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https://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/digha/dn16.html

DN 16 (D ii 137)
Mahāparinibbāna Sutta
{excerpts}
— The last instructions —
[mahā-parinibbāna]
This sutta gathers various instructions the Buddha gave for the sake of his followers after his passing away, which makes it be a very important set of instructions for us nowadays.

Note: info¡bubbles on every Pali word except in section with light green background color

Pāḡi
English



(The Mirror of the Dhamma)

I will expound the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa, possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain of being destined to sambodhi.

And what, Ānanda, is that discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa, possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain of being destined to sambodhi?

Here, Ānanda, an ariyasāvaka is endowed with Buddhe aveccappasāda:

He is endowed with Dhamme aveccappasāda:

He is endowed with Saṅghe aveccappasāda:

He is endowed with a sÄŤla which is agreeable to the ariyas,

This, Ānanda, is the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa, possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain of being destined to sambodhi.

And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sato? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu

Thus, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sato. And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sampajāna? Here, bhikkhus,

Thus, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sampajāna. Sato should you remain, bhikkhus, and sampajānas. This is our intruction to you.

– Ananda, the twin sala trees are in full bloom, though it is not the season of flowering. And the blossoms rain upon the body of the Tathagata and drop and scatter and are strewn upon it in worship of the Tathagata. And celestial coral flowers and heavenly sandalwood powder from the sky rain down upon the body of the Tathagata, and drop and scatter and are strewn upon it in worship of the Tathagata. And the sound of heavenly voices and heavenly instruments makes music in the air out of reverence for the Tathagata.

It is not by this, Ānanda, that the Tathāgata is respected, venerated, esteemed, paid homage and honored. But, Ananda, any bhikkhu or bhikkhuni, layman or laywoman, remaining dhamm’ānudhamma’p'paáš­ipanna, sāmÄŤci’p'paáš­ipanna, living in accordance with the Dhamma, that one respects, venerates, esteems, pays homage, and honors the Tathāgata with the most excellent homage. Therefore, Ānanda, you should train yourselves thus: ‘We will remain dhamm’ānudhamma’p'paáš­ipanna, sāmÄŤci’p'paáš­ipanna, living in accordance with the Dhamma’.

– ‘To some of you, Ānanda, it may occur thus: ‘The words of the Teacher have ended, there is no longer a Teacher’. But this, Ānanda, should not, be so considered. That, Ānanda, which I have taught and made known to you as the Dhamma and the Vinaya, will be your Teacher after my passing away.

https://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/digha/dn22.html

DN 22 (D ii 290)
Mahāsatipaᚭᚭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaᚭᚭhāna ]
This sutta is widely considered as a fundamental reference for meditation practice.

Note: info¡bubbles on every Pali word

English

Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya
A. Section on ānāpāna
B. Section on postures
C. Section on sampajaùùa
D. Section on repulsiveness
E. Section on the Elements
F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

III. Observation of Citta

IV. Observation of Dhammas
A. Section on the Nīvaraṇas
B. Section on the Khandhas
C. Section on the Sense Spheres
D. Section on the Bojjhaṅgas
E. Section on the Truths
E1. Exposition of Dukkhasacca
E2. Exposition of Samudayasacca
E3. Exposition of Nirodhasacca
E4. Exposition of Maggasacca

Introduction

Thus have I heard:

On one occasion, the Bhagavā was staying among the Kurus at Kammāsadhamma, a market town of the Kurus. There, he addressed the bhikkhus:

Bhikkhus.
– Bhaddante answered the bhikkhus. The Bhagavā said:

– This, bhikkhus, is the path that leads to nothing but the purification of beings, the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance of dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas.

Which four? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpč sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpč sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta in citta, ātāpč sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma¡s in dhamma¡s, ātāpč sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.

I. Kāyānupassanā

A. Section on ānāpāna

And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell observing kāya in kāya? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest or having gone at the root of a tree or having gone to an empty room, sits down folding the legs crosswise, setting kāya upright, and setting sati parimukhaᚃ. Being thus sato he breathes in, being thus sato he breathes out. Breathing in long he understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.

Just as, bhikkhus, a skillful turner or a turner’s apprentice, making a long turn, understands: ‘I am making a long turn’; making a short turn, he understands: ‘I am making a short turn’; in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, breathing in long, understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paáš­issati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

B. Section on postures

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while walking, understands: ‘I am walking’, or while standing he understands: ‘I am standing’, or while sitting he understands: ‘I am sitting’, or while lying down he understands: ‘I am lying down’. Or else, in whichever position his kāya is disposed, he understands it accordingly.

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paáš­issati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

C. Section on sampajaùùa

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while approaching and while departing, acts with sampajaùùa, while looking ahead and while looking around, he acts with sampajaùùa, while bending and while stretching, he acts with sampajaùùa, while wearing the robes and the upper robe and while carrying the bowl, he acts with sampajaùùa, while eating, while drinking, while chewing, while tasting, he acts with sampajaùùa, while attending to the business of defecating and urinating, he acts with sampajaùùa, while walking, while standing, while sitting, while sleeping, while being awake, while talking and while being silent, he acts with sampajaùùa.

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paáš­issati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

D. Section on Repulsiveness

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the soles of the feet up and from the hair on the head down, which is delimited by its skin and full of various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya, there are the hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and urine.”

Just as if, bhikkhus, there was a bag having two openings and filled with various kinds of grain, such as hill-paddy, paddy, mung beans, cow-peas, sesame seeds and husked rice. A man with good eyesight, having unfastened it, would consider [its contents]: “This is hill-paddy, this is paddy, those are mung beans, those are cow-peas, those are sesame seeds and this is husked rice;” in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the soles of the feet up and from the hair on the head down, which is delimited by its skin and full of various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya, there are the hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and urine.”

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paáš­issati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

E. Section on the Elements

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is placed, however it is disposed as consisting of elements: “In this kāya, there is the earth element, the water element, the fire element and the air element.”

Just as, bhikkhus, a skillful butcher or a butcher’s apprentice, having killed a cow, would sit at a crossroads cutting it into pieces; in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is placed, however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there is the earth element, the water element, the fire element and the air element.”

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paáš­issati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

(1)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, one day dead, or two days dead or three days dead, swollen, bluish and festering, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.”

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paáš­issati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(2)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, being eaten by crows, being eaten by hawks, being eaten by vultures, being eaten by herons, being eaten by dogs, being eaten by tigers, being eaten by panthers, being eaten by various kinds of beings, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.”

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paáš­issati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(3)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a squeleton with flesh and blood, held together by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.”

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paáš­issati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(4)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a squeleton without flesh and smeared with blood, held together by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.”

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paáš­issati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(5)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, a squeleton without flesh nor blood, held together by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.”

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paáš­issati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(6)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, disconnected bones scattered here and there, here a hand bone, there a foot bone, here an ankle bone, there a shin bone, here a thigh bone, there a hip bone, here a rib, there a back bone, here a spine bone, there a neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a tooth bone, or there the skull, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.”

