Discovery of Metteyya the Awakened One with Awareness Universe(FOAINDMAOAU)
From Kushinara Nibbana Bhumi Pagoda in
 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES in BUDDHA'S own Words through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgat White Home 668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL 3rd Stage, Punya Bhumi Bengaluru- Magadhi Karnataka State -PRABUDDHA BHARAT
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LESSON 3441 Thu 10 Sep 2020 http://buddhadharmaobfinternational.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/ctmwelcome_e0.gif free online university research practice up a level revolving globe https://67.media.tumblr.com/46c51586a8b31bf8a8bbf65eac590f33/tumblr_npocd4Mb6p1u1kvguo1_500.gif https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/564x/17/2b/f9/172bf91741971489a7cb42e3ca50466e.jpg COVID-19 is itself a fraud. Complete list was not demanded by THE SUPREME COURTS OF THE WORLD, GOVERNMENTS OF THE WORLD,PARLIAMENTS OF THE WORLD,(E) ALL MEDIAS OF THE WORLD,(F) ALL ELECTION COMMISSIONS OF THE WORLD which declared death sentence to 902,315 people house arrested Coronavirus Cases: 27,762,097 Recovered:19,845,810 plus 7,810,643,368 Current World Population with reference to https://srv1.worldometers.info/ Last updated: September 09, 2020, 09:35 GMT without any trial Non-cooperation and disobedience movement against all governments till the curfew like lockdown is lifted and normalcy is retained in where 99.9% Awakened Aboriginal Societies have decided to move freely without caring CURFEW LIKE LOCKDOWNS’saying ‘NO TO\ VACCINATIONS’. Wearing ‘SMILES NOT MASKS’ -Ruling Racist and casteist have no right to interfere with the incoming and out goeing breadth of all living and non living sentient and non-sentient beings. saying ‘NO SOCIAL DISTANCING’ ‘UNITED FOR FREEDOM’ Saying ‘NO TO GOVERNMENT LIES’ As ‘MASKS REDUCE IMMUNITY’ and ‘MASKS INCREASE INFECTION RISK’ Despite 850,591 Deaths:in the WORLD fromCOVID-19, it was ‘FAKE SCIENCE’ and Covid-19 is compared to a ‘BAD FLU’’ ‘CONVID HOAX’. ‘99.9% Awakened People with Awareness have come together to make their voices heard against mandatory vaccinations, mandatory masks, mandatory anything really. No more curfew like lockdowns, no more second wave business’. ‘TOP DOCTORS AND NURSES SPEAKING OUT TRUTH AGAINST GOVERNMENT PUSHING FEAR AND IGNORING SCIENCE.’ means Discovery of Awakened One with Awareness Universe (DAOAU) For The Welfare, Happiness, Peace of All Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Peace as Final Goal. Dr B.R.Ambedkar thundered “Main Bharat Baudhmay karunga.” (I will make India Buddhist) All Aboriginal Awakened Societies Thunder ” Hum Prapanch Prabuddha Bharatmay karunge.” (We will make world Prabuddha Prapanch THE BUDDHA WAS NOT A GOD. HE NEVER CLAIMED TO BE A GOD. HE NEVER CLAIMED TO BE A SON OF GOD. HE NEVER CLAIMED TO BE A MESSENGER OF GOD. HE WAS A MAN WHO ACHIEVED NIBBANA (ERTERNAL BLISS) THROUGH HUMAN EFFORT. The sculpture of the mahaparinirvana of the Buddha at Kasia. Daily Buddhist Theravada pali Buddha’s own words on an extraordinary new Stunning anti-ageing breakthrough could see humans live to 150 years old and allow them to regrow their organs by 2020. and to attain Nibbana as their Final Goal Best Administration to Discover Awakened One with Awareness Universe for welfare, happiness and peace for all societies.The ex CJI Sathasivam committed a grave error of judgement by agreeing that the EVMs are being tampered through EVMs and ordered for their replacement in a phased manner as suggested by the ex CEC Sampath because it cost Rs 1600 crore at that point of time . This judgement helped Murderer of democratic institutions (MODI) of Bevakoof Jhoothe Psychopaths (BJP) remotely controlled by the foreigners kicked out from Bene Israel, Tibet, Africa chitpavan brahmins of RSS (Rowdy Swayam Sevaks) full oF intolerance, hatred, anger, jealousy, delusion, mob lynching 99.9% All Aboriginal Awakened Societies to gobble the Master Key to enslave Judiciary, Parliament, Executive, Media full of chitpavan brahmins who have imposed curfew like lockdown which is fraud and protested all over the world lift it for liberty, freedom, equality and fraternity enshrined in the Constitution. Omit Shah and the Murderer of democratic institutions.(Modi) are own mother’s flesh eaters are supported by the quora and the PRESSTITUTE MEDIA in
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: site admin @ 7:29 pm
LESSON 3441 Thu 10 Sep 2020 


http://buddhadharmaobfinternational.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/ctmwelcome_e0.gif




free online university research practice

up a level




revolving globe


COVID-19 is itself a fraud.


