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LESSON 2989 Mon 13 May 2019 Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness Tipitaka is the Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS) for welfare, happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta — Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ] from Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās through up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level Buddhasasana Buddha Sasana “In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to mankind universal in character.” TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI TBSKPB 668, 5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email:, 17-05-2019 at Nagavalli Friday 9:30 AM BUDDHA JAYANTI DHAMMA DEEPA PROGRAM
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Posted by: site admin @ 5:07 pm
LESSON 2989 Mon 13 May  2019

Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness

is the Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS) for welfare,
happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]


Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University

Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca

Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās


up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level


Buddha Sasana

the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for
light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to
mankind universal in character.”

5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka
India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email:,

17-05-2019                         at Nagavalli                           Friday

9:30 AM



At Nagavalli Village, Taluk Chamarajanagar, Dist. Chamarajanagar

Near City Market, Bengaluru -560002

Led by Ven. Bhikku Vimalarakkhita

Maha Bodhi Society 14, Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru - 560009, India

Led by Ven. Bhikku Dhammacitta

18-05-2019                         Bengaluru                           Saturday

Venue: Maha Bodhi Society 14, Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru - 560009, India


9:00 AM

Siri Mahabodhi Puja, Vishwa Maitri Puja,

Siriada Cetiya Puja, Buddha Puja,

at Mahabodhi Lokashanti Buddha Vihara,

Undertaking of Tisarana, Attasila and Pancasila

administered by

Ven. Pamakkha Thera,

Sr. Teacher, Mahabodhi Monastic Institute

Dhamma Desana and Blessing by

Chief Guest

Ven. Dr. Varasambodhi Maha Thera

Vice President, Mahabodhi Society of India, Bodhgaya

Offering of redecorated Buddha Image by

Maha Upasika K.S. Bharati Bai Kamble, Hyderabad

Release of Publications

The Buddha and His Dhamma - Part 1, by Ven. Acharya Buddharakkhita

Positive Response, by Ven. Acharya Buddharakkhita

Guided Kannada & English Meditation Audio CD

Presided by

Venerable Kassapa Maha Thera

President Maha Bodhi Society, Bengaluru

11:00 AM

Sanghadana - Lunch offering for monks

12:30 PM

Lunch for devotees

1:30 PM

Dhamma Deeksha and Kannada Discourse by

Venerable Bhikkhu Ananda

General Secretary, Maha Bodhi Society, Bengaluru

3:00 PM

Upasampada - Higher Bhikkhu Ordination

and Documentary on Lord Buddha

4:30 PM

Tea Break

6:00 PM

Deepa Puja and Meditation under the Bodhi Tree and

Dhamma Desana, Offering Lights and

Vandana to Supremely Awakened Buddha

7:30 PM


Merit Sharing and conclusion with deepa puja

@ Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu

09:30 AM


AtKanchi Mahabodhi Buddha Vihara,

Vaiyavoor Road, Near Old Railway Station, Kanchipuram, 631502

Led by Ven. Bhikku Dhammindo

Special Thanks to

Upasaka Nagasen, Dhoke, Upasaka Ambaresh, Upasaka Mali Patil,

& all other Upasakas & Upasikas

Kindly donate and earn merits, You may kindly send your donations to

Maha Bodhi Society

Account No. 353102010000137

IFSC Code: UBIN 0535311

MIRC Code: 560026005

Union Bank of India, Gandhinagar, Bangalore - 560009, India

We than all donors who have generously helped us

to make these programs successful

Maha Bodhi Society

14, Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru - 560009, India


Mobile: 9731635108, 9343158020, 9845703702

Thank you very much

All are Welcome
Bodhi Society, Bengaluru, is a Buddhist charitable Organization
established in 1956 by Venerable Acharya Buddharakkhita with the main
objective of reviving the compassionate teachings of the Buddha in the
land of its origin, India. Our aim is to put into practice the precious
teachings of the B…
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       Although the Buddha has left no
written records of His Teachings after attaining parinibbana (Demise) in 543
BC, His disciples preserved them, generation after generation, by committing to

       Subhadda, a bhikkhu in the
Buddha’s time, disparaged the Buddha’s Teachings on the seventh day after the
Buddha had passed away. ” Venerable Mahakassapa was very alarmed and
organised a Council of leading Arahants to collect and rehearse the teachings
of the Buddha. This First Buddhist council was held at Rajagaha, 3
months later, with Five hundreds Arahants, including Venerable Ananda and
Venerable Upali who led the sessions on the Doctrine and the Discipline
aspects. These foremost disciples managed to arrange the Tipitaka, the Buddhist
Bible, in its present form.