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paáš­issati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni setāni saṅkha·vaṇṇa·paṭibhāgāni, so imam·eva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃ·dhammo evaṃ·bhāvī evaṃ·an·atīto’ ti.

(7)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, the bones whitened like a seashell, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.”

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paáš­issati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(8)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, heaped up bones over a year old, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.”

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paáš­issati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(9)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, rotten bones reduced to powder, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a condition.”

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paáš­issati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

II. Observation of Vedanā

And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing vedanā in vedanā?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, experiencing a sukha vedanā, undersands: “I am experiencing a sukha vedanā”; experiencing a dukkha vedanā, undersands: “I am experiencing a dukkha vedanā”; experiencing an adukkham-asukhā vedanā, undersands: “I am experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā”; experiencing a sukha vedanā sāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a sukha vedanā sāmisa”; experiencing a sukha vedanā nirāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a sukha vedanā nirāmisa”; experiencing a dukkha vedanā sāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a dukkha vedanā sāmisa”; experiencing a dukkha vedanā nirāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a dukkha vedanā nirāmisa”; experiencing an adukkham-asukhā vedanā sāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā sāmisa”; experiencing an adukkham-asukhā vedanā nirāmisa, undersands: “I am experiencing a adukkham-asukhā vedanā nirāmisa”.

Thus he dwells observing citta in citta internally, or he dwells observing citta in citta externally, or he dwells observing citta in citta internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in citta, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in citta, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in citta; or else, [realizing:] “this is citta!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paáš­issati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing citta in citta.

III. Observation of Citta

And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing citta in citta?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu understands citta with rāga as “citta with rāga”, or he understands citta without rāga as “citta without rāga”, or he understands citta with dosa as “citta with dosa”, or he understands citta without dosa as “citta without dosa”, or he understands citta with moha as “citta with moha”, or he understands citta without moha as “citta without moha”, or he understands a collected citta as “a collected citta”, or he understands a scattered citta as “a scattered citta”, or he understands an expanded citta as “an expanded citta”, or he understands an unexpanded citta as “an unexpanded citta”, or he understands a surpassable citta as “a surpassable citta”, or he understands an unsurpassable citta as “an unsurpassable citta”, or he understands a settled citta as “a settled citta”, or he understands an unsettled citta as “an unsettled citta”, or he understands a liberated citta as “a liberated citta”, or he understands an unliberated citta as “an unliberated citta”.

Thus he dwells observing citta in citta internally, or he dwells observing citta in citta externally, or he dwells observing citta in citta internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in citta, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in citta, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in citta; or else, [realizing:] “this is citta!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paáš­issati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing citta in citta.

IV. Observation of Dhammas

A. Section on the Nīvaraṇas

And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the five nīvaraṇas. And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the five nīvaraṇas?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being kāmacchanda present within, understands: “there is kāmacchanda within me”; there not being kāmacchanda present within, he understands: “there is no kāmacchanda within me”; he understands how the unarisen kāmacchanda comes to arise; he understands how the arisen kāmacchanda is abandoned; and he understands how the abandoned kāmacchanda does not come to arise in the future.

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being byāpāda present within, understands: “there is byāpāda within me”; there not being byāpāda present within, he understands: “there is no byāpāda within me”; he understands how the unarisen byāpāda comes to arise; he understands how the arisen byāpāda is abandoned; and he understands how the abandoned byāpāda does not come to arise in the future.

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being thÄŤnamiddhā present within, understands: “there is thÄŤnamiddhā within me”; there not being thÄŤnamiddhā present within, he understands: “there is no thÄŤnamiddhā within me”; he understands how the unarisen thÄŤnamiddhā comes to arise; he understands how the arisen thÄŤnamiddhā is abandoned; and he understands how the abandoned thÄŤnamiddhā does not come to arise in the future.

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being uddhacca-kukkucca present within, understands: “there is uddhacca-kukkucca within me”; there not being uddhacca-kukkucca present within, he understands: “there is no uddhacca-kukkucca within me”; he understands how the unarisen uddhacca-kukkucca comes to arise; he understands how the arisen uddhacca-kukkucca is abandoned; and he understands how the abandoned uddhacca-kukkucca does not come to arise in the future.

Thus he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas externally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paáš­issati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas, with reference to the five nÄŤvaraṇas.

B. Section on the Khandhas

And furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the five khandhas. And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the five khandhas?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu [discerns]: “such is rĹŤpa, such is the samudaya of rĹŤpa, such is the passing away of rĹŤpa; such is vedanā, such is the samudaya of vedanā, such is the passing away of vedanā; such is saùùā, such is the samudaya of saùùā, such is the passing away of saùùā; such is saṅkhāra, such is the samudaya of saṅkhāra, such is the passing away of saṅkhāra; such is viññāṇa, such is the samudaya of viññāṇa, such is the passing away of viññāṇa”.

Thus he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas externally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paáš­issati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas, with reference to the five khandhas.

C. Section on the Sense Spheres

And furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the six internal and external āyatanas. And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the six internal and external āyatanas?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu understands cakkhu, he understands rōpa, he understands the saᚃyojana which arises owing to these two, he understands how the unarisen saᚃyojana comes to arise, he understands how the arisen saᚃyojana is abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saᚃyojana does not come to arise in the future.

He understands sota, he understands sadda, he understands the saᚃyojana which arises owing to these two, he understands how the unarisen saᚃyojana comes to arise, he understands how the arisen saᚃyojana is abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saᚃyojana does not come to arise in the future.

He understands ghāna, he understands gandha, he understands the saᚃyojana which arises owing to these two, he understands how the unarisen saᚃyojana comes to arise, he understands how the arisen saᚃyojana is abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saᚃyojana does not come to arise in the future.

He understands jivha, he understands rasa, he understands the saᚃyojana which arises owing to these two, he understands how the unarisen saᚃyojana comes to arise, he understands how the arisen saᚃyojana is abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saᚃyojana does not come to arise in the future.

He understands kāya, he understands phoᚭᚭhabba, he understands the saᚃyojana which arises owing to these two, he understands how the unarisen saᚃyojana comes to arise, he understands how the arisen saᚃyojana is abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saᚃyojana does not come to arise in the future.

He understands mana, he understands dhammas, he understands the saᚃyojana which arises owing to these two, he understands how the unarisen saᚃyojana comes to arise, he understands how the arisen saᚃyojana is abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saᚃyojana does not come to arise in the future.

D. Section on the Bojjhaṅgas

And furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the seven bojjhaṅgas. And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the seven bojjhaṅgas?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being the sati sambojjhaṅga present within, understands: “there is the sati sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the sati sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is no sati sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen sati sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen sati sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

There being the dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is the dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is no dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

There being the vÄŤriya sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is the vÄŤriya sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the vÄŤriya sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is no vÄŤriya sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen vÄŤriya sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen vÄŤriya sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

There being the pÄŤti sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is the pÄŤti sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the pÄŤti sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is no pÄŤti sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen pÄŤti sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen pÄŤti sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

There being the passaddhi sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is the passaddhi sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the passaddhi sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is no passaddhi sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen passaddhi sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen passaddhi sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

There being the samādhi sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is the samādhi sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the samādhi sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is no samādhi sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen samādhi sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen samādhi sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

There being the upekkhā sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is the upekkhā sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the upekkhā sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is no upekkhā sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen upekkhā sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen upekkhā sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

Thus he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas externally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paáš­issati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas, with reference to the seven bojjhaṅgas.

