away from the

extremes of
self-indulgence and self-mortification. Siddhartha Gautama attained awakenment
sitting under a pipal tree, now known as the Bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya, India.
Gautama, from then on, was known as “The Perfectly Self-Awakened One,” the
Samyaksambuddha. Buddha found patronage in the ruler of Magadha, emperor
Bimbisara. The emperor accepted Buddhism as personal faith and allowed the
establishment of many Buddhist “Viharas.” This eventually

led to the
renaming of the entire region as Bihar.

 

At the Deer
Park near VârâGasî in northern India, Buddha set in motion the Wheel of Dhamma

by
delivering his first sermon to the group of five companions with whom he had
previously sought awakenment. They, together with the Buddha, formed the first
SaEgha, the company of Buddhist monks, and hence, the first formation of Triple
Gem (Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha) was completed.

 

For the
remaining years of his life, the Buddha traveled in the Gangetic Plain of
Northeastern

India and
other regions. Buddha attained Parinibbana in the abandoned jungles of
Kuúinâra. Just before Buddha died, he told his followers that thereafter the
Dhamma would be their leader. The early arhats considered Gautama’s words the
primary source of Dhamma (doctrine, teaching) and Vinaya (rules of discipline
and community living), and took great pains to formulate and transmit his
teachings accurately. Nonetheless, no ungarnished collection of his sayings has
survived. The version of the Canon (accepted scripture) preserved in Pali,
Sanskrit, Chinese, and Tibetan are sectarian variants of a corpus that grew and
crystallized during three centuries of oral transmission.

 

The Buddha
did not appoint a successor, and asked his followers to work for personal
salvation.

The
teachings of the Buddha existed only in oral traditions. The Sangha held a
number of Buddhist councils in order to reach consensus on matters of Buddhist
doctrine and practice.

According to
the scriptures, a monk by the name of Mahakasyapa presided over the first

Buddhist
council held at Rajgir. Its purpose was to recite and agree on the Buddha’s
actual teachings and on monastic discipline. Some scholars consider this
council fictitious.

 

The Second
Buddhist Council is said to have taken place at Vaishâli. Its purpose was to
deal

with
questionable monastic practices like the use of money, the drinking of palm
wine, and other

irregularities;
the council declared these practices unlawful. What is commonly called the
Third Buddhist Council was held at Pâtaliputra, and was allegedly called by
Emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century BCE. Organized by the monk Moggaliputta
Tissa, it was held in order to rid the sangha of the large number of monks who
had joined the order because of its royal patronage. Most scholars now believe
this council was exclusively Theravada, and that the dispatch of

missionaries
to various countries at about this time was nothing to do with it.

 

What is
often called the Fourth Buddhist council is generally believed to have been
held under

the
patronage of emperor Kanishka at Jâlandhar, though the late Monseigneur
Professor Lamotte

considered
it fictitious. It is generally believed to have been a council of the
Sarvastivada School.

Following
the Buddha’s passing, many philosophical movements emerged within Buddhism.

The first of
these were the various Early Buddhist Schools (including Theravada). Later
Mahayana

Buddhism and
Vajrayana Buddhism arose.

 

The Early
Buddhist Schools were the various schools in which pre-sectarian Buddhism split
in the first few centuries after the passing away of the Buddha (in about the
fifth century BCE). These schools have in common an attitude to the scriptures,
that doesn’t accept the inclusion of the Mahayana Sutras as valid teachings of
Gautama Buddha. It accepts the Tipitaka as the final recension of the teachings
of the Buddha.

 

• Theravada
is the single remaining representative of the Early Buddhist Schools of Indian
Buddhism. Theravada is now practiced mainly in Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand,
Cambodia, and Laos.

 

• Another
prominent Nikaya school was the Sarvastivada, and much of its doctrine was
incorporated into Tibetan Buddhism. It included one of the main branches of
Indian Abhidhanmma that was instrumental in the creation of the Yogacara
doctrine. Its system of monastic rules Vinaya is still used in Tibetan
Buddhism and has also been influential in monastic Chinese Buddhism.

 

The Mahâyâna
branch of Buddhism popularized the concept of a Bodhisattva (literally

awakened
being
or “a Buddha-to-be”) and the worship of
the bodhisattvas. Bodhisattvas like Mañjuúrî, Avalokiteoevara, and Maitreya
became the focus of popular devotional worship in the Mahâyâna sect.

 

According to
the Mahâyâna tradition, the key attributes of the bodhisattvas are compassion
and kindness. Mahayana Buddhism includes the following Indian schools:

 

• Mâdhyamaka
(Middle Way), a Mahâyâna tradition popularized by Nâgârjuna and
Aoevaghoca.

 

• Yogâcâra (Consciousness
Only
), founded by AsaEga and Vasubandhu.

A form of
Indian Buddhism that emerged in the 4th century AD and later became widespread
in

Tibet, and
Japan. The Vajrayana developed in India, but was spread to Tibet, and has also
been practicedin Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, and Mongolia.

 

This school
emerged from forest meditation traditions in northern India, in which the
entire emphasis of teachings was on practice, using skillful means to attain
the goal of awakenment in one’s present lifetime. This form is also known as
Vajrayana (The Diamond Vehicle). Tantrism is an esoteric tradition.

 

Its
initiation ceremonies involve entry into a mandala, a mystic circle or symbolic
map of the spiritual universe. Also central to Tantrism is the use of mudras
and mantras. Vajrayana became the dominant form of Buddhism in Tibet and was
also transmitted through China to Japan, where it continues to be practiced by
the Shingon sect.

 

It is
generally accepted that the spread of Buddhism from India to Tibet and then to
the wider regions of Central and East Asia took place mainly via the trade (and
religious) route that went through the valley of Kathmandu, situated in
present-day Nepal. The valley, forms the cradle of the Nepali state, and since the
farthest point in historical time, has found itself under the cultural
influence of the South Asian Hindu (and also Buddhist) civilization. However,
being a distant outpost of Hinduism (and Buddhism), it was spared from the
ravages of later conquests and social upheavals. Even after Buddhism died in
the heartland, it survived in Kathmandu valley. Monastic records in the
numerous monasteries show that till the mid-medieval period in Nepali history,
Tibetan students regularly came there for learning Buddhism from the local
spiritual masters. The Tibetan religious scripts Lantsha and Vartu are variants
of the Ranjana system used by the Newars of Kathmandu. However, due to numerous
social, economic and political factors prominent among which was declining
patronage from the Hindu rulers, Buddhist monasticism in the valley died. By
then Tibetan Buddhism had already gained prominence in the region.

 

Today, in
the urban centres of Kathmandu valley, we still find Indian Mahayana Buddhism,
modified through mixing with Vajrayana, practiced by the local Buddhist Newer
population.

Asoka and
the Mauryan Empire

 

The Maurya
empire reached its peak at the time of Emperor Asoka, who himself converted to
Buddhism after the Battle of Kalinga. This heralded a long period of stability
under the Buddhist emperor. The power of the empire was vast—ambassadors were
sent to other countries to propagate Buddhism. Greek envoy Megasthenes
describes the wealth of the Mauryan capital. Stupas, pillars and edicts on
stone remain at Sanchi, Sarnath and Mathura, indicating the extent of the
empire.

 

Emperor
Ashoka the Great (304 BCE–232 BCE) was the ruler of the Maurya Empire from 273
BCE to 232 BCE.

 

Ashoka
reigned over most of India after a series of military campaigns. Emperor
Ashoka’s kingdom stretched from South Asia and beyond, from present-day
Afghanistan and parts of Persia in the west, to Bengal and Assam in the east,
and as far south as Mysore.

 

According to
legend, emperor Ashoka was overwhelmed by guilt after the conquest of Kalinga,
following which he accepted Buddhism as personal faith with the help of his
mentors Radhasvami and Manjushri. Ashoka established monuments marking several
significant sites in the life of Shakyamuni Buddha, and according to Buddhist
tradition was closely involved in the preservation and transmission of
Buddhism.[18]

 

He used his
position to propagate the relatively new philosophy to new heights, as far as
ancient Rome and Egypt. Graeco-Bactrians, Sakas and Indo-Parthians Menander was
the most famous Bactrian king. He ruled from Taxila and later from Sagala
(Sialkot). He rebuilt Taxila (Sirkap) and Pushkalavati. He became Buddhist and
remembered in Buddhists records due to his discussions with a great Buddhist
philosopher in the book Milinda Panha.

 

By 90 BCE
Parthians took control of eastern Iran and around 50 BCE put an end to last
remnants of Greek rule in Afghanistan. By around 7 CE an Indo-Parthian dynasty
succeeded in taking control of Gandhara. Parthians continued to support Greek
artistic traditions in Gandhara. The start of the Gandharan Greco-Buddhist art
is dated to the period between 50 BCE and 75 CE.

Kushan
Empire Kushan Empire under emperor Kanishka was known as the Kingdom of
Gandhara. The Buddhist art spread outward from Gandhara to other parts of Asia.
He greatly encouraged Buddhism. Before Kanishka Buddha was not represented in
human form. In Gandhara Mahayana Buddhism flourished and Buddha was represented
in human form. This tower was reported by Fa-Hsien, Sun-Yun and Hsuan-Tsang.
This structure was destroyed and

rebuilt many
times and remained in semi ruins until it was finally destroyed by Mahmud of
Ghazni in 11th century. The Pala and Sena era Under the rule of the Pala and
Sena kings, large mahaviharas flourished in what is now Bihar and Bengal.

According to
Tibetan sources, five great Mahaviharas stood out: Vikramaúîla, the premier
university of the era; Nalanda, past its prime but still illustrious, Somapura,
Odantapurâ, and Jaggadala.[19] The five monasteries formed a network; “all of
them were under state supervision” and their existed “a system of co-ordination
among them . . it seems from the evidence that the different seats of Buddhist
learning that functioned in eastern India under the Pâla were regarded together
as forming a network, an interlinked group of institutions,” and it was common
for great scholars to move easily from position to position among them Dhamma
masters Jambudvipa, that is Prabuddha Bharath shramanas propagated Buddhism in
various reigons, including East Asia and Central Asia.

