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April 2020
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Hindu nationalists increasingly use anti-Semitic slurs to target me – and that isn’t surprising

Independent country has developed a strong appetite for aspects of fascism, including Nazi ideology.

Two years ago, I awoke to the following tweet, “I hope
another Hitler comes back and finishes off your people”, accompanied by a
picture from 1945 of the bodies of dead Jews piled outside a liberated
concentration camp. Since then, I have been regularly attacked with
anti-Semitic language and tropes on social media, especially on Twitter.

am a target for anti-Semitic insults due to my work: I am a historian
of premodern India. My research primarily concerns the Mughals, a Muslim
dynasty that ruled much of north and central South Asia in the 16th and
17th centuries and built the Taj Mahal. Most historians – especially
those who work on non-Western, premodern topics – find their audience
confined to scholars and students. But Indians have a voracious appetite
for history, and the historical legacy of Islam in India has become a
subject of explosive controversy in recent years. This potent
combination has made my scholarship of wide interest among Indian and
Indian American readers and has also made me a target of vicious personal attacks on the basis of my perceived race, gender, and religion.

anti-Semitism was not an Indian problem. Small Jewish communities,
often traders, have dotted India’s western coast for more than a
millennium. Premodern Indian Jews did not suffer from the persecution
and discrimination that often characterised the lives of their European
counterparts. In the 20th century, many Indian institutions and
independence leaders condemned rising anti-Semitism in Europe. For
example, following Kristallnacht
in 1938, the Indian National Congress issued a declaration against
Hitler’s Germany. Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, two of India’s
most famous Independence leaders, condemned the Nazi treatment of Jews.

distaste for anti-Semitism began to erode in the early 20th century,
however, especially among Hindu nationalists. Hindu nationalists – who
believe that India ought to be a Hindu nation in population and
character – warmly embraced fascist ideas. The Rashtriya Swayamsevak
Sangh, a paramilitary Hindu nationalist group founded in 1925, modelled
itself on contemporary European fascist movements. The Hindu Mahasabha, a
Hindu nationalist organisation founded in 1915, openly supported
Nazism, including “Germany’s crusade against the enemies of Aryan
culture”, as a spokesman for the group put it in 1939.

Rise of anti-Semitism in India

key appeal of Nazism for early Hindu nationalists was anti-Semitism,
which they saw as a useful model for how to demonise India’s Muslim
minority. Muslims constituted 24% of the Indian population in 1941, and
they comprise 14% of Indians today (the drop is explained by the
Partition of Pakistan and its large Muslim population from India in
1947). Speaking in 1939 in Calcutta, VD Savarkar, the ideological
godfather of Hindu nationalism, identified Indian Muslims as a potential
traitorous people not to be trusted, “like the Jews in Germany”. In the
same year, MS Golwalkar, a Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh leader, wrote
that Germany’s “purging the country of the semitic Race – the Jews” was
“a good lesson for us in Hindustan to learn and profit by”.

decades, Hindu nationalists constituted a set of fringe organisations
whose extreme ideas were rejected by the wider Indian public. In 1948, a
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh man, Nathuram Godse, assassinated Mahatma
Gandhi, which sparked a brief ban on the group’s operations. The Sangh
experienced a remarkable recovery in subsequent decades, however,
transforming itself from an extremist association known for producing
Gandhi’s killer into the leaders of independent India. Today, Narendra
Modi, who has had a lifelong association with the RSS, leads India as
its prime minister.

Independent India has developed a strong appetite for aspects of fascism, including Nazi ideology. Hitler’s autobiography, Mein Kampf,
has gone through countless editions in India and has been a bestseller
in the country for decades. The work is especially popular among
businessmen who see it as a self-help guide for how determination and
strength can produce success. Indeed, I was once told by a gentleman in
Bikaner, “Madam, you are a great leader like Hitler.” This was meant as a

Growing hate and intolerance

Indian fascination with Hitler is often explained away as having
nothing to do with anti-Semitism. Some argue that Indians hardly learn
about the Holocaust in school and that they are historically and
emotionally distant from the darker sides of Nazism. Others point out
that the Indian state enjoys robust relations with Israel.


India, however, growing bigotry and close relations with Israel are
hardly mutually exclusive. A prejudiced attitude against Muslims has
served as a binding glue between Israel and India over the past decade
or two. Hate crimes against numerous groups – including Muslims,
Christians, SC/STs, and anybody who eats beef – are on the rise in
Murderer of democratic institutions and Master of diluting institutions
(Modi) who goobled the Mster Key by tampering the fraud EVMs/VVPATs and
won elections. Such trends are unsurprising given the stealth, shadowy
hindutva cult
propaganda espoused by Modi and his political party, the BJP (Bevakoof
Jhoothe Psychopaths).

Anti-Semitic attitudes are not a central storyline
in this larger flowering of prejudice, but they are a readymade playbook
of virulent hate that can be unleashed against foreign scholars.
Academics, such as myself, often contradict hindutvaites  claims
about a pristine hindutva past, in which Muslims are seen as barbarous
invaders, by arguing that many Muslims were embedded into the fabric of
premodern Indian society though they are the awakened aboriginals of Prabuddha Bharat. By virtue of our dedication to accuracy,
scholars also shed unfavourable light on the origins of groups such as
the Rowdy Rakshasa  Swayam Sevaks (RSS). Hindutvaites lack the historical
evidence to counter academic claims on scholarly grounds, and so they
turn to one of their most finely-tuned weapons: identity-based attacks.

have personally received dozens of anti-Semitic messages over the last
few years from hindutvaites and those sympathetic to their cause.
These ugly attacks use vicious anti-Semitic slurs, frequently invoke the
Holocaust, and draw on crude anti-Semitic tropes such as that I am
somehow pursuing my academic research for the money. Such language feeds
on a wider global rise in anti-Semitism, including violent attacks on
Jewish individuals and communities.

One curious aspect of this
anti-Semitism directed at me is that I am not, in fact, Jewish. Perhaps
my last name suggests a Jewish identity to those unfamiliar with eastern
European surnames, but I suspect that darker reasons often lurk behind
this mistaken identification. Several of my academic advisors are Jewish
and frequently maligned as such by hindutvaites. As a result, I
am evidently perceived as a Jew by association. More insidiously, the
old anti-Semitic trope that Jews control universities still surfaces
with alarming regularity. This is a sub-type of the foundational
anti-Semitic trope that there is an international Jewish conspiracy to
run the world. In other words, anti-Semitism blinds people into assuming
that I am Jewish, and then provides them with a remarkably hateful set
of tools with which to attack me.

Prabuddha Bharat has a growing problem with
hate and intolerance. Alarmingly, in recent years, much of this hate
has been sponsored by groups and figures that are close to the Indian
government. Within India, Muslims remain the chief targets of mounting
bigotry and violent assaults. When attacking non-Indians, however, Hindu
nationalists increasingly resort to the virulent anti-Semitic ideas
that inspired their early leaders.

Audrey Truschke is
Assistant Professor of South Asian History at Rutgers University in
Newark, New Jersey. She is the author of two books,
Culture of Encounters: Sanskrit at the Mughal Court (Columbia University Press, 2016) and Aurangzeb: The Life and Legacy of India’s Most Controversial King (Stanford University Press, 2017). The latter is published in India and Pakistan as Aurangzeb: The Man and The Myth (Penguin).

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threats to the democratic-secular Indian polity from the Stealth Shadowy hindutva
organizations - a concise document on the anti-national game-plan of the

The 20th century descriptions of this  just 1% intolerant, violent, militant, number one terrorists of the worls, ever
shooting, mob lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded foreigners from Bene
Israel,Tibet, Africa, Eastern Europe, Western Germany, Northern Europe,
South Russia, Hungary, etc, etc., chitpavan brahmins of Rowdy/Rakshasa
Swayam Sevaks (RSS) / hindutva mahasabha plan to establish stealth and
shadowy hidutva cult are some influential peoples on media those spread
ideology of Manusmritic Jati Pratha/Vedism/Casteism (Rig Vedic purusha
Sukta 10:90 i.e. fourfold caste system) in Prabuddha Bharat. They claim
they are hindutvaites but not as Secular Democratic Indian Nationalist.
So in other ways they say they are not a part of Democratic India so
need hindutva cult which implies treason against India; means Rashstra

They don’t accept they are secular. They reject preamble of constitution
“WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India
proofs they are anti nationalist with a so called slogan we are
nationalist as hindutvaites for their personal and organized benefits.