       The Second Councilwas held
near the city of Vesali in 100 B.E. (Buddhist Era) (443 B.C). It was held
because the bhikkhus of the Vajji clan from Vesali practised ten unlawful
modifications in the Rules of the Order. The seven hundred Arahants, led by
Venerable Yasa, Venerable Sabbakami and Venerable Revata, took part in that

       The Third Council was held
in the city of Pataliputta in 235 B.E, (308 B.C). Sixty thousand ascetics had
already infiltrated into the Samgha Order and polluted the Master’s Teaching by
their corrupt and heretical views. That is the main reason why the Third
Council was held by one thousand Arahants, presided over by Venerable
Mahamoggaliputta Tissa. After the Third Council, nine missions were sent to
nine different places, as far as Indonesia, to propagate the Sasana.

       The Fourth Council was held
in Sri Lanka, in 450 B.E (94 B.C). Later in 83 B.C., the Tipitaka was, for the
first time committed to writing in Ceylon (Sri Lanka, now) on the ola leaves.
Five hundred bhikkhus, led by Venerable Mahadhammarakkhita, inscribed the
entire words of the Buddha’s Teachings on palm leaves. When books of these
leaves were piled together, it was said to exceed the heights of six elephants.

       The Fifth Council was
convened at Mandalay in Burma (Myanmar now) in 2415 B.E (AD 1871). The
scriptures were inscribed on seven hundred and twenty-nine marble slabs at the
foot of Mandalay Hill.

       The Sixth and the last Great
was held at Rangoon (Yangon now) again in Burma in 2498 B.E
(AD1954). The Most Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw and Mingun Sayadaw took the leading
roles in that council. At that Council, not only the canonical Pali Texts of
the Buddha but also the commentaries and sub-commentaries were re-examined and

       Thanks to the efforts of those
noble persons, supported by the rulers and followers, over more than 25
centuries since the Master’s demise, the Tipitaka has been preserved in its
pristine purity, well-protected from the ill-conceived attempts of some selfish
critics who tried unsuccessfully to pollute the pure Teaching.


       This voluminous Tipitaka is
estimated to be about eleven times the size of the Bible and the word Tipitaka
means ‘Three Baskets’ literally. This teachings taking place in the course of
45 years of His Buddhahood have been divided into three collections, the Basket
of Discipline (Vinaya Pitaka), the Basket of Discourses (Sutta
and the Basket of Ultimate Philosophy (Abbidhamma Pitaka).

       In Vinaya pitaka,
Buddha used His authority over the members of the Order of Samgha or Sangha,
also known as Bhikkhus (monks) and Bhikkhunis (nuns), to lay down rules and
disciplines (highest code of ethics) for them to follow. These rules were
introduced gradually by Him as occasion arose mostly in the second half of the
45 years of His Ministry. The reasons and implications of these strict rules
and procedures for conducting specific Samgha ceremonies are fully described in
the Vinaya pitaka.

       In Sutta pitaka, or
conventional teaching, the Buddha explained His teachings which included
practical aspects of tranquillity and insight meditations in the form of
instructive discourses delivered to both the Samgha and the laity although most
of the sermons were intended mainly for the benefit of Bhikkhus.

       The third collection,
Abhidhamma pitaka, is the higher teaching of the Buddha,
describing the ultimate realities in the Universe and Nibbana. This
philosophical contents of the Buddha’s teaching is regarded as the most
important of the Tipitaka and a good understanding of this Division is
essential to comprehend the profound Teachings of the Buddha, paving the way to
ultimate liberation through meditation.

       The most wonderful thing about all
these massive instructions, both in theory and practical aspects, is that it
can be verified at any time by any able person who will steadfastly practise
with Nibbana as the ultimate goal and realises the Truths and joins the
exclusive membership of Enlightened Beings (Ariya persons) even in this very

       The size of the Tipitaka Texts do
not frighten the followers as the Buddha made it clear in His numerous
discourses that only the knowledge realised through meditation is the final key
to Nibbana, the ultimate peace. But before we become enlightened in this life
or future lives, we as Buddhists, have to live the Buddhist way of life, in
accordance with what the Buddha taught. So, preservation of the Buddha’s
Teaching (Buddha’s Sasana) is very important for us as well as for the future


(Monastic Discipline)

Patimokkha ( codes of training rules for bhikkhus
and bhikkhunis)

227 rules for monks (311 for nuns)

  1. Parajika Pali ( Major Offences )
  2. Pacittiya Pali
  3. Mahavagga Pali
  4. Cullavagga Pali
  5. Parivara Pali


( Basket of Discourses )

The Sutta Pitaka consists of instructive discourses delivered
by the Buddha on various occasions.

