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LESSON 3427 Thu 27 Aug 2020
The Welfare, Happiness, Peace of All Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Peace as Final Goal.
KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA-It
is a 18 feet Dia All White Pagoda with may be a table or, but be sure
to having above head level based on the usual use of the room. in 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL III Stage,
Prabuddha Bharat Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru
Magadhi Karnataka State
Dr B.R.Ambedkar thundered “Main Bharat Baudhmay karunga.” (I will make India Buddhist)
The Buddha died at the age of 80 by the banks of a river at Kusinari in Prabuddha Bharat. Lying on his side with his head propped up by his handand a serene expression, the Buddha passed into Nibbana. This moment is captured in the image of the Reclining Buddha which can be seen in many statues throughout Thailand, most famously at Wat Po in Bangkok.
Nibbana is a blissful state with no suffering and no reincarnation.
All Buddha’s original own words in a theravada chronological order
The pattern of social classes in Hinduism is called the “caste
system.” The chart shows the major divisions and contents of the
system. Basic caste is called varṇa, , or “color.” Subcaste, or jâti, , “birth, life, rank,” is a traditional subdivision of varṇa. Sometimes “caste” is avoided as a word for varṇa.
Whether or not that is done, it is common for “caste” to be used for
the subcastes. Combined with the four “stages of life,” the âśramas, , the system becomes the varṇâśramadharma, , the “dharma of classes and orders.” One’s duty, or dharma, , in life depends on the variables of caste, sex, and stage of life.
The Bhagavad Gita says this about the varṇas:
 The works of Brahmins, Kṣatriyas, Vaiśyas, and Śûdras are different, in harmony with the three powers of their born nature.
 The works of a Brahmin () are peace; self-harmony, austerity, and purity; loving-forgiveness and righteousness; vision and wisdom and faith.
 These are the works of a Kṣatriya (): a heroic mind, inner fire, constancy, resourcefulness, courage in battle, generosity and noble leadership.
 Trade, agriculture and the rearing of cattle is the work of a Vaiśya (). And the work of the Śûdra () is service.
[chapter 18, Juan Mascaró translation, Penguin Books, 1962; spelling of castes altered]
There are literally thousands of subcastes in India, often with
particular geographical ranges, occupational specializations, and an
administrative or corporate structure. When Mahâtmâ Gandhi
wanted to go to England to study law, he had to ask his subcaste, the
Modh Bania, for permission to leave India. (”Bania”, means “merchant,”
and “Gandhi” means “greengrocer” — from gandha, “smell,
fragrance,” in Sanskrit — and that should be enough for a good guess
that Gandhi was a Vaiśya.) Sometimes it is denied that the varṇas are “castes” because, while “true” castes, the jâtis, are based on birth, the varṇas are based on the theory of the guṇas (the “three powers” mentioned in the Gita). This is no more than a rationalization: the varṇas came first, and they are based on birth. The guṇas came later, and provide a poor explanation anyway, since the guṇa tamas
is associated with both twice born and once born, caste and outcaste,
overlapping the most important religious and social divisions in the
system. Nevertheless, the varṇas are now divisions at a theoretical level, while the jâtis are the way in which caste is embodied for most practical purposes. Jâtis themselves can be ranked in relation to each other, and occasionally a question may even be raised about the proper varṇa to which a particular jâti belongs. As jâti members change occupations and they rise in prestige, a jâti may rarely even be elevated in the varṇa to which it is regarded as belonging.
The urge to deny that varṇas are “castes”
is part of a larger apologetic that we can understand as a project to
reform the more disturbing characteristics of traditional Hinduism.
Given the eternity of the Vedas, it should be, strictly speaking,
perplexing why and impossible that they need to be “reformed.” If it can be denied, however, the morally objectionable practices were ever proper parts of Vedic religion, then we get both reform and eternal truths at the same time. Thus, the theory of varṇas
was descriptive of individual talents and vocations, not of social
station by birth. And, since, indeed, things like Untouchability are
not even mentioned in sacred texts, such as the Bhagavad Gita, their illegitimacy is self-evident. Satî, (”suttee”),
was not a traditional sanctified practice of burning widows, but a
desperate measure by women to avoid rape by British soldiers [note].
“Thugee” was not a plague of murder and terror by devotees of Kâlî but
a fiction invented by the British to discredit Hinduism. All of this
may not seem entirely honest as history; but as a strategy for reform,
its point may be sympathetically well taken. The habit of such creative
interpretation, however, elicites less sympathy when it merely serves a
nationalistic mythology, as discussed elsewhere.
Associated with each varṇa there is a traditional color. These
sound suspiciously like skin colors; and, indeed, there is an
expectation in India that higher caste people will have lighter skin —
although there are plenty of exceptions (especially in the South of
India). This all probably goes back to the original invasion of the Arya,
who came from Central Asia and so were undoubtedly light skinned. The
people already in India were quite dark, even as today many people in
India seem positively black. Apart from skin color, Indians otherwise
have “Caucasian” features — narrow noses, thin lips, etc. — and recent
studies seem to show that Indians are more closely related to the people
of the Middle East and Europe than to anyone else. Because
Untouchables are not a varṇa, they do not have a traditional color. I have supplied blue, since this is otherwise not found, and it is traditionally used for the skin color of Viṣṇu and his incarnations. Chief among those is Kṛṣṇa (Krishna), whose name actually means “black” or “dark,” but he is always shown blue rather than with some natural skin color.