Prabuddha Bharat is a Nation of multi linguistic, multi culture, multi
religions, multi races and a place for even non-believers. It is not
belongs to only caste followers of vedism. Claiming it belongs to only
Caste followers polytheists is just anti nationalism. Re-meaning to the
word “hindutva” as “an art of living for all root natives of Prabuddha Bharat
origin” is just like making a new construct by present con vedic
followers to impose vedism to whole Indian root natives though they
follow or not follow any faiths but belongs to origin of Vedism. Vedism
is just a stupid & most idiotic faith of this land that has been
destroying all good rational faith systems of Indian origin for which
original progressive Indian civilization has been devastated. Their
ideology declines and hurts SECULARISM mentioned in preamble of India.

They want to replace SECULARISM word from preamble making it HINDUTVAISM
in the process of making India as a hindutva rastra or Nation of
hindutvaites . These stupids even don’t know what is hindutva? They
follow their stupid master V.D Savarkar who had defined “Who is
hindutvaite?” and they loved to be brain raped by his ideology. V. D.
Savarkar had defined hindutva according to his won understanding of word
hindutva without the basic knowledge of its meaning and its origin and defined it with fake and wrong claims.

stupid so called intellect imposed and induced chitpavan brahmanism in
the word hindutva to promote caste system and polytheist idolism. Who
advocates “hindutva glory is evident in the preservation of the Vedas
and Shastras, the protection of Cows and chitpavan brahmins.” Is he a
secular? In his book he had said “Rape is
religious duty.” RSS and BJP i.e. Sangh Parivar and their paid media
follow him as their God father. Our Nation so far strong and under
development country because its root base is Secularism otherwise it
might have the position like Pakistan; even worsen than them. V.D.
Savarkar had agreed that Sindhu word is not from Sanskrit language.

Sindhu word is from Pali language and its meaning is river. Prabuddha
Bharat was a land of SAPTA SINDHU meant it was land of seven major
rivers that had flourished the multicultural civilization of India.
India is a land of rivers was its original demographic entity not
chitpavan brahmanism. Indus, hindutva,
hindutvastan, Sindhusthan, Shindh, Sindhi, Al-Hind, Indoustan, India
etc. all are streams from this Pali language word Sindhu. Sindhu word
got popularized in the age of Buddhism in India due to propagation of

Buddhist scriptures. BTW prime architecture of Indian constitution
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar was a Buddhism ideology follower not a
hindutvaite. Why an intelligent person who was prime architecture of the
constitution rejected the ideology of hindutvaism? He was a wise man.
He knew the cons of Prabuddha  well; and had architect the constitution
in that forms so that future generations won’t face major problems due
to ideological faith contradiction based on God. RSS and BJP
administration and their paid media trying to change the core of its
architecture which is nothing but unconstitutional, anti nationalism and
anti patriotic. When you meet them ask to say Proudly say “I am secular
and I love India” and See their reaction. Murderer of democratic
institutions and master of diluting institutions (Modi) after gobbling
the Master Key by tampering the fraud EVMs/VVPATs  announced a
nationwide curfew on Tuesday, ordering 1.3 billion people to stay in
their homes
for 40 days mandala and not to cross the hindutva Lakshmana Rekha in
Ramayana, is a line drawn by Lakshmana around the dwelling he shares
with his brother Rama and Rama’s wife Sita at Panchavati in the forest
of Dandakaranya which now part of the city of Nashik in Maharashtra. The
line is meant to protect Sita, while he is away searching for Rama. In
Lanka Kanda of the Ramcharitmanas, (35.1) Mandodari rebukes Ravana on
his boisterous claims of valour by hinting that his claim of strength
and valour is shallow for he could not even cross a small line drawn by
Rama’s younger brother Lakshmana.

In the story, Rama goes chasing a golden deer (which actually is the
Maricha in disguise), and does not return for a long time. When Sita
coerces Lakshmana to leave in search of his brother, Lakshmana who
cannot bear to see Sita cry in grief, reluctantly decides to go and
search for Rama, subject to his condition that Sita not cross the
protective line he draws. Anybody other than Rama, Sita and himself
attempting to cross the line would be singed by flames erupting from the
line. Once Lakshmana leaves in search of Rama, the king Ravana comes in
the form of a mendicant and asks Sita for alms. Not expecting a trick,
she unsuspectingly crosses the Lakshmana Rekha to provide alms to him
and Ravana kidnaps her in his Pushpaka Vimana.

The crossing of Lakshamana Rekha by Sita was done absent-mindedly by an
anxious Sita the guest is embodiment of a Deva (divine entity). Sita
crosses the boundary line only to give alms to Ravana once he
insists that alms cannot be accepted across a barrier as having a
boundary in between was against the principle of free will of the donor.

Modi’s Lakshman Rekha is hence a bad reference in the world’s biggest
curfew to suggest to cross the Lakshman Rekha. It went into effect at
midnight, shutting down lights, trains, schools, houses of worship and
nearly all businesses nationwide.

Why do you order curfew on 1.3bn people?

‘Hunger the hindutvaite Rowdy Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks (RSS) the fraud EVMs/VVPATs will kill us before coronavirus’

But in Delhi and the financial capital, Mumbai, people fearing shortages quickly thronged shops and pharmacies.

“I have never witnessed
such a chaos in my life,” the owner of one store in the Shakarpur
district of Delhi said, quoted by the Press Trust of India.

“All our stocks, including rice, flour, bread, biscuits, edible oils, have been sold out.”

Police in the busy city of
Ghaziabad, in Uttar Pradesh state, patrolled the streets with megaphones
to tell residents to stay indoors.

Under the new measures, all
non-essential businesses will be closed but hospitals and other medical
facilities will continue to function as normal. Schools and
universities will remain shut and almost all public
gatherings will be banned.

Anyone flouting the new rules faces up to two years in prison and heavy fines.

Several Indian states introduced measures of their own, such as travel restrictions and the closure of non-essential services.

Modi has already issued a
ban on international arrivals and grounded domestic flights. The
country’s rail network has also suspended most passenger services.

Many parts of the country,
including cities such as Delhi and Mumbai, are already under tight
restrictions. But this move extends those provisions to every corner of
the country.

An earlier one-day curfew, which was seen as a trial, was flouted by many.

Mr Modi called on  to clap
and cheer the emergency services from their balconies on Sunday. But
many misunderstood the call and congregated in the streets as they
danced and chanted.

“It’s impossible to fathom the cost that the country may have to pay if such irresponsible behaviour continues,”

 Modi warned at the time. “Social distancing is the only option to combat coronavirus.”

The implications of a total lcurfew in the country are huge, not just economically, but socially.

This is a nation where
community is everything. Going to worship at a temple, mosque or church
is an essential part of daily life for so many.

This is a seismic cultural shift but - like the rest of the world facing similar restrictions - a necessary one.

What’s the latest from around Asia?

Neighbouring Pakistan has
almost twice as many confirmed cases - 878 as of Monday evening.
Sweeping restrictions are in place although the government has stopped
short of imposing a nationwide curfew.
However, several provinces have announced them independently. The army is being brought in to help enforce the restrictions.

Bangladesh, which has reported 33 cases and three deaths, is also
deploying its armed forces to help maintain social distancing and boost
Covid-19 preventive measures. The soldiers will also monitor thousands
quarantined expatriate returnees. Across South Asia, there are
concerns that the actual number of cases could be much higher than is
being reported.

Indonesia, which has 49 confirmed Covid-19 deaths - the highest in
South East Asia - has converted an athlete’s village built for the 2018
Asian Games into a makeshift hospital for coronavirus patients. A state
of emergency was declared in Jakarta on Monday

In Thailand, a month-long
state of emergency which will include curfews and checkpoints will begin
on Thursday. The government has been criticised for failing to take
strong action so far. Four people have
died and nearly 900 tested
positive The most populous country that was without a case until now -
Myanmar - has announced two cases

And what about the rest of the world?

