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17 05 2012 THURSDAY LESSON 611 FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research And Practice UNIVERSITY And THE BUDDHISTONLINE GOOD NEWS LETTER by ABHIDHAMMA RAKKHITA through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org Dhammapada: Verses and Stories Dhammapada Verse 169 . Behave According To The Teaching
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17 05 2012 THURSDAY LESSON 611 FREE ONLINE eNālāndā
Research And Practice UNIVERSITY And THE BUDDHISTONLINE GOOD
NEWS
LETTER by ABHIDHAMMA
RAKKHITA through
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

Dhammapada:
Verses and Stories

Dhammapada
Verse 169 . Behave According To The Teaching

http://www.buddhanet.net/dhammapada/images/IDP169@50dpiRGB.jpg

Verse
169. Behave According To The Teaching

Fare in Dhamma coursing well,
in evil courses do not fare.
Who dwells in Dhamma’s happy
in this birth and the next.

Explanation: Practice the dhamma
to perfection. Do not practice it in a faulty manner. He who follows the
teaching in the proper manner will live in peace and comfort both in this world
and in the next.

http://www.answerbag.com/q_view/28909

Answers. Every Question Deserves a Great Answer

What are the strengths and weaknesses of the religion of
Buddhism?

Some people say that Buddhism isn’t a
religion at all. I disagree with that, in that Buddhism is concerned with the
relationship between the individual and the whole of life; and that’s what the
root of the word “religion” alludes to — “binding
together” the whole and the parts.

As to strengths and weaknesses, the main
strengths of Buddhism are its emphasis on awareness and its rejection of the
need for belief in metaphysical/magical ideas or beings for salvation.

The main weakness of Buddhism is that it can’t
really be packaged up in a neat little set of concepts which can be spoon-fed
to the hungry masses. Its not like you can just decide to “believe in
Buddha” and obtain some benefit from that. Buddhism is primarily about
practice, not belief, and that means that understanding only comes with
sustained personal effort.


by Dakini on September 13th, 2005

Dakini

The
most pronounced weakness in Buddhism was recognized by the Buddha himself
,the basic concepts are near impossible to
teach. Buddhism great strength is its resilience. Time and again since the
Buddha, powerful forces (political, religious, and social) have tried to wipe
his teachings off the planet. They knew that where his dharma takes root,
people become more compassionate. People start to feel at one with others. And
when the barriers between Self and Others fall, the manipulation of the masses
through greed and hate can
t work. But
no matter how much it is suppressed, the Buddha
,s dharma finds a way to come back. In
each culture that the seeds of dharma fall a new strain is born. A strain that
incorporates the local customs and myths to break through the illusions those
very same customs and myths cast upon that society. It
s as if the dharma is a key that changes
to match the lock on the door to contentment in each culture

by Farino on August 15th, 2005

Farino

Buddism
isn’t a religion per say. It’s a way of life. Buddists don’t neccessarily
believe in a divine, merely the divine in ourselves. They try to do all that
they can to become all that they physically, mentally, emotionally and
spiritually can. Strengths are that they live far longer because they do not
polute their bodies with all that we do. They are humble and kind people. They
are usually very well educated. Weaknesses include very few points. If you
enjoy poluting your body and sleeping very little from working and playing too
hard and do not really care for spirituality then it’s not the way of life for
you!




In
response to the comment below: If you follow Buddism then aren’t you in fact a
‘Buddhist’! Fact of the matter is that they do not consume as many free
radicals as we do in their diet so they are healthier and it is the Buddhist
way to be healthy (so your body works as best it can), kind (because the
Buddhist view on life is Karma; what goes around comes around) and intelligent
(because there is more to advancing yourself than just the physical and
spiritual but to understand the world around us as well). Before you say that
you need not to be intelligent to understand the world (I can see that one
coming) the definition of intelligence is: The ability to understand your
knowledge


by aleck on January 23rd, 2010

aleck

The
Buddhism teaches PEACE..
and the biggest strenght and weakness of buddhism is PEACEfullness.
When Islam reached India, it tried its best to uproot Buddhism, and plant Islam
by the power of sword. Thousands of monks were burned alive and thousands were
beheaded, Buddhist statue, shrines and temples were looted destroyed and
converted into mosques, even the Nalanda university, among the worlds first
study institute, established at 450ce for the Buddhist studies was also
destroyed and its library which contained all the first literature of Buddhism,
Indian scientific thought in mathematics, astronomy, alchemy, and anatomy - was
so extensive that it burned for months..




But the strength of
Buddhism is PEACE
B’coz of the essence of peace in it, now it is crossing the borders of Asia and
is being adopted in west also, it doesn’t ask anyone to get converted, or
follow rigid practices, rather its a lyfstyle more than a religion and as
Buddhism says: every individual has to work for his own awakenment or Nibbana.

 

VOICE of SARVAJAN

 

http://thedeathofmeritinindia.wordpress.com/2011/04/25/list-of-dalit-students-committing-suicide-in-last-four-years-in-indias-premier-institutions/

List of SC/ST students committing suicide in last four years in
India’s premier institutions

Here is the list of the SC/ST students who have committed
suicide in last four years. This is by no means an exhaustive list but covers
only those cases which we were able to document and where parents and relatives
have raised their voices and had accused the institutions of caste
discrimination against their children that led to their suicides.

We are sure that the actual numbers of SC/ST students committing
suicide in country’s premier institutions in last four years will be much
higher.

• M. Shrikat, final year, B.Tech, IIT Bombay, 1st Jan 07

• Ajay S. Ca, integrated PhD, Indian Institute of Sciences (IISc), Bangalore – 26 Aug, 07

• Jaspreet h, final year MBBS, Government Medical College, Chandigarh, 27 Jan 08.

• Senthil Kumar, PHD, School of Physics, University of Hyderabad – 23 Feb 08

 Prashant Kureel, first year, B.Tech, IIT Kanpur, 19 April, 08

• G. Suman, final year, M.Tech, IIT Kanpur, 2nd Jan, 09

• Ankita Veghda, first year, BSc Nursing, Singhi
Institute of Nursing, Ahmedabad
, 20 April, 09

• D Syam Kumar, first year B.Tech, Sarojini Institute of Engineering and
Technology, Vijayawada
, 13 Aug, 09

• S. Amravathi, national level young woman boxer, Centre of Excellence, Sports Authority
of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad
, 4th Nov, 09

• Bandi Anusha, B.Com final year, Villa Mary
College, Hyderabad
, 5th Nov, 09

• Pushpanjali Poorty, first year, MBA, Visvesvaraiah
Technological University, Bangalore
, 30th Jan, 10

• Sushil Kumar Chaudhary, final year MBBS, Chattrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical
University (formerly KGMC), Lucknow
, 31 Jan, 10.

• Balmukund Bharti, final year MBBS, All India
Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi,
3rd March, 10

• JK Ramesh, second year, BSc, University
of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore
, 1st July, 10

• Madhuri Sale, final year B.Tech, IIT Kanpur, 17th November, 10

• G. Varalakshmi, B.Tech first year, Vignan Engineering College, Hyderabad, 30 Jan, 2011

• Manish Kumar, IIIrd Year
B.Tech,
IIT Roorkee, 13 Feb, 11

• Linesh Mohan
Gawle
, PhD, National Institute
of Immunology, New Delhi
, 16 April, 11

रविकान्त permalink

April
28, 2011 12:24 pm

Shame…there is something definitely wrong in the system. One has
of course heard of lots of non-SC/STs committing suicides in a number of elite
and non-elite institutions, but these premier institutions need to be extra
careful as very few SC/STs make it to these places anyway.

ravikant

Reply

Prasenjit Biswas permalink

April
29, 2011 11:41 am

The list seemingly is going
to grow longer. In many different ways, ther is a systematic repression and
seggregation of Dalit students. I know of what IIT faculty members talk about
anyone who is apprently a candidate through reservation. The central governemnt
wily nily gives tacit support for such Narmedh in the IITs, especailly from
among the SC/STs and Muslims.

 

Munni
Chaudhary

permalink

May 6,
2011 2:52 pm

This is really barbaric
work, and this means its hateful incident. It should be unite all SC/STs
communities and to make presser of central and state governments. I’m
personally with you and our community.
Munni Chaudhary

Mukesh Kumar permalink

July
9, 2011 3:18 pm

Any act or omission committed out of hatred feelings on caste or
community lines amount to Untouchability Offence under Protection of Civil
Rights Act, 1955.

Where rules regarding reservation policy for SCs/STs/OBCs are
flouted, it attracts penal provisions u/s 7(2)(i) of Protection of Civil Rights
Act, 1955, and under Article 17 of the Constitution. Supreme Court has held
that Article 16(4), 16(4A), 16(4B), etc have nexus with Article 17 of the
Constitution, as held by 5 Judges bench in M. Nagaraj v. Union of India – AIR
2007 SC 71, @ page 105, para 117.

Implementation of these
provisions is in the hand of mass efforts of the SCs/STs/OBCs as otherwise one
may face hindrances by other community members.

atal

permalink

August 22, 2011 2:51 pm

this is JUNGLE RAJ…. and is still continuing…

No
Cost for LIFE of Dalits…
Need of new Baba Sahab again, the system facing….

Mani

permalink

February
16, 2012 5:59 am

SC/STs need move out of
india or have different a state, so called upper caste can never be our
friends.They are same old people ,the same old mindset.Upper cast people and
media are deceptive.Its easy to see there is nothing for dalits in country ,
thier women are unsafe.Thier children are ill treated.Police is additional
burden on us. Upper promote corruption , violence and dishonesty .They do 90%
harm to country while doing little progress and boast a lot .I think India is
backward because of thier backwardmindset !

Krishna kumar bharti permalink

March
9, 2012 4:10 am

Hi dear
i m kk bharti. Brother of lt. dr.balmukund bharti

my elder brother was died due to cope of extreem casteliest
discrimimation.humiliation and perhaps in last time he was failed constantly by
the prof.krishna anand
in the community medicine sub just by only one mark
it is so much heart breaking for my brother
and this seems that prof. Must had a big hand in his death
my brother before death told me that the concerned prof. Challanged me that he
would not pass him and he made pressure on my brother that dont do any complain
to adm.
I you did that then surely you cant passout from this college
i will ruin your life
so due to these all happened with my brother they commited suicide he had no
any open gate to live in this kindless world

kind request: i belongs to
rural secton ,and not much intel4ent like my elder brother
so
if any person or organisation .commetie wanted to help us
like tell us or give suggetions like about laws ,acts and all type of
suggetions,and help us to searchout clues and other evidencences
to win the case we filed on administration and on the professor
to providd justice to my brother and other students of aiims
than

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/lucknow/Uttar-Pradesh-scraps-26-projects-benefiting-mainly-Dalits/articleshow/13102533.cms

The Times of India

Uttar
Pradesh scraps 26 projects benefiting mainly SC/STs

LUCKNOW: The UP government on Friday decided to scrap
Mayawati’s pet projects aimed mainly at SC/STs, or named after SC/ST icons and
use the money freed up for new projects that the SP government will prioritise,
most of them poll promises like unemployment dole and laptops and tablets for
students. The attempt is to make the welfare schemes targeted at a more wider
audience, not just SC/STs.

