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08/13/18
2713 Tue 14 Aug 2018 LESSON (54) Tue 14 Aug 2007 Do Good Be Mindful - Awakened One with Awareness (AOA) In Wisdom From World Religions Spiritual wisdom from around the globe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for All Societies. Helps you enrich your life with the religious and spiritual wisdom of the world’s great faith traditions to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal. Welcome to Wisdom from World Religions WHAT YOU’LL LEARN This course seeks to give clear and inspiring answers to many of life’s big questions: • What practices can bring God, or a divine reality, into your own experience?
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 6:59 pm
2713 Tue 14 Aug 2018 LESSON (54) Tue 14 Aug 2007  

Do Good Be Mindful  -  Awakened One with Awareness (AOA)

In Wisdom From
World Religions

Spiritual wisdom from around the globe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for All Societies.

Helps you enrich your life with the
religious and spiritual wisdom of the world’s great faith traditions to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.

Welcome to Wisdom from World Religions


WHAT YOU’LL LEARN

This course seeks to give clear and inspiring answers to many of life’s big questions:


• What practices can bring God, or a divine reality, into your own experience?



• Is death the end of
life?


\https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/#inbox/FMfcgxvxBXxkRGjxnfFvsgCKpxGrLRXw?compose=CllgCJvlHtgvjSCjfkCvjbHqwknSpjjhSwkNxBlMmbjRVGNhpwnTqPdHMJbWlVTwCLcTtkjbdQB

It’s Now or Never. Register for Your Free Online Religion Course


Inbox
x

krose@gtu.edu

6:28 AM (59 minutes ago)


to me

Hello Awakened One,

What are you waiting for? Wisdom from World Religions, a free six-week online course based on Sir John Templeton’s book Wisdom from World Religions: Pathways Toward Heaven on Earth, starts today.

Complete your registration now and prepare to embark on this exciting adventure into the spirit.

To complete your registration, please verify your account by doing one of the following:

  1. Locate
    one of the previous emails we sent you called “Wisdom from World
    Religions New User Registration.” This email contains a verification
    code and a link to verify your email address.
  2. Reply to this email asking us to verify your account. After you do so, we will manually register you.

After verifying your account, I encourage you to like our Official Facebook Page, and to remind your friends to join our course as well.

See you in class!

Warmly,

Professor Ken Rose

P.S.
New students and past participants alike are invited to register for
this session of Wisdom from World Religions, which begins today, August
13th. Act now while there are still free slots available!

 



Respected Sir,
I request you to verify my account to manually register me to complete my registration.
Thanking you,
With kind regards
Awakened One
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

[7:06 AM, 8/14/2018] JC: https://thewire.in/government/lynching-is-the-modus-operandi-of-forces-seeking-re-election-in-2019

To
negate our Marvellous,Modern Constitution after gobblin the Master Key
by tampering the fraud EVMs by the Murderer of democratic institutions
(Moi) for the BJP (Brashtachar Jiyadha Psychopaths) for their stealth,
shadowy hindutva cult (musmriti) there is the just 0.1% intolerant,
cunning, crooked, number one terrorists of the world, violent, militant,
ever shooting, mob lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded, rapist
foreigners from Bene Israel chitpavan brahminical belief that the surest
way to cross the perilous Vaitarni river on the way to heaven is to
hang by the tail of a cow.

Well, what do you know, this seems equally true of crossing the majority mark in the Lok Sabha.

Consider the statement by an RSS leader that cow-related lynching will stop only if people ceased to consume beef.

Clearly, Indresh Kumar seems privy to things on the ground that we merely speculate about.

An
even more explicit admonition has come from Vinay Katiyar: Muslims
ought not to touch cows. What could be a more no-nonsense enunciation of
the right-wing political bottom line.
Had the cow been wholly a
subject of faith and not of politics, Kiren Rijiju, a cabinet minister
at the Centre, could hardly be spared by the lynch mobs, having declared
that he eats beef and will continue to do so. Or Manohar Parrikar,
chief minister of Goa, for saying beef will be available in the state.
Nor would the fortunes of beef-eating Meghalaya have remained unaffected
had the Bharatiya Janata Party’s political stakes there not been so
high.

The lynchings then are explicitly the front line of forces
seeking to retain power in 2019 – a campaign where the political is
brutally intended to ride on a fake spiritual. 99.9% Sarvajan Samaj must
unite and demand the CJI to dissolve the Central Government and go for
fresh polls with Ballot papers. It was the ex CJI Sathasivm who ordererd
for replacmen of the fraud EVMs in a phased manner where the question
of replacement itself is a proff where the EVMs could be tampered. The
ex CEC sampath suggested forthe replacmen of the entire EVMs in a phased
manner as it cost Rs1600 crore at that time and now it is more than Rs
6000 crore. Moreover the software and its source code is kept secret
from the eyes of the voters in this democracy.
Therefore the only
alternative is to go for fresh polls with Ballot papers to save
democracy, liberty, freedom, fraternity and equality as enshrined in our
Marvelous Modern Constitution.
[11:32 AM, 8/14/2018] JC: It is now
time to think whether you want to burn the constitution enshrined with
equality, fraternity, liberty and Justice or burn the manuvadi
Scriptures and gods in your home. The choice is yours.



https://www.revolvy.com/page/Indian-independence-movement

• Is death the end of
life?https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/#inbox/FMfcgxvxBXxkRGjxnfFvsgCKpxGrLRXw?compose=CllgCJvlHtgvjSCjfkCvjbHqwknSpjjhSwkNxBlMmbjRVGNhpwnTqPdHMJbWlVTwCLcTtkjbdQB

It’s Now or Never. Register for Your Free Online Religion Course


Inbox
x

krose@gtu.edu

6:28 AM (59 minutes ago)


to me

Hello Awakened One,

What are you waiting for? Wisdom from World Religions, a free six-week online course based on Sir John Templeton’s book Wisdom from World Religions: Pathways Toward Heaven on Earth, starts today.

Complete your registration now and prepare to embark on this exciting adventure into the spirit.

To complete your registration, please verify your account by doing one of the following:

  1. Locate
    one of the previous emails we sent you called “Wisdom from World
    Religions New User Registration.” This email contains a verification
    code and a link to verify your email address.
  2. Reply to this email asking us to verify your account. After you do so, we will manually register you.

After verifying your account, I encourage you to like our Official Facebook Page, and to remind your friends to join our course as well.

See you in class!

Warmly,

Professor Ken Rose

P.S.
New students and past participants alike are invited to register for
this session of Wisdom from World Religions, which begins today, August
13th. Act now while there are still free slots available!

 



Respected Sir,
I request you to verify my account to manually register me to complete my registration.
Thanking you,
With kind regards
Awakened One
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
B. R. Ambedkar championed the cause of the disadvantaged sections of Indian society within the larger self-rule movement. The period of the Second World War saw the peak of the campaigns by the Quit India Movement led by Congress, and the Indian National Army movement led by Subhas Chandra Bose.

https://www.revolvy.com/page/B.-R.-Ambedkar



Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (14 April 1891 – 6 December 1956), popularly known as Babasaheb, was an Indian jurist, economist, politician and social reformer who inspired the SC/ST Buddhist movement and campaigned against social discrimination towards Untouchables (SC/STs), while also supporting the rights of women and labour. He was Independent India’s first law minister, the principal architect of the Constitution of India and a founding father of the Republic of India.

Ambedkar was a prolific student, earning doctorates in economics from both Columbia University and the London School of Economics, and gained a reputation as a scholar for his research in law, economics and political science.[10]
In his early career he was an economist, professor, and lawyer. His
later life was marked by his political activities; he became involved in
campaigning and negotiations for India’s independence, publishing
journals, advocating political rights and social freedom for Dalits, and
contributing significantly to the establishment of the state of India.
In 1956 he converted to Buddhism, initiating mass conversions of SC/STs.

In 1990, the Bharat Ratna,
India’s highest civilian award, was posthumously conferred upon
Ambedkar. Ambedkar’s legacy includes numerous memorials and depictions
in popular culture.

[2:28 AM, 8/14/2018] JC: Early life
Ambedkar
was born on 14 April 1891 in the town and military cantonment of Mhow
in the Central Provinces (now in Madhya Pradesh).[12] He was the 14th
and last child of Ramji Maloji Sakpal, an army officer who held the rank
of Subedar, and Bhimabai Sakpal, daughter of Laxman Murbadkar.[13] His
family was of Marathi background from the town of Ambadawe (Mandangad
taluka) in Ratnagiri district of modern-day Maharashtra. Ambedkar was
born into a poor low Mahar (dalit) caste, who were treated as
untouchables and subjected to socio-economic discrimination.[14]
Ambedkar’s ancestors had long worked for the army of the British East
India Company, and his father served in the British Indian Army at the
Mhow cantonment.[15] Although they attended school, Ambedkar and other
untouchable children were segregated and given little attention or help
by teachers. They were not allowed to sit inside the class. When they
needed to drink water, someone from a higher caste had to pour that
water from a height as they were not allowed to touch either the water
or the vessel that contained it. This task was usually performed for the
young Ambedkar by the school peon, and if the peon was not available
then he had to go without water; he described the situation later in his
writings as “No peon, No Water”.[16] He was required to sit on a gunny
sack which he had to take home with him.[17]

Ramji Sakpal retired
in 1894 and the family moved to Satara two years later. Shortly after
their move, Ambedkar’s mother died. The children were cared for by their
paternal aunt and lived in difficult circumstances. Three sons –
Balaram, Anandrao and Bhimrao – and two daughters – Manjula and Tulasa –
of the Ambedkars survived them. Of his brothers and sisters, only
Ambedkar passed his examinations and went to high school. His original
surname was Sakpal but his father registered his name as Ambadawekar in
school, meaning he comes from his native village ‘Ambadawe’ in Ratnagiri
district.[18][19][20][21][22] His Devrukhe Brahmin teacher, Krishna
Keshav Ambedkar, changed his surname from ‘Ambadawekar’ to his own
surname ‘Ambedkar’ in school records.[21]

Education
Post-secondary education
In
1897, Ambedkar’s family moved to Mumbai where Ambedkar became the only
untouchable enrolled at Elphinstone High School. In 1906, when he was
about 15 years old, his marriage to a nine-year-old girl, Ramabai, was
arranged.[1]

Undergraduate studies at the University of Bombay
In
1907, he passed his matriculation examination and in the following year
he entered Elphinstone College, which was affiliated to the University
of Bombay, becoming the first untouchable to do so. This success evoked
much celebration among untouchables and after a public ceremony, he was
presented with a biography of the Buddha by Dada Keluskar, the author
and a family friend.[1]

By 1912, he obtained his degree in
economics and political science from Bombay University, and prepared to
take up employment with the Baroda state government. His wife had just
moved his young family and started work when he had to quickly return to
Mumbai to see his ailing father, who died on 2 February 1913.[23]

Postgraduate studies at Columbia University
In
1913, Ambedkar moved to the United States at the age of 22. He had been
awarded a Baroda State Scholarship of £11.50 (Sterling) per month for
three years under a scheme established by Sayajirao Gaekwad III (Gaekwad
of Baroda) that was designed to provide opportunities for postgraduate
education at Columbia University in New York City. Soon after arriving
there he settled in rooms at Livingston Hall with Naval Bhathena, a
Parsi who was to be a lifelong friend. He passed his M.A. exam in June
1915, majoring in Economics, and other subjects of Sociology, History,
Philosophy and Anthropology. He presented a thesis, Ancient Indian
Commerce. Ambedkar was influenced by John Dewey and his work on
democracy.[24]

In 1916 he completed his second thesis, National
Dividend of India — A Historic and Analytical Study, for another M.A.,
and finally he received his PhD in Economics in 1927[25] for his third
thesis, after he left for London. On 9 May, he presented the paper
Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development before a
seminar conducted by the anthropologist Alexander Goldenweiser.