E. Section on the Truths

And furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the four ariya¡saccas. And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the four ariya¡saccas?

E1. Exposition of Dukkhasacca

And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha ariyasacca? Jāti is dukkha, aging is dukkha (sickness is dukkha) maraṇa is dukkha, sorrow, lamentation, dukkha, domanassa and distress is dukkha, association with what is disliked is dukkha, dissociation from what is liked is dukkha, not to get what one wants is dukkha; in short, the five upādāna·k·khandhas are dukkha.

And what, bhikkhus, is jāti? For the various beings in the various classes of beings, jāti, the birth, the descent [into the womb], the arising [in the world], the appearance, the apparition of the khandhas, the acquisition of the āyatanas. This, bhikkhus, is called jāti.

And what, bhikkhus, is jarā? For the various beings in the various classes of beings, jarā, the state of being decayed, of having broken [teeth], of having grey hair, of being wrinkled, the decline of vitality, the decay of the indriyas: this, bhikkhus, is called jarā.

And what, bhikkhus, is maraṇa? For the various beings in the various classes of beings, the decease, the state of shifting [out of existence], the break up, the disappearance, the death, maraṇa, the passing away, the break up of the khandhas, the laying down of the corpse: this, bhikkhus, is called

And what, bhikkhus, is sorrow? In one, bhikkhus, associated with various kinds of misfortune, touched by various kinds of dukkha dhammas, the sorrrow, the mourning, the state of grief, the inner sorrow, the inner great sorrow: this, bhikkhus, is called sorrow.

And what, bhikkhus, is lamentation? In one, bhikkhus, associated with various kinds of misfortune, touched by various kinds of dukkha dhammas, the cries, the lamentations, the weeping, the wailing, the state of crying, the state of lamentating: this, bhikkhus, is called lamentation.

And what, bhikkhus, is dukkha? Whatever, bhikkhus, bodily dukkha, bodily unpleasantness, dukkha engendered by bodily contact, unpleasant vedayitas: this, bhikkhus, is called dukkha.

And what, bhikkhus, is domanassa? Whatever, bhikkhus, mental dukkha, mental unpleasantness, dukkha engendered by mental contact, unpleasant vedayitas: this, bhikkhus, is called domanassa.

And what, bhikkhus, is despair? In one, bhikkhus, associated with various kinds of misfortune, touched by various kinds of dukkha dhammas, the trouble, the despair, the state of being in trouble, the state of being in despair: this, bhikkhus, is called despair.

And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha of being associated with what is disagreeable? Here, as to the forms, sounds, tastes, odors, bodily phenomena and mental phenomena there are which are unpleasing, not enjoyable, unpleasant, or else those who desire one’s disadvantage, those who desire one’s loss, those who desire one’s discomfort, those who desire one’s non-liberation from attachment, meeting, being associated, being together, encountering them: this, bhikkhus, is called the dukkha of being associated with what is disagreeable.

And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha of being dissociated from what is agreeable? Here, as to the forms, sounds, tastes, odors, bodily phenomena and mental phenomena there are which are pleasing, enjoyable, pleasant, or else those who desire one’s advantage, those who desire one’s benefit, those who desire one’s comfort, those who desire one’s liberation from attachment, not meeting, not being associated, not being together, not encountering them: this, bhikkhus, is called the dukkha of being dissociated from what is agreeable.

And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha of not getting what one wants? In beings, bhikkhus, having the characteristic of being born, such a wish arises: “oh really, may there not be jāti for us, and really, may we not come to jāti.” But this is not to be achieved by wishing. This is the dukkha of not getting what one wants.

In beings, bhikkhus, having the characteristic of getting old, such a wish arises: “oh really, may there not be maraṇa for us, and really, may we not come to maraṇa.” But this is not to be achieved by wishing. This is the dukkha of not getting what one wants.

In beings, bhikkhus, having the characteristic of sorrow, lamentation, dukkha, domanassa and distress, such a wish arises: “oh really, may there not be sorrow, lamentation, dukkha, domanassa and distress for us, and really, may we not come to sorrow, lamentation, dukkha, domanassa and distress.” But this is not to be achieved by wishing. This is the dukkha of not getting what one wants.

And what, bhikkhus, are in short the five upādānakkhandhas? They are: the rūpa upādānakkhandha, the vedanā upādānakkhandha, the saññā upādānakkhandha, the saṅkhāra upādānakkhandha, the viññāṇa upādānakkhandha. These are called in short, bhikkhus, the five upādānakkhandhas.

E2. Exposition of Samudayasacca

And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha-samudaya ariyasacca? It is this taṇhā leading to rebirth, connected with desire and enjoyment, finding delight here or there, that is to say: kāma-taṇhā, bhava-taṇhā and vibhava-taṇhā. But this taṇhā, bhikkhus, when arising, where does it arise, and when settling [itself], where does it settle? In that in the world which seems pleasant and agreeable, that is where taṇhā, when arising, arises, where when settling, it settles.

And agreeable? The eye in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The ear in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The nose in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The tongue in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Kāya in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Mana in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.

Visible forms in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Sounds in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Smells in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Tastes in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Bodily phenomena in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Dhammas in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.

The eye-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The ear-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The nose-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The tongue-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Kāya-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Mana-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles

The eye-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The ear-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The nose-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The tongue-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Kāya-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Mana-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.

The vedanā born of eye-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of ear-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of nose-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of tongue-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of kāya-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of mana-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.

The saññā of visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The saññā of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The saññā of odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The saññā of tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The saññā of bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The saññā of Dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.

The intention [related to] visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The intention [related to] sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The intention [related to] odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The intention [related to] tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The intention [related to] bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The intention [related to] dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.

The taṇhā for visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The taṇhā for sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The taṇhā for odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The taṇhā for tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The taṇhā for bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The taṇhā for dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.

The vitakka of visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vitakka of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vitakka of odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vitakka of tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vitakka of bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vitakka of dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.

The vicāra of visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vicāra of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vicāra of odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vicāra of tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vicāra of bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vicāra of dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. This is called, bhikkhus, the dukkha·samudaya ariyasacca.

E3. Exposition of Nirodhasacca

And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha-samudaya ariyasacca? It is this taṇhā leading to rebirth, connected with desire and enjoyment, finding delight here or there, that is to say: kāma-taṇhā, bhava-taṇhā and vibhava-taṇhā. But this taṇhā, bhikkhus, when abandoned, where is it abandoned, and when ceasing, where does it cease? In that in the world which seems pleasant and agreeable, that is where taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, where when ceasing, it ceases.