 

In the
Edicts of Ashoka, Ashoka mentions the Hellenistic kings of the period as a
recipient of

his Buddhist
proselytism. Emissaries of Ashoka, such as Dharmarakkita, are described in Pali
sources as leading Greek (“Yona”) Buddhist monks, active in Buddhist
proselytism (the Mahavamsa, XII). Roman Historical accounts describe an embassy
sent by the “ Jambudvipa, that is Prabuddha Bharath king Pandion (Pandya?),
also named Porus,” to Caesar Augustus around the 1st century. The embassy was
travelling with a diplomatic letter in Greek, and one of its members was a
sramana who burned himself alive in Athens to demonstrate his faith. The event
made a sensation and was described by Nicolaus of Damascus, who met the embassy
at Antioch, and related by Strabo (XV,1,73)[23] and Dio Cassius (liv, 9). A
tomb was made to the sramana, still visible in the time of Plutarch, which bore
the mention: (“The sramana master from Barygaza in India”) Lokaksema is the
earliest known Buddhist monk to have translated Mahayana Buddhist

scriptures
into the Chinese language. Gandharan monks Jnanagupta and Prajna contributed
through several important translations of Sanskrit sutras into Chinese
language.

 

The
Jambudvipa, that is Prabuddha Bharathian dhyana master Buddhabhadra was the
founding

abbot and
patriarch of the Shaolin Temple. Buddhist monk and esoteric master from North
India (6th Century CE), Bodhiruci is regarded as the patriarch of
the Ti-Lun school. Bodhidharma (c. 6th century) was the Buddhist Bhikkhu
traditionally credited as the founder of Zen Buddhism in China.

 

In 580,
Jambudvipa, that is Prabuddha Bharathian monk Vinitaruci travelled to Vietnam.
This,

then, would
be the first appearance of Vietnamese Zen, or Thien Buddhism.

Padmasambhava,
meaning “lotus-born”, is said to have brought Tantric Buddhism to Tibet
in

the 8th
century. In Bhutan and Tibet he is better known as “Guru Rinpoche” (“Precious
Master”
) where followers of the Nyingma school regard him as the second
Buddha. Shantarakshita, abbot of Nalanda and founder of the Yogachara-Madhyamika
is said to have helped Padmasambhava establish Buddhism in Tibet.

 

Indian monk
Atisha, holder of the mind training (Tib. lojong) teachings, is
considered an

indirect
founder of the Geluk school of Tibetan Buddhism. Indian monks, such as Vajrabodhi,
also

travelled to
Indonesia to propagate Buddhism.

 

Revival of
Buddhism in India
Anagarika Dharmapala
and the Maha Bodhi Society
A revival of Buddhism began in India in 1891,
when the Sri Lankan Buddhist leader Anagarika Dharmapala founded the Maha Bodhi
Society. Its activities expanded to involve the promotion of Buddhism in India.
In June 1892, a meeting of Buddhists took place at Darjeeling. Dharmapala spoke
to Tibetan Buddhists and presented a relic of the Buddha to be sent to the
Dalai Lama.

 

Dharmapala
built many viharas and temples in India, including the one at Sarnath, the
place of

Buddha’s
first sermon. He died in 1933, the same year he was ordained a bhikkhu.
Bengal Buddhist Association In 1892,
Kripasaran Mahasthavir founded the Bengal Buddhist Association (Bauddha Dharmankur
Sabha) in Calcutta. Kripasaran (1865–1926) was instrumental in uniting the
Buddhist community of Bengal and North East India. He built other branches of
the Bengal Buddhist Association at Shimla (1907), Lucknow (1907), Dibrugarh
(1908), Ranchi (1915), Shillong (1918), Darjeeling (1919),

Tatanagar
Jamshedpur (1922), as well as in Sakpura, Satbaria, Noapara, Uninepura,
Chittagong Region in present day Bangladesh.

 

Tibetan Buddhism Following the Dalai Lama’s departure from Tibet, Indian Prime Minister
offered to permit him
and his
followers to establish a “government-in-exile” in Dharamsala. Tibetan exiles have settled in the
town, numbering several thousand. Most of these exiles live in Upper Dharamsala, or McLeod Ganj,
where they established monasteries, temples and schools. The town is sometimes
known as “Little Lhasa”, after the Tibetan capital city, and has become one of
the centres of Buddhism in the world.

 

Aboriginal
Inhabitants of Jambudvipa, that is, the Great Prabuddha Bharathians (Scheduled

Caste)
Buddhist movement A Buddhist revivalist movement among Aboriginal Inhabitants
of Jambudvipa, that is, the Great Prabuddha Bharathians (Scheduled Caste) was
initiated in 1890s by Aboriginal Inhabitants of Jambudvipa, that is, the Great
Prabuddha Bharathians (Scheduled Caste) leaders such as Iyothee Thass, Brahmananda
Reddy, and Dharmananda Kosambi. In the 1950s, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar turned his
attention to Buddhism and travelled to Sri Lanka (then Ceylon) to attend a
convention of Buddhist scholars and monks. While dedicating a new Buddhist
vihara near Pune, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar announced that he was writing a book on
Buddhism, and that as soon as it was finished, he planned to make a formal
conversion to Buddhism. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar twice visited Burma in 1954; the
second time in order to attend the third conference of the World Fellowship of
Buddhists in Rangoon. In 1955, he founded the Bharatiya Bauddha Mahasabha, or
the Buddhist Society of India. He completed his final work, The Buddha and His

Dhamma, in
1956. It was published posthumously.

 

After
meetings with the Sri Lankan Buddhist monk Hammalawa Saddhatissa,Ambedkar

organised a
formal public ceremony for himself and his supporters in Nagpur on October 14,
1956. Accepting the Three Refuges and Five Precepts from a Buddhist monk in the
traditional manner, Ambedkar completed his own conversion. He then proceeded to
convert an estimated 500,000 of his supporters who were gathered around him.
Taking the 22 Vows, Ambedkar and his supporters explicitly condemned and
rejected Hinduism and Hindu philosophy. He then traveled to Kathmandu in Nepal
to attend the Fourth World Buddhist Conference. He completed his final manuscript,
The Buddha or Karl Marx on December 2, 1956.

 

Vipassana movement

 

The Buddhist
meditation tradition of Vipassana meditation is growing in popularity in Jambudvipa,
that is, the Great Prabuddha Bharath. Many institutions—both government and
private sector—now offer courses for their employees. This form is mainly
practiced by the elite and middle class Indians. This movement has spread to
many other countries in Europe, America and Asia. And through the Internet to all
over the world. Attemps are being made to celebrate Buddha Jayanthi in all the
countries in general and White House in particular to spread the teachings of
Buddha non-violence and peace for the welfare and happiness of all beings.

 

References:

http://www.sobhana.net/

http://www.flipkart.com/origin-development-buddhism-india-geeta/8188629472-ew23fvt8ef

http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/13229/buddhisms_origin_and_development.html?cat=34

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Buddhism_in_India

http://manak.org.in/?page_id=14

MANAK
RESEARCH FOUNDATION
(YOUNKER SCIENTIFIC AND SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH FOUNDATION)
(AN INITIATIVE TO STRENGTHEN INDIA-KOREA RELATIONSHIP)

 

Buddhism

Buddhism (Pali /Sanskrit
:
Buddha Dharma) is a religion
and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices,
largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as
the Buddha (Pâli/Sanskrit “the awakened one”). The Buddha lived and taught in
the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th
centuries BCE. He is recognized by Buddhists as an awakened or enlightened
teacher who shared his insights to help sentient beings end suffering (or
dukkha), achieve nirvana, and escape what is seen as a cycle of suffering and
rebirth.

Two
major branches of Buddhism are recognized: Theravada (“The School of the
Elders”) and Mahayana (“The Great Vehicle”). Theravada—the oldest surviving
branch—has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Mahayana is
found throughout East Asia and includes the traditions of Pure Land, Zen,
Nichiren Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhism, Shingon, Tendai and Shinnyo-en. In some
classifications Vajrayana—a subcategory of Mahayana practiced in Tibet and
Mongolia—is recognized as a third branch. While Buddhism remains most popular
within Asia, both branches are now found throughout the world. Estimates of
Buddhists worldwide vary significantly depending on the way Buddhist adherence
is defined. Lower estimates are between 350–500 million.

Buddhist
schools vary on the exact nature of the path to liberation, the importance and
canonicity of various teachings and scriptures, and especially their respective
practices. The foundations of Buddhist tradition and practice are the Three
Jewels: the Buddha, the Dharma (the teachings), and the Sangha (the community).
Taking “refuge in the triple gem” has traditionally been a declaration and
commitment to being on the Buddhist path and in general distinguishes a
Buddhist from a non-Buddhist. Other practices may include following ethical
precepts, support of the monastic community, renouncing conventional living and
becoming a monastic, the development of mindfulness and practice of meditation,
cultivation of higher wisdom and discernment, study of scriptures, devotional
practices, ceremonies, and in the Mahayana tradition, invocation of buddhas and
bodhisattvas.

BUDDHISM
: ITS ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT

Though
a lotus flower grows in the murky water, it breaks the surface and fragrantly
blooms. Thus the wise are born in worldly society yet they rise above it and
realize Nibbana – The Buddha.

Be a
Lotus Flower; follow The Buddha’s Five Precepts and Eightfold Path. The Buddha
was well-acquainted with all this diversity and tried to provide proper
guidance to the society. His ideas were at once traditional and revolutionary,
transformative and emancipating. That is why he became easily acceptable to the
masses and the elites. Many kings like Pasenadi of Kosala came to him to seek
advice and tranquility and peace of mind. There are many stories available in
the early literature about Pasenadi’s marriage with a woman of low caste by
deceit and Buddha’s advice to the king to adopt the policy of ‘forget and
forgive’. The Buddha opposed jativada. He was well steeped in the Vedic lore.
The contribution of Buddhism to jambudvipa, that is, the Great Prabudha
Bharathian thought and culture is immense. Buddha was born and brought up in
the cultural soil of Jambudvipa, that is, Prabuddha Bharath, purified the soil
to enable blossoming of the best flowers and fruits in the cultural garden of
Jambudvipa, that is, Prabuddha Bharath. Buddhism has not only awakened
Jambudvipa, that is, Prabuddha Bharath, but also the whole of Asia in the
ancient times, and now it is awakening the whole world in the modern times.
Buddhism has been the best product of Jambudvipa, that is, Prabuddha Bharathian
culture to be offered to the world at large. There is a need to re-establish
Buddhism in its pure and pristine form, and that will help Jambudvipa, that is,
Prabuddha Bharath and also the world.

Buddhism
had an extremely humble beginning for a religion that is now known throughout
the world. Having its origin in the 6th century B.C.E., makes Buddhism one of
the oldest religions in the world as well. The teachings of Buddhism developed,
in many ways. From one man’s awakenment to our modern world of today, Buddhism
has evolved and adapted to the various cultures and countries it has
encountered, which has enabled it to survive into the 21st century.

