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2747 Mon 17 Sep 2018 LESSON (90) Mon 17 Sep 2007 Do Good Be Mindful - Awakened One with Awareness (AOA) News Directory World News Headlines Householder (Buddhism) Buddha Vacana — The words of the Buddha — Learn Pali online for free and the easy way. — An analysis of the senses — [saḷāyatana-vibhaṅga]
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World News Headlines

Householder (Buddhism)


Buddha Vacana

— The words of the Buddha —

Learn Pali online for free and the easy way.

— An analysis of the senses —
[saḷāyatana-vibhaṅga]

http://dir.md/wiki/Householder_(Buddhism)?host=en.wikipedia.org

Householder (Buddhism)

In English translations of Buddhist texts, householder
denotes a variety of terms. Most broadly, it refers to any layperson,
and most narrowly, to a wealthy and prestigious familial patriarch.[1] In contemporary Buddhist communities, householder is often used synonymously with laity, or non-monastics.

The Buddhist notion of householder is often contrasted with that of wandering ascetics (Pali: Pāḷi: samaṇa; Sanskrit: śramaṇa) and monastics (bhikkhu and bhikkhuni),
who would not live (for extended periods) in a normal house and who
would pursue freedom from attachments to houses and families.

Upāsakas and upāsikās, also called śrāvakas and śrāvikās - are householders and other laypersons who take refuge in the Three Jewels (the Buddha, the teachings and the community) and practice the Five Precepts. In southeast Asian communities, lay disciples also give alms to monks on their daily rounds and observe weekly uposatha days. In Buddhist thought, the cultivation of ethical conduct and dāna
or “almsgiving” will themselves refine consciousness to such a level
that rebirth in one of the lower heavens is likely even if there is no
further “Noble” Buddhist practice (connected with the Supramundane goal
of Nibbana, “Unbinding”). This level of attainment is viewed as a proper
aim for laypersons.[2]

In some traditional Buddhist societies, such as in Myanmar and Thailand, people transition between householder and monk and back to householder with regularity and celebration as in the practice of shinbyu among the Bamar people.[3]
One of the evolving features of Buddhism in the West is the increasing
dissolution of the traditional distinction between monastics and laity.

For all the diversity of Buddhist practices in the West, general
trends in the recent transformations of Buddhist practice … can be
identified. These include an erosion of the distinction between
professional and lay Buddhists; a decentralization of doctrinal
authority; a diminished role for Buddhist monastics; an increasing
spirit of egalitarianism; greater leadership roles for women; greater
social activism; and, in many cases, an increasing emphasis on the
psychological, as opposed to the purely religious, nature of practice.[4]

In the Pāli Canon, householders received diverse advice from the Buddha and his disciples.

Core householder practices include undertaking the Five Precepts
and taking refuge in the Three Jewels. In addition, the canon nurtures
the essential bond between householders and monastics still apparent
today in southeast Asian communities.

In traditional Indian society, a householder (Sanskrit gṛhastin)
is typically a settled adult male with a family. In the Pali canon,
various Pali words have been translated into the English word
“householder”, including agārika, gahapati, gahattha and gihin.[5]
Vocations most often associated with householders in the Pali canon are those of guild foreman, banker and merchant (Pali, seṭṭhi) but other vocations are mentioned such as farmer and carpenter.[6]Gombrich (2002, pp. 56–7) states:

Who were these people in terms of class or profession? In the
Canon, most of them evidently own land, but they usually have labourers
to do the physical work. Sometimes they are also in business. In fact,
they illustrate how it is in the first instance wealth derived from
agriculture which provides business capital. The average gahapati
who gave material support to the Buddha and his Sangha thus seems to
have been something like a gentleman farmer, perhaps with a town house.
On the other hand, inscriptions in the western Deccan, where Buddhism
flourished in the early centuries CE, use the term gahapati to refer to urban merchants. We must distinguish between reference and meaning: the meaning of gahapati is simple and unvarying, but the reference shifts with the social context.

Other
people in the canon who are sometimes identified as “householders” in
contemporary translations are simply those individuals who dwelt in a
home or who had not renounced “home life” (Pali, agārasmā) for “homelessness” (Pali, anagāriya).

While there is no formal “householder discipline” in the vinaya or “code of ethics”, the Sigalovada Sutta (DN 31)[7] has been referred to as “the Vinaya of the householder” (gihi-vinaya).[8] This sutta includes:

Similarly, in the “Dhammika Sutta” (Sn 2.14),[9] the Buddha articulates the “layman’s rule of conduct” (Pali, gahatthavatta),[10] as follows:

The Mahanama sūtra has been called the “locus classicus on the definition of upāsaka.”[11] This sutra is preserved in five versions (two in Pali, three in Chinese) representing two different recensions, one in the Samyuktagama/Samyuttanikaya, the other in the Anguttaranikaya and in the Samyuktagama and further developed in the Abhidharmaskandha, one of the canonical books of the Sarvastivadin Abhidharma.[12] In this sutra the Buddha defines an upāsaka in terms of faith (śraddhā), morality (śīla), liberality (tyāga), and wisdom (prajñā), as follows:[13]

Some early schools, particularly the Sautrāntika, allowed for aparipūrṇa-upāsaka (partial lay vow holders), who took anywhere from one to four of the śīla observances.[14]

Other suttas in the canon likewise underline keeping the
precepts, maintaining virtuous friends, homage to one’s benefactors and
earning one’s wealth honestly.[15]

Elsewhere in the Sutta Pitaka the Buddha provides moral instruction to householders and their family members[16] on how to be good parents, spouses and children.[17]

Buddha’s advice to Buddhist laywomen is contained mostly in the Anguttara Nikaya 8:49; IV 269-71. His advice was as follows:

The Buddha also gave advice on householders’ financial matters.
In the Anguttara Nikaya (4.61; II 65-68) it is said that the Buddha
stated that there are four worthy ways in which to spend one’s wealth:

Some suttas suggest that Buddhist renunciates are best going it alone.[18] Many others celebrate and provide instruction for a vital reciprocity between householders and monastics. For instance, in the Khuddaka Nikaya,[19] the Buddha articulates that “brahmins and householders” (Pali, brāhmanagahapatikā) support monks by providing monks with robes, alms food, lodgings and medicine while monks teach brahmins and householders the Dhamma. In this sutta, the Buddha declares:

In the Pali canon, the pursuit of Nibbana (Skt: Nirvana)
within this lifetime usually starts with giving up the householder life.
This is due to the householder life’s intrinsic attachments to a home, a
spouse, children and the associated wealth necessary for maintaining
the household.[21]
Thus, instead of advising householders to relinquish these and all
attachments as a prerequisite for the complete liberation from samsara in this lifetime, the Buddha instructed householders on how to achieve “well-being and happiness” (hita-sukha) in this and future lives in a spiritually meaningful way.

In Buddhism, a householder’s spiritual path is often conceived of in terms of making merit (Pali: puñña). The primary bases for meritorious action in Buddhism are generosity (dāna), ethical conduct (sīla) and mental development (bhāvanā). Traditional Buddhist practices associated with such behaviors are summarized in the table below.

The Anguttara Nikaya (AN 6.119 and AN 6.120)[22] identifies 19 householders (gahapati)[23] who have “attained perfection” or, according to an alternate translation, “attained to certainty” (niṭṭhamgata) and “seen deathlessness, seen deathlessness with their own eyes” (amataddaso, amataṃ sacchikata).[24] These householders are endowed (samannāgato) with six things (chahi dhammehi):

While some interpret this passage to indicate that these householders have attained arhatship, others interpret it to mean they have attained at least “stream entry” (sotāpanna) but not final release.[26] The para-canonical Milinda Pañha adds:

In the Tevijjavacchagotta Sutta (MN 71 / M I.483) the Buddha is
asked by the ascetic Vacchagotta “is there any householder who, without
abandoning the fetter of householdship, on the dissolution of the body
has made an end to suffering?” The Buddha replied “there is no
householder who, without abandoning the fetter of householdship, on the
dissolution of the body has made an end to suffering.” [28]

Attaining the state of anāgāmi or “non-returner” is portrayed in the early texts as the ideal goal for laity.[29]

The following are examples of individuals who are explicitly identified as a “householder” in multiple suttas:

Other individuals who are not explicitly identified in the suttas
as “householder” but who, by the aforementioned broader criteria, might
be considered a householder include:

The Sigalovada Sutta has a parallel Chinese text.[34]
There are few differences between the Pali and Chinese versions.
Further discussion of householder duties is found in the fourteenth
chapter of the Sutra on Upasaka Precepts.[35]

Dogen recommended that householders meditate at least five minutes each day.[36]

In the Zen tradition, Vimalakīrti and Páng Yùn were prominent householders/laypersons who achieved enlightenment.

The Vajrayana tradition has produced many prominent householders including Marpa Lotsawa, Dromtön, the heart son of Atiśa, and Padmasambhava. to mention a few.

The ngagpa (Wylie: sngags pa. feminine ngagma, Wylie: sngags ma)
is an ordained Tantric practitioner, sometimes a householder with
certain vows (dependent upon lama and lineage) that make them the
householder equivalent of a monk or nun. The path of a ngakpa is a
rigorous discipline whereby one “enjoys the sense-fields’ as a part of
one’s practice. A practitioner utilizes the whole of the phenomenal
world as one’s path. Marrying, raising children, working jobs, leisure,
art, play etc. are all means to realize the enlightened state or rigpa,
non-dual awareness. As such, we can see the prominence of householders
in the Vajrayana tradition. One can, however, be a householder without
taking the vows of a ngagpa. Simply holding the five precepts,
bodhisattva vows and the tantric vows while practising diligently can
result in enlightenment.[citation needed]

Below common contemporary lay Buddhist practices are summarized.
Some of these practices — such as taking Refuge and meditating — are
common to all major schools. Other practices — such as taking the Eight
Precepts or the Bodhisattva Vows — are not pan-Buddhist.

For Theravada Buddhists, the following are practiced on a daily and weekly basis:

Daily practice: prostrations to the Triple Gem, taking refuge in the Triple Gem, taking the Five Precepts, chanting other verses, meditating, giving and sharing (Pali: dana).

Special day practices (Uposatha): practicing the Eight Precepts, studying Buddhist scriptures,
visiting and supporting Buddhist monks, visiting and supporting Buddhist monasteries.

Daily practices: Prostrations to the Triple Gem, taking
refuge in the Triple Gem, taking the Five Precepts, chanting sutras and
the names of buddhas/bodhisattvas, meditating, cultivating compassion
and bodhichitta, recitation of mantras.

Special day practices: Upholding the eight precepts,
listening to teachings, supporting Sangha, repentance, performing
offering ceremonies to sentient beings

Daily practices: Prostrations, refuge, cultivating compassion and bodhicitta, bodhisattva vows, tantric vows (if applicable), meditation in the form of Tantric sādhanās (if applicable), purification techniques, recitation of mantras

Special day practices: Eight precepts, listening to teachings, offering ceremonies.

Other practices: Studying texts, receiving initiations and personal practice instructions from the teacher.

Note 1: gahapati is given as “upper middle class”, see The winds of change, Himanshu P. Ray, Delhi 1994, p. 20









Buddhist texts

Buddhist texts were initially passed on orally by monks, but were later written down and composed as manuscripts in various Indo-Aryan languages
which were then translated into other local languages as Buddhism
spread. They can be categorized in a number of ways. The Western terms
“scripture” and “canonical” are applied to Buddhism in inconsistent ways by Western scholars: for example, one authority[1] refers to “scriptures and other canonical texts”, while another[2]
says that scriptures can be categorized into canonical, commentarial
and pseudo-canonical. Buddhist traditions have generally divided these
texts with their own categories and divisions, such as that between Buddhavacana “word of the Buddha,” many of which are known as “Sutras,” and other texts, such as Shastras (treatises) or Abhidharma.

These
religious texts were written in many different languages and scripts
but memorizing, reciting and copying the texts were of high value. Even
after the development of printing, Buddhists preferred to keep to their
original practices with these texts.[3]

According to Donald Lopez, criteria for determining what should
be considered buddhavacana were developed at an early stage, and that
the early formulations do not suggest that Dharma is limited to what was spoken by the historical Buddha.[4] The Mahāsāṃghika and the Mūlasarvāstivāda considered both the Buddha’s discourses, and of his disciples, to be buddhavacana.[5] A number of different beings such as buddhas, disciples of the buddha, ṛṣis, and devas were considered capable to transmitting buddhavacana.[6] The content of such a discourse was then to be collated with the sūtras, compared with the Vinaya, and evaluated against the nature of the Dharma.[7][8] These texts may then be certified as true buddhavacana by a buddha, a saṃgha, a small group of elders, or one knowledgeable elder.[9][10]

In Theravada Buddhism, the standard collection of buddhavacana is the Pāli Canon.

Some scholars believe that some portions of the Pali Canon and Agamas could contain the actual substance of the historical teachings (and possibly even the words) of the Buddha.[note 1][note 2]

In East Asian Buddhism, what is considered buddhavacana is collected in the Chinese Buddhist canon. The most common edition of this is the Taishō Tripiṭaka.

According to Venerable Hsuan Hua from the tradition of Chinese Buddhism,
there are five types of beings who may speak the sutras of Buddhism: a
buddha, a disciple of a buddha, a deva, a ṛṣi, or an emanation of one of
these beings; however, they must first receive certification from a
buddha that its contents are true Dharma.[11] Then these sutras may be properly regarded as buddhavacana.[12]

Sometimes texts that are considered commentaries by some are regarded by others as Buddhavacana.[13]

Shingon Buddhism developed a system that assigned authorship of the early sutras to Gautama Buddha in his physical manifestation, of the Ekayana sutras to the Buddhas as Sambhoghakaya, and the Vajrayana texts to the Buddha as Dharmakaya.

In Tibetan Buddhism, what is considered buddhavacana is collected in the Kangyur.
The East Asian and Tibetan Buddhist canons always combined Buddhavacana
with other literature in their standard collected editions. However,
the general view of what is and is not buddhavacana is broadly similar
between East Asian Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism. The Tibetan Kangyur,
which belongs to the various schools of Tibetan Vajrayana Buddhism, in addition to containing sutras and vinaya, also contains tantras.

The earliest Buddhist texts were passed down orally in Middle Indo-Aryan languages called Prakrits, including Gāndhārī language, the early Magadhan language and Pali through the use of repetition, communal recitation and mnemonic devices.[14] Doctrinal elaborations were preserved in Abhidharma
works and later Karikas (verse expositions). As Buddhism spread
geographically, these texts were translated into the local language,
such as Chinese and Tibetan.

The Pali canon was preserved in Sri Lanka where it was first written down in the first century BCE and the Theravadan Pali textual tradition developed there.[15] The Sri Lankan Pali tradition developed extensive commentaries (Atthakatha) as well as sub-commentaries for the Pali Canon as well as treatises on Abhidhamma. Sutra commentaries and Abhidharma works also exist in Tibetan, Chinese, Korean and other East Asian languages. Important examples of non-canonical Pali texts are the Visuddhimagga, by Buddhaghosa, which is a compendium of Theravada teachings and the Mahavamsa, a historical Sri Lankan chronicle.

The earliest known Buddhist manuscripts, recovered from the ancient civilization of Gandhara in north central Pakistan (near Taxila just south west of the capital Islamabad) are dated to the 1st century and constitute the Buddhist textual tradition of Gandharan Buddhism which was an important link between Indian and East Asian Buddhism.[16]

After the rise of the Kushans in India, Sanskrit was also widely used to record Buddhist texts. Sanskrit Buddhist literature later became the dominant tradition in India until the decline of Buddhism in India.[17] Around the beginning of the Christian era, a new genre of sutra literature began to be written with a focus on the Bodhisattva idea, commonly known as Mahayana (great vehicle) sutras.[18] Many of the Mahayana sutras were written in Sanskrit and then translated into the Tibetan and Chinese Buddhist canons (the Kangyur and the Taishō Tripiṭaka
respectively) which then developed their own textual histories. The
Mahayana sutras are traditionally considered by Mahayanists to be the
word of the Buddha, but transmitted either in secret, via lineages of
supernatural beings (such as the nagas), or revealed directly from other Buddhas or bodhisattvas. Some 600 Mahayana Sutras have survived in Sanskrit, or in Chinese and/or Tibetan translation.

