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2730 Fri 31 Aug 2018 LESSON (73) Fri 31 Aug 2007 Do Good Be Mindful - Awakened One with Awareness (AOA) WHAT IS THE SUTTANTA PITAKA? Diploma course in Buddhist Studies Mahabodhi Research Centre (Affiliated to Karnataka Sanskrit University, Bengaluru) Maha Bodhi Society 14 Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar =, Bengaluru - 560009, INDIA
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2730 Fri 31 Aug 2018 LESSON (73) Fri 31 Aug 2007

Do Good Be Mindful  -  Awakened One with Awareness (AOA)


Diploma course in Buddhist Studies
Mahabodhi Research Centre
(Affiliated to Karnataka Sanskrit University, Bengaluru)
Maha Bodhi Society
14 Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar =, Bengaluru - 560009, INDIA

Chapter I


Suttanta Pitaka is a collection
of all the discourses in their entirety delivered by the
Buddha on
various occasions. (A few discourses delivered by some of
the distinguished
disciples of the Buddha, such as the Venerable Særiputta,
Maha Moggallæna, Ananda, etc., as well as some narratives are also
included in the
books of the Suttanta Pitaka.) The discourses of the Buddha
together in the Suttanta Pitaka were expounded to suit
different occasions,
for various persons with different temperaments. Although
the discourses
were mostly intended for the benefit of bhikkhus, and deal
with the
practice of the pure life and with the exposition of the
there are also several other discourses which deal with the
and moral progress of the lay disciples.

The Suttanta Pitaka brings out the meaning of the Buddha’s teachings,
expresses them clearly, protects and guards them against distortion
and misconstruction. Just like a string which serves as a plumb-line
to guide the carpenters in their work, just like a thread which protects
flowers from being scattered or dispersed when strung together by
it, likewise by means of suttas, the meaning of Buddha’s teachings
may be brought out clearly, grasped and understood correctly and given
perfect protection from being misconstrued.

The Suttanta Pi¥aka is divided into five separate collections known
as Nikæyas. They are Døgha Nikæya, Majjhima Nikæya, Saµyutta
Nikæya, A³guttara Nikæya and Khuddaka Nikæya.

Guide to Tipitaka



Observances and Practices
in the Teaching of the Buddha.

In the Suttanta Pi¥aka are found not only the fundamentals of
the Dhamma but also pragmatic guidelines to make the Dhamma meaningful and applicable to
daily life. All observances and practices which form practical steps in the Buddha’s
Noble Path of Eight Constituents lead to spiritual purification at three levels:

  • Sila: moral purity through right

  • Samadhi: purity of mind through
    concentration (Samatha);

  • Pañña: purity of Insight through
    Vipassana Meditation.

To begin with, one must make the right resolution
to take refuge in the Buddha, to follow the Buddha’s Teaching,
and to be guided by the Saµgha. The first disciples who made the
declaration of faith in the Buddha and committed themselves to follow
his Teaching were the two merchant brothers, Tapussa and Bhallika.
They were travelling with their followers in five hundred carts
when they saw the Buddha in the vicinity of the Bodhi Tree after
his Enlightenment. The two merchants offered him honey rice cakes.
Accepting their offering and thus breaking the fast he had imposed
on himself for seven weeks, the Buddha made them his disciples by
letting them recite after him:

“Buddham Saranam Gacchami (I take refuge in the Buddha).”

“Dhammam Saranam Gacchami (I take refuge in the Dhamma).”

This recitation became the formula of declaration
of faith in the Buddha and his Teaching, Later when the Sangha became
established, the formula was extended to include the third commitment:

“Sangham Saranam Gacchami (I take refuge in the Sangha).”


As a practical step,
capable of immediate and fruitful use by people in all walks of life, the Buddha gave
discourses on charity, alms-giving, explaining its virtues and on the right way and the
right attitude of mind with which an offering is to be made for spiritual uplift.

The motivating force in an act of charity is the volition, the will to give. Charity is
a meritorious action that arises only out of volition. Without the will to give, there is
no act of giving. Volition in giving alms is of three types:

(i) The volition that starts with the thought ‘I shall make an offering’ and
that exists during the period of preparations for making the offering - Pubba Cetana,
volition before the act.

(ii) The volition that arises at the moment of making the offering while handing it
over to the donee - Muñca Cetana, volition during the act.

(iii) The volition accompanying the joy and rejoicing which arise during repeated
recollection of or reflection on the act of giving - Apara Cetana, volition after the

Whether the offering is made in homage to the living Buddha or to a minute particle of
his relics after his passing away, it is the volition, its strength and purity that
determine the nature of the result thereof.