In
563 B.C.E., a prince was born into the clan of the Shakyas at the beginning of
the Magadha period (564-324 B.C.E.) in the southern Himalayan town of Lumbini,
which is in Southern Nepal/Northern Jambudvipa, that is, Prabuddha Bharath. His
name was Siddhartha Gautama, but he would later be known simply as the Buddha,
which means “the awakened one.” Gautama’s father sought to keep his son
isolated from the realities of the world – including old age, death, and
suffering – and he succeeded for approximately 30 years. Despite the best
efforts of his father, he began to come into contact with the outside world and
the realities of human existence.

Siddhartha
Gautama discovered the Buddhist Middle Way—a path of moderation away from the
extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification.

Siddhartha
Gautama attained awakenment sitting under a pipal tree, now known as the Bodhi
tree in Bodh Gaya, India. Gautama, from then on, was known as
“The Perfectly Self-Awakened One,” the
Samyaksambuddha.

Buddha
found patronage in the ruler of Magadha, emperor Bimbisara. The emperor
accepted Buddhism as personal faith and allowed the establishment of many
Buddhist “Viharas.” This eventually led to the renaming of the entire region as
Bihar.

At
the Deer Park near VârâGasî in northern India, Buddha set in motion the Wheel
of Dhamma by delivering his first sermon to the group of five companions with
whom he had previously sought awakenment. They, together with the Buddha,
formed the first SaEgha, the company of Buddhist monks, and hence, the first
formation of Triple Gem (Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha) was completed.

For
the remaining years of his life, the Buddha traveled in the Gangetic Plain of
Northeastern India and other regions.

Buddha
attained Parinibbana in the abandoned jungles of Kuúinâra. Just before Buddha
died, he told his followers that thereafter the Dhamma would be their leader.
The early arhats considered Gautama’s words the primary source of Dhamma
(doctrine, teaching) and Vinaya (rules of discipline and community living), and
took great pains to formulate and transmit his teachings accurately.
Nonetheless, no ungarnished collection of his sayings has survived. The version
of the Canon (accepted scripture) preserved in Pali, Sanskrit, Chinese, and
Tibetan are sectarian variants of a corpus that grew and crystallized during
three centuries of oral transmission.

The
Buddha did not appoint a successor, and asked his followers to work for
personal salvation. The teachings of the Buddha existed only in oral
traditions. The Sangha held a number of Buddhist councils in order to reach
consensus on matters of Buddhist doctrine and practice.

According
to the scriptures, a monk by the name of Mahakasyapa presided over the first
Buddhist council held at Rajgir. Its purpose was to recite and agree on the
Buddha’s actual teachings and on monastic discipline. Some scholars consider
this council fictitious.

The
Second Buddhist Council is said to have taken place at Vaishâli. Its purpose
was to deal with questionable monastic practices like the use of money, the
drinking of palm wine, and other irregularities; the council declared these
practices unlawful.

What
is commonly called the Third Buddhist Council was held at Pâtaliputra, and was
allegedly called by Emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century BCE. Organized by the
monk Moggaliputta Tissa, it was held in order to rid the sangha of the large
number of monks who had joined the order because of its royal patronage. Most
scholars now believe this council was exclusively Theravada, and that the
dispatch of missionaries to various countries at about this time was nothing to
do with it.

What
is often called the Fourth Buddhist council is generally believed to have been
held under the patronage of emperor Kanishka at Jâlandhar, though the late
Monseigneur Professor Lamotte considered it fictitious. It is generally
believed to have been a council of the Sarvastivada School.

Following
the Buddha’s passing, many philosophical movements emerged within Buddhism. The
first of these were the various Early Buddhist Schools (including Theravada).
Later Mahayana Buddhism and Vajrayana Buddhism arose.

The
Early Buddhist Schools were the various schools in which pre-sectarian Buddhism
split in the first few centuries after the passing away of the Buddha (in about
the fifth century BCE). These schools have in common an attitude to the
scriptures, that doesn’t accept the inclusion of the Mahayana Sutras as valid
teachings of Gautama Buddha. It accepts the Tipitaka as the final recension of
the teachings of the Buddha.

The
Mahâyâna branch of Buddhism popularized the concept of a
Bodhisattva (literally enlightened being or “a
Buddha-to-be”) and the worship of the bodhisattvas. Bodhisattvas like Mañjuúrî,
Avalokiteœvara, and Maitreya became the focus of popular devotional worship in
the Mahâyâna sect. According to the Mahâyâna tradition, the key attributes of
the bodhisattvas are compassion and kindness.

Mahayana
Buddhism includes the following Indian schools:

A
form of Indian Buddhism that emerged in the 4th century AD and later became
widespread in Tibet, and Japan. The Vajrayana developed in India, but was
spread to Tibet, and has also been practiced in Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, and
Mongolia.

This
school emerged from forest meditation traditions in northern India, in which
the entire emphasis of teachings was on practice, using skillful means to
attain the goal of awakenment in one’s present lifetime. This form is also
known as Vajrayana (
The Diamond
Vehicle
). Tantrism is an esoteric tradition. Its initiation
ceremonies involve entry into a mandala, a mystic circle or symbolic map of the
spiritual universe. Also central to Tantrism is the use of mudras and mantras.
Vajrayana became the dominant form of Buddhism in Tibet and was also
transmitted through China to Japan, where it continues to be practiced by the
Shingon sect.

It
is generally accepted that the spread of Buddhism from India to Tibet and then
to the wider regions of Central and East Asia took place mainly via the trade (and
religious) route that went through the valley of Kathmandu, situated in
present-day Nepal. The valley, forms the cradle of the Nepali state, and since
the farthest point in historical time, has found itself under the cultural
influence of the South Asian Hindu (and also Buddhist) civilization. However,
being a distant outpost of Hinduism (and Buddhism), it was spared from the
ravages of later conquests and social upheavals. Even after Buddhism died in
the heartland, it survived in Kathmandu valley. Monastic records in the
numerous monasteries show that till the mid-medieval period in Nepali history,
Tibetan students regularly came there for learning Buddhism from the local
spiritual masters. The Tibetan religious scripts Lantsha and Vartu are variants
of the Ranjana system used by the Newars of Kathmandu. However, due to numerous
social, economic and political factors prominent among which was declining
patronage from the Hindu rulers, Buddhist monasticism in the valley died. By
then Tibetan Buddhism had already gained prominence in the region. Today, in
the urban centres of Kathmandu valley, we still find Indian Mahayana Buddhism,
modified through mixing with Vajrayana, practiced by the local Buddhist Newer
population.

Asoka
and the Mauryan Empire

The
Maurya empire reached its peak at the time of Emperor Asoka, who himself
converted to Buddhism after the Battle of Kalinga. This heralded a long period
of stability under the Buddhist emperor. The power of the empire was
vast—ambassadors were sent to other countries to propagate Buddhism. Greek
envoy Megasthenes describes the wealth of the Mauryan capital. Stupas, pillars
and edicts on stone remain at Sanchi, Sarnath and Mathura, indicating the
extent of the empire.

Emperor
Ashoka the Great (304 BCE–232 BCE) was the ruler of the Maurya Empire from 273
BCE to 232 BCE.

Ashoka
reigned over most of India after a series of military campaigns. Emperor
Ashoka’s kingdom stretched from South Asia and beyond, from present-day
Afghanistan and parts of Persia in the west, to Bengal and Assam in the east,
and as far south as Mysore.

According
to legend, emperor Ashoka was overwhelmed by guilt after the conquest of
Kalinga, following which he accepted Buddhism as personal faith with the help
of his mentors Radhasvami and Manjushri. Ashoka established monuments marking
several significant sites in the life of Shakyamuni Buddha, and according to
Buddhist tradition was closely involved in the preservation and transmission of
Buddhism.[18] He used his position to propagate the relatively new
philosophy to new heights, as far as ancient Rome and Egypt.

Graeco-Bactrians,
Sakas and Indo-Parthians

Menander
was the most famous Bactrian king. He ruled from Taxila and later from Sagala
(Sialkot). He rebuilt Taxila (Sirkap) and Pushkalavati. He became Buddhist and
remembered in Buddhists records due to his discussions with a great Buddhist
philosopher in the book
Milinda Panha.

By
90 BCE Parthians took control of eastern Iran and around 50 BCE put an end to
last remnants of Greek rule in Afghanistan. By around 7 CE an Indo-Parthian
dynasty succeeded in taking control of Gandhara. Parthians continued to support
Greek artistic traditions in Gandhara. The start of the Gandharan
Greco-Buddhist art is dated to the period between 50 BCE and 75 CE.

Kushan
Empire

Kushan
Empire under emperor Kanishka was known as the Kingdom of Gandhara. The
Buddhist art spread outward from Gandhara to other parts of Asia. He greatly
encouraged Buddhism. Before Kanishka Buddha was not represented in human form.
In Gandhara Mahayana Buddhism flourished and Buddha was represented in human
form.

This
tower was reported by Fa-Hsien, Sun-Yun and Hsuan-Tsang. This structure was
destroyed and rebuilt many times and remained in semi ruins until it was
finally destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni in 11th century.

The
Pala and Sena era

Under
the rule of the Pala and Sena kings, large mahaviharas flourished in what is
now Bihar and Bengal. According to Tibetan sources, five great Mahaviharas
stood out: Vikramaúîla, the premier university of the era; Nalanda, past its
prime but still illustrious, Somapura, Odantapurâ, and Jaggadala.[19] The
five monasteries formed a network; “all of them were under state supervision”
and their existed “a system of co-ordination among them . . it seems from the
evidence that the different seats of Buddhist learning that functioned in
eastern India under the Pâla were regarded together as forming a network, an
interlinked group of institutions,” and it was common for great scholars to
move easily from position to position among them

Dhamma
masters

Jambudvipa,
that is Prabuddha Bharath shramanas propagated Buddhism in various reigons,
including East Asia and Central Asia.

In
the Edicts of Ashoka, Ashoka mentions the Hellenistic kings of the period as a
recipient of his Buddhist proselytism. Emissaries of Ashoka, such as
Dharmarakkita, are described in Pali sources as leading Greek (“Yona”) Buddhist
monks, active in Buddhist proselytism (the Mahavamsa, XII).

Roman
Historical accounts describe an embassy sent by the “ Jambudvipa, that is
Prabuddha Bharath king Pandion (Pandya?), also named Porus,” to Caesar Augustus
around the 1st century. The embassy was travelling with a diplomatic letter in
Greek, and one of its members was a sramana who burned himself alive in Athens
to demonstrate his faith. The event made a sensation and was described by
Nicolaus of Damascus, who met the embassy at Antioch, and related by Strabo
(XV,1,73)[23] and Dio Cassius (liv, 9). A tomb was made to the sramana,
still visible in the time of Plutarch, which bore the mention:

(“The
sramana master from Barygaza in India”)

Lokaksema
is the earliest known Buddhist monk to have translated Mahayana Buddhist
scriptures into the Chinese language. Gandharan monks Jnanagupta and Prajna
contributed through several important translations of Sanskrit sutras into
Chinese language.