In the Mahayana tradition there are important works termed Shastras,
or treatises which attempt to outline the sutra teachings and defend or
expand on them. The works of important Buddhist philosophers like Nagarjuna, Vasubandhu and Dharmakirti are generally termed Shastras, and were written in Sanskrit. The treatise Awakening of Faith in the Mahayana (attributed by the faithful to Aśvaghoşa) strongly influenced east Asian Mahayana doctrine and inspired numerous commentaries authored by early Korean[19] and Chinese Buddhist teachers.

The late Seventh century saw the rise of another new class of Buddhist texts, the Tantras, which outlined new ritual practices and yogic techniques such as the use of Mandalas, Mudras and Fire sacrifices.[20] Buddhist Tantras are key texts in Vajrayana Buddhism, which is the dominant form of Buddhism in Tibet.

The division of texts into the traditional three yanas
may obscure the process of development that went on, and there is some
overlap in the traditional classifications. For instance, there are
so-called proto-Mahayana texts, such as the Ajitasena Sutra,
which are missing key features that are associated with Mahayana texts.
Some Pali texts also contain ideas that later became synonymous with
the Mahayana. The Garbhāvakrānti Sūtra is included in both the Vinaya Pitaka of the Mulasarvastivada, one of the early schools, and the Ratnakuta, a standard collection of Mahayana sutras.[21] Some Mahayana texts are also thought to display a distinctly tantric character, particularly some of the shorter Perfection of Wisdom sutras. An early tantra, the Mahavairocana Abhisambodhi Tantra, is also known as the Mahavairocana Sutra. At least some editions of the Kangyur include the Heart Sutra in the tantra division.[22] Such overlap is not confined to “neighbouring” yanas: at least nine “Sravakayana” (”Hinayana“) texts can be found in the tantra divisions of some editions of the Kangyur.[23] One of them, the Atanatiya Sutra,
is also included in the Mikkyo (esoteric) division of the standard
modern collected edition of Sino-Japanese Buddhist literature.[24] (A variant of it is also found in the Digha Nikaya of the Pali Canon.)

Some Buddhist texts evolved to become a virtual canon in themselves, and are referred to as vaipulya or extensive sutras. The Flower Garland Sutra is an example of a single sutra made up of other sutras, many of which, particularly the Gandavyuha Sutra still circulate as separate texts. [25]

Tibetan Buddhism has a unique and special class of texts called terma
(Tibetan: gTer-ma). These are texts (or ritual objects, etc.) believed
either composed or hidden by tantric masters and/or elementally secreted
or encoded in the elements and retrieved, accessed or rediscovered by
other tantric masters when appropriate. Termas are discovered by tertöns
(Tibetan: gTer-stons), whose special function is to reveal these texts.
Some termas are hidden in caves or similar places, but a few are said
to be ‘mind termas,’ which are ‘discovered’ in the mind of the tertön.
The Nyingma school (and Bön tradition) has a large terma literature. Many of the terma texts are said to have been written by Padmasambhava, who is particularly important to the Nyingmas. Probably the best known terma text is the so-called Tibetan book of the dead, the Bardo Thodol.

Although many versions of the texts of the early Buddhist schools exist, the only complete collection of texts to survive in a Middle Indo-Aryan language is the Tipiṭaka (triple basket) of the Theravadin school.[26] The other (parts of) extant versions of the Tripitakas of early schools include the Āgamas, which includes texts by the Sarvastivada and the Dharmaguptaka. The Chinese Buddhist canon
contains a complete collection of early sutras in Chinese translation,
their content is very similar to the Pali, differing in detail but not
in the core doctrinal content.

Parts of what is likely to be the canon of the Dharmaguptaka can be found amongst the Gandharan Buddhist Texts. Several early versions of the Vinaya Pitaka (from various schools) are also kept in the Chinese (Mahayana) Canon.

The vinaya
literature is primarily concerned with aspects of the monastic
discipline. However, vinaya as a term is also contrasted with Dharma,
where the pair (Dhamma-Vinaya) mean something like ‘doctrine and
discipline’. The vinaya literature in fact contains a considerable range
of texts. There are, of course, those that discuss the monastic rules,
how they came about, how they developed, and how they were applied. But
the vinaya also contains some doctrinal expositions, ritual and
liturgical texts, biographical stories, and some elements of the “Jatakas“, or birth stories.

Paradoxically, the text most closely associated with the vinaya, and the most frequently used portion of it, the Pratimoksha, is in itself not a canonical text in Theravada, even though almost all of it can be found in the canon.

In addition, portions survive of a number of vinayas in various languages.

The Mahāvastu
compiled by the Lokottaravadin sub-school of the Mahāsānghika was
perhaps originally the preamble to their vinaya that became detached;
hence, rather than dealing with the rules themselves, it takes the form
of an extended biography of the Buddha, which it describes in terms of
his progression through ten bhumis, or stages. This doctrine was later
taken up by the Mahayana in a modified form as Vasubandhu’s Ten Stages Sutra.

The Sutras (Sanskrit; Pali Sutta)
are mostly discourses attributed to the Buddha or one of his close
disciples. They are all, even those not actually spoken by him,
considered to be Buddhavacana,
the word of the Buddha, just as in the case of all canonical
literature. The Buddha’s discourses were perhaps originally organised
according to the style in which they were delivered. There were
originally nine, but later twelve, of these. The Sanskrit forms are:

The first nine are listed in all surviving agamas, with the other
three added in some later sources. In Theravada, at least, they are
regarded as a classification of the whole of the scriptures, not just
suttas. The scheme is also found in Mahayana texts. However, some time
later a new organizational scheme was imposed on the canon, which is now
the most familiar. The scheme organises the suttas into:

These range in length up to 95 pages. The Pali Digha Nikaya contains 34 texts, including the Mahāparinibbāna Sutta and the Brahmajāla Sutta. The Dīrghāgama of the Dharmagupta also survives, in Chinese translation, and contains 30 sutras.

These are the rest of the sutras of any length, and the Pali Majjhima Nikaya has 152 suttas. The Madhyamāgama of the Sarvāstivada containing 222 sutras survives in Chinese translation.

This grouping consists of many short texts connected by theme, setting, or interlocutor. The Pali Samyutta Nikaya
contains more than 2,800 sutras. The Samyuktāgama of the Sarvāstivada
containing only 1,300 sutras survives in Chinese translation.

Sutras with the same number of doctrinal items, comprise over 2,300 suttas in the Pali Anguttara Nikaya. The Chinese canon contains an Ekottarāgama that some scholars think belongs to the Mahāsanghika school.

Not all schools had this category, but the Pali Khuddaka Nikaya has several well-known and loved texts, including:

Many of these texts are available in translation as well as in
the original language. The Dhammapada, for instance, has a Pali version,
three Chinese versions, a Tibetan version, and a Khotanese version.

Abhidharma (in Pali, Abhidhamma)
means ‘further Dharma’ and is concerned with the analysis of phenomena.
It grew initially out of various lists of teachings such as the 37
Bodhipaksika-dharmas or the 37 Factors leading to Awakening. The
Abhidharma literature is chiefly concerned with the analysis of
phenomena and the relationships between them.

The Theravāda Abhidhamma survives in the Pali Canon. Outside of
the Theravada monasteries the Pali Abhidharma texts are not well known.

A Sarvastivada Abhidharma, composed in Sanskrit, survives in
Chinese and Tibetan traditions. Though the Theravādin Abhidhamma is well
preserved and best known, it should be noted that a number of the early
Eighteen Schools each had their own distinct Abhidharma collection with not very much common textual material, though sharing methodology.

Not all schools accepted the Abhidharma as canonical. The
Sautrāntika, for instance, held that the canon stopped with the vinaya
and sutras. The rejection by some schools that dharmas (i.e. phenomena)
are ultimately real, which the Theravada Abhidhamma, for instance,
insists, is thought to be an important factor in the origin of the Mahayana.

One early text not usually regarded as Buddhavacana is probably the Milinda pañha (literally The Questions of Milinda). This text is in the form of a dialogue between Nagasena, and the Indo-Greek King Menander
(Pali: Milinda). It is a compendium of doctrine, and covers a range of
subjects. It is included in some editions of the Pali Canon.

Other early texts which are usually not considered ‘canonical’ are the Nettipakarana and the Petakopadesa - “The Book of Guidance” and “Instruction on the Pitaka”.

The Dhyāna sutras (Chan-jing) are a group of early Buddhist meditation texts which contain meditation teachings from the Sarvastivada school along with some early proto-Mahayana meditations. They were mostly the work of Buddhist Yoga teachers from Kashmir and were influential in Chinese Buddhism.

The Buddhist poet Aśvaghoṣa composed an epic poem on the life of the Buddha called the Buddhacarita in the early second century CE.

The Pali texts have an extensive commentarial literature much of which is still untranslated. These are attributed to scholars working in Sri Lanka such as Buddhaghosa
(5th century CE) and Dhammapala. There are also sub-commentaries
(tikka) or commentaries on the commentaries. Buddhaghosa was also the
author of the Visuddhimagga, or Path of Purification, which is a manual of doctrine and practice according to the Mahavihara tradition of Sri Lanka and according to Nanamoli Bhikkhu is regarded as “the principal non-canonical authority of the Theravada.”[27] A similar albeit shorter work is the Vimuttimagga. Another highly influential Pali Theravada work is the Abhidhammattha-sangaha (11th or 12th century), a short introductory summary to the Abhidhamma.

Buddhaghosa is known to have worked from Buddhist commentaries in the Sri Lankan Sinhala language, which are now lost. Sri Lankan literature in the vernacular contains many Buddhist works, including as classical Sinhala poems such as the Muvadevāvata (The Story of the Bodhisattva’s Birth as King Mukhadeva, 12th century) and the Sasadāvata (The Story of the Bodhisattva’s Birth as a Hare, 12th century) as well as prose works like the Dhampiyātuvā gätapadaya (Commentary on the Blessed Doctrine), a commentary on words and phrases in the Pāli Dhammapada.

The Pali textual tradition spread into Burma and Thailand where Pali scholarship continued to flourish with such works as the Aggavamsa of Saddaniti and the Jinakalamali of Ratanapañña.[28] Pali literature continued to be composed into the modern era, especially in Burma, and writers such as Mahasi Sayadaw translated some of their texts into Pali.

There are numerous Tantric Theravada texts, mostly from Southeast Asia.[29] This tradition flourished in Cambodia and Thailand before the 19th century reformist movement of Rama IV. One of these texts has been published in English by the Pali Text Society as “Manual of a Mystic”.[30]

Burmese Buddhist literature developed unique poetic forms form
the 1450s onwards, a major type of poetry is the pyui’ long and
embellished translations of Pali Buddhist works, mainly jatakas. A famous example of pyui’ poetry is the Kui khan pyui’ (the pyui’ in nine sections, 1523). Burmese commentaries or nissayas and were used to teach Pali.[31]
The nineteenth century saw a flowering of Burmese Buddhist literature
in various genres including religious biography, Abhidharma, legal
literature and meditation literature.

An influential text of Thai literature is the “Three Worlds
According to King Ruang” (1345) by Phya Lithai, which is an extensive
Cosmological and visionary survey of the Thai Buddhist universe.

See Mahayana Sutras for historical background and a list of some sutras categorised by source.

These deal with prajñā (wisdom or insight).
Wisdom in this context means the ability to see reality as it truly is.
They do not contain an elaborate philosophical argument, but simply try
to point to the true nature of reality, especially through the use of
paradox. The basic premise is a radical non-dualism, in which every and
any dichotomist way of seeing things is denied: so phenomena are neither
existent, nor non-existent, but are marked by sunyata, emptiness, an
absence of any essential unchanging nature. The Perfection of Wisdom in One Letter illustrates this approach by choosing to represent the perfection of prajñā with the Sanskrit/Pali short a vowel (”अ”, pronounced [ə])—which, as a prefix, negates a word’s meaning (e.g., changing svabhava to asvabhava, “with essence” to “without essence”; cf. mu),
which is the first letter of Indic alphabets; and that, as a sound on
its own, is the most neutral/basic of speech sounds (cf Aum and bija).

Many sutras are known by the number of lines, or slokas, that they contained.

Edward Conze,
who translated nearly all of the Perfection of Wisdom sutras into
English, identified four periods of development in this literature:

The Perfection of Wisdom texts have influenced every Mahayana school of Buddhism.

Also called the Lotus Sutra, White Lotus Sutra, or Sutra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma; (Sanskrit: सद्धर्मपुण्डरीकसूत्र Saddharmapundarīka-sūtra; 妙法蓮華經 Cn: Miàofǎ Liánhuā Jīng; Jp: Myōhō Renge Kyō.
Probably composed in its earliest form in the period 100 bce–100 ce, the sutra proposes that the three yanas
(Shravakayana, Pratyekabuddhayana, and Bodhisattvayana) are not in fact
three different paths leading to three goals, but one path, with one
goal. The earlier teachings are said to be of ’skillful means’ in order
to help beings of limited capacities. Notable for the (re)appearance of
the Buddha Prabhutaratna,
who had died several aeons earlier, because it suggests that a Buddha
is not inaccessible after his parinirvana, and also that his life-span
is said to be inconceivably long because of the accumulation of merit in
past lives. This idea, though not necessarily from this source, forms
the basis of the later Trikaya doctrine. Later associated particularly with the Tien Tai in China, Tendai school in Japan, and the Nichiren schools in Japan.

There are three major sutras that fall into this category: the Infinite Life Sutra, also known as the Larger Pure Land Sutra; the Amitabha Sutra, also known as the Smaller Pure Land Sutra; and the Contemplation Sutra (also known as the Visualization Sutra). These texts describe the origins and nature of the Western Pure Land in which the Buddha Amitabha resides. They list the forty-eight vows made by Amitabha as a bodhisattva
by which he undertook to build a Pure Land where beings are able to
practise the Dharma without difficulty or distraction. The sutras state
that beings can be reborn there by pure conduct and by practices such as
thinking continuously of Amitabha, praising him, recounting his
virtues, and chanting his name. These Pure Land sutras and the practices
they recommend became the foundations of Pure Land Buddhism, which focus on the salvific power of faith in the vows of Amitabha.

Composed in its earliest form some time before 150 CE, the Bodhisattva Vimalakirti
appears in the guise of a layman in order to teach the Dharma. Seen by
some as a strong assertion of the value of lay practice. Doctrinally
similar to the Perfection of Wisdom texts, a major theme is the Buddhafield (Buddha-kshetra), which was influential on Pure Land schools. Very popular in China, Korea and Japan where it was seen as being compatible with Confucian values.

Amongst the very earliest Mahayana texts, the Samadhi Sutras are a
collection of sutras focused on the attainment of profound states of
consciousness reached in meditation, perhaps suggesting that meditation
played an important role in early Mahayana. Includes the Pratyutpanna Sutra and the Shurangama Samadhi Sutra.

The Triskandha Sutra, and the Suvarnaprabhasa Sutra (or Golden Light Sutra), which focus on the practice of confession of faults. The Golden Light Sutra became especially influential in Japan, where one of its chapters on the ‘Universal Sovereign’ (Sanskrit: Chakravartin) was used by the Japanese emperors to legitimise their rule, and it provided a model for a well-run state.

A large composite text consisting of several parts, most notably the Dasabhumika Sutra and the Gandavyuha Sutra.
It exists in three successive versions, two in Chinese and one in
Tibetan. New sutras were added to the collection in both the intervals
between these. The Gandavyuha Sutra is thought to be the source of a sect that was dedicated specifically to Vairocana, and that later gave rise to the Mahavairocana-abhisambodhi tantra. The Mahavairocana-abhisambodhi became one of the two central texts in Shingon Buddhism and was included in the Tibetan canon as a tantra of the carya class. The Avatamsaka Sutra became the central text for the Hua-yen (Jp. Kegon) school of Buddhism, the most important doctrine of which is the interpenetration of all phenomena.

These sutras primarily teach the doctrine of vijnapti-matra or ‘representation-only’, associated with the Yogacara school. The Sandhinirmocana Sutra (c 2nd Century CE) is the earliest surviving sutra in this class (and according to some Gelugpa
authorities the only one). This sutra divides the teachings of the
Buddha into three classes, which it calls the “Three Turnings of the
Wheel of the Dharma.” To the first turning, it ascribes the Agamas of the Shravakas, to the second turning the lower Mahayana sutras including the Prajna-paramita Sutras,
and finally sutras like itself are deemed to comprise the third
turning. Moreover, the first two turnings are considered, in this system
of classification, to be provisional while the third group is said to
present the final truth without a need for further explication (nitartha).