This will affect 26 schemes being handled by 13 departments
involving Rs 4,861.72 crore. Most of the money was flowing into conservation
and protection of parks and memorials built in the memory of SC/ST icons,
scholarship to SC/ST students, and also those schemes launched in the name of
BSP founder Kanshiram. However, the government has clarified that work which
had already started, for instance houses under construction as part of the
Kanshiram Awas Yojana, will not be stopped, but the scheme or project will not
be renewed after that.

Another major decision the cabinet took was to stop
reservation of government contracts for SC/ST bidders that Maya introduced in
June 2009. The government said this was affecting the quality of work and a
more competitive bidding process would benefit the state.

This was the third meeting of the cabinet after Akhilesh Yadav took over as chief minister two months back. In all, the government
plans to take up 36 projects, some of them new like construction of roads,
while the others are old schemes tweaked to suit the present regime.

Part of the money released from the SC/ST schemes will go
to fund the unemployment allowance that SP had promised in its manifesto. This
will cost the state Rs 1,113 crore and will benefit 9 lakh unemployed youth. To
be eligible for this, a candidate should be live in UP, register with the
unemployment exchange by March 15 of any financial year and the total income of
the family should not exceed Rs 1.50 lakh a year. Only those between 30 and 40
will be eligible and they will get Rs 1,000 per month.

The money will also fund Akhilesh’s other poll promise to
distribute tablets to students who clear Class X and laptops to those who clear
Class XII. It will also fund pension to farmers above 65 years of age, again a
poll promise. Around seven lakh small and marginal farmers will be covered
under the scheme.

In some cases, however, projects will merely be renamed and
their scope broadened. For instance, the Savitri Bhai Phule Scheme For Girls’
Education which benefited only SC/STs will now be called Kanya Vidya Dhan,
which will fund the education of all poor
girls who clear school.

Other projects, too, have been made more inclusive. For
instance, the
Kanshiram Housing Scheme for Urban Poor and Mahamaya Housing Scheme for Rural Poor will now be clubbed under the
common banner of Housing For The Homeless and will cover not only poor SC/STs
but also the poor among other castes.

In another decision, the government decided to do away with
the existing Ambedkar Gram Vikas Yojana and replace it with Rammanohar Lohiya
Samagra Gram Vikas Yojana to cover a total 10,000 villages in the five years.
In the first phase, 1,600 villages would be taken up in 2012-13.

Some of the projects that will be scrapped are: Manyavar
Sri Kansiramji Shahari Garib Awas Yojana, Manyavar Sri Kanshiramji ji Green Eco
Garden, construction, beautification and conservation of Lucknow Parivartan
Chowk and Baba Saheb Ambedkar Prateek Sthal, Mahamaya Garib Balika Ashirvad
Yojana, Manyavar Sri Kanshiramji Sahari SC/ST Bahulya Basti Samagra Vikas
Yojana.

Other schemes are Mahamaya Awas Yojana, Mahamaya Sarvajan
Awas Yojana, Savirti Bai Phule Balika Shiksha Madad Yojana, job creation for
minorities, CC road construction in Dr. Ambedkar villages by the Panchayati
Raj.

Other decisions taken by the cabinet include formulation of
rules and regulation for brick kiln, increasing the remuneration from Rs 12,000
to Rs 18,000 for Ayurvedic and Unani doctors taken on contract in government
hospitals and increasing honoraria of Aganwadi workers.

http://www.dalitindia.com/guest/MmSBS_KSR.htm




Dr. Buta Singh

Former Union Home
Minister

9, Lodhi Estate

New Delhi – 110003

Tel/Fax : 24699797





K.S.R. Murthy, IAS (Retd.)

Former Secretary to Govt. of India

Former MP (Lok Sabha)

1003, railway Officers Colony

South Lalaguda, Secunderabad – 17

Tel : 040-27003283

                                                                                                               

 

                                                                                                                                Thursday,
July 29, 2004

 

 

Respected Sonia Ji,

 

 

                We
are submitting a very extensive note on the problems of Scheduled Castes and
Scheduled Tribes - numbering about 16 major issues - for which we have not been
able to find a useful, effective and helpful solution all these years.  Though we have had a Commissioner for
Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes since 1951 followed by a Non-Statutory
Scheduled Castes Commission and a Statutory Scheduled Castes and Scheduled
Tribes Commission and a Parliamentary Committee for Scheduled Castes and
Scheduled Tribes, consisting of Members of all parties from both the Houses,
for the last several years, and all these Bodies must have made thousands of
recommendations, they all remain on paper without implementation as no one in
the State Governments and the Government of India has the real interest to
implement these recommendations.

 

                One of the
important recommendations of the Parliamentary Committee of the 13th
Lok Sabha was to prosecute the officers in the Department of Personnel for
having issued Office Memorandum against the interests of the scheduled castes
and scheduled tribes without even consulting the Statutory SC/ST Commission.
This is a deliberate and bureaucratically offensive act calling for
prosecution.  Unless this is done, there
would be no fear in the bureaucrats to implement the constitutional provisions
to help SCs and STs.

 

                The Judiciary
has taken a stand that they are not covered by the reservation principle of the
Constitution.  As against 481 High Court
Judges, there are hardly 15 SC and 5 ST Judges in the country as on
1.5.1998.  There is not even one  Supreme Court Judge as on today whereas
during late Shri Rajiv Gandhi’s Premiership, there were two Judges on the
Supreme Court Bench.

 

                The Safai
Karamcharis carry head loads of human excreta (night soil) on their heads every
day even today in all the villages and several towns and cities, including the
township of Porbunder in Gujarat, birthplace of Mahatma Gandhi, Father of the
Nation.  The immediate solution could be
to bring out an Act of Parliament abolishing this practice and employing all
these people as watchmen, peons, attendants, etc., in the public and the
private sector offices and all the Government departments.  Otherwise, they will not be able to leave
this profession, as without that they cannot earn their livelihood.  The Safai Karamcharis Commission and the
Corporation set up during 1993 have not been able to address themselves to this
problem every effectively and, hence, this recommendation. 

 

                Both our
Manifesto and the Common Minimum Programme of the United Progressive Alliance
Government have recognized the role of farmers, agricultural labourers,
weavers, cobblers, etc., in the building up of our economy.  Eighty per cent of our population lives in
the rural villages even today.  SCs/STs
constitute about 30 per cent of our population. 
Though we have been agitating for the suicides committed by farmers for
the debts incurred by them in the last couple of months, we have not given
enough thought to the agricultural labourers who work under these farmers and
whose problems go unnoticed both by the politicians, the Governments and the
media.  They lead a life of illiteracy,
ignorance, ill-health and disease. 
Thousands of crores of rupees that we have been allocating in our Annual
Plans have not reached this section in full. 
The percentage of people who live below the poverty line amongst these
sections is about 60 per cent.  They,
therefore, need a very special programme from the Government in recognition of
the support they gave us in the 2004 elections by supporting the Congress Party
in most of the States.

 

                The point
relating to land reforms, assignment of surplus lands, purchase of private
lands and the inputs needed to bring these lands under cultivation are the most
important issues.

 

                There are
Acts to control atrocities, arson and rape committed on these people by the
upper castes.  But these Acts have not
served the purpose well.  The general
public and the upper castes even today feel that they can commit murder, arson
or rape on the SCs/STs and get away because of the loopholes in investigation
and administration of criminal justice in the courts.

 

                In the
distribution of subjects among the Ministries and Departments of Government of
India, criminal offences and human rights cases against women, children and
members of the scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes is the subject
earmarked for the Ministry of Home Affairs. 
But unfortunately, this subject is allowed to be dealt by Ministries of
Social Justice and Tribal Welfare who do not have adequate control over the
State Governments. It would be very useful if the implementation of these Acts
relating to criminal offences against scheduled castes and scheduled tribes is
wholly implemented by the Ministry of Home as their writ has greater value in
our States

.

                The
Departments of Rural Development, Human Resource Development, Agriculture and
Home Ministry have several programmes under them that meet the needs of the SCs
and the STs.  Nearly a sum of Rs. 15,000
crore is spent by the Ministry of Rural Development alone on the programmes
like housing, water supply, sanitation, etc. 
They were earmarking 50 per cent of these funds for the Scheduled Castes
and the Scheduled Tribes in the past. This has been given up.  As such, we would appeal to you to restore 50
per cent of the funds earmarked to rural development, Elementary education,
Secondary education, Women welfare, ICDS, etc., for the Scheduled Castes and
Scheduled Tribes.

 

                The Special
Component Plan and the Tribal Sub Plan, which were introduced by Smt. Indira
Gandhi Ji in 1979-80, whereby all the State Governments, Union Ministries were
asked to earmark the percentage of funds in proportion to the percentage of the
population of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, has been a very dismal
failure as none of the States and the Union Ministries have any interest in
this programme. If the Ministries like Rural Development, HRD, Women Welfare,
Water Resources, Rural Electrification Corporation, etc., could be made to
earmark 50 per cent of their funds, it would be a great supplement to ensure
the success of these two programmes.

 

                In the
Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, there are five national Commissions
for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Safai Karamcharis, Backward Classes and
Minorities.  These Commissions were
filled up by the NDA Government with Members of the RSS.  These RSS elements are misusing the funds and
they are spending these resources to strengthen their shakhas and institutions attached to RSS.  It is necessary that we should remove these
Chairmen/Members immediately  on the
lines of removal of the Governors as they do not preach our ideology. If they
are retained any longer, they may even cause a lot of havoc to our ideology.

 

                There are six
National Finance & Development Corporations for these communities in the
Ministries of Social Justice and Tribal Welfare.  Officers are running these Corporations from
1998 without constituting proper Boards. 
Proper Boards of Directors should be constituted immediately so that we
could appoint people with commitment and devotion from our Party to run these
Corporations as Chairmen and Non-official Directors.

 

                The paid-up
share capital of these Finance Corporations also needs to be enhanced, as we
would be able to fulfill our CMP by bringing in a large number of scheduled
castes, scheduled tribes, backward classes, minorities above the poverty line.

 

                There is no
proper representation for SC/ST in the top posts like the Planning Commission,
National Commission for Youth and Women, Reserve Bank of India, nationalized
banks, IDBI, ICICI, UGC, NABARD, STC, MMTC, etc.  We do not have any Governors or Ambassadors
or even Vice-Chancellors in State and Central Universities. 

 

There
is not even a single Chief Secretary or a Secretary to Government of India from
the SC/ST side.
  There may be a
couple of Joint Secretaries who are all posted in Departments without any
consequence.  We would request you to
kindly review this position, as they are unable to be picked up for these top
posts due to a defective casteist policy of writing the Confidential Rolls,
which do not help them in getting into the respective panels in Government of
India.

 

                To fulfill
our commitment, we would request you to immediately post a couple of SC/ST
officers in your Secretariat, PMO, Ministries of Finance, Banking, Industry,
Commerce, Rural Development, etc.  There
are unnecessary vigilance cases brought about, where also we would request your
intervention.

 

                On the lines
of the Ambedkar Foundation, we would request you to start a Foundation for Babu
Jagjivan Ram and also to make both these Foundations very effective by
nominating people of eminence rather than running them as Government
Departments.

 

                We are
enclosing Annexure-I that would give you an idea of several subjects that
relate to the welfare of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and have been
given to various Departments and Ministries. 
There is a need to coordinate all these programmes as our CMP is very
clear on the implementation of these programmes in a time-bound manner. 