Postgraduate studies at the London School of Economics
Ambedkar (In center line, first from right) with his professors and friends from the London School of Economics (1916-17)
In
October 1916, he enrolled for the Bar course at Gray’s Inn, and at the
same time enrolled at the London School of Economics where he started
working on a doctoral thesis. In June 1917, he returned to India because
his scholarship from Baroda ended. His book collection was dispatched
on different ship from the one he was on, and that ship was torpedoed
and sunk by a German submarine.[23] He got permission to return to
London to submit his thesis within four years. He returned at the first
opportunity, and completed a master’s degree in 1921. His thesis was on
“The problem of the rupee: Its origin and its solution”.[3] In 1923, he
completed a D.Sc. in Economics, and the same year he was called to the
Bar by Gray’s Inn. His third and fourth Doctorates (LL.D, Columbia, 1952
and D.Litt., Osmania, 1953) were conferred honoris causa.[26]

Opposition to Aryan invasion theory
Ambedkar
viewed the Shudras as Aryan and adamantly rejected the Aryan invasion
theory, describing it as “so absurd that it ought to have been dead long
ago” in his 1946 book Who Were the Shudras?.[4]

Ambedkar viewed
Shudras as originally being “part of the Kshatriya Varna in the
Indo-Aryan society”, but became socially degraded after they inflicted
many tyrannies on Brahmins.[27]

According to Arvind Sharma,
Ambedkar noticed certain flaws in the Aryan invasion theory that were
later acknowledged by western scholarship. For example, scholars now
acknowledge anās in Rig Veda 5.29.10 refers to speech rather than the
shape of the nose.[28] Ambedkar anticipated this modern view by stating:

The
term Anasa occurs in Rig Veda V.29.10. What does the word mean? There
are two interpretations. One is by Prof. Max Muller. The other is by
Sayanacharya. According to Prof. Max Muller, it means ‘one without nose’
or ‘one with a flat nose’ and has as such been relied upon as a piece
of evidence in support of the view that the Aryans were a separate race
from the Dasyus. Sayanacharya says that it means ‘mouthless,’ i.e.,
devoid of good speech. This difference of meaning is due to difference
in the correct reading of the word Anasa. Sayanacharya reads it as
an-asa while Prof. Max Muller reads it as a-nasa. As read by Prof. Max
Muller, it means ‘without nose.’ Question is : which of the two readings
is the correct one? There is no reason to hold that Sayana’s reading is
wrong. On the other hand there is everything to suggest that it is
right. In the first place, it does not make non-sense of the word.
Secondly, as there is no other place where the Dasyus are described as
noseless, there is no reason why the word should be read in such a
manner as to give it an altogether new sense. It is only fair to read it
as a synonym of Mridhravak. There is therefore no evidence in support
of the conclusion that the Dasyus belonged to a different race.[28]

Ambedkar
disputed various hypotheses of the Aryan homeland being outside India,
and concluded the Aryan homeland was India itself.[29] According to
Ambedkar, the Rig Veda says Aryans, Dāsa and Dasyus were competing
religious groups, not different peoples.[30]

Opposition to untouchability
Ambedkar as a barrister in 1922
As
Ambedkar was educated by the Princely State of Baroda, he was bound to
serve it. He was appointed Military Secretary to the Gaikwad but had to
quit in a short time. He described the incident in his autobiography,
Waiting for a Visa.[31] Thereafter, he tried to find ways to make a
living for his growing family. He worked as a private tutor, as an
accountant, and established an investment consulting business, but it
failed when his clients learned that he was an untouchable.[32] In 1918,
he became Professor of Political Economy in the Sydenham College of
Commerce and Economics in Mumbai. Although he was successful with the
students, other professors objected to his sharing a drinking-water jug
with them.[33]

Ambedkar had been invited to testify before the
Southborough Committee, which was preparing the Government of India Act
1919. At this hearing, Ambedkar argued for creating separate electorates
and reservations for untouchables and other religious communities.[34]
In 1920, he began the publication of the weekly Mooknayak (Leader of the
Silent) in Mumbai with the help of Shahu of Kolhapur i.e. Shahu IV
(1874–1922).[35]

Ambedkar went on to work as a legal
professional. In 1926, he successfully defended three non-Brahmin
leaders who had accused the Brahmin community of ruining India and were
then subsequently sued for libel. Dhananjay Keer notes that “The victory
was resounding, both socially and individually, for the clients and the
Doctor.”

Samarth

While practising law in the Bombay High
Court, he tried to promote education to untouchables and uplift them.
His first organised attempt was his establishment of the central
institution Bahishkrit Hitakarini Sabha, intended to promote education
and socio-economic improvement, as well as the welfare of “outcastes”,
at the time referred to as depressed classes.[36] For the defence of
Dalit rights, he started many periodicals like Mook Nayak, Bahishkrit
Bharat, and Equality Janta.[37]

He was appointed to the Bombay
Presidency Committee to work with the all-European Simon Commission in
1925.[38] This commission had sparked great protests across India, and
while its report was ignored by most Indians, Ambedkar himself wrote a
separate set of recommendations for the future Constitution of
India.[39]

By 1927, Ambedkar had decided to launch active
movements against untouchability. He began with public movements and
marches to open up public drinking water resources. He also began a
struggle for the right to enter Hindu temples. He led a satyagraha in
Mahad to fight for the right of the untouchable community to draw water
from the main water tank of the town.[40] In a conference in late 1927,
Ambedkar publicly condemned the classic Hindu text, the Manusmriti (Laws
of Manu), for ideologically justifying caste discrimination and
“untouchability”, and he ceremonially burned copies of the ancient text.
On 25 December 1927, he led thousands of followers to burn copies of
Manusmrti.[41][42] Thus annually 25 December is celebrated as Manusmriti
Dahan Din (Manusmriti Burning Day) by Ambedkarites and Dalits.[43][44]

In
1930, Ambedkar launched Kalaram Temple movement after three months of
preparation. About 15,000 volunteers assembled at Kalaram Temple
satygraha making one of the greatest processions of Nashik. The
procession was headed by a military band, a batch of scouts, women and
men walked in discipline, order and determination to see the god for the
first time. When they reached to gate, the gates were closed by Brahmin
authorities.[45]

Poona Pact
M.R. Jayakar, Tej Bahadur Sapru and Ambedkar at Yerwada jail, in Poona, on 24 September 1932, the day the Poona Pact was signed
In
1932, British announced the formation of a separate electorate for
“Depressed Classes” in the Communal Award. Gandhi fiercely opposed a
separate electorate for untouchables, saying he feared that such an
arrangement would divide the Hindu community.[46][47][48] Gandhi
protested by fasting while imprisoned in the Yerwada Central Jail of
Poona. Following the fast, Congress politicians and activists such as
Madan Mohan Malaviya and Palwankar Baloo organised joint meetings with
Ambedkar and his supporters at Yerwada.[49] On 25 September 1932, the
agreement known as Poona Pact was signed between Ambedkar (on behalf of
the depressed classes among Hindus) and Madan Mohan Malaviya (on behalf
of the other Hindus). The agreement gave reserved seats for the
depressed classes in the Provisional legislatures, within the general
electorate. Due to the pact, the depressed class received 148 seats in
the legislature, instead of the 71 as allocated in the Communal Award
earlier proposed by British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald. The text
uses the term “Depressed Classes” to denote Untouchables among Hindus
who were later called Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes under India
Act 1935, and the later Indian Constitution of 1950.[50][51] In the
Poona Pact, a unified electorate was in principle formed, but primary
and secondary elections allowed Untouchables in practice to choose their
own candidates.[52]
[2:30 AM, 8/14/2018] JC: Political career
Ambedkar
with his family members at Rajgraha in February 1934. From left –
Yashwant (son), Ambedkar, Ramabai (wife), Laxmibai (wife of his elder
brother, Balaram), Mukund (nephew) and Ambedkar’s favourite dog, Tobby
In
1935, Ambedkar was appointed principal of the Government Law College,
Bombay, a position he held for two years. He also served as the chairman
of Governing body of Ramjas College, University of Delhi, after the
death of its Founder Shri Rai Kedarnath.[53] Settling in Bombay (today
called Mumbai), Ambedkar oversaw the construction of a house, and
stocked his personal library with more than 50,000 books.[54] His wife
Ramabai died after a long illness the same year. It had been her
long-standing wish to go on a pilgrimage to Pandharpur, but Ambedkar had
refused to let her go, telling her that he would create a new
Pandharpur for her instead of Hinduism’s Pandharpur which treated them
as untouchables. At the Yeola Conversion Conference on 13 October in
Nasik, Ambedkar announced his intention to convert to a different
religion and exhorted his followers to leave Hinduism.[54] He would
repeat his message at many public meetings across India.

In 1936,
Ambedkar founded the Independent Labour Party, which contested the 1937
Bombay election to the Central Legislative Assembly for the 13 reserved
and 4 general seats, and secured 11 and 3 seats respectively.[55]

Ambedkar
published his book Annihilation of Caste on 15 May 1936.[56] It
strongly criticised Hindu orthodox religious leaders and the caste
system in general,[57] and included “a rebuke of Gandhi” on the
subject.[58] Later, in a 1955 BBC interview, he accused Gandhi of
writing in opposition of the caste system in English language papers
while writing in support of it in Gujarati language papers.[59]

Ambedkar served on the Defence Advisory Committee[60] and the Viceroy’s Executive Council as minister for labour.[60]

After
the Lahore resolution (1940) of the Muslim League demanding Pakistan,
Ambedkar wrote a 400 page tract titled Thoughts on Pakistan, which
analysed the concept of “Pakistan” in all its aspects. Ambedkar argued
that the Hindus should concede Pakistan to the Muslims. He proposed that
the provincial boundaries of Punjab and Bengal should be redrawn to
separate the Muslim and non-Muslim majority parts. He thought the
Muslims could have no objection to redrawing provincial boundaries. If
they did, they did not quite “understand the nature of their own
demand”. Scholar Venkat Dhulipala states that Thoughts on Pakistan
“rocked Indian politics for a decade”. It determined the course of
dialogue between the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress,
paving the way for the Partition of India.[61][62]

In his work
Who Were the Shudras?, Ambedkar tried to explain the formation of
untouchables. He saw Shudras and Ati Shudras who form the lowest caste
in the ritual hierarchy of the caste system, as separate from
Untouchables. Ambedkar oversaw the transformation of his political party
into the Scheduled Castes Federation, although it performed poorly in
the 1946 elections for Constituent Assembly of India. Later he was
elected into the constituent assembly of Bengal where Muslim League was
in power.[63]

Ambedkar contested in the Bombay North first Indian
General Election of 1952, but lost to his former assistant and Congress
Party candidate Narayan Kajrolkar. Ambedkar became a member of Rajya
Sabha, probably an appointed member. He tried to enter Lok Sabha again
in the by-election of 1954 from Bhandara, but he placed third (the
Congress Party won). By the time of the second general election in 1957,
Ambedkar had died.

Ambedkar also criticised Islamic practice in
South Asia. While justifying the Partition of India, he condemned child
marriage and the mistreatment of women in Muslim society.