Especially the Tathagatagarbha Sutra, the Shrīmālādevi-simhanāda Sūtra (Srimala Sutra), the Angulimaliya Sutra, the Anunatva-Apurnatva-Nirdesa Sutra, and the Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra (which differs in character from the Pali Mahaparinibbana Sutta). These texts teach that every being has a Tathagatagarbha: variously translated as Buddha nature,
Buddha seed, Buddha matrix. It is this Buddha nature, Buddha Essence or
Buddha Principle, this aspect of every being that is itself already
enlightened, that enables beings to be liberated. One of the most
important responses of Buddhism to the problem of immanence and
transcendence. The Tathagatagarbha doctrine was very influential in East
Asian Buddhism, and the idea in one form or another can be found in
most of its schools.
The well-known Lankavatara Sutra, composed sometime around the 4th century, is sometimes included in thevijnapti-matra group associated with the Yogacara teachings, however D.T. Suzuki sees the Lankavatara as clearly pre-dating and distinguished from Yogacara.[32] The Lankavatara teaches cittamatra (mind only) not that of vijnaptimatra of the Yogacara.[note 3] Also, central to the Lankavatara is the identity of the alayavjnana with the tathagata-garbha and the Lankavatara’s central message that the tathagata-garbha is what makes possible the turning inward (paravritti or paravrtti) of awareness to realize the Buddha’s psychological transformation in practical life,[33] while the tathagata-garbha system was unknown or ignored by the progenitors of the Yogacara system. The Lankavatara Sutra was influential in the Chan or Zen schools.

These are two large sutras, which are actually collections of other sutras. The Mahāratnakūta Sūtra contains 49 individual works, and the Mahāsamnipāta Sūtra
is a collection of 17 shorter works. Both seem to have been finalised
by about the 5th century, although some parts of them are considerably
older.

These include a number of sutras that focus on actions that lead
to existence in the various spheres of existence, or that expound the
doctrine of the twelve links of pratitya-samutpada or dependent-origination.

These focus on the principles that guide the behaviour of Bodhisattvas. They include the Kāshyapa-parivarta, the Bodhisattva-prātimoksa Sūtra, and the Brahmajala Sutra.

This is a large number of sutras that describe the nature and
virtues of a particular Buddha or Bodhisattva and/or their Pure Land,
including Mañjusri, Ksitigarbha, the Buddha Akshobhya, and Bhaishajyaguru also known as the Medicine Buddha.

Early in the 20th Century, a cache of texts was found in a mound near Gilgit, Afghanistan. Among them was the Ajitasena Sutra. The Ajitasena Sutra
appears to be a mixture of Mahayana and pre-Mahayana ideas. It occurs
in a world where monasticism is the norm, which is typical of the Pali
Suttas; there is none of the usual antagonism towards the Shravakas
(also called the Hinayana) or the notion of Arahantship, which is
typical of Mahayana Sutras such as the White Lotus, or Vimalakirti Nirdesha.
However, the sutra also has an Arahant seeing all the Buddha fields, it
is said that reciting the name of the sutra will save beings from
suffering and the hell realms, and a meditative practice is described
that allows the practitioner to see with the eyes of a Buddha, and to
receive teachings from them that are very much typical of Mahayana
Sutras.

The Mahayana commentarial and exegetical literature is vast. Many commentarial texts are called Shastras, a by-word used when referring to a scripture. Extending this meaning, the shastra is commonly used to mean a treatise or text written in explanation of some idea, especially in matters involving religion. In Buddhism, a shastra is often a commentary written at a later date to explain an earlier scripture or sutra.

The Mūlamadhyamika-karikā, or Root Verses on the Middle Way, by Nagarjuna is a seminal text on the Madhyamika
philosophy, shares much of the same subject matter as the Perfection of
Wisdom Sutras, although it is not strict a commentary on them.

The 9th Century Indian Buddhist Shantideva produced two texts: the Bodhicaryāvatāra
has been a strong influence in many schools of the Mahayana. It is
notably a favorite text of the fourteenth Dalai Lama. The text begins
with an elaborate ritual worship section, but goes on to expound the six
perfections. The 9th chapter is a critique of various views on perfect
wisdom from the Madhyamika point of view. Shantideva also produced the
Shikshasamuccaya, which is a compendium of doctrines from a huge range
of Mahayana Sutras – some of which no longer exist and therefore are
known only through his quotes.

Asanga, associated with the Yogacara
school of Mahayana thought, is said to have received many texts
directly from the Bodhisattva Maitreya in the Tushita god realm,
including Madhyāntavibhāga, the Mahāyāna-sūtrālamāra, and the Abhisamayālamkara. He is also said to have personally written the Mahāyāna-samgraha, the Abhidharma-samuccaya (a compendium of Abhidharma thought that became the standard text for many Mahayana schools especially in Tibet), and the Yogācāra-bhūmi (although the latter text appears to have had several authors.)

Asanga’s brother Vasubandhu wrote a large number of texts associated with the Yogacara including: Trivabhāva-nirdesha, Vimshatika, Trimshika, and the Abhidharmakośa-bhāsya although this work predates his conversion to the Mahayana and a minority[citation needed] of scholars speculate that there may have been two different Vasubandhus who composed these works. Most influential in the East Asian Buddhist tradition was probably his Thirty Verses on Consciousness-only.

Dignāga is associated with a school of Buddhist logic that tried to establish which texts were valid sources of knowledge (see also Epistemology). He produced the Pramāna-samuccaya, and later Dharmakirti wrote the Pramāna-vārttikā, which was a commentary and reworking of the Dignaga text.

The Awakening of Faith in the Mahayana attributed to Ashvaghosha was influential in East Asian Buddhism, especially the Hua-yen school of China, and its Japanese equivalent, Kegon. Ashvaghosha is also celebrated for his plays.

The early period of the development of Chinese Buddhism was concerned with the collection and translation of texts into Chinese and the creation of the Chinese Buddhist canon. This was often done by traveling overland to India, as recorded in the Great Tang Records on the Western Regions, by the monk Xuanzang. East Asian Buddhism began to develop its own unique literature with the rise of the Tiantai School and its major representative, Zhiyi (538–597 CE) who wrote important commentaries on the Lotus sutra as well as the first major comprehensive work on meditation composed in China, the Mohe Zhiguan (摩訶止観). Another important school of Chinese Buddhism is Huayan, which focused on developing their philosophical texts from the Avatamsaka Sutra. An important patriarch of this school is Fazang who wrote many commentaries and treatises.

Zen Buddhism developed a large literary tradition based on the teachings and sayings of Chinese Zen masters. One of the key texts in this genre is the Platform Sutra attributed to Zen patriarch Huineng, it gives an autobiographical account of his succession as Ch’an
Patriarch, as well as teachings about Ch’an theory and practice. Other
texts are Koan collections, which are compilations of the sayings of
Chinese masters such as the Blue Cliff Record and The Gateless Gate. Another key genre is that of compilations of Zen master biographies, such as the Transmission of the Lamp. Buddhist poetry was also an important contribution to the literature of the tradition.

After
the arrival of Chinese Buddhism in Japan, Korea and Vietnam; they
developed their own traditions and literature in the local language.


Image of leaves and the upper book cover of Thar pa chen po’i mod (The
Sūtra of Great Liberation), showing Tibetan writings on black paper with
an ink that contain gold, silver, copper, coral, lazurite, malachite,
and mother of pearl. The unbound sheets are kept between two wooden
boards covered with green brocade. The upper book cover shows the images
of four of the Eight Medicine Buddhas.

The Tibetan Buddhist canon includes a number of Nikaya-related texts from the Mula-Sarvastivada school, as well as Mahayana sutras. However, it is the specifically Vajrayana texts that most strongly characterise it. They are considered to be the word of the Buddha (Buddhavacana), and the Tibetan Kangyur contains translations of almost 500 tantras. The texts are typically concerned with elaborate rituals and meditations.

Kriyā tantras. These form a large subgroup that appeared
between the 2nd and 6th centuries. The Kriya tantras focus on ritual
actions. Each centres on a particular Buddha or Bodhisattva, and many are based on dharanis. Examples include the Mahāmegha Sutra, the Ārya-mañjushrī-mūla-kalpa, the Subhāhu-pariprcchā Sutra, and the Aparimitāyur-jñāna-hrdaya-dhāranī. Also included in this category are some Mahayana texts such as the Heart Sutra and, in some editions, versions of some texts found in the Pali Canon.

Carya tantras. This is a small class of texts that
probably emerged after the 6th century and are entirely centred on the
worship of the Buddha Vairocana. The best known example is the Mahā-vairocanābhisambodhi Tantra, also known as the Mahavairocana Sutra, which became a foundational text for the Shingon School of Japan.

Yoga tantras likewise focus on Vairocana, and include the Sarva-tathāgata-tattva-samgraha Tantra and the Sarva-durgati-parishodhana Tantra. The Shurangama Sutra and the Shurangama Mantra from which it (called the Shitatapatra Ushnisha Dharani) comes can be included in this category. According to Venerable Tripitaka Master Bhikshu Shramana Hsuan Hua’s “Shurangama Mantra Commentary” (Buddhist Text Translation Society of the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas,
1981, Volume 1), the Shurangama Mantra mystically and literally
includes all of the Buddha Dharma in its entirety, and its focus is on
the Five Dhyana Buddhas (Vairochana, Amitabha), Akshobhya, Ratnasambhava, and Amoghasiddhi, with stress on Vairochana and Ashobhya Buddhas) and their retinues of Dharmapalas and wrathful deities in male and female forms, such as Vajrapani, wrathful Manjushri, Mahakala, Tara, Pandaravasini, Prakruti, Uchushma Fire Head Vajra, Brahma, Indra, Shiva as Rudra, Raudri-Umapati form of Vajrayogini, Narayana, Ganapati, various Dhakinis, Naga kings, Yaksha kings, Rakshasha kings, and many other Dharma Protectors of the Buddhist Pantheon and Vedic pantheon. The primary wrathful Goddess of the Shurangamma Mantra tantric practice is the Great White Umbrella Deity form of Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva, an important practice in Tibetan Buddhism.

Anuttara tantras. The most advanced class of tantra is the Anuttarayoga tantra,
which focus on mental transformation and less on ritual actions. These
are sometimes further divided into the so-called Father Tantras and
Mother Tantras.

Anuttaratantra is known in the Nyingma school as Mahayoga. This school also has a collection of tantras of its own, not found in the other Tibetan schools.

Textual evidence suggests that some of these texts are in fact Shaivite Tantras adopted and adapted to Buddhist purposes, and many similarities in iconography and ritual can be seen in them.[citation needed]

A sadhana is a tantric spiritual practices text used by practitioners, primarily to practice the mandala or a particular yidam, or meditation deity. The Sādhanamālā is a collection of sadhanas.

Vajrayana adepts, known as mahasiddha, often expounded their teachings in the form of songs of realization. Collections of these songs such as the Caryāgīti, or the Charyapada are still in existence. The Dohakosha is a collection of doha songs by the yogi Saraha from the 9th century. A collection known in English as The Hundred Thousand Songs of Milarepa was composed by Tibetan Buddhist yogi Milarepa and is especially popular amongst members of the Kagyu school.

Terma are Tibetan Buddhist texts, hidden to be rediscovered at a later date. Padmasambhava and Yeshe Tsogyal wrote and hid most termas, although texts have also been hidden by figures such as Machig Labdron. The best known terma text is probably the Bardo thodol, or ‘Awakening in the Bardo State’, also known as the Tibetan Book of the Dead. The person who finds a terma text is known as a terton.

The Blue Annals (Standard Tibetan: deb ther sngon po) completed in 1476CE, authored by Gölo Zhönnupel (Tibetan: gos lo gzhon nu dpal, 1392–1481), is a historical survey of Tibetan Buddhism with a marked ecumenical view, focusing upon the dissemination of various sectarian traditions throughout Tibet.[34]

Namtar, or spiritual biographies, are another popular form of Tibetan Buddhist texts, whereby the teachings and spiritual path of a practitioner are explained through a review of their lifestory.

Kūkai wrote a number of treatises on Vajrayana Buddhism that are distinct from his Shingon Buddhism.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zBxlvAPpg_Q

Dighajanu Vyagghapajja Sutta by Ven Galigamuwe Gnanadeepa Thero

D Wida
Published on Feb 17, 2013
The Conditions of Welfare


In this sutta, the Buddha instructs rich householders how to preserve
and increase their prosperity and how to avoid loss of wealth. Wealth
alone, however, does not make a complete man nor a harmonious society.
Possession of wealth all too often multiplies man’s desires, and he is
ever in the pursuit of amassing more wealth and power. This unrestrained
craving, however, leaves him dissatisfied and stifles his inner growth.
It creates conflict and disharmony in society through the resentment of
the underprivileged who feel themselves exploited by the effects of
unrestrained craving.

Therefore the Buddha follows up on his
advice on material welfare with four essential conditions for spiritual
welfare: confidence (in the Master’s enlightenment), virtue, liberality
and wisdom. These four will instill in man a sense of higher values. He
will then not only pursue his own material concern, but also be aware of
his duty towards society. To mention only one of the implications: a
wisely and generously employed liberality will reduce tensions and
conflicts in society. Thus the observing of these conditions of material
and spiritual welfare will make for an ideal citizen in an ideal
society.
Category
People & Blogs
3 Comments


The
Conditions of Welfare In this sutta, the Buddha instructs rich
householders how to preserve and increase their prosperity and how to
avoid loss of…


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d1FsrHO5mg4
Golden Lion Edu
Published on May 5, 2013
Four conditions, Vyagghapajja, conduce to a householder’s weal and happiness in this very life. Which four?
i. the accomplishment of persistent effort (utthana-sampada)
ii. the accomplishment of watchfulness (arakkha-sampada)
iii. good friendship (kalyanamittata)
iv. balanced livelihood (sama-jivikata)
Category
Education


Four
conditions, Vyagghapajja, conduce to a householder’s weal and happiness
in this very life. Which four? i. the accomplishment of persistent
effort…
http://www.thebuddhacenter.org/buddhism/sutras/the-sigalovada-sutra/
image.png
image.png


The Sigalovada Sutra

The Sigalovada Sutta
takes place when Lord Buddha encountered a youth called Sigala in his
morning stroll. The young man, in drenched attire, prostrated and
worshipped the four compass direction (East, South, West and North),
plus the Earth (Down) and the Sky (Up). When asked by Lord Buddha why he
did so, the youth Sigala replied that he had been told by his late
father to do so and he thought that it was right to uphold his father’s
wishes. Lord Buddha then, based on Sigala’s point of view, taught him on
how a noble one (Pali: ariya) should worship the Six directions.

 

For the sign for “Encompassing Directions” at the BC I offer this text:

The most important teaching that the Buddha gave for laypeople is in
the Sigalovada Sutra.  It offers guidance in the aspects of human
relationships, and one’s relationship with wealth so a practitioner can
realize a more happy, harmonious and healthy engagement with them.

“Encompassing Directions: A Contemporary Commentary on the Sigalovada
Sutra” arose from a series of dharma talks given by Ven. Wayne
Ren-Cheng, Shi at the Buddha Center.

The commentary (in .pdf format) is available for FREE.  by clicking on this url Encompassing Directions

or by contacting v.wayne.hughes@gmail.com for a copy.

I bow with respect,

Wayne Ren-Cheng Hughes, Shi 仁 诚

Engaged Dharma Insight Group

Director of Intentional Practice and Buddhist Studies

 

The Sigalovada Sutra


Sigalovada Sutra: The Buddha’s Advice to Sigalaka 

 This is what I heard.

On one occasion, the Buddha was living near the town of
Rajagaha at a spot in the Bamboo Grove called the Squirrel’s Feeding
Place.

At that time a young householder named Sigalaka arose early
and set out from Rajagaha with freshly washed clothes and hair. With
palms together held up in reverence, he was paying respect towards the
six directions: that is east, south, west, north, lower and upper.

Meanwhile the Buddha dressed himself in the early morning,
took his bowl and robe and went in to Rajagaha on alms round. On the
way, he saw Sigalaka worshipping the six directions. Seeing this, the
Buddha said to him: “Young man, why have you risen in the early morning
and set out from Rajagaha to worship in such a way?”

“Dear sir, my father on his deathbed urged me, ‘My son, you
must worship the directions’. So, dear sir, realizing, honoring,
respecting, and holding sacred my father’s request, I have risen in the
early morning and set out from Rajagaha to worship in this way.”

