Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research & Practice Universitu 
in
 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā
Categories:

Archives:
Meta:
September 2018
M T W T F S S
« Aug    
 12
3456789
10111213141516
17181920212223
24252627282930
09/05/18
2736 Thu 6 Sep 2018 LESSON (79) Thu 6 Sep 2007 Do Good Be Mindful - Awakened One with Awareness (AOA) TIPITAKA Sila moral: purity through right conduct in 01) Classical Magahi Magadhi, 02) Classical Chandaso language, 03)Magadhi Prakrit, 04) Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language), 05) Classical Pali, 06) Classical Deva Nagari, 07) Classical Cyrillic, 99) Classical Tamil-பாரம்பரிய இசைத்தமிழ் செம்மொழி,55) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,69) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,72) Classical Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी,81) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,89) Classical Sindhi, 100) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,104) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 7:19 pm

2736 Thu 6 Sep 2018 LESSON (79) Thu 6 Sep 2007

Do Good Be Mindful  -  Awakened One with Awareness (AOA)


TIPITAKA

Sila moral: purity through right conduct

in 01) Classical Magahi Magadhi,
02) Classical Chandaso language,

03)Magadhi Prakrit,
04) Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),

05) Classical Pali,

06) Classical Deva Nagari,
07) Classical Cyrillic,
99) Classical Tamil-பாரம்பரிய இசைத்தமிழ் செம்மொழி,55) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,
40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,69) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,72) Classical Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी,81) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,89) Classical Sindhi,



100) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,

104) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو








Buddham Saranam Gacchami (I take refuge in
the Buddha).”

Dhamman Saranam Gacchami (I take refuge in
the Dhamma ) “

This recitation became the formula of declaration of faith
in the Buddha and his Teaching. Later when the Samgha became established, the formula was
extended to include the third commitment:

“Samgha Saranam Gacchami. (I take refuge in
the Samgha).”

https://translate.google.com/m/translate


99) Classical Tamil-பாரம்பரிய இசைத்தமிழ் செம்மொழி,


2736 தி 6 செப் 2018 லெசன் (79) தி 6 செப் 2007
கவனமாக இருங்கள் - விழிப்புணர்வு கொண்ட ஒரு விழித்தெழு! (AOA)
TIPITAKA
சீலா ஒழுக்கம்: சரியான நடத்தை மூலம் தூய்மை
“புத்தகம் சாரம் கக்கமி (நான் அடைக்கலம் எடுக்கிறேன்
புத்தர்). “
“தமன்மன் சரணம் கக்கமி (நான் அடைக்கலம் எடுக்கிறேன்
தர்மம்)
இந்த மறுமொழி விசுவாச அறிக்கை அறிவிக்கப்படும் சூத்திரம் ஆகும்
புத்தர் மற்றும் அவரது போதனை. சாம்கா நிறுவப்பட்டது பின்னர், சூத்திரம் இருந்தது
மூன்றாவது அர்ப்பணிப்பு சேர்க்க நீட்டிக்கப்பட்டது:
“சம்கா சாரம் கக்கமி. (நான் அடைக்கலம் எடுக்கிறேன்
சாம்கா). “


https://ta.wikipedia.org/…/%E0%AE%A8%E0%AE%B2%E0%AF%8D%E0%A…
நல்லொழுக்கம்
Google Translate logo.svg


இக்கட்டுரை கூகுள் மொழிபெயர்ப்புக் கருவி மூலம் உருவாக்கப்பட்டது. இதனை
உரை திருத்த உதவுங்கள். இக்கருவி மூலம் கட்டுரை உருவாக்கும் திட்டம்
தற்போது நிறுத்தப்பட்டுவிட்டது. இதனைப் பயன்படுத்தி இனி உருவாக்கப்படும்
புதுக்கட்டுரைகளும் உள்ளடக்கங்களும்


இந்தக் கட்டுரை பல சிக்கல்களைக் கொண்டுள்ளது. எனவே தயவு செய்து இதை
தொகுத்து மேம்படுத்தவும் அல்லது பேச்சு பக்கத்தில் இதனைக் குறித்து
விவாதிக்கவும்.இந்தக் கட்டுரை பல சிக்கல்களைக் கொண்டுள்ளது. எனவே தயவு
செய்து இதை தொகுத்து மேம்படுத்தவும் அல்லது பேச்சு பக்கத்தில் இதனைக்
குறித்து விவாதிக்கவும்.

நல்லொழுக்கம் (virtue, இலத்தின்: virtus;
கிரேக்கம் ἀρετή) என்பது நன்னெறி சார்ந்த சிறப்பு. நல்லொழுக்கம் என்பது ஒரு
குணவியல்பு பண்பு அல்லது எப்போதும் அதனுடைய நல்லதுவாகவே மற்றும்
நல்லதுக்குள்ளேயே இருக்கக்கூடிய மதிப்பீட்டுக் குணம்.

தனிப்பட்ட
நல்லொழுக்கங்கள், தனிநபர் மற்றும் கூட்டு நல்வாழ்வை முன்னெடுப்பவைகளாக
இருக்கும் பண்புக்குரிய மதிப்பீடுகள். நல்லொழுக்கத்திற்கு எதிர்ச்சொல்
தீயொழுக்கம்.
பொருளடக்கம்

1 நல்லொழுக்கங்கள் மற்றும் மதிப்பீடுகள்
2 உயர்தரமான நான்கு மேற்கத்திய நல்லொழுக்கங்கள்
3 அரிஸ்டாடிலின் நல்லொழுக்கங்கள்
4 மதிநுட்பம் மற்றும் நல்லொழுக்கம்
5 ரோமானிய நல்லொழுக்கங்கள்
6 ஆப்ரஹாமுக்குரிய மதங்கள்
6.1 யூத பாரம்பரியம்
6.2 கிறித்துவ பாரம்பரியம்
6.3 இசுலாமிய பாரம்பரியம்
7 இந்து நல்லொழுக்கங்கள்
8 புத்தமத பாரம்பரியம்
9 சீன சித்தாந்தத்தில் நல்லொழுக்கம்
10 சீன திருமணஞ்சார்ந்த நன்னடத்தை
11 சாமுராய் மதிப்பீடுகள்
12 நல்லொழுக்கம் பற்றி நீய்ட்ஸ்சே
13 பென்ஜமின் ஃப்ராங்கலின் பார்வையில் நல்லொழுக்கங்கள்
14 அய்ன் ராண்டின் சித்தாந்தத்தின் நல்லொழுக்கங்கள்: புறநோக்கு
15 நல்லொழுக்கம் மற்றும் தீயொழுக்கம்
16 சமகால உளவியலில் நல்லொழுக்கம்
17 மேலும் காண்க
18 குறிப்புகள்
19 புற இணைப்புகள்


துருக்கி, எபெசாஸ்ஸின் செல்சஸ் நூலகத்தில் இருக்கும் நல்லொழுக்கத்தின் அவதாரம் (கிரேக்கத்தில் ἀρετή).
ta.wikipedia.org
நல்லொழுக்கம் (virtue, இலத்தின்: virtus; கிரேக்கம் ἀρετή) என்பது நன்னெறி சார்ந்த சிறப்பு. நல்லொழுக்கம் என்பது ஒரு குணவியல்ப…

கிரேட் சீல் ஆஃப் விர்ஜினியாவில் நல்லொழுக்கம் கையில் கத்தியுடன்,
மண்டியிட்ட நிலையில் இருக்கும் கொடுங்கோன்மைமீது தன் கால்களை
வைத்திருக்கிறார்.


நீய்டெர்ஹாஸ்லாச்
தேவாலயத்தில், நல்லொழுக்கம் தீயொழுக்கத்தை எதிர்த்துப் போரிடுகின்ற
நிறவேறுபாடு செய்யப்பட்ட கண்ணாடி சாளரம் (14வது நூற்றாண்டு)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-L5yh2nZiyI
Gautam Buddha’s Animated Life Story in Tamil - 1/4
Ultra Bollywood
Published on Aug 22, 2012
Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism, and accounts of his life,
discourses, and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been
summarized after his death and memorized by his followers. Various
collections of teachings attributed to him were passed down by oral
tradition, and first committed to writing about 400 years later.
Category
Entertainment


youtube.com
Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism, and accounts of his life, discourses, and monastic rules…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I8Gy7H1vUyg
Gautam Buddha’s Animated Life Story in Tamil - 2/4
Ultra Bollywood
Published on Aug 23, 2012
Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism, and accounts of his life,
discourses, and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been
summarized after his death and memorized by his followers. Various
collections of teachings attributed to him were passed down by oral
tradition, and first committed to writing about 400 years later.
Category
Entertainment


youtube.com
Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism, and accounts of his life, discourses, and monastic rules…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NPN1D4oujMw
Gautam Buddha’s Animated Life Story in Tamil - 3/4
Ultra Bollywood
Published on Aug 23, 2012
Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism, and accounts of his life,
discourses, and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been
summarized after his death and memorized by his followers. Various
collections of teachings attributed to him were passed down by oral
tradition, and first committed to writing about 400 years later.
Category
Entertainment


youtube.com
Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism, and accounts of his life, discourses, and monastic rules…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DjaHyHGM9uQ
Gautam Buddha’s Animated Life Story in Tamil - 4/4
Ultra Bollywood
Published on Aug 23, 2012
Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism, and accounts of his life,
discourses, and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been
summarized after his death and memorized by his followers. Various
collections of teachings attributed to him were passed down by oral
tradition, and first committed to writing about 400 years later.
Category
Entertainment


youtube.com
Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism, and accounts of his life, discourses, and monastic rules…

http://ta.vikaspedia.in/social-welfare/ba8b95bb0bbeb9fbcdb9abbf-ba8bbfbb0bcdbb5bbeb95ba4bcdba4bc1bb1bc8/b85bb0b9abbfbafbb2bcd-baebb1bcdbb1bc1baebcd-b85bb0b9abbeb99bcdb95baebcd/b9ab9fbcdb9fbaebcd-ba8bc0ba4bbf-b9abc1ba4ba8bcdba4bbfbb0baebcd-b9abaeba4bcdba4bc1bb5baebcd/document_view



அரசின் முக்கிய கடமைகள்









முன்னுரை



மக்களுடைய நலன்களைக் கருதி, அவர்களுடைய
நடவடிக்கைகளை கட்டுப்படுத்துவதையும் ஒழுங்குபடுத்துவதையும் தனது தலையாய
கடமையாக நவீன கால அரசு கொண்டுள்ளது. அது அவ்வாறான கட்டுப்பாடுகளையும்,
ஒழுங்கு படுத்துதலையும் நடைமுறைப்படுத்த, பலவிதமான சட்டங்களையும்
இயற்றுகிறது. மக்கள் தங்களுடைய ஆளுமையை வளர்த்துக் கொள்ளும் வண்ணம்,
அவர்களுக்கு வாய்ப்புகள் கிட்டும் வண்ணம் அவர்களுக்கு உரிய
சுதந்திரத்தையும் அரசு உறுதி செய்கிறது.



சமத்துவம் என்பது சுதந்திரம் மற்றும்
நீதியோடு இயைந்தது. தனி நபர் ஒருவருக்கு ஆள்பவரால் அளிக்கப்பட்ட
சட்டபூர்வமான எதிர்பார்ப்புகளையும் அதன் மூலம் அவர்களடையும் பலன்களையும்
பெறும் முகத்தான் நீதி செயல்படுகிறது. அத்தனிநபருக்கு அளிக்கப்பட்ட
உறுதிப்பாடுகளை நிறைவேற்றாமல் போனாலோ, அவருடைய உரிமைகள் பாதிக்கப்பட்டாலோ,
அவ்வினங்களில் நீதி தலையிடுகிறது.



சட்டத்தின் பொருள்



பொதுவாக புரிந்துகொள்ளப்பட்ட அளவில்,
சட்டம் என்பது, நீதிமன்றங்களால் நடைமுறைப்படுத்தும் விதிமுறைகள் அடங்கிய
தொகுப்பு என பொருள்படும். இவை மட்டுமின்றி, மனிதர்களின் சமூக நடத்தைகளோடு
தொடர்புள்ள சமூக சட்டங்கள் மற்றும் இயல் அறிவியல் சட்டங்களும் உள்ளன.



அரசியல் அறிவியல் மாணவர்களாகிய நாம் பிற
சட்டங்களை விட, அரசியல் சட்டம் என்பதைக் காண்போம். இத்தகைய சட்டங்கள்
தனிமனிதர்கள் எவற்றை செய்ய வேண்டும் மற்றும் எவற்றை செய்யக்கூடாது என்பதனை
வலிவுறுத்துகின்றன. அவ்வாறான வழிமுறைகள் மீறப்படும்போது, அந்நடவடிக்கை
தண்டனைக்குரியதாகி விடுகிறது. இதன் மூலம் அரசியல் சட்டம் அல்லது ஏற்பு
சட்டம் (Positive Law) கட்டுப்படுத்துதல் மற்றும் ஒழுங்குபடுத்துதலோடு
தொடர்பு கொண்டதாகும். சட்டத்தினை பற்றிய கல்வி சட்டக் கல்வி
(Jurispredence) என்றழைக்கப்படுகிறது.



சட்டத்தின் வரையறையும், பொருளும்



எந்த இடத்தில் சட்டம் இல்லையோ அங்கு
ஒழுங்கு இருக்காது, எங்கே ஒழுங்கில்லையோ, அங்கே மனிதர்கள் என்ன செய்வது,
எங்கே செல்வது என்றறியாது காணாமல் போய்விடுவர். - மேக், ஜவர் சட்டம் என்பது
ஒரு அரசு வலியுறுத்தும் உரிமைகள் மற்றும் கடப்பாடுகளின் முறைமைகளாகும் -
டி.எச்.கிரீன்



சட்டம் என்பது பொது விதி. எத்தகைய
நடவடிக்கைகளைச் செய்யலாம் அல்லது செய்யக்கூடாது என்று அது கூறுகிறது.
சட்டத்தை மதிக்காமல் மீறுபவர்களுக்கு தண்டனை அளிக்கப்படுகிறது. –
சிட்ஜ்விக்



சட்டத்தின் ஆதாரங்கள்



எவ்வாறு சட்டம் பிறந்திருக்கக் கூடும்; அவை எதற்கு காரணமாக இருந்திருக்கலாம் என்பதனையே சட்டத்தின் ஆதாரங்கள் என்கிறோம்.



மேக் ஐவர் “அரசே, சட்டத்தின் பெற்றோர்
மற்றும் குழந்தை” என்கிறார். நவீன காலத்தில், ஒரு மக்கள் நலம் நாடும்
அரசில், அரசாங்கத்தின் மூன்று அங்கங்களான சட்டமன்றம், செயலாட்சிக்குழு
மற்றும் நீதித்துறை என்பவற்றில் சட்டமன்றம் சட்டத்தை இயற்றுகிறது;
செயலாட்சிக்குழு (Executive) இயற்றப்பட்ட சட்டங்களை நடைமுறைப்படுத்துகிறது.
நீதித்துறை இயற்றப்பட்டு, நடைமுறைப்படுத்தப்படும் சட்டங்களுக்கு விளக்கம்
அளிக்கிறது. சட்டமன்றம் என்பதனைத் தாண்டி, சட்டத்திற்கு பல்வகை ஆதாரங்கள்
உள்ளன. அவை:



வழக்காறுகள்



சமுதாயத்தில் பலவகை இனங்களில், தலைமுறை
தலைமுறையாக ஒரு சில நடைமுறைகள் பின்பற்றப்படும். காலப் போக்கில்
அந்நடைமுறைகளே “சட்டம்” என்றாகிவிடும். மக்களிடையே நிலவிய உறவுகள்
சிக்கலாகாத வரையிலும், பொது நோக்கங்கள் என்பன மிகக் குறைவாக
இருந்தவரையிலும், இத்தகைய பழக்க வழக்கங்கள், வழக்காறுகள் ஏற்றுக்
கொள்ளப்பட்டு, வாய் வழியாக தலைமுறை தலைமுறையாக உறுதிப்பாட்டுடன்
கடைபிடிக்கப்பட்டிருந்தன.



இத்தகைய சம்பிரதாயங்கள் பெரும்பாலும்
மதத்தின் சாரத்தையே பெற்றிருந்தன. ஏனெனில் மதம் வேறு, சட்டம் வேறு என்பது
அப்போது அறியப்படவில்லை. எனவே வழக்காறுகளில் இருந்து தோன்றிய சட்டங்கள்
பேரியற்கையினிருந்து (Supernatural) வந்ததென்றே கருதலாம். பெரும்பான்மையான
சம்பிரதாயங்களுக்கு மத சடங்குகள் மற்றும் கடவுளர்களின் கோபத்திற்கு ஆளாக
வேண்டாம் என்பன போன்ற மூடநம்பிக்கைகளே ஆதாரமாக விளங்கின.



நீதிமன்றங்களின் தீர்ப்புகள்



இவை நீதிமன்ற புனராய்வு என்றும்
அழைக்கப்படுகின்றன. மாறுகின்ற காலச்சூழலின், புதிய வாழ்க்கை முறைகள்
மற்றும் மக்களிடையே ஏற்பட்ட தொடர்புகள் பல்வேறு சிக்கல்களை தோற்றுவித்தன.
அத்தகைய சிக்கல்களை தீர்த்துவைக்க வழக்காறுகள் எவ்விதமான தீர்வுகளையும்
தரவில்லை. அவ்வினங்களில் இத்தகைய தீர்ப்புகள் சட்டங்களாகி விடுகின்றன.
ரோமானிய மற்றும் இங்கிலாந்து அரசர்களின் தீர்ப்புகள் இவற்றை அடிப்படையாக
கொண்டவையேயாகும்.



அறிவியல் சட்ட விளக்கங்கள்



அறிவியல் சார்பான சட்ட விளக்கங்களும்
சட்டங்களின் மூல ஆதாரமாக கருதப்படுகின்றன. சட்ட வல்லுநர்கள் தான்
நீதிமன்றங்களின் தீர்ப்புகள் அடிப்படையிலும், நீதிபதிகளின்
கருத்துக்களையும் ஆய்ந்து சிக்கலான பிரச்சனைகளில் தங்கள் மேலான விளக்கங்களை
அளிக்கின்றனர்.



சட்ட உலகத்தில் சட்ட வல்லுநர்களுக்கு இருக்கும் நுணுக்கம்,
ஆழ்ந்த அனுபவம், விளக்கும் ஆற்றல் ஆகியவை காரணமாக செல்வாக்கு வளர்வதால்,
நீதிபதிகளும் அம்மாதிரி வல்லுநர்களின் விளக்கங்களை புறக்கணிக்க
இயலுவதில்லை. சான்றாக, இங்கிலாந்த நாட்டிலிருந்த பிளாக்ஸ்டன், கோக்
போன்றவர்கள் எழுதிய சட்ட விளக்கங்கள் இங்கிலாந்து பாராளுமன்ற சட்டங்களுக்கு
சமமானதாக கருதப்படுகின்றன. இது போன்றதுதான் ரோமாபுரி சட்ட வல்லுநர்களின்
விளக்கங்களுமாகும்.



சட்ட மன்றம்



இக்கலாத்தில் சட்டம் இயற்றுவதற்கு உள்ள
மற்றும் ஒரு முக்கியமான ஆதாரம், சட்டமன்றமாகும். சட்டமன்றங்கள்
சட்டமியற்றும் தொழிற்சாலைகளாக “தற்காலத்தில் கருதப்படுகின்றன. சட்ட
மன்றங்கள் முன்னால் இயற்றப்பட்ட சட்டங்களை மாற்றுகின்றன,
நடைமுறையிலிருக்கும் சட்டங்களை விட்டுவிடுகின்றன, தேவையான புது சட்டங்களை
இயற்றுகின்றன. சட்ட மூலாதாரங்களுடைய தாக்கம் குறைந்து போனாலும்,
வழக்காறுகள், சமய நடைமுறைகள், மற்றும் நீதிமன்ற முடிவுகளை சட்டமியற்றுவோர்
கருத்தில் கொள்கின்றனர்.