 

We,
therefore, request you to appoint a Cabinet Sub-Committee on Scheduled Castes,
Scheduled Tribes, Backward Classes and Minorities under the Chairmanship of
Hon’ble Prime Minister so that they could review these programmes from time to
time.

 

                  We would also request you to name the
Ministry of Social Justice as the ‘Ministries for Scheduled Castes and
Scheduled Tribes’, which would be fitting in terms of our CMP.  The Annual Budget of Government of India for
2004-2005 has been presented as Rs. 4,50,000 crore.  As against this, the Ministries of Social Justice
& Empowerment, and Tribal Welfare, which deal with Scheduled Castes, Scheduled
Tribes, Other Backward Classes, Minorities and the Disabled, are given only Rs.
2,000 crore.  Unless this is raised
manifold, we would not be able to achieve our promises to these classes.

 

                We would also
request you to entrust the question of monitoring and implementation of
reservations in all Departments, including Railways, Defense, scientific
establishments, as the sole responsibility of the Department of Personnel as
they will have a comprehensive idea about implementation of the reservation
policy in various Departments.

 

                We would be
grateful if you could spare some of your very valuable time for considering
immediate solutions to the problems highlighted in our Memorandum as this would
send a very very correct message to the poor, unfortunate scheduled castes and
scheduled tribes in our country, that you are our HOPE and the Party does care
for them and you will stand as ROCK behind them as Smt. Indira Gandhiji and
Shri Rajivji stood behind them all these years.

 

                With warm regards,

 

      Yours sincerely,

 

(Buta Singh)        
(K.S.R. Murthy)

 

Hon’ble Smt. Sonia Gandhi Ji, MP,

Chairperson, United Progressive Alliance &

President, All India Congress Committee,

10, Janpath,

New Delhi.

 

 

Encls : As above.


 

 

 

MEMORANDUM

to

Hon’ble
Smt Sonia Gandhi

Chairperson
- United Progressive Alliance

and

President
- All India Congress Committee

 

on

SCs&STs’
long pending Problems

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

by

 

 

 

 

 

Dr.
Buta Singh, former Union Home Minister

and

K.S.R. Murthy,
IAS(Retd.),

Former Secretary to
Government of India,

Former MP (Lok Sabha)

 

 

 

 

 

1.     Introduction:  For quite sometime, immediately after the
Independence, we had a Ministry for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes
in the States as well as at the Centre.  Though
a lot of experiments have gone through in changing its name, it would be
fitting that we should go back and name it as the Ministry of Scheduled Castes
and the Ministry of Scheduled Tribes as these Ministries deal with about 25
crore people in our country.  Though
large-scale funds are spent on various schemes, poverty alleviation,
discrimination, and removal of disabilities, removal of untouchability,
non-establishment of equality of opportunity still continue for these
communities.  A proper and effective
monitoring system both in the States and at the Centre is very much called for
in the present circumstances.  The
Annexure I shows the various Ministries and Departments which deal with
problems which relate to SCs/STs.

 

A
coordination of all these Departments is necessary.
  A Cabinet Sub-Committee for Scheduled Castes
and Scheduled Tribes to be presided over by the Hon’ble Prime Minister and an
Official Committee under the Chairmanship of the Cabinet Secretary at the
Centre and the Chief Minister and the Chief Secretary in the States are
urgently required.  These Committees
should meet and review the implementation of these programmes.

 

It is
unfortunate to observe that in a Budget of about Rs. 4,50,000 crore in the Government
of India, hardly Rs. 1,400 crore is earmarked for the Ministry of Social
Justice & Empowerment
  to
cover Scheduled Castes, Minorities, Other Backward Classes and the
Disabled.  The Tribal Ministry is given
another Rs. 700 crore.  This allocation
should be in proportion to the SC/ST population.

 

2.             Abolition
of scavenging in a time bound manner:   
In the 21st century, seeing our people carrying head loads of
night soil is very unfortunate.  Dry latrines
should first be abolished and scavengers absorbed in Government/private
departments as watchmen, peons, etc. 
Whoever is interested in setting up small enterprises should been
encouraged with interest-free loans to the tune of Rs. 1 lakh per head and
loans above  Rs. 1 lakh with an interest
rate of three per cent.

 
As against Rs. 90
crore released in 1997-98 for National Scheme for Liberation and Rehabilitation
of Scavengers and their Dependants (NSLRS), the NDA Government released only
Rs. 5.90 crore in 1998-99, Rs. 9.20 crore in 2001-02, and Rs. 29.78 crore in
2002-03.
  This needs to be raised
steeply in order to abolish scavenging in the country in the next five years.

 

3.             (a)           Agricultural   labourers  
and   leather   artisans  
do   not     have

employment
for all the 365 days.
  Employment
Guarantee Act promised in the CMP should be introduced at once.  Vast stocks of foodgrains can be used through
‘Food for Work Programme’ without machinery and contractors.  Even Sarpanches should be prevented from
working as contractors.    The programmes
of the Finance Corporations/Banks are not adequate enough to bring them above
the  poverty line. The DRI loans of Rs.
6,000 and the DRDA loans of Rs. 10,000 and the DWCRA loans are unrealistic and
they cannot take these people above the poverty line. The agricultural labour
will have to be provided with land and supplied inputs like pair of bullocks,
well/bore well, fertilizers, pesticides, improved seeds and electricity.  If these are supplied at a concessional rate
of interest of two to three per cent, the 
large extent of lands lying waste could be brought under
cultivation.  The amounts realistically
needed should be assessed.

 

(b)           
There is rightly raised in our country a lot of concern for the suicides
committed by farmers, which are about 1,000 this year, mostly due to debts.
  But there is not even a shedding of tears for
the lakhs of agricultural labourers who are working under these farmers and who
are silently suffering from hunger, disease, ignorance and humiliation every
day and whose deaths are not reported by the media and the Governments.

 

(c)           
In times of drought and floods/cyclones, these people are the worst affected.
  If works are taken up intelligently, all
these people can be looked after.  Only
advance preparations by the district machinery is needed.

 

(d)           
Rehabilitation of
beggars
and street children is needed.

 

(e)           
Hundred per cent of the agricultural labourers and leather artisans belong to
the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.
  In addition, there are weavers, potters and toddy tappers too in this category.

 

(f)            
Regulations framed by Governors
for Scheduled Areas
and for Tribal Areas as specified in Part ‘A’, para
20, of the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution is never given any attention so
far.  The Governors and Chief Ministers
may not even be aware of this provision. 
A special review of this
is essential immediately.

 

(g)           
Leather artisans:
  Leather
artisans also are in large numbers in all the villages.  They take out skins from the dead animals and
leather is prepared in a very unscientific and traditional manner.  These persons can be helped by introducing modern methods of technology to
make their livelihood happier and more remunerative.  Similarly, the weavers could be made
self-sufficient by supplying them inputs like yarn, designs and dyes at cheaper prices and taking up the
marketing of their products.  The private sector can play a very vital
role in the marketing of these products.

 

(h)           
The toddy tappers need to be helped by taking them
out of the excise rules and allowing
them to tap the toddy trees as they wish without a licence for which they are
troubled by the Excise Department.                Similarly,
other artisans like potters, etc., need to be provided with higher financial inputs and marketing facilities to make them
self-sufficient.

 

 

4.             Land
reforms:

 

(a)           
These have
not been implemented well.  A series of meetings of the Chief Ministers
have also expressed the same concern. 
But no corrective measures have been taken.  Landlords
with hundreds of acres
of irrigated land still continue in our country
and it is a fact that most of the agricultural/fertilizer/seed/pesticide subsidies are enjoyed by the rich farmers and
not the poor small and marginal farmers.

 

(b)           
Large extents of wasteland were assigned to the landless poor.
  These are on paper only.  Whoever is
in possession, they have not been
brought under cultivation
.  They
need assistance as at 3(a).

 

(c)           
There are large extents of wastelands like shrubs, etc., which are declared as
‘minor forests’.  These can be assigned
to the landless poor to raise
horticulture
and enjoy the usufruct and thereby helping the
afforestation.

 

(d)           
Roadside margins and tank bunds can also be given as
‘tree patta’ to the eligible landless.

 

 (e)          Surplus
lands:  Many cases relating to large
extents of lands declared surplus, are still lying in the Courts.  A special drive needs to be taken up in order
to get these cases disposed of by employing competent advocates at their usual
rates and not by Government advocates who are not competent.

 

(f)            Purchase
of private lands
:  As the Government
lands are not enough for distribution to the landless poor, it is suggested
that private lands should be purchased and distributed to the landless poor as
possession of land is the most important criterion for abolishing poverty.  This programme was taken up by several States
with the help of National Scheduled Castes Finance Development Corporation,
Delhi.  It was a great success, but could
not be continued due to shortage of funds.

 

(g)           The temple lands are under the occupation of big landlords.  These can be purchased and distributed to
landless poor. 

 

(h)           A Land Commission should be set up in
each and every State/UT to look into the assignment of lands to SCs and STs to
ensure not only a proper allotment but also an effective utilization of lands
allotted in such a manner.  The lands
usurped
by non-SCs and non-STs should be restored to the original landholders.

 

5.             Unsatisfactory implementation of

 

(a)           
SC/ST Prevention of Atrocities Act, 1989;

 

(b)           
Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955.

 

(c)           
The number of convictions is small in these cases of murders, rapes, arson, etc.
  The police have no involvement.  The politician and the public have no
sympathy. 

 

(d)           
In the allocation of subjects, though the Ministry of Social Justice is the
Nodal Ministry for these two Acts,
criminal offences under these two Acts are the responsibility of the Ministry of Home
Affairs
.  There is no coordination
at present.  The writ of the Tribal
Welfare and Social Justice Ministries does not run as effectively as the writ
of the MHA in the States.  No serious review has taken place on the crimes
committed under these two Acts. 

 

(e)           
It is, therefore, recommended that these two Acts are brought under the purview
of the MHA and coordination with Social Justice and Tribal Ministries could be
taken up in the interest of better administration and useful help to the
victims from these communities.

 

(f)            
Similarly,
preservation of human
rights
of the SC/ST should also totally be the responsibility of MHA.

 

(g)           
In order to implement these two Acts effectively and to reduce atrocities on
SCs/STs, special courts, exclusively for each offence or at least one per
district, should be constituted at the place of offence so that the witnesses
come freely and fearlessly to depose their evidence.
  This would produce better results and would
send a signal to oppressors to be careful in future.

 

6.             Programmes
in Rural Development

 

(i)             
Indira Avas Yojana, rural housing, house-sites.

http://www.dalitindia.com/guest/MmSBS_KSR_files/image003.gif 

(ii)           
IRDP;

 

(iii)         
DWCRA;
                                 SGRY
I and II

 

(iv)         
Jawahar Rozgar Yojana;
     

(v)           
Food for Work Programme;

 

(vi)         
Prime Minister’s Sadak Programme;

 

(vii)       
Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission;

 

(viii)     
Accelerated rural water supply; and

 

(ix)         
Twenty-point Programme of Smt. Indira Gandhi Ji.

 

These
programmes are allotted annually
Rs.
15,000 crore
.  In the Government
of India, none of the Ministries
earmark funds under Special Component Plan/Tribal Sub Plan
to the tune
of 22 per cent of their allocations.  
There used to be 50 per cent
reservations
for SCs/STs in all these programmes.  This has since been removed or reduced.  It would be desirable to restore 50 per
cent
allocation in all the rural development, women development (ICDS),
elementary and secondary education programmes for SCs/STs.

