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2743 Thu 13 Sep 2018 LESSON (86) Thu 13 Sep 2007 Do Good Be Mindful - Awakened One with Awareness (AOA)

The New Pali Course Book I
Table of Contents 目录
Table of Contents 目录 ·I The Alphabet 字母表 ·1 Pronunciation 读音·1 Parts of Speech 词类部分 ·2 Gender, Number and Case 性、数和格·3 Declension of Nouns 名词的词尾变化 ·5 Conjugation of Verbs 动词的变形·9 Conjugation of the Root Paca (to cook) Paca 的变形 ·10 Different Conjugations 不同的变形 ·12 The Seventh Conjugation 第七类动词的变形 ·13 Past Tense 过去时 ·18 Personal Pronouns 人称代(名)词·20 Future Tense 将来时 ·23 Declension of Feminine Nouns 阴性名词的词尾变化 ·34 The Imperative 祈使句·36 The Optative or Potential 条件(选择)句·36 Absolutives or so-called Indeclinable Past Participles·41 Neuter Gender 中性名词 ·46 The Infinitive 不定式 ·48 Classification of Nouns 名词的分类 ·53 Pronouns 代名词 ·54 Adjectives (Pronominal)形容词(代名词性质的)·55 The Verbal Adjectives or Participles 动词性形容词或分词 ·60 Past Participles 过去分词·63 “To” in the Sense of Ablative of Separation ·64 Adjectives 形容词 ·66 Numerals 数量词·69 Declension of Numerals 数字词的词尾变化 ·70
Ordinal Numerals 序数词 ·73 I

Adverbs 副词·75 Syntax 句法(结构) ·77 Order of Sentences 句子的次序 ·77 Concord 一致性 ·78 Enlarge and Analyse a Sentence 如何扩展和分析一个句子 ·79 Passive Voice 被动语态 ·81 Passive Participles 被动分词 ·84 Causal or Causative Verbs 使役动词 ·87 Vocabulary 词汇表·89

Table of Contents 细目
Foreword 前言 Preface 序
1. Alphabet, Pronunciation, Parts of Speech, Declension, Conjugation 字母
The Alphabet 字母表
Pronunciation 发音
Parts of Speech 词性(类))
Gender, Number and Case 性,数和格
Declension of Nouns 名词的词尾变化
Conjugation of Verbs 动词的变形
Conjugation of the Root “Paca” 词干“paca”的变形
2. More conjugations, Masculine nouns, Past Tense Different Conjugations 不同的变形
The Seventh Conjugation 第七组变形
Masculine Stems Ending in i 以 i 结尾的阳性词干 Past Tense 过去时
3. Personal pronouns, Future Tense, Masculine nouns in ī and u Personal Pronouns 人称代名词
Future Tense 将来时
Masculine Nouns Ending in ī 以 ī 结尾的阳性名词 Masculine Nouns Ending in u 以 u 结尾的阳性名词
4. Adjectival nouns, Masculine nouns in ū, Adverbs of time, Feminine nouns, Imperative mood, Optative mood, Indeclinable Past Participle Adjectival Nouns Ending in u 以 u 结尾的形容词型名词
Masculine Nouns Ending in ū 以 ū 结尾的阳性名词
Adverbs of Time 表示时间的副词
Declension of Feminine Nouns 阴性名词的词尾变化 The Imperative 祈使语气
The Optative or Potential 条件(祈愿)语气的动词 Feminine Stems Ending in i 以 i 结尾的阴性词干 Feminine Stems Ending in ī 以 ī 结尾的阴性词干 Indeclinable Past Participle 无变化的过去分词
5. Feminine nouns in u, Adverbs of place, Neuter nouns, Infinitive III

Feminine Nouns Ending in u 以 u 结尾的阴性名词 Adverbs of Place 方位副词
Neuter Gender 中性
The Infinitive 不定式
Neuter Nouns Ending in i 以 i 结尾的中性名词 Neuter Nouns Ending in u 以 u 结尾的中性名词 Some More Particles 小品词
6. Classification of nouns, Pronouns, Pronominal adjectives, Present participles
Classification of Nouns 名词的分类
Pronouns 代名词
Adjectives (Pronominal)形容词(代名词性质的)
The Demonstrative Pronoun “Ta”指示代词“Ta”
The Demonstrative Pronoun “Ima”指示代词“Ima”
The Verbal Adjectives or Participles 动词性形容词或分词 The Present Participle 现在分词
7. Past participles, Usage of -to, Adjectives
Past Participles 过去分词
“To” in the Sense of Ablative“To”在离格中的判断 Adjectives 形容词
8. Numerals: Cardinal, Ordinal Numerals 数字
Declension of Numerals 数字的词尾变化
Ordinal Numerals 序数
9. Adverbs, Syntax, Concord
Adverbs 副词
Syntax 句法
Order of a Sentence 命令语句
Concord 一致性
How to Enlarge and Analyse a Sentence 如何扩展和分析句子
10. Passive voice, Passive participles, Causative Passive Voice 被动语态
Passive Participles 被动分词
Causal or Causative Verbs 使役动词
The Vocabulary: Pali-English | English-Pali 词汇表 IV

The New Pali Course Book 1
By Prof. A. P. Buddhadatta, Maha Nayaka Thera
Seventh Edition 第 7 版
(Published by Singapore Buddhist Meditation Centre, 1998)
Foreword 前言
By Dr. G. P. Malalasekara
University College, Colombo
I consider it a great honour that I should have been asked to write this foreword. The eminence of Rev. A. P. Buddhadatta Thera as a scholar is far too well-known in Ceylon and elsewhere for his work to need any commendation from others. His books, particularly the Pālibhāshāvataraṇa, have for many years now been a great boon to students of Pali. The fact that they are written in Sinhalese has, however, restricted their use only to those acquainted with the language. Rev. Buddhadatta has by this present publication removed that disability. As a teacher of Pali, chiefly through the medium of English, I welcome this book with great cordiality for it would considerably lighten my labours. It fulfils a great need and I wish it success with all my heart. I would also congratulate the publishers on their enterprise in a new field.
G. P. Malalasekara.
University College, Colombo.
17th June, 1937.


Preface 序言
Pali is the language in which the oldest Buddhist texts were composed. It originated in the ancient country of Magadha which was the kingdom which was the kingdom of Emperor Asoka and the centre of Buddhistic learning during many centuries. Pali is older than classical Sanskrit, and a knowledge of it is very useful to students of philology and ancient history. It is still the classical language of the Buddhists of Ceylon, Burma and Siam.
During the latter half of the last century some European scholars became interested in the study of Pali and wrote some articles and books to encourage the study of it. At the same time the publication of Pali Texts in Europe was begun through the efforts of Professors V. Fausboll, H. Oldenberg and T. W. Rhys Davids. Thanks to the indefatigable labours of the last mentioned scholar and the Pali Text Society, which he established some fifty years ago, the whole of the Pali Canon (of the Theravāda School) is now found in print.
Pali is now taught in many universities both in the East and the West. There is also a desire all over the civilized world at the present day to read the original Pali Texts in order to find out what the Buddha has preached to mankind 25 centuries ago and to see what historical and philosophical treasures are enshrined therein. Therefore, to facilitate the study of Pali, some modern scholars have compiled Pali courses, grammars and readers according to modern methods. Of these the Pali Grammar by Chas. Duroiselle, formerly Professor of Pali at Rangoon College, still stands unrivalled. Gray’s Pali Course has done much service for a long time to students in India and Burma; and S. Sumangala’s Pali Course has done the same to students in Ceylon.
Although such books were written in European languages hardly any appeared in Sinhalese. Here they studied Pali through books which were written many centuries ago. Therefore, about 1920, when some schools in Ceylon began to teach Pali, the great difficulty before them was the lack
of suitable books. Then, requested and encouraged by Mr. P. de S. Kularatna, Principal, Ananda College, I compiled Pālibhāshāvataraṇa (I, Ī, ĪI) in Sinhalese to teach Pali grammar and composition to beginners. It was a success; the demand for the first book necessitated the publisher to

bring out three editions of it within eleven years from 1923 to 1934. (ed. Now it is in the eleventh edition)
Many complimented the work. Recently there came a request from Burma for permission to translate the same into Burmese. Some suggested to me to write it in English as the books already mentioned did not satisfy them; but I dared not to do it as my knowledge of English was insufficient for such a task. But finally I was prevailed upon by Dr. G. C. Mendis to produce this volume.
This is not a literal translation of the Sinhalese edition, but a different compilation on the same lines. To understand the nature of the work it is enough to quote from the report, sent to me by the “Text Book Committee” of the Education Department of Ceylon, on the Sinhalese one: “This is a book for teaching Pali to beginners through the medium for Sinhalese. The method adopted is the modern one of teaching the languages through composition. The lessons are well graded and practical. This supplies a long felt want… We should recommend it for use in schools as an introduction to the study of Pali”.
My thanks are due, first of all, to Dr. G. C. Mendis, who very kindly assisted me in many ways to bring out this volume; secondly to Dr. G. P. Malalasekara, Lecturer in Oriental Languages, Ceylon University College, for his Foreword, and lastly to the Colombo Apothecaries’ Co., Ltd., for the publication of this volume.
15th June, 1937.

The New Pali Course-First Book
The Alphabet 字母表
The Pali alphabet consists of 41 letters, eight vowels and thirty-three
Vowels 元音
a, ā, i, ī, u, ū, e, o
Consonants 辅音
第一行: k, kh, g, gh, ṅ
第二行: c, ch, j, jh, ñ
第三行: ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh, ṇ
第四行: t, th, d, dh, n
第五行: p, ph, b, bh, m
第六行: y, r, l, v, s, h, ḷ, ṃ
2. Of the vowels a, i, u are short; the rest are long.
Although e and o are included in long vowels they are often sounded short before a double consonant, e.g. mettā, seṭṭhī, okkamati, yottaṃ[1]. *[1] Wide Book Ī for further treatment of letters.
Pronunciation 读音 3. Pronunciation 读音
a is pronounced like a in what or u in hut ā is pronounced like a in father
i is pronounced like i in mint
ī is pronounced like ee in see
u is pronounced like u in put

ū is pronounced like oo in pool
e is pronounced like a in cage
o is pronounced like o in no
k is pronounced like k in kind
kh is pronounced like kh in blackheath g is pronounced like g in game
gh is pronounced like gh in big house
ṅ is pronounced like ng in singer
c is pronounced like ch in chance
ch is pronounced like ch h in witch-hazel
jh is pronounced like dge h in sledge-hammer ñis pronounced like gn in signore
ṭ is pronounced like t in cat
ṭh is pronounced like th in ant-hill
ḍ is pronounced like d in bad
ḍh is pronounced like dh in red-hot
ṇ is pronounced like kn in know
t is pronounced like th in thumb
th is pronounced like th in pot-herb
d is pronounced like th in then
dh is pronounced like dh in adherent ph is pronounced like ph in uphill
bh is pronounced like bh in abhorrence y is pronounced like y in yes
s is pronounced like s in sight
ṃ is pronounced like ng in sing
j, n, p, b, m, r, l, v and h are pronounced just as they are pronounced in English.
Parts of Speech 词类部分
4. In English, there are 8 parts of speech. They are all found in Pali, but the Pali grammarians do not classify them in the same way. Their general classification is:

1. Nāma = noun
2. Ākhyāta = verb
3. Upasagga = prefix
4. Nipāta = indeclinable particle
Pronouns and adjectives are included in the first group. Adjectives are treated as nouns because they are declined like nouns.
Conjunctions, prepositions, adverbs and all other indeclinables are included in the fourth group.
Gender, Number and Case 性、数和格
5. There are in Pali as in English three genders and two numbers.
1. Pulliṅga = Masculine
2. Itthiliṅga = Feminine
3. Napuṃsakaliṅga = Neuter
1. Ekavacana = Singular
2. Bahuvacana = Plural
6. Nouns which denote males are masculine; those which denote females are feminine; but nouns which denote inanimate things and qualities are not always neuter, e.g. rukkha (tree), canda (moon) are masculine. Nadī (river), latā (vine), paññā (wisdom) are feminine. Dhana (wealth), citta (mind) are neuter.
Two words denoting the same thing may be, sometimes, in different genders; pāsāṇa and silā are both synonyms for a stone, but the former is masculine, and the latter is feminine. Likewise one word, without changing its form, may possess two or more genders; e.g. geha (house) is masculine and neuter, kucchi (belly) is masculine and feminine.
Therefore, it should be remembered that gender in Pali is a grammatical distinction existing in words, it is called grammatical gender.
7. There are eight cases, namely: 1. Paṭhamā = Nominative

2. Dutiyā = Accusative
3. (a) Tatiyā = Ablative of agent, and
(b) Karaṇa = Ablative of instrument
4. Catutthī = Dative
5. Pañcamī = Ablative of separation
6. Chaṭṭhī = Possessive or Genitive
7. Sattamī = Locative
8. Ālapana = Vocative
The Ablative in English is here divided into Tatiyā, Karaṇa and Pañcamī. But, as Tatiyā and Karaṇa always have similar forms both of them are shown under “Instrumental”. Where only the “Ablative” is given the reader must understand that all (3) forms of the Ablative are included.

Declension of Nouns 名词的词尾变化
8. Nouns in Pali are differently declined according to their gender and
Nara is a masculine stem, ending in -a. It is to be declined as follows:-
Case Singular Plural
Nominative naro = man narā = men
Accusative naraṃ = man nare = men
narena = by, with or narebhi, narehi = by, with through man or through men
Dative narāya, narassa = to or for narānaṃ = to or for men man
Ablative narā, naramhā, narasmā = narebhi, narehi = from men from man
Genitive narassa = of man narānaṃ = of men
Locative nare, naramhi, narasmiṃ = naresu = on or in men on or in man
Vocative nara, narā = O man narā = O men
Some of the stems similarly declined are:- purisa = man
manussa = human being hattha = hand
pāda = leg; foot
kāya = body
rukkha = tree pāsāṇa = rock; stone
gāma = village Buddha = the Enlightened One
dhamma = doctrine saṅgha = community āloka = light
loka = world
ākāsa = sky

suriya = sun
canda = moon magga = path
putta = son kumāra = boy vāṇija = merchant cora = thief
mitta = friend dāsa = slave bhūpāla = king kassaka = farmer lekhaka = clerk deva = god; deity vānara = monkey
vihāra = monastery
dīpa = island; lamp mañca = bed
āhāra = food
sīha = lion
miga = deer; beast assa = horse
goṇa = ox sunakha = dog varāha = pig sakuṇa = bird
aja = goat kāka = crow
9. Inflections or case-endings of the above declension are:
Case Singular Plural
Nominative o ā
Accusative ṃ e
Instrumental ena ebhi; ehi
Dative āya; ssa ānaṃ
Ablative ā; mhā; smā ebhi; ehi
Genitive ssa ānaṃ
Locative e; mhi; smiṃ esu
Vocative a; ā ā
The last vowel of the stem should be elided before an inflection which begins with a vowel.
Exercise 1
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
1. Manussānaṃ.

2. Purise.
3. Hatthaṃ.
4. Pādamhi.
5. Kāyena.
6. Buddhesu. 7. Dhammaṃ. 8. Saṅghamhā. 9. Suriye.
10. Rukkhassa. 11. Ākāsena.
12. Bhūpālebhi. 13. Devā.
14. Candaṃ.
15. Gāmasmā. 16. Goṇāya.
17. Sīhānaṃ. 18. Asso.
19. Sakuna.
20. Mañcasmiṃ.
Translate into Pali
1. The dogs.
2. Of the hand.
3. On the men.
4. From the tree.
5. In the islands.
6. With the foot.
7. By the hands.
8. To the lion.
9. Of the oxen.
10. From the birds.
11. By the king.

12. O deity.
13. To the sun.
14. In the sky.
15. Through the body. 16. On the bed.
17. Of the moons.
18. In the world.
19. The monkey.
20. Through the light.
Exercise 2
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
1. Purisassa goṇo.
2. Manussānaṃ hatthā.
3. Ākāsamhi sakuṇā.
4. Buddhassa dhammo.
5. Mañcesu manussā.
6. Assānaṃ pādā.
7. Rukkhe sakuṇo.
8. Pāsāṇamhi goṇo.
9. Lokasmiṃ manussā.
10. Bhūpālassa dīpā.
Translate into Pali
1. The body of the ox.
2. The bird on the tree.
3. The island of the world.
4. With the feet of the man.
5. By the hand of the monkey.
6. Of the birds in the sky.
7. In the doctrine of the Buddha.

8. The villages of the king.
9. The birds from the tree.
10. The horse on the path.
In translating these into Pali, the articles should be left out. There are no parallel equivalents to them in Pali. But it should be noted that the pronominal adjective “ta” (that) may be used for the definite article, and “eka” (one) for the indefinite. Both of them take the gender, number, and case of the nouns they qualify. (See §§46 and 48).
Conjugation of Verbs 动词的变形
10. There are three tenses, two voices, two numbers, and three persons in
the conjugation of Pali verbs.
1. Vattamānakāla = Present Tense
2. Atītakāla = Past Tense
3. Anāgatakāla = Future Tense
1. Kattukāraka = Active Voice
2. Kammakāraka = Passive Voice
1. Paṭhamapurisa = Third Person
2. Majjhimapurisa = Second Person
3. Uttamapurisa = First Person
The first person in English is third in Pali. Numbers are similar to those of nouns.
11. There is no attempt to conjugate the Continuous, Perfect, and Perfect Continuous tenses in Pali; therefore only the indefinite forms are given here.

Conjugation of the Root Paca (to cook) Paca 的变形
12. Indicative, Present Active Voice 现在时·主动语态
(So) pacati = he cooks
(Te) pacanti = they cook
(Tvaṃ) pacasi = thou cookest
(Tumhe) pacatha = you cook
(Ahaṃ) pacāmi = I cook
(Mayaṃ) pacāma = we cook
13. The base bhava (to be) from the root bhū
is similarly conjugated. ?
(So) bhavati = he is
(Te) bhavanti = they are
(Tvaṃ) bhavasi = thou art
(Tumhe) bhavatha = you are
(Ahaṃ) bhavāmi = I am
(Mayaṃ) bhavāma = we are
The following are conjugated similarly:-
gacchati = goes tiṭṭhati = stands nisīdati = sits sayati = sleeps carati = walks dhāvati = runs passati = sees bhuñjati = eats bhāsati = says harati = carries āharati = brings kīḷati = plays vasati = lives hanati = kills āruhati = ascends

hasati = laughs yācati = begs
Exercise 3
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
1. Narā suriyaṃ passanti.
2. Goṇā pāsāṇe tiṭṭhanti.
3. Manusso gāme carati.
4. Sakuṇo rukkhe nisīdati.
5. Buddho dhammaṃ bhāsati.
6. Ahaṃ dīpaṃ āharāmi.
7. Mayaṃ goṇe harāma.
8. Saṅgho gāmaṃ gacchati.
9. Tvaṃ sīhaṃ passasi.
10. Bhūpālāasseāruhanti.
11. Devāākāsenagacchanti.
12. Assā dīpesu dhāvanti.
13. Tvaṃpādehicarasi.
14. Tumhe hatthehi haratha.
15. Mayaṃlokevasāma.
16. Sunakhāvānarehikiḷanti.
17. Puriso mañce sayati.
18. Varāhāajehivasanti.
19. Sīhāsakuṇehananti.
20. Sunakhāgāmecaranti.
Translate into Pali
1. The horse stands on the rock.
2. The goats walk in the village.
3. You see the sun.
4. The moon rises in the sky.
5. The men sleep in beds.
6. The oxen run from the lion.
7. People live in the world.
8. Thou bringest a lamp.
9. We live in an island.

10. Thou art a king.
11. You see the bird on the tree.
12. The monkey plays with the pig.
13. Thekingkillsalion.
14. The deity walks in the sky.
15. Trees are in the island.
16. Hecarriesthelamp.
17. Weseethebodyoftheman.
18. We eat with the hands.
Different Conjugations 不同的变形
14. There are seven different conjugations in Pali; they are called dhātugaṇas (= groups of roots). The Pali grammarians represent roots with a final vowel, but it is often dropped or changed before the conjugational sign. Each dhātugaṇa has one or more different conjugational signs, which come between the root and the verbal termination.
The seven conjugations and their signs are:
1st Conjugation = Bhuvādigaṇa: a
2nd Conjugation = Rudhādigaṇa: ṃ-a
3rd Conjugation = Divādigaṇa: ya
4th Conjugation = Svādigaṇa: ṇo, ṇu, uṇā
5th Conjugation = Kiyādigaṇa: ṇā
6th Conjugation = Tanādigaṇa: o, yira
7th Conjugation = Curādigaṇa: e, aya
A great number of roots are included in the first and the seventh group. The roots paca and bhū, given above, belong to the first conjugation. The last vowel of “paca” is dropped before the conjugation sign a.
The monosyllabic roots like bhū do not drop their vowel. It is guṇated or strengthened before the conjugational sign:
i or ī strengthened becomes e
u or ū strengthened becomes o
e.g. Nī + a becomes Ne + a;
Bhū + a becomes Bho + a
Then e followed by a is changed into ay
and o followed by a is changed into av

e.g. Ne + a becomes naya;
Bho + a becomes bhava
It is not necessary for a beginner to learn how these bases are formed. But the bases will be given very often for the convenience of the students. The base is the root with its conjugational sign combined.
The Seventh Conjugation 第七类动词的变形
15. The special feature of the first conjugation is that the last vowel of the base is strengthened before the First Personal endings.
The same rule is applied for the bases ending with a of the 2nd, 3rd, 6th and 7th conjugations, in addition to their special features.
The bases of the seventh conjugation are of two kinds as it has two conjugational signs, e.g. from the root pāla two bases pāle and pālaya are formed.
Conjugation of Pāla (to protect or govern)
Indicative, Present, Active Voice Base: Pāle
Base: Palaya
Some of the similarly conjugated are: jāleti = kindles
māreti = kills
oloketi = looks at
coreti = steals deseti = preaches

cinteti = thinks
pūjeti = offers, respects
uḍḍeti = flies
pīḷeti = oppresses
udeti = (the sun or moon) rises pāteti = fells down
ṭhapeti = keeps
16. The conjugational sign ṇā of the fifth group is shortened in the Third Person plural.
Base: Vikkina = To sell
The following are similarly conjugated:- kiṇāti = buys
jānāti = knows
suṇāti = hears
jināti = wins
miṇāti = measures
gaṇhāti = takes
uggaṇhāti = learns
ocināti = gathers (together), collects
Exercise 4
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
1. Puttā dhammaṃ uggaṇhanti.
2. Sīho migaṃ māreti.
3. Vāṇijassa putto goṇe vikkiṇāti.
4. Mayaṃ vāṇijamhā mañce kiṇāma.
5. Lekhako mittena magge gacchati.
6. Dāsā mittānaṃ sunakhe haranti.