நீதிமன்ற மனச்சார்பு சட்டம்



நீதி மனச்சார்பு என்று குறிப்பிடும்போது
நீதிபதியின் உள்ளத்தில் உறைந்து கிடக்கும் மனச்சார்பு அல்லது
மனச்சாட்சியையே குறிப்பிடுவதாகும். தீர்ப்புகளிலிருந்து இவ்வகை மாறுபட்டதா
என்ற கேள்வி எழக்கூடும். உண்மையில் வழக்கத்திலிருக்கும் சட்டங்களின்
அடிப்படையில் தீர்ப்புகள் கூறப்பட்டாலும், சட்டங்களுக்கும் அப்பால்
உண்மையான நீதியை நிலைநாட்ட வேண்டிய சட்டத்தை ஒட்டி தன் மனசாட்சியின்
அடிப்படையில் தீர்ப்புகளை வழங்கக் கூடும். மாறுபட்ட வாழ்க்கைமுறை மற்றும்
சூழல்கள் காரணமாக பழையச் சட்டங்களில் வழக்குகளில் தீர்ப்பு சொல்ல
ஆதாரமில்லாத போது, நியாய அநியாயம், பொது அறிவு மற்றும் இயற்கை நீதி போன்றவை
நீதி வழங்க உதவுகின்றன. அவ்வகையில் வழங்கப்பட்ட தீர்ப்புகளையே “நீதி
மனச்சார்பு சட்டம்” என்று அழைக்கிறோம். இங்கிலாந்து போன்ற நாடுகளில்
இச்சட்டம் பரவலாக பயன்படுத்தப்படுகிறது எனலாம்.



மதம் அல்லது சமயம்



பழக்கவழக்கங்கள், நடைமுறைச் சட்டங்களை
ஒட்டியது தான் மதச்சட்டங்களாகும். இவற்றிற்கான அடிப்படை, மக்களிடையே
பேணப்படும் மதநூல்களாகும். பழங்காலந் தொட்டே, மனிதர்கள் புலன்களால் அறிய
இயலாத ஒரு சக்தியின் பால் தங்களுடைய நம்பிக்கையை வைத்து அச்சக்தியின்
வழிகாட்டுதலின்படி, தங்கள் நடவடிக்கையை வகுத்துக் கொள்வதே வாழ்க்கை என
கருதினர். மத குருமார்களின் கருத்துக்களும், புனித நூல்களில்
கூறப்படுபவைகளே சட்டத்தின் ஆதாரங்களாக விளங்குவன.



சட்டத்தின் வகைகள்



மேக் ஐவர் சட்டத்தினை கீழ்கண்டவாறு வகைப்படுத்துகிறார்.



  • இயற்கை சட்டம்,
  • நேர்மறை சட்டம்(அரசியல் சட்டம்)
  • தேசிய சட்டம் (அ) முனிசியல் சட்டம்,
  • சர்வதேச சட்டம்
  • அரசியலமைப்பு சட்டம்,
  • சாதாரண சட்டம் (அ) பொதுச் சட்டம்
  • அரசாங்கச் சட்டம்,
  • தனியார் சட்டம்
  • ஆட்சித்துறைச் சட்டம்,
  • பொதுப்படையான சட்டம்,
  • வழக்கு அடிப்படையிலான சட்டம்
  • அடிப்படைச் சட்டம்,
  • அவசர சட்டம்,
  • பொதுச் சட்டம்


மேற்காண் சட்டங்களின் விளக்கம் பின்வருமாறு



இயற்கை சட்டம்



இது இறைமை சட்டம் எனவும்
அழைக்கப்படுகிறது. இவ்வகை சட்டம், எங்கும் இயற்றப்பட்ட சட்டமன்று, அது
மனிதர்களின் அறிவில் உதித்த சட்டமாகும். அது மனிதர்களால் படைக்கப்பட்ட
சட்டமன்று. இயற்கை சட்டம், அதன் பால் உள்ள மதிப்பினாலும், அச்சத்தினாலும்
ஒப்புக்கொள்ளப்படுகிறது.



நேர்மறை சட்டம்



இது அரசியல் சட்டம் என்றும்
அழைக்கப்படுகிறது. இது மனிதர்களால் ஏற்படுத்தப்பட்டதாகும். இது
இயற்கையானது; அனைவராலும் புரிந்து கொள்ளப்படுவது. இது நாட்டின் இறையாண்மை
சக்தியாகவும் விளங்குகிறது. இவ்வகை சட்டம் மீறப்படும்போது தண்டனைகள்
அளிக்கப்படும்.



தேசிய சட்டம்



நாட்டின் இறையாண்மை காட்டும் நெறிப்படி
வகுக்கப்பட்டு, அந்நாட்டின் எல்லைக்குட்பட்ட பகுதிகளில் வசிக்கும் மக்களின்
தனிப்பட்ட மற்றும் பொதுவான உறவுமுறைகள் குறித்து இயற்றப்படும் சட்டம்
தேசிய சட்டமாகும்.



சர்வதேச சட்டம்



1780-ல் ஜெரமிபெந்தம் என்ற
சிந்தனையாளரால் இப்பெயர் அறியப்பட்டது. உலகில் உள்ள நாடுகள் தங்களுக்குள்
ஏற்படுகின்ற உறவுகள் மற்றும் அதனை சார்ந்த நடத்தை முறைகள் குறித்து
இயற்றப்படுவது சர்வதேச சட்டம்’ என்பதாகும். விட்டன் என்னும் அறிஞர்
பன்னாட்டு சட்டம் என்பது “நாகரீக நாடுகள் அவைகளுக்கிடையிலான உறவில் அவைகளை
கட்டுப்படுத்துவதாக நடைமுறையில் உள்ள ஒப்பந்தங்கள் மற்றும் வழக்கங்களில்
சொல்லப்பட்டிருக்கின்ற விதிகள் (rules) ஆகியவையாகும்” என்று கூறுகிறார்.



“இவ்விதிகள் மீறப்படும்போது அதனால் பாதிக்கப்பட்ட நாடுகளுக்கு நஷ்ட ஈடு பெற சட்டரீதியான உரிமைகள் உண்டு என்றும் தெரிவித்துள்ளார்.



இருப்பினும் பன்னாட்டுச் சட்டம் என்பது
நாடுகள் ஒவ்வொன்றும் பிற நாடுகளுடன் உறவு ஏற்படுத்திக் கொள்ளும்போது
ஏற்றுக் கொண்டுள்ள விதிகள் மற்றும் கடமைகளை அதாகவே தானாக ஏற்று நடந்து
கொள்வதால்தான் இருக்கிறது. இதனை தார்மீக ஒழுக்கம் (Positive Morality)
என்று விளக்கலாம்.



இதுவே இயற்கைச் சட்டம் (Natural law)
என்றும் அறியலாம். எனவே, ஏதேனும் ஒருநாடு அல்லது தேசம் இதர நாட்டிற்கு
தீங்கிழைக்குமானால் தீங்கிழைப்புக்குள்ளான நாடு தன்னால் முடிந்தவரை அந்த
தீங்கை தீர்த்துக் கொள்ள வழிகாண வேண்டும். அவசியம் ஏற்படும்போது உதவி செய்ய
முன்வரும் நாடுகளின் உதவியை கேட்டும் பெற்றும் சரி செய்து கொள்ளலாம்.



இம்முறை பன்னாட்டுச் சட்டத்தை எப்போதும்
காப்பாற்ற உதவாது. இருப்பினும் தேசத்தின் சிறந்த தலைவர்களாக இருப்பவர்கள்
நியாயமானவற்றை நிலைநாட்ட முயற்சிகள் மேற்கொள்வதன் வாயிலாக பன்னாட்டு
சட்டத்தை உலக நாடுகள் ஏற்கவும், மதித்து நடக்கவும் தேவையான நடவடிக்கைகளை
உரிய நேரத்தில் மேற்கொள்ள வேண்டும். இவ்வாறு செய்வதன் மூலமாகத் தான் “உலக
நீதி” (International Justice) வெற்றி பெறும்.



அரசியலமைப்பு சட்டம்



நாட்டின் அரசாங்கத்தின் நடவடிக்கைகளை
தீர்மானிக்கும் அடிப்படை சட்டம், அரசியலமைப்பு சட்டமாகும். அரசாங்கத்தின்
கட்டமைப்புகள் மற்றும் அரசின் அங்கங்கள் இவற்றிற்கிடையே நிலவும் தொடர்புகள்
ஆகியவற்றை தீர்மானிப்பது அரசியலமைப்பு சட்டத்தின் முக்கிய பணியாகும்.



சாதாரண சட்டம்



இது சட்டமன்றத்தால் இயற்றப்படும்
சட்டமாகும். ஒரு நாட்டில் வாழும் மனிதர்களை நிர்வகிக்க இயற்றப்படும் சாதாரண
சட்டமாகும். அரசியலமைப்பு சட்டத்தை தவிர, ஏனைய முனிசிபல் சட்டங்கள்
அனைத்தும் இவ்வகையானதாகும். இது அரசியலமைப்பு சட்டத்தினை சார்ந்திருக்கும்
சட்டமாகும்.



பொதுச் சட்டம்



தனிமனிதர்கள் மற்றும் நாட்டிற்கிடையேயான
உறவுகளோடு தொடர்பு கொண்டது பொது சட்டமாகும். அனைத்து வகை குற்றங்களும்
இச்சட்டத்தின் பார்வைக்குட்பட்டதாகும். பொது சட்டம் குறித்த வழக்குகளில்,
நாடே வாதி / பிரதிவாதியாக திகழ்கிறது.



தனியார் சட்டம்



தனி மனிதர்களுக்கிடையேயுள்ள உறவுகளைப் பற்றியது. உடைமை, வாரிசுரிமை திருமணம், பழித்தல் மற்றும் அவதூறு போன்றவைகளைப் பற்றியது.



சட்டத்தின் ஆட்சி



“ஆங்கிலேயர்கள் சட்டத்தினால் மட்டுமே
ஆளப்படுகின்றனர். நம்முடைய சகமனிதன் ஒருவன் அத்தகைய சட்டத்தின் ஆட்சி
அதிகாரத்தினால் மட்டுமின்றி வேறு எதனாலும் தண்டிக்கப்படக்கூடாது” - ஏ.வி.
டைசி. ஆங்கில அரசியலமைப்பு சாசனத்தின் முக்கியமான அம்சம் சட்டத்தின்
ஆட்சியாகும். இது பின்னர் அனைத்து ஜனநாயக நாடுகளிலும்
ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளப்பட்டது.



இது சட்டத்தின் ஆட்சி குறித்த சிந்தனை,
அரசியல் சுதந்திரம் மற்றும் தனிநபர் விடுதலை குறித்து நடத்தப்பட்ட
பல்லாண்டு கால போராட்டத்தின் விளைவாக எழுந்ததாகும். இது நிர்வாக
சட்டத்திற்கு எதிரானதாகும். “அரசியலமைப்புச் சட்டத்திற்கு அறிமுகம்” என்ற
நூலில் ஏ.வி.டைசி என்பவர் சட்டத்தின் ஆட்சி பற்றிய விளக்கங்களை
தந்திருக்கிறார்.



சட்டத்தின் ஆட்சி - பொருள்



சட்டத்தின் ஆட்சி என்பது சட்டத்தின்
வழிப்படியே நிர்வாகம் நடை பெற வேண்டும் என்பதாகும். ஏதேச்சதிகார போக்கிற்கு
இங்கு இடமில்லை. அனைவரும் சட்டத்தின் பார்வையில் சமம்; சட்டத்திற்கு
அப்பாற்பட்டவர் யாருமில்லை. ஏதேச்சதிகாரமாக, எந்த அமைப்போ, அல்லது மனிதனோ,
யாரையும் தண்டிக்க இயலாது.



நீதியின் பரிபாலனத்தில் அனைவரும் சமமாகவே
நடத்தப்பட வேண்டும். அனைவரும் ஒரே வகையிலான நீதிமன்றங்களில்தான்
விசாரிக்கப்பட வேண்டும். அடிப்படை தன்மைகள்: சட்டத்தின் ஆட்சி என்பதற்கு
சில அடிப்படை அம்சங்கள் உள்ளன. அவை வருமாறு.



1 யாருக்கும் சிறப்பு உரிமைகள் இல்லை.
ஒரு குறிப்பிட்ட நபருக்கோ, குழுவிற்கோ, எவ்வகை சிறப்பு உரிமைகளோ, சலுகைகளோ
சட்டத்தின் ஆட்சியில் கிடையாது. சட்டமே மேலானது தனிநபர் அன்று.



2. சட்டத்தின் முன் அனைவரும் சமம். இனம்,
மதம், பால் என எக்காரணங்கள் முன்னிட்டும் மனிதனுக்கு மனிதன் வேற்றுமை
பாராட்டக் கூடாது. சட்டத்தின் முன் அனைவரும் சமம்.



3. சட்டத்தின் உணர்வுகளுக்கு முழு முக்கியத்துவம்.



முறையான விசாரணையின்றி எந்த மனிதனும்
தண்டிக்கப்படக் கூடாது. நீதிமன்றத்தால் தீர்மானிக்கப்பட்ட சட்டமீறலால்
மட்டுமின்றி வேறு எதனாலும் ஒரு மனிதனிடமிருந்து அவனுடைய வாழ்க்கை, விடுதலை
மற்றும் சொத்து பிடுங்கப்படாது. சட்டத்தினை மீறி எந்த தனிமனிதரும் இல்லை.
அனைத்து மனிதர்களும், குடிமக்கள், அரசு ஊழியர்கள் அனைவர்களுக்கும் சட்டம்
பொதுவானதாகும். ஒரே வகையிலான நீதிமன்றங்களில் ஒரே விதமான சட்டத்தின்படி
அவர்கள் விசாரிக்கப்படுகின்றனர். சுருங்கக் கூறின், சட்ட விரோத
சிறைபிடிப்பு, சட்ட விரோத தண்டனை இவை இரண்டும் சட்டத்தின் மாட்சிமைக்கு
எதிரானவை.



சட்டத்தின் ஆட்சியின் வீழ்ச்சி



ஏ.வி. டைசி கூறிய சட்டத்தின்
மாட்சிமையின் முக்கியத்துவம் இப்போது இங்கிலாந்தில் நிலவவில்லை.
சட்டமியற்றுதலின் அதிகாரபகிர்வு, நிர்வாக தீர்ப்பாயங்களின் தோற்றம்,
மாறுபடுகின்ற சமூக பொருளாதார சூழல்கள், மக்கள் நல அரசின் தோற்றம்,
பலதரப்பட்ட மக்கள் அனுபவிக்கும் பாதுகாப்புகள் காரணமாக, சட்டத்தின்
மாட்சிமையின் முக்கியத்துவம் நாளுக்குநாள் குறைந்து வருகின்றது.



ஆட்சித்துறைச் சட்டம்



சட்டத்தினை பற்றிய கல்வியின் ஒரு
பிரிவாக, நிர்வாக சட்டம் விளங்குகிறது. இது நாட்டின் அதிகாரம்
குறித்ததாகும். இது தனி நபருக்கும், நாட்டிற்கு நிகழும் சர்ச்சைகள்
குறித்து நேரடியாக தொடர்பு கொண்டதாகும். நவீன கால அரசின் செயல்பாடுகள்
தொடர்பானதாகும். நிர்வாக சட்டம், அரசியலமைப்பு சட்டத்தினின்று
தோன்றியதாகும்; ஆனால், நிர்வாக சட்டம் அரசியலமைப்பு
சட்டத்திற்குட்பட்டதாகும். அரசின் நிர்வாகம், தனிநபர்களை நிர்வகிக்கும்
பொருட்டு இயற்றப்பட்டவையே நிர்வாக சட்டங்களாகும்.



அடிப்படை தன்மைகள்.



நிர்வாக சட்டங்களின் அடிப்படை தன்மைகளாவன:



  1. நிர்வாக அதிகாரத்தினரின் அதிகாரங்கள் மற்றும் அவர்களின் அமைப்பு பற்றியது.
  2. அதிகாரங்களின் எல்லையினை தீர்மானிப்பது நிர்வாக சட்டமாகும்.
  3. அவ்வாறு உருவாக்கப்பட்ட அதிகாரம் எந்த வகையில் பிரயோகிக்கப்பட வேண்டும், என்பதனை தீர்மானிப்பதும் நிர்வாக சட்டமாகும்.
  4. அதிகார வர்க்கத்தினர் மீதான நீதிமன்ற கட்டுப்பாடு மற்றும் இதர
    கட்டுப்பாடுகளை தீர்மானிப்பது நிர்வாக சட்டமாகும். நவீனகால அரசில், நிர்வாக
    சட்டங்கள் மிகுந்த முக்கியத்துவம் பெறுகின்றன. நிர்வாக இயந்திரத்தின்
    செயல்பாடுகள் சில சமயங்களில் அரசியலமைப்பு சட்ட நெறிகளில் இருந்து பிறழும்
    போது, அவற்றை நேர்படுத்த நிர்வாக சட்டம் முக்கிய பங்காற்றுகிறது.


நீதி



நீதியோடு நெருங்கிய தொடர்புள்ள கூறுகளாவன:



  1. சட்டம்
  2. சுதந்திரம்
  3. உரிமை
  4. சமத்துவம்


சகோதரத்துவமும் இவ்வரிசையில் சேரும்.



நீதியின் தோற்றம்



கருத்து மற்றும் சொல் அல்லது சேர்த்தல்
அல்லது பொருத்துதல் என்று பொருள்படும் இலத்தீனிய மொழியிலுள்ள “Justia” என்ற
சொல்லிலிருந்து நீதி அல்லது Justice பெறப்பட்டுள்ளது. நீதி ஒரு அதிமுக்கிய
கருத்தாக, அரசியல், தத்துவம், சட்டம் மற்றும் நன்னெறி ஆகிய பகுதிகளில்
விளக்கப்படுகிறது. பல்வேறு தத்துவ ஞானியரால் நீதி பலவிதங்களில் புரிந்து
கொள்ளப்பட்டு, விளக்கமளிக்கப்படுகிறது. நீதி என்ற கருத்தினை குறித்த
விசாரணை மனிதர் சிந்திக்கத் தொடங்கிய நாளில் இருந்து வருகிறது எனலாம்.
எந்த ஒரு நாட்டின் அரசியல் நாகரிகத்தின் முன்னேற்றமும், அந்த நாட்டில்
நிலவும் நீதி பரிபாலனத்தை வைத்தே அமைக்கப்படுகிறது எனலாம். நீதி என்ற
சொல்லின் பொருள் காலமாற்றத்திற்கேற்பவும், மாறுகின்ற சூழ்நிலைக்கேற்பவும்
மாற்றமடைந்த வண்ணம் இருக்கிறது. மதம், அறநெறி, சமத்துவம், சுதந்திரம்,
சொத்து, சட்டம், அரசியல், பொருளாதார அமைப்பு ஆகியவற்றோடு நெருங்கிய தொடர்பு
கொண்டதாக நீதி விளங்குகிறது. பல்வகை சமூக அமைப்பு பல்வகையில் நீதியை
புரிந்து கொள்கின்றது. நாம் நீதியின் தோற்றம், சமுதாயத்தில் நீதியின்
அவசியம் மற்றும் சட்டநீதி குறித்து காண்போம்.



நீதி - பொருள்



நீதி என்ற சொல்லுக்கு சரியான பொருள்
உரைப்பது எளிதன்று. நீதியின் உள்ளடக்கம் நீதி பரிபாலனத்தின் தன்மை மற்றும்
சிறப்பு நாட்டிற்கு நாடு வேறுபடுகின்றன. அரசியல் சிந்தனையாளர்களும்,
நீதியரசர்களும் பல்வகையில் இதனை வரையறுத்துள்ளனர்.



கடந்த காலத்தில் நீதி என்று அறியப்பட்டது
நிகழ்காலத்தில் நீதியாக ஏற்கப்படுவதில்லை. பாதிக்கப்பட்டவர்களுக்கு தர
வேண்டிய நிவாரணத்தையும், தவறு செய்த நபர் அல்லது நபர்களுக்கு தண்டனை
வழங்குவதே நீதி என எளிமையாக பொருள் கொள்ளலாம். நாட்டின் சட்டம் மற்றும்
நீதியின் அடிப்படைக் கொள்கைகளை ஒத்தே நீதி வழங்கப்படுகிறது.



நீதி குறித்த அரிஸ்டாட்டிலின் கோட்பாடு



அரிஸ்டாட்டில் நீதியை மூன்று வகையாக பிரிக்கிறார்.



அவை



  1. தண்டனை நீதி : குற்றம் புரிந்தவர்களுக்கு தண்டனை தருவது
  2. இழப்பீட்டு நீதி: பாதிக்கப்பட்டவர்களுக்கு இழப்பீடு வழங்குவது.
  3. மறுபகிர்மான நீதி சலுகைகள் மற்றும் சுமைகளை பகிர்ந்து கொள்ள செய்வத


நீதி
குறித்த அரிஸ்டாட்டிலின் சிந்தனைகள், அவருடைய நூலான “நிக்கோ மேக்கியன்
நன்னெறிகள்’ல் காணப்படுகின்றது. ஆடம் சுமித் மற்றும் ஜான் ரால்ஸ்
என்பவர்களும் நீதி பற்றி சொல்லியிருக்கின்றனர்.