Complete list was not demanded by THE SUPREME COURTS OF THE WORLD, GOVERNMENTS OF THE WORLD,PARLIAMENTS OF THE WORLD,(E) ALL MEDIAS OF THE WORLD,(F) ALL ELECTION COMMISSIONS OF THE WORLD which declared death sentence to 902,315
people house arrested Coronavirus Cases: 27,762,097 Recovered:19,845,810
plus 7,810,643,368 Current World Population with reference to https://srv1.worldometers.info/  Last updated: September 09, 2020, 09:35 GMT without any trial


Non-cooperation
and disobedience movement against all governments till the curfew like
lockdown is lifted and normalcy  is retained in where 99.9% Awakened
Aboriginal Societies  have decided to move freely without caring CURFEW LIKE LOCKDOWNS’
saying ‘NO TO\ VACCINATIONS’.

Wearing ‘SMILES NOT MASKS’ -Ruling Racist and casteist
have no right to interfere with the incoming and out goeing breadth of
all living and non living sentient and non-sentient beings.
saying ‘NO SOCIAL DISTANCING’

‘UNITED FOR FREEDOM’

Saying ‘NO TO GOVERNMENT LIES’

As ‘MASKS REDUCE IMMUNITY’ and ‘MASKS INCREASE INFECTION RISK’

Despite 850,591 Deaths:in the WORLD fromCOVID-19, it was ‘FAKE SCIENCE’ and Covid-19 is  compared to a ‘BAD FLU’’

‘CONVID HOAX’.

‘99.9%
Awakened People with Awareness have come together to make their voices
heard against mandatory vaccinations, mandatory masks, mandatory
anything really. No
more curfew like lockdowns, no more second wave business’.
 ’TOP DOCTORS
AND NURSES SPEAKING OUT TRUTH AGAINST GOVERNMENT PUSHING FEAR AND IGNORING SCIENCE.’ means

Discovery of  Awakened One with Awareness Universe (DAOAU)
       
For The Welfare, Happiness, Peace of All Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Peace as Final Goal.

Dr B.R.Ambedkar thundered “Main Bharat Baudhmay karunga.” (I will make India Buddhist)

All Aboriginal  Awakened Societies Thunder ” Hum Prapanch Prabuddha Bharatmay karunge.” (We will make world Prabuddha Prapanch


THE
BUDDHA WAS NOT A GOD. HE NEVER CLAIMED TO BE A GOD. HE NEVER CLAIMED TO
BE A SON OF GOD. HE NEVER CLAIMED TO BE A MESSENGER OF GOD.
HE WAS A MAN WHO ACHIEVED NIBBANA (ERTERNAL BLISS) THROUGH HUMAN EFFORT.

The sculpture of the mahaparinirvana of the Buddha at Kasia.
Daily
Buddhist Theravada pali Buddha’s own words on  an extraordinary new
Stunning anti-ageing breakthrough could see humans live to 150 years old
and allow them to regrow their organs by 2020. and  to attain Nibbana
as their Final Goal

Best
Administration to Discover Awakened One with Awareness Universe for
welfare, happiness and peace for all societies.The ex CJI Sathasivam
committed a grave error of judgement by agreeing that the EVMs are being
tampered through EVMs and ordered for their replacement in a phased
manner as suggested by the ex CEC Sampath because it cost Rs 1600 crore
at that point of time . This judgement helped Murderer of democratic
institutions (MODI) of Bevakoof Jhoothe Psychopaths (BJP) remotely
controlled by the foreigners kicked out from Bene Israel, Tibet, Africa
chitpavan brahmins of RSS (Rowdy Swayam Sevaks) full oF intolerance,
hatred, anger, jealousy, delusion, mob lynching 99.9% All Aboriginal
Awakened Societies to gobble the Master Key to enslave Judiciary,
Parliament, Executive, Media full of chitpavan brahmins who have imposed
curfew like lockdown which is fraud and protested all over the world
lift it for liberty, freedom, equality and fraternity enshrined in the
Constitution. Omit Shah and the Murderer of democratic
institutions.(Modi) are own mother’s flesh eaters are supported by the
quora and the PRESSTITUTE MEDIA

in

COVID-19
coronavirus is a ‘hoax’ ‘NO MORE CURFEW LIKE LOCKDOWNS’ ‘NO TO
VACCINATIONS’. ‘SMILES NOT MASKS’ ‘NO SOCIAL DISTANCING’  ‘UNITE FOR
FREEDOM’ ‘NO TO GOVERNMENT LIES’ ‘MASKS REDUCE IMMUNITY’ and ‘MASKS
INCREASE INFECTION RISK’Despite 902,315
Deaths:in the WORLD from
COVID-19, it was ‘FAKE SCIENCE’ and Covid-19 can be compared to a ‘BAD
FLU’’
‘CONVID HOAX’.
Coronavirus Cases:19,845,810
Deaths:  902,315 Recovered: 19,845,810
plus 7,808,579,170 Current World Population with reference to https://srv1.worldometers.info/ Last updated: Last updated: September 09, 2020, 09:35 GMT without any trial’



99.9%
Awakened People with Awareness have come together to make their voices
heard against mandatory vaccinations, mandatory masks, mandatory
anything really. No more curfew like lockdowns, no more second wave
business’.



