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Do Good Purify Mind and Environment - Awakened One with Awareness (AOA) TIPITAKA NIBBANA
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Do Good Purify Mind and Environment  -  Awakened One with Awareness (AOA)

TIPITAKA
NIBBANA


Picture




Sutta Pitak






Picture


          



        Vinay Pitak

Picture





Abhidhamma Pitak

http://www.palikanon.de/english/sangaha/sangaha.html

ABHIDHAMMATTHA - SANGAHA

of Anuruddhācariya

A manual of ABHIDHAMMA

Edited in the original Pali Text with English Translation and Explanatory Notes

by Nārada Thera, Vājirārāma, Colombo

Preface

CHAPTER I - Different Types of Consciousness (citta-sangaha-vibhāgo)

Introductory Verse
Subject - Matter (Abhidhammatthā)
The Four Classes of Consciousness (catubbidha-cittāni)
Immoral Consciousness (akusala cittāni)
(18 Types Of Rootless Consciousness)
“Beautiful” Consciousness Of The Sensuous Sphere - 24
(Form-Sphere Consciousness - 15)
(Formless-Sphere Consciousness - 12)
(Supra Mundane Consciousness - 4)
(121 Types of Consciousness)
Diagrams:

CHAPTER II - Mental States (cetasika)

Introduction
(Definition)
52 Kinds of Mental States
Different Combinations of Mental States
Immoral Mental States
(Beautiful Mental States)
Contents of Different Types of Consciousness
Supra mundane Consciousness
(Sublime Consciousness)
Sense-Sphere Beautiful Consciousness
Immoral Consciousness
Rootless Consciousness

CHAPTER III - Miscellaneous Section

(i. Summary of Feeling)
(ii. Summary of Roots)
(iii. Summary of Functions)
(iv. Summary of Doors)
(v. Summary of Objects)
(vi. Summary of Bases)

CHAPTER IV - Analysis of Thought-Processes

Five Sense-Door Thought-process
Thought-Processes
Mind-door Thought-Process
Appanā Thought-Process
The Procedure of Retention
Procedure of Javana (13)
Classification of Individuals
Section on Planes
Diagram IX

CHAPTER V - PROCESS-FREED SECTION

Summary of Rebirth Procedure
i. Four Planes of Life
ii. Fourfold Rebirth
iii. Fourfold Kamma (29)
iv . Procedure with Regard to Decease and Rebirth
v. The Stream of Consciousness

CHAPTER VI - ANALYSIS OF MATTER

Introduction
Analysis of Matter
Classification of Matter
The Arising of Material Phenomena (52)
Grouping of Material Qualities (57)
Arising of Material Phenomena (58)
Nibbāna (59)
Diagram XIII

CHAPTER VII - Abhidhamma Categories

Introductory verse
(Immoral Categories)
Diagram XIV
Mixed Categories
Factors of Enlightenment (28)
A Synthesis of ‘the Whole’ (36)

CHAPTER VIII - The Compendium Of Relations

Introductory verse
The Law of Dependent Arising
The Law of Casual Relations
Paññatti

CHAPTER IX - Mental Culture

Introductory verse
(Compendium of Calm)
Suitability of Subjects for different Temperaments
Stages of Mental Culture
Signs of Mental Culture
Rūpa Jhāna
Arūpa Jhāna (22)
Supernormal Knowledge (23)
Different Kind of Purity
Realization
Emancipation
Individuals
The Path of Purification
Attainments
Aspirations

Oben

PREFACE

Abhidhamma, as the term implies, is the Higher Teaching of the Buddha. It expounds the quintessence of His profound doctrine.


The Dhamma, embodied in the Sutta Pitaka, is the conventional teaching
(vohāra desanā), and the Abhidhamma is the ultimate teaching (paramattha
desanā)

In the Abhidhamma both mind and matter, which constitute
this complex machinery of man, are microscopically analyzed. Chief
events connected with the process of birth and death are explained in
detail. Intricate points of the Dhamma are clarified. The Path of
Emancipation is set forth in clear terms.

Modern Psychology,
limited as it is comes within the scope of Abhidhamma inasmuch as it
deals with the mind, with thoughts, thought-processes, and mental states
but it does not admit of a psyche or a soul. Buddhism teaches a
psychology without a psyche.

If one were to read the Abhidhamma
as a modern textbook on psychology, one would be disappointed. No
attempt has here been made to solve all the problems that confront a
modern psychologist.

Consciousness is defined. Thoughts are
analyzed and classified chiefly from an ethical standpoint. All mental
states are enumerated. The composition of each type of consciousness is
set forth in detail. The description of thought-processes that arise
through the five sense-doors and the mind-door is extremely interesting.
Such a clear exposition of thought-processes cannot be found in any
other psychological treatise.

Bhavanga and Javana
thought-moments, which are explained only in the Abhidhamma, and which
have no parallel in modern psychology, are of special interest to a
research student in psychology.

That consciousness flows like a
stream, a view propounded by some modern psychologists like William
James, becomes extremely clear to one who understands the Abhidhamma. It
must be added that an Abhidhamma student can fully comprehend the
Anattā (No-soul) doctrine, the crux of Buddhism, which is important both
from a philosophical and an ethical standpoint.

The advent of
death, process of rebirth in various planes without anything to pass
from one life to another, the evidently verifiable doctrine of Kamma and
Rebirth are fully explained.

Giving a wealth of details about
mind, Abhidhamma discusses the second factor of man-matter or rūpa.
Fundamental units of matter, material forces, properties of matter,
source of matter, relationship of mind and matter, are described.


In the Abhidhammattha Sangaha there is a brief exposition of the Law of
Dependent Origination, followed by a descriptive account of the Causal
Relations that finds no parallel in any other philosophy.

A physicist should not delve into Abhidhamma to get a thorough knowledge of physics.


It should be made clear that Abhidhamma does not attempt to give a
systematized knowledge of mind and matter. It investigates these two
composite factors of so-called being to help the understanding of things
as they truly are. A philosophy has been developed on these lines.
Based on that philosophy, an ethical system has been evolved to realize
the ultimate goal, Nibbāna.

As Mrs. Rhys Davids rightly says,
Abhidhamma deals with “(1) What we find (a) within us (b) around us and
of (2) what we aspire to find.”

In Abhidhamma all irrelevant
problems that interest students and scholars, but having no relation to
one’s Deliverance, are deliberately set aside.

The Abhidhammattha
Sangaha, the authorship of which is attributed to venerable Anuruddha
Thera, an Indian monk of Kanjevaram (Kāñcipura), gives an epitome of the
entire Abhidhamma Pitaka. It is still the most fitting introduction to
Abhidhamma. By mastering this book, a general knowledge of Abhidhamma
may easily be acquired.

To be a master of Abhidhamma all the
seven books, together with commentaries and sub-commentaries, have to be
read and re-read patiently and critically.

Abhidhamma is not a subject of fleeting interest designed for the superficial reader.


To the wise truth-seekers, Abhidhamma is an indispensable guide and an
intellectual treat. Here there is food for thought to original thinkers
and to earnest students who wish to increase their wisdom and lead an
ideal Buddhist life.

However, to the superficial, Abhidhamma must appear as dry as dust.


It may be questioned, “Is Abhidhamma absolutely essential to realize
Nibbāna, the summum bonum of Buddhism, or even to comprehend things as
they truly are?”

Undoubtedly Abhidhamma is extremely helpful to
comprehend fully the word of the Buddha and realize Nibbāna, as it
presents a key to open the door of reality. It deals with realities and a
practical way of noble living, based on the experience of those who
have understood and realized. Without a knowledge of the Abhidhamma one
at times’ finds it difficult to understand the real significance of some
profound teachings of the Buddha. To develop Insight (vipassanā)
Abhidhamma is certainly very useful.