“But, young man, that is not how the six directions should be worshipped according to the discipline of the noble ones.”

“Then how, dear sir, should the six directions be worshipped
according to the discipline of the noble ones? I would appreciate it if
you would teach me the proper way this should be done.”

“Very well, young man, listen and pay careful attention while I tell you.”

“Yes, dear sir,” agreed Sigalaka.

The Buddha said this:

“Young man, by abandoning the four impure actions, a noble
disciple refrains from harmful deeds rooted in four causes and avoids
the six ways of squandering wealth. So, these fourteen harmful things
are removed. The noble disciple, now with the six directions protected,
has entered upon a path for conquering both worlds, firmly grounded in
this world and the next. At the dissolution of the body after death, a
good rebirth occurs in a heavenly world.

“What four impure actions are abandoned? The harming of
living beings is an impure action, taking what is not given is an impure
action, sexual misconduct is an impure action, and false speech is an
impure action.  These four are abandoned.”

That is what the Buddha said.

Summing up in verse, the sublime teacher said:

“Harming living beings, taking what is not given, False
speech, and pursuing the loved one of another: These the wise surely do
not praise.” 

“What are the four causes of harmful deeds? Going astray
through desire, hatred, delusion, or fear, the noble disciple does
harmful deeds. But, young man, not going astray through desire, hatred,
delusion, or fear, the noble disciple does not perform harmful deeds.”

That is what the Buddha said.

Summing up in verse, the sublime teacher said:

“Desire, hatred, delusion, or fear: Whoever transgresses the
Dhamma by these, Has a reputation that comes to ruin, Like the moon in
the waning fortnight. Desire, hatred, delusion, or fear: Whoever
transgresses not the Dhamma by these, Has a reputation that comes to
fullness, Like the moon in the waxing fortnight.” 

“And what six ways of squandering wealth are to be avoided?
Young man, heedlessness caused by intoxication, roaming the streets at
inappropriate times, habitual partying, compulsive gambling, bad
companionship, and laziness are the six ways of squandering wealth.

“These are the six dangers inherent in heedlessness caused by
intoxication: loss of immediate wealth, increased quarreling,
susceptibility to illness, disrepute, indecent exposure, and weakened
insight.

“These are the six dangers inherent in roaming the streets at
inappropriate times: oneself, one’s family, and one’s property are all
left unguarded and unprotected; one is suspected of crimes; then rumors
spread; and one is subjected to many miseries.

“These are the six dangers inherent in habitual partying: You
constantly seek, ‘Where’s the dancing? Where’s the singing? Where’s the
music? Where are the stories? Where’s the applause? Where’s the
drumming?’

“These are the six dangers inherent in compulsive gambling:
winning breeds resentment; the loser mourns lost property; savings are
lost; one’s word carries no weight in a public forum; friends and
colleagues display their contempt; and one is not sought after for
marriage, since a gambler cannot adequately support a family.

“These are the six dangers inherent in bad companionship: any
rogue, drunkard, addict, cheat, swindler, or thug becomes a friend and
colleague.

“These are the six dangers inherent in laziness: saying,
‘It’s too cold,’ one does not work; saying, ‘It’s too hot,’ one does not
work; saying, ‘It’s too late,’ one does not work; saying, ‘It’s too
early,’ one does not work; saying, ‘I’m too hungry,’ one does not work;
saying, ‘I’m too full,’ one does not work. With an abundance of excuses
for not working, new wealth does not accrue and existing wealth goes to
waste.”

That is what the Buddha said.

Summing up in verse, the sublime teacher said:

“Some are drinking buddies, Some say, ‘Dear friend! Dear
friend!’. But whoever in hardship stands close by, That one truly is a
friend. Sleeping late, adultery, Hostility, meaninglessness, Harmful
friends, utter stinginess: These six things destroy a person. Bad
friends, bad companions, Bad practices — spending time in evil ways, By
these, one brings oneself to ruin, In this world and the next.
Seduction, gambling, drinking, singing, dancing, Sleeping by day,
wandering all around untimely, Harmful friends, utter stinginess: These
things destroy a person. They play with dice; they drink spirits; They
consort with lovers dear to others. Associating with low-life and not
the esteemed, They come to ruin like the waning moon. Whoever is a
drunkard, broke, and destitute, Dragged by thirst from bar to bar,
Sinking into debt like a stone in water Into bewilderment quickly
plunges. When sleeping late becomes a habit And night is seen as time to
rise, For one perpetually intoxicated, A home life cannot be
maintained. ‘Too cold! Too hot! Too late!’: they say. Having wasted work
time this way, The young miss out on opportunities. For one regarding
cold and hot As not more than blades of grass, Doing whatever should be
done, Happiness will not be a stranger.” 

“Young man, be aware of these four enemies disguised as
friends: the taker, the talker, the flatterer, and the reckless
companion.

“The taker can be identified by four things: by only taking,
asking for a lot while giving little, performing duty out of fear, and
offering service in order to gain something.

“The talker can be identified by four things: by reminding of
past generosity, promising future generosity, mouthing empty words of
kindness, and protesting personal misfortune when called on to help.

“The flatterer can be identified by four things: by
supporting both bad and good behavior indiscriminately, praising you to
your face, and putting you down behind your back.

“The reckless companion can be identified by four things: by
accompanying you in drinking, roaming around at night, partying, and
gambling.”

That is what the Buddha said.

Summing up in verse, the sublime teacher said:

“The friend who is all take, The friend of empty words, The
friend full of flattery, And the reckless friend; These four are not
friends, but enemies; The wise understand this And keep them at a
distance As they would a dangerous path.” 

“Young man, be aware of these four good-hearted friends: the
helper, the friend who endures in good times and bad, the mentor, and
the compassionate friend.

“The helper can be identified by four things: by protecting
you when you are vulnerable, and likewise your wealth, being a refuge
when you are afraid, and in various tasks providing double what is
requested.

“The enduring friend can be identified by four things: by
telling you secrets, guarding your own secrets closely, not abandoning
you in misfortune, and even dying for you.

“The mentor can be identified by four things: by restraining
you from wrongdoing, guiding you towards good actions, telling you what
you ought to know, and showing you the path to heaven.

“The compassionate friend can be identified by four things:
by not rejoicing in your misfortune, delighting in your good fortune,
preventing others from speaking ill of you, and encouraging others who
praise your good qualities.”

That is what the Buddha said.

Summing up in verse, the sublime teacher said:

“The friend who is a helper, The friend through thick and
thin, The friend who gives good counsel, And the compassionate friend;
These four are friends indeed, The wise understand this And attend on
them carefully, Like a mother her own child. The wise endowed with
virtue Shine forth like a burning fire, Gathering wealth as bees do
honey And heaping it up like an ant hill. Once wealth is accumulated,
Family and household life may follow. By dividing wealth into four
parts, True friendships are bound; One part should be enjoyed; Two parts
invested in business; And the fourth set aside Against future
misfortunes.” 

“And how, young man, does the noble disciple protect the six
directions? These six directions should be known: mother and father as
the east, teachers as the south, spouse and family as the west, friends
and colleagues as the north, workers and servants as the lower
direction, and ascetics and Brahmans as the upper direction.

“In five ways should a mother and father as the eastern
direction be respected by a child: ‘I will support them who supported
me; I will do my duty to them; I will maintain the family lineage and
tradition; I will be worthy of my inheritance; and I will make donations
on behalf of dead ancestors.’

“And, the mother and father so respected reciprocate with
compassion in five ways: by restraining you from wrongdoing, guiding you
towards good actions, training you in a profession, supporting the
choice of a suitable spouse, and in due time, handing over the
inheritance.

“In this way, the eastern direction is protected and made peaceful and secure.

“In five ways should teachers as the southern direction be
respected by a student: by rising for them, regularly attending lessons,
eagerly desiring to learn, duly serving them, and receiving
instruction.

“And, teachers so respected reciprocate with compassion in
five ways: by training in self-discipline, ensuring the teachings are
well-grasped, instructing in every branch of knowledge, introducing
their friends and colleagues, and providing safeguards in every
direction.

“In this way, the southern direction is protected and made peaceful and secure.

“In five ways should a wife as the western direction be
respected by a husband: by honoring, not disrespecting, being faithful,
sharing authority, and by giving gifts.

“And, the wife so respected reciprocates with compassion in
five ways: by being well-organized, being kindly disposed to the in-laws
and household workers, being faithful, looking after the household
goods, and being skillful and diligent in all duties.

In this way, the western direction is protected and made peaceful and secure.

“In five ways should friends and colleagues as the northern
direction be respected: by generosity, kind words, acting for their
welfare, impartiality, and honesty.

“And, friends and colleagues so respected reciprocate with
compassion in five ways: by protecting you when you are vulnerable, and
likewise your wealth, being a refuge when you are afraid, not abandoning
you in misfortunes, and honoring all your descendants.

“In this way, the northern direction is protected and made peaceful and secure.

“In five ways should workers and servants as the lower
direction be respected by an employer: by allocating work according to
aptitude, providing wages and food, looking after the sick, sharing
special treats, and giving reasonable time off work.

“And, workers and servants so respected reciprocate with
compassion in five ways: being willing to start early and finish late
when necessary, taking only what is given, doing work well, and
promoting a good reputation.

“In this way, the lower direction is protected and made peaceful and secure.

“In five ways should ascetics and Brahmans as the upper
direction be respected: by kindly actions, speech, and thoughts, having
an open door, and providing material needs.

“And, ascetics and Brahmans so respected reciprocate with
compassion in six ways: by restraining you from wrongdoing, guiding you
to good actions, thinking compassionately, telling you what you ought to
know, clarifying what you already know, and showing you the path to
heaven.

“In this way, the upper direction is protected and made peaceful and secure.”

That is what the Buddha said.

Summing up in verse, the sublime teacher said:

“Mother and father as the east, Teachers as the south, Spouse
and family as the west, Friends and colleagues as the north, Servants
and workers below, Brahmans and ascetics above; These directions a
person should honor In order to be truly good. Wise and virtuous, Gentle
and eloquent, Humble and accommodating; Such a person attains glory.
Energetic, not lazy, Not shaken in misfortune, Flawless in conduct, and
intelligent; Such a person attains glory. A compassionate maker of
friends, Approachable, free from stinginess, A leader, a teacher, and
diplomat; Such a person attains glory. Generosity and kind words,
Conduct for others’ welfare, Impartiality in all things; These are
suitable everywhere. These kind dispositions hold the world together,
Like the linchpin of a moving chariot. And should these kind
dispositions not exist, Then the mother would not receive Respect or
honor from her child, Neither would a father. Upon these things The wise
reflect; They obtain greatness And are sources of praise.” 

When all was said, the young householder, Sigalaka, exclaimed to the Buddha:

“Wonderful, dear sir! Wonderful! It is as though you have set
upright what was overturned, or uncovered what was concealed, or shown
the path to one gone astray, or brought an oil-lamp into the darkness
such that those with eyes could see. So too has the Buddha made clear
the Dhamma by various ways. I go for refuge to the Buddha and to the
Dhamma and to the monastic community. May the exalted one accept me as a
lay-follower gone for refuge from henceforth for as long as I live.”



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Buddha Vacana

— The words of the Buddha —

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glossary with definitions and references taken only from the Sutta
Pitaka and occasionally the Vinaya Pitaka.

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Bhavissanti
bhikkhū anāgatam·addhānaṃ, ye te suttantā tathāgata·bhāsitā gambhīrā
gambhīr·atthā lok·uttarā suññata·p·paṭisaṃyuttā, tesu bhaññamānesu na
sussūsissanti na sotaṃ odahissanti na aññā cittaṃ upaṭṭhāpessanti na ca
te dhamme uggahetabbaṃ pariyāpuṇitabbaṃ maññissanti.


In future
time, there will be bhikkhus who will not listen to the utterance of
such discourses which are words of the Tathāgata, profound, profound in
meaning, leading beyond the world, (consistently) connected with
emptiness, they will not lend ear, they will not apply their mind on
knowledge, they will not consider those teachings as to be taken up and
mastered.



Ye pana te suttantā kavi·katā kāveyyā citta·kkharā citta·byañjanā bāhirakā sāvaka·bhāsitā,
tesu bhaññamānesu sussūsissanti, sotaṃ odahissanti, aññā cittaṃ
upaṭṭhāpessanti, te ca dhamme uggahetabbaṃ pariyāpuṇitabbaṃ maññissanti.


On the
contrary, they will listen to the utterance of such discourses which are
literary compositions made by poets, witty words, witty letters, by
people from outside, or the words of disciples, they will lend
ear, they will apply their mind on knowledge, they will consider those
teachings as to be taken up and mastered.


Evam·etesaṃ,
bhikkhave, suttantānaṃ tathāgata·bhāsitānaṃ gambhīrānaṃ
gambhīr·atthānaṃ lok·uttarānaṃ suññata·p·paṭisaṃyuttānaṃ antaradhānaṃ
bhavissati.


Thus,
bhikkhus, the discourses which are words of the Tathāgata, profound,
profound in meaning, leading beyond the world, (consistently) connected
with emptiness, will disappear.


Tasmātiha,
bhikkhave, evaṃ sikkhitabbaṃ: ‘ye te suttantā tathāgata·bhāsitā
gambhīrā gambhīr·atthā lok·uttarā suññata·p·paṭisaṃyuttā, tesu
bhaññamānesu sussūsissāma, sotaṃ odahissāma, aññā cittaṃ upaṭṭhāpessāma,
te ca dhamme uggahetabbaṃ pariyāpuṇitabbaṃ maññissāmā’ti. Evañhi vo,
bhikkhave, sikkhitabbanti.


Therefore,
bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘We will listen to the utterance of
such discourses which are words of the Tathāgata, profound, profound in
meaning, leading beyond the world, (consistently) connected with
emptiness, we will lend ear, we will apply our mind on knowledge, we
will consider those teachings as to be taken up and mastered.’ This is
how, bhikkhus, you should train yourselves.


— Āṇi Sutta —


Recent updates log:

30/03/2561


Glossary definition: bhavarāga

25/03/2561


Glossary definition: bhāvanā

22/03/2561


Using Sutta Central

Offline version update

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http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/majjhima/mn137.html




MN 137 (M iii 215)

Saḷāyatanavibhaṅga Sutta

{excerpt}

— An analysis of the senses —
[saḷāyatana-vibhaṅga]

In this deep and very interesting sutta, the Buddha defines
among other things what are the investigations of pleasant, unpleasant
and neutral mental feelings, and also defines the expression found in
the standard description of the Buddha: ‘anuttaro purisadammasārathī’.



Note: info·bubbles on “underdotted” English words


Pāḷi



English








‘Aṭṭhārasa manopavicārā veditabbā’ti: iti kho panetaṃ vuttaṃ. Kiñcetaṃ
paṭicca vuttaṃ? ‘Cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā somanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ rūpaṃ
upavicarati, domanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ rūpaṃ upavicarati, upekkhāṭṭhānīyaṃ
rūpaṃ upavicarati; sotena saddaṃ sutvā somanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ saddaṃ
upavicarati, domanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ saddaṃ upavicarati, upekkhāṭṭhānīyaṃ
saddaṃ upavicarati; ghānena gandhaṃ ghāyitvā somanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ gandhaṃ
upavicarati, domanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ gandhaṃ upavicarati, upekkhāṭṭhānīyaṃ
gandhaṃ upavicarati; jivhāya rasaṃ sāyitvā somanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ rasaṃ
upavicarati, domanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ rasaṃ upavicarati, upekkhāṭṭhānīyaṃ
rasaṃ upavicarati; kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṃ phusitvā somanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ
phoṭṭhabbaṃ upavicarati, domanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ phoṭṭhabbaṃ upavicarati,
upekkhāṭṭhānīyaṃ phoṭṭhabbaṃ upavicarati; manasā dhammaṃ viññāya
somanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ dhammaṃ upavicarati, domanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ dhammaṃ
upavicarati, upekkhāṭṭhānīyaṃ dhammaṃ upavicarati. Iti cha
somanassūpavicārā, cha domanassūpavicārā, cha upekkhūpavicārā,
‘aṭṭhārasa manopavicārā veditabbā’ti: iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ idametaṃ
paṭicca vuttaṃ.