‘TOP DOCTORS AND NURSES SPEAKING OUT TRUTH AGAINST GOVERNMENT PUSHING FEAR AND IGNORING SCIENCE.’

To,
E-filing in the Supreme Judicial Court Clerk’s Office for the Commonwealth
sjccommclerk@sjc.state.ma.us

Francis.

NYSCEF

SUPREME COURT OF INDIA

GUIDELINES/INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILING IN E-FILING PORTAL

COVID-19 coronavirus is a ‘hoax’ 


99.9% All
Aboriginal Awakened Societies of the world are aware that COVID-19
coronavirus is a ‘hoax’ and a fraud. There will be protests all over the
world in social media and protesters gathering to claim coronavirus is a
‘hoax’
There
is a non-cooperation movement for  ‘NO MORE CURFEW LIKE LOCKDOWNS’  ‘NO
TO VACCINATIONS’. ‘SMILES NOT MASKS’ ‘NO SOCIAL DISTANCING’

The ‘UNITE FOR FREEDOM’ ‘NO TO GOVERNMENT LIES’  ‘MASKS REDUCE IMMUNITY’ and ‘MASKS INCREASE INFECTION RISK’ are on.
Despite 887,596 Deaths:in the WORLD from COVID-19, it was ‘FAKE SCIENCE’ and Covid-19 can be compared to a ‘BAD FLU’’

CONVID HOAX’.

There would be  ‘TOP DOCTORS AND NURSES SPEAKING OUT TRUTH AGAINST GOVERNMENT PUSHING FEAR AND IGNORING SCIENCE.

‘People
have come together to make their voices heard against mandatory
vaccinations, mandatory masks, mandatory anything really.

No more curfew like lockdowns,  ‘No more second wave business’.



IN THE
MATTER OF LOST FREEDOM FROM MARCH 2020 TO VISIT OUR DAUGHTER, SON-IN-LAW
AND TWO GRANDSONS RESIDING AT WEST TAMBARAM, CHENNAI. WE ARE ALL HAVING
GOOD HEALTH CONDITION. WE USED TO DRIVE IN CAR TO MEET THEM IN CHENNAI.
OUR SON, DAUGHTER-IN-LAW AND TWO GRANDSONS RESIDING IN USA. DUE TO OUR
GOOD  HEALTH CONDITION WE USED TO VISIT TO MEET THEM IN USA. LIKEWISE
THEY WERE ALSO FREE TO MEET US.

versus …..

Petitioner-
JAGATHEESAN CHANDRASEKHARAN….

Respondents

Supreme
Judicial Court Clerk’s Office for the Commonwealth and all SUPREME
COURTS OF THE WORLD, ALL GOVERNMENTS OF THE WORLD, ALL PARLIAMENTS OF
THE WORLD, ALL MEDIA OF THE WORLD, ALL ELECTION COMMISSIONS OF THE WORLD

Facts of the case -

Freedom
from the ruling races and castes who have imposed curfew like lock down
in the name of The coronavirus may not have originated at a Wuhan wet
market last year but 1,000 miles away in 2012 — deep in a Chinese
mineshaft where workers came down with a mysterious, pneumonia-like
illness after being exposed to bats. with reference to  https://nypost.com/2020/08/15/covid-19-first-appeared-in-chinese-miners-in-2012-scientists/
Question(s) of Law Have the just 0.1% of the population

THE
SUPREME COURTS OF THE WORLD,  GOVERNMENTS OF THE WORLD, PARLIAMENTS OF
THE WORLD, (E) ALL MEDIAS OF THE WORLD  (F) ALL ELECTION COMMISSIONS OF
THE WORLD declared death sentence to 873,470 people house arrested Coronavirus Cases: 26,486,367 Deaths: 873,470 Recovered: 18,674,896 plus 7,809,522,409 Current World Population with reference to https://srv1.worldometers.info/ Last updated: September 04, 2020, 08:48 GMT without any trial


Grounds- 99.9% of the world population are awakened to the fact that Birth, Sickness, Old Age and Death are certainities.

Why should
just 0.1% racists and upper casteists and the business communities for
their selfish ends punish people with awareness and awakeness ?