7. Kassako goṇe kiṇāti.
8. Kākā ākāse uḍḍenti.
9. Vāṇijā Buddhassa dhammaṃ suṇanti.
10. Corā mayūre* corenti.
11. AhaṃBuddhaṃpūjemi.
12. Tvaṃdīpaṃjālehi.
13. Dāso gonaṃ pīḷeti.
14. Tumhemaggekassakaṃoloketha.
15. Mayaṃdhammaṃjānāma.
Translate into Pali
1. The robber steals an ox.
2. The clerk’s son buys a horse.
3. Merchants sell lamps.
4. He knows the friend’s son.
5. Boys learn in the village.
6. Peacocks are on the road.
7. The slave lights a lamp.
8. Lions kill deer.
9. The king governs the island.
10. Birds fly in the sky.
11. Weseethesonsofthemerchant.
12. Look at the hands of the man.
13. You hear the doctrine of the Buddha.
14. They respect (or make offerings to) the community.
15. The monkey teases (or oppresses) the birds.
* Mayūra = peacock.
17. Masculine stems ending in i 以 i 结尾的阳性名词 Declension of Aggi (Fire)
Nominative, Vocative
aggi, aggayo
aggī, aggayo
aggībhi, aggīhi
Dative, Genitive
aggino, aggissa
agginā, aggimhā, aggismā
aggībhi; aggīhī

aggimhi, aggismiṃ
The following are similarly declined:- muni = monk
kavi = poet
isi = sage; hermit
ari = enemy
bhūpati = king
pati = husband; master
gahapati = householder
adhipati = lord; leader
atithi = guest
vyādhi = sickness
udadhi = ocean
vīhi = paddy
kapi = monkey
ahi = serpent
dīpi = leopard
ravi = sun
giri = mountain
maṇi = gem
yaṭṭhi = stick
nidhi = hidden treasure
asi = sword
rāsi = heap
pāṇi = hand
kucchi = belly
muṭṭhi = fist, hammer
bodhi = Bo-tree
More verbs conjugated like pacati: khaṇati = digs
chindati = cuts
likhati = writes
labhati = gets
āgacchati = comes
āhiṇḍati = wanders
vandati = bows down
paharati = beats
ḍasati = bites

Exercise 5
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
1. Muni dhammaṃ bhāsati.
2. Gahapatayo vīhiṃ miṇanti.
3. Ahi adhipatino hattaṃ ḍasati.
4. Isi pāṇinā maṇiṃ gaṇhāti.
5. Dīpayo girimhi vasanti.
6. Ari asinā patiṃ paharati.
7. Kavayo dīpamhi nidhiṃ khaṇanti.
8. Tvaṃ atithīnaṃ āhāraṃ desi.
9. Tumhe udadhimhi kīḷatha.
10. Vyādhayo loke manusse pīlenti.
11. Kapi ahino kucchiṃ paharati.
12. Kavino muṭṭhimhi maṇayo bhavanti.
13. Ravigirimhāudeti.
14. Ahaṃvīhīnaṃrāsiṃpassāmi.
15. Mayaṃgāmeāhiṇḍāma.
Translate into Pali
1. Leopards kill deer.
2. The sage comes from the mountain.
3. There is* a sword in the enemy’s hand.
4. There are** gems in the householder’s fist.
5. We give food to the guest.
6. The farmer’s sons measure a heap of paddy.
7. The serpent gets food from the poet.
8. The monks kindle a fire.
9. The householder gets a gem from the leader.
10. The monkeys on the tree strike the leopard.
11. The leader strikes the enemy with a sword.
12. Thesageslookatthesun.
13. Wegetpaddyfromthehusband.
14. Thesicknessoppressesthesonsoftheguest.
15. I see the sun upon the sea.
* There is = bhavati.

** There are = bhavanti. [20090723 星期三******]
Past Tense 过去时 18. Conjugation of Paca (to cook)
Past Indefinite, Active 一般过去时·主动语态
(Te) apaciṃsu, paciṃsu, apacuṃ, pacuṃ = they cooked
(So) apacī, pacī, apaci, paci = he cooked
(Tvaṃ) apaco, paco = thou didst cook
(Tumhe) apacittha, pacittha = you cooked
(Mayaṃ) apacimha, pacimha, apacimhā, pacimhā = we cooked
(Ahaṃ) apaciṃ, paciṃ = I cooked
The following are similarly conjugated:-
gacchi = went
gaṇhi = took
dadi = gave
khādi = ate
hari = carried
kari = did
āhari = brought
dhāvi = ran
The prefix a is not to be added to the bases beginning with a vowel.
19. The verbs of the seventh group are differently conjugated:
Past Indefinite, Active Pāla (to protect)
kiṇi = bought
vikkiṇi = sold
nisīdi = sat
sayi = slept
āruhi = ascended; climbed acari = walked; travelled
pālesi, pālayi
pālesuṃ, pālayuṃ, pālayiṃsu

pālesiṃ, pālayiṃ
pālayimha, pālayimhā
The following are similarly conjugated:- māresi = killed
jālesi = kindled
desesi = preached
ānesi = brought
coresi = stole
pūjesi = offered; respected
nesi = carried
thapesi = kept
cintesi = thought
pīḷesi = oppressed
kathesi = told
pātesi = dropped down or felled
Exercise 6
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
1. Munayo mañcesu nisīdiṃsu.
2. Ahaṃ dīpamhi acariṃ.
3. Corā gahapatino nidhiṃ coresuṃ.
4. Mayaṃ bhūpatino asiṃ olokayimha.
5. Tvaṃ atithino odanaṃ adado.
6. Adhipati vāṇijamhā maṇayo kiṇi.
7. Pati kassakaṃ vīhīṃ yāci.
8. Isayo kavīnaṃ dhammaṃ desesuṃ.
9. Kapayo girimhā rukkhaṃ dhāviṃsu.
10. Vāṇijāudadhimhigacchiṃsu.
11. Mayaṃmaggenagāmaṃgacchimha.
12. Dīpikapiṃmāresi.
13. Tumhepatinopadīpegaṇhittha.
14. AhaṃBuddhassapādepūjesiṃ.
15. Kavayo kapīnaṃ odanaṃ dadiṃsu.
16. Arayo asī ānesuṃ.
17. Ahikapinopāṇiṃdasi.

18. Mayaṃgirimhācandaṃpassimha.
19. Tumhemunīnaṃāhāraṃadadittha.
20. Bhūpati nidhayo pālesi.
Translate into Pali
1. The slave struck the enemy with a sword.
2. We got food from the householder.
3. He carried a monkey to the mountain.
4. The merchants went to the village by the road.
5. Birds flew to the sky from the tree.
6. The thieves stole the gems of the king.
7. I gave food to the sages.
8. The sons of the poet heard the doctrine from the monk.
9. I saw the leopard on the road.
10. The lion killed the deer on the rock.
11. They saw the mountain on the island.
12. The boy went to the sea.
13. The dogs ran to the village.
14. Themerchantboughtahorsefromtheleader.
15. Theguestbroughtagemin(his)fist.
16. Themonkeycaughttheserpentby(its)belly.
17. The householder slept on a bed.
18. We dwelt in an island.
19. The boy struck the monkey with (his) hands.
20. Isawtheking’ssword.
N.B. — The verbs implying motion govern the Accusative; therefore “to the mountain” in the 3rd, and “to the village” in the 13th must be translated with the Accusative as: giriṃ, gāmaṃ.
But “to the sages” in the 7th must be in the Dative, because the person to whom some thing is given is put in the Dative.
The New Pali Course Book 1
Personal Pronouns 人称代(名)词 20

20. Two personal pronouns amha and tumha are declined here because of their frequent usage. There are of the common gender and have no vocative forms.
The First Personal “Amha”
ahaṃ = I
mayaṃ, amhe = we
amhe, amhākaṃ, no = us
maṃ, mamaṃ = me
mayā, me
amhebhi, amhehi, no
mama, mayhaṃ, me, mamaṃ
Dat., Gen.
amhaṃ, amhākaṃ, no
amhebhi, amhehi
The Second Personal “Tumha”
tvaṃ, tuvaṃ = thou
tumhe = you
taṃ, tavaṃ, tuvaṃ = thee
tumhe, tumhākaṃ, vo = you
tvayā, tayā, te
tumhebhi, tumhehi, vo
Dat., Gen.
tava, tuyhaṃ, te
tumhaṃ, tumhākaṃ, vo
tvayā, tayā
tumhebhi, tumhehi
tvayi, tayi
N.B. — Te, me and vo, no should not be used at the beginning of a sentenced.
Note. — The word for “not” in Pali is na or no; the word for “is not” or “has not” is natthi.

Exercise 7
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
1. Ahaṃ mayhaṃ puttassa assaṃ adadiṃ.
2. Tvaṃ amhākaṃ gāmā āgacchasi.
3. Mayaṃ tava hatthe passāma.
4. Mama puttā giriṃ āruhiṃsu.
5. Tumhākaṃ sunakhā magge sayiṃsu.
6. Amhaṃ mittā coraṃ asinā pahariṃsu.
7. Tumhaṃ dāsā arīnaṃ asse hariṃsu.
8. Coro mama puttassa maṇayo coresi.
9. Isayo mayhaṃ gehe na vasiṃsu.
10. Kavi tava puttānaṃ dhammaṃ desesi.
11. Amhesu kodho* natthi.
12. Tumhe vāṇijassa mayūre kiṇittha.
13. Mayaṃ bhūpatino mige vikkiṇimha.
14. Gahapatino putto maṃ pahari.
15. Adhipatino dāsā mama goṇe pahariṃsu.
16. Ahaṃ tumhākaṃ vīhī na gaṇhiṃ.
17. Dīpī gāmamhā na dhāvi.
18. Tumhe ahayo na māretha.
19. Mayaṃ atithīnaṃ odanaṃ pacimha.
20. Kapayo maṃ āhāraṃ yāciṃsu.
Translate into Pali
1. I sold my gems to a merchant.
2. We gave our oxen to the slaves.
3. You bought a sword from me.
4. (You) don’t beat monkeys with your hands.
5. The leader brought a lion from the mountain.
6. The monk preached the doctrine to you.

7. We gave food to the serpents.
8. The slaves of the householder carried our paddy.
9. You did not go to the sea.
10. There are no gems in my fist.
11. The poet’s son struck the dog with a stick.
12. Our sons learnt from the sage.
13. Your monkey fell down from a tree.
14. My dog went with me to the house.
15. A serpent bit my son’s hand.
16. The leopard killed a bull on the road.
17. My friends looked at the lions.
18. We did not see the king’s sword.
19. I did not go to the deer.
20. Thou buyest a peacock from the poet.
* kodha = anger (m)
Future Tense 将来时 21. Conjugation of Paca (to cook)
Future indicative, Active.
(so) pacissati = he will cook
(te) pacissanti = they will cook
(tvaṃ) pacissasi = thou wilt cook
(tumhe) pacissatha = you will cook
(ahaṃ) pacissāmi = I shall cook
(mayaṃ) pacissāma = we shall cook
The following are conjugated similarly:- gamissati = he will go
bhuñjissati = he will eat

harissati = he will carry vasissati = he will live dadissati = he will give karissati = he will do passissati = he will see bhāyissati = he will fear
All verbs given in the Present Tense may be changed into Future by inserting issa between the base and the termination, and dropping the last vowel of the base, e.g. bhuñja + ti >> bhuñj + issa + ti = bhuñjissati.
22. Declension of masculine nouns ending in ī
以 ī 结尾的阳性名词的词尾变化(名词之 III) Pakkhī (Bird)
Nom., Voc.
pakkhī, pakkhino
pakkhinaṃ, pakkhiṃ
pakkhī, pakkhino
pakkhībhi, pakkhīhi
Dat., Gen.
pakkhino, pakkhissa
pakkhinā, pakkhimhā, pakkhismā
pakkhībhi, pakkhīhi
pakkhini, pakkhimhi, pakkhismiṃ
Some of the similarly declined are:- hatthī = elephant
sāmī = lord
kuṭṭhī = leper
dāṭhī = tusker
bhogī = serpent
pāpakārī = evil-doer
dīghajīvī = possessor of a long live seṭṭhī = millionaire

bhāgī = sharer
sukhī = receiver of comfort, happy mantī = minister
karī = elephant
sikhī = peacock
balī = a powerful person
sasī = moon
chattī = possessor of an umbrella mālī = one who has a garland sārathī = charioteer
gaṇī = one who has a following
Exercise 8
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
1. Mantī hatthinaṃ āruhissati.
2. Mayaṃ seṭṭhino gehaṃ gamissāma.
3. Tvaṃ sāmino puttassa kapiṃ dadissasi.
4. Gaṇino sukhino bhavissanti.
5. Amhākaṃ sāmino dīghajīvino na bhavanti.
6. Pāpakārī yaṭṭhinā bhogiṃ māresi.
7. Mama puttā seṭṭhino gāme vasissanti.
8. Kuṭṭhī sārathino pādaṃ yaṭṭhinā pahari.
9. Sikhī chattimhā bhāyissati.
10. Sārathī asse gāmamhā harissati.
11. Tumhe mālīhi sasinaṃ olokessatha.
12. Balī dāṭhino kāyaṃ chindissati.
13. Amhākaṃ mantino balino abhaviṃsu.
14. Seṭṭhino mālino passissanti.
15. Mayaṃ gehe odanaṃ bhuñjissāma.

Translate into Pali
1. Our lord went to the minister.
2. The millionaire will be the possessor of a long life.
3. Evil-doers will not become* receivers of comfort.
4. The tusker will strike the leper.
5. The minister will get a peacock from the lord.
6. The charioteer will buy horses for the minister**.
7. My peacocks will live on the mountain.
8. The serpents will bite the powerful.
9. The lord’s sons will see the lions of the millionaire.
10. We will buy a deer from the guest.
11. The elephant killed a man with (its) feet.
12. You will not be a millionaire.
13. The king’s sons will eat with the ministers.
14. The monkeys will not fall from the tree.
15. I will not carry the elephant of the charioteer.
* “will not become” = na bhavissanti. ** Dative must be used here.
23. Declension of masculine nouns ending in u
以 U 结尾的阳性名词的词尾变化(名词之 IV)
Garu (teacher)
Nom., Voc.
garū, garavo
garū, garavo
garūbhi, garūhi
garunā, garumhā, garusmā
garūbhi, garūhi
Dat., Gen.
garuno, garussa
garumhi, garusmiṃ

Some of the similarly declined are:- bhikkhu* = monk
bandhu = relation taru = tree
bāhu = arm sindhu = sea pharasu = axe pasu = beast ākhu = rat
ucchu = sugar-cane veḷu = bamboo kaṭacchu = spoon sattu = enemy
setu = bridge ketu = banner susu = young one
* Bhikkhu has an additional form ‘bhikkhave’ in the vocative plural.
Some nouns of the same ending are differently declined. 24. Bhātu (brother)
bhātare, bhātaro
bhātarebhi, bhātarehi, bhātūbhi, bhātūhi
Ins., Abl.
bhātu, bhātuno, bhātussa
bhātarānaṃ, bhātānaṃ, bhātūnaṃ
Dat., Gen.
bhātaresu, bhātusu

bhāta, bhātā
Pitu (father) is similarly declined. 25. Nattu (grandson)
nattāre, nattāro
Ins., Abl.
nattārebhi, nattārehi
nattu, nattuno, nattussa
nattārānaṃ, nattānaṃ
Dat., Gen.
natta, nattā
Some of the similarly declined are:- satthu = adviser, teacher
kattu = doer, maker
bhattu = husband
gantu = goer
sotu = hearer
netu = leader vattu = sayer
jetu = victor vinetu = instructor viññātu = knower dātu = giver
26. The prepositions saha (with) and saddhiṃ (with) govern the Instrumental case and are usually placed after the word governed by them. The Instrumental alone sometimes gives the meaning “with”.
The equivalent to the conjunction “and” is ca in Pali. Api or pi also is sometimes used in the same sense.
The equivalent to “or” is vā.

Exercise 9
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
1. Bandhavo susūhi saddhiṃ amhākaṃ gehaṃ āga missanti.
2. Sattu pharasunā tava taravo chindissati.
3. Garu mayhaṃ susūnaṃ ucchavo adadi.
4. Bhikkhavo nattārānaṃ dhammaṃ desessanti.
5. Tvaṃ bandhunā saha sindhuṃ gamissasi.
6. Assā ca goṇā ca gāme āhiṇḍissanti.
7. Tumhe pasavo vā pakkhī vā na māressatha.
8. Mayaṃ netārehi saha satthāraṃ pūjessāma.
9. Bhātā veḷunā pakkhiṃ māresi.
10. Amhākaṃ pitaro sattūnaṃ ketavo āhariṃsu.
11. Jetā dātāraṃ bāhunā pahari.
12. Satthā amhākaṃ netā bhavissati.
13. Mayaṃ pitarā saddhiṃ veḷavo āharissāma.
14. Ahayo ākhavo bhuñjanti.
15. Mama sattavo setumhi nisīdiṃsu.
16. Amhaṃ bhātaro ca pitaro ca sindhuṃ gacchiṃsu.
17. Ahaṃ mama bhātarā saha sikhino vikkiṇissāmi.
18. Susavo kaṭacchunā odanaṃ āhariṃsu.
19. Gāmaṃ gantā tarūsu ketavo passissati.
20. Setuṃ kattā gāmamhā veḷavo āhari.
Translate into Pali
1. I shall cut bamboos with my axe.
2. The teachers will look at the winner.
3. They carried sugar-canes for the elephants.
4. Hearers will come to the monks.
5. Leopards and lions do not live in villages.
6. I went to see the adviser with my brother.

7. Our fathers and brothers were merchants.
8. My brother’s son killed a bird with a stick.
9. Our relations will buy peacocks and birds.
10. Monkeys and deer live on the mountain.
11. He struck my grandon’s arm.
12. Enemies will carry (away) our leader’s banner.
13. Builders of the bridges* bought bamboos from the lord.
14. Rats will fear from the serpents.
15. I gave rice to my relation.
16. The giver brought (some) rice with a spoon.
17. My father’s beasts were on the rock.
18. Our brothers and grandsons will not buy elephants.
19. The teacher’s son will buy a horse or an ox.
20. My brother or his son will bring a monkey for the young ones.
* Builders of the bridges = setuṃ kattāro or setuno kattāro.
27. Adjectival nouns ending in -vantu and -mantu are differently declined from the above masculine nouns ending in -u.
1. They are often used as adjectives; but they become substantives when they stand alone in the place of the person or the thing they qualify.
2. There are declined in all genders. In the feminine, they change their final vowel, e.g. guṇavatī, sīlavatī; guṇavantī, sīlavantī.

***The New Pali Course Book 1********** 28. Masculine ending in -u
Declension of Guṇavantu (virtuous)
Case Singular Plural
Nom. guṇavā
guṇavanto, guṇavantā
Acc. guṇavantaṃ guṇavante
Ins. guṇavatā, guṇavantena
guṇavantebhi, guṇavantehi
Dat., Gen. guṇavato, guṇavantassa
guṇavataṃ, guṇavantānaṃ
guṇavatā, guṇavantamhā, guṇavantebhi, guṇavantasmā guṇavantehi
Loc. guṇavati, guṇavante, guṇavantesu guṇavantamhi, guṇavantasmiṃ
Voc. guṇavaṃ, guṇava, guṇavā
guṇavanto, guṇavantā
The following are declined similarly:- dhanavantu = rich 富有的
balavantu = powerful 有权势的 bhānumantu = sun
bhagavantu = the Exalted One, fortunate paññavantu = wise
yasavantu = famous satimantu = mindful buddhimantu = intelligent puññavantu = fortunate kulavantu = of high caste

phalavantu = fruitful
himavantu = the Himalaya, possessor of ice cakkhumantu = possessor of eyes
sīlavantu = virtuous, observant of precepts bandhumantu = with many relations
Those ending in -mantu should be declined as: cakkhumā, cakkhumanto, cakkhumatā and so on.
29. Declension of masculine nouns ending in ū Vidū (wise man or knower)
Nom., Voc.
vidū, viduno
vidū, viduno
vidūbhi, vidūhi
Dat., Gen.
viduno, vidussa
The rest are similar to those of garu. The following are declined similarly:-
pabhū = over-lord
sabbaññū = the omniscient one
atthaññū = knower of the meaning
vadaññū = charitable person
viññū = wise man
mattaññū = temperate, one who knows the measure
30. Adverbs of time kadā = when?
tadā = then
sadā = ever, always idāni = now
ajja = today
suve = tomorrow

hīyo = yesterday
yadā = when, whenever
ekadā = one day, once
pacchā = afterwards
purā = formerly, in former days sāyaṃ = in the evening
pāto = in the morning
parasuve = day after tomorrow parahīyo = day before yesterday
Exercise 10&&&&
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
1. Bhagavā ajja sotārānaṃ dhammaṃ desessati.
2. Bhikkhavo bhagavantaṃ vandiṃsu.
3. Cakkhumanto sadā bhānumantaṃ passanti.
4. Tadā balavanto veḷūhi arī pahariṃsu.
5. Kadā tumhe dhanavantaṃ passissatha?
6. Suve mayaṃ sīlavante vandissāma.
7. Bhagavanto sabbaññuno bhavanti.
8. Viduno kulavato gehaṃ gacchiṃsu.
9. Himavati kapayo ca pakkhino ca isayo ca vasiṃsu.
10. Puññavato nattā buddhimā bhavi.
11. Kulavataṃ bhātaro dhanavanto na bhaviṃsu.
12. Ahaṃ Himavantamhi phalavante rukkhe passiṃ.
13. Purā mayaṃ Himavantaṃ gacchimha.
14. Hīyo sāyaṃ bandhumanto yasavataṃ gāmaṃ gacchiṃsu.
15. Viññuno pacchā pabhuno gehe vasissanti
Translate into Pali
1. Sons of the wealthy are not always wise.
2. One who has relations does not fear enemies.