 

7.             Education

 

(a)           
The mid-day meal programme and public distribution system are implemented
without seriousness.
  The food
served in schools is not good.  The
rice/wheat supplied also through PDS is not good.  These two programmes help SCs/STs a lot.  The
supply of an egg a day
and vegetables
would improve the programme and help better enrollment and reduction of the
dropout rate.

 

(b)           
The ICDS is also not implemented uniformly.
  The dropout rate of children is very
high.  This is due to the children being
employed to add income to their parents’ income.  Unless the parents are compensated, they will
not send children to schools and we can never achieve 100 per cent literacy.

 

(c)           
The tribal children need to be taught in their own language.

 

(d)           
Universities both State and Central, IITs and IIMs are not following the rule
of reservation.
  Even when
students are admitted, they are made to do the course one year extra.  A sympathetic attitude from these
institutions will go a long way.  A study
on the backlog of seats is very essential.

 

(e)           
The concept of residential schools, though expensive, is the right concept with
100 per cent first classes without failures, whereas in the hostels, the percentage
of first classes will be nil with 60 per cent failures, and indiscipline due to
carelessness of the wardens.
 
Girls are raped in these hostels.

 

(f)            
With privatization in schools, colleges, universities and technical colleges
like Engineering, Medicine, Agriculture, Pharmacy, IITs and IIMs, the college
hostel fees have become too expensive.
 
As our manifesto has assured free education, these institutions should
be asked to admit students free and
claim their fees from respective State Governments
/Ministry of Social
Justice and Empowerment.

 

(g)           
A large number of aided schools
- convents and public schools
– do not follow the principle of
reservation in admissions.  This must be
made compulsory and the State Governments must be asked to implement the
same.  The backlog of seats should be arrived at and filled up through a
Special Drive.

 

(h)           
Educational Institutions Bill,
1996
, which was sent by the National Commission should be immediately
introduced in the Parliament.  De-reservation of posts should be prohibited.  Wherever the educational and other qualifications need to be relaxed, they
should be relaxed
to fill up these posts.  Training to equip these personnel with adequate
specialization could be taken up after appointment.

 

(i)             
Candidates with
false community
certificates
should be prosecuted
and their admissions in schools, colleges, universities and appointments in
Government and public sector should be
cancelled
immediately in a time-bound manner to instill fear among them
not to repeat the same.

 

(j)             
Certain programmes taken up by the Congress Governments in the past, like
study abroad for students, have been
abolished by the NDA Government.  All
such programmes, which were abolished by the NDA Government, and programmes,
which were renamed as per their wish, should be considered for immediate re-introduction.

8.             The Special Component Plan and
the Tribal Sub-Plan

 

(a)           
These two programmes were introduced in 1979-80 BY Smt. Indira Gandhi Ji with
the idea that the States and the Union Ministries should allot funds for
development of SCs/STs in the proportion of their population to the general
population.
  The allocation under
these Heads both in the States and the Central Ministries are far from
satisfactory.  In most States and Union
Ministries, it is even ‘nil’.  The Planning Commission, while finalizing the
Annual Plans of the States and the Ministries, may be directed to ensure that
25 per cent of the Annual Plan funds of the States and the Union Ministries are
earmarked for the programmes for development of SCs/STs.  These programmes, though implemented by the
respective departments in the States and the Union Ministries should be monitored by the Chief Secretaries in
the States and the Cabinet Secretary at
the Centre.  We would, therefore, like to
have a small Committee of MPs to
verify, study the backlog position on
a selective basis in the States of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh,
Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, etc., and submit a report within three
months to the Chairperson, UPA and the Prime Minister.

 

(b)           
The Central Government and the State Governments issue
licences/permits for transport, industrial
transactions, works contract, etc. 
Similarly, in the private sector, dealerships, etc., are given. 
At least 25 per cent of these
should be reserved
for SCs/STs as they are the most remunerative.  The finances required can be organized as was
done for petrol pumps in the
Ministry of Petroleum.  This will help a
large number of educated unemployed youth. 
Exemptions from depositing
Earnest Money Deposit
(EMD) which is already available in several States
may be enhanced to works costing up to
Rs. 10 lakh
.

 

(c)           
The nationalized banks have a programme of non-insistence on
collateral security in loans up to Rs.
50,000 to everyone. But these are not seriously implemented in the case of
SC/ST entrepreneurs.

 

(d)           
The Integrated Tribal Development Agencies were run well in the early years.
  But now they have become dens of
corruption.  They need to be revamped.

 

(e)           
The forest produce should be treated as property of the tribals.
  The tendu leaves in Madhya Pradesh and Girijan
Corporation in Andhra Pradesh are instances in this regard. The tribals have
protected the forests so long.  It is the
crafty forest contractors in
collaboration with the officials of the Forest Department who are the culprits
for extinction of forests and not the tribals.

 

(f)            
While taking up irrigation/mining projects, etc., the
tribals are evicted from their lands
and similar age-old occupations.  They should be rehabilitated first with cultivable
land and then only establishment of any new enterprise should take place.

 

9.             In the Ministry, there are the
following National Commissions:

 

(a)           
National SC Commission;

(b)           
National ST Commission;

(c)           
National Safai Karamchari Commission;

(d)           
National Backward Classes Commission;

(e)           
National Commission for Minorities;

 

 

The
Chairmen and Members of these Commissions are all active RSS members.
  As in the case of removal of Governors on the
score that their ideology is different from ours, it is necessary they are all
removed and our people appointed as Chairmen and Members of these National
Commissions immediately.  Otherwise, they
will certainly sabotage our programmes and bring a bad name to our UPA
Government.  They should be the real
watchdogs.

 

10.           Reservations: 

(a)           
The
Commissioner for Scheduled
Castes
and Scheduled Tribes during 1951-1991 submitted about 30 Reports to the Government.  The non-statutory Commission for Scheduled
Castes and Scheduled Tribes, set up in 1978, and the reconstituted statutory National Commission for Scheduled
Castes
and the Scheduled Tribes, set up in 1987, have been submitting
Annual Reports to the Parliament since then.

 

(b)           
The Parliamentary Committee on
Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes
since their beginning have
also been submitting their Reports to the Parliament on various ministries and
departments. All these put together, the recommendations for the improvement of
Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to bring them into the national
mainstream, must be running into thousands.
The action from the departments is of a very dismal nature, sometimes very
hostile too.  Though as per 1991 Census,
the percentage of SC population in the country has increased from 15.47 per
cent to 16.33 per cent and in the case of Scheduled Tribes from 7.85 per
cent to 8.08 per cent, the Government of India is still continuing to
follow the old percentages of reservation in all the orders.  This needs to be revised immediately
at least as per the 2001 Census.

(c)           
The Parliamentary Committee for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes headed by
Shri Kariya Munda has recommended that the
Department of Personnel and Training in 1997 have misconstrued the
judgement of the Supreme Court and issued five Office Memorandums on 30th January, 22nd
July and 29th August, 1997 without
consulting the National Commission
for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled
Tribes which is obligatory as per Article
338
of the Constitution. 

 

(d)           
The
Law Ministry have
advised that in matters like this, there is no need to consult the National Commission for SCs/STs as no
useful purpose would be served.  It is necessary
that the Government should clearly amend the Constitution to tell these
departments that they shall consult the Commission in all such matters
where their orders are going to affect the interests of the SCs/STs adversely,
even though the courts rule so.

 

(e)           
In all such matters, in future, where the departments and Law Ministry
differ from the Commission, it would
desirable to take the advice of the
Solicitor-General or Attorney General or senior and eminent Advocates
of
the Supreme Court, as the case may be, in order to restore confidence in the
minds of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.

 

(f)            
This consultation is necessary in all cases where the
existing benefits given  to the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled
Tribes are to be taken away either
by court judgements or otherwise.  The
consultation with Attorney General/Solicitor General or senior and eminent
advocates of the Supreme Court must be
made compulsory
for all the Secretariat departments of the Centre and
the States.

 

(g)           
The Parliamentary Committee, therefore, recommended that steps should be taken to
prosecute the officers
concerned, viz., Secretary, Joint Secretary,
Director/Deputy Secretary under Section 4 of Chapter II of the Scheduled Castes
and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989.
  Unfortunately, no action has been taken on
this very important recommendation.  The
DOPT officers were found to have issued these orders for furtherance of the
interests of their own clan/class/people whose interest is dearer to them
rather than the interests of dalits and tribals who have been suffering for
centuries.

 

(h)           
The Department of Personnel & Training have also introduced
a new system of rosters which is a
very complicated one abolishing the vacancy-based rosters.  The old system of vacancy-based roster should
be reintroduced immediately.

 

(i)             
The Supreme Court has pegged the total reservations not to exceed 50 per cent.
  As a result, thousands of posts, which have
fallen into backlog category, are not being filled up.  This should be amended immediately in order
to enable the entire backlog posts to be filled up through special recruitment
drives throughout the country.  The
Governments of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka and North-Eastern States are already
following reservations to the tune of 60 per cent and above of posts.  As such, this 50 per cent restriction for the
backlog posts is not justifiable.

 

(j)             
The Comptroller & Auditor General had also issued instructions to the
effect that “a Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe candidate
promoted on merit is not to be counted as a
general candidate
which is against the law laid down by the Courts as
well as against the spirit of the constitutional provisions.”  These instructions should also be withdrawn immediately.

 

(k)           
The Committee further recommended that “the existing machinery for contesting
the court cases must be overhauled and a new effective machinery,
  that is, a panel of eminent advocates should
be evolved for dealing with cases more effectively.”

 

(l)             
The SC/ST candidates have to work in an
unconducive, casteist and discriminatory atmosphere. The
Committee, therefore, “recommended that separate
standards
/concessions are very much necessary for their promotion as well as assessment.  Very often, efficiency factor is used as a weapon to shoot them back and deny
their right.”  The Committee, therefore,
“urged the Government to ensure proper implementation of the instructions in
letter and spirit in matters of relaxing
the qualifications
and lesser standards while promoting these officers.”

 

(m)          “That reservations should be provided not
only up to the lowest rung of Class-I posts but to all classes of posts (up to the highest grade of posts) under
the State.”

 

(n)           
“The
Defence Forces constitute
a Service under the Central Government. 
The Army Act, 1959, the Air Force Act, 1950 and the Navy Acts, 1950 and
1957 should, therefore, be amended immediately in order to provide for reservation in the Armed Forces with immediate
effect.”

 

(o)           
“The recruitment to the National Defence Academy, Indian Military
Academy and Officers’ Training Academy is being done by the Union Public
Service Commission.
  It is all the
more necessary that these reservations
should be introduced immediately for all the posts, the recruitment to which is
made by the UPSC.”

 

(p)           
Just as there are Jat and Rajput Regiments, it is also recommended that the
Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes should have separate Regiments for
showing their excellence in addition to the Mahar Regiment.

 

(q)           
Articles 124 and 217 of the Constitution should be amended immediately to include
Judicial Wing of the State within the ambit of reservation as the Supreme Court and the State High Courts do not follow reservation for
appointing Judges in the respective Courts or even for recruitment of the
secretarial staff, including peons.

 

(r)            
It is surprising to see that out of 481 High Court Judges as on 1.5.1998, only
15 SC and five ST Judges were in position.
  In the Supreme Court, there was no Judge from
these communities as on that date.