No
words can adequately express the great and many evils of polygamy and
concubinage, and especially as a source of misery to a Muslim woman.
Take the caste system. Everybody infers that Islam must be free from
slavery and caste. […] [While slavery existed], much of its support
was derived from Islam and Islamic countries. While the prescriptions by
the Prophet regarding the just and humane treatment of slaves contained
in the Koran are praiseworthy, there is nothing whatever in Islam that
lends support to the abolition of this curse. But if slavery has gone,
caste among Musalmans [Muslims] has remained.[64]

Drafting India’s Constitution
Ambedkar,
chairman of the Drafting Committee, presenting the final draft of the
Indian Constitution to Rajendra Prasad on 25 November 1949.
Upon
India’s independence on 15 August 1947, the new Congress-led government
invited Ambedkar to serve as the nation’s first Law Minister, which he
accepted. On 29 August, he was appointed Chairman of the Constitution
Drafting Committee, and was appointed by the Assembly to write India’s
new Constitution.[65]

Granville Austin described the Indian
Constitution drafted by Ambedkar as ‘first and foremost a social
document’. ‘The majority of India’s constitutional provisions are either
directly arrived at furthering the aim of social revolution or attempt
to foster this revolution by establishing conditions necessary for its
achievement.’[66]

The text prepared by Ambedkar provided
constitutional guarantees and protections for a wide range of civil
liberties for individual citizens, including freedom of religion, the
abolition of untouchability, and the outlawing of all forms of
discrimination. Ambedkar argued for extensive economic and social rights
for women, and won the Assembly’s support for introducing a system of
reservations of jobs in the civil services, schools and colleges for
members of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and Other Backward
Class, a system akin to affirmative action.[67] India’s lawmakers hoped
to eradicate the socio-economic inequalities and lack of opportunities
for India’s depressed classes through these measures.[68] The
Constitution was adopted on 26 November 1949 by the Constituent
Assembly.[69]

Opposition to Article 370
Ambedkar opposed
Article 370 of the Constitution of India, which granted a special status
to the State of Jammu and Kashmir, and which was included against his
wishes. Balraj Madhok reportedly said, Ambedkar had clearly told the
Kashmiri leader, Sheikh Abdullah: “You wish India should protect your
borders, she should build roads in your area, she should supply you food
grains, and Kashmir should get equal status as India. But Government of
India should have only limited powers and Indian people should have no
rights in Kashmir. To give consent to this proposal, would be a
treacherous thing against the interests of India and I, as the Law
Minister of India, will never do it.” Then Sk. Abdullah approached
Nehru, who directed him to Gopal Swami Ayyangar, who in turn approached
Sardar Patel, saying Nehru had promised Sk. Abdullah the special status.
Patel got the Article passed while Nehru was on a foreign tour. On the
day the article came up for discussion, Ambedkar did not reply to
questions on it but did participate on other articles. All arguments
were done by Krishna Swami Ayyangar.[70][71][72]

Support to Uniform Civil Code
I
personally do not understand why religion should be given this vast,
expansive jurisdiction, so as to cover the whole of life and to prevent
the legislature from encroaching upon that field. After all, what are we
having this liberty for? We are having this liberty in order to reform
our social system, which is so full of inequities, discriminations and
other things, which conflict with our fundamental rights.[73]
During
the debates in the Constituent Assembly, Ambedkar demonstrated his will
to reform Indian society by recommending the adoption of a Uniform Civil
Code.[74][75] Ambedkar resigned from the cabinet in 1951, when
parliament stalled his draft of the Hindu Code Bill, which sought to
enshrine gender equality in the laws of inheritance and marriage.[76]
Ambedkar independently contested an election in 1952 to the lower house
of parliament, the Lok Sabha, but was defeated in the Bombay (North
Central) constituency by a little-known Narayan Sadoba Kajrolkar, who
polled 138,137 votes compared to Ambedkar’s 123,576.[77][78][79] He was
appointed to the upper house, of parliament, the Rajya Sabha in March
1952 and would remain as member till death.[80]
[2:32 AM, 8/14/2018] JC: Economic planning
B.R. Ambedkar in 1950
Ambedkar
was the first Indian to pursue a doctorate in economics abroad.[81] He
argued that industrialisation and agricultural growth could enhance the
Indian economy.[82] He stressed investment in agriculture as the primary
industry of India. According to Sharad Pawar, Ambedkar’s vision helped
the government to achieve its food security goal.[83] Ambedkar advocated
national economic and social development, stressing education, public
hygiene, community health, residential facilities as the basic
amenities.[82] He calculated the loss of development caused by British
rule.[84]

Reserve Bank of India
Ambedkar was trained as an
economist, and was a professional economist until 1921, when he became a
political leader. He wrote three scholarly books on economics:

Administration and Finance of the East India Company
The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India
The Problem of the Rupee: Its Origin and Its Solution[85][86][87]
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI), was based on the ideas that Ambedkar presented to the Hilton Young Commission.[85][87][88][89]

Second marriage
Ambedkar with wife Savita in 1948
Ambedkar’s
first wife Ramabai died in 1935 after a long illness. After completing
the draft of India’s constitution in the late 1940s, he suffered from
lack of sleep, had neuropathic pain in his legs, and was taking insulin
and homoeopathic medicines. He went to Bombay for treatment, and there
met Dr. Sharada Kabir, whom he married on 15 April 1948, at his home in
New Delhi. Doctors recommended a companion who was a good cook and had
medical knowledge to care for him.[90] She adopted the name Savita
Ambedkar and cared for him the rest of his life.[2] Savita Ambedkar, who
was called ‘Mai’ or ‘Maisaheb’, died on 29 May 2003, aged 93 at
Mehrauli, New Delhi.[91]

Conversion to Buddhism
Ambedkar receiving the Five Precepts from Mahasthavir Chandramani on October 14, 1956
Ambedkar
considered converting to Sikhism, which encouraged opposition to
oppression and so appealed to leaders of scheduled castes. But after
meeting with Sikh leaders, he concluded that he might get “second-rate”
Sikh status, as described by scholar Stephen P. Cohen.[92]

Instead,
he studied Buddhism all his life. Around 1950, he devoted his attention
to Buddhism and travelled to Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) to attend a meeting
of the World Fellowship of Buddhists.[93] While dedicating a new
Buddhist vihara near Pune, Ambedkar announced he was writing a book on
Buddhism, and that when it was finished, he would formally convert to
Buddhism.[94] He twice visited Burma in 1954; the second time to attend
the third conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists in
Rangoon.[95] In 1955, he founded the Bharatiya Bauddha Mahasabha, or the
Buddhist Society of India.[96] He completed his final work, The Buddha
and His Dhamma, in 1956 which was published posthumously.[96]

After
meetings with the Sri Lankan Buddhist monk Hammalawa Saddhatissa,[97]
Ambedkar organised a formal public ceremony for himself and his
supporters in Nagpur on 14 October 1956. Accepting the Three Refuges and
Five Precepts from a Buddhist monk in the traditional manner, Ambedkar
completed his own conversion, along with his wife. He then proceeded to
convert some 500,000 of his supporters who were gathered around him.[98]
He prescribed the 22 Vows for these converts, after the Three Jewels
and Five Precepts.[99] He then travelled to Kathmandu, Nepal to attend
the Fourth World Buddhist Conference.[95] His work on The Buddha or Karl
Marx and “Revolution and counter-revolution in ancient India” remained
incomplete.[100]

Death
Mahaparinirvana of B. R. Ambedkar
Since
1948, Ambedkar suffered from diabetes. He was bed-ridden from June to
October in 1954 due to medication side-effects and poor eyesight.[94] He
had been increasingly embittered by political issues, which took a toll
on his health. His health worsened during 1955. Three days after
completing his final manuscript The Buddha and His Dhamma, Ambedkar died
in his sleep on 6 December 1956 at his home in Delhi.

A Buddhist
cremation[101] was organised at Dadar Chowpatty beach on 7
December,[102] attended by half a million grieving people.[103] A
conversion program was organised on 16 December 1956,[104] so that
cremation attendees were also converted to Buddhism at the same
place.[104]

Ambedkar was survived by his second wife, who died in
2003,[105] and his son Yashwant Ambedkar (known as Bhaiyasaheb).[106]
Ambedkar’s grandson, Prakash Ambedkar, is the chief-adviser of the
Buddhist Society of India,[107] leads the Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangh[108]
and has served in both houses of the Indian Parliament.[108]

A
number of unfinished typescripts and handwritten drafts were found among
Ambedkar’s notes and papers and gradually made available. Among these
were Waiting for a Visa, which probably dates from 1935–36 and is an
autobiographical work, and the Untouchables, or the Children of India’s
Ghetto, which refers to the census of 1951.[94]

A memorial for
Ambedkar was established in his Delhi house at 26 Alipur Road. His
birthdate is celebrated as a public holiday known as Ambedkar Jayanti or
Bhim Jayanti. He was posthumously awarded India’s highest civilian
honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 1990.[109]

On the anniversary of his
birth and death, and on Dhamma Chakra Pravartan Din (14 October) at
Nagpur, at least half a million people gather to pay homage to him at
his memorial in Mumbai.[110] Thousands of bookshops are set up, and
books are sold. His message to his followers was “educate, organise,
agitate”.[111]

Legacy
People paying tribute at the central statue of Ambedkar in Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University in Aurangabad.
Ambedkar’s
legacy as a socio-political reformer, had a deep effect on modern
India.[112][113] In post-Independence India, his socio-political thought
is respected across the political spectrum. His initiatives have
influenced various spheres of life and transformed the way India today
looks at socio-economic policies, education and affirmative action
through socio-economic and legal incentives. His reputation as a scholar
led to his appointment as free India’s first law minister, and chairman
of the committee for drafting the constitution. He passionately
believed in individual freedom and criticised caste society. His
accusations of Hinduism as being the foundation of the caste system made
him controversial and unpopular among Hindus.[114] His conversion to
Buddhism sparked a revival in interest in Buddhist philosophy in India
and abroad.[115]

Ambedkar is also called Babasaheb, a Marathi
phrase which roughly translates as “Father-Lord” (baba: father; and
saheb: lord) because millions of Indians consider him a “great
liberator”.[116]

Many public institutions are named in his
honour, and the Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport in Nagpur,
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, Ambedkar
University Delhi is also named in his honour. A large official portrait
of Ambedkar is on display in the Indian Parliament building.