Kiñca loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ? Cakkhu loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Sotaṃ loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Ghānaṃ loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Jivhā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Kayo loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Mano loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

And what in the world is pleasant and agreeable? The eye in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The ear in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The nose in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The tongue in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Kāya in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Mana in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

Rūpā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Saddā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Gandhā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Rasā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Phoṭṭhabbā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Dhammā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Visible forms in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Sounds in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Smells in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Tastes in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Bodily phenomena in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Dhammas in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

Cakkhu·viññāṇaṃ loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Sota·viññāṇaṃ loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Ghāna·viññāṇaṃ loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Jivhā·viññāṇaṃ loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Kāya·viññāṇaṃ loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Mano·viññāṇaṃ loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

The eye-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The ear-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The nose-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The tongue-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Kāya-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Mana-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

Cakkhu·samphasso loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Sota·samphasso loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Ghāna·samphasso loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Jivhā·samphasso loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Kāya·samphasso loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Mano·samphasso loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

The eye-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The ear-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The nose-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The tongue-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Kāya-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Mana-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

Cakkhu·samphassa·jā vedanā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Sota·samphassa·jā vedanā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Ghāna·samphassa·jā vedanā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Jivhā·samphassa·jā vedanā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Kāya·samphassa·jā vedanā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Mano·samphassa·jā vedanā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

The vedanā born of eye-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vedanā born of ear-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vedanā born of nose-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vedanā born of tongue-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vedanā born of kāya-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vedanā born of mana-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

Rūpā·saññā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Sadda·saññā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Gandha·saññā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Rasa·saññā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Phoṭṭhabba·saññā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Dhamma·saññā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

The saññā of visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The saññā of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The saññā of odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The saññā of tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The saññā of bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The saññā of Dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

Rūpā·sañcetanā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Sadda·sañcetanā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Gandha·sañcetanā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Rasa·sañcetanā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Phoṭṭhabba·sañcetanā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Dhamma·sañcetanā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

The intention [related to] visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The intention [related to] sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The intention [related to] odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The intention [related to] tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The intention [related to] bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The intention [related to] dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

Rūpā·taṇhā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Sadda·taṇhā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Gandha·taṇhā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Rasa·taṇhā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Phoṭṭhabba·taṇhā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Dhamma·taṇhā loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

The taṇhā for visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

Rūpā·vitakko loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Sadda·vitakko loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Gandha·vitakko loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Rasa·vitakko loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Phoṭṭhabba·vitakko loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Dhamma·vitakko loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

The vitakka of visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka of odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka of tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka of bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka of dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

Rūpā·vicāro loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Sadda·vicāro loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Gandha·vicāro loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Rasa·vicāro loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Phoṭṭhabba·vicāro loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Dhamma·vicāro loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, dukkha·nirodhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ.

The vicāra of visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra of odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra of tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra of bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra of dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. This is called, bhikkhus, the dukkha·nirodha ariyasacca.

E4. Maggasacca Niddesa

Katamaṃ ca, bhikkhave, dukkha·nirodha·gāminī paṭipadā ariya·saccaṃ? Ayam·eva ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, seyyathidaṃ sammādiṭṭhi, sammāsaṅkappo, sammāvācā, sammākammanto, sammā-ājīvo, sammāvāyāmo, sammāsati, sammāsamādhi.

E4. Exposition of Maggasacca

And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha·nirodha·gāminī paṭipadā ariyasacca? It is just this ariya aṭṭhaṅgika magga, that is to say sammādiṭṭhi, sammāsaṅkappo, sammāvācā, sammākammanto, sammā-ājīvo, sammāvāyāmo, sammāsati and sammāsamādhi.

Katamā ca, bhikkhave, sammādiṭṭhi? Yaṃ kho, bhikkhave, dukkhe ñāṇaṃ, dukkha-samudaye ñāṇaṃ , dukkha-nirodhe ñāṇaṃ, dukkha-nirodha-gāminiyā paṭipadāya ñāṇaṃ ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammādiṭṭhi.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammādiṭṭhi? That, bhikkhus, which is the ñāṇa of dukkha, the ñāṇa of dukkha-samudaya, the ñāṇa of dukkha-nirodha and the ñāṇa of dukkha-nirodha-gāmini paṭipada, that is called, bhikkhus, sammādiṭṭhi.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammāsaṅkappo? Yo kho, bhikkhave, nekkhamma-saṅkappo , abyāpāda-saṅkappo, avihiṃsā-saṅkappo ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammāsaṅkappo.

And what, bhikkhus, are sammāsaṅkappas? Those, bhikkhus, which are saṅkappas of nekkhamma, saṅkappas of abyāpāda, saṅkappas of avihiṃsā, those are called, bhikkhus, sammāsaṅkappas.

Katamā ca, bhikkhave, sammāvācā? Yā kho, bhikkhave, musāvādā veramaṇī, pisuṇāya vācāya veramaṇī, pharusāya vācāya veramaṇī, samphappalāpā veramaṇī ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammāvācā.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammāvācā? That, bhikkhus, which is abstaining from musāvādā, abstaining from pisuṇa vācā, abstaining from pharusa vācā, and abstaining from samphappalāpa, that is called, bhikkhus, sammāvācā.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammā-kammanto? Yā kho, bhikkhave, pāṇātipātā veramaṇī, adinnādānā veramaṇī, abrahmacariyā veramaṇī ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammā-kammanto.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammā-kammanta? That, bhikkhus, which is abstaining from pāṇātipāta , abstaining from adinnādāna, abstaining from abrahmacariya, that is called, bhikkhus, sammā-kammanta.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammā-ājčvo? Idha, bhikkhave, ariya-sāvako micchā-ājčvaᚃ pahāya sammā-ājčvena jčvitaᚃ kappeti ayaᚃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammā-ājčvo.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammā-ājčva? Here, bhikkhus, a noble disciple, having abandonned wrong livelihood, supports his life by right means of livelihood, that is called, bhikkhus, sammā-ājčva.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammāvāyāmo? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu anuppannānaṃ pāpakānaṃ akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ anuppādāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati; uppannānaṃ pāpakānaṃ akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pahānāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati; anuppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ uppādāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati; uppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ ṭhitiyā asammosāya bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammāvāyāmo.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammāvāyāma? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu generates his chanda for the non-arising of unarisen pāpaka and akusala dhammas, he exerts himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously his citta and strives; he generates his chanda for the forsaking of arisen pāpaka and akusala dhammas, he exerts himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously his citta and strives; he generates his chanda for the arising of unarisen kusala dhammas, he exerts himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously his citta and strives; he generates his chanda for the steadfastness of arisen kusala dhammas, for their absence of confusion, for their increase, their development, their cultivation and their completion, he exerts himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously his citta and strives. This is called, bhikkhus, sammāvāyāma.