3. The brothers of the virtuous will bow down to the Exalted One.
4. Your grandsons are not intelligent.
5. Tomorrow the wise men will preach to the men of the high caste.
6. Today the rich will go to a mountain in the Himalayas.
7. There are fruitful trees, lions and leopards in the garden of the rich man.
8. When will the famous men come to our village?
9. The sons of the powerful will always be famous.
10. Once, the wise man’s brother struck the virtuous man.
11. Formerly I lived in the house of the over-lord.
12. Yesterday there were elephants and horses in the garden.
13. Now the man of high caste will buy a lion and a deer.
14. Our fathers were mindful.
15. Once we saw the sun from the rich man’s garden.
Declension of Feminine Nouns 阴性名词的词尾变化 31. There are no nouns ending in -a in feminine.
Vanitā (woman)
vanitā, vanitāyo
vanitā, vanitāyo
Abl., Ins.
vanitābhi, vanitāhi
Dat., Gen.
vanitāyaṃ, vanitāya
vanitā, vanitāyo
The following are declined similarly:- kaññā = girl
gaṅgā = river

nāvā = ship
ammā = mother
disā = direction
senā = army, multitude
sālā = hall
bhariyā = wife
vasudhā = earth
vācā = word
sabhā = society
dārikā = girl
latā = creeper
kathā = speech
paññā = wisdom
vaḷavā = mare
laṅkā = Ceylon
pipāsā = thirst
khudā = hunger
niddā = sleep
pūjā = offering
parisā = following, retinue gīvā = neck
jivhā = tongue
nāsā = nose
jaṅghā = calf of the leg shank guhā = cave
chāyā = shadow, shade
tulā = scale, balance
silā = stone
vālukā = sand
mañjūsā = box
mālā = garland
surā = liquor, intoxicant visikhā = street
sākhā = branch
sakkharā = gravel
devatā = deity
dolā = palanquin
godhā = iguana

The Imperative 祈使句
32. The Imperative Mood is used to express command, prayer, advice or
wish. This is called Pañcamī in Pali and includes the Benedictive. Paca (to cook)
(so) pacatu = let him cook
(te) pacantu = let them cook
(tvaṃ) paca, pacāhi = cookest
(tumhe) pacatha = cook you
(mayaṃ) pacāma = let us cook
(ahaṃ) pacāmi = let me cook
The following are conjugated similarly:- hotu = let it be
pivatu = let him drink jayatu = let him conquer rakkhatu = let him protect ṭhapetu = let him keep bhavatu = let it be gacchatu = let him go pakkhipatu = let him put in bhāsatu = let him say [090801]
The Optative or Potential 条件(选择)句
33. The Potential Mood - called “Sattami” in Pali - expresses probability, command, wish, prayer, hope, advice and capability. It is used in conditional or hypothetical sentences in which one statement depends upon another.

Verbs containing auxiliary parts may, might, can, could, should and would are included in this mood.
Paca (to cook)
(So) paceyya = if he (would) cook
(Te) paceyyuṃ = if they (would) cook
(Tvaṃ) paceyyāsi = if thou (wouldst) cook
(Tumhe) paceyyātha = if you (would) cook
(Ahaṃ) paceyyāmi = if I (would) cook
(Mayaṃ) paceyyāma = if we (would) cook
The following are conjugated similarly:- bhuñjeyya (if he eats)
nahāyeyya (if he bathes)
katheyya (if he says)
āhareyya (if he brings)
ṭhapeyya (if he keeps)
bhaveyya (if he becomes; if he would be)
Exercise 11
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
1. Vanitāyo nāvāhi gaṅgāyaṃ gacchantu.
2. Tvaṃ sālāyaṃ kaññānaṃ odanaṃ pacāhi.
3. Sace tumhe nahāyissatha, ahaṃ pi nahāyissāmi.
4. Yadi so sabhāyaṃ katheyya, ahaṃ pi katheyyāmi.
5. Laṅkāya bhūpatino senāyo jayantu.
6. Devatā vasudhāyaṃ manusse rakkhantu.
7. Sace te vālukaṃ āhareyyuṃ ahaṃ (taṃ) kiṇissāmi.
Note. Equivalents to “if” are sace, yadi and ce; but ce should not be used at the beginning of a sentence.

8. Tumhe dārikāya hatthe mālaṃ ṭhapetha.
9. Sālāya chāyā vasudhāya patati.
10. Corā mañjūsāyo guhaṃ hariṃsu.
11. Kaññāyo godhaṃ sakkharāhi pahariṃsu.
12. Hatthī soṇḍāya taruno sākhaṃ chindi.
13. Sace mayaṃ guhāyaṃ sayeyyāma pasavo no haneyyuṃ.
14. Tumhe mittehi saha suraṃ mā pivatha*.
15. Mayaṃ parisāya saddhiṃ odanaṃ bhuñjissāma.
16. Bhānumato pabhā sindhumi bhavatu.
17. Dārikā kaññāya nāsāyaṃ sakkharaṃ pakkhipi.
18. Tumhe parisāhi saddhiṃ mama kathaṃ suṇātha.
19. Amhākaṃ ammā dolāya gāmaṃ agacchi.
20. Sace tvaṃ vaḷavaṃ kiṇeyyāsi, ahaṃ assaṃ kiṇissāmi.
* Mā pivatha = do not drink. Particle mā should be used in such a place
instead of na.
Translate into Pali
1. The robber carried the box to the cave.
2. Go to your village with your mothers.
3. Let the women go along the river in a ship.
4. If he buys a deer I will sell my mare.
5. We heard the speech of the girl at the meeting.
6. We utter words with our tongues.
7. Do not strike the iguana with pebbles.
8. May my following be victorious in the island of Laṅkā.
9. May our offerings be to the wise.
10. Adorn* the maiden’s neck with a garland.
11. The shadow of the creeper falls on the earth.
12. The woman brought a scale from the hall.
13. Do not drink liquor with girls and boys.
14. If you will cook rice I will give food to the woman.
15. May the deities protect our sons and grandsons.

16. The girls brought sand from the street.
17. My following cut the branches of the tree.
18. Let the elephant bring a stone to the street.
19. The beasts will kill him if he will sit in the cave. 20. There are gems in the maiden’s box.
* Adorn — alaṇkarohi.
34. Declension of feminine stems ending in -i
Bhūmi (earth, ground or floor)
Nom., Voc.
bhūmi, bhūmiyo
bhūmi, bhūmiyo
Abl., Ins.
bhūmiyā, bhūmyā
bhūmībhi, bhūmīhi
Dat., Gen.
bhūmiyaṃ, bhūmiyā
The following are declined similarly:- ratti = night
aṭavi = forest
doṇi = boat
asani = thunder-bolt kitti = fame
yuvati = maiden
sati = memory
mati = wisdom
khanti = patience aṅguli = finger
patti = infantry
vuṭṭhi = rain
yaṭṭhi = (walking) stick nāḷi = corn-measure

dundubhi = drum
dhūli = dust
vuddhi = increase, progress
35. Declension of feminine stems ending in -ī Kumārī (girl, damsel)
Nom., Voc.
kumārī, kumāriyo
kumārī, kumāriyo
Abl., Ins.
kumārībhi, kumārīhi
Dat., Gen.
kumāriyaṃ, kumāriyā
The following are declined similarly:- nārī = woman
taruṇī = young woman
rājinī = queen
itthī = woman
sakhī = woman-friend brāhmaṇī = brahman woman bhaginī = sister
dāsī = slave woman
devī = queen, goddess
sakuṇī = bird (female)
migī = deer (female)
sīhī = lioness
kukkuṭī = hen
kākī = she-crow
nadī = river
vāpī = tank
pokkharaṇī = pond
kadalī = plantain
gāvī = cow
mahī = earth, the river of that name hatthinī = she-elephant

Absolutives or so-called Indeclinable Past Participles
36. The words ending in tvā, tvāna, tūna and ya, like katvā (having done), gantvāna (having gone), and ādāya (having taken), are called Absolutives, which cannot be declined. All other participles, being verbal adjectives, are declined.
Some European Pali scholars have called them “gerunds”; but, as the Past Participles may be used in their place without affecting the sense, they resemble more in the Active Past Participle, e.g.,
In the sentence:
So gāmaṃ gantvā bhattaṃ bhuñji (Having gone to the village, he ate rice)…
“gantvā” may be replaced by Past Participle gato.
In analysing a sentence, these go to the extension of the predicate, which
in fact shows that they are neither gerunds nor participles.
1. pacitvā = having cooked
2. bhuñjitvā = having eaten
3. pivitvā = having drunk
4. sayitvā = having slept
5. ṭhatvā = having stood
6. pacitūna = having cooked
7. ādāya = having taken 已经取
8. vidhāya = having commanded or done
9. pahāya = having left
10. nahātvā = having bathed
11. kīḷitvā = having played
12. okkamma = having gone aside
A. Tvā, tvāna and tūna may be optionally used, and they are added to the base by means of a connection vowel i, when the base is not ending in a long ā.
B. “Ya” is mostly added to the roots compounded with prefixes, e.g. ā + dā + ya = ādāya, vi + dhā + ya = vidhāya.

In other cases it is sometimes assimilated with the last consonant of the base or sometimes interchanged with it, e.g.,
(1) Assimilated:
ā + gam + ya = āgamma (having come)
ni + kham + ya = nikkhamma (having come out)
(2) Interchanged:
ā + ruh + ya = āruyha (having ascended)
pa + gah + ya = paggayha (having raised up) o + ruh + ya = oruyha (having descended)
Exercise 12
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
1. Brāhmaṇī kumāriyā saddhiṃ nadiyaṃ nahātvā gehaṃ agami.
2. Nāriyo odanaṃ pacitvā bhuñjitvā kukkuṭīnaṃ pi adaṃsu.
3. Kumāriyo sakhīhi saha vāpiṃ gantvā nahāyissanti.
4. Rājinī dīpā nikkhamma nāvāya gamissati.
5. Vānarī itthiyo passitvā taruṃ āruyha nisīdi.
6. Taruṇī hatthehi sākhaṃ ādāya ākaḍḍhi*.
7. Tumhe vāpiṃ taritvā** aṭaviṃ pavisatha***.
8. Dīpayo aṭavīsu ṭhatvā migī māretvā khādanti.
9. Yuvatīnaṃ pitaro aṭaviyā āgamma bhuñjitvā sayiṃsu.
10. Hatthinī pokkharaṇiṃ oruyha nahātvā kadaliyo khādi.
11. Sīhī migiṃ māretvā susūnaṃ dadissati.
12. Gāviyo bhūmiyaṃ sayitvā uṭṭhahitvā**** aṭaviṃ pavisiṃsu.
13. Mama mātulānī puttassa dundubhiṃ ānessati.
14. Sakuṇī mahiyaṃ āhiṇḍitvā āhāraṃ labhati.
15. Kākī taruno sākhāsu nisīditvā ravitvā***** ākāsaṃ uḍḍessanti.
* Pulled; dragged.
** Having crossed.
*** (you) enter.
**** Having risen.
***** Having crowed or having made a noise.
Translate into Pali
1. Having killed a deer in the forest the lioness ate it.

2. 3.
4. 5. 6.
10. 11.
12. 13.
Having gone to the village the brahman woman bought a hen yesterday.
The damsels went to the tank, and having bathed and played there, came home.
The she-monkey, having climbed the tree, sat on a branch.
The brothers of the girl, having played and bathed, ate rice.
Sisters of the boys, having bought garlands, adorned the neck of the
Having crossed the river, the she-elephant ate plantain (trees) in the
garden of a woman.
Having brought a boat, our sisters will cross the tank and enter the
Having cooked rice for the father, the maiden went to the pond with
her (female) friends.
Having come from the wood, the damsel’s father fell on the ground. The cows and oxen of the millionaire, having drunk from the tank,
entered the forest.
Having bought a drum, the woman’s sister gave (it) to her friend. Having gone to the forest along the river, our brothers killed a
The queen, having come to the king’s tank, bathed there* with her
retinue and walked in the garden.
The she-crow, having sat on the branch slept there* after crowing**.
* There = tattha.
** “Ravitvā” may be used for “after crowing”. ****The New Pali Course Book 1
37. Feminine nouns ending in -u
Dhenu (cow [of any kind])
Nom., Voc.
dhenū, dhenuyo
dhenū, dhenuyo
Abl., Ins.
dhenūbhi, dhenūhi
Dat., Gen.为/属

dhenuyaṃ, dhenuyā
Some of the similarly declined are:- yāgu = rice gruel
kāsu = pit 坑洞
vijju = lightning 闪电 rajju = rope 绳子 daddu = eczema 湿疹 kacchu = itch 痒 kaṇeru = she-elephant dhātu = element
sassu = mother-in-law
38. Mātu is differently declined from the above. Mātu (mother)
mātare, mātaro
mātarebhi, māterehi, mātūbbhi, mātūhi
Abl., Ins.
Dat., Gen.
mātarānaṃ, mātānaṃ, mātūnaṃ
mātaresu, mātusu
māta, mātā, māte
Dhītu (daughter) and duhitu (daughter) are declined like mātu.
39. Adverbs of Place 方位副词 tattha = there
ettha = here idha = here

upari = up, over tiriyaṃ = across
kattha = where?
tatra = there
kuhiṃ = where?
anto = inside
antarā = between sabbattha = everywhere ekattha = in one place kuto = from where? tato = from there
Exercise 13
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
1. Dāsiyā mātā dhenuṃ rajjuyā bandhitvā ānesi.
2. Mayhaṃ mātulānī yāguṃ pacitvā dhītarānaṃ dadissati.
3. Kaṇeruyo aṭaviyaṃ āhiṇḍitvā tattha kāsūsu patiṃsu.
4. Dhanavatiyā sassu idha āgamma bhikkhū vandissati.
5. Rājiniyā dhītaro ārāmaṃ gantvā satthāraṃ mālāhi pūjesuṃ.
6. Kaññānaṃ pitaro dhītarānaṃ vuddhiṃ icchanti.
7. Kuto tvaṃ dhenuyo kiṇissasi?
8. Kattha tava bhaginiyo nahāyitvā pacitvā bhuñjiṃsu?
9. Te gehassa ca rukkhassa ca antarā kīḷiṃsu.
10. Nāriyā duhitaro gehassa anto mañcesu sayissanti.
11. Dhītuyā jaṅghāyaṃ daddu atthi.
12. Yuvatī mālā pilandhitvā sassuyā gehaṃ gamissati.
13. Amhākaṃ mātarānaṃ gāviyo sabbattha caritvā bhuñjitvā sāyaṃ
ekattha sannipatanti*.
14. Dhanavatiyā nattāro magge tiriyaṃ dhāvitvā aṭaviṃ pavisitvā
15. Asani rukkhassa upari patitvā sākhā chinditvā taruṃ māresi.
* Sannipatati = assembles; comes together. ** Nilīyati = hides oneself.

1. 2.
4. 5. 6. 7.
9. 10. 11.
12. 13.
14. 15.
Translate into Pali
The girl’s mother gave a garland to the damsel.
Having tied the cows with ropes the woman dragged (them) to the
Having wandered everywhere in the island, the damsel’s sister came home and ate (some) food.
Where does your mother’s sister live?
My sister’s daughters live in one place.
When will they come to the river?
The queen’s mother-in-law came* here yesterday and went back**
Having bathed in the tank, the daughters of the rich woman walked across the garden.
Our aunts will cook* rice-gruel and drink it with women friends. The cows of the mother-in-law walk between the rock and the trees. When will your mothers and daughters go to the garden and hear the
words of the Buddha?
From where did you bring the elephant?
Sons of the queen went* along the river*** to a forest and there fell
in a pit.
There is itch on the hand of the sister.
The thunder-bolt fell* on a rock and broke it into two****. * Use absolutives like gantvā.
** Went back = paṭinivatti or paccāyami.
*** Along the river = nadiṃ anu or nadī passena. **** Breaks into two = dvidhā bhindati.
Neuter Gender 中性名词 40. Declension of neuter nouns ending in -a
Nayana (eye)
nayanā, nayanāni
nayanā, nayanāni

nayanebhi, nayanehi
nayanāya, nayanassa
nayanā, nayanamhā, nayanasmā
nayanebhi, nayanehi
nayane, nayanamhi, nayanasmiṃ
nayana, nayanā
The following are declined similarly:- dhana = wealth
phala = fruit
dāna = charity, alms
sīla = precept, virtue puñña = merit, good action pāpa = sin
rūpa = form, image
sota = ear
ghāna = nose
pīṭha = chair
vadana = face, mouth locana = eye
maraṇa = death
ceti = shrine
paduma = lotus
paṇṇa = leaf
susāna = cemetery
āyudha = weapon
amata = ambrosia
tiṇa = grass
udaka = water
jala = water
pulina = sand
sopāṇa = stair
hadaya = heart
arañña = forest
vattha = cloth
suvaṇṇa = gold

sukha = comfort
dukkha = trouble, pain mūla = root, money
kula = family, caste
kūla = bank (of a river, etc.) bala = power, strength
vana = forest
puppha = flower
citta = mind
chatta = umbrella
aṇda = egg
kāraṇa = reason
ñāṇa = wisdom
khīra = milk
nagara = city
The Infinitive 不定式
41. The sign of the infinitive is -tuṃ. It is used as in English: pacituṃ = to cook
pivituṃ = to drink
bhottuṃ or bhuñjituṃ = to eat laddhuṃ or labhituṃ = to get dātuṃ = to give
pātuṃ = to drink
gantuṃ = to go
kātuṃ = to do
harituṃ = to carry
āharituṃ = to bring
Tuṃ is simply added to the roots of one syllable to form the infinitive. An extra -i- is added before tuṃ in the case of the bases consisting of more than one syllable.
Exercise 14
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
Dhanavanto bhātarānaṃ dhanaṃ dātuṃ na icchanti. 48

2. Dānaṃ datvā sīlaṃ rakkhitvā sagge* nibbattituṃ** sakkonti***.
3. Kumārī alātaṃ ānetvā bhattaṃ pacituṃ aggiṃ jālessati.
4. Nāriyo nagarā nikkhamma udakaṃ pātuṃ vāpiyā kūlaṃ gacchiṃsu.
5. Nattāro araññā phalāni āharitvā khādituṃ ārabhiṃsu****.
6. Sīlavā isi dhammaṃ desetuṃ pīṭhe nisīdi.
7. Coro āyudhena paharitvā mama pituno aṅguliṃ chindi.
8. Yuvatiyo padumāni ocinituṃ***** nadiṃ gantvā kūle nisīdiṃsu.
9. Mayaṃ chattāni ādāya susānaṃ gantvā pupphāni ocinissāma.
10. Kaññā vatthaṃ ānetuṃ āpaṇaṃ gamissati.
11. Tumhe vanaṃ gantvā gāvīnaṃ dātuṃ paṇṇāni āharatha.
12. Mayaṃ locanehi rūpāni passitvā sukhaṃ dukkhaṃ ca labhāma.
13. Tvaṃ sotena suṇituṃ ghāṇena ghāyituṃ****** ca sakkosi.
14. Kukkuṭiyā aṇḍāni rukkhassa mūle santi.
15. Viduno amataṃ labhitvā maraṇaṃ na bhāyanti.
16. Manussā cittena cintetvā******* puññāni karissanti.
17. Tumhe dhammaṃ sotuṃ ārāmaṃ gantvā puline nisīdatha.
18. Dhanavanto suvaṇṇaṃ datvā ñāṇaṃ laddhuṃ na sakkonti.
19. Dārako chattaṃ gaṇhituṃ******** sopāṇaṃ āruhi.
20. Mama bhaginī puññaṃ labhituṃ sīlaṃ rakkhissati.
* Sagga = heaven.
** To be born.
*** Are able.
**** Began.
***** To gather, to collect. ****** To smell.
******* Having thought. ******** To take.
Translate into Pali
1. The boys went to the foot of the tree to eat fruits.
2. The maiden climbed the tree to gather flowers.
3. I went into the house to bring an umbrella and a cloth.
4. The girl asked for a fire-brand to make a fire.
5. We are able to see objects (=forms) with our eyes.
6. You smell with your nose and hear with your ears.
7. Having gone to hear the doctrine, they sat on the sand.
8. People are not able to purchase wisdom with (their) gold.
9. Having divided* his wealth the rich man gave (them) to his sons and

10. 11. 12.
18. 19.
The maidens went out of the city (in order) to bathe in the river. There were umbrellas in the hands of the women on the road. Having struck her with a weapon, the enemy wounded** the hand of
my mother-in-law.
Having gone to the garden they brought flowers and fruits for the
to the shrine.
He will go to the forest in order to bring leaves and grass for the
The girls and boys brought lotuses from the pond (in order) to offer
Having bathed in the tank, our sisters and brothers came home to eat and sleep.
Having seen a leopard the boy ran across the garden and crossed*** the river.
You get merit through charity and virtue.
Having grazed (eaten grass) in the cemetery, my aunt’s cows went to the tank in order to drink water.
The maidens bought flowers in order to make**** garlands for (their)
* Bhājetvā.
** Vaṇitaṃ akasi.
*** Tari.
**** Kātuṃ; paṭiyādetuṃ.
42. Neuter nouns ending in -i
Aṭṭhi (bone, seed)
Nom., Voc.
aṭṭhī, aṭṭhīni
aṭṭhī, aṭṭhīni
aṭṭhībhi, aṭṭhīhi
Dat., Gen.
aṭṭhino, aṭṭhissa
aṭṭhinā, aṭṭhimhā, aṭṭhismā
aṭṭhībhi, aṭṭhīhi
aṭṭhini, aṭṭhimhi, aṭṭhismiṃ
aṭṭhisu, aṭṭhīsu
The following are similarly declined:
1. vāri = water
2. akkhi = eye

3. sappi = ghee 酥油
4. dadhi = curd 凝乳
5. acci = flame 火焰
6. satthi = thigh 大腿
43. Neuter nouns ending in -u
Cakkhu (eye)
The rest are similar to those of garu. The following are declined similarly:-
āyu = age
dhanu = bow
madhu = honey
assu = tear
jānu, jaṇṇu = knee dāru = firewood ambu = water
tipu = lead
vasu = wealth
vapu = body
vatthu = ground, base jatu = sealing wax
44. Some more particles 小品词
Particles, named avyaya in Pali, consists of adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions, indeclinable past participles ending in tvā, tvāna, tūna and ya, and infinitives.
āma = yes
evaṃ = thus, yes addhā = certainly vā, athavā = or puna = again
tathā = in that way sakiṃ = once
Nom., Voc.
cakkhū, cakkhūni
cakkhū, cakkhūni
cakkhūbhi, cakkhūhi

sanikaṃ = slowly
sīghaṃ = quickly, soon
purato = in the front of, before yāva, tāva = till then, so long nānā = separately
vinā = without
kathaṃ = how?
kasmā = why?
Exercise 15
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
1. Mayaṃ gāviyā khīraṃ, khīramhā dadhiṃ, dadhimhā sappiñca labhāma.
2. Mātā dhītuyā akkhīsu assūni disvā (tassā)* vadanaṃ vārinā dhovi.
3. Kasmā tvaṃ ajja vāpiṃ gantvā puna nadiṃ gantuṃ icchasi?
4. Kathaṃ tava bhātaro nadiyā padumāni ocinitvā āharissanti?
5. Addhā te dhanūni ādāya vanaṃ pavisitvā migaṃ māretvā ānessanti.
6. Amhākaṃ pitaro tadā vanamhā madhuṃ āharitvā dadhinā saha
7. Mayaṃ suve tumhehi** vinā araññaṃ gantvā dārūni
8. Kumārā sīghaṃ dhāvitvā vāpiyaṃ kīlitvā sanikaṃ gehāni agamiṃsu.
9. Tumhe khīraṃ pivituṃ icchatha, athavā dadhiṃ bhuñjituṃ?
10. Yāva mayhaṃ pitā nahāyissati tāva ahaṃ idha tiṭṭhāmi.
11. Yathā bhūpati āṇāpeti tathā tvaṃ kātuṃ icchasi?
12. Āma, ahaṃ bhūpatino vacanaṃ atikkamituṃ**** na sakkomi.
* Of her.
** Ablative must be used with “vinā”. *** Bhañjati = breaks.
**** To surpass.
Translate into Pali
1. Do you like to drink milk or to eat curd?
2. First* I will drink gruel and then eat curd with honey.
3. Go quickly to the market to bring some ghee.
4. Having bathed in the sea why do you like to go again there now?
5. Do you know how our fathers gathered honey from the forests?