The eighteen explorations for the intellect should be known’: thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said? Seeing a form via the eye, one explores a form that can act as the basis for happiness, one explores a form that can act as the basis for unhappiness, one explores a form that can act as the basis for equanimity; hearing a sound via the ear, one explores a form that can act as the basis for happiness, one explores a form that can act as the basis for unhappiness, one explores a form that can act as the basis for equanimity; smelling an aroma via the nose, one explores an aroma that can act as the basis for happiness, one explores an aroma that can act as the basis for unhappiness, one explores an aroma that can act as the basis for equanimity; tasting a flavor via the tongue, one explores a flavor that can act as the basis for happiness, one explores a flavor that can act as the basis for unhappiness, one explores a flavor that can act as the basis for equanimity; feeling a tactile sensation via the body, one explores a tactile sensation that can act as the basis for happiness, one explores a tactile sensation that can act as the basis for unhappiness, one explores a tactile sensation that can act as the basis for equanimity; cognizing an idea via the intellect, one explores an idea that can act as the basis for happiness, one explores an idea that can act as the basis for unhappiness, one explores an idea that can act as the basis for equanimity. Thus the six happiness-explorations, the six distress-explorations, the six equanimity-explorations, the eighteen explorations for the intellect should be known’: thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.


‘Chattiṃsa sattapadā veditabbā’ti: iti kho panetaṃ vuttaṃ. Kiñcetaṃ
paṭicca vuttaṃ? Cha gehasitāni somanassāni, cha nekkhammasitāni
somanassāni, cha gehasitāni domanassāni, cha nekkhammasitāni
domanassāni, cha gehasitā upekkhā, cha nekkhammasitā upekkhā.


The thirty-six states to which beings are attached{1} should be known’: thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said? Six kinds of household joy & six kinds of renunciation joy; six kinds of household distress & six kinds of renunciation distress; six kinds of household equanimity & six kinds of renunciation equanimity.




Tattha katamāni cha gehasitāni somanassāni? Cakkhuviññeyyānaṃ rūpānaṃ
iṭṭhānaṃ kantānaṃ manāpānaṃ manoramānaṃ lokāmisapaṭisaṃyuttānaṃ
paṭilābhaṃ vā paṭilābhato samanupassato pubbe vā paṭiladdhapubbaṃ atītaṃ
niruddhaṃ vipariṇataṃ samanussarato uppajjati somanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ
somanassaṃ idaṃ vuccati gehasitaṃ somanassaṃ. Sotaviññeyyānaṃ saddānaṃ
iṭṭhānaṃ kantānaṃ manāpānaṃ manoramānaṃ lokāmisapaṭisaṃyuttānaṃ
paṭilābhaṃ vā paṭilābhato samanupassato pubbe vā paṭiladdhapubbaṃ atītaṃ
niruddhaṃ vipariṇataṃ samanussarato uppajjati somanassaṃ, yaṃ rūpānaṃ
somanassaṃ idaṃ vuccati gehasitaṃ somanassaṃ. Ghānaviññeyyānaṃ gandhānaṃ
iṭṭhānaṃ kantānaṃ manāpānaṃ manoramānaṃ lokāmisapaṭisaṃyuttānaṃ
paṭilābhaṃ vā paṭilābhato samanupassato pubbe vā paṭiladdhapubbaṃ atītaṃ
niruddhaṃ vipariṇataṃ samanussarato uppajjati somanassaṃ, yaṃ evarūpaṃ
somanassaṃ idaṃ vuccati gehasitaṃ somanassaṃ. Jivhāviññeyyānaṃ rasānaṃ
iṭṭhānaṃ kantānaṃ manāpānaṃ manoramānaṃ lokāmisapaṭisaṃyuttānaṃ
paṭilābhaṃ vā paṭilābhato samanupassato pubbe vā paṭiladdhapubbaṃ atītaṃ
niruddhaṃ vipariṇataṃ samanussarato uppajjati somanassaṃ, yaṃ evarūpaṃ
somanassaṃ idaṃ vuccati gehasitaṃ somanassaṃ. Kāyaviññeyyānaṃ
phoṭṭhabbānaṃ iṭṭhānaṃ kantānaṃ manāpānaṃ manoramānaṃ
lokāmisapaṭisaṃyuttānaṃ paṭilābhaṃ vā paṭilābhato samanupassato pubbe vā
paṭiladdhapubbaṃ atītaṃ niruddhaṃ vipariṇataṃ samanussarato uppajjati
somanassaṃ, yaṃ evarūpaṃ somanassaṃ idaṃ vuccati gehasitaṃ somanassaṃ.
Manoviññeyyānaṃ dhammānaṃ iṭṭhānaṃ kantānaṃ manāpānaṃ manoramānaṃ
lokāmisapaṭisaṃyuttānaṃ paṭilābhaṃ vā paṭilābhato samanupassato pubbe vā
paṭiladdhapubbaṃ atītaṃ niruddhaṃ vipariṇataṃ samanussarato uppajjati
somanassaṃ, yaṃ evarūpaṃ somanassaṃ idaṃ vuccati gehasitaṃ somanassaṃ.
Imāni cha gehasitāni somanassāni.


And what are the six kinds of household joy? The joy that arises when one regards as an acquisition the acquisition of forms
cognizable by the eye — agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing,
connected with worldly baits — or when one recalls the previous
acquisition of such forms after they have passed, ceased, & changed: That is called household joy. The joy
that arises when one regards as an acquisition the acquisition of
sounds cognizable by the ear — agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing,
connected with worldly baits — or when one recalls the previous
acquisition of such sounds after they have passed, ceased, &
changed: That is called household joy. The joy
that arises when one regards as an acquisition the acquisition of
aromas cognizable by the nose — agreeable, pleasing, charming,
endearing, connected with worldly baits — or when one recalls the
previous acquisition of such aromas after they have passed, ceased,
& changed: That is called household joy. The joy
that arises when one regards as an acquisition the acquisition of
flavors cognizable by the tongue — agreeable, pleasing, charming,
endearing, connected with worldly baits — or when one recalls the
previous acquisition of such flavors after they have passed, ceased,
& changed: That is called household joy. The joy that arises when one regards as an acquisition the acquisition of tactile sensations cognizable by the body
— agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, connected with worldly
baits — or when one recalls the previous acquisition of such tactile sensations after they have passed, ceased, & changed: That is called household joy. The joy that arises when one regards as an acquisition the acquisition of ideas
cognizable by the intellect — agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing,
connected with worldly baits — or when one recalls the previous
acquisition of such ideas after they have passed, ceased, & changed: That is called household joy.



Tattha katamāni cha nekkhammasitāni somanassāni? Rūpānaṃtveva aniccataṃ
viditvā vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, ‘pubbe ceva rūpā etarahi ca sabbe te
rūpā aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā’ti evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ
sammappaññāya passato uppajjati somanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ somanassaṃ idaṃ
vuccati nekkhammasitaṃ somanassaṃ. Saddānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ viditvā
vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva saddā etarahi ca sabbe te saddā
aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā’ti evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ sammappaññāya
passato uppajjati somanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ somanassaṃ, idaṃ vuccati
nekkhammasitaṃ somanassaṃ. Gandhānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ viditvā
vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva gandhā etarahi ca sabbe te saddā
aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā’ti evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ sammappaññāya
passato uppajjati somanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ somanassaṃ, idaṃ vuccati
nekkhammasitaṃ somanassaṃ. Rasānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ viditvā
vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva rasā etarahi ca sabbe te rasā
aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā’ti evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ sammappaññāya
passato uppajjati somanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ somanassaṃ, idaṃ vuccati
nekkhammasitaṃ somanassaṃ. Phoṭṭhabbānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ viditvā
vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva phoṭṭhabbā etarahi ca sabbe te
phoṭṭhabbā aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā’ti evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ
sammappaññāya passato uppajjati somanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ somanassaṃ,
idaṃ vuccati nekkhammasitaṃ somanassaṃ. Dhammānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ
viditvā vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva dhammā, etarahi ca sabbe te
dhammā aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā’ti evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ
sammappaññāya passato uppajjati somanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpā somanassaṃ, idaṃ
vuccati nekkhammasitaṃ somanassaṃ. Imāni cha nekkhammasitāni
somanassāni.


And what are the six kinds of renunciation joy? The joy that arises when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very forms, their change, fading, & cessation — one sees with right discernment as it actually is that all forms, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change: That is called renunciation joy. The joy that arises when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very sounds, their change, fading, & cessation — one sees with right discernment as it actually is that all sounds, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change: That is called renunciation joy. The joy that arises when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very aromas, their change, fading, & cessation — one sees with right discernment as it actually is that all aromas, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change: That is called renunciation joy. The joy that arises when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very flavors, their change, fading, & cessation — one sees with right discernment as it actually is that all flavors, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change: That is called renunciation joy. The joy that arises when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very tactile sensations, their change, fading, & cessation — one sees with right discernment as it actually is that all tactile sensations, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change: That is called renunciation joy. The joy that arises when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very ideas, their change, fading, & cessation — one sees with right discernment as it actually is that all ideas, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change: That is called renunciation joy.




Tattha katamāni cha gehasitāni domanassāni: cakkhuviññeyyānaṃ rūpānaṃ
iṭṭhānaṃ kantānaṃ manāpānaṃ manoramānaṃ lokāmisapaṭisaṃyuttānaṃ
appaṭilābhaṃ vā appaṭilābhato samanupassato pubbe vā appaṭiladdhapubbaṃ
atītaṃ niruddhaṃ vipariṇataṃ samanussarato uppajjati domanassaṃ. Yaṃ
evarūpaṃ domanassaṃ. Idaṃ vuccati gehasitaṃ domanassaṃ. Sotaviññeyyānaṃ
saddānaṃ iṭṭhānaṃ kantānaṃ manāpānaṃ manoramānaṃ lokāmisapaṭisaṃyuttānaṃ
appaṭilābhaṃ vā appaṭilābhato samanupassato pubbe vā appaṭiladdhapubbaṃ
atītaṃ niruddhaṃ vipariṇataṃ samanussarato uppajjati domanassaṃ. Yaṃ
evarūpaṃ domanassaṃ. Idaṃ vuccati gehasitaṃ domanassaṃ. Ghānaviññeyyānaṃ
gandhānaṃ iṭṭhānaṃ kantānaṃ manāpānaṃ manoramānaṃ
lokāmisapaṭisaṃyuttānaṃ appaṭilābhaṃ vā appaṭilābhato samanupassato
pubbe vā appaṭiladdhapubbaṃ atītaṃ niruddhaṃ vipariṇataṃ samanussarato
uppajjati domanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ domanassaṃ. Idaṃ vuccati gehasitaṃ
domanassaṃ. Jivhāviññeyyānaṃ rasānaṃ iṭṭhānaṃ kantānaṃ manāpānaṃ
manoramānaṃ lokāmisapaṭisaṃyuttānaṃ appaṭilābhaṃ vā appaṭilābhato
samanupassato pubbe vā appaṭiladdhapubbaṃ atītaṃ niruddhaṃ vipariṇataṃ
samanussarato uppajjati domanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ domanassaṃ. Idaṃ
vuccati gehasitaṃ domanassaṃ. Kāyaviññeyyānaṃ phoṭṭhabbānaṃ iṭṭhānaṃ
kantānaṃ manāpānaṃ manoramānaṃ lokāmisapaṭisaṃyuttānaṃ appaṭilābhaṃ vā
appaṭilābhato samanupassato pubbe vā appaṭiladdhapubbaṃ atītaṃ niruddhaṃ
vipariṇataṃ samanussarato uppajjati domanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ
domanassaṃ. Idaṃ vuccati gehasitaṃ domanassaṃ. Manoviññeyyānaṃ dhammānaṃ
iṭṭhānaṃ kantānaṃ manāpānaṃ manoramānaṃ lokāmisapaṭisaṃyuttānaṃ
appaṭilābhaṃ vā appaṭilābhato samanupassato pubbe vā appaṭiladdhapubbaṃ
atītaṃ niruddhaṃ vipariṇataṃ samanussarato uppajjati domanassaṃ. Yaṃ
evarūpaṃ domanassaṃ. Idaṃ vuccati gehasitaṃ domanassaṃ. Imāni cha
gehasitāni domanassāni.


And what are the six kinds of household distress? The distress that arises when one regards as a non-acquisition the non-acquisition of forms
cognizable by the eye — agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing,
connected with worldly baits — or when one recalls the previous
non-acquisition of such forms after they have passed, ceased, & changed: That is called household distress. The distress
that arises when one regards as a non-acquisition the non-acquisition
of sounds cognizable by the ear — agreeable, pleasing, charming,
endearing, connected with worldly baits — or when one recalls the
previous non-acquisition of such sounds after they have passed, ceased,
& changed: That is called household distress. The distress
that arises when one regards as a non-acquisition the non-acquisition
of aromas cognizable by the nose — agreeable, pleasing, charming,
endearing, connected with worldly baits — or when one recalls the
previous non-acquisition of such aromas after they have passed, ceased,
& changed: That is called household distress. The distress
that arises when one regards as a non-acquisition the non-acquisition
of flavors cognizable by the tongue — agreeable, pleasing, charming,
endearing, connected with worldly baits — or when one recalls the
previous non-acquisition of such flavors after they have passed, ceased,
& changed: That is called household distress. The distress that arises when one regards as a non-acquisition the non-acquisition of tactile sensations cognizable by the body
— agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, connected with worldly
baits — or when one recalls the previous non-acquisition of such tactile sensations after they have passed, ceased, & changed: That is called household distress. The distress that arises when one regards as a non-acquisition the non-acquisition of ideas
cognizable by the mind — agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing,
connected with worldly baits — or when one recalls the previous
non-acquisition of such ideas after they have passed, ceased, & changed: That is called household distress.




Tattha katamāni cha nekkhammasitāni domanassāni: rūpānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ
viditvā vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva rūpā etarahi ca sabbe te
rūpā aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammāti. Evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ
sammappaññāya disvā anuttaresu vimokkhesu pihaṃ upaṭṭhāpeti: kudassu
nāmāhaṃ tadāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharissāmi. Yadariyā etarahi āyatanaṃ
upasampajja viharantī’ti. Iti anuttaresu vimokkhesu pihaṃ upaṭṭhāpayato
upapajjati pihappaccayā domanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ domanassaṃ, idaṃ
vuccati nekkhammasitaṃ domanassaṃ. Saddānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ viditvā
vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva saddā etarahi ca sabbe te saddā
aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammāti. Evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ sammappaññāya
disvā anuttaresu vimokkhesu pihaṃ upaṭṭhāpeti: kudassu nāmāhaṃ
tadāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharissāmi. Yadariyā etarahi āyatanaṃ
upasampajja viharantī’ti. Iti anuttaresu vimokkhesu pihaṃ upaṭṭhāpayato
upapajjati pihappaccayā domanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ domanassaṃ, idaṃ
vuccati nekkhammasitaṃ domanassaṃ. Gandhānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ viditvā
vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva rūpā etarahi ca sabbe te rūpā
aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammāti. Evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ sammappaññāya
disvā anuttaresu vimokkhesu pihaṃ upaṭṭhāpeti: kudassu nāmāhaṃ
tadāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharissāmi. Yadariyā etarahi āyatanaṃ
upasampajja viharantī’ti. Iti anuttaresu vimokkhesu pihaṃ upaṭṭhāpayato
upapajjati pihappaccayā domanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ domanassaṃ, idaṃ
vuccati nekkhammasitaṃ domanassaṃ. Rasānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ viditvā
vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva rasā etarahi ca sabbe te rasā
aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammāti. Evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ sammappaññāya
disvā anuttaresu vimokkhesu pihaṃ upaṭṭhāpeti: kudassu nāmāhaṃ
tadāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharissāmi. Yadariyā etarahi āyatanaṃ
upasampajja viharantī’ti. Iti anuttaresu vimokkhesu pihaṃ upaṭṭhāpayato
upapajjati pihappaccayā domanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ domanassaṃ, idaṃ
vuccati nekkhammasitaṃ domanassaṃ. Phoṭṭhabbānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ viditvā
vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva phoṭṭhabbā etarahi ca sabbe te
phoṭṭhabbā aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammāti. Evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ
sammappaññāya disvā anuttaresu vimokkhesu pihaṃ upaṭṭhāpeti: kudassu
nāmāhaṃ tadāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharissāmi. Yadariyā etarahi āyatanaṃ
upasampajja viharantī’ti. Iti anuttaresu vimokkhesu pihaṃ upaṭṭhāpayato
upapajjati pihappaccayā domanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ domanassaṃ, idaṃ
vuccati nekkhammasitaṃ domanassaṃ. Dhammānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ viditvā
vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva dhammā etarahi ca sabbe te dhammā
aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammāti. Evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ sammappaññāya
disvā anuttaresu vimokkhesu pihaṃ upaṭṭhāpeti: kudassu nāmāhaṃ
tadāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharissāmi. Yadariyā etarahi āyatanaṃ
upasampajja viharantī’ti. Iti anuttaresu vimokkhesu pihaṃ upaṭṭhāpayato
upapajjati pihappaccayā domanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ domanassaṃ, idaṃ
vuccati nekkhammasitaṃ domanassaṃ. Imāni cha nekkhammasitāni
domanassāni.