  1. Digha Nikaya( Collection of
    34 ‘ Long Discourses ‘ in 3 volumes )
  2. Majjhima
    ( Collection of 152 ‘ Middle-length Discourses ‘ in 3
    volumes )
  3. Samyutta
    ( Collection of 7,762 ‘ Connected Discourses/ Kindred
    Sayings ‘ in 5 volumes )
  4. Anguttara Nikaya ( Collection of 9,775
    Single-item Upwards Discourses/ Gradual Sayings in 11 volumes )
  5. Khuddaka

    Collection of 15 ‘ Little Texts ‘ in 18 volumes )
    • Apadana:
      on past lives of early monks and nuns/ Lives of Arahants
    • Buddhavamsa:

      ‘Chronicle’ of 24 previous Buddhas
    • Cariya Pitaka:
      up the ‘ Perfections ‘ of a Bodhisatta in previous lives
    • Dhammapada:
      verses on Dhamma/ the Way of Truth
    • Itivuttaka:
      short ” Thus said” Discourses
    • Jataka:
      collection of 547 (550) stories of previous lives of the Buddha
    • Khuddaka-patha: a collection of ‘ Little
      Readings/ Shorter Texts ‘ for recitation
    • Niddesa: an ‘ Exposition ‘ on part of
    • Patisambhida-magga:
      Book on
      Analytical Knowledge
    • Peta Vatthu:
      of Petas/ the departed on rebirths
    • Sutta Nipata:
      collection of 71 verse on Collected Discourses
    • Theragatha:
      about early monks attaining enlightment/ Psalms of the Brethren
    • Therigatha:
      about early nuns attaining enlightment/ Psalms of the Sisters
    • Udana:
      80 short
      Paeans of Joy
    • Vimana Vatthu:
      on heavenly rebirths/ Celestial Mansions


( Basket of Further Teachings )

The Abhidhamma Texts were added in the 3rd Century BC, aiming
to present the the teachings of the Suttas.

( 7 Texts in 12 volumes )
  1. Dhamma-sangani (
    Enumeration/Classification of Dhamma )
  2. Dhatu-katha( Discourse
    on Elements )
  3. Vibhanga( Book of Analysis/ Divisions )
  4. Patthana( Book of Causal Relations )
  5. Puggalapannatti ( The Book on
    Individuals )
  6. Kathavatthu {short description of image}( Points of Controversy )
  7. Yamaka ( The Book of Pairs )
{short description of image} History
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Classification: (1) Vinaya, (2)
Sutta, (3) Abhidhamma

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‘A Guide to Tipitaka’ Professor U Ko Lay

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Alphabetical List

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Buddhist Literatures in Archives in Burma

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Tipitakadhara Sayadaws of Burma (Myanmar)

The Pāli Language was derived from a Prakrit
(folks’ dialect) of Magādha in ancient India ( All spices in the world have their own Prakrit
(natural)  languge to communicate.Sinillarly if a new born baby is
separated and kept in isolation without any communication, it will speak
a natural language just like other spcies. That language is Magādha (Prakrit
) the natural language of Human Beings. All other languages emerged
from Magadha which was the mother tounge of Buddha. Its grammar is
similar to
those of Sanskrit and Latin. Pāli was chosen as the language to
rehearse and record the Buddhist teachings at the First Rehearsal (Sangāyana)
in 543 BCE. Pāli is unique among languages in that it is not used for
any other purpose except to record Buddhist doctrines. Thus the meanings
of its words were not ‘corrupted’ by common usage or ‘evolution’ over

The Three Major Divisions of Pāli Tipitaka


The Vinayapitaka is a collection of monastic rules, their origin,
issues regarding the administration of the monastic order, training
rules outside the Patimokkha, and rules concerning the use of
requisites. It also records the history of the Sangha’s formation, and
the events leading to the first and second rehearsals of the Pāli Canon.
This Pitaka is divided into five books – the Mahāvibhanga, Cullavibhanga, Mahāvagga, Cullavagga and Parivāra Pāli.

Novice monks are taught the Dhamma and Vinaya for many
years before being allowed to undergo their “Higher Ordination” as
full-fledged bhikkhus.