நீதியின் மூலாதாரங்கள்



நீதியின் மூலாதாரங்கள் என்பது நீதியின்
சிந்தனை தோன்ற காரணமாயிருந்தவற்றை ஆய்வதாகும். சர் எர்னஸ்டு பார்க்கர்
என்பவர் நீதி கீழ்க்கண்ட ஆதாரங்களிலிருந்து தோன்றியிருக்கக் கூடும் எனக்
குறிப்பிடுகிறார்.



சமயம்



சமயம், நீதியின் கருத்து உருவாக முக்கிய
காரணமாக இருந்திருக்கிறது. புனித தாமஸ் அக்வினாஸ் என்பவர் இயேசுநாதரின்
சொல் மற்றும் செயல்கள், தேவாலய குருமார்கள் மற்றும் மதப்போதகர்களின்
வாக்குகள், சட்டம் மற்றும் நீதி தோன்ற காரணம் எனக் கூறி வந்தார்.
கத்தோலிக்க திருச்சபையின் தலைவரான போப்பாண்டவர் இன்றளவும் நீதியின்
ஊற்றுக்கண்ணாக அச்சமய மக்களால் மதிக்கப்படுகிறார். இந்து மதத்தை பொருத்தவரை
“மனு” சட்டத்தை தந்தவராக கருதப்படுகிறார். இவ்வாறு சட்டம் மற்றும்
நீதியின் ஊற்றாக மதம் அல்லது சமயம் விளங்குகிறது எனலாம்.



இயற்கை சட்டம்



இயற்கையிலேயே நீதி என்பது
மனிதர்களிடத்தில் இருந்திருக்கிறது ஒவ்வொரு மனிதனின் சிந்தனைக்குள்ளும்,
எவை செய்யத்தக்கது, எவை செய்யத்தகாதது என்ற எண்ணம் நிலவுகிறது. இவ்வெண்ணமே
பிறகு சிந்தனையாக உருவெடுத்து “மனிதன் சுதந்திரமானவன்” “அனைவரும் சமமாக
பாவிக்கப்பட வேண்டும்” போன்ற சீரிய சிந்தனைகளை தந்தது எனலாம்.



பொருளியல்



இயற்கையில் மனிதன் தேவைகளால்
உந்தப்பட்டும் வயிற்றுப்பசிக்கு ஆளாகியும், காலப்போக்கில் தன்னுடைய
வாழ்க்கைத் தரத்தை மேம்படுத்திக் கொள்ளும் நடவடிக்கையில் இறங்குகிறான்.
அவ்வாறான நடவடிக்கைகளின் எல்லைகள் விரிவடைந்து பலதரப்பட்ட மனிதர்களுடன்,
பல்வகை நிறுவனங்களுடன் தொடர்பு கொள்ளும்போது எழுகின்ற கருத்து வேறுபாடுகள்,
சச்சரவுகள், மற்றும் மோதல்களை தீர்த்து வைக்க அரசு என்ற அமைப்பை
நாடும்போது, நீதியின் தேவை நன்கு உணரப்படுகிறது. எனவே பொருளாதாரம்,
நீதியின் மற்றொரு ஊற்றாகும்.



அறநெறிகள்



வழங்கப்படும் நீதி அறநெறிக்குட்பட்டு,
நியாய மனதோடும், ஒழுக்கத்தின் பால் செய்யப்படுவதாக இருக்க வேண்டும்.
குற்றமற்றவர்கள் தண்டிக்கப்படக் கூடாது; அதே சமயம் குற்றவாளிகள்
தண்டனையிலிருந்து தப்பிக்கக் கூடாது. இக்கோட்பாட்டில் உதித்த நீதி
இங்கிலாந்தில் தோன்றியது. இங்கிலாந்தில் மக்களாட்சி இல்லாத காலத்தில்
நாட்டின் மன்னர் அரசியார் நீதியின் ஊற்றாக கருதப்பட்டார்.



நீதியின் வளர்ச்சி



நீதி புலன்களால் அறியமுடியாத பொருளாகும்.
அதனை உணரமட்டுமே இயலும். சமூக, பொருளாதார, அரசியல், மத, சட்டதுறைகள்
அனைத்துடனும் தொடர்பு கொண்டதாகும். நீதி, நீதி வழங்கும் நிறுவனங்களை
சார்ந்து இருக்கிறது.



நீதியும், சமுதாயமும்



சமுதாயத்தில் உள்ள அனைவருக்கும்,
தங்களுடைய திறமையை வளர்த்துக் கொள்ள சமமான வாய்ப்புகள் அளிக்கப்படவேண்டும்.
ஜாதி, நிற, மத, இன பாகுபாடுகள் ஏதும் இல்லாது அனைவருக்கும் அத்தகைய சமமான
வாய்ப்புகள் அளிக்க, எடுக்கப்படும் முயற்சி நீதியின் மற்றும் ஒரு
பரிமாணமாகும்.



அத்தகைய முயற்சியே சமுதாயநீதி
எனப்படுகிறது. இந்தியாவில் ஏற்றத்தாழ்வுகள் மிகுந்த சமுதாயமே நிலவுகிறது.
அத்தகைய அமைப்பில் சமுதாய நீதி மிக முக்கியத்துவம் பெறுகிறது. மனிதனை
மனிதன் சுரண்டாத சமுதாயத்தில், ஒரு சிலருடைய நன்மைகளுக்காக பலர்
துன்பங்கள் அனுபவிக்க வேண்டியதாக இருக்காத சமுதாயத்தில் மட்டுமே சமுதாய
நீதியை நிலை நாட்ட இயலும்.



சட்ட நீதி



சட்டநீதி என்பது இயற்கை நீதி, அரசியல்
நீதி, சமுதாய நீதி, பொருளாதார நீதி, நிர்வாக நீதி, பகிர்மான நீதி மற்றும்
நேர்படுத்தும் நீதி என்னும் வகைகளில் அடங்கும். சட்டம் இயற்றும் வழிமுறைகள்
மற்றும் நீதி வழங்கப்படும் முறைகளோடு தொடர்புடையது சட்டநீதி. சட்ட
நீதிக்கு இரு முக்கிய பொருட்கள் உள்ளன.



சட்டம் நியாயமானதாக இருக்க வேண்டும்



சட்டம் இயற்றுவது சட்டமன்றத்தின்
பணியாகும். இயற்றப்படுகின்ற சட்டம், நியாயமானதாக இருக்க வேண்டும்.
சட்டமானது சமமாக இருப்பவர்களுக்கு சமமாகவும், சமனற்று இருப்பவர்களுக்கு
சமனற்றதாகவும் இருத்தல் அவசியம். மூடத்தனமான சமுதாய மேழ்பாட்டினை
அச்சுறுத்தும் பழமைவாத செயல்களை முடிவுக்கு கொண்டுவர அநேக சட்டங்கள்
இயற்றப்படும் போது, அச்சட்டங்கள் பழமைவாதிகளால் ஏற்றுக் கொள்ளப்படுவதில்லை.
ஆனால் இத்தகைய எதிர்ப்புகள் சட்டத்தின் தன்மையை ஒரு போதும் பாதிப்பதில்லை.



இயற்றப்படுகின்ற சட்டங்கள் சரியாக இருக்க
வேண்டுமானால், சட்டம் இயற்றுபவர்கள் சரியானவர்களாக இருக்க வேண்டும்.
மக்களாட்சியில், மக்களுடைய பிரதிநிதிகளே சட்டம் இயற்றுபவர்களாக
இருக்கிறார்கள். இது மக்களாட்சியின் சிறந்த பண்பாகும். அநேகமாக அனைத்து
மக்களாட்சி நிலவுகின்ற நாடுகளிலும், சுதந்திரமான, நடுநிலையான நீதித்துறை
சட்டமன்றத்தால் இயற்றப்படும் சட்டங்கள், நியாயமானவைதானா, ஏற்புடையவைதானா
என்பதனை ஆராயும். நீதித்துறை அரசியலமைப்பு சட்டத்தின் காவலாளியாகவும்,
உரிமைகளின் பாதுகாவலனாகவும் விளங்குகிறது. இத்தகைய
மக்களாட்சிகளில் பெரும்பாலான தருணங்களில், சட்டமியற்றும் துறையும், நீதித்
துறையும் மோதல்களை கடைபிடிக்கும் போது, நிர்வாக நடவடிக்கைகள் ஸ்தம்பித்து
விடுகின்றன.



சட்டத்திற்குட்பட்டே ஒவ்வொருவரும் நீதி பெற வேண்டும்



ஒவ்வொருவரும் பாரபட்சமற்ற முறையில்
நீதிபெற வேண்டும். சட்டத்தின்படி அனைவரும் சமமாக பாதுகாப்பு பெற வேண்டும்.
சமமான சட்ட பாதுகாப்பு என்பதை இருவழிகளில் புரிந்து கொள்ளலாம். முதலாவதாக,
நீதி பெறும் முறைகள் எளிமையானதாகவும், சாமானியர்களுக்கு அதிகம் செலவு
பிடிப்பதாகவும் இருத்தல் வேண்டும். இரண்டாவதாக நீதி வழங்கும் அமைப்புகள்
முழு சுதந்திரத்துடனும், எவ்விதமான இடையூறுகள் இல்லாது இருத்தல் வேண்டும்.



செயலாண்மை குழுவின் (Executive Branch),
தலையீடு, நீதித்துறையில் அறவே இருத்தல் கூடாது. அதிகாரப் பிரிவினைக்
கோட்பாடு, நீதித்துறை சுதந்திரமாக செயல்பட வேண்டும் என்பதையே
வலியுறுத்துகிறது. அவ்வாறு நீதித்துறை சுதந்திரமாக செயல்படும் வண்ணம்,
நீதிபதிகளுக்கு வழங்கப்படும் ஊதியம், பணிவிதிகள், தகுதிகள் அமைய வேண்டும்.
நீதியை வழங்கும் அம்மனிதர்கள் மீது எவ்விதமான அழுத்தமும் இருத்தல் கூடாது.



ஆதாரம் : தமிழ்நாடு ஆசிரியர் கல்வியியல் ஆராய்ச்சி மையம்


55) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,


ಶಿಲಾ ನೈತಿಕತೆ: ಸರಿಯಾದ ವರ್ತನೆಯ ಮೂಲಕ ಶುದ್ಧತೆ
2736 ಥು 6 ಸೆಪ್ಟೆಂಬರ್ 2018 ಲೆಸನ್ (79) ಥು 6 ಸೆಪ್ಟೆಂಬರ್ 2007
ಒಳ್ಳೆಯದು ಜಾಗರೂಕರಾಗಿರಿ - ಎಚ್ಚರದಿಂದ ಎಚ್ಚರಗೊಂಡವರು (AO
ಟಿಪ್ಪಿತಾ
ಸೈಲ್ ನೈತಿಕತೆ: ಸರಿಯಾದ ನೀತಿ ಮೂಲಕ ಶುದ್ಧತೆ
“ಬುದ್ಧಮ್ ಸರನಮ್ ಗಚಮಿ (ನಾನು ಆಶ್ರಯ ಪಡೆದುಕೊಳ್ಳುತ್ತೇನೆ
ಬುದ್ಧ). “
“ಧಮ್ಮನ್ ಸರನಮ್ ಗಚಮಿ (ನಾನು ಆಶ್ರಯ ಪಡೆದುಕೊಳ್ಳುತ್ತೇನೆ
ದಿಮ್ಮಾ) “
ಈ ವಾಚನವು ನಂಬಿಕೆಯ ಘೋಷಣೆಯ ಸೂತ್ರವಾಯಿತು
ಬುದ್ಧ ಮತ್ತು ಅವರ ಬೋಧನೆಯಲ್ಲಿ. ನಂತರ ಸಂಘವು ಸ್ಥಾಪಿಸಲ್ಪಟ್ಟ ನಂತರ, ಸೂತ್ರವು
ಮೂರನೇ ಬದ್ಧತೆಯನ್ನು ಸೇರಿಸಲು ವಿಸ್ತರಿಸಲಾಯಿತು:
“ಸಂಘ ಶರಣಮ್ ಗಚಮಿ. (ನಾನು ಆಶ್ರಯ ಪಡೆದುಕೊಳ್ಳುತ್ತೇನೆ
ಸಂಘ). “

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wL5pNYMFnEc
Buddham Saranam Gacchami | Lata Mangeshkar | With Lyrics New
Sagar Photography & Art
Published on Aug 15, 2016
Song Name: Buddham Saranam Gacchami (बुद्धं शरणं गच्छामि।)
Singer : Lata Mangeshkar

It’s presentation of Sagar Photography.
Category
Music


youtube.com
Song Name: Buddham Saranam Gacchami (बुद्धं शरणं गच्छामि।) Singer : Lata Mangeshkar It’s presentation of…


40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજર


2736 ગુરુ 6 સપ્ટે 2018 પાઠ (79) ગુરુ 6 સપ્ટે 2007
શિલા નૈતિક: યોગ્ય વર્તણૂંક દ્વારા શુદ્ધતા

સાવચેત બનો માઇન્ડફુલ - જાગૃતિ સાથેનો એક જાગૃત (એઓ
ટિપીટા
શિલા નૈતિક: યોગ્ય વર્તણૂંક દ્વારા શુદ્ધતા
“બદ્ધામ સરનમ ગચ્ચામી (હું આશ્રમમાં છું
બુદ્ધ). “
“ધમમાન સરનમ ગચ્ચામી (હું આશ્રમમાં લઈ જાઉં છું
ધમ્મા) “
આ પઠન વિશ્વાસના ઘોષણાનું સૂત્ર બન્યા
બુદ્ધ અને તેમની અધ્યયનમાં બાદમાં જ્યારે સમઘાની સ્થાપના થઈ, તે સૂત્ર હતો
ત્રીજા પ્રતિબદ્ધતા સમાવેશ કરવા માટે વિસ્તૃત:
“સમઘા સરનમ ગચ્ચામી (હું માં આશ્રય લેવા
સમઘા). “



45) Classical Hindi-45) शास्त्रीय हिंदी,


2736 ঠুকে 6 সেপ্টেম্বর 2018 পাঠ (79) বৃহস্পতিবার 6 সেপ্টেম্বর 2007
सिला नैतिक: सही आचरण के माध्यम से शुद्धता
সচেতন থাকুন - সচেতনতার সাথে এককে জাগিয়ে তুলুন (AOA)
শাস্ত্রীয় বাঙালি
ত্রিপিটক
সিলা নৈতিক: সঠিক আচরণের মাধ্যমে বিশুদ্ধতা
“বুদ্ধম শ্রেনম গচ্চি (আমি আশ্রয় নিতে পারি
বুদ্ধ)। “
“ধামেন সারানাম গাকচি (আমি আশ্রয় নিতে পারি
ধম্ম) “
এই অধ্যায় বিশ্বাস ঘোষণার সূত্র হয়ে ওঠে
বুদ্ধ এবং তার শিক্ষার মধ্যে। পরে যখন কমিটি প্রতিষ্ঠিত হয়, তখন সূত্রটি ছিল
তৃতীয় প্রতিশ্রুতি অন্তর্ভুক্ত প্রসারিত:
“সামহা সরণাম গাকচি (আমি আশ্রয় নিতে
সামহা)। “
र 2007
अच्छा व्यवहार करें - जागरूकता के साथ जागृत (एओ
शास्त्रीय हिंदी
Tipitaka
सिला नैतिक: सही आचरण के माध्यम से शुद्धता
“बुद्धम सरनम गाचामी (मैं शरण लेता हूं
बुद्ध)। “
“धम्ममान सरनम गाचामी (मैं शरण लेता हूं
धम्म) “
यह पाठ विश्वास की घोषणा का सूत्र बन गया
बुद्ध और उनकी शिक्षण में। बाद में जब सांघ स्थापित हो गया, सूत्र था
तीसरी प्रतिबद्धता को शामिल करने के लिए विस्तारित:
“सांघ सरनम गाचामी। (मैं शरण लेता हूँ
सांघ)। “

69) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,

2736 തു 6 സെപ്റ്റ് 2018 പാഠം (79) ഡിസംബർ 6 2007
സില ധാർമികത: ശരിയായ പെരുമാറ്റത്തിലൂടെ പരിശുദ്ധി

സൂക്ഷ്മമായി പെരുമാറുക - ബോധവൽക്കരണത്തോടെ ഉണരുക (AOA)
ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം
ടിപ്പാടാക
സില ധാർമികത: ശരിയായ പെരുമാറ്റത്തിലൂടെ വിശുദ്ധം
“ബുദ്ധാം ശരണാം ഗക്കമി (ഞാൻ അഭയം തേടുന്നു
ബുദ്ധൻ). “
“ധൻമാൻ സാരാനം ഗക്കാംമി (ഞാൻ അഭയം തേടുന്നു
ദി ധർമ്മ)
വിശ്വാസത്തിന്റെ പ്രഖ്യാപനത്തിന്റെ സൂത്രവാക്യം ഈ അനുഷ്ടം ആയിത്തീർന്നു
ബുദ്ധനും അദ്ദേഹത്തിന്റെ പഠിപ്പിക്കലും. പിന്നീട് സാംഘ സ്ഥാപിതമായപ്പോൾ ഫോർമുല ആയിരുന്നു
മൂന്നാമത്തെ പ്രതിബദ്ധത ഉൾപ്പെടുത്തിയിട്ടുണ്ട്:
“സാഘ സാരാമം ഗച്ഛമി. ഞാൻ ശരണം പ്രാപിക്കുന്നു;
സാംഗ). “

72) Classical Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी,

2736 गुरु 6 सप्टेंबर 2018 पाठ (7 9) गुरु 6 सप्टें 2007

शिला नैतिक: योग्य आचरण माध्यमातून शुद्धता
सावध व्हा - जागृत करणारा जागृत व्हा (एओ
शास्त्रीय Marhihi
TIPITAKA
शिला नैतिक: योग्य आचरण माध्यमातून शुद्धता
“बुद्धम सरमन गच्चमी
बुद्ध). “
“धम्म सरमनम गच्चमी
धम्म) “
हा पठण श्रद्धेच्या घोषणेचा सूत्र बनला
बुद्ध आणि त्याच्या शिकवणीमध्ये नंतर जेव्हा जेव्हा संघ तयार झाला तेव्हा हा सूत्र होता
तिसरे वचनबद्धता समाविष्ट करण्यासाठी विस्तारित:
“सांघ सरणम गच्चमी. (मी मध्ये आश्रय घेतात
Samgha). “

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QQirFGWxG9o
नैतिकता क्या है? Ft Thinker’s Adda
Thinker’s Adda
Published on Mar 4, 2018
Subscribe our channel Thinker’s Adda- www.youtube.com/Thinkers_Adda

Like our Facebook page- www.facebook.com/officialthinkersadda

Our twitter - www.twitter.com/Thinkers_Adda

Support us , Share our channel and video
Category
Education


youtube.com

81) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,


2736 Thu 6 Sep 2018 Lesson (79) Thu 6 ਸਤੰਬਰ 2007
ਸ਼ੀਲਾ ਨੈਤਿਕ: ਸਹੀ ਚਾਲ-ਚਲਣ ਰਾਹੀਂ ਸ਼ੁੱਧਤਾ
ਚੰਗੇ ਗੁਣਾਤਮਕ ਬਣੋ - ਜਾਗਰੂਕਤਾ ਨਾਲ ਇੱਕ ਨੂੰ ਜਾਗਰੂਕ (ਏਓਐਸ)
ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ
ਟਿਪਿਤਕਾ
ਸ਼ੀਲਾ ਨੈਤਿਕ: ਸਹੀ ਚਾਲ-ਚਲਣ ਰਾਹੀਂ ਸ਼ੁੱਧਤਾ
“ਬੁੱਧੀਮਾਨ ਸਰਣਮ ਗੱਚਾਮੀ (ਮੈਂ ਇਸਦੇ ਅੰਦਰ ਸ਼ਰਨ ਲੈਂਦਾ ਹਾਂ
ਬੁੱਢਾ). “
“ਧਮਮਾਨ ਸਰਣਮ ਗੱਚਮੀ (ਮੈਂ ਅੰਦਰ ਸ਼ਰਨ ਲੈਂਦਾ ਹਾਂ
ਧਮਕਾ) “
ਇਹ ਪਾਠਨਾ ਵਿਸ਼ਵਾਸ ਦੀ ਘੋਸ਼ਣਾ ਦਾ ਫਾਰਮੂਲਾ ਬਣ ਗਿਆ
ਬੁੱਧ ਅਤੇ ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਦੀ ਸਿੱਖਿਆ ਵਿੱਚ. ਬਾਅਦ ਵਿੱਚ ਜਦੋਂ ਸਮਘਰ ਸਥਾਪਿਤ ਹੋ ਗਿਆ, ਤਾਂ ਫਾਰਮੂਲਾ ਇਸਦਾ ਸੀ
ਤੀਜੀ ਪ੍ਰਤੀਬੱਧਤਾ ਨੂੰ ਸ਼ਾਮਲ ਕਰਨ ਲਈ ਵਧਾਇਆ:
“ਸੰਘਾ ਸਰਨਾਮ ਗਚਮੀ. (ਮੈਂ ਇਸ ਵਿੱਚ ਸ਼ਰਨ ਲੈਂਦਾ ਹਾਂ
ਸਾਂਗਾ).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e1hkadNv8tM
884-1 Global Warming: Yes, There Is a Solution!, Multi-subtitles
Supreme Master Edenrules
Published on Apr 19, 2016
★EdenRules/伊甸園/Vườn Địa Đàng : http://edenrules.com/
★Subscribe/訂閱/Đăng Ký : http://edenrules.com/index.php?route=