6. 7.
9. 10. 11.
I will stay on the river bank till you cross the river and come back.
My mother-in-law went to the city without her retinue and returned with a sister.
The millionaire fell on (his) knees** before the king and bowed down at his feet.
Is your horse able to run fast?
Yes, certainly it will run fast.
Having gone to the forest, with bows in hands, our brothers killed an
elephant and cut its tasks.
Why does your father walk slowly on the sand?
* Paṭhamaṃ, adv.
** Jānūhi patitvā (don’t use the locative). ****The New Pali Course Book 1
Classification of Nouns 名词的分类
45. Nouns are divided into 5 classes, viz:-
1. Nāmanāma = substantives and proper nouns 专有名词
2. Sabbanāma = pronouns 代名词
3. Samāsanāma = compound nouns 合成词
4. Taddhitanāma = derivatives from nouns or substantives 派生词
5. Kitakanāma = verbal derivatives
[3] Compound nouns are formed by the combination of two or more words, e.g.,

Classification of Nouns 名词的分类
45. Nouns are divided into 5 classes, viz:-
1. Nāmanāma = substantives and proper nouns 专有名词
2. Sabbanāma = pronouns 代名词
3. Samāsanāma = compound nouns 合成词
4. Taddhitanāma = derivatives from nouns or substantives 派生词
5. Kitakanāma = verbal derivatives
[3] Compound nouns are formed by the combination of two or more words, e.g.,
nīluppala = blue water-lily
rājaputta = king’s son
hattha-pāda-sīsāni = hands, feet and the head
[4] Verbal derivatives, otherwise called Primary Derivatives, are formed
from the verbal root itself by adding suffixes, e.g.,
paca (to cook) + ṇa = pāka (cooking) dā (to give) + aka = dāyaka (giver) nī (to lead) + tu = netu (leader)
[5] Taddhita nouns or Secondary Derivatives are formed from a substantive or primary derivative by adding another suffix to it, e.g.,
nāvā (ship) + ika (in the meaning of engaged) = nāvika (sailor)
[1] The first group of this classification includes concrete, common, proper, and abstract nouns other than that of Primary and Secondary Derivatives.
Pronouns 代名词
46. Pronouns admit of all genders as they stand for every person or thing which are in different genders. They become adjectives when they qualify other nouns. They have no vocative forms.
Declension of relative pronoun ya (which, who)关系代词 ya 的词尾变化 Masculine
yebhi, yehi
Dat., Gen.
yesaṃ, yesānaṃ
yamhā, yasmā
yebhi, yehi
yamhi, yasmiṃ

yā, yāyo
yā, yāyo
Ins., Abl.
yābhi, yāhi
Dat., Gen.
yassā, yāya
yāsaṃ, yāsānāṃ
yassaṃ, yāyaṃ
The rest is similar to that of masculine. Similarly declined are:
ye, yāni
ye, yāni

1. 2. 3.
4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.
sabba = all
pubba = former, eastern
itara = the other
aññatara = certain
añña = other, another
katara = which (one of the two) katama = which (one of the many) apara = other, western
ubhaya = both
para = other, the latter
ka (kiṃ) = who, which
Adjectives (Pronominal)形容词(代名词性质的)
47. Adjectives in Pali are not treated separately from nouns, as they take all the inflections of the nouns. Almost all pronouns become adjectives when they are used before a substantive of the same gender, number and case. They are pronouns when they stand alone in a sentence. This difference will become clear from the following exercise.
Exercise 16
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
Sabbesaṃ nattāro paññavanto na bhavanti.
Sabbā itthiyo vāpiyaṃ nahātvā padumāni piḷandhitvā āgacchiṃsu. Añño vāṇijo sabbaṃ dhanaṃ yācakānaṃ datvā gehaṃ pahāya
Mātā ubhayāsaṃ pi dhītarānaṃ vatthāni kiṇitvā dadissati.
Ko nadiyā vāpiyā ca antarā dhenuṃ harati?
Kassa putto dakkhiṇaṃ disaṃ gantvā vīhiṃ āharissati?
Ye pāpāni karonti te niraye** nibbattitvā dukkhaṃ labhissanti. Kāsaṃ dhītaro vanamhā dārūni āharitvā odanaṃ pacissanti? Katarena maggena so puriso nagaraṃ gantvā bhaṇḍāni** kiṇi? Itarā dārikā vanitāya hatthā pupphāni gahetvā cetiyaṃ pūjesi. Paresaṃ dhanaṃ dhaññaṃ vā gaṇhituṃ mā cintetha.

1. 2.
3. 4. 5.
6. 7.
10. 11.
Aparo aññissaṃ vāpiyaṃ nahātvā pubbāya disāya nagaraṃ pāvisi***.
* Left the household life; became a monk.出家 ** Bhaṇḍa = (n) goods.
*** Entered.
Translate into Pali
All entered the city (in order) to see gardens, houses and streets.
The daughters of all the women in the village walked along the path to the shrine.
Another maiden took a lotus and gave (it) to the farmer. Which man will bring some milk for me?
Who stands on the bank of the river and looks in the southern
Sons of all rich men do not always become wealthy.
Whose grandsons brought the cows here and gave (them) grass to
Tomorrow, all women in the city will come out from there and wander in the forest.
The other woman, having seen a leopard on the street, ran across the
Whosoever* acquires merit through charity will be born in heaven.
A certain man brought lotuses from the pond, another man carried (them) to the market to sell.
My brother’s son broke the branches of the other tree (in order) to gather flowers, leaves and fruits.
* Yo koci.
48. Declension of demonstrative pronoun ta (that)
so (he)
te (they)
taṃ, naṃ (him)
te, ne (them)
tena (by, with or through him)
tebhi, tehi (by, with or through them)
Dat., Gen.
tassa (to him, his)
tesaṃ, tesānaṃ

tamhā, tasmā
tebhi, tehi
tamhi, tasmiṃ
sā (she)
tā, tāyo (those women)
taṃ, naṃ (her)
tā, tāyo (them)
Ins., Abl.
tābhi, tāhi
Dat., Gen.
tassā, tāyo
tāsaṃ, tāsānaṃ
tassaṃ, tāyaṃ
The rest is similar to that of the masculine.
Eta (that or this) is declined like ta. One has only to prefix an “e” to the forms of ta, e.g. eso, ete, etaṃ, enaṃ, and so on.
49. Declension of demonstrative pronoun ima (this)
taṃ (it)
te, tāni (those things)
taṃ (it)
te, tāni (those things)
ayaṃ = this (man)
ime = these (men)
anena, iminā
ebhi, ehi, imebhi, imehi
Dat., Gen.
esaṃ, esānaṃ, imesaṃ, imesānaṃ
assa, imassa
asmā, imamhā, imasmā
ebhi, ehi, imebhi, imehi
asmiṃ, imamhi, imasmiṃ
esu, imesu

imā, imāyo = these
ayaṃ = this (woman)
imā, imāyo
Ins., Abl.
imābhi, imāhi
Dat., Gen.
assā, assāya, imissā, imissāya, imāya
imāsaṃ, imāsānaṃ
assaṃ, imissaṃ, imāyaṃ
idaṃ, imaṃ = this (thing)
ime, imāni = these (things)
idaṃ, imaṃ
ime, imāni
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
The rest is similar to that of the masculine.
Exercise 17
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
Ayaṃ sīho tamhā vanamhā nikkhamma imasmiṃ magge ṭhatvā ekaṃ itthiṃ māresi.
So tāsaṃ yuvatīnaṃ tāni vatthāni vikkiṇitvā tāsaṃ santikā* mūlaṃ labhissati.
Imissā dhītaro tamhā vanamhā imāni phalāni āhariṃsu, aññā nāriyo tāni khādituṃ gaṇhiṃsu.
Imā sabbā yuvatiyo taṃ ārāmaṃ gantvā dhammaṃ sutvā Buddhaṃ padumehi pūjessanti.
Ime manussā yāni puññani vā pāpāni vā karonti tāni te anugacchanti***.
Tassā kaññāya mātā dakkhiṇāya disāya imaṃ gāmaṃ āgantvā idha ciraṃ**** vasissati.
Tassa nattā imassa bhātarā saddhiṃ Koḷambanagaraṃ***** gantvā tāni bhanḍāni vikkiṇissati.

10. 11. 12.
Tā nāriyo etāsaṃ sabbāsaṃ kumārīnaṃ hatthesu padumāni ṭhapesuṃ******, tā tāni haritvā cetiyaṃ pūjesuṃ.
Tassā rājiniyā etā dāsiyo imehi rukkhehi pupphāni ocinitvā imā mālāyo kariṃsu.
Kesaṃ so imaṃ dhanaṃ datvā sukhaṃ labhissati?
Yo magge gacchati, tassa putto suraṃ pivitvā ettha sayati.
Ke taṃ khettaṃ******* gantvā tiṇaṃ āharitvā imāsaṃ gāvīnaṃ
datvā khīraṃ labhituṃ icchanti?
* Santika = near (but here: tāsaṃ santikā = from them). ** Mūla (n) money, cash.
*** Anugacchati = follows.
**** Ciraṃ (m) for a long time.
***** Koḷambanagara = Colombo.
****** 3rd person plural of the Past Tense.
******* Khetta (n) field.
Translate into Pali
A certain man having gone to that cemetery gathered those flowers and brought them here.
This lioness having come out from those forest killed a cow in this
4. 5.
6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
11. 12.
The husband of that woman bought these clothes from that market and gave them to his grandsons.
Whose servants will go to Colombo to buy goods for you and me? Tomorrow his brothers will go to that forest and collect honey and
Her sisters went to that field (in order) to bring grass for these cows. I got these lotuses and flowers from a certain woman of that village. Today all maidens of this city will go to that river and will bathe in it. They brought those goods to a merchant in that market.
Having sold those cows to the merchants, they bought clothes, garlands and umbrellas with that money.
Who are those men that** killed a lion yesterday in this forest?
Which woman stole her garland and ran through this street? * Place = ṭhāna (n).
** Use the relative pronoun “ya”.

The Verbal Adjectives or Participles 动词性形容词或分词
(过分的绝对式见 N36。)
50. Participles are a kind of adjectives formed from the verbal bases. Like verbs they are divided into Present, Past and Future; and each group is again divided into Active and Passive. Being adjectives they are declined in all the genders.
The Present Active Participles are formed by adding “nta” or “māna” to the verbal base, e.g.,现在时主动(语态)分词由动词词根再加上后缀 “nta” 或者 “māna”构成
gaccha + nta = gacchanta = going
gaccha + māna = gacchamāna = going
paca + nta = pacanta = cooking
paca + māna = pacamāna = cooking
51. Declension of the Present Participle 现在分词的词尾变化
Gacchanta (going)
Case Singular Plural
Nom. gacchaṃ, gacchanto gacchanto, gacchantā
Acc. gacchantaṃ gacchante
Ins. gacchatā, gacchantena
gacchantebhi, gacchantehi
Dat., gacchato, gacchantassa gacchataṃ, Gen. gacchatānaṃ
Abl. gacchatā,gacchantamhā,gacchantasmā gacchantebhi, gacchantehi
Loc. gacchati, gacchante, gacchantamhi, gacchantesu gacchantasmiṃ
Voc. gacchaṃ, gaccha, gacchā gacchanto, gacchantā

Nom., Voc.
gacchantī, gacchantiyo
gacchantī, gacchantiyo
Ins., Abl.
gacchantībhi, gacchantīhi
and so on like kumārī.(见 N.35) Neuter
The rest is similar to that of the masculine.
gacchantā, gacchantāni
gacchante, gacchantāni
Remark: Here one should note that these participles change their endings in the feminine.
The following are declined similarly:-
pacanta = cooking
karonta = doing
caranta = walking
dhāvanta = running nahāyanta = bathing
hasanta = laughing bhuñjanta = eating
sayanta = sleeping
passanta = looking at, seeing nisīdanta = sitting
haranta = carrying
kiṇanta = buying
tiṭṭhanta = standing āharanta = bringing viharanta = living, residing vikkiṇanta = selling dadanta = giving
rodanta = crying
52. A. All of these have another form ending in -māna, like gacchamāna. In that form, they are declined like nara(N.8) in the masculine, vanitā(N.31) in the feminine, and nayana(N.40) in the neuter.
B. These participles take the gender, number and case of the substantive
in forming sentences, e.g.
Tiṭṭhanto goṇo tiṇaṃ khādati = The bull which is standing eats grass, or Goṇo tiṭṭhaṃ tiṇaṃ khādati = The bull eats the grass standing.
C. Active Participles formed from the transitive bases often take an object, e.g.
Bhattaṃ bhuñjanto = eating rice.

Exercise 18
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
11. 12.
13. 14. 15.
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
Gāmaṃ gacchanto dārako ekaṃ goṇaṃ disvā bhāyi.
Dārikā rodantī ammāya santikaṃ gantvā pīṭhe nisīdati.
Vāṇijā bhaṇḍāni vikkiṇantā nadiyaṃ nahāyante manusse passiṃsu. Kāññāyo hasamānā nahāyantiyo gacchantiṃ vanitaṃ akkosiṃsu. Puriso hasanto rukkhaṃ āruhitvā phalāni khādanto* sākhāyaṃ nisīdi. Bhagavā Sāvatthiyaṃ** viharanto devānaṃ manussānaṃ ca
dhammaṃ desesi.
Sā sayantiṃ itthiṃ uṭṭhāpetvā*** hasamānā tamhā ṭhānā
Tumhe bhūmiyaṃ kīḷamānaṃ imaṃ dārakaṃ ukkhipitvā*****
mañce ṭhapetha.
Sīhaṃ disvā bhāyitvā dhāvamānā te migā asmiṃ vane āvāṭesu
Imasmiṃ gāme vasantānaṃ purisānaṃ eko pharasuṃ ādāya vanaṃ
gacchanto ekāya kāsuyaṃ pati.
Nisīdantiyā nāriyā putto rodamāno tassā santikaṃ gamissati. Yācakā bhattaṃ pacantiṃ itthiṃ disvā taṃ āhāraṃ yācantā******
tattha nisīdiṃsu.
Vanamhā dārūnī āharantī kaññā ekasmiṃ pāsāṇe udakaṃ
pivamānā******* nīsīdi.
Vāṇijā bhaṇḍāni kiṇantā vikkiṇantā ca gāmesu nagaresu ca
Dānaṃ dadanto so dhanavā sīlavante gavesati********.
* Khāda = to eat hard food. “Bhuñja” is used in eating soft food. ** In the city of Sāvatthi.
*** Having awakened or raised.
**** Went away, moved aside.
***** Having raised up. ****** Begging. ******* Drinking. ******** Seeks.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
9. 10. 11.
13. 14. 15.
Going to the river the slave sat at the foot of a tree, eating (some)
The mother, having raised the crying girl, gave her (some) milk. Walking on the river-bank we saw (some) people bathing in the river. Seeing us there a deer began to run and fell in a pit.
Coming out of the forest the lion saw a cow eating grass on that field. Bringing firewood from this forest the maiden drank water from that
Translate into Pali
A certain man living in this village saw a leopard running to that mountain.
Our fathers and brothers will wander through villages and towns, (while) selling and buying goods.
Standing on the mountain that day, I saw a lioness sleeping in a cave. The boy came to see me, laughing and running.
Carrying a drum for his aunt, the farmer sat on this rock, looking at
these trees and fields.
The Buddha, living in Sāvatthi for a long time, preached His doctrine
to the people of that city.
While cooking (some) rice, his sister sat singing* on a chair. Giving alms to the beggars the millionaire spent** all his wealth. Playing on the road the boys saw a man running from there.
* (Gītaṃ) gāyantī.
** Vissajjesi.
The New Pali Course Book 1
Past Participles 过去分词
53. The Past Participles are formed in many ways. Their formation will be shown in the second book; only a few examples are given here.
gata = gone
āgata = come
kata = done, made vutta = told, said
bhinna = broken
otiṇṇa = descended 下降
āhaṭa = brought 63

pahaṭa = beaten haṭa = carried
mata = dead
sutta, sayita = slept
ṭhita = stood nisinna = sat
vuttha = lived daṭṭha = bitten
pakka, pacita = cooked laddha = received
kīta = bought
bhutta = eaten
vandita = worshipped hata = killed
chinna = cut
kuddha = enraged
N.B. — These Participles are often used as complements of verbs, e.g., So Kālakato (hoti) = he is dead. Sometimes the verb is understood.
“To” in the Sense of Ablative of Separation
54. Suffix “to” is sometimes added to the nominal bases to denote the ablative of separation. There is no distinction between the singular and plural in that form. These are included in the indeclinables:
rukkhato = from the tree or trees
gāmato = from the village or villages
purisato = from the man or men
tato = from there, (therefore)
kuto = from where?
sabbato = from everywhere
Exercise 19
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
1. Hīyo araññaṃ gato so puriso ahinā daṭṭho mari.
2. Rukkhato otiṇṇā pakkhī dārakena sakkharāhi hatā honti.
3. Purisena pharasunā chinno so rukkho tassa gehassa upari pati.
4. Gāmato nikkhantā* tā gāviyo khette tiṇaṃ khāditvā vāpito jalaṃ
5. Vāṇijehi nagarato āhaṭāni bhaṇḍāni imesu gāmesu manussehi kītāni

6. Tāya kaññāya pakkaṃ odanaṃ aṭavito āgatā tassā bhātaro bhuñjitvā
7. Pitārā vuttaṃ anussarantī** sā yuvatī tāya laddhaṃ dhanaṃ gaṇhituṃ
na icchi.
8. Ekena hatthinā chinnaṃ sākhaṃ aññā hatthiniyo gahetvā khādiṃsu.
9. Kuto tumhehi imāni vatthāni tāni padumāni ca kītāni?
10. Kuddho so bhūpati tasmiṃ nagare vutthe sabbe manusse tato nīhari***.
11. Sappena daṭṭho vāṇijassa putto tassa dāsehi ekassa vejjassa****
santikaṃ nīto***** hoti.
12. Idha imasmiṃ pīṭhe nisinnaṃ kumāriṃ gehato āgatā aññā dārikā pahari.
13. Tāya pahaṭā sā kaññā tassā mātuyā santikaṃ gatā rodantī aṭṭhāsi.
14. Magge gacchantā te purisā tāya dhenuyā bhinnaṃ ghaṭaṃ******
15. Bhūpati tehi manussehi katāni gehāni passitvā tesaṃ mūlaṃ adāsi.
* That have come out.
** Remembering.
*** Ejected.
**** Vejja (m) doctor, physician. ***** Carried.
****** Ghaṭa (m) water-pot.
Translate into Pali
1. The peacock, having descended from the tree, has gone now to the rock.
2. Having been bitten by a serpent the boy was carried to a physician.
3. This woman does not like to take the money recieved from her sister.
4. The man who has come* from that village bought (some) goods from
this market.
5. Remembering his mother’s words the boy did not go to the dead man.
6. My aunt’s cows will come out of the forest and will eat the grass mowed
and brought by the slave woman.
7. Having seen a man sleeping on the bed the householder told his boys not
to go near him.
8. A deer was seen by the maiden who was cooking rice** for her mother.
9. The rice that was cooked by her is given to beggars and crows.
10. The house made by them was broken by an elephant.