The
Jambudvipa, that is Prabuddha Bharathian dhyana master Buddhabhadra was the
founding abbot and patriarch of the Shaolin Temple. Buddhist monk and esoteric
master from North India (6th Century CE), Bodhiruci is regarded as the
patriarch of the Ti-Lun school. Bodhidharma (c. 6th century) was the Buddhist
Bhikkhu traditionally credited as the founder of Zen Buddhism in China.

In
580, Jambudvipa, that is Prabuddha Bharathian monk Vinitaruci travelled to
Vietnam. This, then, would be the first appearance of Vietnamese Zen, or Thien
Buddhism.

Padmasambhava,
meaning
“lotus-born”, is said to
have brought Tantric Buddhism to Tibet in the 8th century. In Bhutan and Tibet
he is better known as “Guru Rinpoche” (
“Precious
Master”
) where followers of the Nyingma school regard him as the
second Buddha. Shantarakshita, abbot of Nalanda and founder of the
Yogachara-Madhyamika is said to have helped Padmasambhava establish Buddhism in
Tibet.

Indian
monk Atisha, holder of the
mind training (Tib. lojong)
teachings, is considered an indirect founder of the Geluk school of Tibetan
Buddhism. Indian monks, such as Vajrabodhi, also travelled to Indonesia to
propagate Buddhism.

Revival
of Buddhism in India

Anagarika
Dharmapala and the Maha Bodhi Society

A
revival of Buddhism began in India in 1891, when the Sri Lankan Buddhist leader
Anagarika Dharmapala founded the Maha Bodhi Society. Its activities expanded to
involve the promotion of Buddhism in India. In June 1892, a meeting of
Buddhists took place at Darjeeling. Dharmapala spoke to Tibetan Buddhists and
presented a relic of the Buddha to be sent to the Dalai Lama.

Dharmapala
built many viharas and temples in India, including the one at Sarnath, the
place of Buddha’s first sermon. He died in 1933, the same year he was ordained
a bhikkhu.

Bengal
Buddhist Association

In
1892, Kripasaran Mahasthavir founded the Bengal Buddhist Association (Bauddha
Dharmankur Sabha) in Calcutta. Kripasaran (1865–1926) was instrumental in
uniting the Buddhist community of Bengal and North East India. He built other
branches of the Bengal Buddhist Association at Shimla (1907), Lucknow (1907),
Dibrugarh (1908), Ranchi (1915), Shillong (1918), Darjeeling (1919), Tatanagar
Jamshedpur (1922), as well as in Sakpura, Satbaria, Noapara, Uninepura,
Chittagong Region in present day Bangladesh.

Tibetan
Buddhism

Following
the Dalai Lama’s departure from Tibet, Indian Prime Minister offered to permit
him and his followers to establish a “government-in-exile” in Dharamsala.

Tibetan
exiles have settled in the town, numbering several thousand. Most of these
exiles live in Upper Dharamsala, or McLeod Ganj, where they established
monasteries, temples and schools. The town is sometimes known as “Little
Lhasa”, after the Tibetan capital city, and has become one of the centres of
Buddhism in the world.

Aboriginal
Inhabitants of Jambudvipa, that is, the Great Prabuddha Bharathians (Scheduled
Caste) Buddhist movement

A
Buddhist revivalist movement among Aboriginal Inhabitants of Jambudvipa, that
is, the Great Prabuddha Bharathians (Scheduled Caste) was initiated in 1890s by
Aboriginal Inhabitants of Jambudvipa, that is, the Great Prabuddha Bharathians
(Scheduled Caste) leaders such as Iyothee Thass, Brahmananda Reddy, and
Dharmananda Kosambi. In the 1950s, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar turned his attention to
Buddhism and travelled to Sri Lanka (then Ceylon) to attend a convention of
Buddhist scholars and monks. While dedicating a new Buddhist vihara near Pune,
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar announced that he was writing a book on Buddhism, and that
as soon as it was finished, he planned to make a formal conversion to Buddhism.
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar twice visited Burma in 1954;    the second time in
order to attend the third conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists in
Rangoon. In 1955, he founded the Bharatiya Bauddha Mahasabha, or the Buddhist
Society of India. He completed his final work, The Buddha and His Dhamma, in
1956. It was published posthumously.

After
meetings with the Sri Lankan Buddhist monk Hammalawa Saddhatissa,Ambedkar
organised a formal public ceremony for himself and his supporters in Nagpur on
October 14, 1956. Accepting the Three Refuges and Five Precepts from a Buddhist
monk in the traditional manner, Ambedkar completed his own conversion. He then
proceeded to convert an estimated 500,000 of his supporters who were gathered
around him. Taking the 22 Vows, Ambedkar and his supporters explicitly
condemned and rejected Hinduism and Hindu philosophy. He then traveled to
Kathmandu in Nepal to attend the Fourth World Buddhist Conference. He completed
his final manuscript, The Buddha or Karl Marx on December 2, 1956.

Vipassana
movement

The
Buddhist meditation tradition of Vipassana meditation is growing in popularity
in Jambudvipa, that is, the Great Prabuddha Bharath. Many institutions—both
government and private sector—now offer courses for their employees. This form
is mainly practiced by the elite and middle class Indians. This movement has
spread to many other countries in Europe, America and Asia. And through the Internet
to all over the world. Attemps are being made to celebrate Buddha Jayanthi in
all the countries in general and White House in particular to spread the
teachings of Buddha non-violence and peace for the welfare and happiness of all
beings

BUDDHISM IN KOREA

Prior to the arrival of Buddhism, the main religious
practice in Korea was that of Shamanism which still holds a significant place
in Korean life. Shamanism holds that human beings as well as natural forces and
inanimate objects all possess spirits which must be appeased. Even the highly
educated and devout Buddhist Koreans have a strong belief in spirits and
regularly visit the Shaman for a protective ritual.

Since
Shamanism was not seen to be morally in conflict with Buddhism, the two
religions blended to produce a form of Buddhism that is uniquely Korean. It is
assumed that Buddhism first arrived on the Korean peninsular in 372 A.D. when a
monk arrived from China bringing Chinese texts and statues. It was an
elementary form of Buddhism that he taught, consisting of the teaching of Karma
and the search for happiness which seemed to blend well with the indigenous
Shamanism, so it was quickly assimilated.

 

 

 

At
that time the peninsular consisted of three separate kingdoms of Goguryeo to
the north, Baekje to the south west and Silla on the south east. It was in
Goguryeo that Buddhism was first established. In 384 the King of Baekje was
converted to Buddhism and decreed that his subjects should follow suit. It was
not until 527, however, that Buddhism became established in Silla where it
flourished. In 668 A.D. Silla conquered the other kingdoms and Korea was
unified. During the United Silla Period, the arts flourished producing such
magnificent items as the Seoguram image, which is in a cave near Gyeongju, the
beautiful Maitreya image and the Bulguksa temple in Gyeongju with its famous
twin stupas. The Koryo Dynasty which gave its name to present day Korea,
assumed power in the 10th century. Its era heralded such important events as
the creation of the Korean Tripitaka, the most complete collection of the
Buddhist scriptures carved by hand in Chinese characters on over 80,000 wood
blocks, as well as the birth of the famous monk Chi-nul who stressed a balance
between the “mind only” meditation practice of Son and the study of the
scriptures which is today the main feature of Korean Seon practice. Chi-nul
founded the Songgwangsa temple on Mount Jogye, and this temple remained the
headquarters of the Jogye order which is the main sect of Korean Seon to this
day. From the 14th century, with the assumption to the throne of the Joseon or
Yi Dynasty and their adoption of Neo-Confucianism, Buddhism fell into decline.
They destroyed all Buddhist temples in the main cities and banished the monks
to the mountains where, even today, the main temples are to be found. With the
Japanese occupation from 1910 to 1945, Buddhism was again tolerated but the
celibate monks were forced to take wives. Today, Korea, which was once a
leading Buddhist country, boasts only 50% of the population practicing this
religion.

The
daily routine in a Seon temple usually commences at 3 a.m. when the monks
awaken to the sound of the Moktak, wooden hand drum, shaped like a fish. The
legend tells of a naughty monk, who, after he died, was reborn as a fish. Out
of his back grew a tree which caused him much pain. One day, his former teacher
saw him swimming in a river and recognised him. He begged his teacher to remove
the tree and carve a fish shaped instrument from it. The master did so and the
sound of the Moktak has inspired the people whenever it is played in the
temple. The monks arise and prepare themselves for morning chanting and
meditation.

Monks
in the meditation hall sit in straight lines so as not to look at each other,
but only concentrate on the process of meditation. The monks are summoned to
the meditation hall by the sound of a large bell which calls all humans, a drum
which calls the animals, a cloud shaped gong which calls creatures of the air
and a large log carved into the shape of a fish which calls all creatures that
live in water. These sounds invite all sentient beings to listen to the
chanting of the words of liberation taught by the Buddha. Buddhism holds as
sacred what is known as the Triple Gem (
Triratana in Sanskrit),
which is the Buddha – the Teacher, the Dharma or his Teaching, and the Sangha
or the order of followers – the clergy. Korea has temples devoted to each of
these Gems. The T’ongdo – Sa (Sa is the Korean word for temple) is devoted to
the Buddha as relics of the Buddha are enshrined there in a sacred stupa. The
Haein – Sa represents the Teaching as it houses the famous wood blocks of the
Buddhist texts or the Tripitaka Koreana. These wood blocks which are held in
the library are, perhaps, the oldest wood blocks still used for printing which
still exist in the world. The third temple of the Triple Gem is Songgwang – Sa.

April
8th by the lunar calendar is celebrated as the Buddha’s birthday and is
considered in Korea as an important holiday. Large Buddhist murals, which
during the year are kept in storage, are hung in the temple courtyard. Painted
with pigments these murals have been uniquely developed through Korean
Buddhism. Also during this auspicious day large paper lanterns are bought by
pilgrims to be hung in the temple courtyard. At night a candle is placed inside
the lantern. The glowing lantern symbolises the effort of pilgrims to light the
way for ignorant people to seek Nirvana.

 

Korean Buddhist Art

Introduction
: Buddhism and Art

The
Buddha, his life and teachings, have been an inspiration to artists in many
countries all through the ages. Korea is no exception. An appreciation of
Korean culture is incomplete without an understanding of Buddhism’s role in the
development of the Korean arts.

For Korean Buddhist art is everywhere evident throughout
the long history of the peninsula. Over half of the nation’s 230 National
Treasures are Buddhist: At least 37 statues, stone Buddhas and rock reliefs, 25
pagodas, 14 buildings, 15 stupas and lanterns, bells, several paintings and
several copies of Sutras, including the huge set of the Tripitaka wood-blocks
at Haein-sa Temple.