清海無上師簡介

為了那一點點愛,我們上天下地探索,只為尋獲那一點點愛,
將此愛與眾生分享,無論他們在世上哪個角落。
—— 清海無上師

在無數與清海無上師相遇的人眼中,無上師可說是「愛」的化身!
她是一位知名的慈善家、藝術家和靈性導師。她的愛心和奉獻超越文化與種族的藩籬,嘉惠世界各地數以百萬計的人們。其中包括:窮困的人、醫學研究機構、孤苦的老人、身心障礙者、難民,以及遭受地震、水患等受難者,只要人們有需求,她便無私地奉獻所有。
經由這些善舉,我們見證「源源不絕的慈悲心」正是這位深具愛心女士的標誌。而「世界會」會員,也依循著她的愛心典範,成長茁壯。

清海無上師出生於悠樂中部。小時候,她總是盡其所能地幫助醫院裏的病人和窮苦的人。長大後,她到歐洲留學,擔任義務護理人員,以及為紅十字會翻譯。很快地,清海無上師便發現,痛苦存在於所有文化和世界上每個角落。因此,找尋解除這些苦難的方法,成為她生活中最重要的目標。
清海無上師曾與一位德國醫生結婚,過著幸福美滿的婚姻生活。儘管「分離」對他們來說,是個極為困難的抉擇,然而為了無上師高雅的理想,她的先生最後還是同意分離。隨後,清海無上師便展開靈性追尋之旅。
經過一段漫長旅程,最後,她在印度喜馬拉雅山的深山裡,找到一位開悟的明師,傳授她「觀音法門」——觀內在光和音的打坐法門。經過一段時間的精進修行之後,她達到完全證悟的境界。
“你必須把時間留給自己,往內靜思、回歸自己的本性,記起自己內在的本質,並發展它,讓自己像個藝術家般閒情逸致、滿懷愛心、沒有壓力,然後你才能給予。如果你不了解快樂,你就無法給予快樂;如果你沒有和平,你就無法給予和平。
—— 清海無上師

離開喜馬拉雅山後不久,在眾人的誠摯懇求下,清海無上師將「觀音法門」傳授給渴求真理的人們,鼓勵求道者往內找尋自己偉大的品質。
社會各階層的人士,經由修行「觀音法門」後,發現他們生活更滿足、平靜,充滿喜悅。隨後,美國、歐洲、亞洲、南美洲以及聯合國,均邀請清海無上師蒞臨演講,並傳授「觀音法門」。
“我們能分享什麼就開始分享,然後就可以感受到內在的微細變化,我們的意識會注入更多的愛力,這就是一個起步。我們來到這裡是為了學習成長,也為了學習使用我們無限的愛力和創造力,讓我們所處的任何環境變得更好!”
—— 清海無上師

清海無上師本身是一位善行義舉的典範,同時她也鼓勵大家美化我們所居住的世界。
經由修行觀音法門,清海無上師發展出多樣渾然天成的才華,透過繪畫、音樂、詩作、珠寶和服裝設計等藝術創作,將來自天國的靈思融入生活之中。
1995年,在大眾的懇求下,首度在國際各流行重鎮,展開服裝設計巡迴展,其中包括倫敦、巴黎、米蘭和紐約等地。清海師父用這些藝術創作的收入從事慈善工作,以獨立的資金來源展現她的務實觀--我們都應該靠自己的力量幫助他人。
雖然清海無上師不追求外界的認可,但世界各國的官方和私人組織,為表揚她的無我奉獻,在諸多場合頒發給她各式獎項,包括:「世界和平獎」、「顧氏和平獎」、「世界精神領袖獎」、「世界公民人道獎」以及服務大眾傑出人士和提升人權方面的獎章。
她以愛心消弭世上的仇恨,她為絕望的人帶來希望,
她以寛容化解誤會,她散發出偉人光芒,
她是全人類的慈悲天使。
—— 前夏威夷檀香山市長花士先生

清海無上師是當代致力於幫助他人發現及創造美好未來的人士之一。如同許多歷史上的偉人一樣,無上師也有她自己的夢想:
我有一個夢想
我夢想全世界和平
我夢想世界不再有殺生,小孩們可以過著和諧安樂的生活
我夢想國際間能彼此握手言和、互相保護、互相幫助
我夢想這個幾千百萬億年愛心造就的美麗的星球不會被摧毀
我夢想它將會在和平、美麗與愛中延續下去
Category
People & Blogs


youtube.com
★EdenRules/伊甸園/Vườn Địa Đàng : http://edenrules.com/ ★Subscribe/訂閱/Đăng Ký : htt…

https://glosbe.com/en/pa/moral


moral in Punjabi

translation and definition “moral“,
English-Punjabi Dictionary  online


moral     

IPA: ˈmɔːrəl, /ˈmɔːrəl/, ˈmɒrəl, /ˈmɒrəl/; Type: adjective, noun;

  • ਇਖ਼ਲਾਕੀ

    {
    adjective
    }

    • ਨੈਤਿਕ

      {
      adjective
      }
    Of or relating to principles of right and wrong in behaviour, especially for teaching right behaviour.
    Conforming to a standard of right behaviour; sanctioned by or operative on one’s conscience or ethical judgment.


    Example sentences with “moral”, translation memory

    add example
    For one thing, we must be determined to remain morally clean.
    ਪਹਿਲੀ ਗੱਲ ਤਾਂ ਇਹ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਸਾਨੂੰ ਨੇਕ ਚਾਲ-ਚੱਲਣ ਰੱਖਣ ਦਾ ਪੱਕਾ ਫ਼ੈਸਲਾ ਕਰਨਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ।
    Help them learn to identify and avoid moral dangers, such as those found on the Internet and social networks.
    ਬੱਚਿਆਂ ਨੂੰ ਸਿਖਾਓ ਕਿ ਉਹ ਇੰਟਰਨੈੱਟ ਅਤੇ ਸੋਸ਼ਲ ਨੈੱਟਵਰਕਿੰਗ ਦੇ ਖ਼ਤਰਿਆਂ ਤੋਂ ਖ਼ਬਰਦਾਰ ਰਹਿਣ।
    (Psalm 11:4; 16:8) Hence, if you have a heartfelt desire to reflect in all aspects of your life Jehovah’s feelings on moral matters, you will always make choices in accord with Bible principles.
    (ਜ਼ਬੂਰਾਂ
    ਦੀ ਪੋਥੀ 11:4; 16:8) ਜੇ ਤੁਸੀਂ ਜ਼ਿੰਦਗੀ ਵਿਚ ਕੋਈ ਵੀ ਕੰਮ ਕਰਨ ਤੋਂ ਪਹਿਲਾਂ ਇਹ
    ਸੋਚੋਗੇ ਕਿ ਯਹੋਵਾਹ ਇਸ ਬਾਰੇ ਕਿਵੇਂ ਮਹਿਸੂਸ ਕਰਦਾ ਹੈ, ਤਾਂ ਤੁਸੀਂ ਹਮੇਸ਼ਾ ਸਹੀ
    ਫ਼ੈਸਲਾ ਕਰੋਗੇ।—2 ਕੁਰਿੰਥੀਆਂ 3:18.
    Such moral relativism is fashionable today.
    ਅੱਜ ਲੋਕਾਂ ਦਾ ਇਹ ਆਮ ਖ਼ਿਆਲ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਹਰ ਇਨਸਾਨ ਨੂੰ ਆਪਣੇ ਨੈਤਿਕ ਅਸੂਲ ਆਪ ਬਣਾਉਣੇ ਚਾਹੀਦੇ ਹਨ।
    But harmful association, like a magnet, exerts a pull that can distort your moral judgment.
    ਪਰ ਮਾੜੀ ਸੰਗਤ ਇਕ ਚੁੰਬਕ ਵਾਂਗ ਤੁਹਾਡੀ ਜ਼ਮੀਰ ਉੱਤੇ ਬੁਰਾ ਪ੍ਰਭਾਵ ਪਾਵੇਗੀ ਅਤੇ ਤੁਸੀਂ ਗ਼ਲਤ ਪਾਸੇ ਖਿੱਚੇ ਜਾਵੋਗੇ।
    And Israel deserved adverse divine judgment because the moral and spiritual decay of the nation was deplorable.
    ਇਸਰਾਏਲ ਪਰਮੇਸ਼ੁਰ ਦੀ ਸਜ਼ਾ ਦੇ ਲਾਇਕ ਕਿਉਂ ਸੀ? ਕਿਉਂਕਿ ਕੌਮ ਦੀ ਨੈਤਿਕ ਅਤੇ ਧਾਰਮਿਕ ਹਾਲਤ ਬਹੁਤ ਹੀ ਭੈੜੀ ਸੀ।
    The fact that your child has lied does not mean that he is on a fast track to moral corruption.
    ਸੱਚ ਤਾਂ ਇਹ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਜੇ ਤੁਹਾਡੇ ਬੱਚੇ ਨੇ ਝੂਠ ਬੋਲਿਆ ਹੈ, ਤਾਂ ਇਸ ਦਾ ਇਹ ਮਤਲਬ ਨਹੀਂ ਕਿ ਉਹ ਹੱਥੋਂ ਨਿਕਲਦਾ ਜਾ ਰਿਹਾ ਹੈ।
    (Romans 12:2) When we live clean, moral lives and do God’s will in other ways, we help build the spiritual paradise and we contribute to our own happiness.
    (ਰੋਮੀਆਂ 12:2) ਜਦੋਂ ਅਸੀਂ ਸਾਫ਼-ਸੁਥਰੀ ਅਤੇ ਨੈਤਿਕ ਜ਼ਿੰਦਗੀ ਜੀਉਂਦੇ ਹਾਂ ਤੇ ਹੋਰ ਕਈ ਤਰੀਕਿਆਂ ਨਾਲ ਪਰਮੇਸ਼ੁਰ ਦੀ ਇੱਛਾ ਪੂਰੀ ਕਰਦੇ ਹਾਂ, ਤਾਂ ਅਸੀਂ ਅਧਿਆਤਮਿਕ ਫਿਰਦੌਸ ਬਣਾਉਣ ਵਿਚ ਮਦਦ ਕਰਦੇ ਤੇ ਨਾਲੋਂ-ਨਾਲ ਆਪਣੀ ਖ਼ੁਸ਼ੀ ਵੀ ਵਧਾਉਂਦੇ ਹਾਂ।
    13. (a) How does the Bible help us as to morality?
    13. (ੳ) ਨੇਕ ਚਾਲ-ਚੱਲਣ ਦੇ ਸੰਬੰਧ ਵਿਚ ਬਾਈਬਲ ਸਾਡੀ ਕਿਸ ਤਰ੍ਹਾਂ ਮਦਦ ਕਰਦੀ ਹੈ?
    19 Unmarried Joseph maintained moral chastity by refusing to get involved with another man’s wife.
    19 ਕਿਸੇ ਹੋਰ ਦੀ ਤੀਵੀਂ ਤੋਂ ਦੂਰ ਰਹਿ ਕੇ ਕੁਆਰੇ ਯੂਸੁਫ਼ ਨੇ ਆਪਣਾ ਚਾਲ-ਚਲਣ ਸ਼ੁੱਧ ਰੱਖਿਆ।
    Some decisions may seem relatively minor, but we may at times be confronted with a situation that challenges our morality, our honesty, or our neutral stand.
    ਕੁਝ ਫ਼ੈਸਲੇ ਸ਼ਾਇਦ ਸਾਨੂੰ ਛੋਟੇ-ਮੋਟੇ ਲੱਗਣ, ਪਰ ਕਈ ਵਾਰ ਅਜਿਹੇ ਹਾਲਾਤ ਪੈਦਾ ਹੋ ਸਕਦੇ ਹਨ ਜੋ ਸਾਡੇ ਨੇਕ ਚਾਲ-ਚਲਣ, ਸਾਡੀ ਈਮਾਨਦਾਰੀ ਜਾਂ ਸਾਡੀ ਨਿਰਪੱਖਤਾ ਨੂੰ ਪਰਖਣ।
    The decline of moral standards goes hand in hand with a callous betrayal of trust.
    ਨੈਤਿਕ ਮਿਆਰਾਂ ਦੇ ਡਿੱਗਣ ਕਾਰਨ ਅੱਜ ਬੇਦਰਦੀ ਨਾਲ ਵਿਸ਼ਵਾਸਘਾਤ ਕੀਤਾ ਜਾ ਰਿਹਾ ਹੈ।
    Human efforts to build a truly prosperous yet moral society have repeatedly failed.
    ਇਨਸਾਨ ਅਜਿਹਾ ਸਮਾਜ ਸਥਾਪਿਤ ਕਰਨ ਵਿਚ ਨਾਕਾਮ ਰਹੇ ਹਨ ਜੋ ਅਮੀਰ ਹੋਣ ਦੇ ਨਾਲ-ਨਾਲ ਨੈਤਿਕ ਮਿਆਰਾਂ ਤੇ ਵੀ ਚੱਲਦਾ ਹੋਵੇ।
    One way that alcohol can lead the unwise astray is by eroding their moral fiber.
    ਸ਼ਰਾਬ ਪੀਣ ਦਾ ਇਕ ਨੁਕਸਾਨ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਅਸੀਂ ਇਸ ਦੇ ਧੋਖੇ ਵਿਚ ਆ ਕੇ ਕੋਈ ਬੁਰਾ ਕੰਮ ਕਰ ਸਕਦੇ ਹਾਂ।
    (Ephesians 6:12) We are constantly exposed to “the spirit of the world,” the spirit of rebellion and moral corruption that Satan and his demons promote.
    (ਅਫ਼ਸੀਆਂ
    6:12) ਸਾਨੂੰ ਹਮੇਸ਼ਾ ਦੁਨੀਆਂ ਦੀ ਮਾੜੀ ਹਵਾ ਤੋਂ ਬਚਣਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ ਕਿਉਂਕਿ ਇਸ
    ਰਾਹੀਂ ਸ਼ਤਾਨ ਅਤੇ ਉਸ ਦੇ ਬੁਰੇ ਦੂਤ ਸਾਨੂੰ ਪਰਮੇਸ਼ੁਰ ਦੇ ਹੁਕਮਾਂ ਦੇ ਖ਼ਿਲਾਫ਼ ਜਾਣ
    ਲਈ ਭਰਮਾਉਂਦੇ ਹਨ।
    13 To remain in God’s love, it is essential that we keep ourselves spiritually, morally, and mentally clean.
    13 ਪਰਮੇਸ਼ੁਰ ਨਾਲ ਪਿਆਰ ਕਰਦੇ ਰਹਿਣ ਲਈ ਸਾਨੂੰ ਆਪਣੀ ਭਗਤੀ, ਚਾਲ-ਚਲਣ ਅਤੇ ਮਨ ਨੂੰ ਸ਼ੁੱਧ ਰੱਖਣ ਦੀ ਲੋੜ ਹੈ।
    Because the Moral Majority failed in its key objectives in the United States, its founder, Jerry Falwell, folded the organization in 1989.
    ਅਮਰੀਕਾ ਵਿਚ ਮਾਰਲ ਮਜਾਰਿਟੀ ਆਪਣਾ ਮਕਸਦ ਪੂਰਾ ਨਾ ਕਰ ਸਕੀ ਜਿਸ ਕਰਕੇ ਉਸ ਦੇ ਮੋਢੀ, ਜੈਰੀ ਫਾਲਵੈਲ ਨੇ ਉਸ ਨੂੰ 1989 ਵਿਚ ਸਮਾਪਤ ਕਰ ਦਿੱਤਾ।
    Similarly, subjects of Christ need to maintain high standards of morality and good spiritual health.—1 Corinthians 6:9-11; Galatians 5:19-23.
    ਇਸੇ ਤਰ੍ਹਾਂ ਮਸੀਹ ਦੇ ਰਾਜ ਦੀ ਪਰਜਾ ਬਣਨ ਦੇ ਇੱਛੁਕ ਲੋਕਾਂ ਦਾ ਚਾਲ-ਚਲਣ ਨੇਕ ਹੋਣਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ ਤੇ ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਦੀ ਰੂਹਾਨੀ ਸਿਹਤ ਵੀ ਚੰਗੀ ਹੋਣੀ ਚਾਹੀਦੀ ਹੈ।—1 ਕੁਰਿੰਥੀਆਂ 6:9-11; ਗਲਾਤੀਆਂ 5:19-23.
    (Matthew 5:8, 9) A pure heart is one that is not only morally clean but also spiritually untainted and unified in its devotion to Jehovah.
    (ਮੱਤੀ 5:8, 9) ਜਿਸ ਇਨਸਾਨ ਦਾ ਮਨ ਸ਼ੁੱਧ ਹੈ ਉਹ ਸਿਰਫ਼ ਨੇਕ ਹੀ ਨਹੀਂ ਹੁੰਦਾ, ਉਹ ਪਰਮੇਸ਼ੁਰ ਦੀਆਂ ਨਜ਼ਰਾਂ ਵਿਚ ਪਵਿੱਤਰ ਹੁੰਦਾ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਉਸ ਦੀ ਭਗਤੀ ਵਿਚ ਪੂਰੀ ਤਰ੍ਹਾਂ ਲੱਗਾ ਹੁੰਦਾ ਹੈ।
    A person may be smart and powerful, for example, but be morally bankrupt and devoid of love and true friends.
    ਇਕ ਇਨਸਾਨ ਸ਼ਾਇਦ ਹੁਸ਼ਿਆਰ ਹੋਵੇ ਅਤੇ ਉਸ ਦਾ ਕਾਫ਼ੀ ਦਬਦਬਾ ਹੋਵੇ, ਪਰ ਹੋ ਸਕਦਾ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਉਹ ਬੇਈਮਾਨ ਹੈ। ਹੋ ਸਕਦਾ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਅਜਿਹੇ ਇਨਸਾਨ ਦੀ ਜ਼ਿੰਦਗੀ ਵਿਚ ਨਾ ਹੀ ਪਿਆਰ ਹੋਵੇ ਤੇ ਨਾ ਹੀ ਸੱਚੇ ਦੋਸਤ-ਮਿੱਤਰ।
    (Leviticus 12:1-6; 15:16-24) Such laws given to ancient Israel fostered a healthy lifestyle, upheld lofty moral values, and stressed the sanctity of blood and the need for atonement for sins.
    (ਲੇਵੀਆਂ 12:1-6; 15:16-24) ਇਸਰਾਏਲੀਆਂ ਲਈ ਇਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਕਾਨੂੰਨਾਂ ਦੀ ਪਾਲਣਾ ਕਰਨ ਦੇ ਕਈ ਫ਼ਾਇਦੇ ਸਨ। ਇਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਕਾਰਨ ਉਹ ਤੰਦਰੁਸਤ ਰਹੇ, ਪਰਾਈਆਂ ਕੌਮਾਂ ਦੀ ਤੁਲਨਾ ਵਿਚ ਉੱਚੇ ਮਿਆਰਾਂ ਤੇ ਚੱਲ ਸਕੇ ਅਤੇ ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਯਾਦ ਕਰਾਇਆ ਗਿਆ ਕਿ ਲਹੂ ਪਵਿੱਤਰ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਲਈ ਆਪਣੇ ਪਾਪਾਂ ਦੀ ਮਾਫ਼ੀ ਮੰਗਣੀ ਜ਼ਰੂਰੀ ਸੀ।
    Do you think that there is any benefit from living according to God’s moral standards?”
    ਕੀ ਤੁਹਾਨੂੰ ਲੱਗਦਾ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਪਰਮੇਸ਼ੁਰ ਦੇ ਨੈਤਿਕ ਮਿਆਰਾਂ ਤੇ ਚੱਲ ਕੇ ਸਾਡਾ ਫ਼ਾਇਦਾ ਹੁੰਦਾ ਹੈ?”
    • Why are moral and spiritual cleanness even more important than physical cleanness?
    ਨੈਤਿਕ ਅਤੇ ਅਧਿਆਤਮਿਕ ਸ਼ੁੱਧਤਾ ਸਰੀਰਕ ਸ਼ੁੱਧਤਾ ਨਾਲੋਂ ਕਿਉਂ ਜ਼ਿਆਦਾ ਮਹੱਤਵਪੂਰਣ ਹੈ?
    He could turn around and go home, but this is more difficult than before, especially since he is morally weak.
    ਜੇ ਉਹ ਚਾਹੇ ਤਾਂ ਪਿੱਛੇ ਮੁੜ ਕੇ ਆਪਣੇ ਘਰ ਜਾ ਸਕਦਾ ਹੈ। ਪਰ ਉਹ ਨੈਤਿਕ ਤੌਰ ਤੇ ਕਮਜ਼ੋਰ ਹੈ ਜਿਸ ਕਰਕੇ ਹੁਣ ਉਸ ਲਈ ਪਿੱਛੇ ਮੁੜਨਾ ਹੋਰ ਵੀ ਜ਼ਿਆਦਾ ਔਖਾ ਹੋ ਗਿਆ ਹੈ।
    MORAL, economic, and political crises are shaking the world.
    ਨੈਤਿਕ, ਆਰਥਿਕ ਅਤੇ ਰਾਜਨੀਤਿਕ ਸਮੱਸਿਆਵਾਂ ਨੇ ਦੁਨੀਆਂ ਨੂੰ ਹਿਲਾ ਕੇ ਰੱਖ ਦਿੱਤਾ ਹੈ।