The first three varṇas are called the twice born — dvija, . This has nothing to do with reincarnation. Being “twice born” means that you come of age religiously, making you a member of the Vedic religion, eligible to learn Sanskrit, study the Vedas, and perform Vedic rituals. The “second birth” is thus like Confirmation or a Bar Mitzvah. This understanding may be interestingly compared with the assertion of the Śatapatha Brâhmaṇa that:
Unborn, indeed, is a man so long as he does not
sacrifice. It is through the sacrifice that he is born, just as an egg
first burst. [Patrick Olivelle, The Âśrama System, Oxford, 1993, p.39]
But sacrifice is performed by a householder, not by a student. The Brâhmaṇa
posits three births, first from the womb (which is compared to a fire
and even to an altar in its own right), then from sacrifice (on the
household fire altar), and finally in the cremation fire. But if we
compare this to the four stages of life, there is a curious parallel.
The student is born again but actually labors in preparation to become a
householder, who is characterized by sacrifice (which cannot be done
without marriage). This parallels the stage of the wandering ascetic,
who ritually dies at the moment of renunciation but then labors in
preparation for actual death and cremation. So, if cremation is a form
of rebirth, then renunciation is the rehearsal for this as studenthood
is for sacrifice. I am not aware, however, that much is ever really
made of this comparison.
According to the Laws of Manu (whose requirements may not
always be observed in modern life), boys are “born again” at specific
ages: 8 for Brahmins; 11 for Kṣatriyas; and 12 for Vaiśyas. A thread
is bestowed at the coming of age to be worn around the waist as the
symbol of being twice born. The equivalent of coming of age for girls
is marriage — although women are not always considered part of the âśrama
system at all. Nevertheless, the bestowal of the thread is part of the
wedding ceremony. That part of the wedding ritual is even preserved in
Jainism. Ancient Iran also had a coming of age ceremony that involved a thread. That and other evidence leads to the speculation that the three classes of the twice born are from the original Indo-European social system — the theory of Georges Dumézil. Even the distant Celts believed in three social classes. The three classes of Plato’s Republic
thus may not have been entirely his idea. Although there must have
been a great deal of early intermarriage in India, nowhere did such an
Indo-European social system become as rigid a system of birth as there. The rigidity may well be due to the influence of the idea of karma, that poor birth is morally deserved.
According to the Laws of Manu, when the twice born come of age, they enter into the four âśramas, ,
or “stages of life.” I notice that dictionaries I have, both of
Sanskirt and Hindi, say that these apply to Brahmins. But there is no
doubt, from the Laws of Manu and from the history, that all they
apply to all the twice born. Nevertheless, various anomalous
constructions of the system occur.
Thus the Vâmana Purâṇa confines the stage of wandering
ascetic to Brahmins, denies studenthood to Vaiśyas, and allows
householdership to Śûdras. Denying studenthood to Vaiśyas and allowing
any âśrama to Śûdras contradicts almost every authority on dharma, including other parts of the Vâmana Purâṇa
itself. These provisions apparently result from the kind of
systematizing beloved of the tradition, i.e. that Brahmins live four
stages, Kṣatriyas three, Vaiśyas two, and Śûdras one. An element of
that may reflect the actual debate that, since marriage defines
householdership, and since Śûdras do legitimately marry, then they
legitimately become householders. Nevertheless, the âśramas were
only rarely allowed to include the once born, and at times Śûdras were
sanctioned with death for ascetic practices. More orthodox but still
anomalous is the version in the Vaikhânasa Dharmasûtra, which allows all four âśramas
for Brahmins, the first three for Kṣatriyas, and the first two for
Vaiśyas. This excludes Śûdras and provides studenthood for Vaiśyas, but
it limits or abolishes the ascetic stages outside the Brahmin varṇa.
Less systematized was how long the stages should each last, and various versions can be found. The Nâradaparivrâjaka Upaniṣad
specified 12 years for a student and 25 years for both householder and
forest dweller. Adding the 8 years of childhood for a Brahmin, this
adds up to 70 years — coincidentally the Biblical “three score and
ten.” The ideal Indian lifespan, however, was more like between 100 and
116 years, which leaves a very long time for the Brahmin to be a
wandering acetic. I suspect that it would have been unusual, however,
for a Kṣatriya or Vaiśya to have lived with a teacher even as much as
the share of the first 20 years allowed by their later coming-of-age.
The three debts are sometimes associated with the three Gods of the Trimûrti
— the ancestor debt with Brahmâ, the gods debt with Viṣṇu, and the
teacher debt with Śiva. One way the debts were discharged is through
the five daily Mahâyajña, , or “Great Sacrifices”:
What we do not see in these specific practices it anything that would discharge the debt to the teacher, unless it is the brahmayajña.
Nevertheless, while the number the debts is all but universally given
as three, there are texts that add a debt of hospitality as a fourth.
Thus, there is a curious connection between the three debts and the five
sacrifices, which is reminiscent of that between the three guṇas and the five elements, seen elsewhere. The original three elements clearly match up with the guṇas,
but later expand, while the sacrifices may easily be seen as
discharging particular debts — hence the temptation to posit a debt of
hospitality. The two systems, however, have resisted complete
systematization and identification.
The burden of the debts and the sacrifices
addresses the first and socially most important of the four aims or
values of life, the puruṣârtha, . While it has become common to link the puruṣârtha to the âśramas,
this is a recent occupation that is based on no classic texts.