 

(s)            
“The
recruitment rules of these
Courts should also be amended
immediately.  The State Governments should also be
instructed to provide for reservation in the recruitment of the officers and
staff of the various Courts and appointment of Judges of all categories within
the State.  Since these Courts are
receiving the salaries from the Consolidated
Fund of India
, it is a condition that the Chief Justice and the
companion Judges of the Supreme Court as well as of the High Courts should also
implement reservation in recruitment and promotion of all their personnel under
the prescribed percentages and also fill up the backlog vacancies through a special recruitment drive throughout
the country.”

 

(t)             
The Committee felt that the intention, sincerity and zeal of the implementing
authority is a deciding factor, which is absent in all the High Courts and at
other levels of the Judiciary.

 

(u)           
“The Parliamentary Committee recommended that the
National Commission for Scheduled
Castes and Scheduled Tribes should invariably be made a party in all the legal matters before the Courts in
India.

 

(v)           
A National Judicial
Commission, including one Member from the Scheduled Castes
and another Member from the Scheduled
Tribes, should be set up early to deal with appointment, transfer and placement
of Judges of the High Courts and the Supreme Court.  It should be supplemented by constituting an All India Judicial Service.

 

(w)          
The Committee wanted the DOPT to
communicate
its displeasure
over this very appalling state of affairs.

 

(x)           
The Committee also found that several public sector organizations like the
Delhi Development Authority and the Nationalised Banks do not have a SC/ST Member on their Boards of
Directors
.  They have a huge backlog, which needs to be filled
up by a special recruitment drive.

 

(y)           
There are more than seven lakh elected representatives from SCs and STs,
including women (about 2.5 lakh).
 
They need knowledge and skill about the management of panchayat
affairs.  A vast programme of training
for these personnel should be taken up and as they are economically poor, a
sustenance allowance of Rs. 1,000 per month may be granted.

 

(z)            
A comprehensive reservation Act – Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes
(Reservation of Seats) Act - bringing out all these deficiencies and the
assurances given to these communities should be brought forward immediately and
placed in the
Ninth Schedule so
that the Courts, in future, do not interfere with this aspect.

 

11.           (a)           There
are the following Corporations in the Ministry:

 

(i)            National
Scheduled Caste Finance Development Corporation (NSFDC);

(ii) 
         TRIFED;

 

(iii) 
        Safai Karamcharis Finance
Development Corporation;

 

(iv)          National
Backward Classes Finance Development Corporation;

 

(v)           National
Minority Finance Development Corporation;

 

(vi)  National Finance Development Corporation for
the persons with disability.

 

(b)           
Most of these Corporations are
managed
by officers
now for a long time without proper Boards of Directors.  As such, the beneficiaries are not getting
the desired results.  It is requested
that their Articles of Association provide for appointing five non-official Directors with the Chairmen from
our Party
.  The paid-up share capital also needs to be
increased
and the interest rates
be brought down on all loans from five per cent to three per cent as these are not profit-making
bodies.

 

(c)           
In most of the States, there are SC/ST Finance Societies/Corporations.
  They are not properly funded.   Even the funds released from this Ministry
to the States are diverted for other purposes as in Andhra Pradesh/Bihar, etc.  The Chief Ministers should be addressed by
the hon. Prime Minister and the Chairperson of UPA not to divert these
funds.  Even in Zilla Parishads, the 22
per cent funds earmarked for the SCs/STs are not spent on their welfare.  The Central share capital to the State SCDCs
has come down from Rs. 60 crore in 1998-99 to Rs. 20.27 crore and Rs. 21 crore
in 1999-2000, 2000-01, 2001-02, respectively, due to the hostile activity of
the NDA Government.

 

 

12.           Minorities: 

(a)           
The major minorities in our country – Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists and
Zoroastrians – constitute 18 per cent of our population.
  They need special attention.

 

(b)           
The 15-point programme of Smt. Indira Gandhiji for minorities needs a special
drive.

 

(c)           
The riot-affected Muslims need immediate rehabilitation.

 

13.                           (a)           We do not have adequate
representation in the posts of Governors, Ambassadors, Vice-Chancellors, Judges
of the High Courts, Tribunals, CAT, the Supreme Court, UGC, AICTE, Indian
Medical Council , ICHR, ICCSR, NCERT, Planning Commission, NHRC, Law
Commission, Reserve Bank of India, Nationalised Banks, Khadi and Village
Industries Commission, IDBI, ICICI, NABARD, IFCI, STC, MMTC, Tea Board, Coffee
Board, Rubber Board, Tobacco Board, Cardamom Board, Coir Board, HUDCO, National
Commission for Youth and Women, several other All-India and State Commissions,
etc.

 

(b)           
Higher posts in Civil Services:
 
There are no Chief Secretaries to State Governments and no Secretaries,
Additional Secretaries in Government of India. 
Joint Secretaries in the Government of India may be a few.  This is largely due to the biased system of Annual Confidential Reports,
which does not allow these officers to come up. 
This needs an immediate review.  We would request you, Madam, to immediately pick up officers from
these communities and post them in your
Secretariat
, PMO,
Ministries of Finance, Banking, Industry, Human Resource Development, Rural Development, Commerce,
etc., as it would give us a great sense of satisfaction.

 

(c)           
Similar is the case of DGPs, Heads of other para-military organizations like
CISF, BSF, etc.
  In the case
of  Central Board of Direct Taxes,
Railway Board, UGC, AICTE, etc., SC/STs have yet to see their place though they
are eligible.  A high level UPSC Board
with a predominant SC/ST representation should be asked to review this system
and set it right.  Even in the recruitment
of Constables, there is a huge backlog. 

 

14.           Vigilance
Cases:  Just before the SC/ST officers
are due for promotion, anonymous petitions are sent out and their promotion
stopped.  At least 80 per cent of the
vigilance cases are against these officers. 
Here also, a committee of SC/ST senior officers should be constituted to
review these cases and do justice along with the Chief Vigilance Commissioner.

 

15.           Ambedkar
Foundation:  The Centenary Celebrations
Committee of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar made several recommendations in 1992-93 for
spreading his ideology and message.  Some
of its important recommendations yet to be implemented are:

 

(a)           
Setting up of Dr. Ambedkar National Public Library and Ambedkar Bhavan at
Bungalows 13, 15, 17, 19 and 21 of Janpath.
  Only bungalows 15 and 21 were handed
over.  The rest are yet to be handed
over.  An architect may be selected
immediately to draw up the plans and designs for this Bhavan and Library.  The offices of the Ministry are spread over
in all parts of Delhi and huge rentals 
are being paid every year.  They
can all be accommodated in one building. 
The funds required can be obtained from HUDCO/banks, etc., without
troubling the Government.

 

(b)           
The construction of National Memorial at 26, Alipur Road is also going very
slow.
  Though Rs. 8.34 crore have
been deposited with the Delhi State, we should request the hon’ble Chief
Minister of Delhi to finalise the plans for construction of this memorial.  Here also a good architect to reflect the
philosophy and ambitions of Dr. Ambedkar needs to be urgently selected.

 

(c)           
Though 12 years have passed since the translation of Dr. Ambedkar’s works into
regional languages was taken up, it is yet to be completed.
  This needs to be speeded up and completed
before 2005-2006.

 

(d)           
At present, the Ambedkar Foundation is working like a department of the
Government.
  It should be
reconstituted with eminent men to spread the message of Dr. Ambedkar and
adequate funds provided too.

 

(e)           
Adequate and immediate help should be extended to
Dr. Ambedkar University in Lucknow,
which was established as a Central University, but is yet to take off.

 

(f)            
Adequate and timely financial aid should be extended to the existing
universities where
Ambedkar
Chairs are functioning and more Chairs should be set up.

 

(g)           
Scholarships for study abroad for
SC/ST students discontinued by the NDA Government should be revived
immediately.

 

(h)           
Babu Jagjivan Ram Foundation:
 
A number of leaders belonging to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes
have contributed their mite for development of these communities and also for
development of the country as a whole. 
In addition to Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, some of the other luminaries from this
community are: Babu Jagjivan Ram, Shri Damodaram Sanjeeviah both of whom were
Union Ministers and Presidents of the AICC. 
Since we have a Foundation in the name of Dr. Ambedkar, it would be
fitting to have a similar Foundation in the name of Babu Jagjivan Ram with a
fund of Rs. 500 crore so that the
Foundation can add to the activities of the Central and the State Governments
in different fields for ameliorating the Scheduled  Castes 
and  the  Scheduled Tribes.  Smt.
Meira Kumar
, the Hon’ble Minister for Social Justice and Empowerment
could be the life-time Chairperson of
the Foundation.

 

16.           Old age
pensions are restricted in many States. 
They may cover all those old persons who are destitute with a monthly
pension of Rs. 300.

 

 

 

———

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ANNEXURE-I

 

 

                The
distribution of subjects among the Ministries and Departments of Government of
India having a direct bearing on the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes
is briefly indicated below:

 

1.              
Department of Agriculture

 

(a)           
Insurance (Crop);

(b)           
Agriculture and horticulture;

(c)            
Land reclamation;

(d)           
National Land Use and Conservation Board;

(e)            
Settlement of landless agricultural labourers;

(f)             
Development of village and cottage industries and tiny/micro enterprises in
both urban and rural areas;

(g)            
Prime Minister’s Rozgar Yojana (PMRY);

(h)            
Khadi and Village Industries Commission.

 

2.              
Ministry of Commerce

 

(a)            
Tea Board;

(b)             Coffee Board;

(c)            
Rubber Board;

(d)           
Cardamom Board;

(e)            
Tobacco Board.

 

 

 

 

3.              
Department of Food and Public Distribution

 

Public
Distribution System.

 

4.              
Ministry of Disinvestment

 

All
matters relating to disinvestments of Central Government equity from Central
Public Sector Undertakings.

 

5.              
Ministry of Environment and Forests

 

(a)           
Survey and exploration of natural resources particularly of forest, flora,
fauna, ecosystems, etc.

(b)           
Forestry development in the country, including social forestry.

 

6.              
Ministry of Home

 

(a)           
Intelligence Bureau;

(b)           
Central Industrial Security Force;

(c)           
Central Reserve Police Force;

(d)           
National Security Guard;

(e)           
Foreign training of IPS;

(f)            
Criminal offences against women, children and members of the Scheduled Castes,
Scheduled Tribes, including those under the Protection of Civil Rights Act,
1955 (22 of 1955) and the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention
of Atrocities) Act, 1989 (33 of 1989), other Backward Classes, Minorities and
other vulnerable groups.

 

 

 

7.              
Human Rights

 

(a)           
To act as the nodal agency for the general policies regarding

“Human Rights
Commission;

 

Ministry of Home
Affairs will be the nodal Ministry for overall policy relating to human rights.
  The departments primarily concerned with the
welfare and socio-economic development of specific groups like members of the
Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, women, minorities, children, and bonded
labour, shall be responsible in respect of preservation of human rights of the
specified groups.

               

(b)           
National integration and communal harmony.
              

 

8.              
Ministry of Human Resource Development

 

(a)           
Pre-primary education;

(b)           
Elementary education;

(c)           
Basic education;

(d)           
Central Advisory Board of Education;

(e)           
All-India Council for Technical Education;

(f)            
University Grants Commission;

(g)           
National Council for Educational Research and Training;

(h)           
Indian Institutes of Technology at Kharagpur, Mumbai, Kanpur, Chennai, Delhi,
Guwahati and Roorkee.