PRAYER

(i)
May all the following be relieved from the clutches of the rulers
PUSHING FEAR AND IGNORING SCIENCE who have won elections by tampering
the EVMs/VVPATs

World Population

96,961,941Births this year
244,986Births today
40,706,946Deaths this year
102,851Deaths today
56,254,995Net population growth this year
142,135Net population growth today

Government & Economics

$ 9,699,804,481Public Healthcare expenditure today
$ 6,622,571,929Public Education expenditure today
$ 2,997,409,752Public Military expenditure today
54,832,840Cars produced this year
104,619,488Bicycles produced this year
172,431,598Computers produced this year

Society & Media

1,860,118New book titles published this year
303,297,146Newspapers circulated today
426,495TV sets sold worldwide today
4,192,362Cellular phones sold today
$ 187,267,333Money spent on videogames today
4,671,917,479Internet users in the world today
168,981,828,120Emails sent today
4,532,266Blog posts written today
503,405,855Tweets sent today
4,722,425,761Google searches today

Environment


3,599,429Forest loss this year (hectares)
4,845,805Land lost to soil erosion this year (ha)
25,045,431,666CO2 emissions this year (tons)
8,305,535Desertification this year (hectares)
6,777,579 Toxic chemicals released
in the environment
this year (tons)

Food

845,824,152Undernourished people in the world
1,698,687,320Overweight people in the world
765,058,487Obese people in the world
19,557People who died of hunger today
$ 372,832,544Money spent for obesity related
diseases in the USA
today
$ 120,890,933Money spent on weight loss
programs in the USA
today

Water

3,029,094,794Water used this year (million L)
582,806Deaths caused by water related
diseases
this year
798,077,297People with no access to
a safe drinking water source

Energy

298,477,066Energy used today (MWh), of which:
254,080,533- from non-renewable sources (MWh)
44,948,043- from renewable sources (MWh)
1,870,272,130,391 Solar energy striking Earth today (MWh)
61,217,580Oil pumped today (barrels)
1,497,581,301,572Oil left (barrels)
15,618Days to the end of oil (~43 years)
1,093,703,902,221Natural Gas left (boe)
57,563Days to the end of natural gas
4,313,220,505,211Coal left (boe)
148,732Days to the end of coal

Health

8,984,385Communicable disease deaths this year
338,052Seasonal flu deaths this year
5,260,536Deaths of children under 5 this year
29,447,466Abortions this year
213,914Deaths of mothers during birth this year
42,085,621HIV/AIDS infected people
1,163,430Deaths caused by HIV/AIDS this year
5,683,998Deaths caused by cancer this year
678,849Deaths caused by malaria this year
9,679,767,875Cigarettes smoked today
3,459,730Deaths caused by smoking this year
1,730,957Deaths caused by alcohol this year
742,150Suicides this year
$ 276,865,730,142Money spent on illegal drugs this year
934,236Road traffic accident fatalities this year




May all be happy, well and secure!
May all be calm, quiet, alert, attentive and have equanimity of mind with a clear understanding that everything is changing!
May all attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal!

Dismiss all the governments formed by using the EVMs/VVPATs and PUSHING FEAR AND IGNORING SCIENCE.

Orders
may be passed to conduct elections in free and fair manner by using
ballot papers as followed by 120 democracies of the world.Till then
Non-cooperation and disobedience movement against all governments till
the curfew like lockdown is lifted and normalcy  is retained


Namo Tassa Bhagavatho Arahatho Samma Sambuthassa
My salutations to that blessed Lord Buddha.
Buddha surrender concert
I surrender to Lord Buddha.
Dammang surrender concert
Surrendering to the Dharma.
Sangangang Surrender Concert
Surrendering to the Sangaiyar.
Thuthiyambi Buddha surrender concert
Second time I surrender to Lord Buddha.
Thuthiyambi Dammang Surrender Concert
I surrender to Dharma for the second time.
Thuthiyambi Sangangang Saranang Kachami
I surrender to Sangaiyar for the second time.
Dathiyambi Buddha Saranang Kachami
I surrender to Lord Buddha for the third time.
Tathiyambi Dammang Surrender Concert
Third time I surrender to Dharma.
Tathiyambi Sangangang Saranang Kachami
Third time surrendering to Sangaiyar.
Let’s follow the highest seal of the sealed fasting.
• Panathipada Veramani Sikapadang Samadhiami
The thing that I will avoid killing lives
Will adapt.
• That is why Veramani Sikapadang Samadhiami
The seal that I will avoid stealing
Will adapt.
• Then Brahmachariya Veramani Sikpatang
Samadhiyami
From a life without a bachelor
I will adapt to the seal that I would have avoided.
• Musawada Veramani Sikapadang Samadhyami
I would have avoided telling lies
Will adjust the cheese.
• Surameraya Majjapama Datana Veramani
Chikapadang Samadhyami
From the use of alcohol and drug addiction
I would have avoided.
• Vikala Bhojana Veramani Sikapadang Samadhiami
Eating food in the untimely
I would have avoided.
• Nachageetha Visuka Tassana Mala Kanda
Vilepana Tharana Mandana Veramani Sikpadang
The tomb.
Dancing, singing, playing, vigorous scenes
Seeing, garlands, fragrances
Using, decorating; self
Specially in decorating
I would have avoided from this
Will adapt.
• Supreme Mahasayana Veramani Sikpatang
Samadhiyami
High luxury thrones, and
Precious Thrones are called
I would avoid using it
Will adjust the cheese.
May
the holy result of this seal which I surrender to the noble beads, may
this life be a favor for the benefit of my life, for the benefit of
rehabilitation and for the benefit of my life and to return from all
sorrows to this Gautama Buddhism.