Nevertheless, it is reasonable to wonder how the aims and the stages of
life do relate to each other.
The four stages of life may, somewhat improbably, be associated with the four parts of the Vedas:
the saṃhitâs with the stage of the student, who is particularly
obligated to learn them; the brâhmaṇas with the stage of the
householder, who is able to regulate his ritual behavior according to
them; the âraṇyakas with the stage of the forest dweller, who regulates
his ritual behavior according to them and who begins to contemplate
liberation; and finally the upaniṣads with the stage of the wandering
ascetic, who is entirely concerned with meditation on the absolute, Brahman.
The twice born may account for as much as 48% of Hindus, though I
have now seen the number put at more like 18% — quite a difference but
more believable. The Śûdras (58% of Hindus) may represent the
institutional provision that the Arya made for the people they already
found in India. The
Śûdras thus remain once born, and traditionally were not allowed to
learn Sanskrit or study the Vedas — on pain of death. Their dharma is to work for the twice born. But even below the Śûdras are the Untouchables, (aspṛśya), “not to be touched” (24% of Hindus), who are literally “outcastes,” (jâtibhraṣṭa), without a varṇa,
and were regarded as “untouchable” because they are ritually polluting
for caste Hindus. Some Untouchable subcastes are regarded as so
polluted that members are supposed to keep out of sight and do their
work at night: They are called “Unseeables.”
In India, the term “Untouchable” is now regarded as insulting or politically incorrect (like Eta in Japan for the traditional tanners and pariahs). Gandhi’s Harijans, (”children of God”), or Dalits,
(”downtrodden”), are prefered, though to Americans “Untouchables” would
sound more like the gangster-busting federal agent Elliot Ness from the
1920’s. Why there are so many Untouchables is unclear, although caste
Hindus can be ejected from their jâtis and become outcastes and
various tribal or formerly tribal people in India may never have been
properly integrated into the social system. When Mahâtmâ Gandhi’s
subcaste refused him permission to go to England, as noted above, he
went anyway and was ejected from the caste. After he returned, his
family got him back in, but while in England he was technically an
outcaste. Existing tribal people as well as Untouchables are also
called the “scheduled castes” or “scheduled tribes,” since the British
drew up a “schedule” listing the castes that they regarded as backwards,
underprivileged, or oppressed.
The Untouchables, nevertheless, have their own
traditional professions and their own subcastes. Those professions
(unless they can be evaded in the greater social mobility of modern,
urban, anonymous life) involve too much pollution to be performed by
caste Hindus: (1) dealing with the bodies of dead animals (like the
sacred cattle that wander Indian villages) or unclaimed dead humans —
and the caste charged with conducting cremations on the ghats (ghâṭ, ) at Benares, the most sacred place for a funeral in India [note], nevertheless is itself of Untouchables — castes dealing with corpses may specifically be called câṇḍâla (cãḍâla), ,
castes; (2) tanning leather, from such dead animals, and manufacturing
leather goods; and (3) cleaning up the human and animal waste for which
in traditional villages there is no sewer system. Mahâtmâ Gandhi
referred to the latter euphemistically as “scavenging” but saw in it the
most horrible thing imposed on the Untouchables by the caste system.
Latrines might be cleaned out by hand, or with no instrument more modern
than a piece of cardboard. Gandhi’s requirement on his farms in South
Africa that everyone share in such tasks comes up in an early scene in
the movie Gandhi. Since Gandhi equated suffering with holiness,
he saw the Untouchables as hallowed by their miserable treatment and so
called them “Harijans” (Hari=Viṣṇu). Later Gandhi went on
fasts in the hope of improving the condition of the Untouchables, or at
least to avoid their being politically classified as non-Hindus. That
Untouchables have over time had recourse by conversion to other
religions, most recently Buddhism or the Baha’i Faith, but historically
mostly to Islâm, has added an element of caste prejudice to Hindu-Muslim
Today the status of the Śûdras, Untouchables, and other
“scheduled castes,” and the preferential policies that the Indian
government has designed for their advancement ever since Independence,
are sources of serious conflict, including suicides, murders, and riots,
in Indian society. Meanwhile, however, especially since economic liberalization
began in 1991, the social mobility of a modern economy and urban life
has begun to disrupt traditional professions, and oppressions, even of
Untouchables. Village life and economic stasis were the greatest allies
of the caste system, but both are slowly retreating before modernity in
an India that finally gave up the Soviet paradigm of economic planning.
However, in such a large country, with much of the population still in
rural areas, and with some jurisdictions, such as Bengal, still
celebrating Communist ideology and economics, Indian society still has a
long way to go.
The most complete treatment of the âśramas that I know of is in The Âśrama System, The History and Hermeneutics of a Religious Institution,
by Patrick Olivelle [Oxford, 1993]. Much of the information here is
now from this source, even when it is not specifically referenced.
Earlier sources include The Philosophical Traditions of India, by
P. T. Raju [University of Pittsburgh Press, 1971], which I had in a
course while obtaining my Masters degree in Philosophy at the University of Hawai’i, 1972-1974.