Katamā ca, bhikkhave, sammāsati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassč viharati ātāpč sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaᚃ. Vedanāsu vedanānupassč viharati ātāpč sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaᚃ. Citte cittānupassč viharati ātāpč sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaᚃ. Dhammesu dhammānupassč viharati ātāpč sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaᚃ. Ayaᚃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammāsati.
An what, bhikkhus, is sammāsati? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpč sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpč sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta in citta, ātāpč sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma¡s in dhamma¡s, ātāpč sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. This is called, bhikkhus, sammāsati.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammāsamādhi? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodibhāvaṃ avitakkaṃ avicāraṃ samādhijaṃ pītisukhaṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati sato ca sampajāno, sukhañca kāyena paṭisaṃvedeti yaṃ taṃ ariyā ācikkhanti: ‘upekkhako satimā sukhavihārī’ti tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubbeva somanassa-domanassānaṃ atthaṅgamā adukkham-asukhaṃ upekkhā-sati-pārisuddhiṃ catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammāsamādhi ti.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammāsamādhi? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, detached from kāma, detached from akusala dhammas, having entered in the first jhāna, abides therein, with vitakka and vicāra, with pÄŤti and sukha born of detachment. With the stilling of vitakka-vicāra, having entered in the second jhāna, he abides therein with inner tanquilization, unification of citta, without vitakka nor vicāra, with pÄŤti and sukha born of samādhi. And with indifference towards pÄŤti, he abides in upekkha, sato and sampajāno, he experiences in kāya the sukha which the ariyas describe: ‘one who is equanimous and mindful dwells in [this] sukha’, having entered in the third jhāna, he abides therein. Abandoning sukha and abandoning dukkha, somanassa and domanassa having previously disappeared, without sukha nor dukkha, with the purity of upekkha and sati, having entered in the fourth jhāna, he abides therein. This is called, bhikkhus, sammāsamādhi.

Idaᚃ vuccati, bhikkhave, dukkha¡nirodha¡gāminč paᚭipadā ariya¡saccaᚃ.

This is called, bhikkhus, the dukkha¡nirodha¡gāminč paᚭipadā ariyasacca.

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā dhammesu viharati; ‘atthi dhammā’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, catūsu ariyasaccesu.

Thus he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas externally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paáš­issati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas, with reference to the four ariya¡saccas.

Satipaᚭᚭhānabhāvanā Nisaᚃsa

Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya satta·vassāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

The benefits of practicing the Satipaᚭᚭhānas

For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaᚭᚭhānas in this way for seven years, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, satta·vassāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya cha vassāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone seven years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaᚭᚭhānas in this way for six years, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, cha vassāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya pañca vassāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone six years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaᚭᚭhānas in this way for five years, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, pañca vassāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya cattāri vassāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone five years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaᚭᚭhānas in this way for four years, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, cattāri vassāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya tīṇī vassāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone four years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaᚭᚭhānas in this way for three years, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, tīṇī vassāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya dve vassāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone three years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaᚭᚭhānas in this way for two years, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, dve vassāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya ekaṃ vassaṃ, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone two years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaᚭᚭhānas in this way for one year, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, ekaṃ vassaṃ. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya satta māsāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone one year, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaᚭᚭhānas in this way for seven months, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, satta māsāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya cha māsāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone seven months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaᚭᚭhānas in this way for six months, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, cha māsāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya pañca māsāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone six months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaᚭᚭhānas in this way for five months, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, pañca māsāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya cattāri māsāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone five months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaᚭᚭhānas in this way for four months, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, cattāri māsāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya tīṇi māsāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone four months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaᚭᚭhānas in this way for three months, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, tīṇi māsāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya dvi māsāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone three months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaᚭᚭhānas in this way for two months, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, dve māsāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya ekaṃ māsaṃ, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone two months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaᚭᚭhānas in this way for one month, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, ekaṃ māsaṃ. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya aḍḍha·māsaṃ, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone one month, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaᚭᚭhānas in this way for half a month, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, aḍḍha·māso. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya sattāhaṃ, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone half a month, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaᚭᚭhānas in this way for a week, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

‘Ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā, soka-paridevānaṃ samatikkamāya, dukkha-domanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāya, ñāyassa adhigamāya, nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya, yadidaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā’ ti. Iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ, idam·etaṃ paṭicca vuttaṃ ti.

“This, bhikkhus, is the path that leads to nothing but the purification of beings, the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance of dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaáš­áš­hānas.” Thus has it been said, and on the basis of all this has it been said.

Idam¡avoca bhagavā. Attamanā te bhikkhō bhagavato bhāsitaᚃ abhinanduᚃ ti.

Thus spoke the Bhagavā. Delighted, the bhikkhus welcomed the words of the Bhagavā.

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3-10-2021 https://youtu.be/18vGSGcHoI Mindful swimming 🏊‍♂️ Lavender CMJC Awake as Hunger is the worst kind of illness - Awakened One encouraging all people to Grow Vegetables🥦 🫑 🥒 🥕 Beans in Pots. Fruit 🍎 Bearing Trees 🌳 all over the world 🌎 to Lead Happy 😃 Life to Attain Eternal Bliss.
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https://youtu.be/18vGSGcHoI

Mindful swimming 🏊‍♂️ Lavender CMJC Awake as Hunger is the worst kind of illness - Awakened One
encouraging all people to Grow Vegetables🥦 🫑 🥒 🥕 Beans in Pots. Fruit 🍎 Bearing Trees 🌳 all over the world 🌎 to Lead Happy 😃 Life to Attain Eternal Bliss.
https://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/samyutta/khandha/sn22-079.html

SN 22.79 (S iii 86)
KhajjanÄŤya Sutta
{excerpt}
— Consumed —
[khajjati]
This sutta provides a succinct definition of the five khandhas.

Note: info¡bubbles on every Pali word

And why, bhikkhus, do you call it ‘RĹŤpa’? ‘It is oppressed’,{1} bhikkhus, that is why it is called ‘RĹŤpa’. Oppressed by what? Oppressed by cold, oppressed by heat, oppressed by hunger, oppressed by thirst, oppressed by the contact with gadflies, mosquitoes, wind, sun and creeping things. ‘It is oppressed’, bhikkhus, that is why it is called ‘RĹŤpa’.

And why, bhikkhus, do you call it ‘Vedanā’? ‘It feels’, bhikkhus, that is why it is called ‘Vedanā’. And what does it feel? It feels sukha, it feels dukkha, it feels adukkham-asukha. ‘It feels’, bhikkhus, that is why it is called ‘Vedanā’.

And why, bhikkhus do you call it ‘Saùùā’? ‘It recognizes’, bhikkhus, that is why it is called ‘Saùùā’. And what does it recognize? It recognizes blue, it recognizes yellow, it recognizes red, it recognizes white. ‘It recognizes’, bhikkhus, that is why it is called ‘Saùùā’.

And why, bhikkhus, do you call them ‘Saṅkhāras’? ‘They fabricate fabricated things’, bhikkhus, that is why they are called ‘Saṅkhāras’. And which fabricated things do they fabricate? They fabricate RĹŤpa as a fabricated thing for the state of having form,{3} they fabricate Vedanā as a fabricated thing for the state of being sensitive, they fabricate Saùùā as a fabricated thing for state of being perceptive, they fabricate Saṅkhāras as fabricated things for the state of being fabricated, they fabricate Viññāṇa as a fabricated thing for the state of being conscious. ‘They fabricate fabricated things’, bhikkhus, that is why they are called ‘Saṅkhāras’.