The
Maharashtra government has acquired a house in London where Ambedkar
lived during his days as a student in the 1920s. The house is expected
to be converted into a museum-cum-memorial to Ambedkar.[117]

Ambedkar
was voted “the Greatest Indian” in 2012 by a poll organised by History
TV18 and CNN IBN. Nearly 20 million votes were cast, making him the most
popular Indian figure since the launch of the initiative.[118][119] Due
to his role in economics, Narendra Jadhav, a notable Indian
economist,[120] has said that Ambedkar was “the highest educated Indian
economist of all times.”[121] Amartya Sen, said that Ambedkar is “father
of my economics”, and “he was highly controversial figure in his home
country, though it was not the reality. His contribution in the field of
economics is marvelous and will be remembered forever.”[122][123] Osho,
a spiritual teacher, remarked “I have seen people who are born in the
lowest category of Hindu law, the sudras, the untouchables, so
intelligent: when India became independent, the man who made the
constitution of India, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, was a sudra. There was no
equal to his intelligence as far as law is concerned – he was a
world-famous authority.”[124] President Obama addressed the Indian
parliament in 2010, and referred to Dalit leader Dr. B. R. Ambedkar as
the great and revered Human Rights champion and main author of India’s
constitution.[125]

Ambedkar’s political philosophy has given rise
to a large number of political parties, publications and workers’
unions that remain active across India, especially in Maharashtra. His
promotion of Buddhism has rejuvenated interest in Buddhist philosophy
among sections of population in India. Mass conversion ceremonies have
been organised by human rights activists in modern times, emulating
Ambedkar’s Nagpur ceremony of 1956.[126] Most Indian Buddhists specially
Navayana followers regard him as a Bodhisattva, the Maitreya, although
he never claimed it himself.[127][128][129] Outside India, during the
late 1990s, some Hungarian Romani people drew parallels between their
own situation and that of the downtrodden people in India. Inspired by
Ambedkar, they started to convert to Buddhism.[130]
[2:33 AM, 8/14/2018] JC: In popular culture
Several
movies, plays, and other works have been based on the life and thoughts
of Ambedkar. Jabbar Patel directed the English-language film Dr.
Babasaheb Ambedkar in 2000 with Mammootty in the lead role.[131] This
biopic was sponsored by the National Film Development Corporation of
India and the government’s Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.
The film was released after a long and controversial gestation.[132]
David Blundell, professor of anthropology at UCLA and historical
ethnographer, has established Arising Light – a series of films and
events that are intended to stimulate interest and knowledge about the
social conditions in India and the life of Ambedkar.[133] In
Samvidhaan,[134] a TV mini-series on the making of the Constitution of
India directed by Shyam Benegal, the pivotal role of B. R. Ambedkar was
played by Sachin Khedekar. The play Ambedkar Aur Gandhi, directed by
Arvind Gaur and written by Rajesh Kumar, tracks the two prominent
personalities of its title.[135]

Bhimayana: Experiences of
Untouchability is a graphic biography of Ambedkar created by
Pardhan-Gond artists Durgabai Vyam and Subhash Vyam, and writers
Srividya Natarajan and S. Anand. The book depicts the experiences of
untouchability faced by Ambedkar from childhood to adulthood. CNN named
it one of the top 5 political comic books.[136]

The Ambedkar Memorial at Lucknow is dedicated in his memory. The chaitya consists of monuments showing his biography.[137][138]

Ambedkar Memorial at Lucknow
Google
commemorated Ambedkar’s 124th birthday through a homepage doodle[139]
on 14 April 2015.[140] The doodle was featured in India, Argentina,
Chile, Ireland, Peru, Poland, Sweden and the United
Kingdom.[141][142][143]

Films
Balak Ambedkar, a 1991 Kannada film directed by Basavaraj Kesthur.
Bole India Jai Bhim, 2016 Marathi film directed by Subodh Nagdeve.
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar (film), 2000 English film directed by Jabbar Patel.
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar (film), a 2005 Kannada film directed by Sharan Kumar Kabbur.
Yugpurush Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, 1993 Marathi film directed by Shashikant Nalavade.
Bhim Garjana, a 1990 Marathi film directed by Vijay Pawar.
Ramabai (film), a 2016 Kannada film directed by M. Ranganath.
Ramabai Bhimrao Ambedkar (film), a 2011 Marathi film directed by Prakash Jadhav.
A Journey of Samyak Buddha, a 2013 Hindi film based on Dr. Ambedkar’s book, The Buddha and His Dhamma and Navayana Buddhism.
Works
The
Education Department, Government of Maharashtra (Mumbai) published the
collection of Ambedkar’s writings and speeches in different
volumes.[144]

Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development and 11 Other Essays
Ambedkar in the Bombay Legislature, with the Simon Commission and at the Round Table Conferences, 1927–1939
Philosophy of Hinduism; India and the Pre-requisites of Communism; Revolution and Counter-revolution; Buddha or Karl Marx
Riddles in Hinduism[145]
Essays on Untouchables and Untouchability
The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India
The Untouchables: Who Were They? And Why They Became Untouchables (New Delhi: Amrit Book Co, [1948])
The Annihilation of Caste (1936)
Pakistan or the Partition of India
What Congress and Gandhi have done to the Untouchables; Mr. Gandhi and the Emancipation of the Untouchables
Ambedkar as member of the Governor General’s Executive Council, 1942–46
The Buddha and his Dhamma
Unpublished Writings; Ancient Indian Commerce; Notes on laws; Waiting for a Visa ; Miscellaneous notes, etc.
Ambedkar as the principal architect of the Constitution of India
(2 parts) Dr. Ambedkar and The Hindu Code Bill
Ambedkar as Free India’s First Law Minister and Member of Opposition in Indian Parliament (1947–1956)
The Pali Grammar
Ambedkar
and his Egalitarian Revolution – Struggle for Human Rights. Events
starting from March 1927 to 17 November 1956 in the chronological order;
Ambedkar and his Egalitarian Revolution – Socio-political and religious
activities. Events starting from November 1929 to 8 May 1956 in the
chronological order; Ambedkar and his Egalitarian Revolution – Speeches.
(Events starting from 1 January to 20 November 1956 in the
chronological order.)
Ambedkar’s Speeches and writing in Marathi
Ambedkar’s Photo Album and Correspondence
See also
Ambedkarism
Chaitya Bhoomi
Dalit Buddhist movement
Deekshabhoomi
The Greatest Indian
List of civil rights leaders
Social reformers of India
Statue of Equality
List of things named after B. R. Ambedkar

Read more: B. R. Ambedkar | Revolvy https://www.revolvy.com/page/B.-R.-Ambedkar#ixzz5O5uud7EK
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2713 Tue 14 Aug 2018 LESSON (54) Tue 14 Aug 2007  

Do Good Be Mindful  -  Awakened One with Awareness (AOA)

In Wisdom From
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Spiritual wisdom from around the globe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for All Societies.

Helps you enrich your life with the
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Welcome to Wisdom from World Religions


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6:28 AM (59 minutes ago)


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Hello Awakened One,

What are you waiting for? Wisdom from World Religions, a free six-week online course based on Sir John Templeton’s book Wisdom from World Religions: Pathways Toward Heaven on Earth, starts today.

Complete your registration now and prepare to embark on this exciting adventure into the spirit.

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P.S.
New students and past participants alike are invited to register for
this session of Wisdom from World Religions, which begins today, August
13th. Act now while there are still free slots available!

 



Respected Sir,
I request you to verify my account to manually register me to complete my registration.
Thanking you,
With kind regards
Awakened One
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

[7:06 AM, 8/14/2018] JC: https://thewire.in/government/lynching-is-the-modus-operandi-of-forces-seeking-re-election-in-2019

To
negate our Marvellous,Modern Constitution after gobblin the Master Key
by tampering the fraud EVMs by the Murderer of democratic institutions
(Moi) for the BJP (Brashtachar Jiyadha Psychopaths) for their stealth,
shadowy hindutva cult (musmriti) there is the just 0.1% intolerant,
cunning, crooked, number one terrorists of the world, violent, militant,
ever shooting, mob lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded, rapist
foreigners from Bene Israel chitpavan brahminical belief that the surest
way to cross the perilous Vaitarni river on the way to heaven is to
hang by the tail of a cow.

Well, what do you know, this seems equally true of crossing the majority mark in the Lok Sabha.

Consider the statement by an RSS leader that cow-related lynching will stop only if people ceased to consume beef.

Clearly, Indresh Kumar seems privy to things on the ground that we merely speculate about.

An
even more explicit admonition has come from Vinay Katiyar: Muslims
ought not to touch cows. What could be a more no-nonsense enunciation of
the right-wing political bottom line.
Had the cow been wholly a
subject of faith and not of politics, Kiren Rijiju, a cabinet minister
at the Centre, could hardly be spared by the lynch mobs, having declared
that he eats beef and will continue to do so. Or Manohar Parrikar,
chief minister of Goa, for saying beef will be available in the state.
Nor would the fortunes of beef-eating Meghalaya have remained unaffected
had the Bharatiya Janata Party’s political stakes there not been so
high.

The lynchings then are explicitly the front line of forces
seeking to retain power in 2019 – a campaign where the political is
brutally intended to ride on a fake spiritual. 99.9% Sarvajan Samaj must
unite and demand the CJI to dissolve the Central Government and go for
fresh polls with Ballot papers. It was the ex CJI Sathasivm who ordererd
for replacmen of the fraud EVMs in a phased manner where the question
of replacement itself is a proff where the EVMs could be tampered. The
ex CEC sampath suggested forthe replacmen of the entire EVMs in a phased
manner as it cost Rs1600 crore at that time and now it is more than Rs
6000 crore. Moreover the software and its source code is kept secret
from the eyes of the voters in this democracy.
Therefore the only
alternative is to go for fresh polls with Ballot papers to save
democracy, liberty, freedom, fraternity and equality as enshrined in our
Marvelous Modern Constitution.
[11:32 AM, 8/14/2018] JC: It is now
time to think whether you want to burn the constitution enshrined with
equality, fraternity, liberty and Justice or burn the manuvadi
Scriptures and gods in your home. The choice is yours.



https://www.revolvy.com/page/Indian-independence-movement

B. R. Ambedkar championed the cause of the disadvantaged sections of Indian society within the larger self-rule movement. The period of the Second World War saw the peak of the campaigns by the Quit India Movement led by Congress, and the Indian National Army movement led by Subhas Chandra Bose.

https://www.revolvy.com/page/B.-R.-Ambedkar



Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (14 April 1891 – 6 December 1956), popularly known as Babasaheb, was an Indian jurist, economist, politician and social reformer who inspired the SC/ST Buddhist movement and campaigned against social discrimination towards Untouchables (SC/STs), while also supporting the rights of women and labour. He was Independent India’s first law minister, the principal architect of the Constitution of India and a founding father of the Republic of India.

Ambedkar was a prolific student, earning doctorates in economics from both Columbia University and the London School of Economics, and gained a reputation as a scholar for his research in law, economics and political science.[10]
In his early career he was an economist, professor, and lawyer. His
later life was marked by his political activities; he became involved in
campaigning and negotiations for India’s independence, publishing
journals, advocating political rights and social freedom for Dalits, and
contributing significantly to the establishment of the state of India.
In 1956 he converted to Buddhism, initiating mass conversions of SC/STs.

In 1990, the Bharat Ratna,
India’s highest civilian award, was posthumously conferred upon
Ambedkar. Ambedkar’s legacy includes numerous memorials and depictions
in popular culture.