References:

https://nypost.com/2020/08/15/covid-19-first-appeared-in-chinese-miners-in-2012-scientists/
https://www.tasnimnews.com/en/news/2020/08/30/2337955/thousands-protest-in-london-demand-end-of-anti-covid-19-measures-video

https://i2-prod.mirror.co.uk/incoming/article22286725.ece/BINARY/0_MAIN-PROD-coronavirus_15691JPG.jpg”,”endpointUrl”:”https://communicator-proxy.tm-awx.com/api/publications/mirror/subscriptions/”,”profile”:”Default”,”isPure360NewsLetter”:false}”
data-observed=”false”
data-init=”true”>https://metro.co.uk/2020/08/29/anti-lockdown-protesters-calling-coronavirus-hoax-gather-london-13195529/?ito=cbshare

https://summit.news/2020/03/10/mit-scientist-claims-coronavirus-is-a-deep-state-fraud/https://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/1329192/London-anti-lockdown-protesters-coronavirus-pandemic
https://www.irishtimes.com/opinionhttps://www.foxnews.com/https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-52359100https://acleddata.com/analysis/covid-19-disorder-tracker/https://www.washingtontimes.com/

 

Buddha
Wheel of dharma ধম্ম চক্র


https://www.quora.com/What-language-did-Gautama-Buddha-speak-according-to-Indian-mythology-and-why-is-it-significant

The Buddha spoke in a language called Magadhi Prakrit.

Magadhi Prakrit is the spoken language of
the ancient Magadha kingdom, one of the 16 city-state kingdoms  at the
time, located in the eastern Indian subcontinent, in a region around
modern-day
Bihār,
and spanning what is now eastern India, Bangladesh, and Nepal. The
first Magadha king is Bimbisara (558 BC –491 BC), during whose reign the
Buddha attained enlightenment. Both king Bimbisara and his successor
son Ajatashatru, were mentioned in several Buddhist Sutras, being lay disciplines, great friends and protectors of the Buddha




When
a just born baby is separated and kept in isolation, after some days it
will speak a natural human language just like all other species like
birds, animals, inspects etc have their own languages for communication.
So also the human beings have their natural (Prakrit) language. That is
Magadhi Prakrit the natural human language.


Magadha empire, ~500 BCE


The Magadha kingdom later became part of the Mauryan Empire, one of the world’s largest empires in its time, and the largest ever in the Indian subcontinent.


Inline image 1

Mauryan Empire, 265 BCE


Magadhi Prakrit is the official language of the Mauryan court. Its emperor “Ashoka
the Great” (ruled 273- 232 BCE) united continental India. During the
war to conquer Kalinga, the last Southern part of India not subject to
his rule, he personally witnessed the devastation that caused hundred of
thousands of deaths, and began feeling remorse. Although the annexation
of Kalinga was completed, Ashoka embraced the teachings of Buddhism, and renounced war and violence. He sent out missionaries to travel around Asia - his son Mahinda  and daughter Sanghamitra,  who established Buddhism in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) - and spread  Buddhism to other countries.



Stone lion of Ashoka, later became symbol of modern India


Magadhi Prakrit is predominantly the language by which Emperor Ashoka’s edicts  were composed in. These edicts were carved on stone pillars placed throughout the empire.


Inline image 2



Inline image 4


The inscriptions on the pillars described edicts about morality based on Buddhist tenets.


Inline image 3

Ashoka Pillar at Feroze Shah Kotla, Delhi, written in Magadhi, Brami and Urdu



Geographically,
the Buddha taught in Magadha, but the four most important places in his
life are all outside of it. It is likely that he taught in several
closely related dialects of Middle Indo-Aryan, which had a high degree
of mutual intelligibility.





Brāhmī Alphabet   
Brāhmī lipi



The Brāhmī alphabet is the ancestor of most of the 40 or so
modern alphabets, and of a number of other
alphabets, such as Khmer and Tibetan.
It is thought to have been modelled on the Aramaic
or Phoenician alphabets, and appeared in Jambudvipa sometime before 500 BC.


The earliest known inscriptions in the Brāhmī alphabet are those of
King Asoka (c.270-232 BC), third monarch of the Mauryan dynasty.


Brāhmī was used to write a variety of languages, including  Prakrit.