    89) Classical Sindhi,


    6 Thu 6 سيپٽمبر 2018 نياز (79) سڳي 6 سپاهي 2007

    سوراخ اخلاقيات: خالص اخلاق جي ذريعي
    ڇا توهان کي خوشخبري ڏيو - بي خبر رکندڙ سان گڏوگڏ (AOA)
    Classical Sindhi
    TIPITAKA
    سوراخ اخلاقي: صحيح اخلاق ذريعي
    “برهمهم سرامم گاکمي (آء پنا ۾ ٿيس
    مهاتما گوتم).
    “دلمان سرامم گميشي (آء ان ۾ پناھ وٺو
    ساڳيو)
    اهو پڙھندڙ ايمان جي اعلان جو فارمولا بڻجي ويو
    ۾ مهاتما ٻڌ ۽ سندس تدريس ۾. بعد ۾ جڏهن سماج قائم ٿيو، اهو فارمولا هو
    ٽين ميزبان کي شامل ڪرڻ لاء وڌايو ويو:
    “سامغرا سرام گريمي. (مان پناھ وٺان ٿو
    سامغرا. “

    100) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,

    2736 థు 6 సెప్టెంబర్ 2018 లెసన్ (79) థు 6 సెప్టెంబర్ 2007

    సిలా నైతిక: సరైన ప్రవర్తన ద్వారా స్వచ్ఛత
    తెలుసుకుని మంచిది - అవగాహన తో AWAKE ఒక (AOA)
    క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు
    TIPITAKA
    సిలా నైతిక: కుడి ప్రవర్తన ద్వారా స్వచ్ఛత
    “బుద్ధాంశంరానం గస్కమి (నేను ఆశ్రయం పొందుతాను
    బుద్ధుడు). “
    “ధన్మాన్ సారనాం గచామి (నేను శరణు తీసుకుంటాను
    ధమ్మ) “
    ఈ పఠనం విశ్వాసం యొక్క ప్రకటన యొక్క సూత్రం అయ్యింది
    బుద్ధ మరియు అతని టీచింగ్ లో. తరువాత శాఘా స్థాపించబడింది, సూత్రం ఉంది
    మూడవ నిబద్ధత చేర్చడానికి విస్తరించింది:
    “సంఘ సారనాం గచామి. (నేను ఆశ్రయం పొందుతాను
    సాంఘ). “

    https://www.dhamma.org/te/about/code

    విపశ్యన

    శ్రీ గోయెంక గారిచే భోదించబడిన

    Aniwheel

    ధ్యానం

    సాయజి ఉ బ ఖిన్ గారి సంప్రదాయంలో



    ప్రక్రియ యొక్క పరిచయము

    విపశ్యన భారత దేశపు అతిపురాతనమైన ధ్యాన పధ్ధతి. వేల సంవత్సరాలుగా
    మానవాళి కోల్పోయిన ఈ ధ్యాన పద్దతిని 2,600 సంవత్సరాల క్రితం గౌతమబుద్ధుడు
    తన స్వయం కృషితో వెతికి, వెలికి తీసాడు. “విపశ్యన” అంటే ఉన్నది ఉన్నట్లుగా
    చూడగలగటం. ఇది స్వయం పరిశీలనతో మనసును నిర్మల పరచుకునే ఒక ప్రక్రియ.
    సాధకులు తమ మనస్సును ఏకాగ్ర పరచడం కోసం సహజ స్వాభావిక శ్వాసను గమనించడంతో
    ప్రారంభిస్తారు, ఏకాగ్రపరచబడిన ఎరుకతో శరీరము, మనస్సుల పరివర్తనా
    స్వభావాన్ని పరిశీలిస్తూ, అనిత్యము, దు:ఖము, అనాత్మ అనే విశ్వజనీన సత్యాల
    అనుభూతిని పొందగలుగుతారు. ప్రత్యక్షానుభూతితో ఈ సత్యాన్ని దర్శించటమే
    మనస్సును నిర్మలం చేసుకొనడం. ఈ (ధర్మ)మార్గము ఆద్యంతము మానవాళి ఎదుర్కొనే
    సార్వజనీన సమస్యలకు సార్వజనీన పరిష్కారం. దీనికి ఏ మతంతోగాని, వర్గంతోగాని
    నిమిత్తంలేదు. అందువల్ల జాతి, కుల, మతాలతో సంబంధం లేకుండా ఎవరైనా,
    ఎప్పుడైనా, ఎక్కడైనా ఈ సాధన చేసి ప్రతి ఒక్కరూ ఉపయోగం పొందవచ్చు.

    ఏది విపశ్యన కాదు?


    • ఇది అంధ విశ్వాసం పై ఆధార పడిన విధిగాని, కర్మకాండ గాని కాదు.
    • ఇది ఒక మేధో లేదా ఒక తాత్విక వినోదం కాదు.

    • ఇది చికిత్స నెలవు కాదు, సెలవు దినం కాదు, సామాజిక సంబంధాలను పెంచు కోవడానికి అవకాశం కాదు.

    • ఇది దైనందిన జీవిత కష్టాల నుండి తప్పించుకొని పారిపోయే ప్రయత్నం ఎంతమాత్రమూ కాదు.

    విపశ్యన అంటే ఏది?


    • ఇది దుఃఖములను రూపు మాపే ఒక పద్ధతి.

    • ఇది జీవితపు ఉద్రిక్తతలను, సమస్యలను ప్రశాంతంగా, సమతుల్యంగా ఎడుర్కొనటానికి మనస్సును శుద్ధి చేసే ఒక పద్ధతి.

    • ఇది ఒక జీవన కళ. దీనిని సమాజానికి చక్కని మేలు కలిగించటానికి ఉపయోగించవచ్చు.

    పూర్తి ముక్తి స్థితి (నిర్వాణము), పరిపూర్ణ జ్ఞానము వంటి అత్యున్నత
    ఆధ్యాత్మిక లక్ష్యసాధన కోసము విపశ్యన ధ్యానము ఉద్దేశించబడింది. శారీరిక
    వ్యాధులను నయం చేయటం అసలు దీని లక్ష్యం కానే కాదు. అయితే, మనస్సు నిర్మలం
    కావటం వల్ల, పూర్వ కలుషిత మనసు కారణంగా ఉత్పన్నమైన శారీరిక బాధలు కూడా
    ఉపశమించవచ్చు. ఇది ఉప ఫలితమే. సమస్త దు:ఖాలకు మూడు మూల కారణాలైన రాగ,
    ద్వేష, మోహాలను నిర్మూలన చేసే జీవనకళే విపశ్యన. ఇష్టమైన లేదా అయిష్టమైన
    పరిస్థితుల పట్ల సంయమనం లేకుండా మనసు ప్రతిస్పందించే మన పాత అలవాటు ఫలితంగా
    ఏర్పడే ముడులను, నిరంతర సాధనతో విప్పటం ద్వారా నిత్య జీవితంలో పొందే
    అలజడులను, ఉద్రిక్తలను ఈ ధ్యానము తొలగిస్తుంది.

    ఈ విపశ్యన, బుద్ధుడు అభివృద్ధి చేసిన ఒక పద్ధతి అయినప్పటికీ, దీని ఆచరణ
    బౌద్ధులకు మాత్రమే పరిమితం కాలేదు. ఇక్కడ మత మార్పిడి అన్న ప్రశ్నే లేదు.
    మానవులందరూ ఒకే రకమైన సమస్యలను ఎదుర్కుంటున్నారు కాబట్టి వాటిని
    పరిష్కరించే పద్ధతి కూడా సార్వజనీనంగానే ఉంటుంది అనే సూత్రం మీద ఈ పద్ధతి
    ఆధారపడి ఉంది. వివిధ మతాల ప్రజలు విపశ్యన ధ్యాన ప్రయోజనాలను చవిచూసి ఇది
    వారి విశ్వాసాలకు విరుద్ధం కాదు అని తెలుసుకున్నారు.

    ధ్యానము మరియు స్వీయ క్రమశిక్షణ

    స్వయం పరిశీలన ద్వారా స్వీయ శుద్దీకరణ (తనను తాను నిర్మలం చేసుకోవటము)
    అనే ప్రక్రియ ఖచ్చితంగా ఎప్పటికీ సులభతరం కాదు - సాధకులు దీని కొరకు చాలా
    కష్టపడి పని చేయాల్సి ఉంటుంది. వారి స్వంత ప్రయత్నాలతో, సాధకులు వారికి
    సంబంధించిన సత్యాలను కనుగొంటారు. వేరే ఎవ్వరూ వారి కోసం ఇది చేయలేరు. కావున
    ఈ ధ్యానం, ఎవరైతే తీవ్రంగా పని చేయగలరో మరియు క్రమశిక్షణ పాటించగలరో,
    వారికి మాత్రమే సరి పోతుంది. ఈ క్రమశిక్షణ సాధకుల ప్రయోజనం మరియు రక్షణ
    కోసం మాత్రమే. ఇది ధ్యాన సాధనలో ఒక సమగ్ర భాగం.

    అచేతన మనస్సు యొక్క లోతైన స్థాయిలకు చొచ్చుకుని వెళ్లి, అక్కడ ఉన్న
    వికారాలను ఎలా రూపుమాపాలో నేర్చుకోవడానికి ఓ పది రోజులు ఖచ్చితంగా తక్కువ
    సమయమే. ఏకాంతంలో నిరంతర సాధనే ఈ పద్ధతిలో విజయానికి రహస్యం. ఈ ఆచరణాత్మక
    అంశాలను దృష్టిలో పెట్టుకొని, నియమ నిబంధనలు రూపొందించారు. అవి ఆచార్యుల
    లేదా శిబిర నిర్వాహుకుల ప్రయోజనం కోసం ఏమాత్రం కాదు. అవి ఏ వ్యవస్థీకృత మతం
    యొక్క ప్రతికూల భావాలు, ఛాందసత్వం లేదా ఏదో ఒక వ్యవస్థీకృత మత౦ యొక్క అంధ
    నమ్మకం కాదు. అవి వేల మంది సాధకుల, అనేక సంవత్సరాల ఆచరణాత్మక సాధన అనుభవం
    ఆధారంగా రూపొందించినవి మరియు శాస్త్రీయము, హేతుబద్ధము అయినవి. నియమాలకు
    కట్టుబడి ఉండటం ధ్యానానికి మంచి అనుకూలమైన పరిస్థితులను కల్పిస్తుంది.
    నియమాలను భగ్నం చేయడం దాన్ని కలుషితపరుస్తుంది.

    సాధకులు శిబిరంలో పూర్తిగా పదిరోజులు ఉండాలి. అంతేకాదు,
    నియమాలను చదివి బాగా అర్థంచేసుకోవాలి. నియమావళిని నిజాయతితో పాటించగలము
    అన్న నమ్మకము ఉన్నవారే ప్రవేశం కోసం అభ్యర్థించాలి.
    మనస్ఫూర్తిగా
    ధృడ ప్రయత్నం చేయటానికి సిద్ధంగా లేనివారు తమ కాలాన్ని వృధా చేసుకోవడమేగాక,
    గంభీరంగా పనిచేయదలచుకున్న ఇతర సాధకులకు అంతరాయం కలిగించినవారవుతారు.
    శిబిరంలో చేరబోయే సాధకులు ఒక విషయం స్పష్టంగా అర్థం చేసుకోవాలి- నియమావళి
    కఠినంగా ఉందని, దానిని పాటించటం సాధ్యం కాదనే కారణంతో, చివరి వరకు
    పూర్తిచేయకుండా, మధ్యలో వదిలిపెట్టి పోవటం,లాభకరం కాదనీ పైగా హానికరమనీ.
    అలాగే పలుమార్లు హెచ్చరి౦చినా తరువాత కూడా ఎవరైనా సాధకులు నియమాలను పాటించక
    పోతే, వారిని శిబిరం వదిలి వెళ్ళమని అడగవలసి రావడం చాలా దురదృష్టకరం
    అవుతుంది.

    తీవ్రమైన మానసిక రుగ్మతలను కలిగిన వ్యక్తులు

    తీవ్రమైన మానసిక రుగ్మతలు ఉన్న కొందరు అప్పుడప్పుడు విపశ్యన శిబిరాలకు
    అవాస్తవమైన అంచనాలతో వస్తుంటారు. ఈ పద్ధతి ద్వార మానసిక రుగ్మతలు నివారణ
    చేసుకోవచ్చు లేదా ఉపశమనం పొందవచ్చు అని ఆశిస్తారు. వ్యక్తుల మద్య అస్థిర
    సంబంధాలు, పూర్వము వివిధ చికిత్సలు తీసుకొని ఉండటం, అటువంటి వ్యక్తులు
    ప్రయోజనం పొందలేక పోవటానికి అదనపు కారణాలు కావచ్చు. వారు ఒక 10 రోజుల
    శిబిరం కూడా పూర్తి చేయలేక పోవచ్చు. ప్రత్యేక నిపుణులు లేని స్వచ్చంద సంస్థ
    అయిన మాకు ఇటువంటి నేపథ్యం ఉన్న వ్యక్తులకు సరైన సంరక్షణ కలిగించడం
    అసాధ్యం అవుతుంది. విపశ్యన ధ్యానం చాల మందికి ప్రయోజనకారి అయినప్పటికీ, ఇది
    వైద్య లేదా మానసిక చికిత్సలకు ప్రత్యామ్నాయం కాదు. మేము అటువంటి తీవ్ర
    మానసిక రుగ్మతలు ఉన్న వారికి దీనిని సిఫార్సు చేయము.

    క్రమశిక్షణ నియమావళి

    సాధనకు పునాది శీలం — నైతిక ప్రవర్తన. శీలం సమాధి — మానసిక ఏకాగ్రత పెంపోదించు కోవటానికి ఆధారం అవుతుంది ; మరియు మనస్సు శుద్దీకరణ ప్రజ్ఞ — అంతః జ్ఞానం వల్ల సాధ్యమవుతుంది.

    నియమాలు

    విపశ్యన శిబిరంలో పాల్గొనే వారందరూ శిబిరకాలంలో ఈ క్రింది ఐదు నియమాలను మనస్సాక్షిగా పాటించాలి.:

    1. ఏ ప్రాణినీ చంపరాదు;
    2. దొంగతనం చేయరాదు;
    3. బ్రహ్మచర్యం పాటించాలి;
    4. అసత్యం పలుక రాదు;
    5. మాదకద్రవ్యాలు వాడరాదు;

    ఇదివరకే శిబిరాలు చేసిన పాత సాధకులు అదనంగా ఈ క్రింది మూడు నియమాలను పాటించాలి:

    1. మధ్యాహ్నం 12 గంటల తరువాత భోజనం చేయరాదు;
    2. వినోదం కలిగించే పనులకు, శరీర అలంకార వస్తువులు వాడరాదు;
    3. ఎత్తుగా, విలాసవంతంగా ఉన్న పడకపై పడుకోరాదు;

    పాత సాధకులు సాయంత్రం 5 గంటలకు ఇచ్చే విరామంలో నిమ్మరసం లేదా పాలు కలపని
    టీ మాత్రమే తీసుకుని పైన పేర్కొన్న ఆరవ నియమాన్ని పాటించాలి. కొత్త
    సాధకులు టీ, తేలికైన ఉపాహారం, పళ్ళు తీసుకోవచ్చు. పాత సాధకులు ఆరోగ్య
    కారణాల రీత్యా ఆచార్యుని అనుమతితో వీటి నుండి మినహాయింపు పొందవచ్చు. ఏడవ
    మరియు ఎనమిదవ నియమాలు పాత సాధకులు అందరూ పాటించాలి.

    ఆచార్యుని పట్ల, ధ్యాన పధ్ధతి పట్ల సమర్పిత భావం:

    సాధకులు శిబిరం పూర్తి అయ్యేవరకు, ఆచార్యుల మార్గదర్శకత్వాన్ని, సూచనలను
    పూర్తిగా పాటిస్తామని తెలియచేయాలి. అంటే శిబిర కాలమంతా క్రమశిక్షణను
    పాటిస్తానని, ఆచార్యులు చెప్పిన విధంగానే, ఏ సూచనలను విస్మరించకుండా, ఇంకా
    ఏవి కలపకుండా ధ్యానం చేస్తానని ఒప్పుకోవాలి. ఈ స్వీకృతి, పూర్తి విచక్షణ,
    అవగాహనతో కూడినది అయి ఉండాలి.గుడ్డిది కాకూడదు. నమ్మక౦, శ్రద్ధాభావం
    ఉన్నప్పుడే , పూర్తి పట్టుదలతో పనిచేయటం సాధ్యమవుతుంది. ధ్యానంలో విజయం
    సాధించడానికి ఆచార్యులయ౦దు, సాధనా పద్దతియందు అటువంటి నమ్మకం ఎంతో అవసరం.

    పూజాపునస్కారాలు, ఇతర ధ్యానపద్ధతులు, ఇతర ఆచారాలు

    శిబిరకాలంలో ఖచ్చితంగా పాటించవలసిన ముఖ్యమైనవిషయం: అన్ని రకాలైన పూజా,
    ప్రార్థన,ఇతర మతసంబంధమైన పద్ధతులు: అగరవత్తులు వెలిగించటం, దీపాలు
    వెలిగించటం, జపమాల తిప్పటం, మంత్రాలు జపించడం, ఉపవాసాలు చేయటం, పాడటం,
    నాట్యము మొదలైన వాటిని ఆపేయాలి. ఇతర ధ్యానపద్ధతులు,ఆధ్యాత్మిక సాధనలు మరియు
    చికిత్సా పద్ధతులు ఆపివేయాలి. ఇది ఏ ఇతర సాధనను లేదా విధానాన్ని
    ఖండించుటకు కాదు. విపశ్యన ధ్యాన పద్ధతి యొక్క స్వచ్ఛ స్వరూపాన్ని
    నిష్పక్షపాతంగా తెలుసుకోవటానికి, సాధకుడి మేలు కోసం ఈ నియమాన్ని
    రూపొందించడమైనది.