Nearly
half of Korea’s 848 officially designated treasures are Buddhist too. And the
lists continue on through national, regional and local cultural properties; new
discoveries are frequently being made. There would have been much more if it
were not for the ravages of invasion and the greed of foreign collectors.
Numerous works of Korean Buddhist art can be found in Japanese and in Western
Collections.

Buddhist
principles influencing the arts are sometimes obvious and sometimes not so
obvious. Some fundamental Buddhist principles found in Korean Art are:

1.

Inclusiveness

-

the ability of Buddhism to absorb
different influences. This can be seen in the variety of cultures and
philosophies absorbed into Korean Buddhist Art: Theravada, Mahayana, Tantric,
Shamanism and Confucianism.

2.

Interrelatedness

-

the combining of several arts to portray
its true beauty; the Monk’s Dance “Sung-mu” demonstrates a performing art
which is a combination of music, dance, embroidery and costume.

3.

Interdependence

-

the relationship of the parts to the
whole and of the whole to the parts.

 

All Korean temples are built without nails so that they can
be dismantled and moved to new locations, a true example of interdependence.

Like
these principles, Buddhist values are also prominent in Korean Art. From the
art of making paper lotus lanterns for the Buddha’s Birthday to building a
temple complex, most Buddhist arts combine such values as patience,
perseverance and perfection, all absorbed during the lengthy training period.

The
student is encouraged to use natural products and to do everything by hand.
For, he is not only learning the art or craft but he is also practicing
Buddhism as he studies.

Now
that these traditional values are declining, however, monks and laity are
reviving many ancient Buddhist arts and craft, such as paper-making,
bookbinding and the traditional tea ceremonies.

All
Buddhist Art also delivers a philosophical message. The Buddhas, usually
depicted in teaching or meditating pose, represent the potential human
perfection within all of us.

The
Bodhisattvas represent, depending on the level of the follower’s development,
either a spiritual being to turn to in times of crisis or the latent ability in
all of us to aid others in times of distress. The temple in general, represents
a place of peace, tranquillity and perfection, a source of inspiration on our
spiritual path.

 

ARCHITECTURE


A temple compound includes many
different buildings. Ranging from grandiose main Buddha Halls to tiny
Mountain Spirit Shrines perched on the sides of mountains; no two temple
buildings are alike. Each one is built so that the aerial view of the
compound forms a mandala, and the main hall the focal point of the compound
is enhanced by the juxtaposition of the other buildings.The main hall is
the heart of a temple complex and so it is built with special care and
ceremony. It is highly ornamented and decorated to enhance the beauty of
its complex architecture.Just about every temple includes a separate
Mountain Spirit Shrine in its compound. The mountain spirit, the resident
spirit long before Buddhism, arrived in Korea, has territorial rights to
the mountain and consequently gets a higher place in the temple compound.
Many temples also have separate buildings for the Seven Star Spirit (Big
Dipper) and for the Recluse.One of the most important shrines is for
Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva, who usually has green hair and waits to help
tormented people. The Judges of the Hells are placed along the walls of the
shrine. 

Often
there is yet another hall dedicated to Avalokitesvara, the Bodhisattva of
Compassion. Sometimes a special shrine is dedicated to the Buddha’s
disciples who have attained enlightenment: the Disciple’s Hall. Sometimes
there are sixteen and sometimes there are as many as one thousand
disciples.

Most
traditional buildings are built of wood. Usually no nails are used and the
wood, often, whole tree trunks are merely interlocked. In this way, the
buildings can be dismantled and moved to different locations. Each piece of
the building depends on all of the others and the whole depends on each
part. In the cities, cement is being more and more used, but much care is
taken to make it look like the traditional wood complex.

The
roofs are of special interest. Layer upon layer of whole tree trunks of
varying girth are interlaced to produce the strength necessary to support
the heavy tiles. Sometimes tiered and gabled to an extreme degree,
aesthetic proportions are always kept in mind. An interesting fact is that
traditionally, people believed that evil travels in straight lines. In
order to stop it from entering the building the ends of the roofs are
curved up.

The
temple builders are so keen to preserve the traditional atmosphere that
they even go to the trouble of making the washing and toilet facilities in
the same style as the other buildings. When you visit a temple, you will
notice a lot of wood and stone used to make different objects.

Stonework
is abundant in Korean Temples. Some of the most evident objects are stupas
and pagoda.

Stupas
were Buddhism’s very first works of art, and in India you can still see
some dating from two hundred years before our era. They were mainly built
over the remains of Buddhist saints. In China, they were modified into the
multi-storied forms that we call pagodas, but they were still monuments to
great personalities. Once introduced to Korea, they were changed again,
making them typically Korean.

Other
stone works often complement temple compounds. Granite lanterns are a
special Korean artistic addition to any temple. Traditionally they lit the
way for the monks going to the 3:30 a.m. chanting. There are also water
cisterns at springs and the steep stone stairs, which take the visitor up
into the inspiring world of the Buddhas in the Main Hall.

Wood
is specially valued by Korean Buddhists, as evidenced by wooden temple
buildings, with their wooden floors, their superb, wooden rafters, and
wooden doors. Not only are the rafters beautifully finished with cocks’
heads, but also the doors are covered in delightful details. Look at them
closely. There are little bugs crawling over flower petals and butterflies
fluttering across mountains.

Wood
is not only enjoyed aesthetically but it is also appreciated for its sound
and feel. The ubiquitous mokt’ak (a wooden percussion instrument)
accompanies all ceremonies and can be heard breaking through the early
morning to awaken the temple community. Monks and lay people carry around
wooden prayer beads, used to help concentration. And there are also statues
made of wood, sometimes gilded and sometimes not. Wooden sutra cases and
boxes for the giant paintings displayed on festival days are also made of
wood.

As
soon as you enter a temple building you will see many different statue. Let
us now take a look at the most important ones but first the Story of the
Mokt’ak.

The
Story of the Mokt’ak

Once
there was a naughty monk. After some time he died and was reborn as a fish.
Out of his back grew a tree that caused him much pain.

One
day his teacher saw him. The disciple begged that the teacher to break off
the tree and carve a fish shaped instrument from it.

The
teacher did so and the instrument, the rnokt’ak, inspired the people
whenever it was played in the temple.

 

STONE AND WOOD

 

Stonework
is abundant in Korean Temples. Some of the most evident objects are stupas and
pagoda.

Stupas were Buddhism’s very first works of art, and in
India you can still see some dating from two hundred years before our era. They
were mainly built over the remains of Buddhist saints. In China, they were
modified into the multi-storied forms that we call pagodas, but they were still
monuments to great personalities. Once introduced to Korea, they were changed
again, making them typically Korean.

Other
stone works often complement temple compounds. Granite lanterns are a special
Korean artistic addition to any temple. Traditionally they lit the way for the
monks going to the 3:30 a.m. chanting. There are also water cisterns at springs
and the steep stone stairs, which take the visitor up into the inspiring world
of the Buddhas in the Main Hall.

Wood
is specially valued by Korean Buddhists, as evidenced by wooden temple
buildings, with their wooden floors, their superb, wooden rafters, and wooden
doors. Not only are the rafters beautifully finished with cocks’ heads, but
also the doors are covered in delightful details. Look at them closely. There
are little bugs crawling over flower petals and butterflies fluttering across
mountains.

Wood
is not only enjoyed aesthetically but it is also appreciated for its sound and
feel. The ubiquitous mokt’ak (a wooden percussion instrument) accompanies all
ceremonies and can be heard breaking through the early morning to awaken the
temple community. Monks and lay people carry around wooden prayer beads, used
to help concentration. And there are also statues made of wood, sometimes
gilded and sometimes not. Wooden sutra cases and boxes for the giant paintings
displayed on festival days are also made of wood.

As
soon as you enter a temple building you will see many different statue. Let us
now take a look at the most important ones but first the Story of the Mokt’ak.

The
Story of the Mokt’ak

Once
there was a naughty monk. After some time he died and was reborn as a fish. Out
of his back grew a tree that caused him much pain.

One
day his teacher saw him. The disciple begged that the teacher to break off the
tree and carve a fish shaped instrument from it.

The
teacher did so and the instrument, the rnokt’ak, inspired the people whenever
it was played in the temple.

 

STATUES

Most
statues are made of cast bronze, gilded with gold leaf and gold powder,
although many ancient statues were made of cast iron or wood.

The sizes, positions and gestures of
statuary at any given temple depend on a number of factors. Affluence,
historical period and sect all play a role in choosing a statue. The most
common Buddhas to be found are:

1.

Sakyamuni, the historical Buddha usually
depicted with a bare shoulder and hands in his lap or one touching the floor.

2.

Vairocana, the cosmic Buddha, usually
depicted holding his index finger.

3.

Amitabha, the Buddha of light and of the
Western Paradise – usually golden.

4.

Maitreya, the Future Buddha, usually in a
posture of reflection: the Laughing Buddha of the Chinese.

5.

Bhaisagyaguru, the Medicine Buddha,
always white, usually holds a bowl for medicine.

 

Most Bodhisattva statues are of various
forms,Sitting next to Amitabha:

1.

Avalokitesvara, the Bodhisattva of
Compassion.

2.

Mahasthramprapta, the Bodhisattva of
Power, usually carries a lotus.

Sitting next to Sakyamuni:

1.

Samantabhadra, the Bodhisattva of
Practice, usually carries a lotus.

2.

Manjusri, the Bodhisattva of Wisdom,
usually rides a lion when alone.

Two Bodhisattvas, who are often housed
separately, are Avalokitesvara and Ksitigarbha. A special and very popular
form of Avalokitesvara, the Bodhisattva of Compassion, is the one with a
thousand hands. Each hand has an eye so that it can see how to help all
beings. Another important Bodhisattva is Ksitigarbha. He usually has green
hair and waits to help all tormented people. Beside Ksitigarbha, placed along
the walls of the shrine, there are the colourfully dressed judges of the
Hells.

According
to mythology, these judges wait to determine your fate after death. Sometimes
there is a shrine for the enlightened disciples of the Buddha. These look like
small Buddhas and are often white.

PAINTING
“Dancheong”

In
Korean, temples and palaces are painted in a particular style called
“dancheong”. Dancheong means “red and blue”, the principal colours used in
these colourful cosmic designs. Originally arriving with Buddhism when it was
brought from China, the patterns of dancheong were modified in Korea. Dancheong
preserves the wood from insects and the elements and adds glory and richness to
the buildings.