Notable features


  • Type of writing system: abugida - each letter represents a consonant with an
    inherent vowel. Other vowels were indicated using a variety of diacritics
    and separate letters.
  • Letters are grouped according to the way they are pronounced.
  • Many letters have more than one form.
  • Direction of writing: left to right in horizontal lines


Vowels and vowel diacritics


Brāhmī vowel diacritics



Consonants


Brāhmī consonants



Sample text


Sample text in Brāhmī


Asokan Edict - Delhi Inscription



Transliteration


devānaṁpiye piyadasi lājā hevaṁ āhā ye atikaṁtaṁ
aṁtalaṁ lājāne husa hevaṁ ichisu kathaṁ jane
dhaṁmavaḍhiyā vāḍheya nocujane anulupāyā dhaṁmavaḍhiyā
vaḍhithā etaṁ devānaṁpiye piyadasi lājā hevaṁ āhā esame
huthā atākaṁtaṁ ca aṁtalaṁ hevaṁ ichisu lājāne katha jane



Translation


Thus spoke king Devanampiya Piyadasi: “Kings of the olden time have gone to heaven under
these very desires. How then among mankind may religion (or growth in grace) be increased?
Yea, through the conversion of the humbly-born shall religion increase”


Source: http://www.virtualvinodh.com/brahmi-lipitva/144-asokan-edict-delhi



Some modern descendants of Brāhmī


Bengali,
Devanāgarī,
Gujarāti,
Gurmukhi,
Kannada,
Khmer,
Malayalam,
Odia,
Sinhala,
Tamil,
Telugu,
Tibetan



Links


Information about Brāhmī


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Br%C4%81hm%C4%AB_script


http://www.virtualvinodh.com/brahmi-lipitva


http://www.ancientscripts.com/brahmi.html


http://www.nibbanam.com/Brahmi/brahmi.htm


Brāhmī fonts


https://sites.google.com/site/brahmiscript/


The Edicts of King Asoka


http://www.cs.colostate.edu/~malaiya/ashoka.html

ALPHABETUM - a Unicode font
specifically designed for ancient scripts, including classical
& medieval Latin, ancient Greek, Etruscan, Oscan, Umbrian,
Faliscan, Messapic, Picene, Iberian, Celtiberian, Gothic, Runic,
Old & Middle English, Hebrew, Sanskrit, Old Nordic, Ogham,
Kharosthi, Glagolitic, Old Cyrillic, Phoenician, Avestan, Ugaritic,
Linear B, Anatolian scripts, Coptic, Cypriot, Brahmi, Old Persian cuneiform:
http://guindo.pntic.mec.es/~jmag0042/alphabet.html



Some of the writing systems used to write Sanskrit




Syllabic alphabets / abugidas



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Underwater sports
RACE, RACE COURSE & EQUIPEMENTS OF FINSWIMMING
Underwater
sports is a group of competitive sports using one or a combination of
the following underwater diving techniques - breath-hold, snorkelling or
scuba including the use of equipment such as diving masks and fins.
These sports are conducted in the natural environment at sites such as
open water and sheltered or confined water such as lakes and in
artificial aquatic environments such as swimming pools. Underwater
sports include the following - aquathlon (i.e. underwater wrestling),
finswimming, freediving, spearfishing, sport diving, underwater
football, underwater hockey, underwater ice hockey, underwater
orienteering, underwater photography, underwater rugby, underwater
target shooting and underwater video.
Finswimming
Further information: Finswimming
Finswimming
is an underwater sport consisting of four techniques involving swimming
with the use of fins either on the water’s surface using a snorkel
using either monofins or bifins (i.e. one fin for each foot) or
underwater with monofin either by holding one’s breathe or underwater
using open circuit scuba diving equipment. Events exist over distances
similar to swimming competitions for both swimming pool and open water
venues. Competition at world and continental level is organised by CMAS.
The sport’s first world championship was held in 1976. It also has been
featured at the World Games as a trend sport since 1981 and was
demonstrated at the 2013 Summer Universiade in July 2013.[5][6][7][8]
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Underwater_sports


Underwater sports

This article
is about competitive underwater sports. For underwater diving
techniques and recreational underwater diving activities, see Freediving, Recreational diving, Scuba diving and snorkelling


Underwater sports
Highest governing body Organisations include:
Characteristics
Mixed gender Yes
Type Outdoor:

Indoor:

Presence
Olympic No demonstration events as of July 2013.

Underwater sports is a group of competitive sports using one or a combination of the following underwater diving techniques - breath-hold, snorkelling or scuba including the use of equipment such as diving masks and fins. These sports are conducted in the natural environment at sites such as open water and sheltered or confined water such as lakes and in artificial aquatic environments such as swimming pools. Underwater sports include the following - aquathlon (i.e. underwater wrestling), finswimming, freediving, spearfishing, sport diving, underwater football, underwater hockey, underwater ice hockey, underwater orienteering, underwater photography, underwater rugby, underwater target shooting and underwater video.