And what are the six kinds of renunciation distress? The distress coming from the longing that arises in one who is filled with longing for the unexcelled liberations when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very forms, their change, fading, & cessation — he sees with right discernment as it actually is that all forms, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change and he is filled with this longing: ‘O when will I enter & remain in the dimension that the noble ones now enter & remain in?’ This is called renunciation distress. The distress coming from the longing that arises in one who is filled with longing for the unexcelled liberations when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very sounds, their change, fading, & cessation — he sees with right discernment as it actually is that all sounds, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change and he is filled with this longing: ‘O when will I enter & remain in the dimension that the noble ones now enter & remain in?’ This is called renunciation distress. The distress coming from the longing that arises in one who is filled with longing for the unexcelled liberations when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very aromas, their change, fading, & cessation — he sees with right discernment as it actually is that all aromas, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change and he is filled with this longing: ‘O when will I enter & remain in the dimension that the noble ones now enter & remain in?’ This is called renunciation distress. The distress coming from the longing that arises in one who is filled with longing for the unexcelled liberations when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very flavors, their change, fading, & cessation — he sees with right discernment as it actually is that all flavors, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change and he is filled with this longing: ‘O when will I enter & remain in the dimension that the noble ones now enter & remain in?’ This is called renunciation distress. The distress coming from the longing that arises in one who is filled with longing for the unexcelled liberations when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very tactile sensations, their change, fading, & cessation — he sees with right discernment as it actually is that all tactile sensations, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change and he is filled with this longing: ‘O when will I enter & remain in the dimension that the noble ones now enter & remain in?’ This is called renunciation distress. The distress coming from the longing that arises in one who is filled with longing for the unexcelled liberations when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very ideas, their change, fading, & cessation — he sees with right discernment as it actually is that all ideas, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change and he is filled with this longing: ‘O when will I enter & remain in the dimension that the noble ones now enter & remain in?’ This is called renunciation distress.




Tattha katamā cha gehasitā upekkhā: cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā upapajjati
upekkhā bālassa mūḷhassa puthujjanassa anodhijinassa avipākajinassa
anādīnavadassāvino assutavato puthujjanassa. Yā evarūpā upekkhā, rūpaṃ
sā nātivattati. Tasmā sā upekkhā gehasitāni vuccati. Sotena saddaṃ sutvā
upapajjati upekkhā bālassa mūḷhassa puthujjanassa anodhijinassa
avipākajinassa anādīnavadassāvino assutavato puthujjanassa. Yā evarūpā
upekkhā, saddā sā nātivattati. Tasmā sā upekkhā gehasitāni vuccati.
Ghānena gandhaṃ ghāyitvā upapajjati upekkhā bālassa mūḷhassa
puthujjanassa anodhijinassa avipākajinassa anādīnavadassāvino assutavato
puthujjanassa. Yā evarūpaṃ upekkhā, gandhā sā nātivattati. Tasmā sā
upekkhā gehasitāni vuccati. Jivhāya rasaṃ sāyitvā upapajjati upekkhā
bālassa mūḷhassa puthujjanassa anodhijinassa avipākajinassa
anādīnavadassāvino assutavato puthujjanassa. Yā evarūpaṃ upekkhā, rasā
sā nātivattati. Tasmā sā upekkhā gehasitāni vuccati. Kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṃ
phusitvā upapajjati upekkhā bālassa mūḷhassa puthujjanassa anodhijinassa
avipākajinassa anādīnavadassāvino asutavato puthujjanassa. Yā evarūpaṃ
upekkhā, phoṭṭhabbaṃ sā nātivattati. Tasmā sā upekkhā gehasitāni
vuccati. Manasā dhammaṃ viññāya upapajjati upekkhā bālassa mūḷhassa
puthujjanassa anodhijinassa avipākajinassa anādīnavadassāvino assutavato
puthujjanassa. Yā evarūpā upekkhā, dhammaṃ sā nātivattati. Tasmā sā
upekkhā gehasitāni vuccati. Imā cha gehasitā upekkhā.


And what are the six kinds of household equanimity? The equanimity that arises when a foolish, deluded person — a run-of-the-mill, untaught person who has not conquered his limitations or the results of action{2} & who is blind to danger{3} — sees a form with the eye. Such equanimity does not go beyond forms, which is why it is called household equanimity. The equanimity that arises when a foolish, deluded person — a run-of-the-mill, untaught person who has not conquered his limitations or the results of action & who is blind to danger — hears a sound with the ear. Such equanimity does not go beyond sounds, which is why it is called household equanimity. The equanimity that arises when a foolish, deluded person — a run-of-the-mill, untaught person who has not conquered his limitations or the results of action & who is blind to danger — odors an aroma with the nose. Such equanimity does not go beyond aromas, which is why it is called household equanimity. The equanimity that arises when a foolish, deluded person — a run-of-the-mill, untaught person who has not conquered his limitations or the results of action & who is blind to danger — tastes a flavor with the tongue. Such equanimity does not go beyond flavors, which is why it is called household equanimity. The equanimity that arises when a foolish, deluded person — a run-of-the-mill, untaught person who has not conquered his limitations or the results of action & who is blind to danger — feels a tactile sensation with the body. Such equanimity does not go beyond tactile sensations, which is why it is called household equanimity. The equanimity that arises when a foolish, deluded person — a run-of-the-mill, untaught person who has not conquered his limitations or the results of action & who is blind to danger — cognizes an idea with the intellect. Such equanimity does not go beyond ideas, which is why it is called household equanimity.




Tattha katamā cha nekkhammasitā upekkhā: rūpānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ viditvā
vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva rūpā etarahi ca sabbe te rūpā
aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā’ti evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ sammappaññāya
passato upapajjati upekkhā yā evarūpā upekkhā rūpaṃ sā ativattati. Tasmā
sā upekkhā nekkhammasitāti vuccati. Saddhānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ viditvā
vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva saddā etarahi ca sabbe te saddā
aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā’ti evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ sammappaññāya
passato upapajjati upekkhā yā evarūpā upekkhā saddaṃ sā ativattati.
Tasmā sā upekkhā nekkhammasitāti vuccati. Gandhānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ
viditvā vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva gandhā etarahi ca sabbe te
gandhā aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā’ti evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ
sammappaññāya passato upapajjati upekkhā yā evarūpā upekkhā gandhaṃ sā
ativattati. Tasmā sā upekkhā nekkhammasitāti vuccati. Rasānaṃ tveva
aniccataṃ viditvā vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva rasā etarahi ca
sabbe te rasā aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā’ti evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ
sammappaññāya passato upapajjati upekkhā yā evarūpā upekkhā rasaṃ sā
ativattati. Tasmā sā upekkhā nekkhammasitāti vuccati. Phoṭṭhabbānaṃ
tveva aniccataṃ viditvā
Vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva phoṭṭhabbā etarahi ca sabbe te
phoṭṭhabbā aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā’ti evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ
sammappaññāya passato upapajjati upekkhā yā evarūpā upekkhā phoṭṭhabbaṃ
sā ativattati. Tasmā sā upekkhā nekkhammasitāti vuccati. Dhammā tveva
aniccataṃ viditvā vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva dhammā etarahi ca
sabbe te dhammā aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā’ti evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ
sammappaññāya passato upapajjati upekkhā yā evarūpā upekkhā dhammaṃ sā
ativattati. Tasmā sā upekkhā nekkhammasitāti vuccati. Imā cha
nekkhammasitā upekkhā. Chattiṃsa sattapadā veditabbāti iti yaṃ taṃ
vuttaṃ, idametaṃ paṭicca vuttaṃ.


And what are the six kinds of renunciation equanimity? The equanimity that arises when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very forms, their change, fading, & cessation — one sees with right discernment as it actually is that all forms, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change: This equanimity goes beyond forms, which is why it is called renunciation equanimity. The equanimity that arises when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very sounds, their change, fading, & cessation — one sees with right discernment as it actually is that all sounds, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change: This equanimity goes beyond sounds, which is why it is called renunciation equanimity. The equanimity that arises when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very aromas, their change, fading, & cessation — one sees with right discernment as it actually is that all aromas, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change: This equanimity goes beyond aromas, which is why it is called renunciation equanimity. The equanimity that arises when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very flavors, their change, fading, & cessation — one sees with right discernment as it actually is that all flavors, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change: This equanimity goes beyond flavors, which is why it is called renunciation equanimity. The equanimity that arises when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very tactile sensations, their change, fading, & cessation — one sees with right discernment as it actually is that all tactile sensations, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change: This equanimity goes beyond tactile sensations, which is why it is called renunciation equanimity. The equanimity that arises when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very ideas, their change, fading, & cessation — one sees with right discernment as it actually is that all ideas, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change: This equanimity goes beyond ideas, which is why it is called renunciation equanimity.


‘Chattiṃsa sattapadā veditabbā’ti: iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ idametaṃ paṭicca vuttaṃ.


The thirty-six states to which beings are attached should be known’: thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.






So vuccati yoggācariyānaṃ ‘anuttaro purisadammasārathī’ti: iti kho
panetaṃ vuttaṃ. Kiñcetaṃ paṭicca vuttaṃ? Hatthidamakena, bhikkhave,
hatthidammo sārito ekaṃyeva disaṃ dhāvati: puratthimaṃ vā pacchimaṃ vā
uttaraṃ vā dakkhiṇaṃ vā. Assadamakena, bhikkhave, assadammo sārito
ekaññeva disaṃ dhāvati: puratthimaṃ vā pacchimaṃ vā uttaraṃ vā dakkhiṇaṃ
vā. Godamakena, bhikkhave, godammo sārito ekaṃyeva disaṃ dhāvati:
puratthimaṃ vā pacchimaṃ vā uttaraṃ vā dakkhiṇaṃ vā.


‘Among master trainers, he is said to be ‘the unexcelled trainer of those people fit to be tamed’:
thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said? Steered by the
elephant trainer, the elephant to be tamed runs in only one direction:
east, west, north, or south. Steered by the horse trainer, the horse to
be tamed runs in only one direction: east, west, north, or south.
Steered by the ox trainer, the ox to be tamed runs in only one
direction: east, west, north, or south.


Tathāgatena hi, bhikkhave, arahatā sammāsambuddhena purisadammo sārito
aṭṭha disā vidhāvati. Rūpī rūpāni passati: ayaṃ ekā disā;


But steered by the Tathagataworthy and rightly self-awakened — the person to be tamed fans out in eight directions. Possessed of form, he/she sees forms. This is the first direction.


Ajjhattaṃ arūpasaññī bahiddhā rūpāni passati: ayaṃ dutiyā disā;


Not percipient of form internally, he/she sees forms externally. This is the second direction.


Subhantveva adhimutto hoti: ayaṃ tatiyā disā;


He/she is intent only on the beautiful. This is the third direction.


sabbaso rūpasaññānaṃ samatikkamā paṭighasaññānaṃ atthaṅgamā
nānattasaññānaṃ amanasikārā ‘ananto ākāso’ti ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ
upasampajja viharati: ayaṃ catutthī disā;

With
the complete transcending of perceptions of [physical] form, with the
disappearance of perceptions of resistance, and not heeding perceptions
of diversity, [perceiving,] ‘Infinite space,’ he/she enters and remains
in the dimension of the infinitude of space.
This is the fourth direction.


Sabbaso ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ samatikkamma ‘anantaṃ viññāṇa’nti viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati: ayaṃ pañcamī disā;

With
the complete transcending of the dimension of the infinitude of space,
[perceiving,] ‘Infinite consciousness,’ he/she enters and remains in the
dimension of the infinitude of consciousness.
This is the fifth direction.


Sabbaso viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ samatikkamma ‘natthi kiñcī’ti ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati: ayaṃ chaṭṭhī disā;

With
the complete transcending of the dimension of the infinitude of
consciousness, [perceiving,] ‘There is nothing,’ he/she enters and
remains in the dimension of nothingness.
This is the sixth direction.


Sabbaso ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ samatikkamma nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati: ayaṃ sattamī disā;

With
the complete transcending of the dimension of nothingness, he/she
enters and remains in the dimension of neither perception nor
non-perception.
This is the seventh direction.


Sabbaso nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ samatikkamma saññāvedayitanirodhaṃ upasampajja viharati: ayaṃ aṭṭhamī disā.

With
the complete transcending of the dimension of neither perception nor
non-perception, he/she enters and remains in the cessation of perception
and feeling.
This is the eighth direction.


Tathāgatena, bhikkhave, arahatā sammāsambuddhena purisadammo sārito imā
aṭṭha disā vidhāvati. ‘So vuccati yoggācariyānaṃ anuttaro
purisadammasārathī’ti: iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ idametaṃ paṭicca vutta’’nti.


Steered by the Tathagataworthy and rightly self-awakened — the person to be tamed fans out in eight directions. ‘Among master trainers, he (the Tathagata) is said to be the unexcelled trainer of those people fit to be tamed’: thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.


Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamanā te bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinandunti.


That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One’s words.


Bodhi leaf





Notes


1. states to which beings are attached: Satta-pada.
The question in translating this compound is whether satta means
“living being” or “attached to.” In this translation, I have opted for
both.


2. has not conquered his limitations or the results of action: this passage seems related to the passage in AN 3.99,
which defines a person of limited mind, prey to the results of past bad
actions, as one who is “undeveloped in contemplating the body, undeveloped in virtue, undeveloped in concentration, and undeveloped in discernment; restricted, small-hearted, dwelling with suffering.” As AN 3.99
points out, such a person suffers more intensely from the results of
past unskillful actions than does one whose awareness is unrestricted. SN 42.8
recommends the practice of the four sublime attitudes as a way of
developing an unrestricted awareness that weakens the results of past
unskillful actions.


3. blind to danger: A person who is “blind to danger” is one who does not see the drawbacks of sensual pleasure or attachment to the body. For such a person, moments of equanimity
are usually a dull spot in the midst of the quest for sensual pleasure.
This is why such moments do not go beyond the sensory stimulus that
generated them.






Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
Access to Insight, 1 July 2010.



MN 137 (M iii 215)

Saḷāyatanavibhaṅga Sutta

{excerpt}

— An analysis of the senses —
[saḷāyatana-vibhaṅga]

In this deep and very interesting sutta, the Buddha defines
among other things what are the investigations of pleasant, unpleasant
and neutral mental feelings, and also defines the expression found in
the standard description of the Buddha: ‘anuttaro purisadammasārathī’.



Note: info·bubbles on “underdotted” English words


Pāḷi



English








‘Aṭṭhārasa manopavicārā veditabbā’ti: iti kho panetaṃ vuttaṃ. Kiñcetaṃ
paṭicca vuttaṃ? ‘Cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā somanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ rūpaṃ
upavicarati, domanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ rūpaṃ upavicarati, upekkhāṭṭhānīyaṃ
rūpaṃ upavicarati; sotena saddaṃ sutvā somanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ saddaṃ
upavicarati, domanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ saddaṃ upavicarati, upekkhāṭṭhānīyaṃ
saddaṃ upavicarati; ghānena gandhaṃ ghāyitvā somanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ gandhaṃ
upavicarati, domanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ gandhaṃ upavicarati, upekkhāṭṭhānīyaṃ
gandhaṃ upavicarati; jivhāya rasaṃ sāyitvā somanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ rasaṃ
upavicarati, domanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ rasaṃ upavicarati, upekkhāṭṭhānīyaṃ
rasaṃ upavicarati; kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṃ phusitvā somanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ
phoṭṭhabbaṃ upavicarati, domanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ phoṭṭhabbaṃ upavicarati,
upekkhāṭṭhānīyaṃ phoṭṭhabbaṃ upavicarati; manasā dhammaṃ viññāya
somanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ dhammaṃ upavicarati, domanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ dhammaṃ
upavicarati, upekkhāṭṭhānīyaṃ dhammaṃ upavicarati. Iti cha
somanassūpavicārā, cha domanassūpavicārā, cha upekkhūpavicārā,
‘aṭṭhārasa manopavicārā veditabbā’ti: iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ idametaṃ
paṭicca vuttaṃ.