The Suttapitaka is a large collection of discourses, sermons and
sayings of the Buddha, and some of His foremost disciples, delivered on
various occasions to individuals and groups. It is divided into five
major collections (Nikāya) – the Dīghanikāya, Majjhimanikāya, Samyuttanikāya, Anguttaranikāya, and Khuddakanikāya
which in turn are further divided into many books and sections. These
discourses touch on mundane topics to the supramundane, as they were
delivered to beginners as well as to adept Arahant disciples.
Informative narrations and prose can be found in many longer texts,
while shorter ones, such as the Dhammapada, Udāna, Theragātha and Therigātha, contain some of the most poetic literature in verse.


The Abhidhammapitaka contains seven treatises – the Dhammasanganī, Vibhanga, Dhātukathā, Puggalapaññatti, Kathāvatthu, Yamaka, and Patthāna.
These treatises deal with Dhamma subjects in purely academic terms,
without referring to any individuals or providing narrations of events
as found in the Suttapitaka. Important doctrinal points, such as
consciousness, the mind, wholesome and unwholesome qualities, meditative
absorption, the nature of elements, stages of purification and
enlightenment, are all detailed in this massive collection.

Bhikkhus and novice monks often recite passages from the Abhidhamma in communal chantings.

Commentarial Tradition

Over the centuries, learned scholar-monks have composed commentaries to aid the learning of the Tipitaka. These are called Atthakathā in Pāli Language. Although they are not regarded as canonical, the Atthakathās are
nevertheless indispensable in better understanding certain parts of the
Canon. The most famous commentators were two 4th to 5th Century CE
monks – the Elders Buddhaghosa and Dhammapala – both of whom authored
the greater part of Pāli commentaries.

Additions to the Canon

The present structure of the Pāli Canon is largely the compilation of the Third Rehearsal of Dhamma-vinaya during Mauryan Emperor Asoka’s reign in the 3rd Century BCE. The Abhidhammapitaka was formally recited and incorporated into the Canon (thus making it “Ti-pitaka” – 3 divisions) during this rehearsal.

In the 1871CE Fifth Rehearsal in Mandalay, three ancient and highly venerated Pāli works – the Nettippakarana, Petakopadesa and Milindapañhā – were added to the Canon and placed under the Khuddakanikāya division of the Suttapitaka. These last three additions appeared in printed form as part of the Pāli Canon after the Sixth International Rehearsal in 1956.

The entire Pāli Tipitaka is nowadays commonly produced in a 40 to 45
volume (book) collection. For example, the Thai Pāli Tipitaka usually
contains 45 printed volumes, symbolically representing the 45 years of
Buddha’s mission.

Pāli Tipitaka

The Pāli Tipitaka comprises 31 books of various sizes.  Certain
treatises of the Tipitaka are so large that they are spread over several
volumes.  Together with their equally voluminous commentaries, the
Tipitaka offers a thorough exposition of Buddhist teachings covering all
aspects of practice from the mundane to the supramundane.  Below is a
list of the 31 books in their original Pāli names and brief descriptions
of their contents, as well as their respective commentarial texts.

Note: Three later additions to the Pāli Canon (the
Nettippakarana, Petakopadesa and Milindapañhā classified under the
are not listed below.  Their inclusion will result in the Canon having 34 books (and the Suttapitaka having 18 books).