Elsewhere, governments are
continuing to work to stem the spread of the virus which has now
affected more than 190 countries worldwide

More than 2.6 billion
people are in curfew now the country has introduced its new measures,
according to a tally by the AFP news agency

Media caption Reality Check tackles misleading health advice being shared online

Europe remains at the
epicentre of the pandemic. On Tuesday, the death toll jumped by 514 in a
single day in Spain and other European countries also reported sharp

Italy is the worst affected country in the world in terms of deaths. The
virus has killed almost 7,000 people there over the past month.

The UK, meanwhile,is spending its first day under tight new
restrictions. Prime Minister Boris Johnson announced unprecedented
measures on Monday and ordered the immediate closure of shops selling
non-essential goods.

And in the US, New York’s governor has said the federal government is
not sending enough equipment to combat the crisis. The state has been
hit especially hard by the virus.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has warned that the US has the potential to become the new epicentre of the pandemic.

In other developments, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said the
International Olympic Committee has agreed that the 2020 Tokyo Olympics
should be postponed by a year

Panic-buying grips major cities as the country brings in restrictions amid the coronavirus crisis.

Panic-buying grips major cities as the country brings in restrictions
amid the coronavirus crisis. RSS (Rowdy/Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks) chief
Mohan Bagawat created the longest Curfew of 40 days a mandala in his
belief which is the largest Grave yard on the earth in handling of
COVID-19 which are being brushed
under the carpet of propaganda and there is a brazen lack of accountability.

list inordinate frugality, un-trustworthiness, conspiratorialism,
phlegmatism not only murder democracy but also the real spirituality of
this nation.

The true cultural identity of this country is
Jambudvipan that is Prabuddha Bharath since all belong to the same race
with Buddha Nature practicing equality, fraternity and liberty as
enshrined in the Constitution based on Dhamma.

From its inception,
the RSS has been dominated by the foreigners from Israel chitpavan
brahminical elite, especially the chitpawan brahmins, who regard
themselves as a cut above the
rest.Chitpawans’ domination in the Sangh’s highest echelons has been
almost total.


Half a century ago, Dr. Ambedkar surveyed the existing data on the
physical anthropology of the different castes in his book The
Untouchables. He found that the received wisdom of a racial basis of
caste was not supported by the data, e.g.: The table for Bengal shows
that the Chandal who stands sixth in the scheme of social precedence and
whose touch pollutes, is not much differentiated from the chitpavan brahmin () In
Bombay the deshastha brahmin bears a closer affinity to the Son-Koli, a
fisherman caste, than to his own compeer, the chitpavan brahmin.

Chitpavan brahmin demonstrates younger maternal component and
substantial paternal gene flow from West Asia, thus giving credence to
their recent Irano-Scythian ancestry from Mediterranean or Turkey, which
correlated well with European-looking features of this caste. This also
explains their untraceable ethno-history before 1000 years,
brahminization event and later amalgamation by Maratha.”

non-recombining uniparental contributions in Chitpavan-brahmin
Mediterranean or East European type as shown by 20% (HV, U3) mtDNA
lineages and highly frequent (R1a and L) Y-haplogroups. The admixture
and PC analyses (Figure 3a, b) reflected genetic association of
Chitpavan-brahmin with Iranian, Ashkenazi-Jews (Turkey), Greeks (East
Europe) and to some extent with Central Asian Turkish populations
elucidating their distinct Nordic, “Scytho-Iranian” ancestry.

Caucasian link of Chitpavan-brahmin has also been inferred from
biparental microsatellites variations (Figure 3c). The observed genomic
analyses asserted the ethnographical fact that Chitpavan-brahmin share
ancestry with conspicuously European-looking Pagan or Alpine group, who
under religious pressure had migrated from Anatolian Turkey or East
Europe to Gujarat coast probably via sea-vessel. Besides, their
documented history is untraceable beyond 1000 years, further indicating
that they were not part of the original Vedic migrations (early
Indo-European) on the west coast. Therefore, the present genome analyses
provide conclusive evidence of their recent migration, genesis, and
expansion after they migrated from “Sopara” (India’s western trade zone)
to geographically isolated Konkan-region, where they adopted “Konkani”
language, and cultivated cash crop. Their considerable genetic affinity
with Maratha caste further corroborated the prevalent norm that few of
the dynamic and intelligent Chitpavans were “Brahmanized” for performing
religious rituals in King Shivaji’s court (elite Maratha group) and
some members were given the title of “Peshwa” or Minister for managing
the administration of Maratha kingdom, which was extended farther north
after King’s death under their rule. We observed 15% similar HVS -1
sequence motif (M4 lineage) between Chitpavan-brahmin and Bene-Israeli
(or Indian Jews), probably suggesting similar indigenous Paleolithic
contribution. Compared to Desasth-brahmin, Kokanasth-brahmin showed
lowest biparental diversity, younger age of population based upon Tau
value, larger genetic affinity with West Asians plus East Europeans
suggesting their recent descent, in absence of bottleneck effect.


Our comprehensive genomic analyses showed divergent paternal and
maternal ancestry of studied four castes correlating well with their
varied migration and exchequer demographic histories. The distribution
and admixture of Western-Eurasian-specific mtDNA and Y-chromosomal
haplogroups lend support to the diverse genesis of western ranked
castes. The asymmetrical Proto-Asian component and Western-Eurasian
admixture in two brahmin castes explained the “Scytho-Dravidian” origin
of elite, ancient Desasth-brahmin and much recent “Irano-Scythian”
ancestry (West Asia, East Europe) of Chitpavan-brahmin. Maratha and
Dhangar have significant Pleistocene gene pool corroborating their
“Proto-Asian” origin.

Maratha warrior caste has experienced gene
flow from Anatolian agriculturist (J2) supporting the conglomeration of
migrant agricultural communities. The recombining STR loci did not
reveal significant difference in population structure attributing to
hypergamy between Brahmins and Maratha, and shared ancestry of Dhangar
and Maratha. This study interestingly surmises the synchronization of
caste stratification with West-Eurasians admixture in “Gangetic” plains,
which spread in western territory due to demographic and economic

On KoBras (the Konkanastha Chitpavan Brahmin Community) of West India

The Chitpavan or Chitpawan, are Brahmins native to the Konkan
predominantly Hindu, but with a sizeable Christian Protestant.

Until the 18th century,the Chitpavans were not esteemed in social
ranking, and were indeed considered by other Brahmin tribes as being an
inferior caste of Brahmins.It remains concentrated in Maharashtra but
also has populations all over India & d rest of the world.(USA &

According to Bene Israeli legend, the Chitpavan and Bene
Israel are descendants from a group of 14 people shipwrecked off the
Konkan coast.

One group converted to Hinduism as Chitpavan Brahmins,
the other remained Jewish or Bene Israel.The Konkan region has been
inhabited by several immigrant groups including the Parsis, the Bene
Israelis, the Kudaldeshkar Gaud Brahmins, and the Konkani Saraswat
Brahmins, and the Chitpavan Brahmins were the last of these
immigrant arrivals.The Satavahanas were great sanskritisers. It is
possibly at their time that the new group of Chitpavan Brahmins were
formed.Also, a reference to the Chitpavan surname Ghaisas, written in
Prakrut Marathi can be seen on
a tamra-pat (bronze plaque) of the
Year 1060 A.D. belonging to the King Mamruni of Shilahara Kingdom, found
at Diveagar in Konkan.