But one cannot positively assert that Abhidhamma is absolutely necessary to gain one’s Deliverance.


Understanding or realization is purely personal (sanditthika). The four
Noble Truths that form the foundation of the Buddha’s teaching are
dependent on this one fathom body. The Dhamma is not apart from oneself.
Look within, Seek thyself. Lo, the truth will unfold itself.

Did
not sorrow-afflicted Patācārā, who lost her dear and near ones, realize
Nibbāna; reflecting on the disappearance of water that washed her feet?


Did not Cūlapanthaka, who could not memorize a verse even for four
months, attain Arahantship by comprehending the impermanent nature of a
clean handkerchief that he was handling, gazing at the sun?

Did not Upatissa, later venerable Sāriputta Thera, realize Nibbāna, on hearing half a stanza relating to cause and effect?

To some a fallen withered leaf alone was sufficient to attain Pacceka Buddha hood.

It was mindfulness on respiration (ānāpāna-sati) that acted as the basis for the Bodhisatta to attain Buddha hood.

To profound thinkers, a slight indication is sufficient to discover great truths.

According to some scholars, Abhidhamma is not a teaching of the Buddha, but is a later elaboration of scholastic monks.

Tradition, however, attributes the nucleus of the Abhidhamma to the Buddha Himself.


Commentators state that the Buddha, as a mark of gratitude to His
mother who was born in a celestial plane, preached the Abhidhamma to His
mother Deva and others continuously for three months. The principal
topics (mātikā) of the advanced teaching such as moral states (kusalā
dhammā), immoral states (akusalā dhammā) and indeterminate states
(abyākatā dhammā), etc., were taught by the Buddha to venerable
Sāriputta Thera, who subsequently elaborated them in the six books
(Kathāvatthu being excluded) that comprise the Abhidhamma Pitaka.


Whoever the great author or authors of the Abhidhamma may have been, it
has to be admitted that he or they had intellectual genius comparable
only to that of the Buddha. This is evident from the intricate and
subtle Patthāna Pakarana which minutely describes the various causal
relations.

It is very difficult to suggest an appropriate English equivalent for Abhidhamma.


There are many technical terms, too, in Abhidhamma which cannot be
rendered into English so as to convey their exact connotation. Some
English equivalents such as consciousness, will, volition, intellect,
perception are used in a specific sense in Western Philosophy. Readers
should try to understand in what sense these technical terms are
employed in Abhidhamma. To avoid any misunderstanding, due to
preconceived views, Pāli words, though at times cumbersome to those not
acquainted with the language, have judiciously been retained wherever
the English renderings seem to be inadequate. To convey the correct
meaning implied by the Pāli terms, the etymology has been given in many
instances.

At times Pāli technical terms have been used in
preference to English renderings so that the reader may be acquainted
with them and not get confused with English terminology.


Sometimes readers will come across unusual words such as corruption,
defilement, volitional activities, functional, resultants, and so forth,
which are of great significance from an Abhidhamma standpoint. Their
exact meaning should be clearly understood.

In preparing this
translation, Buddhist Psychology by Mrs. Rhys Davids and the Compendium
of Philosophy (Abhidhammattha Sangaha) by Mr. Shwe Zan Aung proved
extremely helpful to me. Liberty has been taken to quote them wherever
necessary with due acknowledgment.

My grateful thanks are due to
the Kandy Buddhist Publication Society for the printing of this fourth
revised volume, to the printers for expediting the printing, to Miss
Rañjani Goonatilaka for correcting the proofs, and to Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi
for his useful suggestions.

Above all I have to thank Mr.
Lankatilaka, a most distinguished artist of Sri Lanka, for his beautiful
and symbolical dust jacket design.

Nārada 14.7.1978/2522.

Oben
ages/pitsanu.gif” width=”40″ height=”40″> Oben

palikanon.de
Abhidhamma, as the term implies, is the Higher Teaching of the Buddha. It expounds the quintessence of His profound doctrine.


https://www.youtube.com/watch…
What is Abhidhamma

256
7

Share
nobelpathfinder
Published on Feb 8, 2011
The ultimate objective in Buddhism is attained by purifying and
improving mind. However, understanding what “mind” is a quite
complicated act for any person. This is a barrier for someone who is
interested in learning Buddhism in‐depth. One of the teachings in
Buddhism which provides a comprehensive analysis on mind is
“Abhidhamma”.

The Buddhist
doctrine is categorized into three, which is known to anyone, as
“Thripitaka” namely Suthra Pitaka, Vinya Pitaka and Abhidhamma Pitaka.
Vinaya Pitaka consists rules of conduct for Sangha and Suthra Pitaka
consists of Suttas containing the central teachings of Buddhism. Suthra
Pitaka is mostly on “Conventional Teachings” (Sammuthi Dheshana) of
Buddhism. Abhidhamma Pitaka provides a theoretical framework for the
doctrine principles in Suthra Pitaka which could be used to describe
“Mind and Matter”. Hence, Abhidhamma embraces the “Ultimate Teachings”
(Paramaththa Dheshana) in Buddhism.

Abhidhamma Pitaka consists of seven treatises;

1. Dhammasangani

2. Vibhanga

3. Dhatukatha

4. Puggalapannatti

5. Kathavatthu

6. Yamaka

7. Pattthana


The term “Abhidhamma” simply means “Higher Doctrine”. It is an in‐depth
investigation to mind and matter. It answers many intricate points of
Dhamma. It analyses complex machinery of human, world, mind, thoughts,
thought‐process, mental formations and etc. Therefore it is indeed a
complex doctrine to understand. However, there are many who are
interested in learning this beautiful branch of doctrine. Amongst them
there are plenty of non‐Buddhists as well. This effort is to present
this doctrine in an “Easy to Understand” manner.

( 8th FEB 2011)
Category
Education

youtube.com
The
ultimate objective in Buddhism is attained by purifying and improving
mind. However, understanding what “mind” is a quite complicated act for
any person….












6  Abhidhhamma Pitaka in Brief              







http://www.palikanon.de/english/sangaha/sangaha.html

ABHIDHAMMATTHA - SANGAHA


of Anuruddhācariya


A manual of ABHIDHAMMA

Edited in the original Pali Text with English Translation and Explanatory
Notes


by Nārada Thera, Vājirārāma, Colombo

Preface

CHAPTER I - Different Types of Consciousness
(citta-sangaha-vibhāgo)