Pāli Tipitaka
Canonical Books
General description & Major contents Commentaries
1. Vinayapitaka
Collection of monastic rules, their origin, and historical
events relating to the Sangha’s formation.  Divided into 5 collections.
The entire collection in the Vinayapitaka shares a single commentary.
1.1 Mahāvibhanga Major rules for bhikkhus (monks). Samantapāsādikā
1.2 Cullavibhanga Major rules for bhikkhunis (nuns). Samantapāsādikā
1.3 Mahāvagga
Rules of admission to the Bhikkhu Sangha; concerning the monks’ way of life, and the administration of the monastic order.
1.4 Cullavagga
Training rules regarding the use of requisites; origin of the
Bhikkhunī Sangha; historical records of the first and second rehearsals.
1.5 Parivāra Catechism on the knowledge of Discipline. Samantapāsādikā
2. Suttapitaka
Collection of discourses, sermons and sayings of the Buddha and
some of His foremost disciples.  Divided into 5 major collections and
many subdivisions according to subjects and the length of the
The first 4 Nikāyas have their own commentaries.  The Khuddakanikāya has 8 commentarial texts.
2.1 Dīghanikāya Collection of 34 long discourses, divided into 3 sections. Sumangalavilāsinī
2.2 Majjhimanikāya Collection of 152 medium-length discourses divided into 3 sections. Papañcasūdanī
2.3 Samyuttanikāya
Collection of more than two thousand discourses specially
arranged in 5 major divisions and further subdivided into 56 groupings
(Samyutta) according to their subject matters.
2.4 Anguttaranikāya
Collection of more than nine thousand discourses divided into 11 major numerical divisions (from Number One to Number Eleven).
2.5 Khuddakanikāya
Collection of discourses and sayings other than those classified
under the earlier 4 Nikāyas.  There are 15 books under this Nikāya.
(Note : 18 books if the three later additions were included.)
The 15 books in the Khuddaka-nikāya share 8 commentarial
texts between them.
2.5.1 Khuddakapātha
Collection of short discourses and text commonly used in chanting and blessings.
2.5.2 Dhammapada Collection of 423 concise and inspiring verses of Dhamma in 26 chapters. Dhammapadātthakathā
2.5.3 Udāna
Collection of 80 discourses containing the Buddha’s solemn utterances – the “Paeans of Joy”.
2.5.4 Itivuttaka Collection of 112 discourses, all beginning with “Iti vuccati… Paramatthadīpanī
2.5.5 Suttanipāta
Special “collected discourses” of 71 sermons composed entirely or mostly in verses.
2.5.6 Vimānavatthu
Stories of celestial splendour” – 85 narrations by celestial beings on the effects of their past lives’ good deeds.
2.5.7 Petavatthu
Stories of deprived beings” – 51 remorseful narrations by spirits on the effects of their past lives’ evil deeds.
2.5.8 Theragātha
Collection of verses uttered by 264 Arahant bhikkhus on their lofty spiritual attainments.
2.5.9 Therīgātha Collection of verses uttered by 73 Arahant bhikkhunis as above. Paramatthadīpanī
2.5.10 Jātaka
Collection of 547 tales about the past lives of the Buddha before His final birth.
2.5.11 Niddesa
Exposition” – collection of the Elder Sariputta’s explanation of the Dhamma based on the Buddha’s preaching in the Suttanipāta.
2.5.12 Patisambidāmagga
Way of Analysis” – collection of Elder Sariputta’s
detailed explanation of topics such as insight, mindfulness, views,
spiritual faculties and deliverance.
2.5.13 Apadāna
Collection of nearly 600 accounts concerning the past lives of Buddhas, Pacceka-Buddhas, Arahant bhikkhus and bhikkhunis.
2.5.14 Buddhavamsa
Collection of stories concerning the previous 24 Buddhas, and concluding with the story of Buddha Gotama.
2.5.15 Cariyāpitaka
Collection of 35 stories of Buddha’s past lives (as told in the
Jātaka), with special emphasis on His mode of conduct in fulfilling the
ten compulsory perfections of Buddhahood.
3. Abhidhammapitaka
Collection of academic and philosophical terms of the teachings. Divided into seven treatises.
The first 2 treatises have their own commentaries. The latter 5 share a common one.
3.1 Dhammasanganī Collection of teachings – 164 matrices and summaries of all phenomena. Atthasālinī
3.2 Vibhanga
Collection of 18 sections dealing with 18 important subjects in the
Teachings, such as the Four Noble Truths, the Factors of Enlightenment,
and Dependent Origination.
3.3 Dhātukathā Discussions on Elements – the five aggregates, twelve sense-fields, etc. Pañcapakaranātthakathā
3.4 Puggalapaññatti On Individuals – designation of individuals according to their virtues. Pañcapakaranātthakathā
3.5 Kathāvatthu
Collection of 219 subjects in question and answer format, refuting
false views held by heretics.  This treatise was compiled by
Moggalliputta-Tissa Thera, and added to the Canon in the Third
Rehearsal, held in the 3rd Century BCE.
3.6 Yamaka Collection of questions and answers to important topics in 10 pairings. Pañcapakaranātthakathā
3.7 Patthāna
Large collection of explanations to the conditionality, interdependence, and causality of phenomena.


  • A Bhikkhu (Pāli), or Bhiksu (Sanskrit), is a fully ordained male Buddhist monastic. Female monastics are called Bhikkhunis. The holy orders in Buddhism connect back to the central roots of Buddhism, the original followers of Buddha. When Prince Siddhartha
    chose to follow the ascetic path to find the truth, giving up his
    worldly position, and became Buddha, he set up a community of monks,
    Bikkhu sangha Sanskritt, Bhiksu, and nuns, Bikkhuni sangha, to help with the work of teaching the Dharma (Buddhist teachings). Bhiksu may be literally translated as “beggar” or more broadly as “one who lives by alms.”
    Bhikkhus and Bhikkhunis keep many precepts: They live by the vinaya’s
    framework of monastic discipline, the basic rules of which are called
    the patimokkha. The original rules and regulations of the monastic
    orders, called the patimokkha, were set out by the Buddha himself, then
    adapted over time to keep step with changes in the world. Their
    lifestyle is shaped so as to support their spiritual practice, to live a
    simple and meditative life, and attain Nirvana, the goal of all Buddhists.