With the accession of Balaji Bhat and his
family to the supreme authority of the Maratha Confederacy, Chitpavan
immigrants began arriving en masse from the Konkan to Pune where the
Peshwa offered all important offices his fellow-castemen. The Chitpavan
kin were rewarded with tax relief and grants of land. Historians
cite nepotism and corruption as causes of the fall of the Maratha Empire
in 1818. Richard Maxwell Eaton states that this rise of the
Chitpavans is a classic example of social rank rising with political
fortune. The alleged haughty behavior by the upstart
caused conflicts with other communities which manifested itself as late
as in 1948 in the form of anti-Brahminism after the killing of  Gandhi
by nathuram godse, a Chitpavan. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
After the fall of the Maratha Empire in 1818, the Chitpavans lost their
political dominance to the British. The British would not
subsidize the Chitpavans on the same scale that their caste-fellow, the
Peshwas had done in the past. Pay and power was now significantly
reduced. Poorer Chitpavan students adapted and started learning English
because of better opportunities in the British administration. Some
of the strongest resistance to change also came from the very same

Jealously guarding their brahmin stature, the orthodox
among the Chitpavans were not eager to see the Shastras challenged, nor
the conduct of the Brahmins becoming indistinguishable from that of
the Sudras. The vanguard and the old guard clashed many times. The
Chitpavan community includes two major politicians in the Gandhian
tradition: Gopal Krishna Gokhale whom he acknowledged as a preceptor,
and Vinoba Bhave, one of his outstanding disciples. Gandhi describes
Bhave as the Jewel of his disciples, and recognized Gokhale as his
political guru.

strong opposition to Gandhi also came from
within the Chitpavan community. V D Savarkar, the founder of the stealth
shadowy hindutva  cult political ideology hindutva, was a Chitpavan
Several members of the Chitpavan community were among the first to
embrace the hindutva cult ideology, which they thought was a logical
extension of the legacy of the Peshwas and caste-fellow Tilak. These
Chitpavans felt out of place with the Indian social reform movement
of Mahatama Phule and the mass politics of Mahatama Gandhi. Large
numbers of the community
looked to Savarkar, the Hindu Mahasabha and
finally the RSS. Gandhi’s assassins Narayan Apte and Nathuram Godse,
drew their inspiration from fringe groups in this reactionary trend.
The Chitpavans have considered themselves to be both warriors and
priests.The willingness of the chitpavans to enter military and
other services. The hindutva Chitpavan brahmins celebrate several festivals
according to the Hindu Calendar.

Traditionally, the Chitpavan
Brahmins were a community of astrologers and priests who offer religious
services to other communities.

The 20th century descriptions of the
Chitpavans list inordinate frugality, untrustworthiness,
conspiratorialism, phlegmatism. Agriculture was the second major
occupation in the community, practised by the those who possess arable
land. Later, Chitpavans became prominent in various white collar
jobs and business. Most of the Chitpavan Brahmins in Maharashtra have
adopted Marathi as their language. Till the 1940s, most of the
Chitpavans in Konkan spoke a dialect called Chitpavani Konkani in their
homes. Even at that time, reports recorded Chitpavani as a fast

disappearing language. But in Dakshina Kannada District and Udupi
Districts of Karnataka, this language is being spoken in places like
Durga and Maala of Karkala taluk and also in places like Shishila
and Mundaje of Belthangady Taluk.There are no inherently nasalized
vowels in standard Marathi whereas the Chitpavani dialect of Marathi
does have nasalized vowels.Earlier, the Deshastha Brahmins believed
that they were the highest of all Brahmins, and looked down upon the
Chitpavans as parvenus (a relative newcomer to a socioeconomic class),
barely equal to the noblest of dvijas. Even the Peshwa was denied
the rights to use the ghats reserved for Deshasth priests at Nashik on
the Godavari.This usurping of power by Chitpavans from the Deshastha
Brahmins resulted in intense rivalry between the two Brahmin
communities which continued in late Colonial British India times.
The 19th century records also mention Gramanyas or village-level debates
between the Chitpavans, and two other communities, namely the
Daivajnas, and the Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhus. This lasted for about
ten years.Half a century ago,Dr.Ambedkar surveyed the existing data
on the physical anthropology of the different castes in his book The
Untouchables.He found that the received wisdom of a racial basis of
caste was not supported by the data,e.g.:The table for Bengal shows that
the Chandal who stands sixth in the scheme of social precedence and
whose touch pollutes, is not much differentiated from the Brahmin () In
Bombay the Deshastha Brahmin bears a closer affinity to the
Son-Koli, a fisherman caste, than to his own compeer, the Chitpavan
Brahmin. The Mahar, the Untouchable of the Maratha region, comes
next together with the Kunbi, the peasant. They follow in order the
Shenvi Brahmin, the Nagar Brahmin and the
high-caste Maratha. These
results () mean that there is no correspondence between social gradation
and physical differentiation in Bombay.

A remarkable case of
differentiation in skull and nose indexes, noted by Dr. Ambedkar, was
found to exist between the Brahmin and the (untouchable) Chamar of
Uttar Pradesh. But this does not prove that Brahmins are foreigners,
because the data for the U.P. Brahmin were found to be very close to
those for the Khattri and the untouchable Chuhra of Panjab. If the U.P.
Brahmin is indeed foreign to U.P., he is by no means foreign to
India, at least not more than the Panjab untouchables. This confirms the
scenario which we can derive from the Vedic and ItihAsa-PurANa
literature:the Vedic tradition was brought east from d Vedic heartland
by Brahmins who were physically indistinguishable
from the lower
castes there, when the heartland in Punjab-Haryana at its apogee
exported its culture to the whole Aryavarta (comparable to the
planned importation of Brahmins into Bengal and the South around the
turn of the Christian era). These were just two of the numerous
intra-Indian migrations of caste groups.Recent research has not refuted
Ambedkars views. A press report on a recent anthropological survey led
by Kumar Suresh Singh explains:English anthropologists contended
that the upper castes of India belonged to the Caucasian race and the
rest drew their origin from Australoid types.The survey has revealed
this to be a myth. Biologically and linguistically, we are very mixed,
says Suresh Singh () The report says that the people of India have
more genes in common, and also share a large number of morphological

There is much greater homogenization in terms of
morphological and genetic traits at the regional level, says the report.
For example, the brahmins of Tamil Nadu (esp.Iyengars where Ramanujar  converted untouchables) share more
traits with non-Brahmins in the state than with fellow brahmins in western
or northern India.

The sons-of-the-soil theory also stands
demolished. The Anthropological Survey of India has found no community
in the country  that cant remember having migrated from some other part of
the country.Internal migration accounts for much of India’s complex
ethnic landscape, while there is no evidence of a separate or
foreign origin for the upper castes.Among other scientists who reject
the identification of caste (varNa) with race on
physical-anthropological grounds, we may cite Kailash C.
Malhotra:Detailed anthropometric surveys carried out among the people
of Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Bengal and Tamil Nadu revealed
significant regional differences within a caste and a closer resemblance
between castes of different varnas within a region than
between sub-populations of the caste from different regions. On the
basis of analysis of stature, cephalic and nasal index, H.K. Rakshit
(1966) concludes that the Brahmins of India are heterogeneous &
suggest incorporation of more than one physical type involving more
than one migration of people.A more detailed study among 8 brahmin
castes in Maharashtra on whom 18 metric,16 scopic and 8 genetic
markers were studied, revealed not only a great heterogeneity in both
morphological and genetic characteristics but also showed that 3
Brahmin castes were closer to non-Brahmin castes than [to the] other
Brahmin castes.

P.P. Majumdar and K.C. Malhotra (1974) observed a
great deal of heterogeneity with respect to OAB blood group system among
50 brahmin samples spread over 11 Indian states. The evidence thus
suggests that varna is a sociological and not a homogeneous biological


Bharatians  are descendants of stealth shadowy hindutva cult: RSS chief
Mohan Bhagwat said if inhabitants of England are English, Germany are
Germans and USA are Americans then why all inhabitants of Hindustan are
not known as hindutvaites.