[2:28 AM, 8/14/2018] JC: Early life
Ambedkar
was born on 14 April 1891 in the town and military cantonment of Mhow
in the Central Provinces (now in Madhya Pradesh).[12] He was the 14th
and last child of Ramji Maloji Sakpal, an army officer who held the rank
of Subedar, and Bhimabai Sakpal, daughter of Laxman Murbadkar.[13] His
family was of Marathi background from the town of Ambadawe (Mandangad
taluka) in Ratnagiri district of modern-day Maharashtra. Ambedkar was
born into a poor low Mahar (dalit) caste, who were treated as
untouchables and subjected to socio-economic discrimination.[14]
Ambedkar’s ancestors had long worked for the army of the British East
India Company, and his father served in the British Indian Army at the
Mhow cantonment.[15] Although they attended school, Ambedkar and other
untouchable children were segregated and given little attention or help
by teachers. They were not allowed to sit inside the class. When they
needed to drink water, someone from a higher caste had to pour that
water from a height as they were not allowed to touch either the water
or the vessel that contained it. This task was usually performed for the
young Ambedkar by the school peon, and if the peon was not available
then he had to go without water; he described the situation later in his
writings as “No peon, No Water”.[16] He was required to sit on a gunny
sack which he had to take home with him.[17]

Ramji Sakpal retired
in 1894 and the family moved to Satara two years later. Shortly after
their move, Ambedkar’s mother died. The children were cared for by their
paternal aunt and lived in difficult circumstances. Three sons –
Balaram, Anandrao and Bhimrao – and two daughters – Manjula and Tulasa –
of the Ambedkars survived them. Of his brothers and sisters, only
Ambedkar passed his examinations and went to high school. His original
surname was Sakpal but his father registered his name as Ambadawekar in
school, meaning he comes from his native village ‘Ambadawe’ in Ratnagiri
district.[18][19][20][21][22] His Devrukhe Brahmin teacher, Krishna
Keshav Ambedkar, changed his surname from ‘Ambadawekar’ to his own
surname ‘Ambedkar’ in school records.[21]

Education
Post-secondary education
In
1897, Ambedkar’s family moved to Mumbai where Ambedkar became the only
untouchable enrolled at Elphinstone High School. In 1906, when he was
about 15 years old, his marriage to a nine-year-old girl, Ramabai, was
arranged.[1]

Undergraduate studies at the University of Bombay
In
1907, he passed his matriculation examination and in the following year
he entered Elphinstone College, which was affiliated to the University
of Bombay, becoming the first untouchable to do so. This success evoked
much celebration among untouchables and after a public ceremony, he was
presented with a biography of the Buddha by Dada Keluskar, the author
and a family friend.[1]

By 1912, he obtained his degree in
economics and political science from Bombay University, and prepared to
take up employment with the Baroda state government. His wife had just
moved his young family and started work when he had to quickly return to
Mumbai to see his ailing father, who died on 2 February 1913.[23]

Postgraduate studies at Columbia University
In
1913, Ambedkar moved to the United States at the age of 22. He had been
awarded a Baroda State Scholarship of £11.50 (Sterling) per month for
three years under a scheme established by Sayajirao Gaekwad III (Gaekwad
of Baroda) that was designed to provide opportunities for postgraduate
education at Columbia University in New York City. Soon after arriving
there he settled in rooms at Livingston Hall with Naval Bhathena, a
Parsi who was to be a lifelong friend. He passed his M.A. exam in June
1915, majoring in Economics, and other subjects of Sociology, History,
Philosophy and Anthropology. He presented a thesis, Ancient Indian
Commerce. Ambedkar was influenced by John Dewey and his work on
democracy.[24]

In 1916 he completed his second thesis, National
Dividend of India — A Historic and Analytical Study, for another M.A.,
and finally he received his PhD in Economics in 1927[25] for his third
thesis, after he left for London. On 9 May, he presented the paper
Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development before a
seminar conducted by the anthropologist Alexander Goldenweiser.

Postgraduate studies at the London School of Economics
Ambedkar (In center line, first from right) with his professors and friends from the London School of Economics (1916-17)
In
October 1916, he enrolled for the Bar course at Gray’s Inn, and at the
same time enrolled at the London School of Economics where he started
working on a doctoral thesis. In June 1917, he returned to India because
his scholarship from Baroda ended. His book collection was dispatched
on different ship from the one he was on, and that ship was torpedoed
and sunk by a German submarine.[23] He got permission to return to
London to submit his thesis within four years. He returned at the first
opportunity, and completed a master’s degree in 1921. His thesis was on
“The problem of the rupee: Its origin and its solution”.[3] In 1923, he
completed a D.Sc. in Economics, and the same year he was called to the
Bar by Gray’s Inn. His third and fourth Doctorates (LL.D, Columbia, 1952
and D.Litt., Osmania, 1953) were conferred honoris causa.[26]

Opposition to Aryan invasion theory
Ambedkar
viewed the Shudras as Aryan and adamantly rejected the Aryan invasion
theory, describing it as “so absurd that it ought to have been dead long
ago” in his 1946 book Who Were the Shudras?.[4]

Ambedkar viewed
Shudras as originally being “part of the Kshatriya Varna in the
Indo-Aryan society”, but became socially degraded after they inflicted
many tyrannies on Brahmins.[27]

According to Arvind Sharma,
Ambedkar noticed certain flaws in the Aryan invasion theory that were
later acknowledged by western scholarship. For example, scholars now
acknowledge anās in Rig Veda 5.29.10 refers to speech rather than the
shape of the nose.[28] Ambedkar anticipated this modern view by stating:

The
term Anasa occurs in Rig Veda V.29.10. What does the word mean? There
are two interpretations. One is by Prof. Max Muller. The other is by
Sayanacharya. According to Prof. Max Muller, it means ‘one without nose’
or ‘one with a flat nose’ and has as such been relied upon as a piece
of evidence in support of the view that the Aryans were a separate race
from the Dasyus. Sayanacharya says that it means ‘mouthless,’ i.e.,
devoid of good speech. This difference of meaning is due to difference
in the correct reading of the word Anasa. Sayanacharya reads it as
an-asa while Prof. Max Muller reads it as a-nasa. As read by Prof. Max
Muller, it means ‘without nose.’ Question is : which of the two readings
is the correct one? There is no reason to hold that Sayana’s reading is
wrong. On the other hand there is everything to suggest that it is
right. In the first place, it does not make non-sense of the word.
Secondly, as there is no other place where the Dasyus are described as
noseless, there is no reason why the word should be read in such a
manner as to give it an altogether new sense. It is only fair to read it
as a synonym of Mridhravak. There is therefore no evidence in support
of the conclusion that the Dasyus belonged to a different race.[28]

Ambedkar
disputed various hypotheses of the Aryan homeland being outside India,
and concluded the Aryan homeland was India itself.[29] According to
Ambedkar, the Rig Veda says Aryans, Dāsa and Dasyus were competing
religious groups, not different peoples.[30]

Opposition to untouchability
Ambedkar as a barrister in 1922
As
Ambedkar was educated by the Princely State of Baroda, he was bound to
serve it. He was appointed Military Secretary to the Gaikwad but had to
quit in a short time. He described the incident in his autobiography,
Waiting for a Visa.[31] Thereafter, he tried to find ways to make a
living for his growing family. He worked as a private tutor, as an
accountant, and established an investment consulting business, but it
failed when his clients learned that he was an untouchable.[32] In 1918,
he became Professor of Political Economy in the Sydenham College of
Commerce and Economics in Mumbai. Although he was successful with the
students, other professors objected to his sharing a drinking-water jug
with them.[33]

Ambedkar had been invited to testify before the
Southborough Committee, which was preparing the Government of India Act
1919. At this hearing, Ambedkar argued for creating separate electorates
and reservations for untouchables and other religious communities.[34]
In 1920, he began the publication of the weekly Mooknayak (Leader of the
Silent) in Mumbai with the help of Shahu of Kolhapur i.e. Shahu IV
(1874–1922).[35]

Ambedkar went on to work as a legal
professional. In 1926, he successfully defended three non-Brahmin
leaders who had accused the Brahmin community of ruining India and were
then subsequently sued for libel. Dhananjay Keer notes that “The victory
was resounding, both socially and individually, for the clients and the
Doctor.”

Samarth

While practising law in the Bombay High
Court, he tried to promote education to untouchables and uplift them.
His first organised attempt was his establishment of the central
institution Bahishkrit Hitakarini Sabha, intended to promote education
and socio-economic improvement, as well as the welfare of “outcastes”,
at the time referred to as depressed classes.[36] For the defence of
Dalit rights, he started many periodicals like Mook Nayak, Bahishkrit
Bharat, and Equality Janta.[37]

He was appointed to the Bombay
Presidency Committee to work with the all-European Simon Commission in
1925.[38] This commission had sparked great protests across India, and
while its report was ignored by most Indians, Ambedkar himself wrote a
separate set of recommendations for the future Constitution of
India.[39]

By 1927, Ambedkar had decided to launch active
movements against untouchability. He began with public movements and
marches to open up public drinking water resources. He also began a
struggle for the right to enter Hindu temples. He led a satyagraha in
Mahad to fight for the right of the untouchable community to draw water
from the main water tank of the town.[40] In a conference in late 1927,
Ambedkar publicly condemned the classic Hindu text, the Manusmriti (Laws
of Manu), for ideologically justifying caste discrimination and
“untouchability”, and he ceremonially burned copies of the ancient text.
On 25 December 1927, he led thousands of followers to burn copies of
Manusmrti.[41][42] Thus annually 25 December is celebrated as Manusmriti
Dahan Din (Manusmriti Burning Day) by Ambedkarites and Dalits.[43][44]

In
1930, Ambedkar launched Kalaram Temple movement after three months of
preparation. About 15,000 volunteers assembled at Kalaram Temple
satygraha making one of the greatest processions of Nashik. The
procession was headed by a military band, a batch of scouts, women and
men walked in discipline, order and determination to see the god for the
first time. When they reached to gate, the gates were closed by Brahmin
authorities.[45]

Poona Pact
M.R. Jayakar, Tej Bahadur Sapru and Ambedkar at Yerwada jail, in Poona, on 24 September 1932, the day the Poona Pact was signed
In
1932, British announced the formation of a separate electorate for
“Depressed Classes” in the Communal Award. Gandhi fiercely opposed a
separate electorate for untouchables, saying he feared that such an
arrangement would divide the Hindu community.[46][47][48] Gandhi
protested by fasting while imprisoned in the Yerwada Central Jail of
Poona. Following the fast, Congress politicians and activists such as
Madan Mohan Malaviya and Palwankar Baloo organised joint meetings with
Ambedkar and his supporters at Yerwada.[49] On 25 September 1932, the
agreement known as Poona Pact was signed between Ambedkar (on behalf of
the depressed classes among Hindus) and Madan Mohan Malaviya (on behalf
of the other Hindus). The agreement gave reserved seats for the
depressed classes in the Provisional legislatures, within the general
electorate. Due to the pact, the depressed class received 148 seats in
the legislature, instead of the 71 as allocated in the Communal Award
earlier proposed by British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald. The text
uses the term “Depressed Classes” to denote Untouchables among Hindus
who were later called Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes under India
Act 1935, and the later Indian Constitution of 1950.[50][51] In the
Poona Pact, a unified electorate was in principle formed, but primary
and secondary elections allowed Untouchables in practice to choose their
own candidates.[52]
[2:30 AM, 8/14/2018] JC: Political career
Ambedkar
with his family members at Rajgraha in February 1934. From left –
Yashwant (son), Ambedkar, Ramabai (wife), Laxmibai (wife of his elder
brother, Balaram), Mukund (nephew) and Ambedkar’s favourite dog, Tobby
In
1935, Ambedkar was appointed principal of the Government Law College,
Bombay, a position he held for two years. He also served as the chairman
of Governing body of Ramjas College, University of Delhi, after the
death of its Founder Shri Rai Kedarnath.[53] Settling in Bombay (today
called Mumbai), Ambedkar oversaw the construction of a house, and
stocked his personal library with more than 50,000 books.[54] His wife
Ramabai died after a long illness the same year. It had been her
long-standing wish to go on a pilgrimage to Pandharpur, but Ambedkar had
refused to let her go, telling her that he would create a new
Pandharpur for her instead of Hinduism’s Pandharpur which treated them
as untouchables. At the Yeola Conversion Conference on 13 October in
Nasik, Ambedkar announced his intention to convert to a different
religion and exhorted his followers to leave Hinduism.[54] He would
repeat his message at many public meetings across India.