(i)             
Care of pre-school children;

(j)             
National Nutrition Policy;

(k)           
Central Social Welfare Board;

(l)             
Food and Nutrition Board;

(m)         
Women’s empowerment and gender equity;

(n)           
National Commission for Women.

 

9.              
Ministry of Law

 

Legal aid to the poor.

 

10.          
Department of Personnel and Training

 

(a)           
Reservation of posts in Services for certain classes of citizens;

 

(b)           
Administration of all service rules, including FRs, SRs and CSRs;

(c)           
All aspects of senior management (i.e., Joint Secretaries and above and
  their equivalents);

(d)           
Career development for middle management (i.e., Directors, Deputy Secretaries
and Under Secretaries.

 

11.          
Ministry of Rural Development

 

(a)           
Panchayati raj and panchayati raj institutions;

(b)           
CAPART;

(c)           
National Fund for Rural Development;

(d)           
Rural employment or unemployment;

(e)           
Small farmers development agency, marginal farmers and agricultural labourers,
etc.

(f)            
Rural housing.

(g)           
Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana;

(h)           
Land reforms, land tenures and land records;

(i)             
National Wastelands Development Board;

(j)            
National Land Use and Wasteland Development Council;

(k)           
Promotion of Rural employment through wastelands development;

(l)             
Promotion of production of fuel wood, fodder and timber;

(m)         
Drought Prone Areas Programmes;

(n)           
Desert Development Programmes;

(o)           
Rural water supply; sewage, drainage and sanitation relating to rural areas.

 

12.          
Autonomous bodies

 

(a)           
Port Trusts at Mumbai, Kolkata, Kochi, Kandla, Chennai, Mormugao, Jawaharlal Nehru
(Nhava Sheva), Paradip, Tuticorn, Visakhapatnam and New Mangalore

 

(b)           
Dock Labour Boards at Kolkata, Kandla and Visakhapatnam.

 

13.          
Ministry of Small Scale Industries

 

Development
of small-scale industries other than cottage and village industries.

 

14.          
Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment

 

(a)           
Social welfare: social welfare planning;

(b)           
Beggary;

(c)           
Prohibition

(d)           
Scholarships;

(e)           
National Commission for Scheduled Castes;

(f)            
The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment will be the nodal Ministry for
overall policy, planning and coordination of programmes of development of
Scheduled Castes and Other Backward Classes.
  In regard to sectoral programmes and schemes
of development pertaining to these communities, policy, planning, monitoring,
evaluation, etc., as also their coordination will be the responsibility of the
concerned Central Ministries, State Government and Union Territory
Administrations.  Each Central Ministry
and Department will be the nodal Ministry or Department concerning its sector.

(g)           
National Commission for Safai Karamcharis and all matters pertaining thereto;

(h)           
Implementation of the Portection of Civil Rights Act, 1955, and the Scheduled
Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989, excluding
the administration of criminal justice in regard to offences in so far as they
relate to Scheduled Castes.

 

15.          
Ministry of Culture

 

(a)          National
Council of Culture;

(b)         National
Culture Fund.

 

16.          
Ministry of Tribal Affairs

 

(a)           
Social security and social insurance with respect to the Scheduled Tribes;

(b)         Tribal welfare;

(c)         
Development of Scheduled Tribes

 

The Ministry of Tribal
Affairs shall be the nodal Ministry for overall policy, planning and
coordination of programmes of development for the Scheduled Tribes.
  In regard to sectoral programmes and schemes
of development of these communities, policy, planning, monitoring, evaluation,
etc., as also their coordination will be the responsibility of the concerned
Central Ministries/Departments, State Governments and Union Territory
Administrations.  Each Central
Ministry/Department will be the nodal Ministry or Department concerning its
sector.

(d)         
Scheduled areas;

(e)         
Regulations framed by the Governors of States for Scheduled Areas and for Tribal
Areas specified in Part ‘A’ of the Table appended to paragraph 20 of the Sixth
Schedule to the Constitution;

(f)          
Administration of Scheduled Areas and the welfare of the Scheduled Tribes;

(g)         
The National Commission for Scheduled Tribes;

(h)         
Implementation of the Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955 (22 of 1955) and the
Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989
(33 of 1989), excluding administration of criminal justice in regard to offences
in so far as they relate to Scheduled Tribes.

 

17.          
Department of Urban Development

 

(a)           
Matters of the Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO) relating to
urban infrastructure.

(b)           
Formulation of housing policy;

(c)           
Urban development, including Slum Clearance Schemes and the Jhuggi and Jhompri
Removal Schemes;

(d)           
Urban employment and urban poverty alleviation.

 

18.          
Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports

 

(a)           
Youth affairs/youth policy;

(b)           
Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan;

(c)           
National Commission for Youth.

 

————

 

ANNEXURE-II

 

COMMON
MINIMUM PROGRAMME OF THE UNITED

PROGRESSIVE
ALLIANCE, DATED 27.5.2004 IN RESPECT

 OF SCHEDULED CASTES AND SCHEDULED TRIBES

 

 

(a)           
The people of India have voted decisively in the 14th Lok Sabha
elections for secular, progressive forces, for parties wedded to the welfare of
farmers, agricultural labour, weavers, workers and weaker sections of society:

 

(b)           
To enhance the welfare and well being of farmers, farm labour and workers,
particularly those in the unorganized sector and assure a secure future for
their families in every respect;

 

(c)           
To fully empower women politically, educationally, economically and legally;

 

(d)           
To provide for full equality of opportunity, particularly in education and
employment for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, OBCs and religious
minorities;

 

(e)           
To enact a National Employment Guarantee Act;

 

(f)            
To provide a legal guarantee for at least 100 days of employment, to begin
with, on asset-creating public works programmes every year at minimum wages for
at least one able-bodied person in every rural, urban poor and lower
middle-class household;

 

(g)           
To start a massive Food for Work Programme;

(h)           
To establish a National Commission to examine the problems facing enterprises
in the organized and informal sector, and also to set up a National Fund.

 

(i)             
To revamp the functioning of the Khadi and Village Industries Commission and
launch new programmes for the modernization of coir, handlooms, power looms,
garments, rubber, cashew, handicrafts, food processing, sericulture, wool
development, leather, pottery and other cottage industries;

 

(j)             
To give the highest investment, credit and technological priority to the
continued growth of agriculture, horticulture, aquaculture, floriculture,
afforestation, dairying and agro-processing;

 

(k)           
To step up public investment in rural infrastructure and irrigation;

 

(l)             
The rural cooperative credit system will be nursed back to health and rural
credit is doubled in the next three years.

 

(m)         
The immediate steps will be taken up to see the burden of debt and high
interest rates on farm loans.

 

(n)           
Agricultural crop and livestock insurance schemes will be made more effective.

 

AGRICULTURE

 

(a)           
Rural infrastructure, irrigation and rural cooperative credit system;

(b)           
Special programme for dry land farming in the arid and semi-arid regions;

(c)           
Watershed and wasteland development programmes;

(d)           
Implementation of minimum wage laws;

(e)           
Comprehensive protective legislation will be enacted for all agricultural
workers;

 

EDUCATION AND HEALTH

 

a.              
A national cooked nutritious mid-day meal scheme will be introduced in primary
and secondary schools;

b.              
To universalize the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS);

c.              
To provide a functional anganwadi in
every settlement and ensure full coverage for all children;

d.              
A national scheme for health insurance for poor families;

e.              
Special attention may be paid to the poorer sections in the matter of
healthcare;

(f)            
To strive for the elimination of child labour and extend special care to the
girl child;

 

SCHEDULED CASTES AND
SCHEDULED TRIBES

 

a.              
All reservation quotas, including those relating to promotions, will be
fulfilled in a time-bound manner.
 
To codify all reservations, a Reservation Act will be enacted.

b.             
To launch a comprehensive national programme for minor irrigation of all lands
owned by dalits and adivasis, Reservation Act and minor forest produce;

c.              
Landless families will be endowed with land through implementation of land
ceiling and land redistribution legislation;

d.              
No reversal of ceiling legislation will be permitted;

e.              
False encounters to be stopped;

f.               
To initiate a national dialogue with all political parties, industry and other
organizations to see how best the private sector can fulfill the aspirations of
Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe youth.

 

SOCIAL HARMONY, WELFARE
OF MINORITIES

 

(a)           
To enact a model comprehensive law to deal with communal violence to establish
a Commission for Minority Educational Institutions that will provide direct
affiliation for minority professional institutions to Central universities;

(b)           
To promote modern and technical education among all minority communities;

(c)           
But social and economic empowerment of minorities
  through more systematic attention to
education and employment will be a priority;

(d)           
To establish a National Commission to see how best the welfare of socially and
economically backward sections among religious and linguistic minorities,
including reservations in education and employment, is enhanced.
  The National Commission will be given six
months to submit its report.

(e)           
Adequate funds will be provided to the National Minorities Development
Corporation to ensure its effective functioning;

(f)            
To examine the question of providing constitutional status to the Minorities
Commission;

(g)           
To strive for recognition and promotion of Urdu language under articles 345 and
347 of the Constitution;

(h)           
The National Integration Council will be restructured and revived so as to
fulfill its original objectives.
 
It will meet at least twice a year.

 

 

 

INFRASTRUCTURE

 

(a)           
To take up a comprehensive programme of urban renewal and a massive expansion
of social housing in towns and cities, paying particular attention to the needs
of slum dwellers.

(b)           
Housing for the weaker sections in rural areas will be expanded on a large
scale.

(c)           
Forced eviction and demolition of slums will be stopped.

(d)           
Urban and semi-urban poor are provided housing near their place of occupation.

(e)           
To pay special attention to augmenting and modernizing rural infrastructure
consisting of roads, irrigation, electrification, cold-chain and marketing
outlets.

(f)            
Household electrification will be completed in five years.

 

WATER RESOURCES

 

(a)           
Special problems of habitations in hilly trains will be addressed immediately.

(b)           
To provide drinking water to all sections in urban and rural areas and
augmenting availability of drinking water sources at topmost priority.

(c)           
Harvesting rainwater, desilting existing ponds and other innovative mechanisms
will be adopted.

 

LABOUR

 

Social security, health
insurance and other schemes for such workers like weavers, handloom workers,
fishermen and fisherwomen, toddy tappers, leather workers, plantation labour,
beedi workers, etc., will be expanded.

——–



Annexure-III

 

 

LOK
SABHA ELECTIONS 2004 – AICC MANIFESTO

 

 

                The
Manifesto of the Indian National Congress has identified the following key
issues:

 

1.              
To have a national charter for radical but peaceful socio-economic
transformation;

 

2.              
To give dignity to those who were discriminated for centuries;

 

3.              
To take the public sector to new heights of technological progress;

 

4.              
To develop backward regions;

 

5.              
To provide employment to crores of Indians, particularly dalits and adivasis;

 

6.              
To launch extensive anti-poverty and rural development programmes;

 

7.              
To empower scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other backward classes
through reservations and through social welfare and economic development
programmes for their welfare and well-being.

 

8.              
To provide for equality of opportunity in every way for dalits, adivasis, OBCs
and religious and linguistic minorities.