Introductory Verse
Subject - Matter (Abhidhammatthā)
The Four Classes of Consciousness (catubbidha-cittāni)
Immoral Consciousness (akusala cittāni)
(18 Types Of Rootless Consciousness)
“Beautiful” Consciousness Of The Sensuous Sphere - 24
(Form-Sphere Consciousness - 15)
(Formless-Sphere Consciousness - 12)
(Supra Mundane Consciousness - 4)
(121 Types of Consciousness)
Diagrams:
CHAPTER II - Mental States (cetasika)
Introduction
(Definition)
52 Kinds of Mental States
Different Combinations of Mental States
Immoral Mental States
(Beautiful Mental States)
Contents of Different Types of Consciousness
Supra mundane Consciousness
(Sublime Consciousness)
Sense-Sphere Beautiful Consciousness
Immoral Consciousness
Rootless Consciousness
CHAPTER III - Miscellaneous Section
(i. Summary of Feeling)
(ii. Summary of Roots)
(iii. Summary of Functions)
(iv. Summary of Doors)
(v. Summary of Objects)
(vi. Summary of Bases)
CHAPTER IV - Analysis of Thought-Processes
Five Sense-Door Thought-process
Thought-Processes
Mind-door Thought-Process
Appanā Thought-Process
The Procedure of Retention
Procedure of Javana (13)
Classification of Individuals
Section on Planes
Diagram IX
CHAPTER V - PROCESS-FREED SECTION
Summary of Rebirth Procedure
i. Four Planes of Life
ii. Fourfold Rebirth
iii. Fourfold Kamma (29)
iv . Procedure with Regard to Decease and Rebirth
v. The Stream of Consciousness
CHAPTER VI - ANALYSIS OF MATTER
Introduction
Analysis of Matter
Classification of Matter
The Arising of Material Phenomena (52)
Grouping of Material Qualities (57)
Arising of Material Phenomena (58)
Nibbāna (59)
Diagram XIII
CHAPTER VII - Abhidhamma Categories
Introductory verse
(Immoral Categories)
Diagram XIV
Mixed Categories
Factors of Enlightenment (28)
A Synthesis of ‘the Whole’ (36)
CHAPTER VIII - The Compendium Of Relations
Introductory verse
The Law of Dependent Arising
The Law of Casual Relations
Paññatti
CHAPTER IX - Mental Culture


Introductory verse
(Compendium of Calm)
Suitability of Subjects for different Temperaments
Stages of Mental Culture
Signs of Mental Culture
Rūpa Jhāna
Arūpa Jhāna (22)
Supernormal Knowledge (23)
Different Kind of Purity
Realization
Emancipation
Individuals
The Path of Purification
Attainments
Aspirations





  Oben 


PREFACE

 

Abhidhamma, as the term implies, is the Higher Teaching of the Buddha.
It expounds the quintessence of His profound doctrine.

The Dhamma, embodied in the Sutta Pitaka, is the conventional teaching (vohāra
desanā),
and the Abhidhamma is the ultimate teaching (paramattha desanā)

In the Abhidhamma both mind and matter, which constitute this complex
machinery of man, are microscopically analyzed. Chief events connected with the process of
birth and death are explained in detail. Intricate points of the Dhamma are clarified. The
Path of Emancipation is set forth in clear terms.

Modern Psychology, limited as it is comes within the scope of
Abhidhamma inasmuch as it deals with the mind, with thoughts, thought-processes, and
mental states but it does not admit of a psyche or a soul. Buddhism teaches a psychology
without a psyche.

If one were to read the Abhidhamma as a modern textbook on psychology,
one would be disappointed. No attempt has here been made to solve all the problems that
confront a modern psychologist.

Consciousness is defined. Thoughts are analyzed and classified chiefly
from an ethical standpoint. All mental states are enumerated. The composition of each type
of consciousness is set forth in detail. The description of thought-processes that arise
through the five sense-doors and the mind-door is extremely interesting. Such a clear
exposition of thought-processes cannot be found in any other psychological treatise.

Bhavanga and Javana thought-moments, which are explained
only in the Abhidhamma, and which have no parallel in modern psychology, are of special
interest to a research student in psychology.

That consciousness flows like a stream, a view propounded by some
modern psychologists like William James, becomes extremely clear to one who understands
the Abhidhamma. It must be added that an Abhidhamma student can fully comprehend the Anattā
(No-soul) doctrine, the crux of Buddhism, which is important both from a philosophical and
an ethical standpoint.

The advent of death, process of rebirth in various planes without
anything to pass from one life to another, the evidently verifiable doctrine of Kamma and
Rebirth are fully explained.

Giving a wealth of details about mind, Abhidhamma discusses the second
factor of man-matter or rūpa. Fundamental units of matter, material forces,
properties of matter, source of matter, relationship of mind and matter, are described.

In the Abhidhammattha Sangaha there is a brief exposition of the Law of
Dependent Origination, followed by a descriptive account of the Causal Relations that
finds no parallel in any other philosophy.

A physicist should not delve into Abhidhamma to get a thorough
knowledge of physics.

It should be made clear that Abhidhamma does not attempt to give a
systematized knowledge of mind and matter. It investigates these two composite factors of
so-called being to help the understanding of things as they truly are. A philosophy has
been developed on these lines. Based on that philosophy, an ethical system has been
evolved to realize the ultimate goal, Nibbāna.

As Mrs. Rhys Davids rightly says, Abhidhamma deals with “(1) What
we find (a) within us (b) around us and of (2) what we aspire to find.”

In Abhidhamma all irrelevant problems that interest students and
scholars, but having no relation to one’s Deliverance, are deliberately set aside.

The Abhidhammattha Sangaha, the authorship of which is attributed to
venerable Anuruddha Thera, an Indian monk of Kanjevaram (Kāñcipura), gives an epitome of
the entire Abhidhamma Pitaka. It is still the most fitting introduction to Abhidhamma. By
mastering this book, a general knowledge of Abhidhamma may easily be acquired.

To be a master of Abhidhamma all the seven books, together with
commentaries and sub-commentaries, have to be read and re-read patiently and critically.

Abhidhamma is not a subject of fleeting interest designed for the
superficial reader.

To the wise truth-seekers, Abhidhamma is an indispensable guide and an
intellectual treat. Here there is food for thought to original thinkers and to earnest
students who wish to increase their wisdom and lead an ideal Buddhist life.

However, to the superficial, Abhidhamma must appear as dry as dust.

It may be questioned, “Is Abhidhamma absolutely essential to
realize Nibbāna, the summum bonum of Buddhism, or even to comprehend things as they truly
are?”

Undoubtedly Abhidhamma is extremely helpful to comprehend fully the
word of the Buddha and realize Nibbāna, as it presents a key to open the door of reality.
It deals with realities and a practical way of noble living, based on the experience of
those who have understood and realized. Without a knowledge of the Abhidhamma one at
times’ finds it difficult to understand the real significance of some profound teachings
of the Buddha. To develop Insight (vipassanā) Abhidhamma is certainly very useful.

But one cannot positively assert that Abhidhamma is absolutely
necessary to gain one’s Deliverance.

Understanding or realization is purely personal (sanditthika).
The four Noble Truths that form the foundation of the Buddha’s teaching are dependent on
this one fathom body. The Dhamma is not apart from oneself. Look within, Seek thyself. Lo,
the truth will unfold itself.

Did not sorrow-afflicted Patācārā, who lost her dear and near ones,
realize Nibbāna; reflecting on the disappearance of water that washed her feet?

Did not Cūlapanthaka, who could not memorize a verse even for four
months, attain Arahantship by comprehending the impermanent nature of a clean handkerchief
that he was handling, gazing at the sun?

Did not Upatissa, later venerable Sāriputta Thera, realize Nibbāna,
on hearing half a stanza relating to cause and effect?

To some a fallen withered leaf alone was sufficient to attain Pacceka
Buddha hood.

It was mindfulness on respiration (ānāpāna-sati) that acted
as the basis for the Bodhisatta to attain Buddha hood.

To profound thinkers, a slight indication is sufficient to discover
great truths.

According to some scholars, Abhidhamma is not a teaching of the Buddha,
but is a later elaboration of scholastic monks.

Tradition, however, attributes the nucleus of the Abhidhamma to the
Buddha Himself.

Commentators state that the Buddha, as a mark of gratitude to His
mother who was born in a celestial plane, preached the Abhidhamma to His mother Deva and
others continuously for three months. The principal topics (mātikā) of the
advanced teaching such as moral states (kusalā dhammā), immoral states (akusalā
dhammā)
and indeterminate states (abyākatā dhammā), etc., were taught by
the Buddha to venerable Sāriputta Thera, who subsequently elaborated them in the six
books (Kathāvatthu being excluded) that comprise the Abhidhamma Pitaka.