Contents


The sports

Aquathlon


Aquathlon (also known as underwater wrestling) is an underwater sport
where two competitors wearing masks and fins wrestle underwater in an
attempt to remove a ribbon from each other’s ankle band in order to win
the bout. The “combat” takes place in a 5-metre (16 ft) square ring
within a swimming pool, and is made up of three 30-second rounds, with a
fourth round played in the event of a tie. The sport originated during
the 1980s in the former USSR (now Russia) and was first played at international level in 1993. It was recognised by Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques (CMAS) in 2008.[1][2][3][4]



Finswimming

Further information: Finswimming

Finswimming is an underwater sport consisting of four techniques involving swimming with the use of fins either on the water’s surface using a snorkel using either monofins or bifins (i.e. one fin for each foot) or underwater with monofin either by holding one’s breathe or underwater using open circuit scuba diving equipment. Events exist over distances similar to swimming competitions for both swimming pool and open water
venues. Competition at world and continental level is organised by
CMAS. The sport’s first world championship was held in 1976. It also
has been featured at the World Games as a trend sport since 1981 and was demonstrated at the 2013 Summer Universiade in July 2013.[5][6][7][8]



Freediving

Further information: Freediving

Competitive freediving is currently governed by two world associations: AIDA International
(International Association for Development of Apnea) and CMAS. Most
types of competitive freediving have in common that it is an individual
sport based on the best individual achievement. An exception to this
rule is the bi-annual World Championship for Teams, held by AIDA, where
the combined score of the team members makes up the team’s total points.
There are currently nine disciplines used by official governing bodies
and a dozen disciplines that are only practiced locally. In this
article, the recognized disciplines of AIDA and CMAS will be described.
All disciplines can be done by both men and women and, while done
outdoors, no differences in the environment between records are
recognized any longer. The disciplines of AIDA can be done both in
competition and as a record attempt, with the exception of Variable
Weight and No limits, which are both done solely as record attempts.[9]



Spearfishing

Spearfishing
(also known as competition spearfishing) as an underwater sport
involves the hunting and capture of fish underwater using breath-hold
technique and a tackle system such as a speargun as part of a tournament
of fixed duration involving other competitors.[10]



Sport diving

Further information: Sport diving (sport)

Sport Diving is an underwater sport that uses recreational open
circuit scuba diving equipment and consists of a set of individual and
team events conducted in a swimming pool that test the competitors’
competency in recreational scuba diving technique. The sport was
developed in Spain during the late 1990s and is currently played mainly
in Europe. It is known as Plongée Sportive in French and as Buceo De
Competición in Spanish.[11]



Underwater football

Further information: Underwater football

Underwater football is a two-team underwater sport that shares common
elements with underwater hockey and underwater rugby. As with both of
those games, it is played in a swimming pool with snorkelling equipment
(mask, snorkel, and fins).[12]



Underwater hockey

Further information: Underwater hockey

Underwater hockey (UWH; also called Octopush and Water Hockey
locally) is a globally played limited-contact sport in which two teams
compete to manoeuvre a puck across the bottom of a swimming pool into
the opposing team’s goal by propelling it with a stick.[13] It originated in England in 1954 when the founder of the newly formed Southsea
Sub-Aqua Club invented the game as a means of keeping the club’s
members interested and active over the cold winter months when
open-water diving lost its appeal. Underwater hockey was first played as
a world championship in Canada in 1980 after a false start brought
about by international politics in 1979. CMAS is the world governing
body for this sport.[citation needed]



Underwater ice hockey

Further information: Underwater ice hockey

Underwater ice hockey (also called sub-aqua ice hockey) is a minor extreme sport
that is a variant of ice hockey. It is played upside-down underneath
frozen pools or ponds. Participants wear diving masks, fins and wetsuits
and use the underside of the frozen surface as the playing area for a
floating puck. Competitors do not utilize any breathing apparatuses, but
instead surface for air every 30 seconds.[14][15]



Underwater orienteering

Further information: Underwater orienteering

Underwater orienteering is an underwater sport that uses recreational
open circuit scuba diving equipment and consists of a set of individual
and team events conducted in both sheltered and open water that test
the competitors’ competency in underwater navigation. The competition is
principally concerned with the effectiveness of navigation technique
used by competitors to swim an underwater course following a route
marked on a map prepared by the competition organisers, a compass and a
counter meter to measure the distance covered. The sport was developed
in the USSR during the late 1950s and is currently played mainly in
Europe. It is known as Orientation Sub in French and as La Orientación
Subacuática in Spanish. Historically, the sport has also been known as
Technical Disciplines.[16]



Underwater photography

Further information: Underwater photography (sport)

Underwater photography is an scuba-based underwater sport governed by
CMAS where teams of competitors using digital underwater camera systems
all dive at the same saltwater ocean sites at the same time over a
two-day period. The submitted digital images are then assessed and
ranked by a jury using a maximum of five photographic categories as well
as an overall score. The sport was developed prior to 1985 as a
photographic film-based event and is currently mainly practised in
non-English speaking countries.[17]



Underwater rugby

Further information: Underwater rugby

Underwater rugby (UWR) is an underwater sport whose play involves two
teams seeking to gain control of a slightly negatively buoyant ball
(filled with saltwater) and passing it into a heavy metal bucket serving
as the opponents’ goal at the bottom of a swimming pool. It originated from within the physical fitness training regime existing in German diving clubs during the early 1960s and has little in common with rugby football except for the name. It was recognised by CMAS in 1978 and was first played as a world championship in 1980.[18]