The outside eaves, the inside rafters and the ceilings are
covered with intricate dancheong patterns. On the main temple beams and among
the rafters, interwoven between the patterns, you will find pictures of
spirits, ancient monks, Bodhisattvas and dragons, to name a few. It is said
that during the Silla period, dancheong was even found on commoners’ home. Now
it is limited to temples and palaces as well as some musical instruments.

Buddhist
paintings are not only beautiful but also full of meaning. Symbols are included
in the paintings; beauty and meaning are interrelated to instruct the visitor
on his spiritual quest, reminding him of the path.

On the outside ends of big buildings, up towards the roof,
you will see three circles. These represent heaven, earth and man, the three
important things that Dangun, the mythological founder of Korea, is supposed to
have brought with him. They have come to represent the Buddha, his teaching and
the community of Buddhists.

Lotuses,
are another common symbol found in Buddhist paintings, are to be seen in many
forms. The lotus grows from mud (representing ignorance) up to the clear
sunlight (representing enlightenment).

The
symbol of the fish is often painted on the main Buddha table. It represents the
effort and determination necessary for attaining enlightenment, for the fish
supposedly, never closes its eyes.

If
you look closely, you will find swastika everywhere: on the outside of
buildings, woven into patterns, even in the decorations in the subways and in roadside
railings. The swastika is an ancient Buddhist symbol of peace, harmony and good
luck.

MURALS

Behind
the main statue in the main hall there is usually a large mural. These are
added to give a clearer, more complete image of the Buddhist cosmic view to the
visitor. Depending on the size and nature of the hall, murals are more or less
complex arrangements of figures taken from a variety of specific, traditional
designs.

If
you look closely, you will find all kinds of interesting personalities peering
out. Amitabha is the most frequent central figure to be found, and usually he
is shown with rays of light coming from his head. In the foreground, towards
the bottom left and right corners, there are usually guardians.

Bodhisattvas are often placed nearer to the feet of the
principal figure and, in the middle, there are the gods and ordinary people.

Above,
often near the main Buddha’s head, there are monks. Look for an old-looking
one, Kasyapa, and a younger one, the Buddha Sakyamuni’s attendant Ananda. Apart
from the main mural behind the statue, there are numerous other protector
paintings. These depict beings that are more human in appearance; they
represent the human world of desire.

Many
earth/sky gods, derived from Indian religions as well as Taoist spirits and
Confucian characters, are all included in Korean Buddhist iconography.

Other
popular Buddhist paintings in the main hall feature the Dragon King, who is
easily identified by his outlandish eyebrows and mustache, and the Bodhisattva
Tongjin. As protector of the Dharma and the Lotus Sutra in particular, Tongjin
is often the

centre of a protector painting and can be identified by
his sword and rather ostentatiously feathered headgear.

In
separate, smaller shrines look for the delightful Mountain Spirit painting. As
the resident spirit long before Buddhism arrived in Korea, the Mountain Spirit
is always flanked by a friendly tiger and by an attendant. Often the painting
has great charm and character, as do those of the Seven Star Spirit (Big Dipper)
and the Recluse.

Son
Art

Seon
Art (Seon is the Korean form of Ch’an/Zen) tries to communicate visually what
speech often fails to do – the true nature of reality, the experience of which
is the goal of Son. This is done through spontaneity, included in the Buddhist
values incorporated in the training.

Mastering
the brush may take years, even decades of persevering practice in order to
achieve patience, and perfection. Then spontaneity is added…

Son
painting is completely unpredictable, except for Bodhidharma and the Oxherding
Pictures. In Korea this abbreviated form of Buddhist art has drawn new interest
in recent years.

DANCE AND MUSIC

With
a history that goes back to the Unified Silla period, Korea’s most renowned
dance, ” Sungmu” or the Monk’s Dance, is an independent coming together of
colour, music, and movement. Choreographed for stage presentation, it is most
ch

allenging to perform. The dance depicts the emotions of a
monk torn between the monastic and mundane worlds.

The
two most common ritual dances, both in praise of the Buddha, are the Butterfly
Dance and the Cymbals Dance. Both are usually performed off stage in a temple
compound.

 

Pomp’e
is the most captivating form of Buddhist ceremonial music. Origination in
India, it is believed to have first been brought to Silla from Tang China by
Ch’an (Seon) Master Jin-gam (774-850). In pomp’e, music mixes with song and
chant, solo voices interchange with chorus. Long ago, 72 instruments
accompanied the singer; these days there are only thirteen instruments.
Contemporary versions of Pomp’e are shorter than the lengthy chants of old, and
fewer monks take the time to learn this ancient art. Consequently, it has
become more frequently performed on stage. The recitative texts were originally
brought to Korea in Chinese and Sanskrit but some portions are now read and
recited in Korean, accompanied by only two instruments, a gong and cymbals.

Buddhist
music is constantly evolving and new compositions in Buddhist hymns and popular
songs have been added in recent years and becoming popular all over Korea. Now
there are singing groups in most large temples and concert are frequently
performed.

http://www.infolanka.com/org/srilanka/cult/7.htm

Midweek Review


Some introspection on
future of Buddhism

By
Dr. K. Jamanadas

There
are some articles appearing in local Ambedkarite Press about the strength of
Buddhists in various parts of the country. [Dr. G.K.Dongavgaokar, “Bahujan
Nayak”, 26.10.2001] Dr. Ambedkar taught us the way of the Buddha to keep
away from all misery. He taught us that we all are the descendants of the
Nagas, who are now represented by the SC/ST and OBCs of today, and converts
from these to other egalitarian faiths. Dr. Ambedkar wished us to achieve
political power and wanted to make all India Buddhist. Neither of his two
missions seem to have been fulfilled as yet.

According
to 1991 census total Indian population was 836 million, out of which 130
million SCs, 60 million STs, and 424 million OBCs. The Buddhists were 0.76% of
total population. SCs were 15%. Total population of Buddhists was 6.3 million.
There are 25 states and Union Territories where Buddhists are less than 1%, and
16 districts have not a single Buddhist. Maharashtra has 6.39%. Then only the
North East (excluding Assam and Nagaland) has an average of about 5% of
traditional Buddhist population, Himachal 1.24% - perhaps due to Dalai Lama,
top most is Sikkim with 27.18%. Laddhak is not mentioned. The States of Bihar,
Rajasthan, Andhra, Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Hariyana, U.P., Gujarat, Kerala, Orrisa,
Punjab and surprisingly Nagaland and Assam has negligible population of
Buddhists.

Concentrating
only on Maharashtra, we find that Mahars are 6.45%, non-Mahar SCs are 4.64% and
Registered Buddhists are 6.39% of total population. Nine Districts of Vidarbha
and three of Marathwada only have more than average of 6.39%, Akola being
highest of 16.79%. Mumbai has highest (557,089) and Nagpur district second
highest (493,208) numbers.

The
numbers are diminishing from census to census from Nashik, Ahmednagar, Sholapur
and Sangali Districts, whereas other western Maharashtra districts dwindle from
year to year. We have to find out why. I have a feeling that it is because,
many Buddhists register themselves as Hindus for the sake of Reservation
facilities. They are de facto Buddhists but de jure Hindus. But the Election
commission has already reduced the reserved seats in Parliament and
legislatures. As now the Buddhists are getting reservation facilities in
services etc. people are registering themselves as Buddhists, so we see
dwindling figures.

To
create casteless society is the aim

The
struggle for destruction of Caste should have to precede the spread of
Buddhism, but need not be a precondition. Equitable distribution of land and
fast implementation of Land Reforms is the need of the day. The elite rulers
know that this will dilute the hegemony of Brahmins, and so such reforms are
not implemented by the present rulers for last half a century. Dalits feel and
contrast the honesty of the British, who imparted education to lower castes
knowing well that this will enable these people to drive them away.

Here
comes the necessity of political power. None of your aims can be achieved
without political power. The ground has to be prepared by the religious moral
thought by the thinkers for a new rule to start, as explained by Dr. Ambedkar.
Maurya Dynasty started after the Buddha and Mahavira, Christian states
flourished after the teachings of Jesus, Islamic states flourished throughout
the world after the Prophet, Shivaji established his kingdom after cultural
revolution of Tukaram, and Ranjit Singh established his kingdom after the
cultural revolution of the Sikh Gurus.

This
is all true. But it is only a half truth. The full truth is that, the religion
to spread further, after initial planting of the seeds, requires the support of
the State. Buddhism only spread after the efforts of Ashoka, Milinda and
Kanishka. Brahmanism flourished after the counter-revolution of Pushyamitra and
invasion and destruction of small republics of Nagas by Somudragupta. Islam
spread in India not only by the efforts of Sufi saints but also the Sultanate
at Delhi helped. Christianity spread in India not only by the Missionaries, who
undeniably did a good job, but also by the rule of the Portuguese, the French
and the British. Now that the British have left leaving the reigns of power to
the Brahmanical Social Order (BSO), the religion of BSO is bound to flourish.
But the flourishing of BSO means bringing back the slavery of the masses. That
is the reason why RSS is trying to maintain power.

Unity
of SC/ST is not enough

The
masses comprise of SC/ST/OBC as seen above. The rule of democracy implies rule
by majority, with safeguards to minorities. But in India it is other way round,
the minority BSO rules and there are some trivial safeguards to the majority
Dalitbahujans. If this has to change, there is a need of Unity of all
“Natural allies”. We ALL have to unite, dissolving our own identity
if comes to that. I have written on this time and again. But the stages of
unity start from political unity and end in social unity passing through the
religious unity. Who are the “natural” allies of SC/STs? The OBCs of
course.

Atrocities
on Dalits and OBCs

For
a Dalit, atrocities are a part of daily life, as Raja Sekhar Vundru, mentions:

“…
Atrocities are part of their daily life. For Dalits persecution is as old as
Shambuka, denial as old as Eklavya; revolution as old as Buddha; valor as old
as Asura; slavery as old as dasyu and untouchability as old as touch.
Nevertheless, Manudharma’s tentacles are wide spread and all-compassing.”
[”The Pioneer”, 30 Jan. 2000]

OBCs,
except perhaps a few in “creamy layer”, are also not immune from it.
The fate of MBCs is not much different from that of Dalits. Phoolan Devi, mentioned
during one of her TV interviews shown recently after her murder, that every BC
woman has to face possibility of rape, every day, when she goes to field to
answer call of nature.