    ఉద్దేశపూర్వకంగా వేరే ధ్యాన పద్ధతులను విపశ్యన ధ్యానంలో కలపడం వల్ల వారి
    పురోగతి అడ్డంకులతో కుంటుబడటమే కాకుండా సాధన తిరోగామిస్తుంది. ఈ విషయం చాల
    గట్టిగా సాధకులకు తెలియచేయబడింది. కానీ గతంలో ఆచార్యులు పదేపదే హెచ్చరికలు
    చేసినా కూడా, కొంతమంది సాధకులు, కావాలని వేరే ఏదో పద్ధతినో లేదా
    ఆచారాన్నో, ఇందులో మిశ్రమం చేసి వాళ్ళకు వాళ్ళే అపకారం చేసుకున్నారు.
    ఎప్పుడైనా ఏ సందేహం ఉన్నా, గందరగోళం ఉన్నా ఆచార్యులను కలసి స్పష్టం
    చేసుకోవాలి

    ఆచార్యులను కలవటం:

    సాధకులు వ్యక్తిగతంగా కలవటానికి ఆచార్యులు మధ్యాహ్నం 12-1 గంటల మధ్య
    అందుబాటులో వుంటారు.రాత్రి 9-9.30 మధ్య ధమ్మ హాల్లో ప్రశ్నలు అడగవచ్చు.
    ధ్యానపద్ధతికి సంబంధించిన ప్రశ్నలు మరియు సాయంత్ర ప్రవచనాలలో ఏదైనా
    సందేహాలుంటే వాటి కొరకు ఈ సమయం కేటాయించబడింది.

    ఆర్య మౌనం:

    శిబిరం ప్రారంభం నుండి పదో రోజు ఉదయం 10 గంటల వరకు ఆర్య మౌనాన్ని
    సాధకులందరూ తప్పక పాటించాలి. ఆర్య మౌనం అంటే మనసా, వాచా, కర్మణా మౌనం:
    సైగలు, సంకేతాలు, వ్రాత మూలంగానూ, మరేవిధంగానూ కూడా ఇతర సాధకులతో
    సంప్రదించడం నిషిద్ధం.

    కాని అవసరమైతే ఆచార్యులతో మాట్లాడవచ్చు. వసతి, భోజనం, ఆరోగ్యం వంటి
    సమస్యల గురించి నిర్వాహకులను కలవవచ్చు. కాని సాధ్యమైనంత తక్కువగా
    అత్యవసరమయితేనే ఈ పని చేయాలి.సాధకులు తాము ఒంటరిగానే సాధన చేస్తున్న భావనను
    పెంపొందించుకోవాలి.

    మహిళలు - పురుషుల వేర్పాటు:

    శిబిరంలో స్త్రీ, పురుష వేర్పాటు పూర్తిగా పాటించాలి. స్త్రీలు,
    పురుషులు, దంపతులు కూడా ఒకరితో ఒకరు ఏ విధమైన పరిచయము, సంబంధము
    పెట్టుకోకూడదు. శిబిరకాలంలో ఒకరితో ఒకరు మాట్లాడడానికి, కలవడానికి
    వీలుండదు. ఈ నియమం స్నేహితులకు, ఒకే కుటుంబ సభ్యులకు, మొదలైన వారికి కూడా
    వర్తిస్తు౦ది.

    శారీరక స్పర్శ

    శిబిరం ప్రారంభం నుండి శిబిరం ముగిసే వరకూ సాధకులెవ్వరూ ఒకరితోఒకరు శారీరక స్పర్శ( స్త్రీలైనా,పురుషులైనా) చేయరాదు.

    యోగాసనాలు, శారీరక వ్యాయామం:

    విపశ్యన ధ్యానానికి యోగాసనాలు, వ్యాయామం వ్యతిరేకం కాదు. కాని వాటికోసం
    కేంద్రంలో ప్రత్యేక సౌకర్యం లేదు కాబట్టి వాటిని తాత్కాలికంగా మానుకోవాలి.
    జాగింగ్ కూడా చేయరాదు. కాని, కేంద్రంలో ప్రత్యేకంగా కేటాయించిన ప్రదేశంలో
    సాధకులు నడవవచ్చు.

    తాయత్తులు, జపమాలలు వంటి మత సంభందమైన వస్తువులు :

    తాయత్తులు, జపమాలలు వంటి వస్తువులను శిబిరానికి తీసుకురాకూడదు. ఒకవేళ
    తెలియక తీసుకుని వస్తే, యాజమాన్యం వద్ద శిబిరం పూర్తి అయ్యే వరకు వాటిని
    భద్రపరచాలి.

    మాదకద్రవ్యాలు, మత్తు పదార్థాలు:

    ఎటువంటి మాదకద్రవ్యాలూ, మత్తుపదార్థాలూ, మద్యం వంటివి ఈ ప్రదేశానికి
    తీసుకుని రాకూడదు. నిద్రమాత్రలు, నిషా కలిగించే పదార్థాలకు కూడా ఇది
    వర్తిస్తుంది. ఎవరైనా వైద్యుల సలహా మేరకు ఏదైనా మందులు వాడుతున్నట్లయితే
    ఆచార్యులుకు తప్పనిసరిగా తెలియచేయాలి.

    పొగాకు

    సాధకులందరి ఆరోగ్యము మరియు సౌకర్యముల దృష్ట్యా పొగత్రాగటం, పొగాకు నమలటం, నస్య౦ పీల్చడం మొదలగునవి శిబిరంలో అనుమతించబడవు.

    ఆహారము

    ప్రతి ఒక్కరి ఇష్టాలకు, అవసరాలకు అనుగుణంగా ప్రత్యేక ఆహారము అందచేయలేము
    గదా! అందుకని శిబిరంలో అందించబడే మామూలు శాఖాహారం స్వీకరించమని సాధకులను
    కోరడమైనది. శిబిర నిర్వాహకులు సాధనకు అనుకూలమైన, సమతుల్యమైన, పరిపూర్ణమైన
    ఆహారం అందించడానికి పూర్తి ప్రయత్నం చేస్తారు. ఏ సాధకులైనా, అనారోగ్య
    కారణాల వల్ల, ఏదైనా ప్రత్యేక ఆహరం తీసుకోవాలని వైద్యులతో సూచింపబడి ఉంటే,
    వారు శిబిర నిర్వాహకులకు దరఖాస్తు చేసుకునేటప్పుడే తెలియ చేయాలి.
    ఉపవాసానికి అనుమతి లేదు.

    దుస్తులు

    శిబిరంలోని వాతావరణానికి అనుగుణంగా వస్త్రధారణ సభ్యతతో కూడుకుని సాదాగా
    మరియు అనువుగా వుండాలి. బిగుతుగా, పారదర్శకంగా, బయటకు కనిపించే
    విధంగా(టైట్స్,ల్లెగ్గింగ్స్,పొట్టి స్కర్ట్లు,స్లీవ్లెస్ మరియు కురచనైన)
    దుస్తులు వేసుకోరాదు. సూర్య స్నానాలు, అర్థనగ్నత నిషిద్ధము. ఇతర సాధకుల
    ధ్యాన భంగం కలిగించకుండా ఉండటం కోసము, ఈ నియమాలను పాటించటం ఆవశ్యకము.

    చాకిలి పని మరియు స్నానం

    వాషింగ్ మిషన్లు, డ్రయర్లు అందుబాటలో ఉండవు కాబట్టి విద్యార్థులు
    తగినన్ని దుస్తులు తీసుకుని రావాలి. చిన్నవి చేత్తో ఉతుక్కోవచ్చు. ధ్యాన
    సమయంలో కాకుండా, విరామ సమయంలో స్నానం, దుస్తులు ఉతుక్కోవడం చేసుకోవచ్చు.

    బయటి వారితో సంప్రదింపులు:

    శిబిరం చివరి వరకు సాధకులు కేంద్రం హద్దులలోనే వుండాలి. ఆచార్యుల
    నిర్దిష్ట అనుమతితో మాత్రమే వారు శిబిర౦ వదిలివెళ్ళవచ్చు. ఇతరులతో టెలిఫోను
    ద్వారాకాని, ఉత్తరాల ద్వారాకాని మరి ఏ ఇతర విధంగాను సంప్రదించడం
    అనుమతించబడదు. సెల్ ఫోన్ మరియు ఇతర ఎలక్ట్రానిక్ వస్తువులు, శిబిరం
    ముగిసేవరకు, నిర్వాహకుల వద్ద భద్ర పరచాలి. అత్యవసర పరిస్థితులలో సాధకుల
    స్నేహితులు లేదా బంధువులు నిర్వాహకులను సంప్రదించవచ్చు.

    సంగీతం, చదవటం, వ్రాయటం:

    సంగీత వాద్యాలను వాయించటం, రేడియోలను ఇతర ఎలక్ట్రానిక్ పరికరాలను
    ఉపయోగించడం మొదలైనవి నిషేధించబడినవి. చదువుకోవటానికి, వ్రాసుకోవడానికి
    పుస్తకాలుగాని, పత్రికలు గాని, పుస్తకాలు కాని, శిబిరానికి తీసుకురాకూడదు.
    ఒక వేళ తెలియక తీసుకొని వస్తే, వాటిని శిబిరం పూర్తి అయ్యేవరకు, నిర్వాహకుల
    వద్ద భద్రపరచండి. సాధకులు వ్రాసుకోవడం వల్ల ధ్యానం నుండి దారితప్పుతారు
    ధ్యానం యొక్క ఆచరణాత్మక విశిష్టతను నొక్కిచెప్పటానికే చదవటంపై, వ్రాయటంపై ఈ
    విధమైన ఆంక్షలు విధించటం జరిగింది.

    టేప్ రికార్డర్లు, కెమెరాలు వగైరాలు:

    ఆచార్యుని ప్రత్యేక అనుమతి ఉంటే తప్ప వీటిని ఉపయోగించడం నిషేధించబడినది.

    శిబిర ఖర్చులు, ఆదాయం

    స్వచ్ఛ విపశ్యన సంప్రదాయం ప్రకారం, శిబిరాలు పూర్తిగా దానాల మీదే
    ఆధారపడి నడపబడుతాయి. దానాలు కూడా శ్రీ గోయెంక గారు లేదా ఆయన సహాయక ఆచార్యుల
    వద్ద కనీసము ఒక 10 రోజుల శిబిరం చేసిన వారి నుండే స్వీకరించబడుతాయి.
    మొదటిసారి శిబిరం చేసిన వారు శిబిరపు ఆఖరిరోజున కాని, తరువాత ఎప్పుడైనా
    దానం ఇవ్వవచ్చు.

    ఎవరైతే సాధన యొక్క ప్రయోజనాలు పొందారో వారి మద్దతుతో శిబిరాలు నడప
    బడుతున్నాయి. ఈ ప్రయోజనాలను ఇతరులతో పంచుకోవాలని ఆశిస్తూ, సాధకులు తమ
    శక్తిని బట్టి, తమ ఇచ్ఛానుసారంగా ఇస్తారు. ఇలాంటి విరాళాలు మాత్రమే ప్రపంచ
    వ్యాప్తంగా ఈ సంప్రదాయంలో నడపబడుతున్న శిబిరాలకు ఆధారం. ఏ సంపన్న సంస్థ
    కాని, ఏ వ్యక్తి కాని పోషకులు కాదు. ఆచార్యులు కాని, నిర్వాహకులు కాని వారి
    సేవ కోసం ఎటువంటి పారితోషకం తీసుకోరు. ఈ విధంగా విపశ్యన వ్యాప్తి,
    వ్యాపారాపేక్ష లేకుండా స్వచ్ఛమైన ఉద్దేశంతో చేయబడుతున్నది.

    విరాళం చిన్నదైనా, పెద్దదైనా, ఇతరులకు ఉపయోగపడాలనే ఆకాంక్షతో ఇవ్వాలి : ‘
    నేను పాల్గొన్న శిబిరం, పాత సాధకుల దాతృత్వం వల్ల నడపబడినది; ఇకముందు
    శిబిరాల కోసం ఇప్పుడు నేను కొంత దానం చేస్తాను. దాని వల్ల మరి కొంత మంది
    ప్రయోజనం పొందుదురు గాక’అనే ఉద్దేశ్య౦తో ఇవ్వాలి.

    సారాంశం

    క్రమశిక్షణ మరియు నియమాలు వెనుక అంతరార్థాన్ని ఈ క్రింది విధంగా సంగ్రహించవచ్చు:

    మీ చర్యలు ఎవరినీ ఇబ్బంది పెట్టకుండా ఉండేటట్టు చాలా జాగ్రత్తగా ఉండండి. ఇతరులు ద్వారా కలిగే చీకాకులు పట్టించుకోవద్దు.

    పైన వివరించిన నియమాల వెనుక వున్న కారణాలు కొంతమంది సాధకులు వెంటనే
    అర్థం చేసుకోలేకపోవచ్చు. అనుమానం, ప్రతికూల భావం పెంచుకోవడ౦కన్నా వెంటనే
    ఆచార్యుని లేదా నిర్వాహకులను కలిసి సమాధానం పొందటం మంచిది.

    క్రమశిక్షణతో సాధకులు పూర్తి కృషి చేసినప్పుడే, ఈ పద్ధతి యొక్క
    అభ్యాసాన్ని పూర్తిగా గ్రహించి ఎక్కువ ప్రయోజనం పొందగలరు. శిబిరంలో
    ప్రాముఖ్యత అంతా కృషి మీదే. ఒక బంగారు నియమం ఏమిటంటే, మీరు ఒంటరిగా
    ఉన్నారనుకొని, అంతర్ముఖులై సాధన చేయడం. ఏవైనా అసౌకర్యలను,ఇబ్బందులను
    ఎదుర్కోవలసివస్తే, వాటిని పట్టించుకోకండి.

    చివరగా, సాధకులు తెలుసుకోవలసినది ఏమిటంటే, విపశ్యనలో సాధించే ప్రగతి
    సాధకుల మంచి గుణాల మీద, వారి వ్యక్తిగత ఆచరణ మీద మరియు వారి హృదయపూర్వక
    కృషి, శ్రద్ధ, చిత్తశుద్ధి, ఆరోగ్యం, ప్రజ్ఞ అనే అయిదు విషయాల మీద ఆధారపడి
    ఉంటుందని.

    పైన వివరించిన విషయాలు ఈ ధ్యాన శిక్షణా శిబిరంలో మీరు వీలైనంత ఎక్కువ
    ప్రయోజనాలు పొందడానికి సహాయపడుగాక! మీకు సేవ చేసే అవకాశ౦ కలిగినందుకు మేము
    సంతోషిస్తున్నాము. మీ విపశ్యన అనుభవం నుండి మీరు శాంతి సామరస్యాలు పొందాలని
    కోరుకుంటున్నాము.

    శిబిర కాల పట్టిక

    సాధన నిరంతరతను నెలకొలిపే ఉద్దేశ్యంతో ఈ క్రింది కాలపట్టిక
    రూపొందించబడింది. మంచి ఫలితాల కోసం సాధకులు ఈ కాలపట్టికను వీలైనంత
    ఖచ్చితంగా అనుసరించాలి.


    ఉదయం 4 గం||
     
    ఉదయం మేల్కొల్పు గంట

    4:30-6:30 గం||
     
    ధ్యాన కేంద్రంలో లేదా శూన్యగారంలో ధాన్యం

    6:30-8:00 గం||
     
    అల్పాహార విరామం

    8:00-9:00 గం||
     
    హాల్లో సాముహిక ధ్యానం

    9:00-11:00 గం||
     
    ఆచార్యుల సూచనా ప్రకారం హాల్ లో లేదా శూన్యగారంలో ధ్యానం

    11:00-12:00 మద్యాహ్నం
     
    భోజనం విరామం

    12noon-1:00 గం||
     
    విశ్రాంతి మరియు ఆచార్యులతో ప్రశ్నోత్తరాల సమయం

    1:00-2:30 గం||
     
    హాల్ లో లేదా శూన్యగారంలో ధ్యానం

    2:30-3:30 గం||
     
    హాల్లో సాముహిక ధ్యానం

    3:30-5:00 గం||
     
    ఆచార్యుల సూచనా ప్రకారం హాల్ లో లేదా శూన్యగారంలో ధ్యానం

    5:00-6:00 గం||
     
    టీ విరామం

    6:00-7:00 గం||
     
    హాల్లో సాముహిక ధ్యానం

    7:00-8:15 గం||
     
    హాల్ లో ఆచార్యుల ప్రవచనం

    8:15-9:00 గం||
     
    హాల్లో సాముహిక ధ్యానం

    9:00-9:30 గం||
     
    హాల్ లో ప్రశ్నోత్తరాల సమయం

    9:30 గం||
     
    మీ గదుల్లో విరామం - లైట్స్ ఆఫ్

    శిబిరానికి దరఖాస్తు చేసుకునే ముందు, జాగ్రత్తగా చదివి, సమీక్షించటం
    కోసం పైన పేర్కొన్న క్రమశిక్షణ నియమావళి ప్రతిని అడోబీ అక్రోబాట్ రూపంలో ఇక్కడ డౌన్లోడ్ చేసుకోవచ్చు. మీ దరఖాస్తులను పూర్తి చేసి సమర్పించి, నియమిత విపశ్యన ధ్యాన శిబిరంలో ప్రవేశమునకు అభ్యర్థించవచ్చు


    104) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو

    2736 جمعہ 6 ستمبر 2018 شعر (79) جمعہ 6 ستمبر 2007



    سلیلا اخلاقیات: صحیح طرز عمل کے ذریعے خالصیت


    کیا اچھا ہو Mindful - بیداری کے ساتھ بیکار ایک (اے او اے)
    کلاسیکی اردو
    TIPITAKA
    سیلا اخلاقیات: صحیح طرز عمل سے پاکیزگی
    “بہمھم سرامام گوچی (میں پناہ لینا چاہتا ہوں
    بدھ). “
    “احمام سرامم گاکمی (میں پناہ رکھتا ہوں
    دھما) “
    یہ تلاوت ایمان کے اعلان کے فارمولا بن گیا
    بدھ اور ان کی تعلیم میں. بعد میں جب سماج قائم ہو گئے، فارمولا تھا
    تیسرے عہد میں شامل ہونے کے لئے توسیع:
    “سمگھرا سرامم گوچی. (میں پناہ لینا چاہتا ہوں
    سماج). “

    comments (0)
    2735 Wed 5 Sep 2018 LESSON (78) Wed 5 Sep 2007 Do Good Be Mindful - Awakened One with Awareness (AO TIPITAKA Buddham Saranam Gacchami Chant-GIVING ALMS-Buddhist Morality: The Five Precepts -
    Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
    Posted by: @ 3:38 am

    2735 Wed 5 Sep 2018 LESSON (78) Wed 5 Sep 2007


    Do Good Be Mindful  -  Awakened One with Awareness (AO


    TIPITAKA






    Buddham Saranam Gacchami

    Chant-


    GIVING ALMS

    Buddhist Morality: The Five Precepts -


    WHAT IS THE SUTTANTA PITAKA?


    https://www.buddhanet.net/suttanta.htm

    image.png

    SUTTANTA PITAKA

    WHAT IS THE SUTTANTA PITAKA?

    The Suttanta Pitaka is a collection
    of all the discourses in their entirety delivered by the Buddha on
    various occasions. (A few discourses delivered by some of the distinguished
    disciples of the Buddha, such as the Venerable Særiputta, Mahæ Moggallæna,
    Ænanda, etc., as well as some narratives are also included in the
    books of the Suttanta Pi¥aka.) The discourses of the Buddha compiled
    together in the Suttanta Pi¥aka were expounded to suit different occasions,
    for various persons with different temperaments. Although the discourses
    were mostly intended for the benefit of bhikkhus, and deal with the
    practice of the pure life and with the exposition of the Teaching,
    there are also several other discourses which deal with the material
    and moral progress of the lay disciples.

    The Suttanta Pi¥aka brings out the meaning of the Buddha’s teachings,
    expresses them clearly, protects and guards them against distortion
    and misconstruction. Just like a string which serves as a plumb-line
    to guide the carpenters in their work, just like a thread which protects
    flowers from being scattered or dispersed when strung together by
    it, likewise by means of suttas, the meaning of Buddha’s teachings
    may be brought out clearly, grasped and understood correctly and given
    perfect protection from being misconstrued.

    The Suttanta Pi¥aka is divided into five separate collections known
    as Nikæyas. They are Døgha Nikæya, Majjhima Nikæya, Saµyutta
    Nikæya, A³guttara Nikæya and Khuddaka Nikæya.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sutta_Pitaka

    Jump to navigation
    Jump to search

    The Sutta Pitaka (suttapiṭaka; or Suttanta Pitaka;
    Basket of Discourse; cf Sanskrit सूत्र पिटक Sūtra Piṭaka) is the second of the three divisions of the Tripitaka or Pali Canon, the Pali collection of Buddhist writings of Theravada Buddhism. The Sutta Pitaka contains more than 10,000 suttas (teachings) attributed to the Buddha or his close companions.

    The other two collections are the Vinaya Pitaka and the Abhidhamma Pitaka.