The eighteen explorations for the intellect should be known’: thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said? Seeing a form via the eye, one explores a form that can act as the basis for happiness, one explores a form that can act as the basis for unhappiness, one explores a form that can act as the basis for equanimity; hearing a sound via the ear, one explores a form that can act as the basis for happiness, one explores a form that can act as the basis for unhappiness, one explores a form that can act as the basis for equanimity; smelling an aroma via the nose, one explores an aroma that can act as the basis for happiness, one explores an aroma that can act as the basis for unhappiness, one explores an aroma that can act as the basis for equanimity; tasting a flavor via the tongue, one explores a flavor that can act as the basis for happiness, one explores a flavor that can act as the basis for unhappiness, one explores a flavor that can act as the basis for equanimity; feeling a tactile sensation via the body, one explores a tactile sensation that can act as the basis for happiness, one explores a tactile sensation that can act as the basis for unhappiness, one explores a tactile sensation that can act as the basis for equanimity; cognizing an idea via the intellect, one explores an idea that can act as the basis for happiness, one explores an idea that can act as the basis for unhappiness, one explores an idea that can act as the basis for equanimity. Thus the six happiness-explorations, the six distress-explorations, the six equanimity-explorations, the eighteen explorations for the intellect should be known’: thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.


‘Chattiṃsa sattapadā veditabbā’ti: iti kho panetaṃ vuttaṃ. Kiñcetaṃ
paṭicca vuttaṃ? Cha gehasitāni somanassāni, cha nekkhammasitāni
somanassāni, cha gehasitāni domanassāni, cha nekkhammasitāni
domanassāni, cha gehasitā upekkhā, cha nekkhammasitā upekkhā.


The thirty-six states to which beings are attached{1} should be known’: thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said? Six kinds of household joy & six kinds of renunciation joy; six kinds of household distress & six kinds of renunciation distress; six kinds of household equanimity & six kinds of renunciation equanimity.




Tattha katamāni cha gehasitāni somanassāni? Cakkhuviññeyyānaṃ rūpānaṃ
iṭṭhānaṃ kantānaṃ manāpānaṃ manoramānaṃ lokāmisapaṭisaṃyuttānaṃ
paṭilābhaṃ vā paṭilābhato samanupassato pubbe vā paṭiladdhapubbaṃ atītaṃ
niruddhaṃ vipariṇataṃ samanussarato uppajjati somanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ
somanassaṃ idaṃ vuccati gehasitaṃ somanassaṃ. Sotaviññeyyānaṃ saddānaṃ
iṭṭhānaṃ kantānaṃ manāpānaṃ manoramānaṃ lokāmisapaṭisaṃyuttānaṃ
paṭilābhaṃ vā paṭilābhato samanupassato pubbe vā paṭiladdhapubbaṃ atītaṃ
niruddhaṃ vipariṇataṃ samanussarato uppajjati somanassaṃ, yaṃ rūpānaṃ
somanassaṃ idaṃ vuccati gehasitaṃ somanassaṃ. Ghānaviññeyyānaṃ gandhānaṃ
iṭṭhānaṃ kantānaṃ manāpānaṃ manoramānaṃ lokāmisapaṭisaṃyuttānaṃ
paṭilābhaṃ vā paṭilābhato samanupassato pubbe vā paṭiladdhapubbaṃ atītaṃ
niruddhaṃ vipariṇataṃ samanussarato uppajjati somanassaṃ, yaṃ evarūpaṃ
somanassaṃ idaṃ vuccati gehasitaṃ somanassaṃ. Jivhāviññeyyānaṃ rasānaṃ
iṭṭhānaṃ kantānaṃ manāpānaṃ manoramānaṃ lokāmisapaṭisaṃyuttānaṃ
paṭilābhaṃ vā paṭilābhato samanupassato pubbe vā paṭiladdhapubbaṃ atītaṃ
niruddhaṃ vipariṇataṃ samanussarato uppajjati somanassaṃ, yaṃ evarūpaṃ
somanassaṃ idaṃ vuccati gehasitaṃ somanassaṃ. Kāyaviññeyyānaṃ
phoṭṭhabbānaṃ iṭṭhānaṃ kantānaṃ manāpānaṃ manoramānaṃ
lokāmisapaṭisaṃyuttānaṃ paṭilābhaṃ vā paṭilābhato samanupassato pubbe vā
paṭiladdhapubbaṃ atītaṃ niruddhaṃ vipariṇataṃ samanussarato uppajjati
somanassaṃ, yaṃ evarūpaṃ somanassaṃ idaṃ vuccati gehasitaṃ somanassaṃ.
Manoviññeyyānaṃ dhammānaṃ iṭṭhānaṃ kantānaṃ manāpānaṃ manoramānaṃ
lokāmisapaṭisaṃyuttānaṃ paṭilābhaṃ vā paṭilābhato samanupassato pubbe vā
paṭiladdhapubbaṃ atītaṃ niruddhaṃ vipariṇataṃ samanussarato uppajjati
somanassaṃ, yaṃ evarūpaṃ somanassaṃ idaṃ vuccati gehasitaṃ somanassaṃ.
Imāni cha gehasitāni somanassāni.


And what are the six kinds of household joy? The joy that arises when one regards as an acquisition the acquisition of forms
cognizable by the eye — agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing,
connected with worldly baits — or when one recalls the previous
acquisition of such forms after they have passed, ceased, & changed: That is called household joy. The joy
that arises when one regards as an acquisition the acquisition of
sounds cognizable by the ear — agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing,
connected with worldly baits — or when one recalls the previous
acquisition of such sounds after they have passed, ceased, &
changed: That is called household joy. The joy
that arises when one regards as an acquisition the acquisition of
aromas cognizable by the nose — agreeable, pleasing, charming,
endearing, connected with worldly baits — or when one recalls the
previous acquisition of such aromas after they have passed, ceased,
& changed: That is called household joy. The joy
that arises when one regards as an acquisition the acquisition of
flavors cognizable by the tongue — agreeable, pleasing, charming,
endearing, connected with worldly baits — or when one recalls the
previous acquisition of such flavors after they have passed, ceased,
& changed: That is called household joy. The joy that arises when one regards as an acquisition the acquisition of tactile sensations cognizable by the body
— agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, connected with worldly
baits — or when one recalls the previous acquisition of such tactile sensations after they have passed, ceased, & changed: That is called household joy. The joy that arises when one regards as an acquisition the acquisition of ideas
cognizable by the intellect — agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing,
connected with worldly baits — or when one recalls the previous
acquisition of such ideas after they have passed, ceased, & changed: That is called household joy.



Tattha katamāni cha nekkhammasitāni somanassāni? Rūpānaṃtveva aniccataṃ
viditvā vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, ‘pubbe ceva rūpā etarahi ca sabbe te
rūpā aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā’ti evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ
sammappaññāya passato uppajjati somanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ somanassaṃ idaṃ
vuccati nekkhammasitaṃ somanassaṃ. Saddānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ viditvā
vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva saddā etarahi ca sabbe te saddā
aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā’ti evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ sammappaññāya
passato uppajjati somanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ somanassaṃ, idaṃ vuccati
nekkhammasitaṃ somanassaṃ. Gandhānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ viditvā
vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva gandhā etarahi ca sabbe te saddā
aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā’ti evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ sammappaññāya
passato uppajjati somanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ somanassaṃ, idaṃ vuccati
nekkhammasitaṃ somanassaṃ. Rasānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ viditvā
vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva rasā etarahi ca sabbe te rasā
aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā’ti evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ sammappaññāya
passato uppajjati somanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ somanassaṃ, idaṃ vuccati
nekkhammasitaṃ somanassaṃ. Phoṭṭhabbānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ viditvā
vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva phoṭṭhabbā etarahi ca sabbe te
phoṭṭhabbā aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā’ti evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ
sammappaññāya passato uppajjati somanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ somanassaṃ,
idaṃ vuccati nekkhammasitaṃ somanassaṃ. Dhammānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ
viditvā vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva dhammā, etarahi ca sabbe te
dhammā aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā’ti evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ
sammappaññāya passato uppajjati somanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpā somanassaṃ, idaṃ
vuccati nekkhammasitaṃ somanassaṃ. Imāni cha nekkhammasitāni
somanassāni.


And what are the six kinds of renunciation joy? The joy that arises when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very forms, their change, fading, & cessation — one sees with right discernment as it actually is that all forms, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change: That is called renunciation joy. The joy that arises when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very sounds, their change, fading, & cessation — one sees with right discernment as it actually is that all sounds, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change: That is called renunciation joy. The joy that arises when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very aromas, their change, fading, & cessation — one sees with right discernment as it actually is that all aromas, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change: That is called renunciation joy. The joy that arises when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very flavors, their change, fading, & cessation — one sees with right discernment as it actually is that all flavors, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change: That is called renunciation joy. The joy that arises when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very tactile sensations, their change, fading, & cessation — one sees with right discernment as it actually is that all tactile sensations, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change: That is called renunciation joy. The joy that arises when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very ideas, their change, fading, & cessation — one sees with right discernment as it actually is that all ideas, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change: That is called renunciation joy.




Tattha katamāni cha gehasitāni domanassāni: cakkhuviññeyyānaṃ rūpānaṃ
iṭṭhānaṃ kantānaṃ manāpānaṃ manoramānaṃ lokāmisapaṭisaṃyuttānaṃ
appaṭilābhaṃ vā appaṭilābhato samanupassato pubbe vā appaṭiladdhapubbaṃ
atītaṃ niruddhaṃ vipariṇataṃ samanussarato uppajjati domanassaṃ. Yaṃ
evarūpaṃ domanassaṃ. Idaṃ vuccati gehasitaṃ domanassaṃ. Sotaviññeyyānaṃ
saddānaṃ iṭṭhānaṃ kantānaṃ manāpānaṃ manoramānaṃ lokāmisapaṭisaṃyuttānaṃ
appaṭilābhaṃ vā appaṭilābhato samanupassato pubbe vā appaṭiladdhapubbaṃ
atītaṃ niruddhaṃ vipariṇataṃ samanussarato uppajjati domanassaṃ. Yaṃ
evarūpaṃ domanassaṃ. Idaṃ vuccati gehasitaṃ domanassaṃ. Ghānaviññeyyānaṃ
gandhānaṃ iṭṭhānaṃ kantānaṃ manāpānaṃ manoramānaṃ
lokāmisapaṭisaṃyuttānaṃ appaṭilābhaṃ vā appaṭilābhato samanupassato
pubbe vā appaṭiladdhapubbaṃ atītaṃ niruddhaṃ vipariṇataṃ samanussarato
uppajjati domanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ domanassaṃ. Idaṃ vuccati gehasitaṃ
domanassaṃ. Jivhāviññeyyānaṃ rasānaṃ iṭṭhānaṃ kantānaṃ manāpānaṃ
manoramānaṃ lokāmisapaṭisaṃyuttānaṃ appaṭilābhaṃ vā appaṭilābhato
samanupassato pubbe vā appaṭiladdhapubbaṃ atītaṃ niruddhaṃ vipariṇataṃ
samanussarato uppajjati domanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ domanassaṃ. Idaṃ
vuccati gehasitaṃ domanassaṃ. Kāyaviññeyyānaṃ phoṭṭhabbānaṃ iṭṭhānaṃ
kantānaṃ manāpānaṃ manoramānaṃ lokāmisapaṭisaṃyuttānaṃ appaṭilābhaṃ vā
appaṭilābhato samanupassato pubbe vā appaṭiladdhapubbaṃ atītaṃ niruddhaṃ
vipariṇataṃ samanussarato uppajjati domanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ
domanassaṃ. Idaṃ vuccati gehasitaṃ domanassaṃ. Manoviññeyyānaṃ dhammānaṃ
iṭṭhānaṃ kantānaṃ manāpānaṃ manoramānaṃ lokāmisapaṭisaṃyuttānaṃ
appaṭilābhaṃ vā appaṭilābhato samanupassato pubbe vā appaṭiladdhapubbaṃ
atītaṃ niruddhaṃ vipariṇataṃ samanussarato uppajjati domanassaṃ. Yaṃ
evarūpaṃ domanassaṃ. Idaṃ vuccati gehasitaṃ domanassaṃ. Imāni cha
gehasitāni domanassāni.


And what are the six kinds of household distress? The distress that arises when one regards as a non-acquisition the non-acquisition of forms
cognizable by the eye — agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing,
connected with worldly baits — or when one recalls the previous
non-acquisition of such forms after they have passed, ceased, & changed: That is called household distress. The distress
that arises when one regards as a non-acquisition the non-acquisition
of sounds cognizable by the ear — agreeable, pleasing, charming,
endearing, connected with worldly baits — or when one recalls the
previous non-acquisition of such sounds after they have passed, ceased,
& changed: That is called household distress. The distress
that arises when one regards as a non-acquisition the non-acquisition
of aromas cognizable by the nose — agreeable, pleasing, charming,
endearing, connected with worldly baits — or when one recalls the
previous non-acquisition of such aromas after they have passed, ceased,
& changed: That is called household distress. The distress
that arises when one regards as a non-acquisition the non-acquisition
of flavors cognizable by the tongue — agreeable, pleasing, charming,
endearing, connected with worldly baits — or when one recalls the
previous non-acquisition of such flavors after they have passed, ceased,
& changed: That is called household distress. The distress that arises when one regards as a non-acquisition the non-acquisition of tactile sensations cognizable by the body
— agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, connected with worldly
baits — or when one recalls the previous non-acquisition of such tactile sensations after they have passed, ceased, & changed: That is called household distress. The distress that arises when one regards as a non-acquisition the non-acquisition of ideas
cognizable by the mind — agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing,
connected with worldly baits — or when one recalls the previous
non-acquisition of such ideas after they have passed, ceased, & changed: That is called household distress.




Tattha katamāni cha nekkhammasitāni domanassāni: rūpānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ
viditvā vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva rūpā etarahi ca sabbe te
rūpā aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammāti. Evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ
sammappaññāya disvā anuttaresu vimokkhesu pihaṃ upaṭṭhāpeti: kudassu
nāmāhaṃ tadāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharissāmi. Yadariyā etarahi āyatanaṃ
upasampajja viharantī’ti. Iti anuttaresu vimokkhesu pihaṃ upaṭṭhāpayato
upapajjati pihappaccayā domanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ domanassaṃ, idaṃ
vuccati nekkhammasitaṃ domanassaṃ. Saddānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ viditvā
vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva saddā etarahi ca sabbe te saddā
aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammāti. Evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ sammappaññāya
disvā anuttaresu vimokkhesu pihaṃ upaṭṭhāpeti: kudassu nāmāhaṃ
tadāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharissāmi. Yadariyā etarahi āyatanaṃ
upasampajja viharantī’ti. Iti anuttaresu vimokkhesu pihaṃ upaṭṭhāpayato
upapajjati pihappaccayā domanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ domanassaṃ, idaṃ
vuccati nekkhammasitaṃ domanassaṃ. Gandhānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ viditvā
vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva rūpā etarahi ca sabbe te rūpā
aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammāti. Evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ sammappaññāya
disvā anuttaresu vimokkhesu pihaṃ upaṭṭhāpeti: kudassu nāmāhaṃ
tadāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharissāmi. Yadariyā etarahi āyatanaṃ
upasampajja viharantī’ti. Iti anuttaresu vimokkhesu pihaṃ upaṭṭhāpayato
upapajjati pihappaccayā domanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ domanassaṃ, idaṃ
vuccati nekkhammasitaṃ domanassaṃ. Rasānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ viditvā
vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva rasā etarahi ca sabbe te rasā
aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammāti. Evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ sammappaññāya
disvā anuttaresu vimokkhesu pihaṃ upaṭṭhāpeti: kudassu nāmāhaṃ
tadāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharissāmi. Yadariyā etarahi āyatanaṃ
upasampajja viharantī’ti. Iti anuttaresu vimokkhesu pihaṃ upaṭṭhāpayato
upapajjati pihappaccayā domanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ domanassaṃ, idaṃ
vuccati nekkhammasitaṃ domanassaṃ. Phoṭṭhabbānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ viditvā
vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva phoṭṭhabbā etarahi ca sabbe te
phoṭṭhabbā aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammāti. Evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ
sammappaññāya disvā anuttaresu vimokkhesu pihaṃ upaṭṭhāpeti: kudassu
nāmāhaṃ tadāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharissāmi. Yadariyā etarahi āyatanaṃ
upasampajja viharantī’ti. Iti anuttaresu vimokkhesu pihaṃ upaṭṭhāpayato
upapajjati pihappaccayā domanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ domanassaṃ, idaṃ
vuccati nekkhammasitaṃ domanassaṃ. Dhammānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ viditvā
vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva dhammā etarahi ca sabbe te dhammā
aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammāti. Evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ sammappaññāya
disvā anuttaresu vimokkhesu pihaṃ upaṭṭhāpeti: kudassu nāmāhaṃ
tadāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharissāmi. Yadariyā etarahi āyatanaṃ
upasampajja viharantī’ti. Iti anuttaresu vimokkhesu pihaṃ upaṭṭhāpayato
upapajjati pihappaccayā domanassaṃ. Yaṃ evarūpaṃ domanassaṃ, idaṃ
vuccati nekkhammasitaṃ domanassaṃ. Imāni cha nekkhammasitāni
domanassāni.