The images of representatives of the four varṇas above are taken The Horizon History of the British Empire,
edited by Stephen W. Sears [American Heritage Publishing/BBC/Time-Life
Books/McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1973]. Occasionally I receive inquiries
about the source of the images or requests for permission to reuse
them. Without holding the copyright, I cannot give permission for their
commercial use; and I don’t think that the quality of the reproductions
here warrants their inclusion in more polished productions. They are
featured on this page under the rubrick of the “fair use”
of copyrighted material, since they represent very little of the
original work, are not used here for sale or profit, and their inclusion
can involve no financial loss or harm to the original publisher and
copyright holder. Since the original work was published more than 40
years ago, the original copyright should have lapsed, except that they
keep extending the duration of copyright, and I have not kept up with
the new numbers. The provenance of the images themselves is not given
in the original work, in line with the more casual attitude of the time;
and if they are actually reproductions from some traditional Indian
source (as they look, or are made to look), then they have always been
in the public domain and their inclusion in The Horizon History constitutes no claim on them.
The idea that suttee, ,
was just a way of protecting widows from rape by British soldiers was
seriously asserted to my wife by an Indian woman, an academic, at a
conference. I expect it is something widely believed. However, suttee
is attested long before the British arrived in India, or even existed.
Thus, the practice was observed among the Hindus of Java in 1407 by the
Chinese who sailed there under Admiral He. Most remarkably, we have an extended account of it by the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus.
As it happened, there was an contingent from India in the army of Eumenes, one of the Successors of Alexander the Great. At the battle of Paraetacene in 317 BC, the leader of this group was Ceteus, Κητεύς, and we get this account from Diodorus:
Ceteus, the general of the soldiers who had come
from India, was killed in the battle after fighting brilliantly, but he
left two wives who had accompanied him in the army. One of them a bride,
the other married to him some years before, but both of them loving him
deeply… the Indians… established a law that wives, except such as
were pregnant or had children, should be cremated along with their
deceased husbands, and that one who was not willing to obey this law
should not only be a widow for life but also be entirely debarred from
sacrifices and other religious observances as unclean. When these laws
had been established… they not only cared for the safety of their
husbands, as it were their own, but they even vied with each other as
for a very great honour.
Such rivalry appeared on this occasion. Although the law ordered
only one of Ceteus’ wives to be cremated with him, both of them appeared
at his funeral, contending for the right of dying with him as for a
prize of valour. When the generals undertook to decide the matter, the
younger wife claimed that the other was pregnant and for that reason
could not take advantage of the law; and the elder asserted that more
justly should the one who had the precedence in years have precedence
also in honour, for in all other matters those who are older are
regarded as having great precedence over the younger in respect and in
honour. The generals, ascertaining from those skilled in midwifery that
the elder was pregnant, decided for the younger. When this happened,
the one who had lost the decision departed weeping, rending the wreath
that was about her head and tearing her hair, just as if some great
disaster had been announced to her; but the other, rejoicing in her
victory, went off to the pyre crowned with fillets that her maidservants
bound upon her head, and magnificently dressed as if for a wedding she
was escorted by her kinsfolk, who sang a hymn in honour of her virtue…
she was assisted to mount the pyre by her brother, and while the
multitude that had gathered for the spectacle watched with amazement,
she ended her life in heroic fashion… stirring some of those who
beheld her to pity, others to extravagant praise. Nevertheless some of
the Greeks denounced the custom as barbarous [ἄγριος, “wild, savage, fierce, brutal”] and cruel [χαλεπός, “harsh, grievous, painful, severe”]. [Diodorus of Sicily, Volume IX, translated by Russel M. Geer, Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press, 1947, 1962, pp.319-323]
This extended and detailed passage, which I have abbreviated, is
remarkable in several respects. Like what the Chinese observed on Java,
this event does not even occur in India, but in Persia. Nevertheless,
the women are among their own countrymen and family and are not acting
out of any concern beyond their own customs. We also might note that if
a widow were being killed to be protected from rape, it is odd that
only one out of two should benefit from that protection. And then there
is the date, which is in the 4th century BC, contemporaneous with the
reign of Chandragupta Maurya in India. This probably antedates even the great epics, the and the , in which the practice is attested.
Although a correspondent has denied this, in the Râmâyaṇa the virtuous follows her husband , the 7th Incarnation of Viṣṇu, to the funeral pyre. However, there are versions of the Râmayana
where Râma outlives Sîtâ because she has vanished into the Earth,
whence she had been born. So one could deny the suttee of Sîtâ in good
However, of the two wives of in the Mahâbhârata, the younger, , follows her husband in death, as in the story from Diodorus. The older wife, , stays with the children.
Other references to suttee can be found in “Hobson-Jobson,” A Glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases,
by Henry Yule & A.C. Burnell [1886, 1985, Curzon Press, 1995].
Yule and Burnell cite Strabo (c. 20 BC), St. Jerome (c. 390 AD), Marco
Polo (1298), Ibn Batuta (c.1343), and many others referring or attesting
to the practice of suttee [pp.879-882]. There can be little doubt that
the practice was of ancient and venerated observance and had nothing to
do with modern imperialism or the British.
Why it occurred at all is a good question. According to the Laws
of Manu, widowers can remarry, and are expected to, but widows cannot.
As even reported by Diodorus, widows cannot engage in religious rites.
However, this is also true for widowers, until they remarried. Vedic
household rites require a married couple. In turn, widows cannot return
to their birth family and are thrown on the mercy of their in-laws.