That is because :

Dr B.R.Ambedkar thundered “Main Bharat Baudhmay karunga.” (I will make India Buddhist)

All Aboriginal Awakened Societies Thunder ” Hum Prapanch Prabuddha Bharatmay karunge.” (We will make world Prabuddha Prapanch)

Printer Friendly Version
Equip Ideologically To Challenge The Anti-National RSS
By Shamsul Islam
13 August, 2015Countercurrents.org
Photo Courtesy: The Hindu
Friends from India and abroad who are concerned about the increasing
threats to the democratic-secular Indian polity from the Hindutva
organizations have been writing to me for preparing a concise document
on the anti-national game-plan of the RSS and other like-minded
offshoots. The need of such a document is rightly felt for countering
the Hindutva propaganda at all levels. The following document is an
attempt to accomplish this objective. It is hoped that equipped with
this document all those who love India as a democratic-secular nation
would be able to challenge the fountain-head of the Hindutva politics.
This document is based solely on the documents drawn from the RSS
This document underlines the following cardinal principles of the RSS world view:
Doubtlessly Hitler is a great hero for RSS. The RSS as great champions
of Hindutva want to deprive minorities of their all civil and human
rights shamelessly and openly adhering to the totalitarian models of
Hitler. This fascist outlook towards minorities specially Muslims and
Christians was clearly elaborated by the senior ideologue of the RSS, MS
Golwalkar, in his book, We or Our Nationhood Defined. This book
published in the year 1939, gives an insight into the thinking of the
RSS leadership. We find Golwalkar in this book idealizing the Nazi
cultural nationalism of Hitler in the following words:
“German Race
pride has now become the topic of the day. To keep up the purity of the
Race and its culture, Germany shocked the world by her purging the
country of the Semitic Races—the Jews. Race pride at its highest has
been manifested here. Germany has also shown how well-nigh impossible it
is for Races and cultures, having differences going to the root, to be
assimilated into one united whole, a good lesson for us in Hindusthan to
learn and profit by.”
[MS Golwalkar, We Or Our Nationhood Defined, Bharat Publications, Nagpur, 1939, p. 35.]
Golwalkar unhesitatingly wanted to model his Hindu Rashtra or Nation on
Hitler’s totalitarian and fascist pattern as is clear from the
following words of his in the same book:
“It is worth bearing well
in mind how these old Nations solve their minorities [sic] problem. They
do not undertake to recognize any separate element in their polity.
Emigrants have to get themselves naturally assimilated in the principal
mass of the population, the National Race,by adopting its culture and
language and sharing in its aspirations, by losing all consciousness of
their separate existence, forgetting their foreign origin. If they do
not do so, they live merely as outsiders,bound by all the codes and
conventions of the Nation, at the sufferance of the Nation and deserving
no special protection, far less any privilege or rights. There are only
two courses open to the foreign elements, either to merge themselves in
the national race and adopt its culture, or to live at its mercy so
long as the national race may allow them to do so and to quit the
country at the sweet will of the national race. That is the only sound
view on the minorities [sic] problem. That is the only logical and
correct solution. That alone keeps the national life healthy and
undisturbed. That alone keeps the nation safe from the danger of a
cancer developing into its body politic of the creation of a state
within a state.”
[MS Golwalkar, We Or Our Nationhood Defined, Bharat Publications, Nagpur, 1939, p. 47.]
RSS and its fraternal organization, Hindu Mahasabha were very angry
when Indian Constituent Assembly adopted a democratic-Secular
Constitution under the supervision of Dr. BR Ambedkar. VD Savarkar as
leader of Hindutva believed:
“Manusmriti is that scripture which is
most worship-able afterVedas for our Hindu Nation and which from ancient
times has become the basis of our culture-customs, thought andpractice.
This book for centuries has codified the spiritualand divine march of
our nation. Even today the rules which are followed by crores of Hindus
in their lives and practiceare based on Manusmriti. Today Manusmriti is
Hindu Law”.
[VD Savarkar, ‘Women in Manusmriti’ in Savarkar Samagar
(collection of Savarkar’s writings in Hindi), vol. 4, Prabhat, Delhi, p.
The democratic-secular Indian Constitution was adopted by the
Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949, RSSEnglish organ, Organizer
in an editorial on November 30, 1949, complained:
“But in our
constitution there is no mention of the unique constitutional
development in ancient Bharat. Manu’s Laws were written long before
Lycurgus of Sparta or Solon of Persia. To this day his laws as
enunciated in the Manusmriti excite the admiration of the world and
elicit spontaneous obedience and conformity. But to our constitutional
pundits that means nothing”.
How loyal the RSS is to the Constitution of India can be known by the following statement of Golwalkar:
“Our Constitution too is just a cumbersome and heterogeneous piecing
together of various articles from various Constitutions of the Western
countries. It has absolutely nothing which can be called our own. Is
there a single word of reference in its guiding principles as to what
our national mission is and what our keynote in life is? No!”
[MS Golwalkar, Bunch of Thoughts, Sahitya Sindhu, Bangalore, 1996, p. 238.]
Golwalkar, the most prominent ideologue of the RSS like Savarkar,
believed that Casteism was a natural integral part of Hinduism. In fact,
Golwalkar went to the extent of declaring that Casteism was synonymous
with the Hindu nation. According to him, the Hindu people are none else
but, “the Virat Purusha, the Almighty manifesting himself… [according to
purusha sukta] sun and moon are his eyes, the stars and the skies are
created from his nabhi [navel] and Brahmin is the head, Kshatriya the
hands, Vaishya the thighs and Shudra the feet. This means that the
people who have this fourfold arrangement, i.e., the Hindu People, is
[sic] our God. This supreme vision of Godhead is the very core of our
concept of ‘nation’ and has permeated our thinking and given rise to
various unique concepts of our cultural heritage.[Italics as in the
[MS Golwalkar, Bunch of Thoughts, Sahitya Sindhu, Bangalore, 1996, pp. 36-37.]
The English organ of the RSS,Organizer (dated August 14, 1947) carried
afeature titled ‘mystery behind the bhagwa dhawaj’ (saffronflag) which
while demanding hoisting of saffron flag at theramparts of Red Fort in
Delhi, openly denigrated the choice of the Tri-colour as the National
Flag in the following words:
“The people who have come to power by
the kick of fate may give in our hands the Tricolour but it never be
respected and owned by Hindus. The word three is in itself an evil, and a
flag having three colours will certainly produce a very bad
psychological effect and is injurious to a country.”
Thus the National Flag was declared to be inauspicious and injurious for India!
The RSS since its inception loves absolute power. Golwalkar while
addressing the 1350 top level cadres of the RSS at its headquarters at
Nagpur in 1940 declared:
“The RSS inspired by one flag, one leader
and one ideologyis lighting the flame of Hindutva in each and every
corner ofthis great land.”
[MS Golwalkar, Shri Guruji Samagar
Darshan (collected works of Golwalkar in Hindi), Bhartiya Vichar Sadhna,
Nagpur, nd, vol. I, p. 11.]
This slogan of one flag, one leader and
one ideology was directly borrowed from the programmes of the Nazi and
Fascist Parties of Europe.
On federalism Golwalkar sent the following message to the first session of the National Integration Council in 1961. It read:
“Today’s federal form of government not only gives birth butalso
nourishes the feelings of separatism, in a way refuses torecognize the
fact of one nation and destroys it. It must be completely uprooted,
constitution purified and unitary form of government be established.”
[MS Golwalkar, Shri Guruji Samagar Darshan (collected works of
Golwalkar in Hindi), Bhartiya Vichar Sadhna, Nagpur, nd, vol. III, p.
These have not been some stray ideas of the RSS ideologue on the Indian
Federalism. The Bible of the RSS, Bunch of Thoughts, has an exclusive
chapter titled, ‘Wanted a unitary state’ in which Golwalkar presenting
his remedy to the federal set-upof India wrote:
“The most important
and effective step will be to bury deep for good all talk of a federal
structure of our country’s Constitution, to sweepaway the existence of
all ‘autonomous’ or semi-autonomous ‘states’within the one state viz.,
Bharat and proclaim ‘One Country, OneState, One Legislature, One
Executive’ with no trace offragmentational[sic], regional, sectarian,
linguistic or other types of pridebeing given a scope for playing havoc
with our integrated harmony.Let the Constitution be re-examined and
re-drafted, so as to establishthis Unitary form of Government…”
[MS Golwalkar, Bunch of Thoughts, Sahitya Sindhu, Bangalore, 1996, p. 227.]
Organizations like the Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP), Hindu Jagran Manch
(HJM) and Bajrang Dal (BD), and other affiliates of the RSS after using
Gujarat as a laboratory for religious cleansing of minorities specially
Christians and Muslims for last so many years are spreading their
tentacle throughout India. The leaflets containing highly provocative
statements like, “‘Muslims are filth of the gutter, don’t let them enter
in your houses’,or ‘Wherever Christian priests have gone in the world,
they loot thepeople. Lies and deceit are their religion. The Christian
priests teachpeople to tell lies, to steal in the name of religion…They
curse Hindus,and decry the Hindu religion. Awaken Hindus and struggle
againstthese thieves who lie, who rob you of your rights, and bring
thesepeople to their senses and put their pride in place’, or ‘One
additionin the population of Christians or Muslims is not only the
addition ofanti-Hindu but anti-national person.’”
[Leaflets circulated by the RSS offsprings like VHP, Hindu Jagaran Manch, and Bajrang Dal]
The ‘Holy’ book for the RSS cadres Bunch of Thoughts, has a long
chaptertitled as ‘Internal Threats’ in which Muslims and Christians are
described as threatnumber one and two respectively. This chapter opens
with the following statement:
“It has been the tragic lesson of the
history of many a country in theworld that the hostile elements within
the country pose a far greatermenace to national security then
aggressors from outside.”
[MS Golwalkar, Bunch of Thoughts, Sahitya Sindhu, Bangalore, 1996, p. 177.]
While treating Muslims as hostile element number one he goes on to
elaborate, “Even to this day there are so many who say, ‘now there is no
Muslimproblem at all. All those riotous elements who supported Pakistan
have gone away once for all. The remaining Muslims are devoted toour
country. After all, they have no other place to go and they arebound to
remain loyal’….It would be suicidal to delude ourselves intobelieving
that they have turned patriots overnight after the creation ofPakistan.
On the contrary, the Muslim menace has increased ahundredfold by the
creation of Pakistan which has become aspringboard for all their future
aggressive designs on our country.”
[MS Golwalkar, Bunch of Thoughts, Sahitya Sindhu, Bangalore, 1996, pp. 177-78.]
He goes on to spit venom against common Muslims in the following words:
“…within the country there are so many Muslim pockets, i.e., so many
‘miniature Pakistans’… The conclusion is that, in practically every
place, there are Muslims who are in constant touch with Pakistan over
the transmitter…”
[MS Golwalkar, Bunch of Thoughts, Sahitya Sindhu, Bangalore, 1996, p. 185.]
While deliberating on the ‘Internal Threat’ number two, he says, “such
is the role of Christian gentlemen residing in our land today, out to
demolish not only the religious and social fabric of our life but also
to establish political domination in various pockets and if possible all
over the land.”
[MS Golwalkar, Bunch of Thoughts, Sahitya Sindhu, Bangalore, 1996, p. 193.]
Golwalkar, finally, following into the footsteps of Hitler had the followingsolution of the minority problem in India:
“From this stand point, sanctioned by the experience of shrewd
oldnations, the foreign races in Hindusthan must either adopt the
Hinduculture and language, must learn to respect and hold in
reverenceHindu religion, must entertain no idea but those of the
glorification ofthe Hindu race and culture, i.e., of the Hindu nation
and must losetheir separate existence to merge in the Hindu race, or may
stay in thecountry, wholly subordinated to the Hindu Nation, claiming
nothing,deserving no privileges, far less any preferential treatment not
evencitizen’s rights. There is, at least should be, no other course for
themto adopt. We are an old nation: let us deal, as old nations ought
toand do deal, with the foreign races who have chosen to live in our
[MS Golwalkar, We Or Our Nationhood Defined, Bharat Publications, Nagpur, 1939, pp. 47-48.]
The RSS hatred for Muslims and Christians does not mean that it accords
equality to other religious Indian minorities like Sikhs, Buddhist and
Jains. It does not accord the status of independent religions to
Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism and treats them as part of Hinduism.
Importantly, the RSS organ Organizer in its issue on the very eve of
Independence, dated 14 August, 1947, rejected the whole concept of a
composite nation (under the editorial title ‘Whither’): ”Let us no
longer allow ourselves to be influenced by false notions of nationhood.
Much of the mental confusion and the present and future troubles can be
removed by the ready recognition of the simple fact that in Hindusthan
only the Hindus form the nation and the national structure must be built
on that safe and sound foundation […] the nation itself must be built
up of Hindus, on Hindu traditions, culture, ideas and aspirations”.
Shamsul Islam is a former professor of Delhi UniversityEmail: notoinjustice@gmail.com