Whoever the great author or authors of the Abhidhamma may have been, it
has to be admitted that he or they had intellectual genius comparable only to that of the
Buddha. This is evident from the intricate and subtle Patthāna Pakarana which minutely
describes the various causal relations.

It is very difficult to suggest an appropriate English equivalent for
Abhidhamma.

There are many technical terms, too, in Abhidhamma which cannot be
rendered into English so as to convey their exact connotation. Some English equivalents
such as consciousness, will, volition, intellect, perception are used in a specific sense
in Western Philosophy. Readers should try to understand in what sense these technical
terms are employed in Abhidhamma. To avoid any misunderstanding, due to preconceived
views, Pāli words, though at times cumbersome to those not acquainted with the language,
have judiciously been retained wherever the English renderings seem to be inadequate. To
convey the correct meaning implied by the Pāli terms, the etymology has been given in
many instances.

At times Pāli technical terms have been used in preference to English
renderings so that the reader may be acquainted with them and not get confused with
English terminology.

Sometimes readers will come across unusual words such as corruption,
defilement, volitional activities, functional, resultants, and so forth, which are of
great significance from an Abhidhamma standpoint. Their exact meaning should be clearly
understood.

In preparing this translation, Buddhist Psychology by Mrs. Rhys Davids
and the Compendium of Philosophy (Abhidhammattha Sangaha) by Mr. Shwe Zan Aung proved
extremely helpful to me. Liberty has been taken to quote them wherever necessary with due
acknowledgment.

My grateful thanks are due to the Kandy Buddhist Publication Society
for the printing of this fourth revised volume, to the printers for expediting the
printing, to Miss Rañjani Goonatilaka for correcting the proofs, and to Ven. Bhikkhu
Bodhi for his useful suggestions.

Above all I have to thank Mr. Lankatilaka, a most distinguished artist
of Sri Lanka, for his beautiful and symbolical dust jacket design.

Nārada 14.7.1978/2522.



  Oben 



ages/pitsanu.gif” width=”40″ height=”40″> Oben 



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J9oUWhF-j8o
Abhidhamma Class Day 1 : Basic Buddhism

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ske abhidhamma
Published on Jan 7, 2017
The Deciples of the Buddha/ Buddha’s Teaching Intro
Category
Education

youtube.com
The Deciples of the Buddha/ Buddha’s Teaching Intro

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i2XWtK_jaj0&t=461s
1. ABHIDHAMMA - THE PROCESS OF COGNITION

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London Buddhist Videos
Published on Oct 5, 2017
“René Descartes famously pronounced ” I think therefore I am” but the
Abhidhamma doesn’t go along with that. There is no thinker behind the
thoughts; no controller in charge. All there are is psychic processes
arising and falling with great rapidity.” Richard Jones. London Buddhist
Vihara.

The Abhidhamma
presents a system of Buddhist Psychology and Philosophy at in an
intensely detailed analysis of the process of thinking (cognition) and
ultimately of being.

In this talk, Richard Jones starts his deep
dive into the ‘process of cognition’ with an example of the kind of
analysis that can be conducted with the Abhidhamma.

Other videos in the playlist can be found here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list

Concepts introduced in this video are:
BHAVANGA - Life Continuum which flows like a river from conception to death.

FIVE NIYAMAS - the five explanations of the way things are:
1. Utu Niyama - pertains to the inorganic order
2. Bija Niyama - the functioning of the organic world
3. Kamma Niyama - Law of cause and effect
4. Dhamma Niyama - Certain doctrines like ‘No Self.’
5. Citta Niyama - How the mind works according to certain principles

Full Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list
Category
Education

youtube.com
“René Descartes famously pronounced ” I think therefore I am” but the Abhidhamma doesn’t go…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ngiaZeK1Z3s
2. CLASSIFYING CITTA - The Classes of Consciousness
London Buddhist Videos
Published on Oct 8, 2017
There are different ways of classifying Citta (types of consciousness):
by ethical nature; by strength (11:00) and by the plane of existence..
Category
Education

youtube.com
There are different ways of classifying Citta (types of consciousness): by ethical nature; by strength and…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ogITKuj2C4k
3a. THE SENSE SPHERE PLANE
London Buddhist Videos
Published on Oct 14, 2017
Richard Jones continues his deep dive into the Abhidhamma with a look
at the planes in which the Citta (consciousness) can arise.

There are 31 Realms of Existence and they are subdivided into four:
‘Sense-Sphere Plane’ (of which there are11 types); ‘Fine-material Sphere
Plane’ (16); Immaterial-Sphere Plane (4 of those). We have to make a
distinction between a realm of Existence and a sense sphere.

Richard also explains the Mundane, the Supramundane, the Jhanic states
(which can be attained by human beings) and beings with immensely long
life-spans of thousands of great aeons. However none of these states is
permanent.
Category
Education

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Richard
Jones continues his deep dive into the Abhidhamma with a look at the
planes in which the Citta (consciousness) can arise. There are 31…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2tg0FSQRuN8
3b. THE TEN FETTERS

London Buddhist Videos
Published on Oct 15, 2017
Fetters means something that holds us back. They hold back our progress towards the attainment of Nibbana (enlightenment).

Richard Jones explores in detail, each of ten fetters and how they impede our spiritual progress. The Ten Fetters are: ‘
Self’ delusion;
Sceptical doubt;
attachment to mere rites and rituals;
sensual desire;
ill will;
lusting after material (or immaterial) existence;
conceit,
restlessness
and ignorance.

Each fetter can be eradicated through meditation and as each is
eradicated, spiritual progress is made. EG. A person who manages to
eradicate the first three fetters becomes a ’stream-enterer’ - a
Sotapanna. He has entered the stream that leads to Nibbana. This means
he has purified his mind to such an extent that he cannot perform any
actions that would lead to an unhappy rebirth. He will be reborn a
maximum of seven more lives. The Buddha said that upon stream-entry,
99% of the work towards enlightenment has been done. Other stages are
Once-Returner; Non-Returner and Arahant.

Richard ends this part of the talk with an exploration of the types of meditation that assist progress along this path.
Category
Education

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Fetters
means something that holds us back. They hold back our progress towards
the attainment of Nibbana (enlightenment). Richard Jones explores in…

·

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x3vMxOlFFIQ
3c. THE 89 KINDS OF CITTA (Consciousness)
London Buddhist Videos
Published on Oct 17, 2017
Richard Jones guides the dhamma class through the system of
classification of Cittas (Consciousness) into 89 different kinds,
according to its most prominent root.

The roots are Greed (Lobha), Hatred (Dosa,) and Ignorance / Delusion
(Moha) which are further classified by feeling tones (Vedana). There are
also variations according to its association with wrong view or whether
or not the Citta is prompted or spontaneous.

Recorded at The London Buddhist Vihara on Thursday 12th October 2017.
Category
Education

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Richard Jones guides the dhamma class through the system of…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TWoOV2iokHE
4. CITTA - Review & Analysis

London Buddhist Videos
Published on Oct 24, 2017
Richard Jones’ review and analysis of the recent lessons on the Citta
(types of conscious) and their multi-levelled classifications.

Previous classes Link:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fo9AI

There is some class discussion included to clarify some of the more elusive aspects of this topic.

Please email londonbuddhistvideos@gmail.com for copies of the handouts used in this lesson.