And why, bhikkhus do you call it ‘Viññāṇa’? ‘It cognizes’, bhikkhus, that is why it is called ‘Viññāṇa’. And what does it cognize? It cognizes sour, it cognizes bitter, it cognizes pungent, it cognizes sweet, it cognizes alkaline, it cognizes non-alkaline, it cognizes salty, it cognizes bland.{2} ‘It cognizes’, bhikkhus, that is why it is called ‘Viññāṇa’.

https://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/samyutta/maha/sn46-032.html

SN 46.32 (S v 91)
Kusala Sutta
— Advantageous —
All that is advantageous unite in one thing.

Note: info¡bubbles on every Pali word

Pāḡi
English

Whatever things, bhikkhus, which are advantageous, conducive to what is advantageous, siding with what is advantageous, all of them are rooted in fruitful considerations, unite in fruitful considerations, and fruitful considerations are chief among them. For a bhikkhu endowed with these fruitful considerations, bhikkhus, it is to be expected that he will develop the seven factors of awakening, that he will increase the seven factors of awakening.

And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu endowed with fruitful considerations develop the seven factors of awakening, increase the seven factors of awakening? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu develops mindfulness as a factor of awakening that is founded on detachment, founded on dispassion, founded on cessation, resulting in relinquishment; he develops investigation of the Dhamma as a factor of awakening that is founded on detachment, founded on dispassion, founded on cessation, resulting in relinquishment; he develops energy as a factor of awakening that is founded on detachment, founded on dispassion, founded on cessation, resulting in relinquishment; he develops exaltation as a factor of awakening that is founded on detachment, founded on dispassion, founded on cessation, resulting in relinquishment; he develops serenity as a factor of awakening that is founded on detachment, founded on dispassion, founded on cessation, resulting in relinquishment; he develops concentration as a factor of awakening that is founded on detachment, founded on dispassion, founded on cessation, resulting in relinquishment; he develops equanimity as a factor of awakening that is founded on detachment, founded on dispassion, founded on cessation, resulting in relinquishment. It is in this way, bhikkhus, that a bhikkhu endowed with fruitful considerations develops the seven factors of awakening, increases the seven factors of awakening.

https://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/anguttara/08/an08-025.html

AN 8.25 (A iv 220)
Mahānāma Sutta
{excerpt}
— Questions of Mahānāma —
Mahānāma asks the Buddha to define what is a lay follower and in what respect a lay follower is expected to be virtuous.

Note: info¡bubbles on every Pali word

Pāḡi
English

– In what respect, bhante, is one an upāsaka?

– To the extent, Mahānāma, that one has gone for refuge to the Buddha, has gone for refuge to the Dhamma, has gone for refuge to the Sangha; to that extent, Mahānāma, one is an upāsaka.

– Then, bhante, in what respect is an upāsaka virtuous?

– To the extent, Mahānāma, that an upāsaka abstains from pāṇ’ātipātā, abstains from adinnādānā, abstains from kāmesu-micchā-cārā, abstains from musā-vādā, and abstains from surā-meraya-majja-pamāda’áš­’áš­hānā, to that extent, Mahānāma, an upāsaka is virtuous.

http://www.buddhanet.net/dhammapada/d_affect.htm

http://www.buddhanet.net/dhammapada/images/titles/chapt16-title.gif

Verse 209. Admiration of Self-Seekers

One makes an effort where none’s due
with nothing done where effort’s due,
one grasps the dear, gives up the Quest
envying those who exert themselves.

Explanation: Being devoted to what is wrong, not being devoted to what is right, abandoning one’s welfare, one goes after pleasures of the senses. Having done so, one envies those who develop themselves.

Verse 210. Not Seeing The Liked And Seeing The Unliked Are Both Painful

Don’t consort with dear ones
at any time, nor those not dear,
‘is dukkha not to see the dear,
‘tis dukkha seeing those not dear.

Explanation: Never associate with those whom you like, as well as with those whom you dislike. It is painful to part company from those whom you like. It is equally painful to be with those you dislike.

Verse 211. Not Bound By Ties Of Defilements

Others then do not make dear
for hard’s the parting from them.
For whom there is no dear, undear
in them no bonds are found.

Explanation: Therefore, one must not have endearments; because separation is painful. For those who are free of bonds there are no endearments or non-endearments.

Verse 212. The Outcome Of Endearment

From endearment grief is born,
from endearment fear,
one who is endearment-free
has no grief - how fear.

Explanation: From endearment arises sorrow. From endearment fear arises. For one free of endearment, there is no sorrow. Therefore, how can there be fear for such a person?

Verse 213. Sorrow And Fear Arise Due To Loved Ones

From affection grief is born,
from affection fear,
one who is affection-free
has no grief - how fear?

Explanation: From affection sorrow arises. From affection fear arises. To one free of affection there is no sorrow. Therefore, how can there be fear for such a person?

Verse 214. The Outcome Of Passion

From lustfulness arises grief,
from lustfulness springs fear,
one wholly free of lustfulness
has no grief - how fear?

Explanation: From passion arises sorrow. From passion fear arises. To one free of passion there is no sorrow, In such a person how can there be fear?

Verse 215. The Outcome Of Lust

From attachment grief is born,
from attachment fear,
one who is attachment-free
has no grief - how fear?

Explanation: From desire arises sorrow. From desire fear arises. To one free of desire there is no sorrow. For such a person how can there be fear?

Verse 216. Sorrow And Fear Arise Due To Miserliness

Out of craving grief is born,
out of craving fear,
one fully freed of craving
has no grief - how fear?

Explanation: From craving arises sorrow. From craving fear arises. To one free of craving there is no sorrow. For such a person how can there be fear?

Verse 217. Beloved Of The Masses

Perfect in virtue and insight,
firm in Dhamma, knower of Truth,
dear to the people’s such a one
who does what should be done.

Explanation: He is endowed with discipline and insight. He is firmly established on the laws of righteousness. He speaks the truth. He looks after his worldly and spiritual responsibilities. The masses adore that kind of person.

Verse 218. The Person With Higher Urges

One with a wish for the Undeclared,
with mind so well-pervaded,
a mind not bound in pleasures of sense,
an ‘upstream-goer’s’ called.

Explanation: In that person a deep yearning for the undefined - for Nibbana - has arisen. He has already touched it mentally. He is called a swimmer against the current - an upstream-bound person. He has already started the process towards Nibbana.

Verse 219. The Fruits Of Good Action

One who’s long away from home
returns in safety from afar,
then friends, well-wishers, kinsmen too
are overjoyed at his return.

Explanation: When a person, who has lived away from home for a long while, returns home safely, his friends, relations and well-wishers welcome him back.

Verse 220. Good Actions Lead To Good Results

In the same way, with merit done
when from this world to another gone
those merits then receive one there
as relatives a dear one come.

Explanation: In the same way, when those who have done meritorious deeds in this world go to the next world, their meritorious actions welcome them, like relatives welcoming back relatives returning from a long journey.

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Verse 221. He Who Is Not Assaulted By Sorrow

Anger and pride should one forsake,
all fetters cast aside,
dukkha’s none where no desire,
no binding to body or mind.