Without children, it will not be obvious to the in-laws why such a woman
should be supported, even minimally, the rest of her life. And in
arranged marriages, the normal tensions and estrangements between young
brides and their in-laws are liable to go beyond even the lore of such
things familiar in the West. The motive to be rid of the widow will be
strong, and everything from forceful encouragement to force itself is to
be expected. Recent cases of suttee in India, initially investigated
as suicides (with the attendant crime of “assisting in a suicide”),
evolved into murder cases. The British, having nothing to do with the
origin of suttee, are the ones who made it illegal.
The name of the sacred city of Benares in Hindi is Banâras, . In Sanskrit the name is Vârâṇasî, . The appearance of a Hindi “b” for Sanskrit “v” is something we also see elsewhere, as in the Hindi name of the month for Sanskrit . We also see this “b/v” correspondence in the name of the Beas River.
Curiously, the Sanskrit name has become the standard politically
correct name for Benares, despite the perfectly good name in Hindi, and
despite the Sanskrit name containing a letter
for a retroflex sound that does not exist as an independent phoneme in
Hindi. For anyone not deliberately pronouncing the name as Sanskrit, the is pronounced like an ordinary dental .
I am intrigued about how something like this happens. The
English name “Benares” is simply based on the name in Hindi, which is
the dominant language of the region. Yet people seem to think that
names like this get changed in order to reject the history of British
imperialism. But the British had nothing to do with it. Restoring a
Sanskrit name would seem to involve a rejection of most of the history
of India. And if “imperialism” has any relevance, perhaps this would be
a rejection of the Empire of the Moghul Emperors, under whom the modern form of Hindi developed. This does not seem to be candidly admitted.
Even stranger is when I see the name “Varanasi” given in Urdu, using the Arabic alphabet, i.e. as . I have examined elsewhere
how Hindi and Urdu are in origin the same language, previously called
“Hindustani.” Hindustani from the beginning contained an element of
Arabic and Persian, which persists even in Hindi. The languages diverge
when Hindi borrows or substitutes words from Sanskrit, and Urdu
continues to draw on Arabic and Persian. Urdu does not borrow words
from Sanskrit. Its speakers would have no reason or inclination to do
Thus, I find it incredible that “Varanasi” would actually be used
in Urdu; and given the Muslim origin of Hindustani, it is preposterous
that Muslims would have an interest in losing the history of their own
language in order to adopt a name from Sanskrit, the sacred language of
Hinduism. This is at a whole different level of values, if not
conflict, from the State of Maharaśtra
rejecting the English and Hindi names of Bombay on behalf of the name
“Mumbai” in the Marathi language. My suspicion, therefore, is that the
Urdu version of the name “Varanasi” has been hopefully produced and
offered by someone trying to introduce political correctness into the
usage of Urdu speakers, i.e. Muslims. For all I know, this may be
succeeding; but I would be astonished.
சாதி அமைப்பு மற்றும் இந்து மதம் வாழ்க்கை நிலைகள்
அதன் சமயம் சார்ந்த நியாயப்படுத்தல்கள் ஒரு கணக்கு உட்பட சாதி அமைப்பு, ஒரு அடிப்படை அறிமுகம்.
சாதி அமைப்பு மற்றும்
இந்து மதம் வாழ்க்கை நிலைகள்
இந்து மதம் உள்ள சமூக வர்க்கங்களின் முறை “சாதி அமைப்பு” என்று அழைக்கப்படுகிறது. விளக்கப்படம் அமைப்பின் முக்கிய பிரிவுகள் மற்றும் உள்ளடக்கங்களை காட்டுகிறது. அடிப்படை சாதி varn.a, அல்லது எனப்படும் “வண்ண.” Subcaste, அல்லது சாதிகளை,, “பிறப்பு, வாழ்க்கை, ரேங்க்,” varn.a. ஒரு பாரம்பரிய உட்பிரிவின் ஆகும் சில நேரங்களில் “சாதி” varn.a. ஒரு வார்த்தை என தவிர்க்கப்படுகிறது என்று செய்யப்படுகிறது இல்லையோ, அது “சாதி” பொதுவான subcastes பயன்படுத்த வேண்டும். நான்கு “வாழ்க்கை நிலைகளில்,” âshramas இணைந்து,, அமைப்பு varn.âshramadharma ஆகிறது, “வகுப்புகள் மற்றும் உத்தரவுகளை தர்மம்.” ஒரு கடமை, அல்லது தர்மம்,, வாழ்க்கையில் சாதி, பாலினம், மற்றும் வாழ்க்கை நிலை மாறிகள் பொறுத்தது.
 பிராமணர்கள், Ks.atriyas, வைசியர்கள், மற்றும் சூத்திரர்களின்
படைப்புகள் அவர்களின் பிறந்த இயற்கையின் மூன்று சக்திகளும் இசைவாக,
 ஒரு பிராமணர் படைப்புகள் () சமாதானம்; சுய நல்லிணக்கம், சிக்கன, மற்றும் தூய்மை; அன்புள்ள பாவமன்னிப்பையும் நீதியையும்; பார்வை, ஞானம், நம்பிக்கை.