In 1936,
Ambedkar founded the Independent Labour Party, which contested the 1937
Bombay election to the Central Legislative Assembly for the 13 reserved
and 4 general seats, and secured 11 and 3 seats respectively.[55]

Ambedkar
published his book Annihilation of Caste on 15 May 1936.[56] It
strongly criticised Hindu orthodox religious leaders and the caste
system in general,[57] and included “a rebuke of Gandhi” on the
subject.[58] Later, in a 1955 BBC interview, he accused Gandhi of
writing in opposition of the caste system in English language papers
while writing in support of it in Gujarati language papers.[59]

Ambedkar served on the Defence Advisory Committee[60] and the Viceroy’s Executive Council as minister for labour.[60]

After
the Lahore resolution (1940) of the Muslim League demanding Pakistan,
Ambedkar wrote a 400 page tract titled Thoughts on Pakistan, which
analysed the concept of “Pakistan” in all its aspects. Ambedkar argued
that the Hindus should concede Pakistan to the Muslims. He proposed that
the provincial boundaries of Punjab and Bengal should be redrawn to
separate the Muslim and non-Muslim majority parts. He thought the
Muslims could have no objection to redrawing provincial boundaries. If
they did, they did not quite “understand the nature of their own
demand”. Scholar Venkat Dhulipala states that Thoughts on Pakistan
“rocked Indian politics for a decade”. It determined the course of
dialogue between the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress,
paving the way for the Partition of India.[61][62]

In his work
Who Were the Shudras?, Ambedkar tried to explain the formation of
untouchables. He saw Shudras and Ati Shudras who form the lowest caste
in the ritual hierarchy of the caste system, as separate from
Untouchables. Ambedkar oversaw the transformation of his political party
into the Scheduled Castes Federation, although it performed poorly in
the 1946 elections for Constituent Assembly of India. Later he was
elected into the constituent assembly of Bengal where Muslim League was
in power.[63]

Ambedkar contested in the Bombay North first Indian
General Election of 1952, but lost to his former assistant and Congress
Party candidate Narayan Kajrolkar. Ambedkar became a member of Rajya
Sabha, probably an appointed member. He tried to enter Lok Sabha again
in the by-election of 1954 from Bhandara, but he placed third (the
Congress Party won). By the time of the second general election in 1957,
Ambedkar had died.

Ambedkar also criticised Islamic practice in
South Asia. While justifying the Partition of India, he condemned child
marriage and the mistreatment of women in Muslim society.

No
words can adequately express the great and many evils of polygamy and
concubinage, and especially as a source of misery to a Muslim woman.
Take the caste system. Everybody infers that Islam must be free from
slavery and caste. […] [While slavery existed], much of its support
was derived from Islam and Islamic countries. While the prescriptions by
the Prophet regarding the just and humane treatment of slaves contained
in the Koran are praiseworthy, there is nothing whatever in Islam that
lends support to the abolition of this curse. But if slavery has gone,
caste among Musalmans [Muslims] has remained.[64]

Drafting India’s Constitution
Ambedkar,
chairman of the Drafting Committee, presenting the final draft of the
Indian Constitution to Rajendra Prasad on 25 November 1949.
Upon
India’s independence on 15 August 1947, the new Congress-led government
invited Ambedkar to serve as the nation’s first Law Minister, which he
accepted. On 29 August, he was appointed Chairman of the Constitution
Drafting Committee, and was appointed by the Assembly to write India’s
new Constitution.[65]

Granville Austin described the Indian
Constitution drafted by Ambedkar as ‘first and foremost a social
document’. ‘The majority of India’s constitutional provisions are either
directly arrived at furthering the aim of social revolution or attempt
to foster this revolution by establishing conditions necessary for its
achievement.’[66]

The text prepared by Ambedkar provided
constitutional guarantees and protections for a wide range of civil
liberties for individual citizens, including freedom of religion, the
abolition of untouchability, and the outlawing of all forms of
discrimination. Ambedkar argued for extensive economic and social rights
for women, and won the Assembly’s support for introducing a system of
reservations of jobs in the civil services, schools and colleges for
members of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and Other Backward
Class, a system akin to affirmative action.[67] India’s lawmakers hoped
to eradicate the socio-economic inequalities and lack of opportunities
for India’s depressed classes through these measures.[68] The
Constitution was adopted on 26 November 1949 by the Constituent
Assembly.[69]

Opposition to Article 370
Ambedkar opposed
Article 370 of the Constitution of India, which granted a special status
to the State of Jammu and Kashmir, and which was included against his
wishes. Balraj Madhok reportedly said, Ambedkar had clearly told the
Kashmiri leader, Sheikh Abdullah: “You wish India should protect your
borders, she should build roads in your area, she should supply you food
grains, and Kashmir should get equal status as India. But Government of
India should have only limited powers and Indian people should have no
rights in Kashmir. To give consent to this proposal, would be a
treacherous thing against the interests of India and I, as the Law
Minister of India, will never do it.” Then Sk. Abdullah approached
Nehru, who directed him to Gopal Swami Ayyangar, who in turn approached
Sardar Patel, saying Nehru had promised Sk. Abdullah the special status.
Patel got the Article passed while Nehru was on a foreign tour. On the
day the article came up for discussion, Ambedkar did not reply to
questions on it but did participate on other articles. All arguments
were done by Krishna Swami Ayyangar.[70][71][72]

Support to Uniform Civil Code
I
personally do not understand why religion should be given this vast,
expansive jurisdiction, so as to cover the whole of life and to prevent
the legislature from encroaching upon that field. After all, what are we
having this liberty for? We are having this liberty in order to reform
our social system, which is so full of inequities, discriminations and
other things, which conflict with our fundamental rights.[73]
During
the debates in the Constituent Assembly, Ambedkar demonstrated his will
to reform Indian society by recommending the adoption of a Uniform Civil
Code.[74][75] Ambedkar resigned from the cabinet in 1951, when
parliament stalled his draft of the Hindu Code Bill, which sought to
enshrine gender equality in the laws of inheritance and marriage.[76]
Ambedkar independently contested an election in 1952 to the lower house
of parliament, the Lok Sabha, but was defeated in the Bombay (North
Central) constituency by a little-known Narayan Sadoba Kajrolkar, who
polled 138,137 votes compared to Ambedkar’s 123,576.[77][78][79] He was
appointed to the upper house, of parliament, the Rajya Sabha in March
1952 and would remain as member till death.[80]
[2:32 AM, 8/14/2018] JC: Economic planning
B.R. Ambedkar in 1950
Ambedkar
was the first Indian to pursue a doctorate in economics abroad.[81] He
argued that industrialisation and agricultural growth could enhance the
Indian economy.[82] He stressed investment in agriculture as the primary
industry of India. According to Sharad Pawar, Ambedkar’s vision helped
the government to achieve its food security goal.[83] Ambedkar advocated
national economic and social development, stressing education, public
hygiene, community health, residential facilities as the basic
amenities.[82] He calculated the loss of development caused by British
rule.[84]

Reserve Bank of India
Ambedkar was trained as an
economist, and was a professional economist until 1921, when he became a
political leader. He wrote three scholarly books on economics:

Administration and Finance of the East India Company
The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India
The Problem of the Rupee: Its Origin and Its Solution[85][86][87]
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI), was based on the ideas that Ambedkar presented to the Hilton Young Commission.[85][87][88][89]

Second marriage
Ambedkar with wife Savita in 1948
Ambedkar’s
first wife Ramabai died in 1935 after a long illness. After completing
the draft of India’s constitution in the late 1940s, he suffered from
lack of sleep, had neuropathic pain in his legs, and was taking insulin
and homoeopathic medicines. He went to Bombay for treatment, and there
met Dr. Sharada Kabir, whom he married on 15 April 1948, at his home in
New Delhi. Doctors recommended a companion who was a good cook and had
medical knowledge to care for him.[90] She adopted the name Savita
Ambedkar and cared for him the rest of his life.[2] Savita Ambedkar, who
was called ‘Mai’ or ‘Maisaheb’, died on 29 May 2003, aged 93 at
Mehrauli, New Delhi.[91]

Conversion to Buddhism
Ambedkar receiving the Five Precepts from Mahasthavir Chandramani on October 14, 1956
Ambedkar
considered converting to Sikhism, which encouraged opposition to
oppression and so appealed to leaders of scheduled castes. But after
meeting with Sikh leaders, he concluded that he might get “second-rate”
Sikh status, as described by scholar Stephen P. Cohen.[92]

Instead,
he studied Buddhism all his life. Around 1950, he devoted his attention
to Buddhism and travelled to Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) to attend a meeting
of the World Fellowship of Buddhists.[93] While dedicating a new
Buddhist vihara near Pune, Ambedkar announced he was writing a book on
Buddhism, and that when it was finished, he would formally convert to
Buddhism.[94] He twice visited Burma in 1954; the second time to attend
the third conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists in
Rangoon.[95] In 1955, he founded the Bharatiya Bauddha Mahasabha, or the
Buddhist Society of India.[96] He completed his final work, The Buddha
and His Dhamma, in 1956 which was published posthumously.[96]

After
meetings with the Sri Lankan Buddhist monk Hammalawa Saddhatissa,[97]
Ambedkar organised a formal public ceremony for himself and his
supporters in Nagpur on 14 October 1956. Accepting the Three Refuges and
Five Precepts from a Buddhist monk in the traditional manner, Ambedkar
completed his own conversion, along with his wife. He then proceeded to
convert some 500,000 of his supporters who were gathered around him.[98]
He prescribed the 22 Vows for these converts, after the Three Jewels
and Five Precepts.[99] He then travelled to Kathmandu, Nepal to attend
the Fourth World Buddhist Conference.[95] His work on The Buddha or Karl
Marx and “Revolution and counter-revolution in ancient India” remained
incomplete.[100]

Death
Mahaparinirvana of B. R. Ambedkar
Since
1948, Ambedkar suffered from diabetes. He was bed-ridden from June to
October in 1954 due to medication side-effects and poor eyesight.[94] He
had been increasingly embittered by political issues, which took a toll
on his health. His health worsened during 1955. Three days after
completing his final manuscript The Buddha and His Dhamma, Ambedkar died
in his sleep on 6 December 1956 at his home in Delhi.

A Buddhist
cremation[101] was organised at Dadar Chowpatty beach on 7
December,[102] attended by half a million grieving people.[103] A
conversion program was organised on 16 December 1956,[104] so that
cremation attendees were also converted to Buddhism at the same
place.[104]

Ambedkar was survived by his second wife, who died in
2003,[105] and his son Yashwant Ambedkar (known as Bhaiyasaheb).[106]
Ambedkar’s grandson, Prakash Ambedkar, is the chief-adviser of the
Buddhist Society of India,[107] leads the Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangh[108]
and has served in both houses of the Indian Parliament.[108]

A
number of unfinished typescripts and handwritten drafts were found among
Ambedkar’s notes and papers and gradually made available. Among these
were Waiting for a Visa, which probably dates from 1935–36 and is an
autobiographical work, and the Untouchables, or the Children of India’s
Ghetto, which refers to the census of 1951.[94]

A memorial for
Ambedkar was established in his Delhi house at 26 Alipur Road. His
birthdate is celebrated as a public holiday known as Ambedkar Jayanti or
Bhim Jayanti. He was posthumously awarded India’s highest civilian
honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 1990.[109]

On the anniversary of his
birth and death, and on Dhamma Chakra Pravartan Din (14 October) at
Nagpur, at least half a million people gather to pay homage to him at
his memorial in Mumbai.[110] Thousands of bookshops are set up, and
books are sold. His message to his followers was “educate, organise,
agitate”.[111]

Legacy
People paying tribute at the central statue of Ambedkar in Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University in Aurangabad.
Ambedkar’s
legacy as a socio-political reformer, had a deep effect on modern
India.[112][113] In post-Independence India, his socio-political thought
is respected across the political spectrum. His initiatives have
influenced various spheres of life and transformed the way India today
looks at socio-economic policies, education and affirmative action
through socio-economic and legal incentives. His reputation as a scholar
led to his appointment as free India’s first law minister, and chairman
of the committee for drafting the constitution. He passionately
believed in individual freedom and criticised caste society. His
accusations of Hinduism as being the foundation of the caste system made
him controversial and unpopular among Hindus.[114] His conversion to
Buddhism sparked a revival in interest in Buddhist philosophy in India
and abroad.[115]

Ambedkar is also called Babasaheb, a Marathi
phrase which roughly translates as “Father-Lord” (baba: father; and
saheb: lord) because millions of Indians consider him a “great
liberator”.[116]

Many public institutions are named in his
honour, and the Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport in Nagpur,
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, Ambedkar
University Delhi is also named in his honour. A large official portrait
of Ambedkar is on display in the Indian Parliament building.