VOLUME-9, ISSUE-2, FEBRUARY-2020 • PRINT ISSN No. 2277 - 8160 • DOI : 10.36106/gjra

Original Research Paper


Pharmacologist, Thane (W) *Corresponding Author



Dr. Girish Joshi*

The “Konkanastha Brahmins” also called the “Chitpavan
Brahmins” are a Brahmin community of the Konkan region of
the Indian State of Maharasthra. The community had
historically been very important to local Maharashtrian
politics, and Indian politics as a whole, as it provided the
Peshwas, i.e. the Prime ministers of the Maratha Empire that
was the most dominant state in the subcontinent in the pre-
colonial period and had come to rule most of the region. (1)

Unheard of before 1700, the Chitpavan Brahmins of
Maharashtra came to dominate the elds of social reform,
law, scholarship, government service and the arts by the
nineteenth century. Their two names, Konkanasth and
Chitpavan, suggest their origins. The rst name “Konka
nastha” indicates the rocky, unyielding land in the Ratnagiri
district of the Konkan, which they have traditionally farmed.
Thus all Konkanasths can trace their history as far as the
Konkan. (2)

The name, “Chitpavan”, would seem to have come from the
Konkan town of “Chitpol”. When you spot a Maharashtrian
with blue or green eyes, 1 : 10 he is a Chitpavan. And his fair
colour suggests a foreign origin. A history of the Bene-Israelis,
who settled in the Kolaba district of the Konkan, claims the
Chitpavans as fellow Jews who became separated from their
shipmates. Further accounts have guessed at a homeland
anywhere from Iran to just north of Sholapur. (2)

Few historians and anthropologists are of the view that the
Chitpavans came to India from Egypt, while others say they
came from Greece
. A typical Chitpavan has usually a fair
complexion, has a sharp nose and steel-grey eyes. He can be
thus also be called handsome. Chitpavan girls possess good
physical features but tend to took pale. (2)

There are multiple theories about the etymology of the word
“Chitpavan”: The word means pure from pyre” and is derived
from the Sanskrit words Chita (”pyre”) and Pavan (”pure”).

The word means “pure-hearted” and is derived from the
Sanskrit words Chitta (”heart”) and Pavan (”pure”)

Figure 1: Geographical location of the Konkan Districts in

The rst written reference mentioning the community name as
van Brahmin was found in the statement 4 of a Brahmin
named Raghun
th from Knshi city (currently known as
rnasi ) in his book on astrology titled “Muhurtml” written
in October 1661. He stated that he was a “Sh
ndilya Gotri”
van Brhmin from Plshet in Konkan and his grand

father Nrusimha, a well known astrologer, was conferred the
title of “Jyotirvitsaras” by the Moghul Emperor Akbar in 1599
A.D. The Brahmin Raghun
th must have learnt his caste name
Chitpvan from his grandfather Nrusimha who had migrated
to Kashi from Konkan. Nrusimha also must have learnt it from
his father. Therefore the name “Chitpavan” must have been
used as back as 1570. (3)

The reference in a letter dated 19th Feb 1677 written by a clerk
in service of King Shiv
ji Maharaj. The letter mentioned that
“Deshstha, Karh
de and Chitpvan brhmins lived in Kokan
area and were honored on for their merit”. After 1700 A.D.
many documents one can nd were the word Chitp
van is
used. The rst document mentioning Chitp
van surnames
Ganapule, R
nade and Parnjape was dated 1600 A.D.