11. The enraged king killed all men who came to the city.
12. The branch broken by the elephant fell on the ground, and afterwards
your cows ate its leaves.
13. The garland received from the queen by that girl is given to another girl.
14. The rice given to them was eaten by the slaves and the beggars.
15. The horse bought by the millionaire is carried by a charioteer.
* Has come = āgata.
** Who was cooking rice = bhattaṃ pacantiyā.
Adjectives 形容词
55. Pronominal (§47) and verbal adjectives (§50) are shown above. Ordinary adjectives are seta (=white), rassa (=short), mahanta (=big), and so on. As the adjectives qualify nouns, which are of different genders and numbers, they must agree with their substantives in gender, number and case.
(= The red ox eats some short grasses.)
(= The fair girl wears a blue cloth.)
Here is a list of adjectives which are frequently used:
khuddaka = small
mahanta = big, huge
dīgha = long
rassa = short, dwarf
ucca = high, tall
nīca = low, vulgar
majjhima = medium
appaka = few, a little
bahu, bahuka = many, much
āma = unripe
pakka = ripe
dahara = young mahallaka = elderly, old vitthata = wide, broad seta = white
nīla = blue ratta = red kāḷa = black

pīta = yellow
uttāna = shallow
gambhīra = deep
khara = rough, coarse
mudu = soft
bāla = foolish, young
56. The declension of adjectives will present no difficulties to the student who has mastered the declension of nouns.
The declension of verbal and pronominal adjectives and those of ending in -vantu and -mantu is given above. The others are declined like nouns (in various genders) according to their endings.
For instance: dīgha, rassa and others ending in -a of the above list are declined in the masculine like nara, and in the neuter like nayana. In the feminine they lengthened their last vowel, and are declined like vanitā.
Those ending in -u, such as bahu and mudu are declined like garu, dhenu and cakkhu. ∩Sometimes these, ending in -u, add kā to their feminine stem, and then they are declined like vanitā, e.g., mudu = mudukā, bahu = bahukā.
The words ending in ī, like mālī (one who has a garland), take -inī instead of ī in forming feminine stems, e.g.,
(Masculine) mālī … (Feminine) mālinī
Mālinī and such others are declined like kumārī.
Exercise 20
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
Rattā gāviyo khette āhiṇdantiyo bahuṃ tiṇaṃ khādiṃsu.
Uccā kumārī nīlaṃ vatthaṃ paridahitvā* mahantaṃ nagaraṃ gamissati. Bahavo manussā dīghāhi rajjūhi setā dhenuyo bandhitvā gambhīraṃ nadiṃ hariṃsu.
Amhākaṃ bahūnaṃ bandhavānaṃ puttā dubbalā honti**.
Paṇḍitassa purisassa sā bālā bhaginī pakkāni phalāni ocinitvā appakānaṃ dārakānaṃ adāsi.
Tassā mahallikāya itthiyā daharo nattā uttāne jale nahāyati.
Tasmiṃ ucce rukkhe ṭhito vānaro imasmiṃ nīce tarumhi nisinne pakkhino
paṇḍita = wise
balavantu = powerful
dubbala = feeble
surūpa, dassanīya = beautiful, handsome

Mālinī nārī rassena maggena khuddakaṃ gāmaṃ gacchi.
Daharā kaññā mudunā hatthena rattāni padumāni gaṇhāti.
Balavanto appakaṃ pi dhanaṃ labhitvā dubbale manusse pīḷenti.
Balavantā kāḷā goṇā uccesu girīsu āhiṇḍitvā bahūni tiṇāni khādanti. Bahunnaṃ*** bālānaṃ puttā tassā nadiyā gambhīre jale patitvā mariṃsu. Mama bhātarānaṃ majjhimo nīce pīṭhe nisīditvā āmaṃ phalaṃ khādati. Mayaṃ suve majjhimaṃ vāpiṃ gantvā setāni padumāni nīlāni uppalāni**** ca āharissāma.
Tumhe mahallake dubbale ca purise disvā mā hasatha.
* Paridahati (v) wears.
** Hoti (v) is.
*** There are two forms: “bahūnaṃ” and “bahunnaṃ”.
**** Uppala (n) lily.
Translate into Pali
A white cow drank much water from that big tank.
Wearing red clothes many girls are going to the big market in that large city. The sons of that elderly woman are neither powerful nor rich*.
Our young ones always like to eat many unripe fruits.
That foolish woman went to that long river and fell in its deep water.
Water in this pond is not deep but shallow.
My old (elderly) aunt brought a long rope to bind that red cow.
The powerful man cut many tall and dwarf trees in that small garden.
Sitting on a low chair the young girl eats a ripe mango** she got from her mother.
Much grass is brought by the slaves from that small field on the bank of that wide river.
White lotuses and blue lilies are bought by that feeble maiden from the elderly man.
The black oxen are sleeping on the rough ground near that high mountain. The young boy’s soft hand is burnt by the flame of that small lamp.
Many people will cross the great ocean and come to see this beautiful little island.
In this beautiful city there are big houses, wide streets, long paths, and many gardens.
* Neither … nor = “vā … na”: balavanto vā dhanavanto vā na honti.
** Mango (m,n) amba.
*****The New Pali Course Book 1

57. Cardinals 基数词
1. Eka (= ekaṃ)
2. Dvi (= dve)
3. Ti (= tayo)
4. Catu (= cattāro)
5. Pañca
6. Cha
7. Satta
8. Aṭṭha
9. Nava
10. Dasa
11. Ekādasa
12. Dvādasa;bārasa
13. Teḷasa;terasa
14. Cuddasa;catuddasa
15. Paṇṇarasa;pañcadasa
16. Soḷasa
17. Sattarasa;sattadasa
18. Aṭṭhārasa;aṭṭhādasa
19. Ekūnavīsati
20. Vīsati
21. Ekavīsati
22. Dvāvīsati;bāvīsati
23. Tevīsati
24. Catuvīsati
25. Pañcavīsati
26. Chabbīsati
99 = Ekūnasataṃ
100 = Sataṃ
1000 = Sahassaṃ
10,000 = Dassahassaṃ
100,000 = Satasahassaṃ; lakkhaṃ 1,000,000 = Dasalakkhaṃ 10,000,000 = Koṭi
100,000,000 = Dasakoṭi
27. Sattavīsati
28. Aṭṭhavīsati
29. Ekūnatiṃsati
30. Tiṃsati;tiṃsā
31. Ekātiṃsati
32. Dvattiṃsati;battiṃsati
33. Tettiṃsati
39. Ekūnacattāḷīsā
40. Cattāḷīsati;cattāḷīsā
49. Ekuṇapaññāsā
50. Paññāsā; paṇṇāsā; paññāsati; paṇṇāsati
59. Ekūnasaṭṭhi
60. Saṭṭhi
62. Dvesaṭṭhi; dvāsaṭṭhi; dvisaṭṭhi 69. Ekūnasattati
70. Sattati
79. Ekūnāsīti
80. Asīti
82. Dveasīti; dvāsīti; dviyāsīti
83. Teasīti; tiyāsīti
84. Caturāsīti
89. Ekūnanavuti
90. Navuti
92. Dvenavuti; dvānavuti; dvinavuti
Numerals 数量词

1,000,000,000 = Satakoṭi
58. Some of these numerals take all the genders, and some have their own.
A. The stems eka, ti, catu are of all genders and declined differently in each
B. The stem dvi and those from pañca to aṭṭhārasa do not show different
inflections in different genders though they take all the genders.
C. From vīsati to navuti the numbers are feminine. So is koṭi.
D. Stems sata, sahassa and the compounds ending with them are neuter.
E. Eka (one) has only singular forms. The plural forms of it are used to
express the meaning “some”, e.g. eke manussā = some people.
F. The stems from dvi to aṭṭhārasa have only the plural forms. From vīsati upwards to navuti and from sata upwards to koṭi are in singular. But they take the plural form when it is required to show separate quantities, e.g.
cattāri satāni = four (quantities) of hundred.
G. Numerals are more often used as adjectives.
Declension of Numerals 数字词的词尾变化
59. “Eka” is declined like the relative pronoun “ya” given above (§46).
Declension of Dvi (= two)
Plural (common to all genders)
Nom., Acc.
dve, duve
Abl., Ins.
dvībhi, dvīhi
Dat., Gen.
dvinnaṃ, duvinnaṃ
Declension of Ti (= three)
Nom., Acc.
Abl., Ins.
tībhi, tīhi
tībhi, tīhi
tībhi, tīhi

tinnaṃ, tinnannaṃ
tinnaṃ, tinnannaṃ
Dat., Gen.
Declension of Catu (= four)
Nom., Acc.
cattāro, caturo
Abl., Ins.
catūbhi, catūhi
catūbhi, catūhi
catūbhi, catūhi
Dat., Gen.
Declension of Pañca (= five)
Plural (similar in all genders)
Nom., Acc.
Abl., Ins.
pañcabhi, pañcahi
Dat., Gen.
Cha, satta, aṭṭha and all up to aṭṭhādasa are declined like pañca, e.g.
60. Vīsati and other numerals ending in -i are declined like bhūmi (§34). Tiṃsā and others ending in -ā are declined like vanitā. Vīsati itself has another form ending in -ā, i.e., vīsā.
“Sata” (100) and “sahassa” (1000) are declined like nayana (§40).
Exercise 21
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
Cattāro purisā catūhi pharasūhi cattāri rukkhāni chinditvā āharissanti.
Dat., Gen.

Tā tisso itthiyo imehi tīhi maggehi taṃ aṭaviṃ gantvā tissannaṃ kaññānaṃ tīṇi phalāni adaṃsu.
Ekissaṃ sālāyaṃ sataṃ purisā, paññāsā itthiyo ca nisīdissanti.
Mayaṃ ito navahi divasehi* pañcahi kumārehi saddhiṃ Koḷambanagaraṃ gamissāma.
Pañca dāsā dasannaṃ assānaṃ bahuṃ tiṇaṃ, appakaṃ udakañca āhariṃsu. Vīsati purisā dasahi goṇehi cattāri khettāni kasanti.
Vāṇijo kahāpaṇānaṃ** dvīhi satehi*** aṭṭha asse kiṇitvā te catunnaṃ dhanavantānaṃ vikkiṇi.
Tāsaṃ channaṃ itthīnaṃ cha bhātaro mahantaṃ pabbataṃ āruhitvā cha kapayo ānesuṃ.
Tāsaṃ mātā dasa ambe kiṇitvā catassannaṃ dhītarānaṃ dadissati.
Idāni Laṅkāyaṃ pañca-cattāḷīsa-satasahassaṃ manussā vasanti.
Pubbe Sāvatthinagare manussānaṃ satta koṭiyo**** vasiṃsu.
Tumhe ito dvīhi vassehi Anurādhapuraṃ***** gantvā tattha nava divase vasantā mahante cetiye passissatha.
Dāso ekena hatthena dve nāḷikere****** itarena ekaṃ panasañca******* harati.
Ahaṃ cattāri vassāni********* nagare vasitvā tato pacchā tayo māse********* gāme vasissāmi.
* After nine days.
** ‘Kahāpaṇa’ is a square coin extensively used in former days, the purchasing power of which is said to have been about that of a florin (2 shillings).
*** With two hundreds (of kahāpaṇas).
**** Seven crores of people.
***** The sacred city of the Buddhists in Ceylon.
****** Nāḷikere (m/n) coconut.
******* Panasa (m/n) jackfruit.
******** Vassa (m/n) year.
********* Māsa (m) month,
Translate into Pali
1. Four women bought eight mangoes and gave them to the two daughters.
2. Tomorrow five men will go to the forest and cut ten trees with their five
3. Three girls went separately* to three tanks and each** brought thirty
4. In this hall there are five hundred men and three hundred women.
5. There are five thousand people, one thousand cattle*** and five hundred

houses in this town.
6. The seven brothers of the five girls went to that forest and killed eight
7. We lived in Colombo for eight years and nine months.
8. They will go to live there again three years and two months hence.
9. Having bought three clothes the father gave them to his three daughters.
10. Ten men with twenty oxen are ploughing these five fields.
11. Sixty elephants came out of the city and thirty of them entered the forest.
12. Of the twelve horses bought by me one is sold to another man.
13. The slave having brought 25 coconuts sold 20 of them to a woman.
14. Two merchants bought two horses for three hundred**** pieces (of
15. Five million people live in the island of Ceylon.
* Visuṃ.
** Ek’ekā.
*** Gāvo.
**** Use the Instrumental.
Ordinal Numerals 序数词
61. Ordinal Numerals
Paṭhama = first
Dutiya = second
Tatiya = third
Catuttha = fourth
Pañcama = fifth
Chaṭṭha = sixth
Sattama = seventh
Aṭṭhama = eighth
Navama = ninth
Dasama = tenth
Ekādasama = Eleventh
Dvādasama = twelfth
All these are treated as adjectives.
In the masculine they are declined like nara
. In the feminine their last vowel is changed into ā or ī and are declined like vanitā and kumārī respectively. Their declension in the neuter is like that of nayana.
Terasama = thirteenth Cuddasama = fourteenth Vīsatima = twenieth Tiṃsatima = thirtieth Cattāḷīsatima = fortieth Paṇṇāsatima = fiftieth Saṭṭhima = sixtieth Sattatima = seventieth Asītima = eightieth Navutima = ninetieth Satama = hundredth

Remark. “The first among the eight men” and such other phrases should be translated with the locative or genitive forms, as:
(1) Aṭṭhasu purisesu paṭhamo or
(2) Aṭṭhannaṃ purisānaṃ paṭhamo.
Exercise 22
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
1. Gacchantesu dasasu purisesu sattamo vāṇijo hoti.
2. Tassa sattamā dhītā aṭṭhamāya ekaṃ vatthaṃ adāsi.
3. Catassannaṃ yuvatīnaṃ tatiyāya bhātā pañca asse ānesi.
4. Mayhaṃ pitā sattatime vasse pañcame māse kālaṃ akāsi*.
5. Mayaṃ ito chaṭṭhe divase catūhi purisehi saddhiṃ dutiyaṃ nagaraṃ
6. Idāni aṭṭhamo Edwardnāmo bhūpati rajjaṃ karoti**.
7. Pubbe chaṭṭho Parakkamabāhu-bhūpati Jayavaddhanapure rajjaṃ kari.
8. Pāṭhasālāya*** asītiyā sissesu pañcavīsatimo hīyo gambhīre udake pati.
9. AmhākaṃpitāroitopañcamevassebahūhimanussehiAnurādhapuraṃ
10. Dvīsu pāṭhasālāsu paṭhamāya tisataṃ sissā**** uggaṇhanti.
11. Dvinnaṃ dhanavantānaṃ dutiyo tiṃsatiyā yācakānaṃ dānaṃ adāsi.
12. Nahāyantīsu pañcasu nārīsu tatiyāya bhātā dhanavā hoti.
13. Bhattaṃpacantīnaṃtissannaṃitthīnaṃdutiyānahāyituṃgamissati.
14. BhagavāpaṭhamaṃvassaṃBārāṇasiyaṃIsipatanārāmevihari.
15. Tadā so pañcannaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ bahunnaṃ manussānañca dhammaṃ
* Kālaṃ karoti = dies.
** Rajjaṃ karoti = reigns. *** Pāṭhasālā (f) school. **** Sissa (m) student.
Translate into Pali
1. The fifth of the ten merchants will buy the gem.
2. On the third day the four rich men will give alms to a hundred beggars.
3. There are eight hundred students in the first of the three schools.
4. My fourth brother lives in the sixth house of the fifth street in Colombo.
5. We will go to the city in the third month of the second year.

6. His tenth son will come here on the 25th day of this month.
7. The sixth of the seven women wears a red cloth, and the fifth a blue one.
8. King Edward VĪ died 26 years ago*.
9. His son, King George V reigned for 25 years and 10 months.
10. I will buy the second of these ten horses with one hundred florins.
11. Out of the eighty students in this school the 20th died yesterday.
12. His dead body was carried to the cemetery by 15 students.
13. My sixth brother will come here with the fourth one.
14. His third brother’s second daughter learns at this school.
15. The first sister of the queen will visit Anurādhapura after three months.
* Ago (ni) upari. Use the genitive with this. The New Pali Course Book 1
Adverbs 副词
62. The adverb proper in Pali is stated to be in the accusative singular of the neuter, e.g.,副词的专有形式作为中性名词宾语的单数形式出现
“Sukhaṃ sayati” = sleeps comfortably. 睡得很舒服
“Sādhukaṃ karoti” = does (it) well. 做得好
But many other indeclinables like tadā (then) may be taken under this heading.
Of the numerical adverbs ordinals take the form of the neuter singular, e.g.
Paṭhamaṃ = at first; for the first time.
Dutiyaṃ = for the second time.
Cardinals form their adverbs by adding suffixes -kkhattuṃ and dhā.
Catukkhattuṃ = four times. Catudhā = in four ways.
A List of Adverbs
visuṃ = severally, separately
dukkhaṃ = with difficulty samaṃ = evenly
sanikaṃ = slowly
sīghaṃ = quickly
evaṃ = thus, so
sahasā = suddenly daḷhaṃ = tightly, strictly ekadhā = in one way dvikkhattuṃ = twice sakiṃ = once

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
8. 9.
10. 11. 12.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
7. 8.
Imesaṃ dasannaṃ dhanavantānaṃ pañcamo sukhaṃ jīvati.
Ayaṃ dīpi sanikaṃ āgantvā sahasā gāviyā upari pati.
Aṭṭhannaṃ kaññānaṃ chaṭṭhā gāviṃ daḷhaṃ bandhitvā vāpiṃ nesi. Ime pañca dārakā abhinhaṃ magge dhāvantā kīḷanti.
Imesu navasu sissesu sattamo sādhukaṃ uggaṇhāti.
Bhikkhū Bhagavato santikaṃ āgantvā taṃ vanditvā ekamantaṃ nisīdiṃsu.
So seṭṭhī (attano*) dhanaṃ pañcadhā vibhajitvā pañcannaṃ dhītarānaṃ adadi.
Tassa chaṭṭhāya dhītuyā putto dvikkhattuṃ imaṃ nagaraṃ āgacchi.
Paṭhamaṃ te assā rathaṃ samaṃ ākaḍḍhiṃsu, dutiyaṃ sīghaṃ dhāviṃsu.
Mama aṭṭhannaṃ bhātarānaṃ catuttho dukkhaṃ jīvati. Kathaṃ te cattāro vāṇijā tattha vasanti?
So dhītaraṃ evaṃ vatvā sahasā tato aññaṃ ṭhānaṃ gacchi.
* His own.
Translate into Pali
Those ten boys are constantly playing at this place.
The fifth of these seven merchants lives happily (or comfortably). The king twice came out of the city and once bathed in this tank. The horses will run quickly drawing evenly the carriages after them. The fourth of the seven monks does not observe* the precepts**
pañcadhā = in five ways kathaṃ = how?
tathā = in that way sādhukaṃ = well
Exercise 23
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
abhiṇhaṃ = constantly ekamantaṃ = aside
These twelve merchants went to the Buddha and sat aside to hear His preaching***.
Suddenly a thief came to me and tried**** to take my umbrella.
Slowly they went together***** to the bank of the river and came back separately.

9. 10. 11.
The third of the five sons of my friend learns with difficulty. How did he enter the city and come out of it quickly?
The second daughter of his sixth brother lives (with difficulty) or
Thus he spoke to his third sister and went aside.
* Na rakkhati.
** Sīlāni or sikkhāpadāni. *** Desanaṃ.
**** Ussahi.
***** Ekato.
Syntax 句法(结构)
63. A sentence may contain any number of words; but one cannot make a sentence without a verb.
Even the shortest sentence must have two portions: the subject (kattā) and the predicate (kriyā). (One may say “Go” without any subject, but there the subject is understood.)
(1) “Puriso sayati.” (The man sleeps), is a complete sentence. Here “puriso” is the subject and “sleeps” is the predicate.
(2) The above sentence has no object as intransitive verbs do not take an object. But transitive verbs always take an object; therefore a sentence formed with a transitive verb consists of three portions, viz.:- kattā (subject), kammaṃ (object), and kriyā (predicate), e.g.
Order of Sentences 句子的次序
64. In the sentence, “Puriso rukkhaṃ chindati”, the subject comes first, the object second, and the predicate last. (In an English sentence, the object must come after the predicate.)
Subject 主语
Object 宾语
Predicate 谓语
= The man cuts the tree.

This is the general way of forming sentences which a beginner must follow. But there are no definite rules about the order of the words in a Pali sentence. The above sentence may be written in four ways:-
(1) Puriso rukkhaṃ chindati.
(2) Rukkhaṃ puriso chindai.
(3) Chindati puriso rukkhaṃ.
(4) Puriso chindati rukkhaṃ.
In any way the meaning is the same; and one has no difficulty in finding the subject and the object as they are always in different cases.
Concord 一致性
65. (1) The predicate must agree with the subject in number and person. (2) An adjective (participle included), must agree with the noun it qualifies in gender, number and case, e.g. Balavā puriso sayantaṃ goṇaṃ bandhati.
(3) A relative pronoun must agree with its antecedent in gender, number and person, e.g.,
(A) Ye puññaṃ karonti te sagge nibbattanti.
(B) Yo magge gacchati tassa pitā hīyo mari.
Exercise 24
Suggested Solutions
Point out subjects, objects and predicates in the following sentences:-
1. Bhātā vāpiṃ gacchanto ekassa rukkhassa mūle nisīdi.
2. Tassa pitā pāto gehā nikkhamitvā vanaṃ gamissati.
3. Te pakkhino tesaṃ rukkhānaṃ sākhāsu nisīditvā ravanti.
4. Catasso kumāriyo pupphāni ocinituṃ ekaṃ rukkhaṃ āruhiṃsu.
5. Dasa hatthino imassa taruno aṭṭha sākhā bhañjitvā khādiṃsu.
6. Sā yuvatī dve mālā piḷandhitvā hasantī tiṭṭhati.
7. Suve mayaṃ taṃ nagaraṃ gantvā bahūni bhaṇḍāni kiṇissāma.
8. Magge dhāvantā pañca dārakā ekasmiṃ āvāṭe patiṃsu.
9. Paṇṇarasa vāṇijā dasa asse āharitvā seṭṭhino vikkiṇiṃsu.
10. Dve kassakā cattāro kāḷe goṇe haritvā tassaṃ nadiyaṃ nahāpesuṃ.

Insert suitable subjects, objects and predicates where necessary.
1. …………… rukkhaṃ āruhitvā phalāni ocināti.
2. Magge gacchanto …………… dhāvante …………… passi.
3. Tuyhaṃ bhaginī dārakaṃ ādāya hasantī …………….
4. Dāso …………… rajjuyā bandhitvā nahāpeti.
5. …………… āpaṇamhā vatthāni kiṇitvā ānetha.
6. Mayaṃ nahātvā āgantvā bhattaṃ …………….
7. Ahaṃ suve tayā saddhiṃ gāmaṃ …………….
8. Yuvatiyo …………… ocinituṃ …………… gamissanti.
9. Amhākaṃ …………… tasmiṃ nagare bhaṇḍāni vikkiṇanti.
10. Cattāro …………… padumāni ādāya vihāraṃ gamissanti.
11. …………… suve āpaṇaṃ gantvā …………… āharissāma.
12. Tvaṃ sakkharāhi godhaṃ mā …………….
13. Vānarā …………… āruhitvā …………… bhañjanti.
14. Tā itthiyo …………… pacitvā bhuñjitvā …………….
Enlarge and Analyse a Sentence 如何扩展和分析一个句子 How to Enlarge and Analyse a Sentence
66. It is stated that a sentence consists of two parts, the subject and the predicate, or sometimes three parts: the subject, the object and the predicate. (Note that the object belongs to the predicate.)
In enlarging a sentence one must enlarge the subject or the object, or both of them. They may be enlarged with one or more adjectives, adjectival phrases, or clauses, or with a noun in the genitive, which is in the nature of an adjective, as it separates the thing possessed, from others.
The enlargement of a predicate is called its extension. It may be done by adding one or more adverbs or adverbial phrases, or words in the Instrumental, Ablative (of separation) or Locative cases.
Now let us enlarge the sentences:
(A) Puriso rukkhaṃ chindati.
Enlargement of subject
Enlargement of object
Enlargement of predicate

hatthehi pharasuṃ ādāya
So seto, balavā
uccaṃ, muduṃ
pupphehi phalehi ca yuttaṃ, taṃ
Paññavā, dhanavā, balī
tasmiṃ vane, idāni
(B) Goṇo tiṇaṃ khādati.
Enlargement of subject
Enlargement of object
Enlargement of predicate
khette jātaṃ, bahuṃ
tatta ṭhatvā, sīghaṃ
Balavā seto
Catuppado*, siṅgi**, bālo, rukkhe baddho,
khuddakā khettamhā dāsena ānītaṃ
visuṃ visuṃ katvā ādāya
* Quadruped or that which has four feet.
** That which has horns, or possessed of horns.
Exercise 25
Suggested Solutions
Enlarge the following sentences.
1. Kumāri bhattaṃ pacati.
2. Dārako magge kīḷati.
3. Vānarā rukkhe nisīdanti.
4. Kassakā khettaṃ kasiṃsu.
5. Sīho vanamhi vasati.
6. Bhūpati nagare carati.
7. Pitā gehe sayati.
8. Dhītaro nadiyaṃ nahāyanti.
9. Bhātuno putto uggaṇhāti.
10. Vanitāyo padumāni āharanti.
11. Tumhe pakkhino mā māretha.
12. Tvaṃ cetiyaṃ vandāhi.