மேலே ஒரு பிராமணர் படைப்புகளை 1% சகிப்புத்தன்மையற்ற, வன்முறை, போராளி,
படப்பிடிப்பு, விசாரணையின்றி கொல்லுதல், பைத்தியம் மனநிலை சரியில்லாத
chitpawan பிராமணர் ஆர்எஸ்எஸ் (Rakshsa ஸ்வயம் சேவகர்கள்) நிழலான,
திருட்டுத்தனமாக என்ற பெயரில், ஐந்து இந்துத்துவ வழிபாட்டு discraminating
கடத்தப்பட்டுவிட்டது கூறினார் போன்ற
பைத்தியக்காரத்தனம் பைத்தியப்புகலிடம் சிகிச்சை தேவைப்படும் மனதில்
கறைப்படுத்தப்படுவதையும் இவை, அதிகாரம், பணம் பயிற்சி வெறுப்பு, கோபம்,
பொறாமை மற்றும் மாயை பேராசை. மோசடி வாக்குப் பதிவு இயந்திரங்கள் (தீய
வாக்குப்பதிவு எந்திரங்களை) மோடி ஜனநாயக நிறுவனங்கள் கொலைக்குறிய மாஸ்டர்
கீ விழுங்கிவிட சிதைந்துள்ளது வேண்டும் ( )
எஸ்.சி / எஸ்.டி / இதர பிற்படுத்தப்பட்ட வகுப்பினருக்கு / சிறுபான்மையினர்
மற்றும் ஏழை, மேல் சாதியினருக்கு தலைமை கட்டிட அம்பேத்கர் தந்தையாக நவீன
அரசியல் சாசனத்தில் பொதிந்துள்ளது அவற்றை சுதந்திரம், சமத்துவம் மற்றும்
சகோதரத்துவம் மறுத்து உட்பட நின்றாலும், 99% Sarvajan சமாஜ் எதிராக வேலை
செய்ய. நவீன அரசியலமைப்பின் படி எந்த
சாதிய சுய harmoney, சிக்கன, மற்றும் தூய்மை அமைதியாக இருக்க கற்றாக
முடியும்; அன்புள்ள பாவமன்னிப்பையும் நீதியையும். புத்த பார்வை, ஞானம்,
நம்பிக்கை சில அரசியல் தலைவர்கள் Ks.atriyas, வைசியர்கள், மற்றும்
சூத்திரர்களின் இந்த, 1 சரணடைந்தனர் சுயநலமான மற்றும் பணம் பேராசையால்% chitpawan பிராமணர்கள். அவர்கள் கைக்கூலிகள், அடிமைகள், துவக்க lickers, chamchas, chelas மற்றும் thir சொந்த தாயின் சதை உண்கின்றன மாறிவிட்டன.)
- EASY FOR A 7 YEARS OLD BOY TO UNDERSTAND
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IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA
[S.C.R., Order XXI Rule 3(1) (a)]
CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION
SPECIAL LEAVE PETITION
(Under Article 136 of the Constitution of India)
S.L.P. (Civil) No. …………………….. of ………………….
Position of Parties
In the Court/Tribunal from
whose order the petition
In this Court
(A) (Here insert the name/names Petitioner/
of the Petitioner Respondent/
(D) Here insert the name/names Petitioner/
of Respondent Respondent/
Hon’ble the Chief Justice of India and His Companion Judges of the Supreme Court of India.
The Special Leave Petition of the Petitioner most respectfully showeth:
1. The petitioner / petitioners above named respectfully submits this petition seeking special leave to appeal against the
judgment/order of (Here specify the Court / Tribunal against whose order the leave to appeal is sought for together with
number of the case, date of the order and nature of the order such as allowing or dismissing the matter or granting or
refusing the interim order, etc.)
94 THE GAZETTE OF INDIA : EXTRAORDINARY [PART II—SEC. 3(i)]
2. QUESTIONS OF LAW :
The following questions of the law arise for consideration by this Hon’ble Court :
(Here set out the questions of law arising for consideration precisely)
3. DECLARATION IN TERMS OF RULE 3(2) :
The petitioner states that no other petition seeking leave to appeal has been filed by him against the impugned judgment
4. DECLARATION IN TERMS OF RULE 5:
The Annexures produced alongwith the SLP are true copies of the pleadings/documents which formed part of the records
of the case in the Court / Tribunal below against whose order the leave to appeal is sought for in this petition.
5. GROUNDS :
Leave to appeal is sought for on the following grounds.
(Here specify the grounds precisely and clearly)
6. GROUNDS FOR INTERIM RELIEF :
(Here specify briefly the grounds on which interim relief is sought for)
7. MAIN PRAYER :
(Here set out the main prayer)
8. INTERIM RELIEF :
(Here set out the interim prayer)
Advocate for the petitioner
Settled by :
(Specify the name of the Advocate in case where the petition is
settled by an advocate.)
FORMAT OF WRIT PETITION
A SYNOPSIS AND LIST OF DATES (Specimen enclosed)
B FROM NEXT PAGE
IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA
CIVIL WRIT PETITION NO. OF 2005
IN THE MATTER OF
PETITION UNDER ARTICLE________OF THE CONSTITUTION OF
INDIA FOR ISSUANCE OF A WRIT IN THE NATURE OF
__________UNDER ARTICLE______OF THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA.
Hon’ble The Chief Justice of India and His Lordship’s Companion
Justices of the Supreme Court of India. The Humble petition of the Petitioner
MOST RESPECTFULLY SHEWETH :
Facts of the case
Question(s) of Law
That the present petitioner has not filed any other petition in any
High Court or the Supreme Court of India on the subject matter of
the present petition.
In the above premises, it is prayed that this Hon’ble Court may be pleased:
(ii) to pass such other orders and further orders as may be deemed
necessary on the facts and in the circumstances of the case.