Teacher. Richard Jones
London Buddhist Vihara
19th October 2017
Category
Education

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Richard Jones’ review and analysis of the recent lessons on the Citta…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qzl-ar51xTs
5. JHANA - Attaining Higher States of Citta (consciousness)

London Buddhist Videos
Published on Nov 4, 2017
To attain what we call ‘Jhana Cittas’ (higher states of consciousness)
we have to practise Samatha meditation (wholesome one-pointedness of
mind).

Jhana has two
meanings: 1) to contemplate a particular object and examine it closely,
and 2) to eliminate hindrances or burn away mental defilements.
There are 40 different objects of meditation. If practised seriously,
the meditation object should match the character of the meditator. We
recognise six different kinds of character:

1. Lustful / Passionate (Raga) 4. Faithful (Saddha)
2. Hateful / Angry (Dosa) 5. Intellectual (Buddhi)
3. Deluded / Ignorant (Moha) 6. Agitated / Speculative (Vitakka)

A meditator’s character can be assessed by a teacher watching how the pupil performs everyday activities.

Email your questions: londonbuddhistvideos@gmail.com

For Copies of Handouts: http://londonbuddhist.wixsite.com/bud

London Buddhist Vihara Events Calendar: http://www.londonbuddhistvihara.org/r

Twitter: goo.gl/9w29n6
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To attain what we call ‘Jhana Cittas’ (higher states of consciousness) we have to practise Samatha…


DOCTRINE-TRUE PRACTICE OF THE PATH SHOWN BY THE BLESSED NOBLE AWAKENED ONE - THE TATHAGATA


Walking the Path of
THE BLESSED NOBLE AWAKENED ONE - THE TATHAGATA-DOCTRINE-TRUE PRACTICE
OF THE PATH SHOWN BY THE BLESSED NOBLE AWAKENED ONE - THE TATHAGATA


Naturally people
who wish to reach their home are not those who merely sit and think of
traveling. They must actually undertake the process of traveling step by
step, and in the right direction as well, in order to finally reach
home. If they take the wrong path they may eventually run into
difficulties such as swamps or other obstacles which are hard to get
around. Or they may run into dangerous situations in this wrong
direction, thereby possibly never reaching home.


Those who
reach home can relax and sleep comfortably — home is a place of comfort
for body and mind. Now they have really reached home. But if the
traveler only passed by the front of his home or only walked around it,
he would not receive any benefit from having traveled all the way home.


In the same
way, walking the path to reach the THE BLESSED NOBLE AWAKENED ONE - THE
TATHAGATA-DOCTRINE-TRUE PRACTICE OF THE PATH SHOWN BY THE BLESSED NOBLE
AWAKENED ONE - THE TATHAGATA is something each one of us must do
individually ourselves, for no one can do it for us. And we must travel
along the proper path of morality, concentration and wisdom until we
find the blessings of purity, radiance and peacefulness of mind that are
the fruits of traveling the path. However, if one only has knowledge of
books and scriptures, sermons and sutras, that is, only knowledge of
the map or plans for the journey, even in hundreds of lives one will
never know purity, radiance and peacefulness of mind. Instead one will
just waste time and never get to the real benefits of practice. Teachers
are those who only point out the direction of the Path. After listening
to the teachers, whether or not we walk the Path by practicing
ourselves, and thereby reap the fruits of practice, is strictly up to
each one of us.


Another way
to look at it is to compare practice to a bottle of medicine a doctor
leaves for his patient. On the bottle is written detailed instructions
on how to take the medicine, but no matter how many hundred times the
patient reads the directions, he is bound to die if that is all he does.
He will gain no benefit from the medicine. And before he dies he may
complain bitterly that the doctor wasn’t any good, that the medicine
didn’t cure him! He will think that the doctor was a fake or that the
medicine was worthless, yet he has only spent his time examining the
bottle and reading the instructions. He hasn’t followed the advice of
the doctor and taken the medicine.


However, if
the patient actually follows the doctor’s advice and takes the medicine
regularly as prescribed, he will recover. And if he is very ill, it
will be necessary to take a lot of medicine, whereas if he is only
mildly ill, only a little medicine will be needed to finally cure him.
The fact that we must use a lot of medicine is a result of the severity
of our illness. It’s only natural and you can see it for yourself with
careful consideration.


Doctors
prescribe medicine to eliminate disease from the body. The Practice of
the THE BLESSED NOBLE AWAKENED ONE - THE TATHAGATA are prescribed to
cure disease of the mind, to bring it back to its natural healthy state.
So the  THE BLESSED NOBLE AWAKENED ONE - THE TATHAGATA be considered to
be a doctor who prescribes cures for the ills of the mind. He is, in
fact, the greatest doctor in the world.


Mental ills
are found in each one of us without exception. When you see these
mental ills, does it not make sense to look to the DOCTRINE-TRUE
PRACTICE OF THE PATH SHOWN BY THE BLESSED NOBLE AWAKENED ONE - THE
TATHAGATA as support, as medicine to cure your ills? Traveling the path
of the THE BLESSED NOBLE AWAKENED ONE - THE TATHAGATA-DOCTRINE-TRUE
PRACTICE OF THE PATH SHOWN BY THE BLESSED NOBLE AWAKENED ONE - THE
TATHAGATA is not done with the body. You must travel with the mind to
reach the benefits. We can divide these travelers into three groups:


First
Level: this is comprised of those who understand that they must practice
themselves, and know how to do so. They take the THE BLESSED NOBLE
AWAKENED ONE-THE TATHAGATA,DOCTRINE-TRUE PRACTICE OF THE PATH SHOWN BY
THE BLESSED NOBLE AWAKENED ONE - THE TATHAGATA and  SPIRITUAL COMMUNITY
OD THE TRUE FOLLOWERS OF THE PATH SHOWN BY THE BLESSED NOBLE AWAKENED
ONE - THE TATHAGATA as their refuge and have resolved to practice
diligently according to the Practices. These persons have discarded
merely following customs and traditions, and instead use reason to
examine for themselves the nature of the world. These are the group of “
Practioners of Doctrine Practiced by The Blessed Noble Awakened One-The Tathagata believers.”


Middle
Level: This group is comprised of those who have practiced until they
have an unshakable faith in the Teachings of the THE BLESSED NOBLE
AWAKENED ONE-THE TATHAGATA,DOCTRINE-TRUE PRACTICE OF THE PATH SHOWN BY
THE BLESSED NOBLE AWAKENED ONE - THE TATHAGATA and  SPIRITUAL COMMUNITY
OD THE TRUE FOLLOWERS OF THE PATH SHOWN BY THE BLESSED NOBLE AWAKENED
ONE - THE TATHAGATA . They also have penetrated to the understanding of
the true nature of all compounded formations. These persons gradually
reduce clinging and attachment. They do not hold onto things and their
minds reach deep understanding of the DOCTRINE-TRUE PRACTICE OF THE PATH
SHOWN BY THE BLESSED NOBLE AWAKENED ONE - THE TATHAGATA . Depending
upon the degree of non-attachment and wisdom they are progressively
known as stream-enterers, once-returners and non-returners, or simply,
Noble Ones.


Highest
Level: This is the group of those whose practice has led them to the
body, speech and mind of THE BLESSED NOBLE AWAKENED ONE - THE
TATHAGATA . They are above the world, free of the world, and free of all
attachment and clinging. They are known as Arahats or Free Ones, the
highest level of the Noble Ones.





 


Buddha
Wheel of dharma ধম্ম চক্র


https://www.quora.com/What-language-did-Gautama-Buddha-speak-according-to-Indian-mythology-and-why-is-it-significant

The Buddha spoke in a language called Magadhi Prakrit.