13. 14. 15.
1. 2.
3. 4.
5. 6.
7. 8. 9. 10.
Ahaṃ sīlaṃ rakkhissāmi. Bhikkhavo dhammaṃ desenti. Mayaṃ Anurādhapuraṃ gamissāma.
Analyse the following sentences.
Cattāro purisā balavante aṭṭha goṇe taṃ mahantaṃ khettaṃ hariṃsu. Imasmiṃ gāme aṭṭhasu gehesu pañcatiṃsati manussā dukkhaṃ
Te dhanavantā mahantesu mañcesu sukhaṃ sayissanti.
Pañcannaṃ dāsānaṃ dasa puttā vīsatiyā balavantehi goṇehi khettaṃ
Ekā itthī dvinnaṃ puttānaṃ rattāni vatthāni āharitvā adāsi. Dhanavanto vāṇijā sakaṭehi bhaṇḍāni ādāya gāme gantvā tāni
sīghaṃ vikkiṇissanti.
Bhūpatino paṭhamo putto bahūhi manussehi saddhiṃ suve uyyānaṃ gamissati.
Mayhaṃ mātulānī rattaṃ gāviṃ dīghāya rajjuyā daḷhaṃ rukkhe
Seṭṭhino balavanto aṭṭha puttā kakkhaḷaṃ coraṃ asīhi paharitvā tatth’eva* māresuṃ.
Gāmaṃ gacchantī vanitā aññissā bālaṃ dhītaraṃ disvā tassā tayo ambe adāsi.
* Tatth’eva = on the spot. The New Pali Course Book 1
Passive Voice 被动语态
67. The verbs given so far in this book are of the Active Voice. To form the passive, one must add “ya”, sometimes preceded by i or ī, to the root before the verbal termination, e.g.,
paca + ti > paca + īya + ti = pacīyati (is cooked)
kara + ti > kara + īya + ti = karīyati (is done)
Often, the “ya” is assimilated by the last consonant of the base, e.g.,
pac + ya + ti = paccati (is cooked) vuc + ya + ti = vuccati (is told)

68. In forming a sentence with a verb in the passive voice, the subject stands in the Ablative of Agent and the object in the Nominative. The verb takes the number and the person of the Nominative (object). This is the way Pali grammarians stated it. But in English, the subject always take the Nominative form; therefore the object becomes the subject when a sentence is turned from active to passive.
Vanitā odanaṃ pacati.
turned into passive, becomes:-
Vanitāya odano pacīyati (or paccati).
Here, “vanitāya” is named anuttakattā (the agent, subject) and “odano” uttakamma (the object in the Nominative) in Pali.
69. Conjugation of Paca (to cook)
Present Tense, Passive
(so) paccati = it is cooked
(te) paccanti = they are cooked
(tvaṃ) paccasi = thou are cooked
(tumhe) paccatha = you are cooked
(ahaṃ) paccāmi = I am cooked
(mayaṃ) paccāma = we are cooked
Conjugation of Pahara (to beat)
(so) paharīyati = he is beaten
(te) paharīyanti = they are beaten
(tvaṃ) paharīyasi = thou art beaten
(tumhe) paharīyatha = you are beaten
(ahaṃ) paharīyāmi = I am
(mayaṃ) paharīyāma = we are
The following are conjugated like “paharīyati”:-
karīyati = is done or made gaṇhīyati = is taken harīyati = is carried āharīyati = is brought bandhīyati = is tied bhuñjīyati = is eaten
ākaḍḍhīyati = is dragged or drawn
dīyati = is given kasīyati = is ploughed desīyati = is preached mārīyati = is killed

vandīyati = is worshipped kiṇīyati = is bought vikkiṇīyati = is sold
Exercise 26
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
rakkhīyati = is protected bhāsīyati = is told dhovīyati = is washed
1. Kaññāya odano pacīyati.
2. Te Goṇā dāsehi paharīyanti.
3. Tvaṃ balinā purisena ākaḍḍhīyasi.
4. Mayaṃ amhākaṃ arīhi mārīyāma.
5. Te migā tāya dāsiyā bandhīyanti.
6. Iminā vaḍḍhakinā* imasmiṃ gāme bahūni gehāni karīyanti.
7. Tumhe tasmiṃ gāme manussehi bandhīyatha.
8. Amhākaṃ bhaṇḍāni tesaṃ dāsehi gāmaṃ harīyanti.
9. Aṭṭhahi vāṇijehi cattāro assā nagaraṃ āharīyanti.
10. Mayaṃ amhākaṃ dhītarehi nattārehi ca vandīyāma.
11. Taṃ mahantaṃ khettaṃ pañcahi kassakehi kasīyati.
12. Vanitāya bahūni vatthāni tassaṃ pokkharaṇiyaṃ dhovīyanti.
13. Seṭṭhinā bahunnaṃ yācakānaṃ dānaṃ dīyati.
14. Tasmiṃ ārāme vasantehi bhikkhūhi sīlāni rakkhīyanti.
15. Chahi bhikkhūhi pañcasatānaṃ manussānaṃ dhammo desīyati.
16. Paññāsāya manussehi tasmiṃ āpaṇe bahūni bhaṇḍāni kiṇīyanti.
17. Dasahi vanitāhi dvisataṃ ambānaṃ vikkiṇīyati.
18. Dāsiyā pakko odano gahapatinā bhuñjīyati.
19. Magge ṭhito dārako tassa mātuyā hatthehi gaṇhīyati.
20. Buddhena devānaṃ manussānañca dhammo bhāsīyati.
* Vaḍḍhakī (m) carpenter.
Translate into Pali
1. The cows are tied with long ropes by the slaves.
2. Two black horses are bought by the two rich men.
3. You are beaten by four men.
4. This house is built (made) by eight carpenters.
5. Nine cows are killed by two tigers in that forest.
6. Thou art dragged to the field by those powerful men.
7. Many goods are sold in this village by those two merchants.

8. 9. 10. 11.
12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.
You are tied fast by the people of the city.
The baby is carried to a physician by his mother.
The rice is well cooked by the second daughter of the merchant. The doctrine is preached to the people of this village by the monks
residing in that monastery*.
The rice cooked by the slave woman is eaten by her son and brothers. Many red clothes are washed in the tank by those women.
Three hundred mangoes are sold by six tall women.
Much wealth is given to his relations by that rich man.
All grass in this field is eaten by eight oxen and four cows.
The Buddha is worshipped everywhere in this island.
Two fields are ploughed by 12 farmers and six oxen.
Those who went by that path are killed by a lion.
The son of the man who walks on the road is beaten by that powerful
* Vihāra (m) monastery.
70. The past and future forms of the Passive Voice are formed by adding “ī + ya” to the root before the verbal termination, e.g.,
Past 3rd singular:
- pahara + ī > pahara + ī-ya + ī = paharīyī = (he) was beaten
Future 3rd singular:
- paca + issati > paca + ī-ya + issati = pacīyissati = (it) will be cooked
Passive Participles 被动分词
71. The participles, like verbs, are divided into two classes, that of Active and Passive. The Active Present Participles are shown above (§50). The Passive Present Participle is formed by adding “ī + ya” to the root before the active termination, e.g.,
(1) paca + māna > paca + ī-ya + māna = pacīyamāna = being cooked
(2) pahara + nta > pahara + ī-ya + nta = paharīyanta = being beaten Forms like pacamāna (being cooked) and vuccamāna (being told) also are formed by assimilating “ya” with the last consonant of the root. (The rules of assimilation will be given in the Second Book.)
72. The Declinable Active Past Participles are very few. The Passive Past Participles are formed in various ways; the most common way to form them is to add “ta” or “ita” to the root or the verbal base, e.g.,

paca + ita = pacita (cooked) hara + ita = harita (carried) nahā + ita = nahāta (bathed) nī + ta = nīta (carried)
nā + ta = ñāta (known)
bhū + ta = bhūta (become, been) su + ta = suta (heard)
Here one notices that “ita” is added to the roots ending in a, and ta is added to the roots ending in vowels other than a. But this rule is not without exceptions.
A list of some Passive Past Participles is given above (§53). The words therein are formed in various ways; but the student should not bother at present about their formation.
Another form of Passive Past Participles much common in use is formed by adding ‘inna’ to the root and by dropping the last syllable or the vowel of the root, e.g.,
chida + inna = chinna (cut)
bhida + inna = bhinna (broken)
dā + inna = dinna (given)
tara + inna = tiṇṇa (crossed, gone ashore) ni + sīda + inna = nisinna (sat)
73. The Potential (or Future) Passive Participles are formed by adding ‘tabba’ and ‘anīya’ to the verbal base, e.g.,
kātabba / karaṇīya (must be, fit to be, or should be done) haritabba / haranīya (must be, fit to be, or should be carried) pacitabba / pacanīya (must be, fit to be, or should be cooked) bhuñjitabba (fit to be or should be eaten)
dhovitabba (fit to be or should be washed)
bhavitabba (fit to be or should become or happen) nisīditabba (fit to be or should be sat)
vattabba (fit to be or should be told)
vanditabba (fit to be or should be worshipped)
dātabba (fit to be or should be given)
chinditabba (fit to be or should be cut)
rakkhitabba (fit to be or should be observed or protected) uggaṇhitabba (fit to be or should be learnt)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
7. 8.
9. 10.
11. 12.
13. 14.
Exercise 27
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
Kaññāya bhuñjiyamānaṃ bhattaṃ sunakhassa dātabbaṃ (hoti). Purisena chindiyamāno rukkho gehassa upari patissati.
Purisehi khettāni kasitabbāni, vanitāhi tesaṃ bhattaṃ pacitabbaṃ. Puttehi dhītarehi ca pitaro mātaro ca vanditabbā honti.
Dāsena harīyamāno asso vāṇijānaṃ vikkiṇitabbo hoti.
Corehi paharīyamānā purisā aññaṃ kattabbaṃ adisvā* aṭaviṃ dhāviṃsu.
Sārathinā paharīyamāno asso rathaṃ ākaḍḍhanto sīghaṃ dhāvati. Tumhehi dānāni dātabbāni, sīlani rakkhitabbāni, puññāni kātabbāni
Sissehi dhammo sotabbo** satthāni*** uggaṇhitabbāni.
2. 3.
4. 5. 6.
Mayā dīyamānaṃ**** bhuñjitabbaṃ bhuñjituṃ bahū yācakā āgacchanti.
Vanitā dhovitabbāni vatthāni ādāya vitthataṃ nadiṃ gamissati.
Yuvatiyo vandanīyāni cetiyāni disvā ekāya kaññāya ociniyamānāni padumāni yāciṃsu.
Mama bhātā tasmiṃ vane āhiṇḍanto chindanīye bahū rukkhe passi.
Mayā ovadiyamāno bālo vattabbaṃ apassanto khinno***** nisīdi. * Not seeing.
** Should be heard. *** Sciences.
**** Given by. ***** Dejected.
Translate into Pali
The fruit that is being eaten by the boy should not be given to another
The field should be ploughed by the farmers with their oxen.
Being beaten by an enemy and not knowing what should be done*, the man ran across the field.
Many beggars came to receive the alms given by the rich merchant. Your parents** are to be worshipped and protected by you.
Being admonished*** by the teacher the student began to learn what
should be learnt.

7. The horses that are being carried by the merchants are to be sold tomorrow.
8. Ths horse being beaten by the slave ran quickly to the field.
9. Precepts should be oberved and alms should be given by you.
10. Many clothes are to be washed by our friends.
11. Ten men cut many trees that should be cut in that garden.
12. The trees which are being cut by them will fall on other trees.
13. The merchants did not get any food that should be eaten by them.
14. What should happen will happen**** to us and the others.
15. The rice is to be cooked and carried to the field by us.
* Kim kātabban ti ajānanto.
** Mātāpitaro (is a compound noun). *** Ovadito.
**** Bhavissati = will happen.
Causal or Causative Verbs 使役动词
74. Causative verbs are formed by adding to the root the suffixes, (1) e, (2) aya, (3) āpe, or (4) āpaya,
before the verbal termination. The radical vowel of the root is lengthened or changed before these suffixes, when it is followed by one consonant, and remains unchanged if it is followed by a double consonant, e.g.,
pac + e + ti = pāceti (causes to cook)
pac + aya + ti = pācayati (causes to cook)
pac + āpe + ti = pācāpeti (causes to cook)
pac + āpaya + ti = pācāpayati (causes to cook)
N.B. — There is a similarity between ‘pāceti’, ‘pācayati’ and ‘coreti’, ‘corayati’; but the former are causal and the latter are simple verbs.
75. The group of verbs ‘coreti’, etc., called Curādi Group (see §15), always take ‘e’ and ‘aya’ in their simple forms and their causal bases are formed with ‘āpe’ and ‘āpaya’, e.g.,
Simple: coreti, corayati = steals
Causal: corāpeti, corāpayati = causes to steal
76. (A) Intransitive verbs become transitive when they take causal forms, e.g.,
Dārako sayati. (The baby sleeps.)
Mātā dārakaṃ sayāpeti. (The mother makes her baby sleep.)

(B) Transitive verbs take one or two more objects in their causal forms, e.g.,
Simple: Goṇo tiṇaṃ khādati.
Causal: Dāso goṇaṃ tiṇaṃ khādāpeti. (The slave causes the ox to eat grass.)
77. A list of causatives
kārāpeti = causes to (or makes one) do gaṇhāpeti = causes to (or makes one) take nahāpeti = causes to (or makes one) bathe bhojāpeti = causes to (or makes one) eat nisīdāpeti = causes to (or makes one) sit harāpeti = causes to (or makes one) carry āharāpeti = causes to (or makes one) bring gacchāpeti = causes to (or makes one) go chindāpeti = causes to (or makes one) cut mārāpeti = causes to (or makes one) kill
Exercise 28
Suggested Solutions
Translate into English
1. Seṭṭhī vaḍḍhakiṃ gehaṃ kārāpeti.
2. Mātā dārakaṃ pokkharaṇiyaṃ nahāpessati.
3. Amhākaṃ pitaro bhikkhū bhojāpesuṃ.
4. Vanitāyo dāsiṃ bhattaṃ pācāpesuṃ.
5. Pāpakārino dāsehi* bahū mige mārāpenti.
6. Gahapatayo purisehi* dārūni gaṇhāpenti.
7. Garu sisse dhammaṃ uggaṇhāpesi.
8. Adhipati purisehi rukkhe chindāpessati.
9. Ahaṃ kaññāhi bhaṇḍāni āharāpessāmi.
10. Tumhe bhātarehi kapayo gāmaṃ harāpetha.
11. Mayaṃ dasahi goṇehi khettaṃ kasāpessāma.
12. Mātā puttaṃ pīṭhe nisīdāpetvā bhattaṃ pacituṃ taṇḍule** āharāpesi.
* Instrumental is also used with the causal forms. ** taṇḍula (m, n) (uncooked) rice.
Translate into Pali
1. The sinner causes his brothers to kill birds.

2. The rich men make their sons gave alms.
3. The king makes the carpenters build five houses.
4. The charioteer makes the slave bring two horses near the chariot.
5. The women get their daughters cook rice for the guests.
6. The carpenter gets the work* done by the servants.
7. The leader gets his men cut many trees in his garden.
8. They will get the field ploughed by 20 oxen.
9. I will make my son eat some food.
10. We will cause our slaves to go to the town.
11. They make the cows eat grass.
12. Do not allow him do that work*.
* work = kamma (n), kammanta (m). The New Pali Course Book 1
Vocabulary 词汇表 Pali - English 词汇表:巴-英
Abbreviations 缩略语表
m. Masculine 阳性
f. Feminine 阴性
n. Neuter 中性
ind. Indeclinable 没有词尾
adv.Adverb 副词
v.Verb 动词 adj.Adjective 形容词 inf. Infinitive 不定式 pr.p. Present Participle 现
p.p. Past Participle 过去分

pot.p. Potential Participle
pron. Pronoun 代名词
ger. Gerund 动名词
3. Of the three genders 三 性词

atthaññū (m) knower of the meaning.
adāsi (v) gave.
addhā (ind) certainly. adhipati (m) lord, leader. anugacchati (v) follows. anussarati (v) remembers. anussaranta (pr.p)
antarā (ind) between.
anto (ind) in, inside. apagacchati (v) goes away. apaci (v) cooked.
apara (adj) another, western. apassanta (pr.p) not seeing. api (ind) and, also.
appaka (adj) few, a little. abhavi (v) was.
abhiṇhaṃ (adv) constantly,
amata (n) ambrosia, the
supreme bliss.
amba (m) mango.
ambu (n) water.
ammā (f) mother.
amhe (pron) we.
amhākaṃ (pron) to us, our. ayaṃ (m, f) this [man,
arañña (n) forest.
akkhi (n) eye. 眼睛 agacchi (v) went. 去
aggi (m) fire. 火
aṅguli (f) finger. 手指 acari (v) walked, travelled.
acci (n) flame. 火焰 aja (m) goat. 山羊
ajja (ind) today. 今天
añña (adj) another, other. aññatara (adj) certain. aṭavi (f) forest.
aṭṭha (3) eight.
aṭṭhama (adj) eighth. aṭṭhavīsati (f) twenty-eight. aṭṭhasata (n) 800. aṭṭhādasa (3) eighteen. aṭṭhārasa (3) eighteen. aṭṭhāsi (v) stood.
aṭṭhāsīti (f) eighty-eight. aṭṭhi (n) bone, seed.
aṇḍa (n) egg.
atikkamituṃ (inf) to
atithi (m) guest.
atthi (v) is, has.
atha (ind) then, after that.

ari (m) enemy.
alaṅkaroti (v) decorates, adorns.
asani (f) thunderbolt. asi (m) sword.
asīti (f) eighty.
assa (m) horse.
assa (pron) his, to him. assā (pron) her, to her. assu (n) tear.
ahi (m) serpent.
ahaṃ (pron) I. [ā]
ākaḍḍhati (v) drags, pulls.
ākaddhīyati (v) is dragged, is pulled.
ākāsa (m) sky.
ākhu (m) rat.
āgacchati (v) comes. āgacchi (v) came.
āgata (p.p) come.
āgantvā (ger) having come. āgantuṃ (inf) to come. āgamma (ger) having come. ādāya (ger) having taken. āneti (v) brings.
ānesi (v) brought.
ānetvā (ger) having brought. āpaṇa (m) shop, market. āma (adj) unripe.
āma (ind) yes.
āyu (n) age.
āyudha (n) weapon. ārabhati (v) begins. ārabhi (v) began. ārāma (m) grove,
āruyha (ger) having
āruhati (v) ascends.
āruhi (v) ascended.
āruhitvā (ger) having ascended.
āloka (m) light.
āvāṭa (m) pit.
āhaṭa (p.p) brought. āharati (v) brings. āharanta (pr.p) bringing. āharāpeti (v) causes to
āhari (v) brought.
āharituṃ (inf) to bring. āharīyati (v) is brought. āhāra (m) food. āhiṇḍati (v) wanders.
icchati (v) wishes. itara (adj) the other. ito (ind) hence.
itthī (f) woman. idaṃ (n) this [thing]. idāni (ind) now.

idha (ind) here.
ima (adj) this.
imā (pron) these [women]. ime (pron) these [men].
isi (m) sage.
isipatanārāma (m) the grove
of Isipatana (at Sarnath).
ukkhipitvā (ger) having raised up.
uggaṇhāti (v) learns.
uggaṇhitabba (pot.p) that should be learnt.
ucca (adj) high, tall.
ucchu (m) sugarcane. uṭṭhahati (v) rises up. uṭṭhahitvā (ger) having risen
uṭṭhāpetvā (ger) having
uḍḍeti (v) flies.
uttara (adj) northern. uttāna (adj) shallow. udaka (n) water. udadhi (m) ocean. udeti (v) rises up. upari (ind) above. uppala (n) water-lily. ubhaya (3) both. ussahati (v) tries.
eka (adj) one, certain. ekakkhattuṃ (adv) once. ekacattāḷīsati (f) forty-one. ekatiṃsati (f) thirty-one. ekato (ind) together. ekadā (adv) one day, once. ekadhā (adv) in one way. ekattha (adv) in one place. ekamantaṃ (adv) aside. ekavīsati (f) twenty-one. ekasaṭṭhi (f) sixty-one. ekādasa (3) eleven. ekādasama (adj) eleventh. ekāsīti (f) eighty-one. ekūnacattāḷīsati (f) 39. ekūnatiṃsati (f) 29. ekūnapaññāsati (f) 49. ekūnanavuti (f) 89. ekūnavīsati (f) 19. ekūnasaṭṭhi (f) 59. ekūnasattati (f) 69. ekūnasata (n) 99. ekūnāsīti (f) 79.
eta (3) that, this.
ettha (adv) here.
evaṃ (ind) thus, yes.
esā (f) that [woman]. (stem:
eso (m) that [man]. (stem:

okkamma (ger) having moved aside.
ocināti (v) gathers, collects.
ocinitvā (ger) having collected.
ocinituṃ (inf) to gather, to collect.
otarati (v) descends.
otaritvā (ger) having descended.
odana (m/n) [boiled] rice. otiṇṇa (p.p) descended. oruyha (ger) having
oruhati (v) descends.
oloketi (v) looks at. olokenta (pr.p) looking at.
kathā (f) speech, talk. katheti (v) says.
kathesi (v) said, told. kadalī (f) plantain.
kadā (adv) when?
kapi (m) monkey.
kamma (n) work. kammanta (m) work. kammakāra (m) worker. karaṇīya (pot.p) that should
be done.
kari (v) did.
karissati (v) will do. karī (m) elephant. karīyati (v) is done. karoti (v) does.
karonta (pr.p) doing. kavi (m) poet.
kasati (v) ploughs. kasīyati (v) is ploughed. kassaka (m) farmer. kāka (m) crow.
kākī (f) she-crow.
kātabba (pot.p) that should be done.
kātuṃ (inf) to do. kāraṇa (n) reason. kārāpeti (v) causes to do. kāya (m) body.
kāla (m) time.
kālaṃ karoti (v) dies. kāsu (f) pit.
kacchu (f) itch.
kaññā (f) girl.
kaṭacchu (m) spoon. kaṇeru (f) she-elephant. kata (p.p) made, done. katama (3) which of the
katara (3) which of the two.
kattu (m) doer, compiler. kattha (adv) where. katvā (ger) having done. kathaṃ (ind) how.

kāḷa (adj) black.
kiṇanta (pr.p) buying. kiṇāti (v) buys.
kiṇi (v) bought.
kiṇitvā (ger) having bought. kiṇīyati (v) is bought.
kitti (f) fame.
kiṃ (3) what?
kīḷati (v) plays.
kīḷitvā (ger) having played. kukkuṭī (f) hen.
kucchi (m/f) belly.
kuṭṭhī (m) leper.
kuto (ind) from where? kuddha (p.p) enraged,
kumāra (m) boy.
kamārī (f) girl.
kula (n) family, caste. kulavantu (adj) of the high
kuhiṃ (adv) where?
kūla (n) [river] bank. ketu (m) banner.
ko (m) who? (Nom.) kodha (m) anger. koḷambanagara (n) city of
khara (adj) rough, coarse. khādati (v) eats. khādanta (pr.p) eating. khādi (v) ate.
khāditvā (ger) having eaten. khinna (p.p) dejected.
khīra (n) milk.
khuddaka (adj) small. khudā (f) hunger.
khetta (n) field.
gacchati (v) goes. gacchanta (pr.p) going. gacchāpeti (v) causes to go. gacchi (v) went. gacchissati (v) will go. gaṅgā (f) river.
gaṇī (m) one who has a
khaṇati (v) digs. khanti (f) patience.
gaṇṭhi (m) knot.
gaṇhāti (v) takes.
gaṇhāpeti (v) causes to take. gaṇhi (v) took.
gaṇhituṃ (inf) to take. gaṇhīyati (v) is taken.
gata (p.p) gone.
gantu (m) goer.
gantuṃ (inf) to go.
gantvā (ger) having gone. gamissati (v) will go. gambhīra (adj) deep.