FOR WHICH ACT OF KINDNESS, THE PETITIONER SHALL
AS INDUTY BOUND, EVER PRAY.
The Writ Petition should be accompanied by:
(i) Affidavit of the petitioner duly sworn.
(ii)Annexures as referred to in the Writ Petition.
(iii) Court fee of Rs.500 per petitioner (In Crl. Matter no court fee is
(iv) Index (As per Specimen enclosed)
(v) Cover page (as per Specimen enclosed)
(vi) Any application to be filed, Rs.120/- per application.
(vii) Memo of Appearance.
case of petition filed by petitioner-in-person), Court fee Rs.120/-
I N D EX
Sl. No. PARTICULARS PAGES
Synopsis and List of Dates
Writ Petition alongwith Affidavit
Application if any
IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA
CIVIL WRIT PETITION NO. OF 2005
P A P E R - B OO K
FOR INDEX KINDLY SEE INSIDE
IMPORTANT INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE E-FILING :-
1. All the documents which required the signature of the parties or Advocate-on-record shall physically be signed, be scanned and appended with other pages of the petition at the time of filing the matter.
2. The pages showing certification stamp of the impugned judgment should also be scanned and appended with the petition. The pages should not be of DIM IMPRESSION or small font size.
3. All petitions filed through this facility be under Supreme Court Rules, 2013 and as per the mandatory points to be checked (list appended).
4. Petition must be typed in double space justified and be typed in 14 font size and courier format.
5. Only corrected pages be uploaded at the time of Re-filing and curing the defect. For Re-Filing of corrected pages, use the Re-Filing option available at the E-Filing Menu of Supreme Court’s Website.
MANDATORY POINTS TO BE CHECKED
1. SLP(Civil) has been filed in Form No. 28 with Certificate as per SCR2013.
2. Certified copy of the impugned judgment has been filed and if certified copy is not available, an application for exemption from filing certified copy has been filed.
3. In case of appeal by certificate the appeal is accompanied by judgment and decree or order appealed from, certificate granted by the High Court and the order granting the said certificate.
4.A statement has been given in terms of O.XVI R.4(2)/O.XXI R.3(2) of Supreme Court Rules that the petitioner has not filed any petition against the impugned judgment and order earlier. If the petitioner had filed such a petition earlier, the particulars and result thereof has been given.
5. The petition and the applications have been signed by the Advocate-on-record / Petitioner-in-Person.
6. An affidavit of the petitioner properly attested and identified has been filed.
7. Memo of Appearance has been filed.
8. Vakalatnama properly executed by the petitioner(s) and duly accepted by the Advocate has been filed. Vakalatnama duly attested by the Jail Authority/Proof of Surrender alongwith separate Certificate of the Jail Authority has been filed, if the petitioner(s) is/are in Jail.
9. In case where proof of surrender/separate certificate from the Jail Authority has not been filed, an application for exemption has been filed.
10. Proper Court fee has been paid as per SCR 2013.
11. Brief List of dates/events has been filed.
12. An application for condonation of delay has been filed, if the matter is barred by limitation.
MODIFIED CHECK LIST
1. (i) Whether SLP (Civil) has been filed in Form No. 28 with certificate as per Notification dated 17.6.1997.
(ii) Whether the prescribed court fee has been paid. Yes/No
2. (i) Whether proper and required numbers of paper-books (1+3) have been filed?
(ii) Whether brief list of dates/ events has been filed?
(iii) Whether paragraphs and pages of paper books have been numbered consecutively and correctly noted in Index?
3. Whether the contents of the petition/appeal, applications and accompanying documents are clear, legible and typed in double space on one side of the paper.
4. Whether the petition and the application bear the signatures of the counsel/In-person.
5. Whether an affidavit of the petitioner in support of the petition/appeal/ application has been filed, properly attested and identified.
6. If there are any vernacular documents/portions/lines and translation of such documents are not filed, whether application for exemption from filing Official Translation, with affidavit and court fee, has been filed.
7. If a party in the court below has died, whether application for bringing LRs on record indicating the date of death, relationship, age and addresses along with affidavit and court fee has been filed.
8. (i) Whether the Vakalatnama has been properly executed by the Petitioners/ appellants and accepted and identified by the Advocate and Memo of Appearance filed.
(ii) If a petitioner is represented through power of attorney, whether the original power of attorney in English/translated copy has been filed and whether application for permission to appear before the court has also been filed?
(iii) (a) Whether the petition is filed by a body registered, under any Act or Rules?
(b) If yes, is copy of the Registration filed?
(iv) (a) Whether the person filing petition for such incorporated body has authority to file the petition?
(b) If yes, is proof of such authority filed Yes/No
9. Whether the petition/appeal contains a statement in terms of order XVI/XXI of Supreme Court Rules as to whether the petitioner has filed any petition against the impugned order / Judgment earlier, and if so, the result thereof stated in the petition.
10. Whether certified copy of the impugned judgment has been filed and if certified copy is not available, whether an application for exemption from filing certified copy has been filed.
11. Whether the particulars of the impugned judgment passed by the Court(s) below are uniformly written in all the documents.
12. (i) Whether the addresses of the parties and their representation are complete and set out properly and whether detailed cause title has been mentioned in the impugned judgment and if not, whether the memo of parties has been filed, if required?
(ii) Whether the cause title of the petition/ appeal corresponds to that of the impugned judgment and names of parties therein?
13. Whether in case of appeal by certificate the appeal is accompanied by judgment and decree appealed from and order granting certificate.