The
Maharashtra government has acquired a house in London where Ambedkar
lived during his days as a student in the 1920s. The house is expected
to be converted into a museum-cum-memorial to Ambedkar.[117]

Ambedkar
was voted “the Greatest Indian” in 2012 by a poll organised by History
TV18 and CNN IBN. Nearly 20 million votes were cast, making him the most
popular Indian figure since the launch of the initiative.[118][119] Due
to his role in economics, Narendra Jadhav, a notable Indian
economist,[120] has said that Ambedkar was “the highest educated Indian
economist of all times.”[121] Amartya Sen, said that Ambedkar is “father
of my economics”, and “he was highly controversial figure in his home
country, though it was not the reality. His contribution in the field of
economics is marvelous and will be remembered forever.”[122][123] Osho,
a spiritual teacher, remarked “I have seen people who are born in the
lowest category of Hindu law, the sudras, the untouchables, so
intelligent: when India became independent, the man who made the
constitution of India, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, was a sudra. There was no
equal to his intelligence as far as law is concerned – he was a
world-famous authority.”[124] President Obama addressed the Indian
parliament in 2010, and referred to Dalit leader Dr. B. R. Ambedkar as
the great and revered Human Rights champion and main author of India’s
constitution.[125]

Ambedkar’s political philosophy has given rise
to a large number of political parties, publications and workers’
unions that remain active across India, especially in Maharashtra. His
promotion of Buddhism has rejuvenated interest in Buddhist philosophy
among sections of population in India. Mass conversion ceremonies have
been organised by human rights activists in modern times, emulating
Ambedkar’s Nagpur ceremony of 1956.[126] Most Indian Buddhists specially
Navayana followers regard him as a Bodhisattva, the Maitreya, although
he never claimed it himself.[127][128][129] Outside India, during the
late 1990s, some Hungarian Romani people drew parallels between their
own situation and that of the downtrodden people in India. Inspired by
Ambedkar, they started to convert to Buddhism.[130]
[2:33 AM, 8/14/2018] JC: In popular culture
Several
movies, plays, and other works have been based on the life and thoughts
of Ambedkar. Jabbar Patel directed the English-language film Dr.
Babasaheb Ambedkar in 2000 with Mammootty in the lead role.[131] This
biopic was sponsored by the National Film Development Corporation of
India and the government’s Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.
The film was released after a long and controversial gestation.[132]
David Blundell, professor of anthropology at UCLA and historical
ethnographer, has established Arising Light – a series of films and
events that are intended to stimulate interest and knowledge about the
social conditions in India and the life of Ambedkar.[133] In
Samvidhaan,[134] a TV mini-series on the making of the Constitution of
India directed by Shyam Benegal, the pivotal role of B. R. Ambedkar was
played by Sachin Khedekar. The play Ambedkar Aur Gandhi, directed by
Arvind Gaur and written by Rajesh Kumar, tracks the two prominent
personalities of its title.[135]

Bhimayana: Experiences of
Untouchability is a graphic biography of Ambedkar created by
Pardhan-Gond artists Durgabai Vyam and Subhash Vyam, and writers
Srividya Natarajan and S. Anand. The book depicts the experiences of
untouchability faced by Ambedkar from childhood to adulthood. CNN named
it one of the top 5 political comic books.[136]

The Ambedkar Memorial at Lucknow is dedicated in his memory. The chaitya consists of monuments showing his biography.[137][138]

Ambedkar Memorial at Lucknow
Google
commemorated Ambedkar’s 124th birthday through a homepage doodle[139]
on 14 April 2015.[140] The doodle was featured in India, Argentina,
Chile, Ireland, Peru, Poland, Sweden and the United
Kingdom.[141][142][143]

Films
Balak Ambedkar, a 1991 Kannada film directed by Basavaraj Kesthur.
Bole India Jai Bhim, 2016 Marathi film directed by Subodh Nagdeve.
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar (film), 2000 English film directed by Jabbar Patel.
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar (film), a 2005 Kannada film directed by Sharan Kumar Kabbur.
Yugpurush Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, 1993 Marathi film directed by Shashikant Nalavade.
Bhim Garjana, a 1990 Marathi film directed by Vijay Pawar.
Ramabai (film), a 2016 Kannada film directed by M. Ranganath.
Ramabai Bhimrao Ambedkar (film), a 2011 Marathi film directed by Prakash Jadhav.
A Journey of Samyak Buddha, a 2013 Hindi film based on Dr. Ambedkar’s book, The Buddha and His Dhamma and Navayana Buddhism.
Works
The
Education Department, Government of Maharashtra (Mumbai) published the
collection of Ambedkar’s writings and speeches in different
volumes.[144]

Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development and 11 Other Essays
Ambedkar in the Bombay Legislature, with the Simon Commission and at the Round Table Conferences, 1927–1939
Philosophy of Hinduism; India and the Pre-requisites of Communism; Revolution and Counter-revolution; Buddha or Karl Marx
Riddles in Hinduism[145]
Essays on Untouchables and Untouchability
The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India
The Untouchables: Who Were They? And Why They Became Untouchables (New Delhi: Amrit Book Co, [1948])
The Annihilation of Caste (1936)
Pakistan or the Partition of India
What Congress and Gandhi have done to the Untouchables; Mr. Gandhi and the Emancipation of the Untouchables
Ambedkar as member of the Governor General’s Executive Council, 1942–46
The Buddha and his Dhamma
Unpublished Writings; Ancient Indian Commerce; Notes on laws; Waiting for a Visa ; Miscellaneous notes, etc.
Ambedkar as the principal architect of the Constitution of India
(2 parts) Dr. Ambedkar and The Hindu Code Bill
Ambedkar as Free India’s First Law Minister and Member of Opposition in Indian Parliament (1947–1956)
The Pali Grammar
Ambedkar
and his Egalitarian Revolution – Struggle for Human Rights. Events
starting from March 1927 to 17 November 1956 in the chronological order;
Ambedkar and his Egalitarian Revolution – Socio-political and religious
activities. Events starting from November 1929 to 8 May 1956 in the
chronological order; Ambedkar and his Egalitarian Revolution – Speeches.
(Events starting from 1 January to 20 November 1956 in the
chronological order.)
Ambedkar’s Speeches and writing in Marathi
Ambedkar’s Photo Album and Correspondence
See also
Ambedkarism
Chaitya Bhoomi
Dalit Buddhist movement
Deekshabhoomi
The Greatest Indian
List of civil rights leaders
Social reformers of India
Statue of Equality
List of things named after B. R. Ambedkar

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https://www.laughteronlineuniversity.com/120-quotes-laughter-throughout-history/

120 Inspirational Quotes About Laughter


  1. [Humanity] has unquestionably one really effective weapon—laughter.
    Power, money, persuasion, supplication, persecution—these can lift at a
    colossal humbug—push it a little—weaken it a little, century by century,
    but only laughter can blow it to rags and atoms at a blast. Against the
    assault of laughter nothing can stand. — Mark Twain
  2. A good laugh heals a lot of hurts. — Madeleine L’Engle
  • A good laugh is a mighty good thing, a rather too scarce a good thing. — Herman Melville

  • A good laugh is sunshine in the house. — William Thackeray
  • A smile is a curve that sets everything straight. — Phyllis Diller

  • A
    smile starts on the lips, a grin spreads to the eyes, a chuckle comes
    from the belly; but a good laugh bursts forth from the soul, overflows,
    and bubbles all around. — Carolyn Birmingham
  • A well-balanced person is one who finds both sides of an issue laughable. — Herbert Procknow
  • Against the assault of laughter, nothing can stand. — Mark Twain

  • Always laugh when you can. It is cheap medicine. — Lord Byron

  • Among those whom I like or admire, I can find no common denominator,
    but among those whom I love, I can: all of them make me laugh. — W. H.
    Auden

  • An optimist laughs to forget; a pessimist forgets to laugh. — Tom Nansbury
    1. And
      keep a sense of humor. It doesn’t mean you have to tell jokes. If you
      can’t think of anything else, when you’re my age, take off your clothes
      and walk in front of a mirror. I guarantee you’ll get a laugh. — Art
      Linkletter
    2. And we should consider every day lost on which we have not danced at
      least once. And we should call every truth false which was not
      accompanied by at least one laugh. — Friedrich Nietzsche
    3. As soap is to the body, so laughter is to the soul. — A Jewish Proverb
    4. As soon as you have made a thought, laugh at it. — Lao Tsu
    5. At the height of laughter, the universe is flung into a kaleidoscope of new possibilities. — Jean Houston
    6. Cancer is probably the unfunniest thing in the world, but I’m a
      comedian, and even cancer couldn’t stop me from seeing the humor in what
      I went through. — Gilda Radner
    7. Each of us has a spark of life inside us, and our highest endeavor
      ought to be to set off that spark in one another. — Kenny Ausubel
    8. Earth laughs in flowers. — Ralph Waldo Emerson
    9. Even the gods love jokes — Plato
    10. Everyone is so afraid of death, but the real Sufis just laugh:
      nothing tyrannizes their hearts. What strikes the oyster shell does not
      damage the pearl.” — Mevlana Rumi
    11. From there to here, from here to there, funny things are everywhere. — Dr. Seuss
    12. God has a smile on His face. — Psalm 42:5
    13. God is a comedian playing to an audience too afraid to laugh. — Voltaire
    14. Grim care, moroseness, and anxiety—all this rust of life ought to be
      scoured off by the oil of mirth. Mirth is God’s medicine. — Henry Ward
      Beecher