garu (m) teacher.
gavesati (v) seeks. gahapati (m) householder. gahita (p.p) taken.
gahetvā (ger) having taken. gāma (m) village.
gāyati (v) sings.
gāyanta (pr.p) singing. gāvī (f) cow.
giri (m) mountain.
gīvā (f) neck.
guṇavantu (adj) virtuous. guhā (f) cave.
geha (m, n) house.
goṇa (m) ox.
godhā (f) iguana.
ghaṭa (m) water-pot. ghāṇa (n) nose. ghāyituṃ (inf) to smell.
possessor of eyes.
canda (m) moon.
catutthī (f) Dative. catuddasa (3) fourteen. catuppada (m) quadruped. caturāsīti (f) eighty-four. catuvīsati (f) twenty-four. carati (v) walks.
caranta (pr.p) walking. caritvā (ger) having walked. citta (n) mind.
cinteti (v) thinks.
cintetvā (ger) having
cintesi (v) thought.
ciraṃ (adv) [for a] long time.
cuddasa (3) fourteen. cuddasama (adj) fourteenth. cetiya (n) shrine, pagoda. cora (m) thief.
coreti (v) steals.
coresi (v) stole.
ca (ind) and. cakkhu (n) eye. cakkhumantu (adj)
cha (3) six.
chaṭṭha (adj) sixth. chaṭṭhī (f) Genitive. chattha (n) umbrella. chattiṃsati (f) thirty-six. chattī (m) one who has an
cattāḷisati (f) forty.
catu (3) four.
catuttiṃsati (f) thirty-four. catuttha (adj) fourth.
channavuti (f) ninety-six.
chabbīsati (f) twenty-six.

chāyā (f) shade, shadow. chāsīti (f) eighty-six. chindati (v) cuts.
chindanta (pr.p) cutting. chindāpeti (v) causes to cut. chinditabba (pot.p) that
should be cut.
chinna (p.p) cut.
ṭhapeti (v) keeps. ṭhapetu (v) let him keep. ṭhapesi (v) kept.
ṭhāna (n) place.
ṭhita (p.p) stood.
ḍasitvā (ger) having bitten or stung.
ta (3) that.
taṇḍula (n) rice [uncooked]. tatiya (adj) third.
tato (ind) thence, from
tattha (adv) there.
tatra (adv) there.
tathā (ind) so, likewise, in that way.
tadā (adv) then.
tarati (v) crosses.
taritvā (ger) having crossed. taru (m) tree.
taruṇī (f) young woman. tava = thine, your.
tassa = his.
tassā = of her, to her.
tahiṃ (adv) there.
tā (f) those women.
tāni = those things.
ñāṇa (n) wisdom. ñāta (p.p) known. ñātu (m) knower.
jaṅghā (f) shank, calf of the
jaṇṇu (m) knee.
jatu (n) sealing wax. jayatu (v) let him conquer. jala (n) water.
jāṇu (m) knee.
jānāti (v) knows.
jāleti (v) kindles.
jālesi (v) kindled.
jināti (v) wins.
jivhā (f) tongue.
jetu (m) victor.
ṭhatvā (ger) having stood. ṭhapita (p.p) kept.
ḍasati (v) bites, stings.

ti (3) three.
tiṭṭhati (v) stands. tiṭṭhanta (pr.p) standing. tiṇa (n) grass.
tiṇṇa (p.p) crossed, gone
tinavuti (f) ninety-three.
dadanta (pr.p) giving. dadamāna (pr.p) giving. dadāti (v) gives.
dadi (v) gave.
daddu (f) eczema.
dadhi (n) curd.
dantī (m) tusker, elephant. dasa (3) ten.
dasakoṭi (f) hundred
dasama (adj) tenth.
dasalakkha (n) million. dasasata (n) thousand. dasasahassa (n) ten
dassanīya (adj) handsome,
daḷhaṃ (adv) tightly.
dāṭhī (m) tusker, serpent.
dātabba (pot.p) that should be given.
dātu (m) given.
dātuṃ (inf) to give.
dāna (n) alms, charity. dāyaka (m) giver.
dāraka (m) young one, boy. dārikā (f) girl.
dāru (n) firewood.
dāsa (m) slave.
dāsī (f) slave woman. dinna (p.p) given.
divasa (m) day.
tipu (n) lead.
tiriyaṃ (adv) across. tiṃsati (f) thirty. tiṃsatima (adj) thirtieth. tiṃsā (f) thirty.
tumhe = you.
tuyhaṃ = to you, your. tulā (f) scale, balance.
te (m) they.
te-asīti (f) eighty-three. tettiṃsati (f) thirty-three. tenavuti (f) ninety-three. tepaññāsā (f) fifty-three. terasa (3) thirteen. terasama (adj) thirteenth. tevīsati (f) twenty-three. tesaṭṭhi (f) sixty-three. tesattati (f) seventy-three. teḷasa (3) thirteen.
tvaṃ = thou.
dakkhiṇa (adj) southern. daṭṭha (p.p) bitten.
datvā (ger) having given.

divā (ind) day-time.
disā (f) direction.
disvā (ger) having seen. dīgha (adj) long. dīghajīvī (m) possessor of
long life.
dīpa (m) island, lamp.
dīpi (m) leopard. dīyati (v) is given. dīyamāna (pr.p) being
dukkha (n) pain, misery,
dukkhaṃ (adv) with
difficulty, miserably.
dutiya (adj) second.
dundubhi (f) drum. dubbala (adj) feeble.
deti (v) gives.
deva (m) rain, deity. devatā (f) deity.
devī (f) queen, goddess. desanā (f) preaching. desita (p.p) preached. deseti (v) preaches. desesi (v) preached. desīyati (v) is preached. doṇi (f) canoe, boat.
dolā (f) palanquin. dvatti

divā (ind) day-time.
disā (f) direction.
disvā (ger) having seen. dīgha (adj) long. dīghajīvī (m) possessor of
long life.
dīpa (m) island, lamp.
dīpi (m) leopard. dīyati (v) is given. dīyamāna (pr.p) being
dukkha (n) pain, misery,
dukkhaṃ (adv) with
difficulty, miserably.
dutiya (adj) second.
dundubhi (f) drum. dubbala (adj) feeble.
deti (v) gives.
deva (m) rain, deity. devatā (f) deity.
devī (f) queen, goddess. desanā (f) preaching. desita (p.p) preached. deseti (v) preaches. desesi (v) preached. desīyati (v) is preached. doṇi (f) canoe, boat.
dolā (f) palanquin. dvattiṃsati (f) thirty-two. dvādasa (3) twelve. dvādasama (adj) twelfth.
dvānavuti (f) ninety-two. dvāvīsati (f) twenty-two. dvāsaṭṭhi (f) sixty-two. dvāsattati (f) seventy-two. dvāsīti (f) eighty-two.
dvi (3) two.
dvikkhattuṃ (adv) twice. dvicattāḷīsati (f) forty-two. dvidhā (ind) in two ways,
into two.
dvinavuti (f) ninety-two.
dvisattati (f) seventy-two. dvisata (n) two hundred. dveasīti (f) eighty-two. dvepaṇṇāsā (f) fifty-two. dvesattati (f) seventy-two.
dhana (n) wealth. dhanavantu (adj) rich. dhanu (n) bow. dhamma (m) doctrine. dhātu (f) element, relic. dhāvati (v) runs. dhāvanta (3) running. dhāvi (v) ran.
dhāvitvā (ger) having run. dhītu (f) daughter.
dhūli (f) dust.
dhenu (f) cow [of any kind]. dhovati (v) washes.
dhovitabba (pot.p) that should be washed.
nidhi (m) hidden treasure. nibbattituṃ (inf) to be born. nibbattitvā (ger) having
niraya (m) hell.
nilīyati (v) hides.
nisinna (p.p) sat.
nisīdati (v) sats.
nisīdāpeti (v) causes to sit. nisīdi (v) sat.
nisīditabba (pot.p) should be sat.
nisīditvā (ger) having sat. nīca (adj) low, vulgar. nīta (p.p) led, carried. nīla (adj) blue.
nīharati (v) ejects. neti (v) leads, carries. netu (m) leader.
nesi (v) led, carried.
dhovīyati (v) is washed.
na (ind) not, no. nagara (n) city. nattu (m) grandson. natthi (v) is not. nadī (f) river. nayana (n) eye. nara (m) man.
nava (3) nine.
navama (adj) ninth. navasata (n) nine hundred. navuti (f) ninety.
na santi = are not.
nahāta (p.p) bathed.
nahātvā (ger) having bathed. nahāpeti (v) causes to bathe. nahāyati (v) bathes. nahāyanta (pr.p) bathing. nāma (n) name.
nārī (f) woman.
nāvā (f) ship.
nāsā (f) nose.
nāḷi (f) corn measure, tube. nāḷikera (m) coconut. nikkhanta (p.p) got out. nikkhamati (v) goes out. nikkhamma (ger) having
pakka (p.p) cooked, ripe. pakkhipati (v) puts in. pakkhī (m) bird. paggayha (ger) having
come out.
niddā (f) sleep.
raised up.
pacati (v) cooks.
pacatu (v) let him cook. pacanta (pr.p) cooking. pacamāna (pr.p) cooking. pacanīya (pot.p) that should
be cooked.

paci (v) cooked.
pacita (p.p) cooked. pacitabba (pot.p) that should
be cooked.
pacituṃ (inf) to cook.
pacitvā (ger) having cooked. pacchā (ind) afterwards. pañca (3) five.
pañcadasa (3) fifteen. pañcama (adj) fifth. pañcatiṃsati (f) thirty-five. pañcadhā (ind) in five ways. pañcavīsati (f) twenty-five. pañcasata (n) five hundred. paññavantu (adj) wise. paññā (f) wisdom.
paññāsati (f) fifty.
paññāsā (f) fifty. paṭinivatti (v) went back. paṭiyādetuṃ (inf) to make,
to prepare.
paṭhama (adj) first.
paṇṇa (n) leaf. paṇṇarasa (3) fifteen. paṇṇāsati (f) fifty. paṇḍita (m) wise man. patati (v) falls.
pati (m) husband, master. pati (v) fell down.
patti (f) infantry.
paduma (n) lotus.
panasa (m) jack-fruit.
pabbata (m) mountain.
pabbajati (v) becomes a monk, renounces.
pabhū (m) overlord. para (adj) other, latter. parasuve (ind) day after
parahīyo (ind) day before
paridahati (v) wears.
parisā (f) retinue, following. pavisati (v) enters. pavisitvā (ger) having
pasu (m) beast.
passati (v) sees.
passanta (pr.p) seeing, looking at.
passituṃ (inf) to see. pahaṭa (p.p) beaten. paharati (v) beats. paharitvā (ger) having
paharīyati (v) is beaten.
pahāya (ger) having left. pāka (m) cooking, boiling. pācayati (v) causes to cook. pācāpayati (v) causes to
pācāpeti (v) causes to cook.
pāceti (v) causes to cook. pāṭhasālā (f) school.

pāṇi (m) hand.
pāteti (v) fells, makes to fall.
pātesi (v) felled.
pātuṃ (inf) to drink.
pāto (ind) in the morning. pāda (m) foot, leg.
pāpa (n) sin.
pāpakārī (m) sinner,
pāleti (v) protects, governs.
puna (ind) again.
puppha (n) flower.
pubba (adj) former, eastern. purato (ind) in front.
purā (ind) before, formerly. purisa (m) man.
pulina (n) sand.
pūjā (f) offering.
pūjeti (v) offers, honours. pūjesi (v) respected, offered. pūjetvā (ger) having
pokkharanī (f) pond.
pālesi (v) protected. pāvisi (v) entered. pāsāṇa (m) stone, rock. pitu (m) father.
pharasu (m) axe, hatchet. phala (n) fruit, nut. phalavantu (adj) fruitful.
pipāsā (f) thirst.
pivati (v) drinks.
pivatu (v) let him drink. pivamāna (pr.p) drinking. pivituṃ (inf) to drink. pivitvā (ger) having drunk. piḷandhitvā (ger) having
pītha (n) chair.
pīta (p.p) drunk.
pīta (adj) yellow.
pīḷita (p.p) oppressed. pīḷeti (v) oppressed.
puñña (n) merit, fortune. paññavantu (adj) fortunate,
putta (m) son.
battiṃsati (f) thirty-two. bandhati (v) binds, ties. bandhīyati (v) is bound. bandhu (m) relation. bandhumantu (adj) one who
has relations.
bala (n) power.
balavantu (adj) powerful, strong.
balī (m) powerful.
bahu (adj) many.
bahuka (adj) many. bārāṇasī (f) Benares [city].

bāla (adj) young, foolish. bāhu (m) arm.
buddha (m) the Enlightened
buddhi (f) wisdom.
buddhimantu (adj) wise. bodhi (m/f) Bo-tree. brāhmaṇī (f) brahmin
bhagavantu (m) the Buddha, the Exalted One. (adj) the fortunate.
bhaginī (f) sister. bhañjati (v) breaks. bhaṇḍa (n) goods. bhattu (m) husband,
bhariyā (f) wife.
bhavati (v) is, becomes. bhavatu (v) let it be. bhavitabba (pot.p) that
should happen.
bhāgī (m) sharer.
bhājetvā (ger) having divided.
bhātu (m) brother. bhānu (m) sun. bhānumantu (m) sun. bhāyati (v) fears. bhāyitvā (ger) having
bhāsati (v) says.
bhāsīyati (v) is told, is said.
bhikkhu (m) Buddhist monk.
bhindati (v) breaks. bhinna (p.p) broken. bhuñjati (v) eats. bhuñjanta (pr.p) eating. bhuñjitabba (pot.p) that
should be eaten.
bhuñjituṃ (inf) to eat.
bhuñjīyati (v) is eaten. bhutta (p.p) eaten. bhūpati (m) king. bhūpāla (m) king. bhūmi (f) earth, ground. bhogī (m) serpent. bhojāpeti (v) feeds. bhottuṃ (inf) to eat.
magga (m) path.
majjhima (adj) medium, central.
mañca (m) bed.
mañjūsā (f) box.
maṇi (m) gem.
mata (p.p) dead.
mati (f) wisdom. mattaññū (adj) temperate,
one who knows the measure. madhu (n) honey.

manussa (m) man, human being.
mayaṃ = we.
mayhaṃ = to me, my. mayūra (m) peacock. maraṇa (n) death.
marati (v) dies.
mahanta (pr.p) big, large,
mahallaka (adj) elderly, old.
mahī (f) earth, the river of that name.
yaṭṭihi (m/f) stick, walking stick.
yattha (adv) where (relative).
yadā (adv) whenever. yasavantu (adj) famous. yāgu (f) rice, gruel. yācaka (m) beggar. yācati (v) begs.
yācanta (pr.p) begging. yāci (v) begged.
yāva (ind) as far as.
yāva … tāva (ind) until. yuvati (f) maiden.
yojeti (v) harnesses, joins,
rakkhati (v) protects. rakkhatu (v) let him protect. rakkhitabba (pot.p) that
mā (ind) [do] not.
mātu (f) mother.
mārāpeti (v) causes to kill.
mārita (p.p) killed.
mārīyati (v) is killed.
māreti (v) kills.
māresi (v) killed.
mālā (f) garland. [r] mālī (m) possessor of a
māsa (m) month.
miga (m) deer, beast. migī (f) she-deer.
miṇāti (v) measures. mitta (m) friend.
muṭṭhi (m) fist, hammer. mudu (adj) soft.
muni (m) monk. mūla (n) root, money.
ya (3) which (relative).
should be observed or protected. rakkhīyati (v) is protected.
rajja (n) kingdom.
rajju (f) rope.
ratta (adj) red.
ratti (f) night.
ratha (m) chariot.
ravi (m) sun.
ravitvā (ger) having crowed.

rassa (adj) short.
rāsi (m) heap. rukkha (m) tree.
rūpa (n) form, image. rodati (v) cries. rodanta (pr.p) crying.
vadati (v) says.
vadana (n) face, mouth. vana (n) forest.
vanitā (f) woman. vandati (v) bows down,
vandita (p.p) worshipped.
vanditabba (pot.p) that should be worshipped.
vandīyati (v) is worshipped. vapu (n) body.
varāha (m) pig.
vasati (v) dwells.
vasanta (pr.p) living. vasu (n) wealth. vasudhā (f) earth. vassa (m/n) year, rain. vassati (v) rains. vaḷavā (f) mare.
vā (ind) or, either - or. vācā (f) word.
vāṇija (m) merchant. vānara (m) monkey. vāpī (f) tank.
vāri (n) water.
vālukā (f) sand. vikkiṇanta (pr.p) selling. vikkiṇāti (v) sells. vikkiṇi (v) sold. vikkinīyati (v) is sold. vijju (f) lightning. viññātu (m) knower.
lakkha (n) hundred thousand.
laṅkā (f) [island] of Ceylon. latā (f) creeper.
laddha (p.p) got.
laddhā (ger) having got. laddhuṃ (inf) to get. labhati (v) gets, receives. labhituṃ (inf) to get.
likhati (v) writes. lekhaka (m) clerk. loka (m) world. locana (n) eye.
vaṇita (p.p) wounded. vaṇitamakāsi (v) wounded. vaḍḍhakī (m) carpenter. vattabba (pot.p) that should
be told.
vattu (m) sayer.
vattha (n) cloth.
vatthu (n) base, site, ground. vadaññū (adj) charitable.

viññu (m) wise man. vitthata (p.p) broad, wide. vidū (m) wise man. vidhāya (ger) having done
or commanded.
vinā (ind) except, without.
vinetu (m) instructor. visikhā (f) street. visuṃ (ind) severally,
viharanta (pr.p) residing,
vihāra (m) monastery.
vīsati (f) twenty. vīsatima (adj) twentieth. vīhi (m) paddy.
vuṭṭhi (f) rain.
vutta (p.p) said.
vuttha (p.p) dwelt, lived. vuddhi (f) increase,
ve (ind) certainly.
vejja (m) doctor, physician. veṇu (m) bamboo.
veḷu (m) bamboo.
vyādhi (m) sickness.
sakiṃ (adv) once. sakuṇa (m) bird. sakuṇī (f) she-bird. sakkoti (v) is able.
sakkharā (f) sugar, gravel. sakhī (f) woman-friend. sagga (m) heaven. saṅgha (m) community. sace (ind) if.
saṭṭhi (f) sixty.
sata (n) hundred. satakoṭi (f) thousand
satama (adj) hundredth.
satalakkha (n) ten million.
satasahassa (n) hundred thousand.
sati (f) memory.
satimantu (adj) mindful. satta (3) seven.
sattadasa (3) seventeen. sattati (f) seventy. sattatiṃsati (f) thirty-seven. sattama (adj) seventh. sattamī (f) Locative. sattarasa (3) seventeen. sattavīsati (f) twenty-seven. sattāsīti (f) eighty-seven. sattu (m) enemy.
sattha (n) science. (m)
satthi (m/n) thigh.
satthu (m) teacher, adviser. sadā (ind) ever, always. saddhiṃ (ind) with. sanikaṃ (adv) slowly.

santi (v) are.
santi (f) peace, relief. santika (adj) near. sannipatati (v) assembles. sappi (n) ghee.
sabba (adj) all, every. sabbattha (adv) everywhere. sabbaññū (m) the
Omniscient One.
sabbadā (adv) ever, always.
sabhā (f) committee, society.
samaṃ (adv) equally, evenly.
sayati (v) sleeps.
sayanta (pr.p) sleeping. sayita (p.p) slept.
sayi (v) slept.
sayitvā (ger) having slept. sasī (m) moon.
sassu (f) mother-in-law. saha (ind) with.
sahasā (adv) suddenly. sahassa (n) thousand.
sā = she.
sākhā (f) branch. sādhukaṃ (adv) well.
sāmī (m) master, lord. sāyaṃ (ind) in the evening. sārathī (m) charioteer.
sālā (f) hall.
sāvatthī (f) city of that name.
sikkhāpada (n) precept. sikhī (m) peacock. sindhu (m) sea.
silā (f) stone.
sissa (m) student.
sighaṃ (adv) quickly.
sīla (n) virtue, precept. sīlavantu (adj) observant of
precepts, virtuous. sīha (m) lion.
sīhī (f) lioness.
sukha (n) comfort. sukhaṃ (adv) comfortably. sukhī (m) receiver of
comfort, happy.
suṇāti (v) hears.
suta (p.p) heard.
sutta (p.p) slept.
sutvā (ger) having heard. sunakha (m) dog.
surā (f) liquor, intoxicant. suriya (m) sun.
surūpa (adj) handsome,
suvaṇṇa (n) gold.
suve (ind) tomorrow. susāna (n) cemetery. susu (m) young one. seṭṭhī (m) millionaire. seta (adj) white.