There is also explained in the discourses the wrong attitude of mind with which no act
of charity should be performed.

A donor should avoid looking down on others who cannot make a similar offering; nor
should he exult over his own charity. Defiled by such unworthy thoughts, his volition is
only of inferior grade.

When the act of charity is motivated by expectations of beneficial results of immediate
prosperity and happiness, or rebirth in higher existences, the accompanying volition is
classed as mediocre.

It is only when the good deed of alms-giving is performed out of a spirit of
renunciation, motivated by thoughts of pure selflessness, aspiring only for attainment to
Nibbæna where all suffering ends, that the volition that brings about the act is regarded
as of superior grade.

Examples abound in the discourses concerning charity and modes of giving alms.

Moral Purity
through right conduct, Sila

Practice of Sila forms a most fundamental
aspect of Buddhism. It consists of practice of Right Speech, Right Action and Right
Livelihood to purge oneself of impure deeds, words and thoughts. Together with the
commitment to the Threefold Refuge (as described above) a Buddhist lay disciple observes
the Five Precepts by making a formal undertaking:

(i) I undertake to observe the precept of abstaining from killing.
(ii) I undertake to observe the precept of abstaining from stealing.
(iii) I undertake to observe the precept of abstaining from sexual misconduct.
(iv) I undertake to observe the precept of abstaining from telling lies.
(v) I undertake to observe the precept of abstaining from alcoholic drinks, drugs or
intoxicants that becloud the mind.

In addition to the negative aspect of the above formula which emphasizes abstinence,
there is also the positive aspect of Søla. For instance, we find in many discourses the
statement: ‘He refrains from killing, puts aside the cudgel and the sword; full of
kindness and compassion he lives for the welfare and happiness of all living things.’
Every precept laid down in the formula has these two aspects.

Depending upon the individual and the stage of one’s progress, other forms of
precepts, namely, Eight Precepts, Ten Precepts etc. may be observed. For the bhikkhus of
the Order, higher and advanced types of practices of morality are laid down. The Five
Precepts are to be always observed by lay disciples who may occasionally enhance their
self-discipline by observing the Eight or Ten Precepts. For those who have already
embarked on the path of a holy life, the Ten Precepts are essential preliminaries to
further progress.

Søla of perfect purity serves as a foundation for the next stage of progress, namely,
Samædhi purity of mind through concentration-meditation.

Practical methods of mental cultivation for development
of concentration, samadhi.

Mental cultivation for spiritual uplift consists
of two steps. The first step is to purify the mind from all defilements and corruption and
to have it focused on a point. A determined effort (Right Exertion) must be made to narrow
down the range of thoughts in the wavering, unsteady mind. Then attention (Right
Mindfulness or Attentiveness) must be fixed on a selected object of meditation until
one-pointedness of mind (Right Concentration) is achieved. In such a state, the mind
becomes freed from hindrances, pure, tranquil, powerful and bright. It is then ready to
advance to the second step by which Magga Insight and Fruition may be attained in order to
transcend the state of woe and sorrow.

The Suttanta Pitaka records numerous methods of meditation to bring about
one-pointedness of mind. In the Suttas of the Pitaka are dispersed these methods of
meditation, explained by the Buddha sometimes singly, sometimes collectively to suit the
occasion and the purpose for which they are recommended. The Buddha knew the diversity of
character and mental make-up of each individual, the different temperaments and
inclinations of those who approached him for guidance. Accordingly he recommended
different methods to different persons to suit the special character and need of each

The practice of mental cultivation which results ultimately in one-pointedness of mind
is known as Samadhi Bhavana. Whoever wishes to develop Samadhi Bhævanæ must have
been established in the observance of the precepts, with the senses controlled, calm and
self-possessed, and must be contented. Having been established in these four conditions he
selects a place suitable for meditation, a secluded spot. Then he should sit cross-legged
keeping his body erect and his mind alert; he should start purifying his mind of five
hindrances, namely, sensual desire, ill will, sloth and torpor, restlessness and worry,
and doubt, by choosing a meditation method suitable to him, practicing meditation with
zeal and ardour. For instance, with the Anapana method he keeps watching the incoming
and outgoing breath until he can have his mind fixed securely on the breath at the tip of
the nose.

When he realizes that the five hindrances have been got rid of, he becomes gladdened,
delighted, calm and blissful. This is the beginning of samadhi, concentration, which will
further develop until it attains one-pointedness of mind.