Explanation: Abandon anger. Give up pride fully. Get rid of all clingings. To that person, who is not attracted to name and form, and is free of appendages, no suffering befalls.

Verse 222. The Efficient Charioteer

Who checks arising anger
as with chariot away,
that one I call a charioteer,
others merely grip the reins.

Explanation: That person who is capable of curbing sudden anger is like the expert charioteer who restrains a chariot rushing out of control. That person I describe as a true charioteer. The other charioteer is a mere holder of the reins.

Verse 223. Four Forms Of Victories

Anger conquer by amity,
evil conquer with good,
by giving conquer miserly,
with truth the speaker of falsity.

Explanation: Let anger be conquered by love. Let bad be conquered by good. Let miserliness be overcome be generosity. Let the liar by conquered by the truth.

Verse 224. Three Factors Leading To Heaven

Speak truth and be not angry,
from little give to one who asks,
by these conditions three to go
unto the presence of the gods.

Explanation: Speak the truth. Do not get angry. When asked, give even a little. These three factors will ensure that you will reach the deities.

Verse 225. Those Harmless One Reach The Deathless

Those sages inoffensive
in body e’er restrained
go unto the Deathless State
where gone they grieve no more.

Explanation: Those harmless sages, perpetually restrained in body, reach the place of deathlessness, where they do not grieve.

Verse 226. Yearning For Nibbana

For the ever-vigilant
who train by day and night
upon Nibbana e’er intent
pollutions fade away.

Explanation: Of those who are perpetually wakeful - alert, mindful and vigilant - who are given to discipline themselves and studying day and night, intent upon the attainment of Nibbana, the taints and cankers get extinguished.

Verse 227. There Is No One Who Is Not Blamed

An ancient saying, Atula,
not only said today -
‘They are blamed who silent sit,
who often speak they too are blamed,
and blamed are they of measured speech’ -
there’s none in the world unblamed.

Explanation: O’ Atula, This has been said in the olden days too - it is not just for today. They blame the person who remains silent. They find fault with the person who talks too much. Even with the individual who speaks in moderation, they find fault. In this world there is no one who is not blamed.

Verse 228. No One Is Exclusively Blamed Or Praised

There never was, there’ll never be
nor now is ever found
a person blamed perpetually
or one who’s wholly praised.

Explanation: There was never a person who was wholly, totally and exclusively blamed. Nor was there any time a person who was wholly, totally and exclusively praised. And, there will never will be such a person. Even today one cannot find such a person.

Verse 229. Person Who Is Always Praise-Worthy

But those who are intelligent
praise one of flawless conduct, sage,
in wisdom and virtue well-composed,
having observed him day by day.

Explanation: But those whom the wise praise, after a daily scrutiny, are persons whose conduct is blameless, who are intelligent, well endowed with insight and discipline.

Verse 230. Person Who Is Like Solid Gold

Who’s to blame that one so fine
as gem from Jambu stream?
Even the devas that one praise,
by Brahma too is praised.

Explanation: A person of distinction is beyond blame or praise and fault finding - like a coin of pure gold - no one can find fault with such a person. Deities praise him.

Verse 231. The Person Of Bodily Discipline

Rough action one should guard against,
be with body well-restrained,
bad bodily conduct having shed
train oneself in good.

Explanation: Guard against the physical expression of emotions. Be restraint in physical behaviour. Give up physical misconduct. Practice wholesome physical behaviour.

Verse 232. Virtuous Verbal Behaviour

Rough speaking one should guard against,
be in speaking well-restrained,
bad verbal conduct having shed
train oneself in good.

Explanation: Guard against the verbal expression of emotions. Be restrained in your speech behaviour. Give up speech misconduct. Practice wholesome speech behaviour.

Verse 233. Discipline Your Mind

Rough thinking one should guard against,
be in thinking well-restrained,
bad mental conduct having shed
train oneself in good.

Explanation: Guard against the mental expression of emotions. Be restrained in the behaviour of your mind. Give up mental misconduct. Practice wholesome mental behaviour.

Verse 234. Safeguard The Three Doors

Restrained in body are the wise,
in speech as well they are restrained,
likewise are they restrained in mind,
they’re perfectly restrained.

Explanation: The wise are restrained in body. They are restrained in speech as well. They are also well disciplined in mind. They, who have safe-guarded the three doors - body, speech and mind - are supremely restrained.

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Verse 290. Give Up A Little, Achieve Much

If one should see great happiness
in giving up small happiness
one wise the lesser would renounce
the greater full-discerning.

Explanation: By giving up a modicum of pleasure, which the worldly pursuits bring, if one can be assured of tremendous pleasure - which is Nibbana - the wise person should give up the little pleasure.

Verse 291. When Anger Does Not Abate

Who so for self wants happiness
by causing others pain,
entangled in anger’s tangles
one’s from anger never free.

Explanation: The individual who achieves happiness by inflicting pain on others is not freed from anger because he is entangled in the web of anger due to the contact of the anger of other people.

Verse 292. How Blemishes Increase

What should be done is left undone
and done is what should not be done,
ever the pollutions grow
of those ones proud and heedless.

Explanation: If people do what should not be done, and neglect what should be done, the blemishes of those proud, slothful ones begin to increase.

Verse 293. Mindfulness Of Physical Reality

But for who always practice well
bodily mindfulness,
do never what should not be done,
for mindful ones, the full-aware,
pollutions fade away.

Explanation: If one were to practice constantly on the mindfulness of physical reality, maintaining steady attention on what has to be done, they will shun what should not be done. The blemishes of those mindful, alert will get eroded.

Verse 294. The Destroyer Who Reaches Nibbana

One’s mother and father having slain
and then two warrior kings,
a realm as well its treasurer,
one goes immune, a Brahmin True.

Explanation: The brahmin kills the mother - craving, kills the father - egotism, self-cherishing: They represent the two views, Eternalism and Nihilism, opposed to Buddhist thought. The subordinates are clinging to life. And he destroys the defilements which cling to life. Having destroyed all these, the brahmin (arahat) goes without punishment.

Verse 295. The ‘Killer’ Who Goes Free

One’s mother and father having slain
and then two learned kings,
as well the fifth, a tiger fierce,
one goes immune, a Brahmin True.

Explanation: The brahmin (arahat) kills the mother - craving; kills the father - egotism; kills the two learned kings. They represent the two false views eternalism and nihilism. He kills the five tigers (sensuality, hate, mental inertia, worry and skeptical doubt) that obstruct the path. And, having done all these killings, the arahat goes about unaffected.

Verse 296. Reflect On The Virtues Of The Buddha

Well awakened, they’re awake
ever the Buddha’s pupils
who constantly by day, by night
are mindful of the Buddha.

Explanation: Those disciples of the Buddha who are mindful of the virtues of their Teacher day and night, arise wide awake and in full control of their faculties.

Verse 297. Reflect On The Virtues Of The Dhamma

Well awakened, they’re awake
ever the Buddha’s pupils
who constantly by day, by night
are mindful of the Dhamma.