Magadhi Prakrit is the spoken language of
the ancient Magadha kingdom, one of the 16 city-state kingdoms  at the
time, located in the eastern Indian subcontinent, in a region around
modern-day
Bihār,
and spanning what is now eastern India, Bangladesh, and Nepal. The
first Magadha king is Bimbisara (558 BC –491 BC), during whose reign the
Buddha attained enlightenment. Both king Bimbisara and his successor
son Ajatashatru, were mentioned in several Buddhist Sutras, being lay disciplines, great friends and protectors of the Buddha




When
a just born baby is separated and kept in isolation, after some days it
will speak a natural human language just like all other species like
birds, animals, inspects etc have their own languages for communication.
So also the human beings have their natural (Prakrit) language. That is
Magadhi Prakrit the natural human language.


Magadha empire, ~500 BCE



The Magadha kingdom later became part of the Mauryan Empire, one of the world’s largest empires in its time, and the largest ever in the Indian subcontinent.



Inline image 1


Mauryan Empire, 265 BCE



Magadhi Prakrit is the official language of the Mauryan court. Its emperor “Ashoka
the Great” (ruled 273- 232 BCE) united continental India. During the
war to conquer Kalinga, the last Southern part of India not subject to
his rule, he personally witnessed the devastation that caused hundred of
thousands of deaths, and began feeling remorse. Although the annexation
of Kalinga was completed, Ashoka embraced the teachings of Buddhism, and renounced war and violence. He sent out missionaries to travel around Asia - his son Mahinda  and daughter Sanghamitra,  who established Buddhism in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) - and spread  Buddhism to other countries.





Stone lion of Ashoka, later became symbol of modern India



Magadhi Prakrit is predominantly the language by which Emperor Ashoka’s edicts  were composed in. These edicts were carved on stone pillars placed throughout the empire.



Inline image 2





Inline image 4



The inscriptions on the pillars described edicts about morality based on Buddhist tenets.



Inline image 3


Ashoka Pillar at Feroze Shah Kotla, Delhi, written in Magadhi, Brami and Urdu




Geographically,
the Buddha taught in Magadha, but the four most important places in his
life are all outside of it. It is likely that he taught in several
closely related dialects of Middle Indo-Aryan, which had a high degree
of mutual intelligibility.





Brāhmī Alphabet   
Brāhmī lipi



The Brāhmī alphabet is the ancestor of most of the 40 or so
modern alphabets, and of a number of other
alphabets, such as Khmer and Tibetan.
It is thought to have been modelled on the Aramaic
or Phoenician alphabets, and appeared in Jambudvipa sometime before 500 BC.


The earliest known inscriptions in the Brāhmī alphabet are those of
King Asoka (c.270-232 BC), third monarch of the Mauryan dynasty.


Brāhmī was used to write a variety of languages, including  Prakrit.





Notable features


  • Type of writing system: abugida - each letter represents a consonant with an
    inherent vowel. Other vowels were indicated using a variety of diacritics
    and separate letters.
  • Letters are grouped according to the way they are pronounced.
  • Many letters have more than one form.
  • Direction of writing: left to right in horizontal lines


Vowels and vowel diacritics


Brāhmī vowel diacritics



Consonants


Brāhmī consonants



Sample text


Sample text in Brāhmī


Asokan Edict - Delhi Inscription



Transliteration


devānaṁpiye piyadasi lājā hevaṁ āhā ye atikaṁtaṁ
aṁtalaṁ lājāne husa hevaṁ ichisu kathaṁ jane
dhaṁmavaḍhiyā vāḍheya nocujane anulupāyā dhaṁmavaḍhiyā
vaḍhithā etaṁ devānaṁpiye piyadasi lājā hevaṁ āhā esame
huthā atākaṁtaṁ ca aṁtalaṁ hevaṁ ichisu lājāne katha jane



Translation


Thus spoke king Devanampiya Piyadasi: “Kings of the olden time have gone to heaven under
these very desires. How then among mankind may religion (or growth in grace) be increased?
Yea, through the conversion of the humbly-born shall religion increase”


Source: http://www.virtualvinodh.com/brahmi-lipitva/144-asokan-edict-delhi



Some modern descendants of Brāhmī


Bengali,
Devanāgarī,
Gujarāti,
Gurmukhi,
Kannada,
Khmer,
Malayalam,
Odia,
Sinhala,
Tamil,
Telugu,
Tibetan



Links


Information about Brāhmī


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Br%C4%81hm%C4%AB_script


http://www.virtualvinodh.com/brahmi-lipitva


http://www.ancientscripts.com/brahmi.html


http://www.nibbanam.com/Brahmi/brahmi.htm


Brāhmī fonts


https://sites.google.com/site/brahmiscript/


The Edicts of King Asoka


http://www.cs.colostate.edu/~malaiya/ashoka.html


ALPHABETUM - a Unicode font
specifically designed for ancient scripts, including classical
& medieval Latin, ancient Greek, Etruscan, Oscan, Umbrian,
Faliscan, Messapic, Picene, Iberian, Celtiberian, Gothic, Runic,
Old & Middle English, Hebrew, Sanskrit, Old Nordic, Ogham,
Kharosthi, Glagolitic, Old Cyrillic, Phoenician, Avestan, Ugaritic,
Linear B, Anatolian scripts, Coptic, Cypriot, Brahmi, Old Persian cuneiform:
http://guindo.pntic.mec.es/~jmag0042/alphabet.html



Some of the writing systems used to write Sanskrit





Syllabic alphabets / abugidas





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Underwater sports
RACE, RACE COURSE & EQUIPEMENTS OF FINSWIMMING
Underwater
sports is a group of competitive sports using one or a combination of
the following underwater diving techniques - breath-hold, snorkelling or
scuba including the use of equipment such as diving masks and fins.
These sports are conducted in the natural environment at sites such as
open water and sheltered or confined water such as lakes and in
artificial aquatic environments such as swimming pools. Underwater
sports include the following - aquathlon (i.e. underwater wrestling),
finswimming, freediving, spearfishing, sport diving, underwater
football, underwater hockey, underwater ice hockey, underwater
orienteering, underwater photography, underwater rugby, underwater
target shooting and underwater video.
Finswimming
Further information: Finswimming
Finswimming
is an underwater sport consisting of four techniques involving swimming
with the use of fins either on the water’s surface using a snorkel
using either monofins or bifins (i.e. one fin for each foot) or
underwater with monofin either by holding one’s breathe or underwater
using open circuit scuba diving equipment. Events exist over distances
similar to swimming competitions for both swimming pool and open water
venues. Competition at world and continental level is organised by CMAS.
The sport’s first world championship was held in 1976. It also has been
featured at the World Games as a trend sport since 1981 and was
demonstrated at the 2013 Summer Universiade in July 2013.[5][6][7][8]
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Underwater_sports


Underwater sports

This article
is about competitive underwater sports. For underwater diving
techniques and recreational underwater diving activities, see Freediving, Recreational diving, Scuba diving and snorkelling


Underwater sports
Highest governing body Organisations include:
Characteristics
Mixed gender Yes
Type Outdoor:

Indoor:

Presence
Olympic No demonstration events as of July 2013.

Underwater sports is a group of competitive sports using one or a combination of the following underwater diving techniques - breath-hold, snorkelling or scuba including the use of equipment such as diving masks and fins. These sports are conducted in the natural environment at sites such as open water and sheltered or confined water such as lakes and in artificial aquatic environments such as swimming pools. Underwater sports include the following - aquathlon (i.e. underwater wrestling), finswimming, freediving, spearfishing, sport diving, underwater football, underwater hockey, underwater ice hockey, underwater orienteering, underwater photography, underwater rugby, underwater target shooting and underwater video.