Thus one-pointedness of mind is concentration of mind when it is aware of one object,
and only one of a wholesome, salutary nature. This is attained by the practice of
meditation upon one of the subjects recommended for the purpose by the Buddha.

Practical methods of mental cultivation for development of
Insight Knowledge, pañña

The subject and methods of meditation as taught
in the suttas of the Pitaka are designed both for attainment of samædhi as well as for
development of Insight Knowledge, Vipassana Ñana, as a direct path to Nibbana.

As a second step in the practice of meditation, after achieving samadhi, when the
concentrated mind has become purified, firm and imperturbable, the meditator directs and
inclines his mind to Insight Knowledge, Vipassana Ñana. With this Insight Knowledge he
discerns the three characteristics of the phenomenal world, namely, Impermanence (Anicca),
Suffering (Dukkha) and Non-Self (Anatta).

As he advances in his practice and his mind becomes more and more purified, firm and
imperturbable, he directs and inclines his mind to the knowledge of the extinction of
moral intoxicants, Asavakkhaya Ñana. He then truly understands dukkha, the cause of
dukkha, the cessation of dukkha and the path leading to the cessation of dukkha. He also
comes to understand fully the moral intoxicants (asavas) as they really are, the cause of
æsavas, the cessation of asavas and the path leading to the cessation of the asavas.

With this knowledge of extinction of æsavas he becomes liberated. The knowledge of
liberation arises in him. He knows that rebirth is no more, that he has lived the holy
life; he has done what he has to do for the realization of Magga; there is nothing more
for him to do for such realization.

The Buddha taught with only one object: the extinction of Suffering and release from
conditioned existence. That object is to be obtained by the practice of meditation (for
Calm and Insight) as laid down in numerous suttas of the Suttanta Pitaka.
Digha Nikaya (Part 1/62)
Published on Feb 12, 2018
DN 01 Brahmajala (2011-07-16) Part A


Treasury of The Buddha’s Discourses


Speaker: Ven. Dhammavuddho Mahathera



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ตักบาตร or “TAK BAT” means giving alms to monks.

Going out for alms
Going out for alms

The monks walk in straight line one by one. The oldest one or the
temple abbot leads the monks. The other one follows by seniority age spent in Buddhist community.

Giving alms
Giving alms

Thai women, kneeling, or Thai men, standing, put food inside the monk’s bowl.
The women cannot touch the monks or his belongings.

Monks are going out for alms everyday around 5 AM to 6 AM, except during the 3 months’
rainy season (July to october). They carry their bowl with both hands and close
to the belly.

As a city, district or village can contain several Buddhist temples,
the abbots agree together on the path reserved for each temple.

Giving alms
Giving alms

The monks do not thank for the food as they give opportunity for the laypeople to
do good deeds and earn merits.

Going out for alms is called “BIN THA BAT”

Giving alms
Giving alms

Alms bowl (
บาตร) is the monk’s emblem.
According to Buddhist rules, it is the only dish that monks can possess.

Traditionaly, the housewife or her youngest daughter are waiting
in front of the house. They greet the monks through a “WAI” (ไหว้)
and put food inside the bowl.

Giving alms
Giving alms

The monk shall not look at the women, neither thank them. No words are said.
If a young novice receives food from his mother, he can bless her.

The monks walk bare foot and shall accept any food given to them.

Going out for alms
Going out for alms

If the bowl is full, the monk puts the lid (
on it in order that laypeople can put a few last food offerings on the lid.

Traditionaly, rice offered shall be recently cooked rice.
People also offer curry dishes, sweets, fruits, flowers, incense sticks…

Going out for alms
Going out for alms

Food offered shall always be the best. Giving good allows receiving
good deeds and merits.

Then back to the pagoda, the monks share the received food
inside the Buddhist community.

Going out for alms
Going out for alms

People, who just gave alms to monks, can share this offering with deceased ancestors
through a small ceremony called “KRUAT NAM” (

This libation allows giving merits to defunct ancestors. Water is put
inside the cooking pot and pour down slowly on the right hand forefinger to the soil. So merits go down
from the cooking pot through the hand to the earth. The Earth deity
“MAE THORANI” (แม่ธรณี) shall give the merits to
the right ancestors.

Going out for alms
Going out for alms

Traditionaly, if a monk bowl falls in front of a house, it is seen as a bad omen.

Giving alms
Giving alms

Some Thai people give alms everyday but some give alms on specific events only such as
Buddhist holy days (“WAN PHRA” -
birthday and so on… On such occasion, they can request a blessing from the monks.

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