Explanation: Those disciples of the Buddha who are mindful of the virtues of the Dhamma day and night, arise wide awake and in full control of their faculties.

Verse 298. Reflect On The Virtues Of The Sangha

Well awakened, they’re awake
ever the Buddha’s pupils
who constantly by day, by night
are mindful of the Sangha.

Explanation: Those disciples of the Buddha who are mindful of the virtues of the Sangha day and night, arise wide awake and in full control of their faculties.

Verse 299. Reflect On The Real Nature of the Body

Well awakened, they’re awake
ever the Buddha’s pupils
who constantly by day, by night
are mindful of the body.

Explanation: Those disciples of the Buddha who are mindful of the real nature of the body day and night, arise wide awake and in full control of their faculties.

Verse 300. Reflect On Harmlessness

Well awakened, they’re awake
ever the Buddha’s pupils
who constantly by day, by night
in harmlessness delight.

Explanation: Those disciples of the Buddha who take delight in harmlessness day and night, arise wide awake and in full control of their faculties.

Verse 301. The Mind That Takes Delight in Meditation

Well awakened, they’re awake
ever the Buddha’s pupils
who constantly by day, by night
in meditation take delight.

Explanation: Those disciples of the Buddha who take delight in meditation day and night, arise wide awake and in full control of their faculties.

Verse 302. Samsara - Journey

Hard’s the going-forth, hard to delight in it,
hard the household life and dukkha is it too.
Dukkha’s to dwell with those dissimilar
and dukkha befalls the wanderer.
Be therefore not a wanderer,
not one whom dukkha befalls.

Explanation: It is hard to become a monk; it is hard to be happy in the practice of a monk. To live with those of a different temperament is painful. A traveller in samsara is continually subject to dukkha; therefore, do not be a traveller in samsara; do not be the one to be repeatedly subject to dukkha.

Verse 303. He Is Honoured Everywhere

Who’s full of faith and virtue,
of substance, high repute,
is honoured everywhere,
wherever that one goes.

Explanation: He who is full of faith and virtue, who also possesses fame and fortune, in held in reverence wherever he goes.

Verse 304. The Virtuous Are Seen

Afar the true are manifest
like Himalayan range,
yet even here the false aren’t seen,
they’re arrows shot by night.

Explanation: Like the Himalayas, the good are visible even from afar; like arrows shot in the night, the wicked are not seen even though they may be near.

Verse 305. Discipline Yourself In Solitude

Alone one sits, alone one lies,
alone one walks unweariedly,
in solitude one tames oneself
so in the woods will one delight.
Explanation: He who sits alone, lies down alone, walks alone, in diligent practice, and alone tames himself, should find delight in living in the forest.

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Verse 306. Liars Suffer Tortures Of Hell

With one denying truth there goes to hell
that one who having done says ‘I did not’.
Both of them are making kammas base
are equal after death.

Explanation: One who tells lies about others goes to hell; one who has done evil and says “I did not do it”, also goes to hell. Both of them are evil doers, suffer alike in their next existence.

Verse 307. Evil Men Get Born In Bad States

Many who wear the yellow robe
are unrestrained in evil things,
these evil ones by evil deeds,
in hell do they arise.

Explanation: Many men wearing the yellow robe up to their necks who have an evil disposition and are unrestrained in thought, word and deed are reborn in hell on account of their evil deeds.

Verse 308. Food Fit For Sinners

Better to eat a ball of iron
glowing as flame of fire
than one should eat country’s alms
immoral and unrestrained.

Explanation: It is better for one to eat a red-hot lump of iron burning like a flame than to eat alms-food offered by the people, if one is without morality (sila) and unrestrained in thought, word and deed.

Verse 309. The Man Who Covets Another’s Wife

Four things befall that heedless one
sleeping with one who’s wed:
demerit gained but not good sleep,
third is blame while fourth is hell.

Explanation: A thoughtless person, who goes to another man’s wife, will suffer four evil results. Firstly, he will acquire demerit - what is not meritorious. Secondly, he will not get enough comfortable sleep. Thirdly, he will be disgraced. Fourthly, he will be born in hell.

Verse 310. Shun Adultery

Demerit’s gained and evil birth,
scared man and women - brief their joy,
the king decrees a heavy doom:
so none should sleep with one who’s wed.

Explanation: Demerits will be acquired. The lowly state of hell, will be his lot. Since both man and the woman are frightened, their embrace will generate little pleasure. The king’s law will impose severe punishment. Because of all these, a man will not covet another’s wife.

Verse 311. Wrong Monastic Life Leads To Bad States

As blady grass when wrongly grasped
the hand does lacerate
so a mishandled monastic life
drags one off to hell.

Explanation: The blade of the kusa grass, if held wrongly, will cut one’s hand. In the same way, if one were to handle monastic life in the wrong way - against the grain - it will pull the person down into hell.

Verse 312. Three Things That Will Not Yield Good Results

Whatever of kammas slacks,
whatever of vows corrupt,
a faltering in the holy life
never brings ample fruit.

Explanation: Some act of merit may get committed casually. The practice of religious rite may be tainted. Higher life may get led dubiously. All these will not yield high results.

Verse 313. Do Merit With Commitment

If there’s aught that should be done
let it be done then steadily,
in truth a slack monastic life
all the more stirs up the dust.

Explanation: If you do an act of merit do it with a sense of commitment and concern. But, if the practice of monastic life is casual, instead of reducing the dust, much dust will be smeared.

Verse 314. Good Deeds Never Make You Repent

Better an evil deed not done
for misdeed later on torments.
Better done is deed that’s good,
which done, does not torment.

Explanation: It is better not to do an evil deed; an evil deed torments one later on. It is better to do a good deed as one has not to repent for having done it.

Verse 315. Guard The Mind

Even as a border town
guarded within and without,
so should you protect yourselves.
Do not let this moment pass
for when this moment’s gone they grieve
sending themselves to hell.

Explanation: As a border town is guarded both inside and outside, so guard yourself. Let not the moment go by. Those who miss this moment has come to grief when they fall into hell.

Verse 316. False Beliefs Lead To Hell

They are ashamed where shame is not
but where is shame are not ashamed
so by embracing evil views
beings go to an evil birth.

Explanation: Those who are ashamed of what they should not be ashamed of, and those who are unashamed of what they should be ashamed of, all those who embrace false views go to woeful states.

Verse 317. Fear And Fearlessness In Wrong Places

They are afraid where fear is not
but where is fear are unafraid,
so by embracing evil views
beings go to an evil birth.

Explanation: There are some who are afraid of what they should not fear. There are also some who are not afraid of what they should really fear. They, all, who embrace false beliefs go to woeful states.

Verse 318. Right And Wrong

Faults they see where fault is not
but where is fault they see it not,
so by embracing evil views
beings go to an evil birth.

Explanation: Those who take what is correct as incorrect, and those who take what is not correct as correct, both go to woeful states when they depart because of their false beliefs.

Verse 319. Right Understanding

A fault they understand as such,
they know as well where fault is not,
so by embracing righteous views
beings go to a happy rebirth.

Explanation: They regard error as error, and what is right as right. Those people who embrace right views go to heaven.

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