Contents


The sports

Aquathlon


Aquathlon (also known as underwater wrestling) is an underwater sport
where two competitors wearing masks and fins wrestle underwater in an
attempt to remove a ribbon from each other’s ankle band in order to win
the bout. The “combat” takes place in a 5-metre (16 ft) square ring
within a swimming pool, and is made up of three 30-second rounds, with a
fourth round played in the event of a tie. The sport originated during
the 1980s in the former USSR (now Russia) and was first played at international level in 1993. It was recognised by Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques (CMAS) in 2008.[1][2][3][4]



Finswimming

Further information: Finswimming

Finswimming is an underwater sport consisting of four techniques involving swimming with the use of fins either on the water’s surface using a snorkel using either monofins or bifins (i.e. one fin for each foot) or underwater with monofin either by holding one’s breathe or underwater using open circuit scuba diving equipment. Events exist over distances similar to swimming competitions for both swimming pool and open water
venues. Competition at world and continental level is organised by
CMAS. The sport’s first world championship was held in 1976. It also
has been featured at the World Games as a trend sport since 1981 and was demonstrated at the 2013 Summer Universiade in July 2013.[5][6][7][8]



Freediving

Further information: Freediving

Competitive freediving is currently governed by two world associations: AIDA International
(International Association for Development of Apnea) and CMAS. Most
types of competitive freediving have in common that it is an individual
sport based on the best individual achievement. An exception to this
rule is the bi-annual World Championship for Teams, held by AIDA, where
the combined score of the team members makes up the team’s total points.
There are currently nine disciplines used by official governing bodies
and a dozen disciplines that are only practiced locally. In this
article, the recognized disciplines of AIDA and CMAS will be described.
All disciplines can be done by both men and women and, while done
outdoors, no differences in the environment between records are
recognized any longer. The disciplines of AIDA can be done both in
competition and as a record attempt, with the exception of Variable
Weight and No limits, which are both done solely as record attempts.[9]



Spearfishing

Spearfishing
(also known as competition spearfishing) as an underwater sport
involves the hunting and capture of fish underwater using breath-hold
technique and a tackle system such as a speargun as part of a tournament
of fixed duration involving other competitors.[10]



Sport diving

Further information: Sport diving (sport)

Sport Diving is an underwater sport that uses recreational open
circuit scuba diving equipment and consists of a set of individual and
team events conducted in a swimming pool that test the competitors’
competency in recreational scuba diving technique. The sport was
developed in Spain during the late 1990s and is currently played mainly
in Europe. It is known as Plongée Sportive in French and as Buceo De
Competición in Spanish.[11]



Underwater football

Further information: Underwater football

Underwater football is a two-team underwater sport that shares common
elements with underwater hockey and underwater rugby. As with both of
those games, it is played in a swimming pool with snorkelling equipment
(mask, snorkel, and fins).[12]



Underwater hockey

Further information: Underwater hockey

Underwater hockey (UWH; also called Octopush and Water Hockey
locally) is a globally played limited-contact sport in which two teams
compete to manoeuvre a puck across the bottom of a swimming pool into
the opposing team’s goal by propelling it with a stick.[13] It originated in England in 1954 when the founder of the newly formed Southsea
Sub-Aqua Club invented the game as a means of keeping the club’s
members interested and active over the cold winter months when
open-water diving lost its appeal. Underwater hockey was first played as
a world championship in Canada in 1980 after a false start brought
about by international politics in 1979. CMAS is the world governing
body for this sport.[citation needed]



Underwater ice hockey

Further information: Underwater ice hockey

Underwater ice hockey (also called sub-aqua ice hockey) is a minor extreme sport
that is a variant of ice hockey. It is played upside-down underneath
frozen pools or ponds. Participants wear diving masks, fins and wetsuits
and use the underside of the frozen surface as the playing area for a
floating puck. Competitors do not utilize any breathing apparatuses, but
instead surface for air every 30 seconds.[14][15]



Underwater orienteering

Further information: Underwater orienteering

Underwater orienteering is an underwater sport that uses recreational
open circuit scuba diving equipment and consists of a set of individual
and team events conducted in both sheltered and open water that test
the competitors’ competency in underwater navigation. The competition is
principally concerned with the effectiveness of navigation technique
used by competitors to swim an underwater course following a route
marked on a map prepared by the competition organisers, a compass and a
counter meter to measure the distance covered. The sport was developed
in the USSR during the late 1950s and is currently played mainly in
Europe. It is known as Orientation Sub in French and as La Orientación
Subacuática in Spanish. Historically, the sport has also been known as
Technical Disciplines.[16]



Underwater photography

Further information: Underwater photography (sport)

Underwater photography is an scuba-based underwater sport governed by
CMAS where teams of competitors using digital underwater camera systems
all dive at the same saltwater ocean sites at the same time over a
two-day period. The submitted digital images are then assessed and
ranked by a jury using a maximum of five photographic categories as well
as an overall score. The sport was developed prior to 1985 as a
photographic film-based event and is currently mainly practised in
non-English speaking countries.[17]



Underwater rugby

Further information: Underwater rugby

Underwater rugby (UWR) is an underwater sport whose play involves two
teams seeking to gain control of a slightly negatively buoyant ball
(filled with saltwater) and passing it into a heavy metal bucket serving
as the opponents’ goal at the bottom of a swimming pool. It originated from within the physical fitness training regime existing in German diving clubs during the early 1960s and has little in common with rugby football except for the name. It was recognised by CMAS in 1978 and was first played as a world championship in 1980.[18]



Underwater target shooting

Further information: Underwater target shooting

Underwater target shooting is an underwater sport that tests a
competitors’ ability to accurately use a speargun via a set of
individual and team events conducted in a swimming pool using free
diving or Apnoea technique. The sport was developed in France during the
early 1980s and is currently practised mainly in Europe. It is known as
Tir sur cible subaquatique in French and as Tiro al Blanco Subacuático
in Spanish.[19]



Underwater video

Underwater
video is an scuba-based underwater sport governed by CMAS where teams
of competitors using digital underwater video systems all dive at the
same saltwater ocean sites at the same time over a two-day period. The
submitted digital video are then assessed and ranked by a jury.[20][21]



Governance

The
majority of the sporting disciplines listed above are governed by CMAS.
Other organisations involved in governance of underwater sports
include AIDA International[22] and the World Aquachallenge Association[23]
which also respectively govern Freediving and Underwater Hockey in
competition with CMAS while the Manitoba Underwater Council governs
Underwater Football.[24] As of July 2013, it is not known who governs Underwater Ice Hockey.



Competition at international level

Olympic Games


As of 2013, there has been no competition at an Olympic Games by any underwater sport, even as a demonstration, although the following breath-hold events have been conducted as part of the swimming competition - underwater swimming event at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris and a plunge for distance event at the 1904 Summer Olympics in St. Louis, Missouri.[25] During the 1950s and the 1960s, various parties including the Amateur Athletic Union of the United States
and the International Underwater Spearfishing Association lobbied for
the admission of spearfishing to the Olympics. It is reported that in
1968, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) voted in favour of synchronized swimming over spearfishing.[26][27][28] In 1999, finswimming was reported as being considered for inclusion in the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece.[29] In 2002, Underwater sports was one of the sports considered by the IOC for addition to the programme of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, China. It and eight other sports were declined admission on the basis of:[30]

Statistics
reviewed on federation affiliation, nations competing in major events
and broadcast and press coverage of major events for most requested
sports did not indicate a higher level of global participation and
interest than sports currently in the Programme, and
therefore could not be considered to bring additional value.