setu (m) bridge.
senā (f) army, multitude. so = he (stem: ta)
sota (n) ear, stream. sotabba (pot.p) that should
be heard.
sotu (m) hearer.
sopāṇa (n) stair. soḷasa (3) sixteen.
hotu (v) let it be.
The New Pali Course Book 1
English – Pali 词汇表:英-巴 Abbreviations 缩略语表
m. Masculine
f. Feminine
n. Neuter
indec. Indeclinable adv. Adverb
v. Verb
adj. Adjective
inf. Infinitive
pr.p. Present Participle p.p. Past Participle pron. Pronoun
ger. Gerund
3. Of the three genders
haṭa (p.p) carried.
hata (p.p) killed.
hattha (m) hand. hatthinī (f) she-elephant. hatthī (m) elephant. hadaya (n) heart.
harati (v) carries.
haraṇīya (pot.p) that should be carried.
haranta (pr.p) carrying. harāpeti (v) causes to carry. hari (v) carried.
harita (p.p) carried. harituṃ (inf) to carry. harīyati (v) is carried. hasati (v) laughs.
hasanta (pr.p) laughing. himavantu (m) the
hīyo (ind) yesterday.
hoti (v) is, becomes.
across tiriyaṃ (adv) adorns alaṅkaroti (v) adviser satthu (m) afterwards pacchā (adv) again puna (indec)
age āyu (n)
all sabba (adj)
alms dāna (n)
always sadā, sabbadā (adv) and ca, api (indec)

anger kodha (m)
another añña, apara (adj) arm bāhu (m)
army senā (f)
ascended āruhi (v) ascends āruhati (v)
aside ekamantaṃ (adv) assembles sannipatati (v) ate khādi (v)
axe pharasu (m)
begins ārabhati (v)
began ārabhi (v)
belly kucchi (m/f) Benares [city] bārānasī (f) between antarā (indec) big mahanta (adj)
bird sakuṇa, pakkhī (m) bitten daṭṭha (p.p) black kāḷa (adj)
blue nīla (adj)
boat doṇi (f)
body vapu (n), kāya (m) boiled rice odana (m/n),
bhatta (n)
bone aṭṭhi (n)
Bo-tree bodhi (m/f)
bow dhanu (n)
box mañjūsā (f)
boy dāraka, kumāra (m) brahman woman brāhmaṇī
branch sākhā (f)
breaks bhañjati (v)
bridge setu (m)
bringing āharanta (pr.p) broad vitthata (p.p)
broken bhinna (p.p)
brother bhātu (m)
brought āhaṭa (p.p)
brought āhari, ānesi (v) Buddha bhagavantu, buddha
balance tulā (f)
bamboo veṇu, veḷu (m) bank [of a river] kūla (n) banner ketu (m)
base vatthu (n), bhūmi (f) bathed nahāta (p.p) bathing nahāyanta (pr.p) beast pasu, miga (m) beaten pahaṭa (p.p)
beats paharati (v)
beautiful dassanīya, surūpa
becomes hoti, bhavati (v)
becomes a monk pabbajati
bed mañca (m) sayana (n)
been bhūta (p.p)
before purā, purato (indec) begging yācanta (pr.p) begs yācati (v)

buying kiṇanta (pr.p) buys kiṇāti (v)
carries harati, neti (v)
carrying haranta (pr.p) cash mūla (n)
caste kula (n)
cave guhā (f)
causes to bathe nahāpeti (v) causes to bring āharāpeti (v) causes to carry harāpeti (v) causes to cook pācāpeti,
pāceti, pācayati (v)
causes to cut chindāpeti (v)
causes to do kārāpeti (v) causes to go gacchāpeti (v) causes to kill mārāpeti (v) causes to sit nisīdāpeti (v) causes to take gaṇhāpeti (v) cemetery susāna (n) certainly addhā, ve,
ekantaṃ (indec)
Ceylon laṅkā (f)
charitable vadaññū (adj) charioteer sārathī (m) charity dāna (n)
city nagara, pura (n)
clerk lekhaka (m) climbed āruhi (v) climbs āruhati (v) coarse khara (adj) coconut nāḷikera (m) collects ocināti (v) Colombo [city of]
koḷambanagara (n) come āgata (p.p)
comes āgacchati (v) comfort sukha (n) comfortably sukaṃ (adv) community saṅgha (m) constantly abhiṇhaṃ (adv) cook sūda (m)
cooked pakka, pacita (p.p) cooked apaci, paci (v) cooking pacanta (pr.p) cooking pāka (gerund) (m) cooks pacati (v)
corn dhañña (n)
corn measure nāḷi (f)
cow gāvī (f)
cow [of any kind] dhenu (f) creeper latā (f)
cries rodati (v)
crossed tiṇṇa (p.p)
crow kāla (m)
crying rodanta (pr.p)
curd dadhi (n)
cut chinna (p.p)
cutter chettu (m)
carpenter vaḍḍhakī (m) carried hari, nesi (v) carried haṭa, harita, nīta

cutting chindanta (pr.p) cuts chindati (v)
daughter dhītu (f) day divasa (m)
day after tomorrow
parasuve (indec)
day before yesterday
parahīyo (indec)
day time divā (indec)
dead mata (p.p)
death maraṇa (n)
decorates alaṅkaroti (v) deep gambhīra (adj)
deer miga (m)
deity deva (m) devatā (f) descended otiṇṇa (p.p) descends oruhati, otarati (v) did kari, akari (v)
dies marati, kālaṃ karoti (v) digs khaṇati (v)
direction disā (f)
doctor vejja (m)
doctrine dhamma (m)
doer kattu (m)
does karoti (v)
dog sunakha (m)
done kata (p.p)
doing karonta (pr.p)
[do] not mā (indec)
drags ākaḍḍhati (v)
drinking pivamāna (pr.p) dropped pātesi (v)
drum dundubhi (f)
dust dhūli (f)
dwarf rassa (adj) dwells vasati (v) dwelt vuttha (p.p)
ear sota, ghāṇa (n)
earth vasudhā, bhūmi, mahī
eastern pubba (adj)
eat khādati, bhuñjati (v) eaten bhutta, khādita (p.p) eating khādanta, bhuñjanta
eczema daddu (f) egg aṇḍa (n)
eight aṭṭha (3) eighteen aṭṭhārasa,
aṭṭhādasa (3)
eighth aṭṭhama (adj)
eighty asīti (f)
eighty-eight aṭṭhāsīti (f) eighty-four caturāsīti (f) eighty-nine ekūnanavuti (f) eighty-one ekāsīti (f) eighty-six chāsīti (f) eighty-three teasīti (f) eighty-two dvāsīti, dveaīti

ejects nīharati (v)
elderly mahallaka (adj) elephant dantī, hatthī, karī
eleven ekādasa (3)
eleventh ekādasama (adj) enemy ari, sattu (m) Enlightened One buddha,
bhagavantu (m)
enraged kuddha (p.p)
enters pavisati (v) entered pāvisi (v)
[in the] evening sāyaṃ
ever sadā, sabbadā (adv)
evenly samaṃ (adv) every sabba (adj) everywhere sabbattha
evil-doer pāpakārī (m)
Exalted One bhagavantu
eye akkhi, nayana, locana, cakkhu (n)
feeds bhojeti, bhojāpeti (v) felled pātesi (v)
fells pāteti (v)
few paritta, appaka (adj) field khetta (n)
fifth pañcama (adj)
fifteen paṇṇarasa, pañcadasa (3)
fifty paṇṇāsā, paññāsā, paññāsati (f)
fifty-nine ekūnasaṭṭhi (f) fifty-one ekapaññāsā (f) finger aṅguli (f)
fire aggi (m)
firewood dāru (m)
first paṭhama (adj)
five pañca (3)
flame acci (n)
flies uḍḍeti (v)
flower puppha (n)
follows anugacchati (v) food āhāra (m), bhojana (n) foolish bāla (adj)
foot pāda (m)
for a long time ciraṃ (adv) forest vana, arañña (n) aṭavi
form rūpa (n)
formerly purā (indec)
fortunate puññavantu, bhagavantu (adj)
face vadana, mukha (n) fame kitti (f)
family kula (n)
famous yasavantu (adj) farmer kassaka (m) father pitu (m)
feeble dubbala (adj)

forty cattāḷīsati, cattārīsati
forty-nine ekūnapaññāsā (f)
forty-one ekacattāḷīsati (f) four catu (3)
fourteen cuddasa, catuddasa
friend mitta (m)
from there tato (indec) from where kuto (indec) fruit phala (n)
fruitful phalavantu (adj)
garland mālā (f) gathers ocināti (v) gave dadi, adāsi (v) gem maṇi (m) ghee sappi (n)
going gacchanta; gacchamāna (pr.p)
gold suvaõ õ a (n.)
gone gata. (p.p)
gone ashore tiõ õ a. (p.p.) got laddha ( p.p.)
got out nikkhanta (p.p) grandson nattu (m)
grass tiõ a (n)
gravel sakkharā (f)
ground bhūmi (f) vatthu (n) grove of ispatana isipatanā
rāma (m) gruel yāgu (f)
girl dārikā, kaññā, kumārī, kumārikā (f)
given dinna (p.p) giver dātu dāyaka. (m) gives deti dadāti. f.
giving dadanta (pr.p)
goat aja (m)
god deva (m)
goddess devī
goes gacchati (v)
goes away apagacchati (v) goes out nikkhamati (v)
hall sà là (f)
hand hattha; pāni (m) handsome dassanīya; surūpa. (adj)
happy sukhī (m)
having awakened uññhà petvà
having born nibbattitvā (abs) having climbed āruyha (abs) having come āgamma (abs) having come out nikkhamma
having commanded vidhà ya

having cooked pacitvà (abs) having crossed taritvà (abs) having crowed ravitvà (abs) having divided bhà jetvà (abs) having done katvà ; vidhà ya (abs) having donned piëandhitva (abs) having drunk pivitvā (abs) having eaten bhu¤ jitvà ; khà ditvà .
Having got laddhà ; labhitvà .(abs) having left pahà ya (abs)
having moved aside apakkamma
having raised up paggayha;
hides nilīyati (v)
high ucca (adj)
Himalayas himavantu (m) Honey madhu (n)
Horse assa (m)
House geha (n) Householder gahapati (m) Human being manussa (m) Hunger khudā (f)
Husband pati; bhattu (m) How katham. (ind)
I ahaü .
Iguana godhà (f)
Image rå pa (n)
Increase vuddhi (f)
Infantry patti (f)
Instructor vinetå ; satthu (m) In that way tathà (ind)
In front purato (ind)
In one place ekattha (ind) Intelligent buddhimantu (adj) In two ways dvidhà (ad) Intoxicant majja (n) surà (f) Is hoti; bhavati (v)
Is able sakkoti (v)
Is beaten paharãyati (v)
Is bought kiõ ãyati (v)
Is brought à harãyati (v)
Is carried harãyati (v)
Is done karãyati (v)
ukkhipitvà (abs)
having risen up uññhahitvñà (abs) having slept sayitvà (abs) having stood ñhatvà (abs) having taken à dà ya;
gaõ hitvà (abs)
he so (stem ta) (m)
heap rà si (m)
heard suta (p.p)
hearer sotu (m)
hears suõ à ti (v)
heart hadaya (n)
heaven sagga (m)
hell niraya (m)
hen kukkuñã (f)
here idha; ettha (ad) hermit isi; tapassī (m) hidden treasure nidhi (m)

Is drawn à kaó ó hãyati (v) Is eaten bhu¤ jãyati (v)
Is given dãyati (v)
Is killed mà rãyati (v) Island dãpa (m)
Is made karãyati (v)
Is not natthi (v)
Is ploughed kasãyati (v)
Is preached desãyati (v)
Is protected rakkhãyati (v) Is sold vikkiõ ãyati (v)
Is taken gaõ hãyati (v)
Is tied bandhãyati (v)
Is told bhà sãyati (v)
Is worshipped vandãyati (v) Is washed dhovãyati (v)
It taü . (n)
Itch kacchu (f)
[j] [k]
Known ¤ à ta (p.p) Knower ¤ à tu (m) Knower of the meaning
attha¤ ¤ å (m) Knows jà nà ti (v)
Lamp dãpa; padãpa (m) Large mahanta (adj) Laughing hasanta (pr.p) Laughs hasati (v)
Lead tipu (n)
Leader netu; adhipati (m) Leads neti; nayati (v)
Leaf patta; paõ õ a (n)
Learns ugganhà ti; sikkhati (v) Leg pà da (m)
Leopard dãpi (m)
Leper kuññhã (m)
Let him conquer jayatu (v) Let him cook pacatu (v)
Let him drink pivatu (v)
Let him go gacchatu (v)
Let him keep ñhapetu (v)
Let him protect rakkhatu (v) Let him say bhà satu (v)
Let him put in pakkhipatu (v) Let it be bhavatu; hotu (v) Light à loka (m)
Lightning vijju (f)
Lion sãha (m)
Lioness sãhã (f)
Jack (fruit) panasa (m)
Keeps ñhapeti (v)
Kept ñhapesi (v) Killed mà resi (v)
Kills hanati; mà reti (v) Kindled jà lesi (v) Kindles jà leti (v)
King bhå pà la; bhå pati (m) Knee jà õ u; jaõ õ u (m) Knot gaõ ñhi (m)

Liquor surà (f)
Little appaka; paritta (adj)
Lived vuttha (p.p)
Living vasanta (pr.p)
Long dãgha (adj)
Looks at oloketi; passati (v) Looking at passanta; olokenta (pr.p) Lord adhipati; sà mã (m)
Lotus paduma (n)
Low nãca (adj)
Maiden yuvati; taruõ ã; kumà rã (f) Man nara; purisa; manussa (m) Many bahu; bahuka (adj)
Mare valavà (f)
Market à paõ a (m)
Measures miõ à ti (v)
Medium majjhima (adj) Memory sati (f)
Merchant và õ ija (m)
Merit pu¤ ¤ a (n)
Meritorious pu¤ ¤ avantu (adj) Milk khãra (n)
Monkey và nara;kapi (m) Month mà sa (m)
Moon canda; sasã (m) Morning (in the )pà to (ind) Mother ammà ; mà tu (f) Mother-in-law sassu (f) Mountain giri (m)
Mouth mukha; vadana (n) Multitude parisà (f)
Near santika (adj)
Neck gãvà (f)
Night ratti (f)
Nine nava (3)
Nineteen ekå navãsati (f) Ninth navama (adj) Ninety navuti (f) Ninety-nine ekå nasata (n) Ninety-six channavuti (f) Nose nà sà (n) ghà õ a (f) Not na (ind)
Not seeing apassanta (pr.p) Now idāni (ind)
Observer of precepts sãlavantu (adj)
Ocean udadhi; jalanidhi; sindhu (m) Of the high caste kulavantu (adj) Offered på jesi (v)
Offering på jà (f)
Million dasalakkha (n) Millionaire seññhã (m)
Mind citta (n)
Mindful satimantu (adj) Minister mantã (m) Monastery vihà ra;à rà ma (m) Money må la (n)
Monk bhikkhu;muni (m)

Offers på jeti (v)
Old mahallaka (adj)
Omniscient sabba¤ ¤ å (adj)
One eda (§ )
Once sakiü ; ekakkhattuü
One day ekadà (ad)
One who has a following gaõ ã (m) Oppressed pãlesi (v) pãlita.(p.p) Oppresses pãleti (v)
Or và ; atha; và (ind)
Other a¤ ¤ a; apara; para (adj) Over upari (ad)
Over-lord pabhå (m)
Ox goõ a (m)
Possessor of an umbrella chattã (m) Power bala (n)
Pouwerful balavantu; bali (adj) Preached desita (p.p)
Preached desesi (v) Preaches deseti (v) Preaching desanà (f) Precept sikkhà pada (n) Progress vuddhi (f) Protects pà leti; rakkhati (v) Pulls à kaó ó hati (v)
Queen devã; rà jinã (f)
Quickly sãghaü ; khippaü . (ad)
Paddy vãhi (m)
Palanquin dolà (f)
Path magga (m)
Patience khanti (f) Peacock mayå ra; sikhã (m) Physician vejja (m)
Rain vuññhi (f) deva (m) Rains vassati (v)
Ran dhà vi (v)
Rat à khu (m)
Reason kà raõ a (n) Received laddha (p.p) Reigns rajjaü karoti (v) Relation bandhu (m) Remembering anussaranta
Renounces pabbajati (v) Residing vasanta (pr.p) Respects på jeti (v) Retinue parisà (f)
Rice taõ ó ula (n)
Pig varà ha (m)
Pit àvàña (m) kàsu (f)
Place ñhà na (n)
Plantain kadalã (f)
Poet kavi (m)
Pond pokkharaõ ã (f)
Possessor of eyes cakkhumantu
Possessor of long life dãghajãvã (m) Possessor of garlands mà lã (m)

Rice (boiled) odana (m.n.) Bhatta (n)
Rice gruel yà gu (f)
Rich dhanavantu (adj) Ripe pakka (p.p)
Rises up udeti; uó ó eti (v) River gaï gà ; nadã (f) Rock sela; pàsàõ a (m) Root må la (n)
Rope rajju (f)
Rough khara (adj) Running dhà vanta (pr.p) Runs dhà vati (v)
Said vutta; kathita. p.p. Sand pulina. n., và lukà . f. Sat nisinna. p.p.
Sat nisãdi. v.
Sayer vattu. m.
Says vadati; bhà sati; katheti. v. Scale tulà . f.
School pà ñhasà là . f.
Science sattha. n.
Sea sindhu; udadhi. m.
Sealing wax jatu. n.
Seat asana. n.
Second dutiya. Adj
Seeks gavesati. v.
Seeing passanta. pr.p.
Sees passati. v.
Selling vikkiõ anta. pr.p.
Sells vikkiõ à tã. v.
Sends peseti. v.
Separately visuü ; nà nà . ind. Serpent ahi; dà ñhã; sappa; bhogã.
Seven satta. § .
Seventeen sattarasa; sattadasa. § .
Seventh sattama. adj. Seventy sattati. f. Seventy-nine ekå õ à sãti. f. Seventy-two dvesattati;
dvisattati. f.
Severally visuü . ind.
Shade chà yà . f. Shadow chà yà . f. Shallow uttà na. adj. Shank jaï ghà . f. Sharer bhà gã. m. She sà . f.
She-bird sakuõ ã. f.
She-crow kà kã. f.
She-deer migã. f.
She-elephant hatthinã; kaõ eru. f. Ship nà và . f.
Shop à pana. m. Short rassa. adj. Shrine cetiya. n. Sickness vyà dhi. m. Sin pà pa. n.
Sinner pà pakà rã. m. Sister bhaginã. f.

Sitting nisãdanta. pr.p. Sits nisãdati. v.
Six cha. 3.
Sixteen soëasa. 3. Sixteenth soëasama. adj. Sixth chaññha. adj.
Sixty saññhi. f.
Sixty-nine ekå nasattati. f. Sixty-two dvà saññhi; dvisaññhi .f. Sky à kà sa. m.
Slave dà sa. m.
Slave woman dà sã. f.
Sleep niddà . f.
Sleeping sayanta. pr.p.
Sleeps sayati. v.
Slept sutta; sayita. p.p.
Slept sayi. v.
Slowly sanikaü . ad.
Small khuddaka. adj.
Society sabhà . f.
So evaü ; tathà . ind.
So far tà va. ind.
Soft mudu. adj.
Sold vikkiõ i. v.
Some eka. (plur.) § .
Son putta. m.
Soon sãghaü ; khippaü . ad. Speech kathà . f.
Spoon kañacchu. m.
Stair sopà õ a. n.
Standing tiññhanta. pr.p.
Stands tiññhati. v.
Steals coreti. v.
Stick yaññhi. m.f., daõ ó a.m. Stole coresi. v.
Stone silà . f., pà sà õ a. m. Stood ñhita. p.p.
Stood aññhà si. p.p.
Street visikhà ; vãhti. f. Strength bala. n.
Strictly dalhaü . ad.
Strong balavantu. adj. Student sissa. m.
Suddenly sahasà . ad. Sugar sakkharà . f. Sugar-cane ucchu. m.
Sun suriya; ravi; bhà nu;
bhà numantu. m. Sword asi. m.
Takes gaõ hà ti. v.
Tall ucca. adj.
Tank và pã. f.
Teacher garu; satthu; à cariya.
Tear assu. n.
Temperate matta¤ ¤ å adj. Ten dasa. 3.
Ten million koñi. f.
Ten thousand dasasahassa. n. Tenth dasama. adj.
That ta; eta. adj. The other itara. adj. Then tadà . ad.

Thence tato. ind.
There tattha; tatra; tahiü . ad. They te. m.
Thief cora. m.
Thigh satthi. m.n.
Thinks cinteti. v.
Thine tava; tuyhaü .
Third tatiya. adj.
Thirst pipà sà . f.
Thirteen terasa;telasa.§ Thirteenth terasama. adj. Thirty-nine ekå nacattà lisati. f. Thirty-three tettiü sati. f. Thirty-two
battiü sati;dvattiü sati. f. This ima; eta. adj.
This person ayaü . m.f. This thing idaü . n. Those things tà ni. n. Thou tvaü .
Thought cintesi. v. Thousand sahassa. n. Thousand million satakoñi. f. Three ti. 3.
Three hundred tisata. n. Thunderbolt asani. f.
Thus evaü . ind.
Tightly daëhaü . ad.
Till then tà va. ind.
To be born nibbattituü . in. To bring à harituü . in.
To carry harituü . in.
To collect ocinituü . in. To cook pacituü . in. To-day ajja. ind.
To do kà tuü . in.
To drink pivituü ; pà tuü . in. To eat bhottuü ; bhu¤ jituü . in. To gather ocinituü . in.
To get laddhuü . labhituü . in. Together ekato. ind.
To give dà tuü . in.
To go gantuü . in.
Told vutta; kathita. p.p.
Told kathesi. v.
Tomorrow suve. ad.
Tongue jivhà . f.
Took gaõ hi.
To prepare pañiyà detuü . in. To smell ghà yituü . in.
To surpass atikkamituü . in. To take gaõ hituü . in. Travelled acari. v.
Tree rukkha; taru. m.
Tries ussahati. v.
Trouble dukkha; kasira. n. Tusker dà ñhã. m.
Twelve dvà dasa. adj.
Twelfth dvà dasama. adj. Twentieth vãsatima. adj. Twenty vãsati. f.
Twenty-eight aññhavãsati. f. Twenty-five pa¤ cavãsati. f. Twenty-four catuvãsati. f. Twenty-nine ekå natiü sati. f.

Twenty-one ekavãsati. f. Twenty-six chabbãsati. f. Twenty-three tevãsati. f. Twenty-two bà vãsati; dvà visati.
We mayaü ; amhe.
Wealth dhana. n.
Weapon à yudha. n. Wellsàdhukaü .ad.
Went agacchi; gacchi; agami;
Went back pañinivatti. v.
When kadà . ad.
Whenever yadà . ad.
Where kattha; kuhiü ? ad. Wherever yattha. ad.
Which ya.(relative).§ .
Which of the many katama. § . Which go gamissati; gacchissati.
Twice dvikkhattuü . ad.
Two dvi.§ .
Two hundred dvisati. n.
Umbrella chatta. n. Unripe à ma. adj.
Up upari. ind. Us amhe.
Victor jetu. m. Village gà ma. m. Virtue sãla. n.
White seta. adj.
Who ko?(Stem ka). § .
Whose kassa?
Why kasmà ? ind.
Wide vitthata. adj.
Wife bhariyà . f.
Wins jinà ti. v.
Wisdom ¤ à na. n., mati; pa¤ ¤ à ;
Virtuous sãlavantu; guõ avant u. adj.
Vulgar nãca. adj. [w]
Walked acari.v.
Walking caranta. pr.p. Walking stick yaññhi. f.
Walks carati. v.
Water jala; udaka ambu; và ri. n. Water-lily uppala. n.
Water-pot ghaña. m.
buddhi. f.
Wise pa¤ ¤ avantu; paõ ó ita. adj. Wise man vidå ; vi¤ ¤ å . m. With saha; saddhiü . ind.
With difficulty dukkhaü . ad. With many relations
bandhumantu. adj.
Woman itthã; nà rã; vanità ;
vadhå . f.
Woman friend sakhã. f.

Word và cà . f.
Work kamma; kammanta. n.
World loka. m. Worshipped vandita. p.p. Wounded vaõ ita. p.p. Wounded vaõ itam akà si. n. Writes likhati. v.
Written likhata. p.p.
Yellow pãta. p.p.
Yes à ma; evaü . ind.
Yesterday hãyo. ad.
You tumhe.
Young taruõ a; bà la; dahara. adj. Young one susu. m.
Young woman taruõ ã; yuvati. f. Your tumhà kam.

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