And what are the six kinds of renunciation distress? The distress coming from the longing that arises in one who is filled with longing for the unexcelled liberations when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very forms, their change, fading, & cessation — he sees with right discernment as it actually is that all forms, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change and he is filled with this longing: ‘O when will I enter & remain in the dimension that the noble ones now enter & remain in?’ This is called renunciation distress. The distress coming from the longing that arises in one who is filled with longing for the unexcelled liberations when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very sounds, their change, fading, & cessation — he sees with right discernment as it actually is that all sounds, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change and he is filled with this longing: ‘O when will I enter & remain in the dimension that the noble ones now enter & remain in?’ This is called renunciation distress. The distress coming from the longing that arises in one who is filled with longing for the unexcelled liberations when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very aromas, their change, fading, & cessation — he sees with right discernment as it actually is that all aromas, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change and he is filled with this longing: ‘O when will I enter & remain in the dimension that the noble ones now enter & remain in?’ This is called renunciation distress. The distress coming from the longing that arises in one who is filled with longing for the unexcelled liberations when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very flavors, their change, fading, & cessation — he sees with right discernment as it actually is that all flavors, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change and he is filled with this longing: ‘O when will I enter & remain in the dimension that the noble ones now enter & remain in?’ This is called renunciation distress. The distress coming from the longing that arises in one who is filled with longing for the unexcelled liberations when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very tactile sensations, their change, fading, & cessation — he sees with right discernment as it actually is that all tactile sensations, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change and he is filled with this longing: ‘O when will I enter & remain in the dimension that the noble ones now enter & remain in?’ This is called renunciation distress. The distress coming from the longing that arises in one who is filled with longing for the unexcelled liberations when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very ideas, their change, fading, & cessation — he sees with right discernment as it actually is that all ideas, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change and he is filled with this longing: ‘O when will I enter & remain in the dimension that the noble ones now enter & remain in?’ This is called renunciation distress.




Tattha katamā cha gehasitā upekkhā: cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā upapajjati
upekkhā bālassa mūḷhassa puthujjanassa anodhijinassa avipākajinassa
anādīnavadassāvino assutavato puthujjanassa. Yā evarūpā upekkhā, rūpaṃ
sā nātivattati. Tasmā sā upekkhā gehasitāni vuccati. Sotena saddaṃ sutvā
upapajjati upekkhā bālassa mūḷhassa puthujjanassa anodhijinassa
avipākajinassa anādīnavadassāvino assutavato puthujjanassa. Yā evarūpā
upekkhā, saddā sā nātivattati. Tasmā sā upekkhā gehasitāni vuccati.
Ghānena gandhaṃ ghāyitvā upapajjati upekkhā bālassa mūḷhassa
puthujjanassa anodhijinassa avipākajinassa anādīnavadassāvino assutavato
puthujjanassa. Yā evarūpaṃ upekkhā, gandhā sā nātivattati. Tasmā sā
upekkhā gehasitāni vuccati. Jivhāya rasaṃ sāyitvā upapajjati upekkhā
bālassa mūḷhassa puthujjanassa anodhijinassa avipākajinassa
anādīnavadassāvino assutavato puthujjanassa. Yā evarūpaṃ upekkhā, rasā
sā nātivattati. Tasmā sā upekkhā gehasitāni vuccati. Kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṃ
phusitvā upapajjati upekkhā bālassa mūḷhassa puthujjanassa anodhijinassa
avipākajinassa anādīnavadassāvino asutavato puthujjanassa. Yā evarūpaṃ
upekkhā, phoṭṭhabbaṃ sā nātivattati. Tasmā sā upekkhā gehasitāni
vuccati. Manasā dhammaṃ viññāya upapajjati upekkhā bālassa mūḷhassa
puthujjanassa anodhijinassa avipākajinassa anādīnavadassāvino assutavato
puthujjanassa. Yā evarūpā upekkhā, dhammaṃ sā nātivattati. Tasmā sā
upekkhā gehasitāni vuccati. Imā cha gehasitā upekkhā.


And what are the six kinds of household equanimity? The equanimity that arises when a foolish, deluded person — a run-of-the-mill, untaught person who has not conquered his limitations or the results of action{2} & who is blind to danger{3} — sees a form with the eye. Such equanimity does not go beyond forms, which is why it is called household equanimity. The equanimity that arises when a foolish, deluded person — a run-of-the-mill, untaught person who has not conquered his limitations or the results of action & who is blind to danger — hears a sound with the ear. Such equanimity does not go beyond sounds, which is why it is called household equanimity. The equanimity that arises when a foolish, deluded person — a run-of-the-mill, untaught person who has not conquered his limitations or the results of action & who is blind to danger — odors an aroma with the nose. Such equanimity does not go beyond aromas, which is why it is called household equanimity. The equanimity that arises when a foolish, deluded person — a run-of-the-mill, untaught person who has not conquered his limitations or the results of action & who is blind to danger — tastes a flavor with the tongue. Such equanimity does not go beyond flavors, which is why it is called household equanimity. The equanimity that arises when a foolish, deluded person — a run-of-the-mill, untaught person who has not conquered his limitations or the results of action & who is blind to danger — feels a tactile sensation with the body. Such equanimity does not go beyond tactile sensations, which is why it is called household equanimity. The equanimity that arises when a foolish, deluded person — a run-of-the-mill, untaught person who has not conquered his limitations or the results of action & who is blind to danger — cognizes an idea with the intellect. Such equanimity does not go beyond ideas, which is why it is called household equanimity.




Tattha katamā cha nekkhammasitā upekkhā: rūpānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ viditvā
vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva rūpā etarahi ca sabbe te rūpā
aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā’ti evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ sammappaññāya
passato upapajjati upekkhā yā evarūpā upekkhā rūpaṃ sā ativattati. Tasmā
sā upekkhā nekkhammasitāti vuccati. Saddhānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ viditvā
vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva saddā etarahi ca sabbe te saddā
aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā’ti evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ sammappaññāya
passato upapajjati upekkhā yā evarūpā upekkhā saddaṃ sā ativattati.
Tasmā sā upekkhā nekkhammasitāti vuccati. Gandhānaṃ tveva aniccataṃ
viditvā vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva gandhā etarahi ca sabbe te
gandhā aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā’ti evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ
sammappaññāya passato upapajjati upekkhā yā evarūpā upekkhā gandhaṃ sā
ativattati. Tasmā sā upekkhā nekkhammasitāti vuccati. Rasānaṃ tveva
aniccataṃ viditvā vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva rasā etarahi ca
sabbe te rasā aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā’ti evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ
sammappaññāya passato upapajjati upekkhā yā evarūpā upekkhā rasaṃ sā
ativattati. Tasmā sā upekkhā nekkhammasitāti vuccati. Phoṭṭhabbānaṃ
tveva aniccataṃ viditvā
Vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva phoṭṭhabbā etarahi ca sabbe te
phoṭṭhabbā aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā’ti evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ
sammappaññāya passato upapajjati upekkhā yā evarūpā upekkhā phoṭṭhabbaṃ
sā ativattati. Tasmā sā upekkhā nekkhammasitāti vuccati. Dhammā tveva
aniccataṃ viditvā vipariṇāmavirāganirodhaṃ, pubbe ceva dhammā etarahi ca
sabbe te dhammā aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā’ti evametaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ
sammappaññāya passato upapajjati upekkhā yā evarūpā upekkhā dhammaṃ sā
ativattati. Tasmā sā upekkhā nekkhammasitāti vuccati. Imā cha
nekkhammasitā upekkhā. Chattiṃsa sattapadā veditabbāti iti yaṃ taṃ
vuttaṃ, idametaṃ paṭicca vuttaṃ.


And what are the six kinds of renunciation equanimity? The equanimity that arises when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very forms, their change, fading, & cessation — one sees with right discernment as it actually is that all forms, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change: This equanimity goes beyond forms, which is why it is called renunciation equanimity. The equanimity that arises when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very sounds, their change, fading, & cessation — one sees with right discernment as it actually is that all sounds, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change: This equanimity goes beyond sounds, which is why it is called renunciation equanimity. The equanimity that arises when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very aromas, their change, fading, & cessation — one sees with right discernment as it actually is that all aromas, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change: This equanimity goes beyond aromas, which is why it is called renunciation equanimity. The equanimity that arises when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very flavors, their change, fading, & cessation — one sees with right discernment as it actually is that all flavors, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change: This equanimity goes beyond flavors, which is why it is called renunciation equanimity. The equanimity that arises when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very tactile sensations, their change, fading, & cessation — one sees with right discernment as it actually is that all tactile sensations, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change: This equanimity goes beyond tactile sensations, which is why it is called renunciation equanimity. The equanimity that arises when — experiencing the inconstancy of those very ideas, their change, fading, & cessation — one sees with right discernment as it actually is that all ideas, past or present, are inconstant, stressful, subject to change: This equanimity goes beyond ideas, which is why it is called renunciation equanimity.


‘Chattiṃsa sattapadā veditabbā’ti: iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ idametaṃ paṭicca vuttaṃ.


The thirty-six states to which beings are attached should be known’: thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.






So vuccati yoggācariyānaṃ ‘anuttaro purisadammasārathī’ti: iti kho
panetaṃ vuttaṃ. Kiñcetaṃ paṭicca vuttaṃ? Hatthidamakena, bhikkhave,
hatthidammo sārito ekaṃyeva disaṃ dhāvati: puratthimaṃ vā pacchimaṃ vā
uttaraṃ vā dakkhiṇaṃ vā. Assadamakena, bhikkhave, assadammo sārito
ekaññeva disaṃ dhāvati: puratthimaṃ vā pacchimaṃ vā uttaraṃ vā dakkhiṇaṃ
vā. Godamakena, bhikkhave, godammo sārito ekaṃyeva disaṃ dhāvati:
puratthimaṃ vā pacchimaṃ vā uttaraṃ vā dakkhiṇaṃ vā.


‘Among master trainers, he is said to be ‘the unexcelled trainer of those people fit to be tamed’:
thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said? Steered by the
elephant trainer, the elephant to be tamed runs in only one direction:
east, west, north, or south. Steered by the horse trainer, the horse to
be tamed runs in only one direction: east, west, north, or south.
Steered by the ox trainer, the ox to be tamed runs in only one
direction: east, west, north, or south.


Tathāgatena hi, bhikkhave, arahatā sammāsambuddhena purisadammo sārito
aṭṭha disā vidhāvati. Rūpī rūpāni passati: ayaṃ ekā disā;


But steered by the Tathagataworthy and rightly self-awakened — the person to be tamed fans out in eight directions. Possessed of form, he/she sees forms. This is the first direction.


Ajjhattaṃ arūpasaññī bahiddhā rūpāni passati: ayaṃ dutiyā disā;


Not percipient of form internally, he/she sees forms externally. This is the second direction.


Subhantveva adhimutto hoti: ayaṃ tatiyā disā;


He/she is intent only on the beautiful. This is the third direction.


sabbaso rūpasaññānaṃ samatikkamā paṭighasaññānaṃ atthaṅgamā
nānattasaññānaṃ amanasikārā ‘ananto ākāso’ti ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ
upasampajja viharati: ayaṃ catutthī disā;

With
the complete transcending of perceptions of [physical] form, with the
disappearance of perceptions of resistance, and not heeding perceptions
of diversity, [perceiving,] ‘Infinite space,’ he/she enters and remains
in the dimension of the infinitude of space.
This is the fourth direction.


Sabbaso ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ samatikkamma ‘anantaṃ viññāṇa’nti viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati: ayaṃ pañcamī disā;

With
the complete transcending of the dimension of the infinitude of space,
[perceiving,] ‘Infinite consciousness,’ he/she enters and remains in the
dimension of the infinitude of consciousness.
This is the fifth direction.


Sabbaso viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ samatikkamma ‘natthi kiñcī’ti ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati: ayaṃ chaṭṭhī disā;

With
the complete transcending of the dimension of the infinitude of
consciousness, [perceiving,] ‘There is nothing,’ he/she enters and
remains in the dimension of nothingness.
This is the sixth direction.


Sabbaso ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ samatikkamma nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati: ayaṃ sattamī disā;

With
the complete transcending of the dimension of nothingness, he/she
enters and remains in the dimension of neither perception nor
non-perception.
This is the seventh direction.


Sabbaso nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ samatikkamma saññāvedayitanirodhaṃ upasampajja viharati: ayaṃ aṭṭhamī disā.

With
the complete transcending of the dimension of neither perception nor
non-perception, he/she enters and remains in the cessation of perception
and feeling.
This is the eighth direction.


Tathāgatena, bhikkhave, arahatā sammāsambuddhena purisadammo sārito imā
aṭṭha disā vidhāvati. ‘So vuccati yoggācariyānaṃ anuttaro
purisadammasārathī’ti: iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ idametaṃ paṭicca vutta’’nti.


Steered by the Tathagataworthy and rightly self-awakened — the person to be tamed fans out in eight directions. ‘Among master trainers, he (the Tathagata) is said to be the unexcelled trainer of those people fit to be tamed’: thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.


Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamanā te bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinandunti.


That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One’s words.


Bodhi leaf





Notes


1. states to which beings are attached: Satta-pada.
The question in translating this compound is whether satta means
“living being” or “attached to.” In this translation, I have opted for
both.


2. has not conquered his limitations or the results of action: this passage seems related to the passage in AN 3.99,
which defines a person of limited mind, prey to the results of past bad
actions, as one who is “undeveloped in contemplating the body, undeveloped in virtue, undeveloped in concentration, and undeveloped in discernment; restricted, small-hearted, dwelling with suffering.” As AN 3.99
points out, such a person suffers more intensely from the results of
past unskillful actions than does one whose awareness is unrestricted. SN 42.8
recommends the practice of the four sublime attitudes as a way of
developing an unrestricted awareness that weakens the results of past
unskillful actions.


3. blind to danger: A person who is “blind to danger” is one who does not see the drawbacks of sensual pleasure or attachment to the body. For such a person, moments of equanimity
are usually a dull spot in the midst of the quest for sensual pleasure.
This is why such moments do not go beyond the sensory stimulus that
generated them.






Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
Access to Insight, 1 July 2010.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5TZfyq1XTd0&index=3&list=PL-L5zwuofg0eT9sov5Sz7sUCFdDtLR8Z1

Word of the Buddha (Part 1) | Ajahn Brahm | 27 Nov 2016





Streamed live on Nov 27, 2016


https://www.youtube.com/watch…
Word of the Buddha (Part 1) | Ajahn Brahm | 27 Nov 2016

Buddhist Society of Western Australia
Streamed live on Nov 27, 2016
Sutta Class

Ajahn Brahm is taking a classic text compiled by the Venerable
Nyanatiloka titled the “Word of the Buddha” which provides a staged
summary of the Buddha Dhamma. But Ajahn Brahm is heavily revising the
text to bring it up to date with contemporary English language usage.
Buddhist Society of Western Australia
http://www.bswa.org
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Sutta
Class Ajahn Brahm is taking a classic text compiled by the Venerable
Nyanatiloka titled the “Word of the Buddha” which provides a staged
summary of…

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