Underwater target shooting

Further information: Underwater target shooting

Underwater target shooting is an underwater sport that tests a
competitors’ ability to accurately use a speargun via a set of
individual and team events conducted in a swimming pool using free
diving or Apnoea technique. The sport was developed in France during the
early 1980s and is currently practised mainly in Europe. It is known as
Tir sur cible subaquatique in French and as Tiro al Blanco Subacuático
in Spanish.[19]



Underwater video

Underwater
video is an scuba-based underwater sport governed by CMAS where teams
of competitors using digital underwater video systems all dive at the
same saltwater ocean sites at the same time over a two-day period. The
submitted digital video are then assessed and ranked by a jury.[20][21]



Governance

The
majority of the sporting disciplines listed above are governed by CMAS.
Other organisations involved in governance of underwater sports
include AIDA International[22] and the World Aquachallenge Association[23]
which also respectively govern Freediving and Underwater Hockey in
competition with CMAS while the Manitoba Underwater Council governs
Underwater Football.[24] As of July 2013, it is not known who governs Underwater Ice Hockey.



Competition at international level

Olympic Games


As of 2013, there has been no competition at an Olympic Games by any underwater sport, even as a demonstration, although the following breath-hold events have been conducted as part of the swimming competition - underwater swimming event at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris and a plunge for distance event at the 1904 Summer Olympics in St. Louis, Missouri.[25] During the 1950s and the 1960s, various parties including the Amateur Athletic Union of the United States
and the International Underwater Spearfishing Association lobbied for
the admission of spearfishing to the Olympics. It is reported that in
1968, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) voted in favour of synchronized swimming over spearfishing.[26][27][28] In 1999, finswimming was reported as being considered for inclusion in the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece.[29] In 2002, Underwater sports was one of the sports considered by the IOC for addition to the programme of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, China. It and eight other sports were declined admission on the basis of:[30]

Statistics
reviewed on federation affiliation, nations competing in major events
and broadcast and press coverage of major events for most requested
sports did not indicate a higher level of global participation and
interest than sports currently in the Programme, and
therefore could not be considered to bring additional value.



Paralympic Games

As August 2013, there has been no Paralympic competition by any underwater sport, even as a demonstration.[citation needed]



World championships and world cups

World championships and world cups
Sport
Body Year
Event type
Location
Nations
Aquathlon
CMAS
2009
World Cup
Not known
Not known
Finswimming
CMAS
1976
World Championship
GermanyHanover, Germany[31] Not known
Freediving
AIDA
1996
World Championship
FranceNice, France[citation needed] Not known
Spearfishing
CMAS
1957
World Championship
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Mali Losinj, Yugoslavia[32] Not known
Sport Diving
CMAS
2013
World Championship
Russia Kazan, Russia[33] 8
Underwater football
MUC
2015[citation needed] World Championship[citation needed] Canada Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada[citation needed] not known
Underwater hockey
CMAS
1980
World Championship
Canada Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada[34] 5
Underwater Ice Hockey
Not known
2007
World Cup
AustriaWeissensee, Austria[35] 8
Underwater orienteering
CMAS
1973
World Championship
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Lokve, Yugoslavia [36] Not known
Underwater photography
CMAS
1985
World Championship
Italy Genoa, Italy[37] Not known
Underwater rugby
CMAS
1980
World Championship
Germany Mullheim, Germany [38] Not known
Underwater target shooting
CMAS
1999[39] World Championship
Not known
Not known
Underwater video
CMAS
2010
World Championship
Spain Fuerteventura, Canary Island, Spain[40] 7


World Games

Further information: Finswimming at the World Games

Finswimming has been featured at the World Games as a trend sport since the inaugural games in 1981.[7][41]



Commonwealth Games

As of August 2013, no underwater sport has been conducted at a Commonwealth Games or is currently listed as an optional sport. However, a group of countries belonging to the Commonwealth of Nations
has conducted at least one finswimming championship under the title of
the Commonwealth Finswimming Championships and which was held in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia during February 2007.[42][citation needed]



Universiade

Finswimming became the first underwater sport to be demonstrated at an Universiade with an appearance at the 27th Summer Universiade in July 2013.[8]



Other multi-sport events

The following underwater sports has been offered at the following multi-sport events:




Gallery

  • Freediver using monofin in pool competition in London, 2009.

  • Freediver using monofin in depth competition (location & date not known).

  • Two players compete for the puck at the GB Underwater Hockey
    University Student Nationals 2009, held at Bangor University, Wales.

  • Underwater rugby match (location & date not known).

  • Underwater football match involving USN personnel in Panama City, Florida on June 3, 2011



See also

Championships and other international events



Equipment

  • Monofin – Single blade swimfin attached to both feet
  • Speargun – Underwater fishing implement
  • Water polo cap – Headgear used in water polo and a number of underwater sports


References




  1. Rodríguez III, Ernesto (2010), Libros del Ciclo Olímpico Argentino - Libro I de los Juegos Odesur 1978-2010 (in Spanish) (1st ed.), Buenos Aires: Alarco Ediciones, p. 192, ISBN 978-987-1367-18-4, archived from the original on January 4, 2012, retrieved June 2, 2012


External links

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