Murder,
rape, arson are events of every day life for Dalits and BCs. Dr. Tulsiram has
observed:

“…
The religion based on caste system has annihilated millions of Dalits over the
centuries. About three million Dalit women have been raped and around one
million Dalits killed from the time of Independence. This is 25 times more than
number of soldiers killed during the wars fought after independence. That is
why Dalits do not need Aryan culture or Hindu Dharma based on caste any more.
…” [Dr. Tulsiram, “The Pioneer”, 30 Jan. 2000]

Caste
hatred towards Dr. Ambedkar

Many
UCs argue, these days, that all old scriptures are outdated and need not be
criticized by opponents. But it must be remembered that the leaders of religion
like Heads of Pithas, Mahantas, Shankaracharyas or the leaders of organizations
propagating the religion have done nothing to declare that these books are out
of date and should not be followed. On the contrary, we find that even
personalities like Ambedkar are denigrated on caste basis.

When
Dr. Ambedkar was trying for “Hindu Code Bill”, which was to remove
the injustice on Hindu women, Jereshastri the then Shankaracharya of Sankeswara
Pitha, wrote:

“…
Milk or Ganga water may be holy, but if it comes through a nallah or a gutter,
it can not be considered sacred. Similarly, the ‘Dharmasastra’ howsoever it may
be authentic, it can not be considered authentic because it has come from a
‘Mahar’ like Dr. Ambedkar. Ambedkar is a scholar, it is said that his study of
scriptures is great, but he is an ’antyaja’ . How can the Ganga of Scriptures
coming from the nallah of Ambedkar be holy? It must be discardable like milk
coming from the gutter…” [‘ Nav Bharat ’, daily, 21 Jan. 1950, q/b
Yashwant Manohar 1999: p.73]

What
do OBCs have to say?

It
has been repeatedly seen that the atrocities committed on SC/ST/Buddhists are
always done by the OBCs, and never directly by the BSO. The hand that throws
the burning torches over the huts of Dalits belongs to an OBC but his brain
belongs to BSO. This is what all of us, the SCs, STs, and OBCs have to realize.
Unless this happens, there can be no unity.

What
are the chances of this happening? Contrary to the thinking of some scholars, I
feel the chances are very bright these days because of the awakening of OBCs.
If the leaders of the Oppressed could force such an unity, the results would be
appreciable, otherwise, the OBC, which form the bigger section of the equally
oppressed lot, could join hands with the oppressors. In a way, the future of
this country depends on OBCs. Post-Mandal Commission OBC is not the same, there
is awakening, though may be not enough. Many OBC scholars including A. H.
Salunkhe, a prominent OBC thinker and writer of Maharashtra and many of his
co-workers are advising the OBCs to realize that OBCs and the Dalits are co-
sufferers. They are propagating that Vedic culture came into being after the
destruction of Indus Culture. Among those who opposed Vedic culture, prominent
was the Buddha and his movement was much more powerful than that of Phule,
Shahu and Ambedkar. [‘Prabuddha Bharat’, 30.4.2000]

He
also said that, Amartya Sen, the Nobel Laureate, pointed out that the main
reason why education did not reach the grass root levels in India was that
machinery of education remained in the hands of fistful of priests, as
contrasted against in nations like Sri Lanka and others, because they were
following Buddhism. [‘Prabuddha Bharat’, 30.4.2000]

Amartya
Sen, when questioned by journalists about his preceptor and the father of his
ideals on Welfare State, had acknowledged the Buddha as his ‘guru’ and Ashoka
as his ideal, a fact which never appeared in any BSO media. [‘Prabuddha
Bharat’, 30.4.2000]

Salunkhe
explained how Indus Culture was followed by Vedic onslaught, how Buddhism was
followed by Counter-revolution by Manu, how Saints and Shivaji was followed by
Peshawai and now how after the revolution of Phule, Shahu and Ambedkar we are
faced with danger of destruction of this system by Brahmanic counter-
revolution by the R.S.S.

If
we wish to avert this calamity the Bahujans and Dalits must sort out the points
of conflicts and unite, he stressed. [‘Prabuddha Bharat’, 30.4.2000]

Salunkhe
urged the OBCs to discard Wamana as an incarnation, and questioned how he can
be our ideal instead of Bali. He also opined that OBC youths should reexamine
the ‘Gita’, and if it teaches you to follow the duties of ‘Chaturvarnya’, you
would be required to throw it away. ‘Gita’ talks of

‘swadharma’,
which does not mean Hindu or Islam religion, it means “Chaturvarnya
dharma”. He asked OBCs to evaluate the history of the Buddha through their
own values instead of those of Manu, Shankara or Brahmanic books. He asked them
to examine their own religion and ask themselves what exactly, it offers them.
It offers nothing but slavery, he stressed. [‘Prabuddha Bharat’, 30.4.2000]

Salunkhe
averred that it is a false history, taught to us that Shankara defeated
Buddhism, but if he had evolved some strategy and helped its decline, not only
for Dalits, but also even for people in grass root level, and for those who
call themselves as Kshatriyas and for Marathas and Kunbis and OBCs, it was not
a golden day of glory but it is was a moment of pushing them into darkness and
slavery.

He
advised that the sufferings of Dalits are the sufferings of OBCs, and vice
versa . We are not fighting against any caste, not even Brahmins, but against a
system of inequality imposed over Dalits and OBCs by the religious books. Some
OBCs think they are Kshatriyas, and should side with Brahmins because of our
scriptures which condemn the ‘Shudras’ and not the ‘Kshatriyas’. Their
mentality is to accept the slavery of Brahmins but not to consider Dalits equal
to themselves. But if you see the reality, you would find that not only
Ekalavya and Shambuka suffered but also Tukaram, an OBC saint, suffered. For
the scriptures, Dalits and OBCs are both ’Shudras’ and both deserve
condemnation and are deprived from their rights. Today OBCs are projected as
neo- Kshatriyas and made to fight against Muslims and Dalits, but they must not
forget that they are being used as tools and will the thrown away after their
utility ends. If the merit is important, there is no doubt that Shivaji’s merit
as a ‘Kshatriya’ was proved. Why then his coronation was opposed by the
Brahmins of Maharashtra. Today Dalits honour Shivaji and Shahu with full
reverence, not as a strategy or convenience, but from the bottom of their
hearts, then why OBCs should not honour Ambedkar likewise? [‘Prabuddha Bharat’,
30.4.2000]

Similar
views were expressed by him later in “First Maratha Sahitya Sammelan”
held later at Amravati in Vidarbha. This literary meet of Marathas was highly
maligned by Brahmanical press and scholars.

Similar
views like Salunkhe are expressed by many OBC workers, institutions, scholars
and journals of, for and by the OBCs. If such a time is not considered
favorable for unity of the oppressed, there will never be a better period
coming. It must be properly realized that the ultimate fate of India depends
upon what course of action the OBCs take. The Dalits do not wish to lead a life
of Slavery under the Brahmins, and always wished to free themselves from it one
way or the other. If the present movement of Ambedkarites for conversion to
Buddhism is sabotaged and if it fails, they would find other alternatives,
which may not be that palatable to the BSO. It is for the OBCs to decide
whether to join Ambedkarite movement against BSO.

OBCs
are misled to believe they are rulers

That
the political power in Independent democratic India is mostly in the hands of
the OBCs, is true, but only technically. OBCs now realize that the real power
is evading them. What is the reason? The real reason, in our opinion, is that
these people are not concerned with their “Cultural Slavery” under
the BSO.

Many
examples of Brahmanic hostility towards OBCs can be cited. The Govt. of
Maharashtra under Sharad Pawar had declared the ban on certain books which had
derogatory remarks about OBCs. But perhaps it was not effected. The then
President of Marathi Sahitya Sammelan held at Panaji (Goa) a few years back,
Ram Shewalkar, criticized the Maharashtra Govt. for this decision as, he
claimed, it was against the “freedom of speech”, going out of the way
by speaking what was not in the printed speech.

The
then Chairman of the Marathi Sanskruti Mandal, a Govt. organization for
promotion of literature, criticized that an OBC saint Tukdoji Maharaj, who
played a great role during Independence movement, is termed as “Rashtra
Sant” , but in his opinion, only a 17th century Brahmin saint Ramdas
deserved this appellation. Everybody knows about notorious couplets of Ramdas
claiming that though a Brahmin becomes corrupt, he still remains the greatest
and is guru of all others.

Not
long time back, the word “Kunbi” was shown to have been included in a
dictionary mentioned having derogatory meaning, for which the publisher had to
apologize.

At
all these times, OBCs had protested. Sometimes, in their caste functions, they
talk of denouncing the Brahmanic slavery. They talk that Eklavya was deceived
by Dronacharya, that killing of Shambuka, who they claim was of ‘Teli’
community, was wrong. But they can not, at least yet, deny the grip of cultural
slavery on their minds.





http://prabharat.blogspot.in/2009/03/pakistans-first-dalit-senator.html

Prabuddha Bharat

Pakistan’s
first ‘Untouchable (Scheduled Caste)
 
Senator’

Karachi

Dr Khatumal Jeewan, the first Untouchable (scheduled caste) senator, was born
in a remote village near the historic town of Umar Kot — the birth place of
Mughal emperor Akbar, and the commercial centre of desert zone communities.

Jeewan, who is proud to be where he is today, received his medical degree from
the Dow Medical College (DMC). He said that being a doctor was considered to be
the most honourable thing in his neighbourhood.

Being involved in students politics actively, he learnt how to mobilise
comrades and rallied for various causes. When he joined the Pakistan People’s
Party (PPP), it was probably these attributes which inspired leadership, and he
was awarded a ticket to contest elections several times (traditionally, the
rich Hindu families would get tickets for elections). He was elected as Member
National Assembly (MNA) more than once, and worked for the well-being of the
deprived scheduled castes in the province.

Before joining parliamentary politics, Jeewan practiced in emergency and
paediatrics wards in a public sector hospital for 12 months till 1987. However,
he felt that if he was a legislator, he would be in a better position to serve
his community. “Joining mainstream politics was the only way to bring about
changes, as the priorities of rich Hindu legislators were not in favour of the
deprived communities,” he said.

Dr Jeewan was elected as MNA for the first time in 1988 on a PPP ticket. He was
re-elected as MNA in 1990, 1993 and 1997 on a ‘reserved seat’. Unfortunately,
he was subjected to victimisation and a former Sindh chief minister got
“several fake cases” registered against him, forcing him to go underground.

When the PPP-P government came into power in 2008, Dr Jeewan was made advisor
to Sindh chief minister on mines and mineral development, as well as assuming
responsibilities of Chairman of Sindh Coal Authority.

Recalling his days of student politics, Dr Jeewan said that when Zulfiqar Ali
Bhutto first came to Umar Kot in 1971, there was a huge crowd to welcome him.
“I was inspired at that moment to join politics,” he added.

Interestingly, he has been against the joint electoral system (introduced by
former President Musharraf). According to him, only the upper class are given
tickets by political parties under this system. Previously, there were four
seats for Hindus/scheduled castes, four for Christians, one for Parsis,
Buddhists and Sikhs, and one for Ahmedi/Qadiani.