    Contents





    Origins

    This
    scripture describes the first Buddhist council. It was held shortly
    after the Buddha’s death, and collected the set of rules (Vinaya) and five sets of Dhamma.
    Tradition holds that little was added to the Canon after this. Scholars
    are more skeptical, but differ in their degrees of skepticism. Richard Gombrich thinks most of the first four nikayas (see below) go back to the Buddha, in content but not in form.[1] The late Professor Hirakawa Akira says[2]
    that the First Council collected only short prose passages or verses
    expressing important doctrines, and that these were expanded into full
    length suttas over the next century.

    Contents

    Further information: List of suttas

    There are five nikayas (collections) of suttas:

    1. Digha Nikāya (dīghanikāya), the “long” discourses.
    2. Majjhima Nikāya, the “middle-length” discourses.
    3. Saṁyutta Nikāya (saṃyutta-), the “connected” discourses.
    4. Anguttara Nikāya (aṅguttara-), the “numerical” discourses.
    5. Khuddaka Nikāya, the “minor collection”.

    Digha Nikāya

    Main article: Digha Nikāya

    This includes The Greater Discourse on the Foundations of Mindfulness, The Fruits of the Contemplative Life, and The Buddha’s Last Days. There are 34 long suttas in this nikaya.

    Majjhima Nikāya

    Main article: Majjhima Nikāya

    This includes Shorter Exposition of Kamma, Mindfulness of Breathing, and Mindfulness of the Body. There are 152 medium-length suttas in this nikaya.

    Samyutta Nikaya

    Main article: Saṁyutta Nikāya

    There are, according to one reckoning, 2,889, but according to the commentary 7,762, shorter suttas in this Nikaya.

    Anguttara Nikāya

    Main article: Anguttara Nikāya

    These teachings are arranged numerically. It includes, according to
    the commentary’s reckoning, 9,565 short suttas grouped by number from
    ones to elevens. According to Keown,
    “there is considerable disparity between the Pāli and the Sarvāstivādin
    versions, with more than two-thirds of the sūtras found in one but not
    the other compilation, which suggests that much of this portion of the
    Sūtra Piṭaka was not formed until a fairly late date.”[3]

    Khuddaka Nikāya

    Main article: Khuddaka Nikāya

    This is a heterogeneous mix of sermons, doctrines, and poetry
    attributed to the Buddha and his disciples. The contents vary somewhat
    between editions. The Thai edition includes 1-15 below, the Sinhalese
    edition 1-17 and the Burmese edition 1-18.

    1. Khuddakapatha
    2. Dhammapada
    3. Udana
    4. Itivuttaka
    5. Suttanipata
    6. Vimanavatthu
    7. Petavatthu
    8. Theragatha
    9. Therigatha
    10. Jataka
    11. Niddesa
    12. Patisambhidamagga
    13. Apadana
    14. Buddhavamsa
    15. Cariyapitaka
    16. Nettipakarana or Netti
    17. Petakopadesa
    18. Milinda Panha

    For more on these editions also see Pali Canon

    Translations

    The first four nikayas and more than half of the fifth have been translated by the Pali Text Society[1]. The first four have also been translated in the Teachings of the Buddha series by Wisdom Publications.

    Selections (including material from at least two nikayas):

    • Buddhist Suttas, ed & tr T. W. Rhys Davids, Sacred Books of the East, volume XI, Clarendon/Oxford, 1881; reprinted by Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi (& ?Dover, New York)
    • The Word of the Buddha, ed & tr Nyanatiloka, 1935
    • Early Buddhist Poetry, ed I. B. Horner, Ananda Semage, Colombo, 1963
    • The Book of Protection, tr Piyadassi, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka, 1981; translation of the paritta
    • In the Buddha’s Words, ed & tr Bodhi, Wisdom Pubns, 2005
    • Early Buddhist Discourses, ed & tr John J. Holder, 2006
    • Sayings of the Buddha, ed & tr Rupert Gethin, Oxford University Press, 2008
    • Basic Teachings of the Buddha, ed & tr Glenn Wallis, New York: Random House, 2007

    https://www.britannica.com/topic/Sutta-Pitaka

    ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

    Sutta Pitaka

    Buddhist literature
    Alternative Title:
    “Sutra Pitaka”

    Sutta Pitaka, (Pali: “Basket of Discourse”) Sanskrit Sutra Pitaka, extensive body of texts constituting the basic doctrinal section of the Buddhist canon—properly speaking, the canon of the so-called Hinayana (Lesser Vehicle) doctrinal schools, including the Theravada (Way of the Elders) form of Buddhism predominant in present-day Sri Lanka (Ceylon) and Southeast Asia. The contents of the Sutta Pitaka are attributed, with few exceptions, to the Gautama Buddha himself. The schools whose works were written in Sanskrit divided this body of literature into four collections, called Agamas. Roughly comparable collections, called Nikayas, comprise the Pali texts of the Theravada school, but with a fifth group added—the Khuddaka Nikaya (“Short Collection”). The other four Nikayas are as follows:

    1. Digha Nikaya (“Long Collection”; Sanskrit Dirghagama), 34 long suttas including doctrinal expositions, legends, and moral rules. The first, the Brahmajala Sutta
    (“Discourse on the Divine Net”), renowned and much quoted, deals with
    fundamental Buddhist doctrines and with rival philosophies and tells
    much about everyday life and religious practices of the period. The Ambattha Sutta (“Discourse of Ambattha”) denounces the principles of caste and the pretensions of Brahmins. The Mahanidana Sutta (“Discourse on the Great Origin”) gives the fullest canonical treatment of the doctrine of dependent origination, or the chain of causation. The famous Mahaparinibbana Sutta
    (“Discourse on the Great Final Extinction”—i.e., the Buddha’s release
    from the round of rebirths), one of the oldest texts in the canon
    (though containing later interpolations), narrates the activities and
    teachings of the Buddha’s last year and describes his death. The Sigalovada Sutta (“Discourse of Sigalovada”), the only one of these discourses directly addressed to laymen, is a comprehensive treatment of domestic and social ethics.

    2. Majjhima Nikaya (“Medium [Length] Collection”; Sanskrit Madhyamagama), 152 suttas, some of them attributed to disciples,
    covering nearly all aspects of Buddhism. Included are texts dealing
    with monastic life, the excesses of asceticism, the evils of caste,
    Buddha’s debates with the Jains, and meditation, together with basic doctrinal and ethical teachings and many legends and stories.

    3. Samyutta Nikaya (“Cluster Collection”; Sanskrit Samyuktagama), a total of 7,762 individual suttas, some quite brief, arranged more or less by subject matter into 56 samyuttas, or “clusters.” The best known of these is the Dhammacakkappavattana-sutta (“Discourse on the Turning of the Wheel of the Law”), which contains the Buddha’s first sermon.

    4. Anguttara Nikaya (“Item-more Collection”; Sanskrit Ekottarikagama), a numerical arrangement, for mnemonic purposes, of 9,557 terse suttas. Its first nipata (“group”) contains suttas dealing with single things, such as the mind or the Buddha; the suttas in the second nipata
    speak of pairs—e.g., 2 kinds of sin; in the third there are triplets;
    and so on up to 11. Examples are the 3 praiseworthy acts, the 4 places
    of pilgrimage, the 5 obstacles, the 6-fold duty of a monk, 7 kinds of
    wealth, 8 causes of earthquake, 9 types of person, 10 objects of
    contemplation, and 11 kinds of happiness.

    Learn More in these related Britannica articles:

    https://accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sutta.html



    Sutta Pitaka
    The Basket of Suttas




    The Sutta Pitaka, the second division of the Tipitaka,
    consists of more than 10,000 suttas (discourses) delivered by the
    Buddha and his close disciples during and shortly after the Buddha’s
    forty-five year teaching career, as well as many additional verses by
    other members of the Sangha. More than one thousand sutta translations
    are available on this website.


    The suttas are grouped into five nikayas, or collections:


    Digha Nikaya
    The “Long” Discourses (Pali digha = “long”) consists of 34
    suttas, including the longest ones in the Canon. The subject matter of
    these suttas ranges widely, from colorful folkloric accounts of the
    beings inhabiting the deva worlds (DN 20) to down-to-earth practical meditation instructions (DN 22),
    and everything in between. Recent scholarship suggests that a
    distinguishing trait of the Digha Nikaya may be that it was “intended
    for the purpose of propaganda, to attract converts to the new religion.”
    [1]
    Majjhima Nikaya
    The “Middle-length” Discourses (Pali majjhima = “middle”)
    consists of 152 suttas of varying length. These range from some of the
    most profound and difficult suttas in the Canon (e.g., MN 1) to engaging stories full of human pathos and drama that illustrate important principles of the law of kamma (e.g., MN 57, MN 86).
    Samyutta Nikaya
    The “Grouped” Discourses (Pali samyutta = “group” or “collection”) consists of 2,889 relatively short suttas grouped together by theme into 56 samyuttas.
    Anguttara Nikaya
    The “Further-factored” Discourses (Pali anga = “factor” + uttara = “beyond,” “further”) consists of several thousand short suttas, grouped together into eleven nipatas according to the number of items of Dhamma covered in each sutta. For example, the Eka-nipata (”Book of the Ones”) contains suttas about a single item of Dhamma; the Duka-nipata (”Book of the Twos”) contains suttas dealing with two items of Dhamma, and so on.
    Khuddaka Nikaya

    The “Division of Short Books” (Pali khudda = “smaller,” “lesser”), consisting of fifteen books (eighteen in the Burmese edition):

    1. Khuddakapatha — The Short Passages
    2. Dhammapada — The Path of Dhamma
    3. Udana — Exclamations
    4. Itivuttaka — The Thus-saids
    5. Sutta Nipata — The Sutta Collection
    6. Vimanavatthu — Stories of the Celestial Mansions
    7. Petavatthu — Stories of the Hungry Ghosts
    8. Theragatha — Verses of the Elder Monks
    9. Therigatha — Verses of the Elder Nuns
    10. Jataka — Birth Stories
    11. Niddesa — Exposition
    12. Patisambhidamagga — Path of Discrimination
    13. Apadana — Stories
    14. Buddhavamsa — History of the Buddhas
    15. Cariyapitaka — Basket of Conduct
    16. Nettippakarana (Burmese Tipitaka only)
    17. Petakopadesa (Burmese Tipitaka only)
    18. Milindapañha — Questions of Milinda (Burmese Tipitaka only)


    Notes

    1.
    Bhikkhu Bodhi, Connected Discourses of the Buddha
    (Somerville, Mass.: Wisdom Publications, 2000), p.31, referring to Joy
    Manné’s “Categories of Sutta in the Pali Nikayas and Their Implications
    for Our Appreciation of the Buddhist Teaching and Literature,” Journal of the Pali Text Society 15 (1990): 29-87.




    https://www.budsas.org/ebud/guide-tipitaka/guidetipitaka-03.htm

    BuddhaSasana Home Page
    English Section




    GUIDE TO TIPITAKA
    BURMA PITAKA ASSOCIATION, 1986




    Chapter
    III

    WHAT IS SUTTANTA PITAKA?

    The Suttanta Pitaka is a collection
    of all the discourses in their entirety delivered by the Buddha on various occasions. (A
    few discourses delivered by some of the distinguished disciples of the Buddha, such as the
    Venerable Sariputta, Maha Moggallana, Ananda, etc., as well as some narratives are also
    included in the books of the Suttanta Pitaka.) The discourses of the Buddha compiled
    together in the Suttanta Pitaka were expounded to suit different occasions, for various
    persons with different temperaments. Although the discourses were mostly intended for the
    benefit of bhikkhus, and deal with the practice of’ the pure life and with the exposition
    of the Teaching, there are also several other discourses which deal with the material and
    moral progress of the lay disciples.

    The Suttanta Pitaka brings out the meaning of the Buddha’s
    teachings, expresses them clearly, protects and guards them against distortion and
    misconstruction. Just like a string which serves as an plumb-line to guide the carpenters
    in their work, just like a thread which protects flowers from being scattered or dispersed
    when strung together by it, likewise by means of’ suttas, the meaning of Buddha’s
    teachings may be brought out clearly, grasped and understood correctly and given perfect
    protection from being misconstrued.

    The Suttanta Pitaka is divided into five separate
    collections known as Nikayas. They are Digha Nikaya, Majjhima Nikaya, Samyutta Nikaya,
    Anguttara Nikaya and Khuddaka Nikaya.

    (a) Observances
    and Practices in the Teaching of the Buddha

    In the Suttanta Pitaka are found not only the fundamentals
    of the Dhamma but also pragmatic guidelines to make the Dhamma meaningful and applicable
    to daily life. All observances and practices which form practical steps in the Buddha’s
    Noble Path of Eight Constituents lead to spiritual purification at three levels:

    Sila moral: purity through right conduct,

    Samadhi: purity of mind through concentration (Samatha),

    Panna: purity of Insight through Vipassana

    To begin with, one must make the right resolution to take
    refuge in the Buddha, to follow the Buddha’s Teaching, and to be guided by the Samgha. The
    first disciples who made the declaration of faith in the Buddha and committed themselves
    to follow his Teaching were the two merchant brothers, Tapussa and Bhallika. They were
    travelling with their followers in five hundred carts when they saw the Buddha in the
    vicinity of’ the Bodhi free after his Enlightenment. The two merchants offered him honey
    rice cakes. Accepting their offering and thus breaking the fast he had imposed on himself
    for seven weeks, the Buddha made them his disciples by letting them recite after him:

    Buddham Saranam Gacchami (I take refuge in
    the Buddha).”

    Dhamman Saranam Gacchami (I take refuge in
    the Dhamma ) “

    This recitation became the formula of declaration of faith
    in the Buddha and his Teaching. Later when the Samgha became established, the formula was
    extended to include the third commitment:

    “Samgha Saranam Gacchami. (I take refuge in
    the Samgha).”

    (b) On the
    right way to give alms.

    As a practical step, capable of immediate and fruitful use
    by people in all walks of life, the Buddha gave discourses on charity, alms-giving,
    explaining its virtues and on the right way and the right attitude of mind with which an
    offering is to be made for spiritual uplift. The motivating force in an act of charity is
    the volition, the will to give. Charity is a meritorious action that arises only cut of
    volition. Without the will to give, there is no act of giving. Volition in giving alms is
    of three types:

    (i) The volition that starts with the thought ‘I shall
    make an offering’ and that exists during the period of preparations for making the
    offering - Pubba Cetana, volition before the act.

    (ii) The volition that arises at the moment of making the
    offering while handing it over to the donee - Munca Cetana, volition during the act.

    (iii) The volition accompanying the joy and rejoicing
    which arise during repeated recollection of or reflection on the act of giving - Apara
    Cetana, volition after the act.

    Whether the offering is made in homage to the living
    Buddha or to a minute particle of his relics after his passing away, it is the volition,
    its strength and purity that determine the nature of the result thereof.

    There is also explained in the discourses the wrong
    attitude of mind with which no act of charity should be performed.

    A donor should avoid looking down on others who cannot
    make a similar offering; nor should he exult over his own charity. Defiled by such
    unworthy thoughts, his volition is only of inferior grade.

    When the act of charity is motivated by expectations of
    beneficial results of immediate prosperity and happiness, or rebirth in higher existences,
    the accompanying volition is classed as mediocre.

    It is only when the good deed of alms-giving is performed
    out of a spirit of renunciation, motivated by thoughts of pure selflessness, aspiring only
    for attainment to Nibbana where all suffering ends, that the volition that brings about
    the act is regarded as of superior grade.

    Examples abound in the discourses concerning charity and
    modes of giving alms.

    (c) Moral Purity
    through right conduct, Sila.

    Practice of Sila forms a most fundamental aspect of
    Buddhism. It consists of practice of Right Speech, Right Action and Right Livelihood to
    purge oneself of impure deeds, words and thoughts. Together with the commitment to the
    Threefold Refuge (as described above) a Buddhist lay disciple observes the Five Precepts
    by making a formal vow:

    (i) I undertale to observe the precept of abstaining from
    killings

    (ii) I undertake to observe the precept of abstaining from
    stealing.

    (iii) I undertake to observe the precept of abstaining
    from sexual misconduct.

    (vi) I undertake to observe the precept of abstaining from
    telling lies.

    (v) I undertake to observe the precept of abstaining from
    alcoholic drinks, drugs or intoxicants that becloud the mind.

    In addition to the negative aspect of the above formula
    which emphasizes abstinence, there is also the positive aspect of sila. For instance, we
    find in many discourses the statement: ‘He refrains from killing, puts aside the cudgel
    and the sword; full of kindness and compassion he lives for the welfare and happiness of
    all living things.’ Every precept laid down in the formula has these two aspects.

    Depending upon the individual and the stage of one’s
    progress, other forms of precepts, namely, Eight Precepts, Ten Precepts etc., may be
    observed. For the bhikkhus of the Order, higher and advanced types of practices of
    morality are laid down. The Five Precepts are to be always observed by lay disciples who
    may occasionally enhance their self-discipline by observing the Eight or Ten Precepts. For
    those who have already embarked on the path of a holy life, the Ten Precepts are essential
    preliminaries to further progress.

    Sila of perfect purity serves as a foundation for the next
    stage of progress, namely, Samadhi - purity of mind through concentration-meditation.

    (d) Practical
    methods of mental cultivation for develop ment of concentration, samadhi.

    Mental cultivation for spiritual uplift consists of two
    steps. The first step is to purify the mind from all defilements and corruption and to
    have it focused on a point. A determined effort (Right Exertion) must be made to narrow
    down the range of thoughts in the wavering, unsteady mind. Then attention (Right
    Mindfulness or Attentiveness) must be fixed on a selected object of meditation until
    one-pointedness of mind (Right concentration) is achieved. In such a state, the mind
    becomes freed from hindrances, pure, tranquil, powerful and bright. It is then ready to
    advance to the second step by which Magga Insight and Fruition may be attained in order to
    transcend the state of woe and sorrow.

    The Suttanta Pitaka records numerous methods of Meditation
    to bring about one-pointedness of mind. In the Suttas of the Pitaka are dispersed these
    methods of meditation, explained by the Buddha sometimes singly, sometimes collectively to
    suit the occasion and the purpose for which they are recommended. The Buddha knew the
    diversity of character and mental make-up of each individual, the different temperaments
    and inclinations of those who approached him for guidance. Accordingly he recommended
    different methods to different persons to suit the special character and need of each
    individual.

    The practice of mental cultivation which results
    ultimately in one-pointedness of mind is known as Samadhi Bhavana. Whoever wishes to
    develop Samadhi Bhavana must have been established in the observance of the precepts, with
    the senses controlled, calm and self-possessed, and must be contented. Having been
    established in these four conditions he selects a place suitable for meditation, a
    secluded spot. Then he should sit cross-legged keeping his body erect and his mind alert;
    he should start purifying his mind of five hindrances, namely, sensual desire, ill will,
    sloth and torpor, restlessness and worry, and doubt, by choosing a meditation method
    suitable to him, practising meditation with zeal and ardour. For instance, with the
    Anapana method he keeps watching the incoming and outgoing breath until he can have his
    mind fixed securely on the breath at the tip of the nose.

    When he realizes that the five hindrances have been got
    rid of, he becomes gladdened, delighted, calm and blissful. This is the beginning of
    samadhi, concentration, which will further develop until it attains one-pointedness of
    mind.

    Thus one-pointedness of mind is concentration of mind when
    it is aware of one object, and only one of a wholesome, salutary nature. This is attained
    by the practice of meditation upon one of the subjects recomended for the purpose by the
    Buddha.

    (e) Practical methods of mental
    cultivation for development of Insight Knowledge, panna.

    The subject and methods of meditation as taught in the
    suttas of the Pitaka are designed both for attainment of samadhi as well as for
    development of Insight Knowledge, Vipassana as a direct path to Nibbana.

    As a second step in the practice of meditation, after
    achieving samadhi, when the concentrated mind has become purified, firm and imperturbable,
    the meditator directs and inclines his mind to Insight Knowledge, Vipassana Nana. With
    this Insight Knowledge he discerns the three characteristics of the phenomenal world,
    namely, Impermanence (Anicca), Suffering (Dukkha) and Non-Self (Anatta).

    As he advances in his practice and his mind be comes more
    and more purified, firm and imperturbable, he directs and inclines his mind to the
    knowledge of the extinction of moral intoxicants, Asavakkhaya Nana. He then truly
    understands dukkha, the cause of dukkha, the cessation of dukkha and the path leading to
    the cessation of dukkha. He also comes to understand fully the moral intoxicants (asavas)
    as they really are, the cause of asavas, the cessation of asavas and the path leading to
    the cessation of the asavas.