    1. He deserves Paradise who makes his companions laugh. — Koran
    2. He that is of a merry heart has a continual feast. — Proverbs 15:15
    3. He who binds to himself a joy Does the winged life destroy; But he
      who kisses the joy as it flies Lives in eternity’s sun rise. — William
      Blake
    4. He who laughs, lasts! — Mary Pettibone Poole
    5. Humor is a prelude to faith and laughter is the beginning of prayer. — Reinhold Niebuhr
    6. Humor is laughing at what you haven’t got when you ought to have it. — James Langston Hughes
    7. I commend mirth. — Ecclesiastes 8:15
    8. I have always felt that laughter in the face of reality is probably
      the finest sound there is and will last until the day when the game is
      called on account of darkness. In this world, a good time to laugh is
      any time you can. — Linda Ellerbee
    9. I have not seen anyone dying of laughter, but I know millions who are dying because they are not laughing. – Dr. Madan Kataria
    10. I never would have made it if I could not have laughed. It lifted me
      momentarily out of this horrible situation, just enough to make it
      livable. — Viktor Frankl
    11. I was irrevocably betrothed to laughter, the sound of which has
      always seemed to me to be the most civilized music in the world. — Peter
      Ustinov
    12. I will follow the upward road today; I will keep my face to the
      light. I will think high thoughts as I go my way; I will do what I know
      is right. I will look for the flowers by the side of the road; I will
      laugh and love and be strong. I will try to lighten another’s load this
      day as I fare along. — Mary S. Edgar
    13. If Laughter cannot solve your problems, it will definitely DISSOLVE
      your problems; so that you can think clearly what to do about them – Dr.
      Madan Kataria
    14. If you are happy and people around you are not happy, they will not
      allow you to stay happy. Therefore much of our happiness depends upon
      our ability to spread happiness around us. – Dr. Madan Kataria
    15. If you become silent after your laughter, one day you will hear God
      also laughing, you will hear the whole existence laughing — trees and
      stones and stars with you. — Osho
    16. If you don’t learn to laugh at trouble, you won’t have anything to laugh at when you’re old. — Edgar Watson Howe
    17. If you have no tragedy, you have no comedy. Crying and laughing are
      the same emotion. If you laugh too hard, you cry. And vice versa. — Sid
      Caesar
    18. If you wish to glimpse inside a human soul and get to know the man,
      don’t bother analyzing his ways of being silent, of talking, of weeping,
      or seeing how much he is moved by noble ideas; you’ll get better
      results if you just watch him laugh. If he laughs well, he’s a good
      man…All I claim to know is that laughter is the most reliable gauge of
      human nature. — Feodor Dostoyevsky
    19. If you would not be laughed at, be the first to laugh at yourself. — Benjamin Franklin
    20. It is bad to suppress laughter. It goes back down and spreads to your hips. — Fred Allen
    21. It’s one thing to say, ‘I don’t fear death’, but to laugh out loud
      somehow drives the idea home. It embodies our theology. —Rev. Laura
      Gentry
    22. Laugh at yourself first, before anyone else can. — Elsa Maxwell
    23. Laugh my friend, for laughter ignites a fire within the pit of your belly and awakens your being. —Stella & Blake
    24. Laughter connects you with people. It’s almost impossible to
      maintain any kind of distance or any sense of social hierarchy when
      you’re just howling with laughter. Laughter is a force for democracy. —
      John Cleese
    25. Laughter has no foreign accent. — Paul Lowney








    1. Laughter is a form of internal jogging. It moves your internal
      organs around. It enhances respiration. It is an igniter of great
      expectations.” — Norman Cousins
    2. Laughter is a sense of proportion and a power of seeing yourself from the outside. — Zero Mostel
    3. Laughter is God’s hand on the shoulder of a troubled world. — Bettenell Huntznicker
    4. Laughter is the corrective force which prevents us from becoming cranks. — Henri Bergson
    5. Laughter is the foundation of reconciliation. — St. Francis de Sales
    6. Laughter is the loaded latency given us by nature as part of our
      native equipment to break up the stalemates of our lives and urge us on
      to deeper and more complex forms of knowing. — Jean Houston
    7. Laughter is the shortest distance between two people. — Victor Borge
    8. Laughter is the sun that drives winter from the human face. — Victor Hugo
    9. Laughter lets me relax. It’s the equivalent of taking a deep breath,
      letting it out and saying, ‘This, too, will pass’. — Odette Pollar
    10. Laughter opens the lungs, and opening the lungs ventilates the spirit. — Unknown
    11. Laughter serves as a blocking agent. Like a bulletproof vest, it may
      help protect you against the ravages of negative emotions that can
      assault you in disease. — Norman Cousins
    12. Let us not use bombs and guns to overcome the world. Let us use love
      and compassion. Peace begins with a smile—smile five times a day at
      someone you don’t really want to smile at all—do it for peace. So let us
      radiate peace…and extinguish in the world and in the hearts of all men
      all hatred and love for power. — Mother Teresa
    13. Let your heart by merry. — Judges 19:6
    14. Life does not cease to be funny when people die any more than it ceases to be serious when people laugh. – George Bernard Shaw
    15. Life is a great big canvas; throw all the paint on it you can. — Danny Kaye
    16. Live with intention. Walk to the edge. Continue to learn. Play with
      abandon. Choose with no regret. Laugh! Do what you love. Love as if this
      is all there is. — Mary Anne Radmacher-Hershey
    17. Mirth is like a flash of lightning that breaks through a gloom of
      clouds and glitter for the moment. Cheerfulness keeps up daylight in the
      mind, filling it with steady and perpetual serenity. — Samuel Johnson
    18. Most people would rather be certain they’re miserable than risk being happy. — Robert Newton Anthony
    19. No matter what your heartache may be, laughing helps you forget it for a few seconds. — Red Skelton
    20. Of all days, the day on which one has not laughed is the one most surely wasted. — Sebastien Roch
    21. On average, an infant laughs nearly two hundred times a day; an
      adult, only twelve. Maybe they are laughing so much because they are
      looking at us. To be able to preserve joyousness of heart and yet to be
      concerned in thought: in this way we can determine good fortune and
      misfortune on earth, and bring to perfection everything on earth. — I
      Ching
    22. Perhaps I know best why it is man alone who laughs; he alone suffers
      so deeply that he had to invent laughter. — Frederick W. Nietzche
    23. Prepare for mirth, for mirth becomes a feast. — William Shakespeare
    24. Remember this: very little is needed to make a happy life. — Marcus Aurelius
    25. Smiles are the soul’s kisses. — Minna Thomas Antrim








    1. Spring unlocks the flowers to paint the laughing soil. — Reginald Heber
    2. The art of medicine consists of amusing the patient while nature cures the disease. — Voltaire
    3. The beauty of the world has two edges; one of laughter, one of anguish, cutting the heart asunder. — Virginia Woolf
    4. The best way to cheer yourself is to try to cheer someone else up. Mark Twain
    5. The comic and the tragic lie inseparably close, like light and shadow. — Socrates
    6. The deeper that sorrow carves into your being, the more joy you can contain. — Kahlil Gibran
    7. The greatest prayer you could ever pray is to laugh every day. — Ramtha
    8. The happiness and unhappiness of the rational, social animal depends
      not on what he feels but on what he does; just as his virtue and vice
      consist not in feeling but in doing. — Marcus Aurelius Antoninus
    9. The human race has one really effective weapon, and that is laughter. — Mark Twain
    10. The most wasted of all days is one without laughter. — E E Cummings
    11. The old man laughed loud and joyously, shook up the details of his
      anatomy from head to foot, and ended by saying that such a laugh was
      money in a man’s pocket, because it cut down the doctor’s bills like
      everything. — “Tom Sawyer” by Mark Twain
    12. The person who can bring the spirit of laughter into a room is indeed blessed. — Bennett Cerf
    13. The person who has a sense of humor is not just more relaxed in the
      face of a potentially stressful situation, but is more flexible in his
      approach. — John Morreall
    14. The point is seeing that THIS — the immediate, everyday and present
      experience — is IT, the entire and ultimate point for the existence of a
      universe. I believe that if this state of consciousness could become
      more universal, the pretentious nonsense which passes for the serious
      business of the world would dissolve in laughter… — Alan Watts
    15. The size of a man’s understanding can be justly measured by his mirth. — Samuel Johnson
    16. The truth is, laughter always sounds more perfect than weeping.
      Laughter flows in a violent riff and is effortlessly melodic. Weeping is
      often fought, choked, half strangled, or surrendered to with
      humiliation. — Anne Rice, Taltos
    17. The wit makes fun of other persons; the satirist makes fun of the
      world; the humorist makes fun of himself, but in so doing, he identifies
      himself with people – that is, people everywhere, not for the purpose
      of taking them apart, but simply revealing their true nature. The
      wellspring of laughter is not happiness, but pain, stress, and
      suffering. — James Thurber
    18. The young man who has not wept is a savage, and the old man who will not laugh is a fool. — George Santayana
    19. Think of all the beauty still left around you and be happy. — Anne Frank
    20. Those who do not know how to weep with their whole heart don’t know how to laugh either. — Golda Meir
    21. To truly laugh, you must be able to take your pain and play with it. — Charlie Chaplin
    22. Total absence of humor renders life impossible. — Colette
    23. Trouble knocked at the door, but, hearing laughter, hurried away. ― Benjamin Franklin
    24. True humor springs more from the heart than from the head; it is not contempt, its essence is love. — Thomas Carlyle
    25. Twenty years from now you will be more disappointed by the things
      you didn’t do than by the ones you did do. So throw off the bowlines.
      Sail away from the safe harbor. Catch the trade winds in your sails.
      Explore. Dream. Discover. — Mark Twain
    26. We are all here for a spell. Get all the good laughs you can. — Will Rogers








    1. We cannot really love anybody with whom we never laugh. — Agnes Repplier
    2. We don’t laugh because we’re happy, we are happy because we laugh. — William James
    3. We look before and after, and pine for what is not; our sincerest
      laughter with some pain is fraught; our sweetest songs are those that
      tell of saddest thought. — Percy Shelley
    4. We women take love too seriously. Men wish to be loved with
      laughter, not with sighing. So laugh, sweetheart, laugh, or soon you may
      be weeping. — Minna Thomas Antrim
    5. What is funny about us is precisely that we take ourselves too seriously. — Reinhold Neibuhr
    6. When humor goes, there goes civilization. — Erma Bombeck
    7. When the first baby laughed for the first time, the laugh broke into
      a thousand pieces and they all went skipping about, and that was the
      beginning of fairies. And now when every new baby is born its first
      laugh becomes a fairy. So there ought to be one fairy for every boy or
      girl. — Sir James Matthew Barrie
    8. When we can begin to take our failures non-seriously, it means we
      are ceasing to be afraid of them. It is of immense importance to learn
      to laugh at ourselves. — Katherine Mansfield
    9. When you do laugh, open your mouth wide enough for the noise to get
      out without squealing, throw your head back as though you were going to
      be shaved, hold on to your false hair with both hands and then laugh
      till your soul gets thoroughly rested. — Josh Billings
    10. When you laugh, aside from the endorphin rush, there’s also a
      spiritual opening. You’re not so tight inside yourself. That opening
      I’ve found to be a real gift, in people being able to absorb
      spirituality. —Rabbi Sydney Mintz
    11. When you laugh, you get a glimpse of God. — Merrily Belgum
    12. When you realize how perfect everything is you will tilt your head back and laugh at the sky. — Buddha
    13. Wit is the key, I think, to anybody’s heart, because who doesn’t like to laugh? — Julia Roberts
    14. With mirth and laughter let old wrinkles come. — William Shakespeare
    15. With the fearful strain that is on me night and day, if I did not laugh I should die. — Abraham Lincoln
    16. Wrinkles should merely indicate where the smiles have been. — Mark Twain
    17. You don’t stop laughing because you grow old. You grow old because you stop laughing. — Michael Pritchard
    18. You grow up the day you have your first real laugh — at yourself. — Ethel Barrymore
    19. Your body cannot heal without play. Your mind cannot heal without
      laughter. Your soul cannot heal without joy. — Catherine Rippenger
      Fenwick
    20. Your joy is your sorrow unmasked. And the self-same well from which
      your laughter rises was oftentimes filled with your tears. — Kahlil
      Gibran


    1000s More Laughter Quotes



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