 

9.              
To revamp the functioning of the Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC);

 

10.          
To enact a national Employment Guarantee Act immediately;

 

11.          
To pursue an Agriculture First strategy in resource allocation;

 

12.          
To restore the entire rural credit system based on cooperatives to health;

 

13.          
To start a time-bound programme for restoring all public tube wells to good
working condition wherever required;

 

14.          
To accelerate the pace of construction of new irrigation wells in the poorer
districts of the country;

 

15.          
To introduce a special technology and extension programme for dry land farming;

 

16.          
To put in place an intensive agricultural development programme for the 100-odd
districts in the arid and semi-arid regions of the country;

 

17.          
To promote watershed development projects on a large-scale;

 

18.          
To revive the wasteland development programme lying dormant these past few
years;

 

19.          
To encourage the agro-processing industry and other agriculture-related activities
like dairying, aquaculture, fisheries, horticulture, sericulture through fresh
investment, technology and marketing resources;

 

20.          
To place a renewed emphasis on wasteland development and afforestation;

 

21.          
To enable farmers all over the country to receive fair and remunerative prices
and government agencies entrusted with the responsibility for procurement and
marketing and to pay special attention to farmers in poor and backward states
and districts;

 

22.          
To examine the feasibility of an Agricultural Stabilisation Fund involving a
system of direct support or income support to farmers, particularly in the
ecologically vulnerable regions of the country;

 

23.          
To ensure the fullest implementation of minimum wage laws for farm labour;

 

24.          
To enact comprehensive protective legislation for all agricultural workers;

 

25.          
To earmark 30 per cent of all funds flowing into panchayats and nagarpalikas
for programmes relating to the development of women and children and focus on
the special needs of female agricultural labour and women cultivators;

 

26.          
To empower village women and their associations to assume responsibility for
all development schemes relating to drinking water supply, sanitation, primary
education and health, nutrition, biogas, maintenance of water pumps and bore
wells and farm forestry;

 

27.          
To give women the equal rights of ownership of assets like houses and land, etc;

 

28.          
To ensure major expansion in schemes for micro-finance based on self-help
groups, especially for tribal women, women belonging to scheduled castes, women
below the poverty line, rural women and women in distress;

 

29.          
To ensure that all institutions of higher learning in science, technology,
social sciences and management will retain the sense of autonomy that they have
enjoyed in previous Congress regimes.
 
Academic excellence and professional competence would be the sole
criteria for all appointments to bodies like the ICHR, ICSSR, UGC, NCERT, etc.

 

30.          
Apart from increasing the supply of loan scholarships and refinance through
banks, also to establish an Education Development Finance Company;

 

31.          
To make education at all stages free in all respects for boys and girls
belonging to dalit and adivasi communities;

 

32.          
To introduce a national cooked nutritious mid-day meal scheme in primary and
secondary schools across the country;

 

33.          
To universalize the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) to provide for
a functional anganwadi in every settlement and full coverage, especially
children below the age of six;

 

34.          
To propose a national scheme of health insurance for families living below the
poverty line;

 

35.          
To ensure payment of uniform compensation for loss of life, honour and property;

 

36.          
To create a national consensus on the issue of dalits and adivasis getting a
reasonable share of jobs in the private sector;

 

37.          
To make determined efforts to promote a culture of entrepreneurship among the
dalits and adivasis;

 

38.          
To provide businesses run by dalits and adivasis with preferential treatment in
government procurement and by extending bank credit at affordable terms;

 

39.          
To urge the State Governments to make legislation for conferring ownership
rights in respect of minor forest produce on adivasis particularly who work in
forests;

 

40.          
To fulfill all reservation quotas, including those relating to promotions, in a
time-bound manner, and special recruitment drives particularly for Class I and
II vacancies will be launched.

 

41.          
To introduce a comprehensive national programme for minor irrigation of all
lands owned by dalits and adivasis;

 

42.          
To reconcile to the objectives of faster economic growth and environmental
conservation as far as tribal communities dependent on forests are concerned;

 

43.          
To put in place more effective systems of relief and rehabilitation for tribal
communities displaced by development projects;

 

44.          
Taking note of the growing unrest in tribal areas in various states, to have a
fresh look at development strategies for tribal areas;

 

45.          
To work out new designs of sustainable livelihood and income accruing to the
government from forest will be earmarked as additional assistance for
programmes of tribal development;

 

46.          
To build up huge foodgrain stocks;

 

47.          
To strengthen the PDS particularly in the poorest and backward blocks of the
country and also involve women’s and ex-servicemen’s cooperatives in its
management at the local level;

 

48.          
To ensure the focus of the PDS to be on below-the-poverty line (BPL) families;

 

49.          
To ensure that about 6-8 per cent of our population comprising the most
destitute and infirm have access to the PDS even where the PDS works well;

 

50.          
To introduce Antyodaya cards for all
households at risk of hunger;

 

51.          
To expand nutrition programmes for the girl child particularly on a significant
scale;

 

52.          
To devolve funds, functions and functionaries on panchayat bodies;

 

53.          
To credit all funds for poverty alleviation and rural development programmes
directly to panchayat bodies;

 

54.          
To expand special social security schemes started by earlier Congress
governments for workers in the unorganized sector like weavers, handloom
workers, fishermen and fisherwomen, toddy tappers, leather workers, plantation
labour, beedi workers, etc;

 

55.          
To prepare and implement, on a much larger scale, plans for the rain-fed
cultivated area, particularly in central India with the bulk of India’s tribal
population.

 

 

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16 05 2012 WEDNESDAY LESSON 610 FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research And Practice UNIVERSITY And THE BUDDHISTONLINE GOOD NEWS LETTER by ABHIDHAMMA RAKKHITA through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org Dhammapada: Verses and Stories Dhammapada Verse 168 . http://www.buddhanet.net/dhammapada/images/IDP168@50dpiRGB.jpg The Righteous Are Happy - Here And Hereafter
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16
05 2012 WEDNESDAY
LESSON 610 FREE ONLINE eNālāndā
Research And Practice UNIVERSITY And THE BUDDHISTONLINE GOOD NEWS LETTER by ABHIDHAMMA RAKKHITA through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

Dhammapada:
Verses and Stories

Dhammapada
Verse 168 .

http://www.buddhanet.net/dhammapada/images/IDP168@50dpiRGB.jpg The Righteous Are Happy - Here And Hereafter

Verse 168. The Righteous Are Happy - Here
And Hereafter

Rouse yourself, be diligent,
in Dhamma faring well.
Who dwells in Dhamma’s happy
in this birth and the next.

Explanation: Wake up to reality; do not be
delude. Live in accordance with reality. The realistic person lives happily in
this world and in the next.

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner

Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa,
i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific
thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

 

 

CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

5.1 Result of the Study

The
objectives of this thesis are to study, compare and contrast the

twelve
Àyatanas in the context of science, which is as described in the first

chapter.
The second chapter discussed the background and significance of

the
twelve Àyatanas as the gateways that allow us to experience and perceive

the
world. In order to have a deeper understanding of the twelve Àyatanas,

the
overall concept of the term Àyatana is explored, both in Sanskrit and
PÀli

languages.
The result of the study shows that the concept of the twelve

Àyatanas
did not exist in the Vedic tradition. Instead, the
concept was

developed
by the Buddha into a central Buddhist teaching. These contents

can
be found in many teachings of the Buddha, including the four types of

relations
mentioned in chapter II and the PaÇiccasamuppÀda. The twelve

Àyatanas
are a cause of dukkha and are dukkha themselves,
since they are under

the
law of the Tilakkhaõa. However with proper trainings, the twelve Àyatanas

become
the powerful and necessary tools to reach the Enlightenment.

The
third chapter is the exposition of the twelve Àyatanas in the

Buddhist
scriptures. As we already know that the twelve Àyatanas are

separated
into the internal and the external Àyatanas. In order to find their

parallels
in science, the sensory receptors and the sense stimuli are also

discussed
here. In addition, the primary element of the twelve Àyatanas, the

mahÀbhÂtarÂpa, is
studied in the aspect of its etymology.

In
the fourth chapter, the internal and the external Àyatanas are

compared
and contrasted with the sensory receptors and the sense stimuli,

respectively.
The result of the study shows that there are some parallels

between
the description of the twelve Àyatanas in the Buddhist scriptures and

the
information of the sensory receptors and the sense stimuli in science.

There
are some points that should be noted here that:

1.
In Buddhism, the teaching of the Buddha, including the

concept
of the twelve Àyatanas, had been developed by the

commentators
over time. An example can be seen from the

concept
of the cakkhÀyatana that is developed to be the sevenlayered

structure
of the cakkhuppasÀda by the commentators.

2.
The goal of the Buddha and the goal of the scientists are

different.
The Buddha emphasizes on the importance of the

cessation
of the dukkha. He teaches his followers only what

benefits
to pave a way to nibbÀna. However, the scientists

emphasize
on the exploration of knowledge in depth, which

does
not benefit the way of the holy life. The goal of

Buddhism
is to realize nibbÀna. In contrary, the goal of

science
is to categorize and classify the physical world. An

example
can be seen from the information of the saddÀyatana

and
sound.

a.
In Buddhism, saddÀyatana is taught, so human beings

would
realize its benefit as a tool to experience the

world
and its danger as a cause of the arising of a

fetter.

b.
In science, sound is studied and analyzed in physical

detail.
The scientists pay their attention to study how

sound
arises, how fast it can travel, the effect of sound

on
living beings, etc. In addition, sound is used in the

treatment
of physical and mental conditions as an

alternative
medicine.

The
scientists study with passion and are struggle for more

knowledge.
The knowledge in science seems to grow and

change
everyday with new discoveries; however, this type of

knowledge
will never lead us to the real purpose of our lives,

which
in Buddhism is known as nibbÀna. NibbÀna is the state

where
all defilements are extinct. The knowledge in science

could
not lead humans to the state of nibbÀna. The scientists

can
be compared to MÀluôkyÀputta in the CÂÒamÀluôkya Sutta,

who
does not satisfy with the Buddha’s teaching and would

like
to learn more what does not lead to the Enlightenment.

3.
The Buddha emphasizes the importance of both the material

phenomena
(rÂpa) and the mental phenomena (nÀma).

However,
the scientists emphasize their study mostly on the

material
phenomena. Even though, some scientists may try

to
study the mental phenomena, however, the result of the

study
may not be widely accepted since it can not be proved

by
the scientific instruments. As a result, the role of the mind

and
mental stimuli are still ambiguous in science. This is

where
science lags behind Buddhism.

In
addition, this thesis reflects the facts that

1.
The mind can perceive an artificial object through the

stimulation
of the electrical signals and the chemical

substances,
without sensing the object through the first five

internal
Àyatanas. This is a method that the scientists use to

make
people feel happy and peaceful by using some sorts of

electrical
devices or drugs. The happiness that is acquired by

this
method is dependent on the external stimuli. However,

the
Buddha teaches his followers to find happiness and

peaceful
in oneself, without depending on the external

stimuli.

2.
With the advancement of new technologies, the

transplantation
of physical organs is possible. The process of

the
transplantation does not have an effect on human

personality.
Even a person has his heart transplanted; his

personality
is still unaffected by the new heart.

In
Buddhism, a human consists of the five Aggregates. From the

facts
above, it shows that the rÂpakkhandha is just only a congregation of

organs,
which are transplantable. In addition, these facts remind me of what

was
spoken by bhikkhunÁ VajirÀ in the VajirÀ Sutta that:

Just
as, with an assemblage of parts,

The
word ‘chariot’ is used,

So,
when the aggregates exist,

There
is the convention ‘a being.’