    Vietnam: A Vietnamese Buddhist monk carrying a traditional begging bowl, with which to eat meals that are offered to him.

    In addition to pursuing their own spiritual advancement, Bhikkhu and
    Bhikkuni also stand in a position of leadership to the Buddhist
    community among which they live. Other members of the spiritual
    community look to them as an example, for guidance, and for
    understanding. This is one of the reasons that strict training and
    discipline are required in the process of becoming a monk or nun in the
    Buddhist or any other faith. It is important for those in positions of
    leadership to maintain a high standard of faith and set a good example
    in their words and actions.


    Bhikkhu may be literally translated as “beggar” or more broadly as “one who lives by alms.”
    One of the most complete collection of teachings about the proper
    course for Buddhist monks and nuns can be found in the Pāli Canon, a
    collection of scriptures
    in the Theravada Buddhist tradition. Scholars do not agree about
    whether this information came directly from Buddha himself, or was
    formulated by early followers, based on Buddha’s teachings. The Pāli
    Canon describes a Bhikkhu as “the person who sees danger (in samsara or
    cycle of rebirth).” He, therefore, seeks ordination as a monk in order
    to release from it. One passage from the Dhammapada section of the canon

    Not therefore is he a bhikkhu
    Merely because he begs from others.
    Not by adopting the outward form
    Does one truly become a bhikkhu.
    He who wholly subdues evil,
    Both small and great,
    Is called a monk (bhikkhu)
    Because he has overcome all evil (Dhp 266, 267).

    A bhikkhu has taken a vow to enter the Sangha (Buddhist monastic
    community) and is expected to obey rules of conduct (typically around
    227 for a male) as set out in the Vinaya, although there are
    considerable local variations in the interpretations of these rules. A
    novice monk or nun in the Tibetan
    tradition takes 36 vows of conduct. The minimum age to take bhikkhu
    vows is 21 years (although this also varies from country to country).

    The establishment of a monastic community meant that the greater
    community of Buddhist faithful could be described in four groups: Male
    and female lay believers, and Bikku (Bhikkhu in pali and Bhikshu in Sanskrit),
    and Bikkhuni (Bhikkuni in Pali and Bhikshuni in Sanskrit), the male and
    female ordained monks. Joining the ranks of the ordained is the highest
    goal of Buddhist practitioners. The monks and nuns are the pillars of
    the community of faith, spreading Buddhist teachings and serving as
    living examples for the lay believers to follow. Also, by serving as a field of merit,
    they give laymen the opportunity to gain merit by supporting the
    ordained community with donations of food and money. The disciplined
    life in the monastic order also contributes towards the monks’ and nuns’
    pursuit of the liberation of Nirvana through the cycle of rebirth.

    Monks and nuns

    Thailand: A group of monks near in Luang Nam Tha, Thailand.

    Korea: A group of traveling Buddhist monks from Korea visiting a Buddhist temple in Nara, Japan.

    In English literature prior to the mid-twentieth century, Buddhist monks were often referred to by the term bonze,
    particularly when describing monks from East Asia and French Indochina.
    This term is derived via Portuguese and French from the Japanese word bonsō for a priest or monk, and has become less common in modern literature.[1]
    Although the European terms “monk” and “nun” are applied also on
    Buddhism, the situation of “ordination” in Buddhism is more complicated,
    involving several levels of commitment.

    In Buddhism, monkhood is part of the system of “vows of individual
    liberation.” These vows are taken by monks and nuns from the ordinary
    sangha, in order to develop personal ethical discipline. In Mahayana
    Buddhism, the term “sangha” is, in principle, restricted to those who
    have achieved certain levels of understanding. They are, therefore,
    called “community of the excellent ones” (Tib. ). These, however, need not be monks and nuns (that is, hold
    such vows).

    Monks usually traveled in small groups, living at the outskirts of
    the village. The monks depended on donations of food and clothing from
    the residents of the village. Part of Buddha’s direction was that the
    members of the monastic order gather in larger groups and live together
    during the rainy season. The dwellings where they stayed during these
    times were also to be given voluntarily by people from the community.
    Over time, the dwellings became more permanent, the monks settled in
    regions; their lifestyle became less nomadic, and the monks started to live communally in monasteries. The patimokka, rules governing life in the monastery, were developed, prescribing in great detail the way to live and relate in a community. For example, the patimokka in the Theravada branch of Buddhism contains 227 rules.