Paralympic Games

As August 2013, there has been no Paralympic competition by any underwater sport, even as a demonstration.[citation needed]



World championships and world cups

World championships and world cups
Sport
Body Year
Event type
Location
Nations
Aquathlon
CMAS
2009
World Cup
Not known
Not known
Finswimming
CMAS
1976
World Championship
GermanyHanover, Germany[31] Not known
Freediving
AIDA
1996
World Championship
FranceNice, France[citation needed] Not known
Spearfishing
CMAS
1957
World Championship
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Mali Losinj, Yugoslavia[32] Not known
Sport Diving
CMAS
2013
World Championship
Russia Kazan, Russia[33] 8
Underwater football
MUC
2015[citation needed] World Championship[citation needed] Canada Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada[citation needed] not known
Underwater hockey
CMAS
1980
World Championship
Canada Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada[34] 5
Underwater Ice Hockey
Not known
2007
World Cup
AustriaWeissensee, Austria[35] 8
Underwater orienteering
CMAS
1973
World Championship
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Lokve, Yugoslavia [36] Not known
Underwater photography
CMAS
1985
World Championship
Italy Genoa, Italy[37] Not known
Underwater rugby
CMAS
1980
World Championship
Germany Mullheim, Germany [38] Not known
Underwater target shooting
CMAS
1999[39] World Championship
Not known
Not known
Underwater video
CMAS
2010
World Championship
Spain Fuerteventura, Canary Island, Spain[40] 7


World Games

Further information: Finswimming at the World Games

Finswimming has been featured at the World Games as a trend sport since the inaugural games in 1981.[7][41]



Commonwealth Games

As of August 2013, no underwater sport has been conducted at a Commonwealth Games or is currently listed as an optional sport. However, a group of countries belonging to the Commonwealth of Nations
has conducted at least one finswimming championship under the title of
the Commonwealth Finswimming Championships and which was held in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia during February 2007.[42][citation needed]



Universiade

Finswimming became the first underwater sport to be demonstrated at an Universiade with an appearance at the 27th Summer Universiade in July 2013.[8]



Other multi-sport events

The following underwater sports has been offered at the following multi-sport events:




Gallery



See also

Championships and other international events



Equipment

  • Monofin – Single blade swimfin attached to both feet
  • Speargun – Underwater fishing implement
  • Water polo cap – Headgear used in water polo and a number of underwater sports


References





  1. Rodríguez III, Ernesto (2010), Libros del Ciclo Olímpico Argentino - Libro I de los Juegos Odesur 1978-2010 (in Spanish) (1st ed.), Buenos Aires: Alarco Ediciones, p. 192, ISBN 978-987-1367-18-4, archived from the original on January 4, 2012, retrieved June 2, 2012


External links

Media related to Underwater sports at Wikimedia Commons






Navigation menu




Languages




  • “Competition Area”. Aquathlon Rules, Version 2012/01. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques.

  • “Individual equipment”. Aquathlon Rules, Version 2012/01. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques.

  • “Combat”. Aquathlon Rules, Version 2012/01. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 2 April 2013.

  • “Aquatlon”. History of CMAS. Retrieved 2 April 2013.

  • “About finswimming”. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 5 August 2013.

  • “1st World Championship”. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 12 August 2013.

  • “World Games, Kolendra rules fin swimming”. Ellensburg Daily Record, Washington USA. July 28, 1981. p. 8. Retrieved 12 August 2013.

  • “Taking part in the Universiade, Finswimming entered a new era”. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 12 August 2013.

  • “About Apnoea”. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 17 August 2013.

  • “About Spearfishing”. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 17 August 2013.

  • “About Sport Diving”. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 17 August 2013.

  • ’ Where is it Played’, [1], retrieved 02/09/2012.

  • “About Underwater Hockey”. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 17 August 2013.

  • “Realized projects”. Christian Redl. Retrieved 14 August 2013.

  • “Hockey with wetsuit and flippers”. Archived from the original on 9 August 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2013.

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  • “About Underwater Photography”. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 17 August 2013.

  • “About Underwater Rugby”. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 14 August 2013.

  • “About Target Shooting”. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 17 August 2013.

  • Documents of the Visual Commission - Underwater Video Rules. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. 2010.

  • “1st CMAS World Championship Underwater Video 2010″. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 17 August 2013.

  • “Aida International”. AIDA International. Retrieved 29 July 2013.

  • “WAA World AquaChallenge Association Underwater Hockey”. The World AquaChallenge Association. Archived from the original on 19 July 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.

  • “Underwater Football Rules and Regulations”. Sean Ennis. Retrieved 29 July 2013.

  • Mallon, Bill; Heijmans, Jeroen (2011). Historical dictionary of the Olympic movement (4th ed.). Plymouth (UK): Scarecrow Press. p. 362. ISBN 9780810875227.

  • “Skindivers Seek Place in Olympics”. The Spokesman- Review, Spokane Washington. 16 November 1958. p. 67. Retrieved 22 November 2013.

  • “Spearfishing
    History, International Underwater Spearfishing Association, Competition
    Spearfishing Historical Timeline 1947-2004″
    . International Underwater Spearfishing Association. Retrieved 22 November 2013
    .

  • McLellan, Dennis (20 June 2001). “Obituaries: Ralph Davis; Pioneer in Sport Spearfishing”. The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 22 November 2013.

  • “Finswimming in 2004 Games?”. Swimming World & Junior Swimmer. 40 (3): 13. March 1999. Retrieved 26 July 2014.

  • Carraroc, Franco (2002). Review
    of the Olympic Programme and the Recommendations on the Programme of
    the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, Beijing 2008 - Report by the commission
    chairman
    (PDF). International Olympic Committee. pp. 16–17.

  • “1st World Championship”. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 18 August 2013.

  • “1st World Spearfishing Championship”. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 21 November 2013.

  • “Results - Sport Diving (1st World Championship)”. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 8 December 2013.

  • “1980 World Underwater Hockey Championship Finals - Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada”. www.underwaterhockey-archive.com. Retrieved 8 June 2013.

  • Symes, Peter. “Try something different; Hockey Under Ice”. X-Ray Mag. p. 60. Retrieved 4 March 2013.

  • “A book about History of UW orienteering”. CMAS. p. 8. Retrieved 16 May 2013.

  • “1st World Championship”. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 28 June 2013.

  • “1st World Championship”. CMAS. Retrieved 4 June 2013.

  • “HISTORY OF THE FFESSM”. FFESSM. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 14 February 2013.

  • “1st CMAS World Championship Underwater Video 2010″. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 13 August 2013.

  • “Underwater Sports: Fin Swimming”. the International World Games Association. Retrieved 18 August 2013.

  • “SPORTS PROGRAMME”. Commonwealth Games Federation. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 13 August 2013.

  • “Finswimming (25 m) Macau 2007, 2nd Asian Indoor Games”. Macao 2nd Asian Indoor Games Organising Committee. Retrieved 18 August 2013.

  • “Actividades Subacuáticas”. Retrieved 18 November 2013.

  • “The underwater activities again in the Bolivarian Games”. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. 1 October 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2015.

  • “(2013 Bolivarian Games) Actividades Subacuáticas”. 2013 Bolivarian Games. Retrieved 9 January 2014.

  • “2006 Micronesian Games - Spearfishing”. Fox Sports Pulse. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
  • “2010 Micronesian Games”. Fox Sports Pulse. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
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