According to the last census, there are 2.4 million Hindus in the country, a
figure which has probably increased now. Eighty per cent of this population
consists of scheduled castes.

About his political experience, he said that when he met people, he realised
that the upper class Hindus were not mentally prepared to tolerate the
scheduled castes. In fact, half of Thar’s population comprises Hindus, who are
mostly scheduled castes. “I tried to unite and organise them”, because these
were the people who voted for me.”

Discussing the problems faced by scheduled castes, he said that the first and
foremost was education, which was followed by the non-availability of clean
drinking water. “Upper class Hindus insist that their animals should drink
water first from the wells, and then women from scheduled castes are allowed to
fetch water,” he elaborated.

Dr Jeewan has provided separate wells to around 300-400 villages in Thar and
schools to each village in Mirpurkhas. For him, the parliament is a proper
forum to defend the community in vigorous way.

He is now striving for the proper utilisation of coal reserves in Thar – there
are 175 billion tones of coal in Thar. If his efforts prove to be fruitful, then
scheduled castes will get jobs in the mining sector. “A three-year diploma was
initiated after starting a ‘mono-technical institute’ in Thar,” he explained. A
mining department has also been established at Mehran University, Jamshoro.

Dr Jeewan said that from 2007 to 2008, Pakistan spent over seven billion
dollars on oil imports for power generation while Thar has coal worth trillions
of dollars. There is also a rehabilitation plan in the offing, and a ‘new’ city
would also be established at Islamkot to rehabilitate the affected. “Lands will
be refilled and compensation will be given. I have also suggested the setting
up of a ‘granite city’ in Thar,” he added.

http://thebuddhistcentre.com/news/item/giant-triratna-retreat-south-india-draws-close

The Buddhist
Centre: triratna news

Giant Triratna retreat in South India draws to a close

One of
Triratna’s largest retreats has recently drawn to a close, in Gulbarga, in the
south India state of Karnataka.  Manimaran, who was there, sends us this
report, saying -

“Dear
Brothers and Sisters in Dhamma, I just came back after attending the
PRABUDDHABHARAT RETREAT in December 2011 at the wonderful
Siddhartha Buddha Vihar, at Gulbarga in Karnataka State, South India. 
More than 600 men and women participated in the retreat from all different
states in india, most of them from unprivileged villages and communities. 
We all meditated together three times in a day, practicing Anapanasati and
Mettabhavana, and every day the programme ended with the Saptang Puja
(Sevenfold Puja).

“The
retreat was led by Dhammachari Lokamitra, who gave talks every day - about
Babasaheb Ambedkar’s vision  of the Buddha-Dhamma, about his decision to
go for refuge to the Ratnas (Three Jewels, ie the Buddha Dhamma Sangha), about
the 22 vows he gave to his followers,  and about the practising of the
Precepts (sila), and finally about the Paramitas or Perfections  which
help us to develop the qualities of the Bodhisattva.

“In
the evening we mainly expressed about the creation of Prabuddhabharat, the
dream of Dr. Ambedkar.  This was explained by our brother Mangesh, from
Triratna’s Manuski project.  Followed his introduction, many of our
friends shared their experience of spreading Dhamma and social activities -
each person’s experience was a real inspiration”. Manimaran

Mangesh
goes on to describe the meaning of Prabuddhabharat and its significance in Dr.
Ambedkar’s thought, saying - “Bodhisattva Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar started the
Dhamma Revolution in 1956 when he converted to Buddhism with millions of his
followers. All his life he had struggled for an equal society one based on the
principles of liberty, equality and fraternity. He saw the fulfilment of
India’s aspiration as a truly democratic country in the teachings of the
Buddha. Prabuddha Bharat is the word we use for his vision of a casteless and
classless society - a new society based on justice, liberty, equality
and fraternity.

The
Prabuddha Bharat retreat offers an opportunity to understand the significance
of the Dhamma for individuals and societies. The reformation of the mind of man
and the mind of the world is the goal of the Buddha Dhamma. This reformation is
possible through our practice of Sila, Samadhi and Prajna - Ethics, Meditation,
and Wisdom. To transform our own lives and society, we must follow the Buddha
Dhamma. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar has given us this highest liberating path. Now
it is our duty to walk on it.

Triratna
Bauddha Mahasangha has been actively supporting the Dhamma Revolution through
regular retreats, training and Dhamma classes. Its network is now established
in 22 states across India, thereby  breaking many caste and
language barriers”.

 

VOICE OF
SARVAJAN

https://mail.google.com/mail/?shva=1#inbox/1372c7ac4154b575


vinaya rakkhita vinayarakkhita@yahoo.co.in

6:14 PM (1
hour ago)


to buddhistcircle, bodhisattva

http://in.video.yahoo.com/blogs/av/mid-day-meal-line-caste-control-111202368.html

 

Mid-day meal and the line of caste-controll

Caste
on Camera

Y! Editor’s note: New
voices, transforming societies
 -
the theme of World Press Freedom Day 2012 is a reminder of all that is
changing when new voices come and struggle against the old. In partnership
with Video Volunteers, we bring you a series called Caste on camera. When
people at large deny injustice exists its best to show proof. Isn’t that too
what a journalist must track?

In
this video, Luxmi Nautiyal, a community correspondent with Video Volunteers,
documents a lifetime of segregation that’s taken root in young minds. At
lunch hour in a school. Where children are served mid-day meals separated on
the basis of caste in Uttarakhand.

http://in.video.yahoo.com/blogs/av/mid-day-meal-line-caste-control-111202368.html

Mid-day meal and the line of caste-control

By Tisha
Srivastav

|
AV – Thu
3 May, 2012 4:42 PM IST

Caste on Camera

Y! Editor’s note: New
voices, transforming societies

- the theme of World Press Freedom Day 2012 is a reminder of all that is
changing when new voices come and struggle against the old. In partnership with
Video Volunteers, we bring you a series called Caste on camera. When people at
large deny injustice exists its best to show proof. Isn’t that too what a
journalist must track?

In
this video, Luxmi Nautiyal, a community correspondent with Video Volunteers,
documents a lifetime of segregation that’s taken root in young minds. At lunch
hour in a school. Where children are served mid-day meals separated on the
basis of caste in Uttarakhand.

Video
Volunteers

Note from the Video Volunteers Team

“Ask
the people of Uttarakhand if untouchability exists and they will be quick to
deny it. But go to any place where large groups of people eat together like a
festival or a wedding and you will be witness to how people are divided along
the lines of caste. The so called upper castes will occupy the best seats- the
front and centre, under fans and in A/C rooms. The Dalits will have a separate
section somewhere in the shadows, behind the tent or next to the washing area.
This is a practice that is taught to us first in schools. Ask the people of
Uttarakhand if they will allow their sons and daughters to marry someone from
another caste. Then you will get the answer to the question - does
untouchability continue to exist?” says Luxmi Nautiyal.

If
this video bothers you and you’d like to know more , see
ARTICLE 17 , a campaign launched by
Video Volunteers on April 14th, 2012, to urge the National Commission for
Schedule Castes, (the government body that is constitutionally appointed to
direct and implement the safeguards against untouchability), to prosecute such
cases .

Video Volunteers

model for locally-owned and managed media production teach people to articulate
and share their perspectives on the
issues that matter to them — on a local and
a global scale.

http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/uttar-pradesh-braces-for-showdown-over-promotion-quota/1/187819.html

Uttar Pradesh braces for
showdown over promotion quota

Akhilesh
Yadav plans to scrap quota in promotions policy started by Mayawati.

The supporters and opponents of reservation in promotion
in government jobs are bracing for a showdown in Uttar Pradesh.

While one group has shot off a letter to governor B.L.
Joshi to stop the Akhilesh Yadav-led Samajwadi Party (SP) government from
scrapping the erstwhile Mayawati government’s decision to ensure quota in
promotion to scheduled castes (SCs) and scheduled tribes (STs), the other group
has written to Prime Minister Manmohan Singh stating that any such move would
be taken as an attack on the rights of the upper castes.

The Arakshan Bachao Sangharsh Samiti (ABSS), a union of
the SC, ST employees of UP, has said in its letter to the governor that the SP
government appeared in a hurry to implement the decision of the apex court
quashing quota in promotion to the socially deprived class employees in state
government services.

“The UPA government in the Centre is preparing for a
constitutional amendment to continue with quota in promotions; we have moved a
review petition in the SC against its judgment of April 27 and various
organisations were weighing every legal and political option. But the SP
government in UP has done away with promotion quota in a hurry. This proves
that chief minister Akhilesh Yadav and his party are anti-SC/ST,” ABSS chief
Awadhesh Verma said.

He said there was widespread discontent against the state
government and the SC/STs in UP - who constitute 21 per cent of the state’s
population - could resolve to launch a statewide movement.

“We have decided to hold a meeting of the SC/ST
employees in every district to mobilise them and finally take a decision with
regard to our strategy at a state-level meeting in Lucknow on May 13. We also
expect the support of Mayawati and her Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) because of her
committed SC/ST vote bank,” he added.

On the other hand, the Sarvajan Hitaya Sanrakshan Samiti
(SHSS) has written to the PM stating that any move to bring amendment in the
Constitution to ensure quota in promotion would be resisted by the upper caste
employees at every level.

“We stand by the state government against any quota
in promotion. Mayawati had started this in 2008,Since the SC has corrected it
now, we want the UPA government in the Centre to follow it,” SHSS
president Shailendra Dubey said.

According to an estimate, there were over 700 SC
employees who have got the benefit of quota in promotion in UP since 2008.

The policy was implemented in 2008 after an amendment in
the UP Public Service (Reservation for SC, ST and OBC) Act 1994 and was
immediately challenged by various individuals and organisations in the court.


http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/even-god-cannot-stop-crimes-in-up-durga-prasad-yadav-uttar-pradesh-samajwadi-party/1/187792.html

Durga Prasad Yadav says even god
can’t control crime in Uttar Pradesh

Even god would not be able to control crime in Uttar Pradesh.

Minister for stamp, court fees and registration Durga Prasad
Yadav made this profound and “divine” statement in Gorakhpur -
echoing the
Samajwadi Party government’s sheer helplessness.

“Such (crime) incidents are routine. Crime will continue
even if god forms a government in UP. Bhagwan bhi aa jaaein toh bhi nahi rok
payenge (even god will not be able to stop such incidents),” Yadav, a
history-sheeter with over two dozen cases registered against him, said.

The MLA for Azamgarh allegedly killed four persons in a
hospital eight years ago. He won his first election in 2002 from prison.

Before he reached the town for a meeting, about half-a-dozen
goons fired at a car on a busy crossing. A child was among three persons who
were wounded in the firing.

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