    Joining the order

    Japan: A Japanese Buddhist monk

    Thailand: Young monks receiving a gift of food from a lay Buddhist.

    The vows of individual liberation are taken in four steps. A lay
    person may take the five vows called “approaching virtue” (in Tibetan genyen ). The next step is to enter the monastic way of life (Tib. rabjung
    ) which includes wearing monk’s or nun’s robes. After
    that, one can become a novice or samanera (Skt. shramanera, Tib. getshül ). The last and final step is to take all the vows of a “fully ordained monk” or gelong
    Tib. (
    ). Gelongma () is the female
    term. The translation from Sanskrit is bikshuni (female) or bikshu
    (male). The Pali term is bhikkhuni (female) or bhikkhu (male), used in
    Theravada Buddhism (Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand).

    Laymen who wish to join the order must approach a monk who has been
    in the order for at least ten years, and ask to be taken in. First
    ordained as a samanera (novice), they have their heads shaved,
    and begin to wear the robes appropriate to the order they have joined.
    For a period of at least a year, they must live by the Ten
    Precepts—refraining from sexual contact, refraining from harming or
    taking life, refraining from taking what is not given, refraining from
    false speech, refraining from the use of intoxicants, refraining from
    taking food after midday, refraining from singing, dancing, and other
    kind of entertainment, refraining from the use of perfume, garland and
    other adornments, refraining from using luxurious seats and refraining
    from accepting and holding money. They are not required to live by the
    full set of monastic rules. Boys from eight years old can be ordained as
    samanera. Women are usually first ordained when adults. From the age of
    20, samanera can be ordained to the full level of Bikkhu or Bikkhuni.

    The Buddha instructed that in order to be ordained as Bikkhu or
    Bikkhuni, the applicant need to have a preceptor. The preceptor is
    usually the elderly monk that ordained the applicant as samanera. The
    samanera needs to approach a community of at least ten monks of at least
    ten years standing each and who are well respected for their virtues
    and learning. The monks would then ask the applicant eleven questions to
    assess his readiness, suitability and motives: (1) Are you free from disease? (2) Are you a human being?
    (3) Are you a man? (4) Are you a free man? (5) Are you free from debt?
    (6) Do you have any obligations to the king? (7) Do you have your parents
    permission? (8) Are you at least twenty years of age? (9) Do you have
    your bowl and robe? (10) What is your name? (11) What is your teacher’s
    name? If the applicant answers satisfactorily to these questions, he/she
    will request ordination three times and if there is no objection from
    the assembly, he/she is considered a monk/nun.

    Monks and nuns take their vows for a lifetime, but they can “give
    them back” (up to three times in one life), a possibility which is
    actually used by many people. In this way, Buddhism keeps the vows
    “clean.” It is possible to keep them or to leave this lifestyle, but it
    is considered extremely negative to break these vows.

    In Tibet, usually small children from 6 onwards can take the rabjung ordination which is a child-specific approach to monastic life. At age 14, they usually take getshül ordination which includes more rules, and after age 21, many take the gelong ordination—or prefer to quit the monastic life.

    Hierarchy among monks

    Tibet: The Dalai Lama, head of the Tibetan Buddhist clergy, and the political and spiritual leader of Tibet.

    In most branches of Buddhism, there are no formal rules that define a
    hierarchy within the monastery. However, tacit rules of obedience to
    the most senior member of the Sangha, and other rules stemming from the
    teacher/student, senior/junior and preceptor/trainee relationship are at
    work within the monastery. Decisions to be taken concerning life in the
    monastery are usually done in communal meetings.

    The daily running of the monastery is in the hand of an abbess or abbot
    who may appoint assistants. The position of abbess / abbot are usually
    held by one among the senior members of the monastery. In some case
    he/she will be elected by the members of the order, and in other cases
    the lay community will choose him/her.

    Women were not originally included in the ascetic community by the
    Buddha. However, after incessant pressures from his aunt and stepmother,
    Maha Pajapati Gotami, he accepted the ordination of women. Stronger
    restrictions and rules were put on the communities of nuns, however,
    such as the precedence of monks over the nuns in matter of respect and
    deference, the prohibition of nun teaching monks, and that the
    confession and punishment of nuns should be done before a joint assembly
    of both nuns and monks.


    The special dress of ordained Buddhist monks and nuns, the robes,
    comes from the idea of wearing cheap clothes just to protect the body
    from weather and climate. They shall not be made from one piece of
    cloth, but mended together from several pieces. Since dark red was the
    cheapest colour in Kashmir, the Tibetan
    tradition has red robes. In the south, yellow played the same role,
    though the color of saffron also had cultural associations in India; in East Asia, robes are yellow, grey or black.