Until 1700 A.D. Chitpvans were practically unknown to the
world outside. Around 1690 one Chitp
van named Balji Bhat
left Konkan and went to Pune city in search of a job. Being hard
working and intelligent person and so inspite of starting as a
clerk he rose to the post of Peshawa (’Foremost’ in Persian) in
1713. (3)

In another reference, the author began the study by offering a
brief history of the land “Konkan”. The western coast was well
known for its trading and commercial relations and was
dominated by Hindu dynasties, by Mohammedian, Portu
guese, Maratha and nally by British rule. (4)

The “Parashurama” myth is widely accepted in Maharashtra
for explaining the origin of the Chitpavans. In the chapter the
author, therefore has traced the myth through its different
stages of development. The popular version of the myth
recognizes the fact that the Konkan was a “
Gift of the sea”, a
fact veried by geologists.

In the myth, Lord Parashurama was everywhere the hero, and
the father of the people. The next point in the myth was the
story of creation of fourteen (14 Brahmins ) from the corpses of
the dead resulting from the shipwreck. Accordingly,
interpreters point to Persia, Africa and other distant areas as
the place of origin of the Chitpavans. But the most that can be
inferred from the myth is that the Chitpavans were

The “Puranic version” of the myth states that Parashurama,
after settling in the new land, invited Brahmins from other
parts of the country to assist him in his sacrices. Since they
refused, Lord Parashurama resolved to create new Brahmins,
and, decrying some people crossing the beach, he found that
they were sherman with sixty (60) families in their caste. He
made them all into Brahmins, and because the initiation took
place in the cremation ground they were called Chitpavans.
There is however no suggestion of an immigration.

The rst attempt at tracing the origin of the Chitpavans was
the reference of R.S. Mandlik who maintained that the
ancestors of the people must have come from the sea in a ship,
possibly from Eastern sea-board of south Africa and were
probably “Berbers”. They were then assimilated into the
Dravida Brahmins. Sir R.G. Bandarkar also thought that the


VOLUME-9, ISSUE-2, FEBRUARY-2020 • PRINT ISSN No. 2277 - 8160 • DOI : 10.36106/gjra

Chitpavans were Nordics conrming Mandlik’s view, but
asserting that they came from “Palestine”. (4)

Mr. V.K Rajwade based his interpretation on the Parashurama
shaka (era) and maintained that Parashurama means Rema
belonged to the country of the “Parsus” of Parsis. He also
connected the name Parashurama with the Bhrgus, and the
Bhrgus with the Phrygians or Persians. Mr. VK Rajwade also
has afrmed that the colonisation of the Konkan by
Parashurama and his followers took place after the battle of
the Mahabharata

Mr VK Rajwade also had tried to show that many of the
surnames of the Chitpavans are in reality the names of
ancient Rishis prevalent as Gotras before Bauddhayana thus
concluding that the Chitpavans had come to the Konkan long
before Bauddhayana. (4)

The next interpreter was Mr.Sane. He criticized Mr. VK
Rajwade in some directions and had stated that the
Chitpavans came originally from “Cutch” or “Kathiawar” as
their language show points of similarity with the Cutchi
language. The author devoted the chapter to see how far and
in what degree Lord Parashurama was connected with the rest
of the Western coast. Gujarat, the northern part of this coastal
strip, was linked with the name of “Bhrgu” and not with that of
Parashurama. In Kerala, to the south, Parashurama occured
in frequent association with persons, populations and
occurrences. There is a tradition in these parts of Brahmins
being brought from north India. From a survey of this material
the author had concluded that the Chitpavans and not the
other Brahmin groups were most closely connected with the
Parashurama myth.

The working hypothesis which emerges from the myth was that
Parashurama with a few others plotted to kill the “Haihaya
princes”. From their home on the Ganges these heroes
travelled all the way to the Narmada where the Haihaya
princes was killed; but the party had to ee in haste and went
to the lonely western coast either via Nasik or by sea-route via
Prabhasa. In the perilous journey, all save a handful were
killed. Parashurama brought women from the south and got
them married to his followers. It were these political refugees
who were the forefathers of the Chitpavans.

Turning to the question of the period when Parashurama lived,
the author examines the evidence and concludes that he must
have lived somewhere between 2000 and 2500 B.C

The Chitpavan Brahmins have two sub-groups: the Rigvedi
Konkanastha and the Yajurvedi Konkanastha. They belong to
the Smartha Sect. The community comprises fourteen (14)
“Gotras” (clans) which as one of the regulators of marriage
are linked with sains and sages. The Gotras are Atri, Kapi,
Kashyap, Koundinya, Gargya, Kaushik, Jamadagni,
Nityundana, Bhargava, Bharadwaj, Vatsya, Vashistha,
Vishnuvruddha and Shandilya.

All the fourteen (14) Gotras are clustered into seven (7) groups
which are known as the “Gana”. A gotra belonging to a
particular gana cannot be considered for marriage with
another gotra of same gana. The gana are as follows:- Atri-
Kapi, Gargya-Bhardwaj, Koundiya-Vashistha, Kashyap-Shan
dilya, Kaushik-Bhargava, amadagni-Vatsa, Nityundana-
Vishnuvruddha. Chitpavans also revere deities connected
with gotras known as the “Devakas” and each family worships
it’s respective Devaka at the time of marriage, while
individuals with the same devaka can marry. There are four
hundred and forty (440) surnames amongst Konkanastha

The Chitpavans of today thus seem to be a mixture of the

northern Indo-Aryans and the southern Dravidians. And
Rajwade’s interpretation of the name Chitpavan seems most
plausible. The Bhrgus were noted as re-priests and one way
of arranging the re was the construction of chiti, bricks laid
out in a certain way to contain the sacred re. The Brahmins
led by Parashurama probably arranged their re in this way,
and therefore, blessed by Chityagni and hence got the name
Chityapavan, later corrupted to Chitpavan. (4)

https://joshuaproject.net/people_groups/19935/IN (5)

Figure 2: Peoples of South Asia, Brahman Chitpavan,
Districts 155

In the book, Shri/ Mr. Lele has made several original points not
generally known to everybody. Thus for example, the Kula
Devata of Chitale family is Vindhyavasini in Uttar Pradesh,
and not some temple in Konkan. (6)

In other reference it’s stated that for to this day the true
Chitpavan perserves their fair skin, the strange grey eyes, the
aspect of rened strength and intelligence, which might had
characterized the shipwrecked mariners of old fable and
marked them out in later years as strangers in a strange land.
But once came they, these foreign immigrants, who after long
sojourn in the country of their adoption moved upwards to the
Deccan and stood within the shadow of the Peshwa’s throne ?

The lesson to be learned from their home dialect and from
their strange surnames,–Gogte, Lele, Karve, Gadre, Hingne
and so on,–was that the Chitpavan Brahmans of Western
India came in legendary ages from Gedrosia, Kirman and the
Makran coast, and that prior to their domicile in those
latitudes they probably formed part of the population of
ancient Egypt or Africa (7)

40 years ago Rao Saheb V. N. Mandlik remarked that “the
ancestors of the tribe probably came by ships either from
some other port in India or from the opposite coast of Africa;”
and in these later days his theory is corroborated by General
Haig, who traces them back to the great marts on the Indus
and thence still further back to the Persian Gulf and Egypt.
Why or at what date they left the famous country of the
Pharaohs, none can say: but that these white-skinned
Brahmans are descendants of such people as the Berbers,
who belonged of right to the European races, seems the most
plausible theory of their origin yet put forward, and serves as
an additional proof of the enormous inuence exercised upon
posterity by the famous country of the Nile. (7)

In a study regards genomic analyses, the Chitpavan brahmin
demonstrated younger maternal component and substantial
paternal gene ow from West Asia, thus giving credence to

Photo Source


Map Source

Joshua Project / Global Mapping

Prole Source

David Kugel
Reference number (5)

Data Sources

Data is compiled from various sources.
Read more

* Religion Values

From latest India census data. Current
values may differ.


VOLUME-9, ISSUE-2, FEBRUARY-2020 • PRINT ISSN No. 2277 - 8160 • DOI : 10.36106/gjra

their recent Irano-Scythian ancestry from Mediterranean or
Turkey, which correlated well with European-looking features
of this caste. This also explained their untraceable ethno-
history before 1000 years, brahminization event and later
amalgamation by Maratha. (8)

The contributors to the study observed 15% similar HVS -1
sequence motif (M4 lineage) between Chitpavan-brahmin
and Bene-Israeli (or Indian Jews), probably suggesting similar
indigenous Paleolithic contribution.(8).
The non-recombining
uniparental contributions in Chitpavan-brahmin
Mediterranean or East European type as shown by 20% (HV,
U3) mtDNA lineages and highly frequent (R1a and L) Y-

Photo 1 Distribution of Y-haplogroups in caste populations of
Western India.