Bodhi
(trans.)

The
five aggregates exist in both mundane people and arahants who

have
the substratum of life remaining. What makes them different is the

arahants
do not cling to the five aggregates, while the mundane people still

do
cling to the five aggregates. MahÀsi SayÀdaw mentions in the book of

Fundamentals
of Vipassana Meditation
that the clinging to the five aggregates

arises
from the manifestation of the interaction between the six internal sense

bases
and their corresponding external sense bases. He states that viððÀõa,

vedanÀ, saððÀ,
and saôkhÀra perceived at the moment of the interaction are

merely
of the mental group. They are neither a living entity nor self. By

correctly
attending the twelve Àyatanas as they really are, insight knowledge

will
be developed, and the cycle of rebirths will be destroyed.

5.2 Benefits of the Study

The
result of the study of this thesis answers all questions that I set

up
in the first chapter and obtain the advantages as I expected, which are:

1.Gaining
a deeper understanding of the term Àyatana both in its

general
and in its particular aspects.

2.Gaining
a clearer understanding of the twelve Àyatanas in the

Buddhist
scriptures and the sensory receptors and the sense stimuli in science.

3.Establishing
an awareness of the correlation between Buddhism

and
science.

This
thesis confirms that Buddhism is the religion that copes with

modern
scientific needs, as Einstein said. Buddhism is neither a mystic

experience
nor a psychic thrill. It is a religion with profound teachings taught

by a
man whom we respect him as the Buddha. The world of Buddhism and

the
world of science can be harmonized, even though they seem so different.

See
Appendix for the benefit that is derived from the study of the twelve

Àyatanas
in relation to the PaÇiccasamuppÀda.

5.3 Suggestions for Further Research

An
interesting area in the exposition of the twelve Àyatanas is to

compare
and contrast the concept of the twelve Àyatanas among different

schools
of Buddhism. All schools of Buddhism do not recognize the same

concept
of the twelve Àyatanas, which is one of the central TheravÀdin Buddhist

teachings.
An example can be seen from the different concept of the

dhammÀyatana
between the TheravÀda tradition and the VaibhÀÈika tradition.

The dhammÀyatana
in the TheravÀdin Abbhidhammic innovation consists of fiftytwo

cetasikas,
sixteen sukhumarÂpas, and nibbÀna. However, the VaibhÀÈika

recognizes
only one dharmÀyatana-rÂpa, which is known as avijðapti-rÂpa.

Other
schools, such as the SarvÀstivÀda, also appear to have a slightly
different

view
of the twelve Àyatanas. The SarvÀstivÀdins combine the concept of
the

twelve
Àyatanas under the term rÂpa-dhamma. The different concepts of the

twelve
Àyatanas of each school spawn different ideas about the material and

mental
phenomena. The result of the study would lead us to understand:

1.
the early concept of the Buddhist thought;

2.
the development of the Buddhist teachings after the Buddha’s

parinibbÀna;

3.
the different concepts of nÀma-rÂpa among different schools.

I
hope that this thesis would create a good dialogue between

Buddhists
and scientists and among Buddhists of different schools

themselves.

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APPENDIX

THE PA×ICCASAMUPP°DA AND THE TWELVE °YATANAS

Since
the actual instructions of the Buddhist trainings are mostly

published
in pÀli terminologies, the knowledge derived from this thesis can be

used
to simplify the terminologies related to the twelve Àyatanas into simple

words.
Having a deeper understanding about the twelve Àyatanas leads us to

the
knowledge how to cease the cycle of rebirth by destroying the chain of

conditions
in the PaÇiccasamuppÀda.

As
mentioned in chapter II, the internal Àyatanas are a condition in

the PaÇiccasamuppÀda
which is the teaching about a conditional phenomena

leading
to the cycle of rebirth as shown in figure 83. The true knowledge

about
the twelve Àyatanas will help us to destroy the chain of conditions in
the

PaÇiccasamuppÀda,
since the internal Àyatanas are one of its factors. As shown

in
the second chapter, the process of experiencing in psychology starts from

the
arising of phassa, which is the product of the congregation of a sense
base,

its
object, and consciousness. Bhaddanta °sabhamahÀthera suggests that the

phassa
has to be ceased in order to destroy the cycle of the PaÇiccasamuppÀda.I

This
is one of the teachings that the Buddha taught BÀhiya about the proper

training
regarding all sense experiences in the BÀhiya Sutta as follows:

IBhaddanta
Asabhathera,
PaÇiccasamuppÀdasaôkhepakathÀ
(Chon Buri: Wat

Bhaddanta
Asabharam, n.d.), p.23. See also Chamlong Disayavanish,
Chitawitthaya Khong

Khwamdapthuk, 1st ed. (Chiang Mai: Klang Wiang Kanpim
Ltd., 2544 B.E.) p. 113.

Figure 83. The PaÇiccasamuppÀda. The PaÇiccasamuppÀda
consists of 12 factors,

which
are 1-avijjÀ (ignorance), 2-saôkhÀra (mental formation), 3-viððÀõa

(consciousness),
4-nÀma-rÂpa (mind and matter), 5-saÒÀyatana (six sense bases), 6-

phassa
(contact), 7-vedanÀ (feeling), 8-taõhÀ (craving),
9-upÀdÀna (clinging), 10-bhava

(becoming),
11-jÀti (birth), and 12-jarÀ-maraõa (decay and death). Each
factor is

conditioned
by the preceding factor, and in turns, conditions the following factor.

The PaÇiccasamuppÀda
is separated into three periods; namely, past, present, and

future.
When a condition is ceased, the PaÇiccasamuppÀda stops.

Then,
Bahiya, you should train yourself thus: In reference to the seen,

there
will be only the seen. In reference to the heard, only the heard. In

reference
to the sensed, only the sensed. In reference to the cognized,

only
the cognized. That is how you should train yourself. When for you

there
will be only the seen in reference to the seen, only the heard in

reference
to the heard, only the sensed in reference to the sensed, only

the
cognized in reference to the cognized, then, Bahiya, there is no you in

terms
of that. When there is no you in terms of that, there is no you there.

When
there is no you there, you are neither here nor yonder nor between

the
two. This, just this, is the end of stress [dukkha]. II

When
a person knows the seen, the heard, etc. as they really are, the

phassa
stops. There are no more conditions for the arising of the vedanÀ.
The

cycle
of the PaÇiccasamuppÀda is broken. In order to achieve this, the person

has
to cultivate his wisdom by practicing the insight meditation. He should

develop
his mindfulness to guard the doors of sense experiences.

The MahÀsatipaÇÇhÀna
Sutta
offers four main exercises to build up a

basis
of mindfulness. With the methods taught in this sutta, we have many

exercises
to practice in order to observer the various states of mind and

matter.
Examples of the exercises are shown in figure 84.

From
the figure, it shows that a person can build up a basis of

mindfulness
during the present period of the PaÇiccasamuppÀda, starting from

viððÀõa
factor to bhava factor. Examples of the practices are as
follows:

1. ViððÀõa

a. CittÀnupassanÀ:

One
can observe the states of mind by contemplating

vipÀka-cittas.
The prominent states that people can

observe
are akusalavipÀka and kusalavipÀka-cittas.

IIUd
6ff: Thanissaro Bhikkhu, trans., “Bahiya Sutta,”
The Pali Canon, retrieved

29
June 2007, .

Figure 84. Examples of How to Build up the Mindfulness in the
Cycle of the PaÇiccasamuppÀda.
The MahÀsatipaÇÇhÀna Sutta

offers
four exercises to build up a basis of mindfulness by observing the various
states of mind and matter in the cycle of the

PaÇiccasamuppÀda.

Observing
clinging

(upÀdÀna)

Observing
resultant consciousness

(lokÁya
vipÀka citta)

Observing
mental states

(cetasika)

Observing
the four primary

elements,
etc. (kÀyadasaka)

Observing
the six sense bases

(Àyatana)

Observing
the sense

impression
(phassa cetasika)

Observing
neutral, painful,

pleasurable
feelings (vedanÀ)

Observing
craving

(chanda
cetasika)

Observing
hindrances &

fetters
(nivaraõa & saÚyojana)

Observing
volition

(cetanÀ
cetasika)

Color Representation

KÀyÀnupassanÀ

VedanÀnupassanÀ

CittÀnupassanÀ

DhammÀnupassanÀ

Observing
themental state of

sensation
(vedanÀ cetasika)

2. NÀma-RÂpa

a. KÀyÀnupassanÀ:

One
can observe the body either in term of the analysis

of
the elements (mahÀbhÂtarÂpa) or the analysis of the

derivative
materiality (upÀdÀrÂpa).

b. CittÀnupassanÀ:

One
can observe mental states by contemplating

cetasikas.
The prominent cetasikas that can be observed

are
when rÀga, dosa, and moha arise.

3. SaÒÀyatana

a. KÀyÀnupassanÀ:

One
can focus his mind on the six internal Àyatanas.

4. Phassa

a. CittÀnupassanÀ:

One
can emphasize only on the mental state of sense

impression.
Bhaddanta °sabhamahÀthera suggests

that
the phassa should be observed in order to make it

faded
away and finally ceased in order to destroy the

cycle
of the PaÇiccasamuppÀda.

5. VedanÀ

a. VedanÀnupassanÀ:

One
can observe one’s feeling arisen from phassa,

which
includes pleasurable, painful, or neutral feelings

whether
they are accompanied by material thing or

not.

b. CittÀnupassanÀ:

VedanÀ
is also a mental state, which can be observed.

6. TaõhÀ

a. CittÀnupassanÀ:

A
person can observe his craving in term of a mental

state.

b. DhammÀnupassanÀ:

A
person also can observer his craving in term of a

factor
of hindrances (nivaraõa) or a factor of fetters

(saÚyojana).

7. UpÀdÀna

a. DhammÀnupassanÀ:

UpÀdÀna
can be observed in four ways; namely,

clinging
to sensuality, clinging to views, clinging to

mere
rule and ritual, and clinging to the ego-belief.

8. Bhava

a. CittÀnupassanÀ:

A
person can observe his volition in term of a mental

state.

What
mentioned above are only a few examples that one can follow

as a
guideline to build up one’s mindfulness. When the mind is well-trained,

the
manifestation arising from the interaction between the internal sense

bases
and the external sense bases will do no harm to that person. However,

a
beginner of this practice may be not able to contemplate of all occurrences of

the
material and the mental phenomena. A solution suggested by MahÀsi

SayÀdaw
is to contemplate or be mindful only on the most outstanding

manifestation
of either the material or the mental phenomena in the body

first.III

IIIMahÀsi
SayÀdaw, 1980,
op. cit.,
p. 32.

This
thesis shows that what we see is only electromagnetic spectrum

of
light, what we hear is only the energy of vibration of molecules, what we

smell
and taste are only chemical substances, and what we touch is the feeling

that
arises because of the nerve signals inside our body. The pleasure and

displeasure
that arise is not because of these matters, but because of the

clinging
that we create by ourselves.

In
conclusion, this thesis demonstrates that there is no permanent

and
unchanging substance can be found in the twelve Àyatanas and the

elements
related to them, both the material and the mental phenomena. Any

elements
related to the twelve Àyatanas, including the process of cognition, are

subject
to impermanence and suffering and devoid of self.

BIOGRAPHY