    With this knowledge of extinction of asavas he becomes
    liberated. The knowledge of liberation arises in him. He knows that rebirth is no more,
    that he has lived the holy life; he has done what he has to do for the realization of
    Magga; there is nothing more for him to do for such realization. The Buddha taught with
    only one object - the extinction of Suffering and release from conditioned existence. That
    object is to be obtained by the practice of meditation (for Calm and Insight) as laid down
    in numerous suttas of the Suttanta Pitaka.

    -ooOoo-


    [Contents]



    Source: http://www.nibbana.com



    http://buddhism.redzambala.com/buddhism/philosophy/what-is-suttanta-pitaka-overview.html

    Buddhism | Red Zambala

    What is Suttanta Pitaka? | Overview


    Category: 


    What is Suttanta Pitaka?

    The Suttanta Piṭaka is a collection of all the discourses in their entirety delivered by the Buddha on various occasions;

    (A few discourses delivered by some of the distinguished disciples of the Buddha, such as the Venerable Sāriputta, Maha Moggallāna, Ānanda, etc., as well as some narratives are also included in the books of the Suttanta Piṭaka.)

    The discourses of the Buddha compiled together in the Suttanta Piṭaka
    were expounded to suit different occasions, for various persons with
    different temperaments.

    Although the discourses were mostly intended for the benefit of bhikkhus,
    and deal with the practice of the pure life and with the exposition of
    the Teaching, there are also several other discourses which deal with
    the material and moral progress of the lay disciples.

    The Suttanta Piṭaka brings out the meaning of the
    Buddha’s teachings, expresses them clearly, protects and guards them
    against distortion and misconstruction.

    Just like a string which serves as a plumb- line to guide the
    carpenters in their work, just like a thread which protects flowers from
    being scattered or dispersed when strung together by it,

    likewise by means of Suttas, the meaning of Buddha’s
    teachings may be brought out clearly, grasped and understood correctly
    and given perfect protection from being misconstrued.

    The Suttanta Pitaka is divided into five separate collections known as Nikāyas. They are:

    1. Dīgha Nikāya,
    2. Majjhima Nikāya,
    3. Samyutta Nikāya,
    4. Aṅguttara Nikāya and
    5. Khuddaka Nikāya.

    (a) Observances and Practices in the Teaching of the Buddha.

    In the Suttanta Pitaka are found not only the fundamentals of the
    Dhamma but also pragmatic guidelines to make the Dhamma meaningful and
    applicable to daily life.

    All observances and practices which form practical steps in the
    Buddha’s Noble Path of Eight Constituents lead to spiritual purification
    at three levels:

    Śīla — moral purity through right conduct,

    Samādhi —  purity of mind through concentration (Śamatha),

    Paññā  — purity of Insight through Vipassanā Meditation.

    To begin with, one must make the right resolution to take refuge in
    the Buddha, to follow the Buddhas Teaching, and to be guided by the
    Sangha.

    The first disciples who made the declaration of faith in the Buddha
    and committed themselves to follow his Teaching were the two merchant
    brothers, Tapussa and Bhallika.

    They were travelling with their followers in five hundred carts when
    they saw the Buddha in the vicinity of the Bodhi Tree after his
    Enlightenment.

    The two merchants offered him honey rice cakes. Accepting their
    offering and thus breaking the fast he had imposed on himself for seven
    weeks, the Buddha made them his disciples by letting them recite after
    him:

    “Buddham Saranam Gacchāmi (I take refuge in the Buddha).”
    “Dhammam Saranam Gacchāmi (I take refuge in the Dhamma).”

    This recitation became the formula of declaration of faith in the Buddha and his Teaching.

    Later when the Sangha became established, the formula was extended to include the third commitment:

    “Sangham Saranam Gacchāmi (I take refuge in the Sangha).”

    (b) On the right way to give alms.

    As a practical step, capable of immediate and fruitful use by people
    in all walks of life, the Buddha gave discourses on charity,
    alms­giving, explaining its virtues and on the right way and the right
    attitude of mind with which an offering is to be made for spiritual
    uplift.

    The motivating force in an act of charity is the volition, the will
    to give. Charity is a meritorious action that arises only out of
    volition. Without the will to give, there is no act of giving.

    Volition in giving alms is of 3 types:

    (I)The volition that starts with the thought “I shall make an
    offering” and that exists during the period of preparations for making
    the offering — Pubba Cetanā, volition before the act.

    (II)The volition that arises at the moment of making the
    offering while handing it over to the donee — Muñca Cetanā, volition
    during the act.

    (III)The volition accompanying the joy and rejoicing which
    arise during repeated recollection of or reflection on the act of giving
    — Apara Cetanā, volition after the act.

    Whether the offering is made in homage to the living Buddha or to a
    minute particle of his relics after his passing away, it is the
    volition, its strength and purity that determine the nature of the
    result thereof.

    There is also explained in the discourses the wrong attitude of mind with which no act of charity should be performed:

    A donor should avoid looking down on others who cannot make a similar
    offering; nor should he exult over his own charity. Defiled by such
    unworthy thoughts, his volition is only of inferior grade.

    When the act of charity is motivated by expectations of beneficial
    results of immediate prosperity and happiness, or rebirth in higher
    existences, the accompanying volition is classed as mediocre.

    It is only when the good deed of alms-giving is performed out of a
    spirit of renunciation, motivated by thoughts of pure selflessness,
    aspiring only for attainment to Nibbāna where all suffering ends, that
    the volition that brings about the act is regarded as of superior grade.

    Examples abound in the discourses concerning charity and modes of giving alms.

    (c) Moral Purity through right conduct, Śīla.

    Practice of Śīla forms a most fundamental aspect of
    Buddhism. It consists of practice of Right Speech, Right Action and
    Right Livelihood to purge oneself of impure deeds, words and thoughts.

    Together with the commitment
    to the Threefold Refuge (as described above) a Buddhist lay disciple
    observes the Five Precepts by making a formal vow:

    (I) I undertake to observe the precept of abstaining from killing.

    (II) I undertake to observe the precept of abstaining from stealing.

    (III) I undertake to observe the precept of abstaining from sexual misconduct.

    (IV) I undertake to observe the precept of abstaining from telling lies.

    (V) I undertake to observe the precept of abstaining from alcoholic drinks, drugs or intoxicants that becloud the mind.

    In addition to the negative aspect of the above formula which
    emphasizes abstinence, there is also the positive aspect of Śīla. For
    instance, we find in many discourses the statement:

    “He refrains from killing, puts aside the cudgel and the sword; full
    of kindness and compassion he lives for the welfare and happiness of all
    living things.”

    Every precept laid down in the formula has these two aspects.

    Depending upon the individual and the stage of one’s progress, other
    forms of precepts, namely, Eight Precepts, Ten Precepts etc. may be
    observed. For the bhikkhus of the Order, higher and advanced types of
    practices of morality are laid down. The Five Precepts are to be always
    observed by lay disciples who may occasionally enhance their
    self­-discipline by observing the Eight or Ten Precepts. For those who
    have already embarked on the path of a holy life, the Ten Precepts are
    essential preliminaries to further progress.

    Śīla of perfect purity serves
    as a foundation for the next stage of progress, namely, Samādhi purity
    of mind through concentration- meditation.

    (d) Practical methods of mental cultivation for development of concentration, Samādhi.

    Mental cultivation for spiritual uplift consists of 2 steps:

    The first step is to purify the mind from all
    defilements and corruption and to have it focused on a point. A
    determined effort (Right Exertion) must be made to narrow down the range
    of thoughts in the wavering, unsteady mind.

    Then attention (Right Mindfulness or Attentiveness)
    must be fixed on a selected object of meditation until one-pointedness
    of mind (Right Concentration) is achieved.

    In such a state, the mind becomes freed from hindrances, pure,
    tranquil, powerful and bright. It is then ready to advance to the second
    step by which Magga Insight and Fruition may be attained in order to
    transcend the state of woe and sorrow.

    The Suttanta Pitaka records numerous methods of meditation to bring about one-pointedness of mind.

    In the Suttas of the Pitaka are dispersed these methods of
    meditation, explained by the Buddha sometimes singly, sometimes
    collectively to suit the occasion and the purpose for which they are
    recommended.

    The Buddha knew the diversity of character and mental make-up of each
    individual, the different temperaments and inclinations of those who
    approached him for guidance.

    Accordingly he recommended different methods to different persons to suit the special character and need of each individual.

    The practice of mental cultivation which results ultimately in one- pointedness of mind is known as Samādhi Bhāvanā:

    Whoever wishes to develop Samādhi Bhāvanā must have been
    established in the observance of the precepts, with the senses
    controlled, calm and self-possessed, and must be contented.

    Having been established in these four conditions he selects a place
    suitable for meditation, a secluded spot. Then he should sit
    cross-legged keeping his body erect and his mind alert;

    he should start purifying his mind of five hindrances, namely,
    sensual desire, ill will, sloth and torpor, restlessness and worry, and
    doubt, by choosing a meditation method suitable to him, practicing
    meditation with zeal and ardour.

    For instance, with the Ānāpāna method he keeps watching the
    incoming and outgoing breath until he can have his mind fixed securely
    on the breath at the tip of the nose.

    When he realizes that the five hindrances have been got rid of, he
    becomes gladdened, delighted, calm and blissful. This is the beginning
    of Samādhi, concentration, which will further develop until it attains one- pointedness of mind.

    Thus one-pointedness of mind is concentration of mind when it is
    aware of one object, and only one of a wholesome, salutary nature. This
    is attained by the practice of meditation upon one of the subjects
    recommended for the purpose by the Buddha.

    (e) Practical methods of mental cultivation for development of Insight Knowledge, paññā.

    The subject and methods of
    meditation as taught in the suttas of the Pitaka are designed both for
    attainment of Samādhi as well as for develop­ment of Insight Knowledge,
    Vipassanā Ñāṇa, as a direct path to Nibbāna.

    As a second step in the practice of meditation, after achieving Samādhi,
    when the concentrated mind has become purified, firm and imperturbable,
    the meditator directs and inclines his mind to Insight Knowledge,
    Vipassanā Ñāṇa.

    With this Insight Knowledge
    he discerns the three characteristics of the phenomenal world, namely:
    Impermanence (Anicca), Suffering (Dukkha) and Non-Self (Anatta).

    As he advances in his practice and his mind becomes more and more
    purified, firm and imperturbable, he directs and inclines his mind to
    the knowledge of the extinction of moral intoxicants, Āsavakkhaya Ñāṇa.

    He then truly understands dukkha, the cause of dukkha, the cessation of dukkha and the path leading to the cessation of dukkha.

    He also comes to understand fully the moral intoxicants (āsavas) as they really are: the cause of āsavas, the cessation of āsavas and the path leading to the cessation of the āsavas.

    With this knowledge of extinction of āsavas he becomes liberated. The knowledge of liberation arises in him.

    He knows that rebirth is no more, that he has lived the holy life; he
    has done what he has to do for the realization of Magga; there is
    nothing more for him to do for such realization.

    The Buddha taught with only one object — the extinction of Suffering
    and release from conditioned existence. That object is to be obtained by
    the practice of meditation (for Calm and Insight) as laid down in
    numerous suttas of the Suttanta Pitaka.







    Don't let your birth to decide your path

    https://suprememastertv.com/en1/


    image.png




    https://wisdomfromworldreligions.com/DesktopModules/Interzoic.AccordLMS/SCOLoader.aspx?LEID=884ee86e-748e-4db7-8a2f-c74e44b82493&FId=265cabb3-80fd-4942-b195-c1ba9b1db55d&MId=491&PortalId=0&TbId=119






    https://www.youtube.com/watch…
    Buddham Sharanam Gachchami Chant

    Strumm Spiritual
    Published on May 1, 2015
    This is a very important chant of Buddhism. Buddham Sharanam Gachchami means-I take refuge in Buddha.

    Lyrics and meaning-
    Buddham saranam Gacchami
    I take refuge in Buddha
    Dhammam saranam gacchami
    I go to the Dhamma for refuge
    Sangham saranam gacchami
    I go to the Sangha for refuge.

    Singer – Sanjeev Chimmalgi
    Music – Kedar Pandit
    Lyrics – Traditional
    Music Label – Strumm Entertainment Pvt. Ltd.

    Download this song using the link below:
    http://geni.us/DbR

    To set this song as your callertune:
    AIRTEL: Dial 5432114760848
    VODAFONE: Dial 5376258956
    IDEA: sms DT6258956 to 55456
    AIRCEL: sms DT2491785 to 53000
    BSNL North & West: sms BT 2491785 to 56700
    BSNL South & East: sms BT 6258956 to 56700
    VIRGIN MOBILE: sms DT6258956 to 58475
    TATA DOCOMO: sms SET6258956 to 543211
    TATA INDICOM: sms WT6258956 to 12800
    VIDEOCON: Dial 54321100379891
    MTS: sms CT878101105 to 55777

    If You like the video don’t forget to share with others & also share your views.
    Subscribe:
    http://www.youtube.com/strummspiritual
    Connect with us on:
    http://www.facebook.com/strummspiritual
    http://www.twitter.com/strummspiritual
    Category
    Music


    youtube.com
    This
    is a very important chant of Buddhism. Buddham Sharanam Gachchami
    means-I take refuge in Buddha. Lyrics and meaning- Buddham saranam
    Gacchami I…

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=agERhyF553o
    Buddham Saranam Gacchami
    Isha Foundation
    Published on May 21, 2016
    Buddham Sharanam Gachami, Dhammam Sharanam Gachami, Sangham Sharanam
    Gachami”: This chant is an important aspect of the Buddhist path.


    Sadhguru says, “When Gautama spoke, he put all these three things
    together: Buddham Sharanam, Dhammam Sharanam, Sangham Sharanam - all
    three are equally important. The Buddha, the enlightened one; the
    Dhamma, the method he gave; and the Sangha, all the people who are
    seeking, all these are equally important because if you are not among
    seekers, you will become something else. If you are among smokers, you
    become a smoker. If you are among drinkers, you become a drinker. If you
    are among seekers, you become a seeker. It is equally important whether
    people are supporting each other’s lies or are helping each other shed
    the lies.”
    Isha Foundation is a non-religious, not-for-profit,
    public service organization, which addresses all aspects of human well
    being.
    http://www.ishafoundation.org/

    Learn more about Sadhguru
    http://www.sadhguru.org

    Free Guided Meditation by Sadhguru at
    http://www.ishafoundation.org/Ishakriya

    Official Facebook Page of Isha Foundation
    https://www.facebook.com/ishafoundation

    Official Twitter Profile of Isha Foundation
    https://twitter.com/ishafoundation
    Category
    People & Blogs


    youtube.com
    Buddham
    Sharanam Gachami, Dhammam Sharanam Gachami, Sangham Sharanam Gachami”:
    This chant is an important aspect of the Buddhist path. Sadhguru…

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5jb8uKXgORM
    Giving alms to Buddhist Monks, Isan Thailand.
    Rob Rosengreen
    Published on Aug 29, 2016
    Category
    People & Blogs



    image.png

    GIVING ALMS

    Increase or decrease font size for easier reading :
    A+
    A-

    ตักบาตร or “TAK BAT” means giving alms to monks.

    Going out for alms
    Going out for alms

    The monks walk in straight line one by one. The oldest one or the
    temple abbot leads the monks. The other one follows by seniority age spent in Buddhist community.

    Giving alms
    Giving alms



    Thai women, kneeling, or Thai men, standing, put food inside the monk’s bowl.
    The women cannot touch the monks or his belongings.


    Monks are going out for alms everyday around 5 AM to 6 AM, except during the 3 months’
    rainy season (July to october). They carry their bowl with both hands and close
    to the belly.

    As a city, district or village can contain several Buddhist temples,
    the abbots agree together on the path reserved for each temple.

    Giving alms
    Giving alms



    The monks do not thank for the food as they give opportunity for the laypeople to
    do good deeds and earn merits.

    Going out for alms is called “BIN THA BAT”
    (บิณฑบาตร).

    Giving alms
    Giving alms



    Alms bowl (
    บาตร) is the monk’s emblem.
    According to Buddhist rules, it is the only dish that monks can possess.

    Traditionaly, the housewife or her youngest daughter are waiting
    in front of the house. They greet the monks through a “WAI” (ไหว้)
    and put food inside the bowl.

    Giving alms
    Giving alms



    The monk shall not look at the women, neither thank them. No words are said.
    If a young novice receives food from his mother, he can bless her.

    The monks walk bare foot and shall accept any food given to them.

    Going out for alms
    Going out for alms


    If the bowl is full, the monk puts the lid (
    ฝาบาตร)
    on it in order that laypeople can put a few last food offerings on the lid.

    Traditionaly, rice offered shall be recently cooked rice.
    People also offer curry dishes, sweets, fruits, flowers, incense sticks…

    Going out for alms
    Going out for alms



    Food offered shall always be the best. Giving good allows receiving
    good deeds and merits.

    Then back to the pagoda, the monks share the received food
    inside the Buddhist community.

    Going out for alms
    Going out for alms



    People, who just gave alms to monks, can share this offering with deceased ancestors
    through a small ceremony called “KRUAT NAM” (
    กรวดน้ำ).

    This libation allows giving merits to defunct ancestors. Water is put
    inside the cooking pot and pour down slowly on the right hand forefinger to the soil. So merits go down
    from the cooking pot through the hand to the earth. The Earth deity
    “MAE THORANI” (แม่ธรณี) shall give the merits to
    the right ancestors.

    Going out for alms
    Going out for alms



    Traditionaly, if a monk bowl falls in front of a house, it is seen as a bad omen.

    Giving alms
    Giving alms


    Some Thai people give alms everyday but some give alms on specific events only such as
    Buddhist holy days (“WAN PHRA” -
    วันพระ),
    birthday and so on… On such occasion, they can request a blessing from the monks.

    I tried to apply for the Vipassana Fellowship Freeonline course on
    28-08-2018. But the site was closed on that day and many who wanted to
    apply for the course was disappointed.with the following message:
    http://www.vipassana.com/course/app.phphttp://www.vipassana.com/course/app.php         
    Yathaa bubbulakam passe yathaa passe mariicikam…
    Just as one would look upon a bubble or a mirage…
    Sorry!
    The page you requested has been moved or no longer exists.

    You may wish to visit our home page to see what’s new or use the search box to try to locate the document you were seeking.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lUUp5zmTYv4

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lUUp5zmTYv4
    [English] Buddhist Morality: The Five Precepts - Lecture 1 - Ven. Hong Ci
    Buddhist Temple
    Published on Sep 30, 2015
    Buddhist Morality: The Five Precepts - Lecture 1, lectured by Venerable
    Hong Ci, at the International Buddhist Temple 弘慈法師 主講 - 英語 - 五戒 - 第1講
    Category
    Education


    youtube.com
    Buddhist Morality: The Five Precepts - Lecture 1, lectured by Venerable Hong Ci, at the International…

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N4Rdh6slEG8
    [English] Buddhist Morality: The Five Precepts - Lecture 2 - Ven. Hong Ci
    Buddhist Temple
    Published on Oct 1, 2015
    Buddhist Morality: The Five Precepts - Lecture 2, lectured by Venerable
    Hong Ci, at the International Buddhist Temple 弘慈法師 主講 - 英語 - 五戒 - 第2講
    Category
    Education


    youtube.com
    Buddhist Morality: The Five Precepts - Lecture 2, lectured by Venerable Hong Ci, at the International…



    from

    Analytic Insight Net -

    Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart

    Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice
    University and related NEWS through 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
in

    105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

    Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya
    Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya
    http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā 

    is
    an Online GOOD NEWS CHANNEL FOR WELFARE, HAPPINESS AND PEACE FOR ALL
    SOCIETIES Catering to more than 3000 Emails: 200 WhatsApp, Facebook and
    Twitter.



    is the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement followed by millions of people all over the world.



    Rendering
    exact translation as a lesson of this University in one’s mother tongue
    to this Google Translation and propagation entitles to become a Stream

    Enterer (Sottapanna) and to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal.


    Button Plant Green Butterfly E Mail Animation Clip

    Classical Buddhism (Teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness) belong to the world, and everyone have exclusive rights:JCMesh J Alphabets Letter Animation ClipartMesh C Alphabets Letter Animation Clipart



    an expert who identifies experts influenced by Expert and Infulencer Sashikanth Chandrasekharan

    of


    Free Online

    Awaken One With Awareness Mind
    (A1wAM)
    + ioT (insight-net of Things)  - the art of Giving, taking and Living   to attain Eternal Bliss
    as Final Goal through Electronic Visual Communication Course on
    Political Science -Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic
    Emancipation Movement (TPSTEEM)


    comments (0)