    In Tibet, there are pronounced differences in the robes of monks at
    various stages of their vocation. One difference is that rhe robes of
    getshül novices do not include the “holes” that can be found in the
    robes of gelong monks. Some monks tear their robes into pieces and then
    mend these pieces together again. The younger rabjung novices do not
    wear the “chö-göö,” or yellow tissue worn during Buddhist teachings by
    both getshüls and gelongs.

    Adherants of Buddhism in many countries have traditions of special
    robes as part of the observance of the Kathina festival, which
    traditional comes at the end of the rainy season. To celebrate Kathina, a
    special Kathina robe is made in 24 hours from donations by lay
    supporters of a temple. The robe is donated to the temple or monastery,
    and the resident monks then select from their own number a monk to
    receive this special robe. The monk is selected from those who have
    observed a special three month period of retreat and meditation during
    the rainy season. [2]

    Marriage and celibacy

    was a requirement for the members of the Buddhist orders, as
    established by Buddha. Even up until today, in some branch of Buddhism
    this rule is still in effect. However, as the Buddha was a pragmatic
    teacher and the rules he set for the monastic life prone to change, he
    predicted, as women were ordained that the rule of celibacy will not
    hold for more than 500 years. In fact, since the seventh century in India, some groups of monks were getting married. In Japan, from the Heian period (794-1105 C.E.),
    cases of monks getting married started to appear. However it was during
    the Meiji restoration, from the 1860’s that marriage by monks was
    officially encouraged by the government. Since that time, Japan remains
    the country with the largest number married monks among the higher orders. Marriage by monks is also practiced in other country, including Korea and Tibet.

    Tantric vows

    A lay person (or a monk/nun) engaging in high tantric practices and
    achieving a certain level of realization will be called a yogi (female
    “yogini,” in Tibetan naljorpa/naljorma ). The
    yogis (monks or lay) observe another set of vows, the tantric vows
    (together with the bodhisattva
    vows); therefore, a yogi/yogini may also dress in a special way, so
    that they are sometimes called the “white sangha” (due to their often
    white or red/white clothes). Both ways, tantric and monastic are not
    mutually exclusive; although they emphasize different areas of Buddhist
    practice, both are ascetic.

    Other vows

    There are still other methods of taking vows in Buddhism. Most
    importantly, “Bodhisattva vows” are to be taken by all followers of
    Mahayana Buddhism; these vows develop an altruistic attitude. Another
    “centering of self” method is taking strict one-day vows which are
    somewhat similar to monk’s/nun’s vows (”Mahayana precepts”), but last
    only from one sunrise to another sunrise.


    Ordination in Buddhism is a cluster of methods of self-discipline
    according to the needs, possibilities and capabilities of individuals.
    According to the spiritual development of his followers, the Buddha gave
    different levels of vows. The most advanced method is the state of a
    bikkhu(ni), a fully ordained follower of the Buddha’s teachings. The
    goal of the bhikku(ni) in all traditions is to achieve liberation from

    Beside that, the Mahayanist approach requires bodhisattva vows, and
    the tantric method requires tantric vows. Since some people are not
    attracted to monk/nun ordination, all other vows can be taken
    separately. On the other hand, it is said that one cannot achieve the
    goal without taking the vows of individual liberation—that is, comply
    with the ethical disciple inscribed in these vows.


  • Sri Lanka: A Buddhist Monk in Sri Lanka]

  • Tibet: Tibetan monks engaging in a traditional monastic
    debate. They employ stylized movements—hand claps, finger thrusts, and
    posture—to emphasize their points.

  • Korea: Monk and Lanterns, Bongeunsa Temple, Korea.

  • Korea: Korean Buddhist monks

  • Vietnam: A Vietnamese Buddhist monk taking care of a young boy.

  • Thailand: A Buddhist monk.

  • Japan: A Japanese monk.

  • Australia: An Australian Buddhist monk.

  • Thailand: A parade of monks, Wat Po, Bangkok, Thailand.

  • Japan: A Japanese monk.

  • ET Online Editor <>

    May 11, 2019, 6:26 PM (21 hours ago)
    Dear Reader,Your comment is now displayed on Please click here to view it on the website. And do keep writing in. Thank you, Rgds, Editor
    to me

    Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan
    24 Points
    21 hours ago 

    president of the Muslim Gau Raksha Sangh, Irfan Sheikh, said the idea
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    that Muslims should also come forward to protect the cow, revered by the

    Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS)

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