The admixture and PC analyses (Figure 1) reected genetic
association of Chitpavan-brahmin with Iranian, Ashkenazi-
Jews (Turkey), Greeks (East Europe) and to some extent with
Central Asian Turkish populations elucidating their distinct
Nordic, “Scytho-Iranian” ancestry. The Caucasian link of
Chitpavan-brahmin has also been inferred from biparental
microsatellitesvariations(Photo 2).(8)

Photo 2 Admixture estimates based on Bi and Uni-parental
genetic markers in caste populations of Western India.

The observed genomic analyses in the study asserted the
ethnographical fact that Chitpavan-brahmin share ancestry
with conspicuously European-looking Pagan or Alpine group,
who under religious pressure had migrated from Anatolian
Turkey or East Europe to Gujarat coast probably via sea-
vessel. Besides their documented history is untraceable
beyond 1000 years, further indicating that they were not part of
the original Vedic migrations (early Indo-European) on the
west coast.(8)

Haplotypes ) those of the Jews. (9)

Some genetic studies by Dr. Oak had given an opinion that the
Chitpavans are related to the Parsis of Gujarat state. A few
similarities in re worship have been pointed out. Another
author has stated that the Chipavans might be a hybrid race
of the Parsis, the Jews, the Kashmiri Pandits and the Egyptian
Berbers. (10)

The controversial reference states that the Portuguese girls
marrying Hindu Brahmins is foolish as Brahmins of that age
would never have accepted such a thing. And most
importantly, of the 14 Gotras of Chitpavans, a few are not
found in the Gotras of other Marathi Brahmins although they
are found in other Brahmin communities of India.The strange
thing is that, the 14 Gotras do not perfectly match as a subset
of any other Brahmin communities in India, hence the theory of

In an observation based on the uni-parental markers from
fathers highR1a+LsuggestatmosttheycamefromPakistan/
Balochistan. These two are common in India/Pakistan and
less frequent in other countries in that part of the sea shore.
(Kerala -Pak- Arabia-Egypt-Africa-Portugese-Spain). Very few
Jewish related markers so it is also not true. (12)

Based on overall genetic prole they were found close to West
Asia / East Europe/ Ashkanazi Jewish so is most of North
Indians/Pakistanis. So it is not new. But they have more female
haplo groups to inuence this in their particular caste group
ratio wise. So it may be true that they were immigrants who lost
in sea. But the men might have got sicker while ghting the
rough sea and woman survived. Or the men are so few and
when they merged to Brahmin community the local people
with more numbers became majority part of the group. (12)

As per another opinion, the Chitpavans were descendants of a
mixed race formed during the early Portuguese conquest
when they sought diplomacy through marriage by offering the
daughters of the king - Orfas del Rei - to some powerful
Deshastha and Karhada landowning families in the Konkan.
The Orfas del Rei, were orphans from Catholic families in
Europe and middle east, whose fathers had died in war etc.
The Portuguese regularly sent ships of such girls to faraway
lands as wives for their expats and also local rulers. Because
of this, the Chitpavans got the Gotra of their fathers, however
they were still not considered as full Brahmins untill about 6
generations. It was only after the succesful completion of the
Gramanyaas in Satara in the late 1800s that the Chitpawan
got a full Brahmin status. The Portuguese ploy did not work,
because of a strong Hindutva sentiment in those days under
Shivaji and his rst Peshvas the Pingle and Kulkarni families.
The fourth Peshwa was actually a Chitpawan. (13)

There are a few theories on the origin of the konkanstha
brahmins, none of them are completely accuarate. Therefore,
the present genome analyses conducted provides conclusive
evidence of their recent migration, genesis, and expansion
after they migrated from “Sopara” (India’s western trade
zone) to the geographically isolated Konkan-region, where
they adopted Konkani language and cultivated cash crop.
The 15% similar HVS -1 sequence motif (M4 lineage) is
observed between Chitpavan-brahmin and Bene-Israeli (or
Indian Jews).(14).

So as per the observations they could be greek decendants
but chances of them being bene israeli’s is more. Either ways
all research done till date show that they migrated from the
Mediterranean or East European region to India.

Although today, Chitpavan or Kokanastha Brahmin
community members are found all over the world, they num

Chitpavans are Bene Israeli Jews:
Asst. Professor/ Professor of Anatomy & Genetics at the Jubilee
Mission Medical College of Thrissur and Kolenchery College
of Medicine started her herculean task to diagnose hundreds
of blood samples for DNA mapping at the HyderabadCenter.
When she shared her ndings with Prof George Menacherry in
2005 he included a sentence about her nding in his
presentation at the Church History Association of India. Dr.
Kariappa’s research found that Chitpavan Brahmins , Tulu
Brahmins, The Namboothiri Brahmins and the Naranis or
Syrian Christians all have the same DNA factors ( common

In 2001 Dr. Mini Kariappa


VOLUME-9, ISSUE-2, FEBRUARY-2020 • PRINT ISSN No. 2277 - 8160 • DOI : 10.36106/gjra

ber only around 500000 and about 10000 to 15000 outside
India. Less than 300 years ago, this community was strictly
isolated in a small area around Chiplun in Konkan in
Maharashtra. Because of this genetic isolation, members of
this community share several similar characteristics or a
“genetic” bond. (15)


  1. Origin and genetics of Chitpavan Brahmins? – Anthrogenica. June 5, 2017

  2. The Chitpavans by Linda Cox -kokanastha.com Nov 19, 2001 - The

    Chitpavans by Linda Cox a research article.

  3. IN SEARCH OF ROOTS OF CHITPVANS by Arun V. Joglekar Source:

    http://www.academia.edu/31049322/IN_SEAR CH_OF_ROOTS_OF_CHITP%


  4. The Chitpavan Brahmins — A Social and Ethnic Study Author: Irawati

    Kane,Degree: MA (Dept. of Sociology, University of Bombay) / Year of

    Submission: 1928 / Guide: G.S. Ghurye

  5. https://joshuaproject.net/people_groups/19935/IN

  6. Chitpavan Konkanastha Brahmins’ History (Pre and Proto) - Yogeshwar Kutir

    Publications (2018) - Vibhakar Lele.

  7. By-Ways of Bombay (http://www.fullbooks.com/By-Ways-of-Bombay.html) by

    S. M. Edwardes. C.V.O. XIV. A KONKAN LEGEND.

  8. Molecular insight into the genesis of ranked caste populations of western

    India based upon polymorphisms across nonrecombinant and recombinant
    regions in genome by Sonali Gaikwad and VK Kashyap. National DNA
    Analysis Center, Central Forensic Science Laboratory, Kolkata -700014, India.
    http://genomebiology.com/2005/6/8/P10 ….

  9. In 2001 Dr. Mini Kariappa Asst. Professor/ Professor of Anatomy & Genetics at
    the Jubilee Mission Medical College of Thrissur and Kolenchery College of

  10. https://www.quora.com/Is-it-true-that-Chitpavan-Brahmins-and-Ashkenazi-

  11. Udayan Karmarkar, Electronics Engineer, Political enthusiast, Interest in
    History and economics Answered May 27, 2015. Originally Answered:
    Chitpavan: Is it true that Chitpavan Brahmans and Ashkenazi Jews have
    same origin?

  12. Nathan Paul, Answered Dec 29, 2015. Originally Answered: Chitpavan: Is it
    true that Chitpavan Brahmans and Ashkenazi Jews have same origin?

  13. Arthur Gurdjer Answered Jan 25, 2015. Originally Answered: Who are the
    ancestors of konkanstha brahmins?

  14. Jay Bagri, School & College Branding Specialist | www.iosignite.com
    Answered Jun 7, 2013

  15. Chitpavanism: A Tribute to Chitpavan (Kokanastha) Brahmin Culture
    Hardcover – 2003by Jagannath (Jay) Dixit


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