14. If the petition/appeal is time barred, whether application for condonation of delay mentioning the no. of days of delay, with affidavit and court fee has been filed.
15. Whether the Annexures referred to in the petition are true copies of the documents before the Court below and are filed in chronological order as per list of dates.
16 Whether the petition/appeal is confined only to the pleadings in the Court/Tribunal below and
If not whether application for taking additional grounds/ documents with affidavit and court fee has been filed.
17. (i) In SLP/Appeal against the order passed in Second Appeal whether copies of the orders passed by the Trial Court and First Appellate Court have been filed.
(ii) If required copy of the judgment / order / notification / award etc. is not filed, whether letter of undertaking has been filed in civil matters?
18. In matters involving conviction whether separate proof of surrender in respect of all convicts or application for exemption from surrendering has been filed (Please see judgment dated 16.6.2006 in Crl. Appeal No.685/2006
entitled Mayuram Subramanian Srinivasan Versus C.B.I) ( Copy of surrender proof to be included in the paper books.)
Whether in case where proof of surrender/ separate certificate from the jail Authority has not been filed, an application for exemption from filing separate proof of surrender has been filed.
19. In case of quashing of FIR whether a copy of the petition filed before the
High Court under section 482 of Cr.P.C. has been filed.
20. In case of anticipatory bail whether a copy of FIR or translated copy has been filed.
21. (i) Whether the complete listing proforma has been filled in, signed and included in the paper-books?
(ii) If any identical matter is pending/ disposed of by Supreme Court,
whether complete particulars of such matters have been given?
SUPREME COURT OF INDIA
05th March, 2020
It is notified for the information of all concerned that the
Competent Authority has been pleased to direct that :
(i) With a view to bring uniformity about use of paper & printing
thereon and to minimize consumption of paper & consequently
to save the environment, superior quality A4 size paper (29.7
cm x 21 cm) having not less than 75 GSM with printing on
both sides of the paper with Font - Times New Roman, Font
size 14, in one and half line spacing (for quotations and indents
– font size 12 in single line spacing), with margin of 4 cm on
left & right and 2 cm on top & bottom, shall be used in the
pleadings, petitions, affidavits or other documents to be filed in
(ii) in conformity with the provisions of Order LIII, Rule 2 of the
Supreme Court Rules, 2013, all communications from the
Registry of this Court shall only be sent to the concerned
Advocates-on-Record through e-mail followed by an SMS alert
on the registered mobile number of the Advocate-on-Record
and thereafter the practice of sending the communication
through hard copy shall be discontinued by the Registry;
(iii) the Filing Counter of the Registry, following the existing
procedure with respect to fresh matters, may accept the
Misc. Applications, Review Petitions, Curative Petitions and
The Secretary, Supreme Court Bar Association with five spare
copies of the Circular with a request that this may be displayed on
the Notice Board of the Bar Association for the information of the
Members of the Bar.
The Secretary, Supreme Court Advocates-on-Record Association
with five spare copies of the Circular with a request that
this may be displayed on the Notice Board of the Association for
the information of the Members of the Association.
The Registrar (CC) with a request to upload this Circular on
Supreme Court Website.
Filing and Re-filing Counters.
Contempt Petitions in disposed of matters as 1 +1 (1 set of
original papers + 1 paperbook) and after the defects are cured,
rest of the paperbooks shall be filed by the advocates/parties-
a common index shall be placed in the first volume in case
there are more than one volume in a matter and a separate
index of each volume shall be placed in the respective
The directions at Sl.Nos. (i) and (ii) shall come into
force with effect from 1st April, 2020 and directions at Sl.Nos. (iii)
and (iv) with immediate effect.
- sd -
(Sanjeev S. Kalgaonkar)
SUPREME COURT OF INDIA
New Delhi, dated January 14, 2020
With a view to bring uniformity about use of paper in day-to-day working
on the administrative side, to minimize consumption of paper and
consequently to save the Environment, Hon’ble the Chief Justice of India has
been pleased to direct that henceforth, the Registry shall use A4 size paper
(on both sides) for internal communications at all levels in the Registry.
It is, however, clarified that all the pleadings, petitions, documents etc.
filed in the Registry, on Judicial side, shall continue to be governed as per the
provisions of the Supreme Court Rules, 2013, until further orders.
It is impressed upon all concerned to make sincere and earnest efforts to
be economical in consumption of paper, by using the same on both sides and
they shall bear in mind that the communication so generated should be legible
on both sides.
The concerned Admn. Materials Branch shall ensure quality of the paper
so that the communication must be legible on both sides of paper.
All concerned are therefore directed to strictly follow the above
instructions. The Controlling Officers shall ensure compliance of the above
The aforesaid directions shall come into force with effect from
26th January, 2020.
Copy to :-
[Sanjeev S. Kalgaonkar]
EVMs A threat to democracy
E-Filing is Electronic filing of matters in the Registry of Supreme Court of India. Yes, E-Filing is a user friendly
programme prepared by National Informatics Centre.
Supreme Court of India,
New Delhi-110 001 (India)
Through E-Filing facilitates any
Advocate-on-record (in the Supreme Court of India) or
Petitioner-in-person can file his/her matter through internet facility,
sitting anywhere in the world. It does not require any person to come at
the filing Counter in the Registry of the Supreme Court of India for
just filing his/her matter.
Prequalification - you must have prepared the Petition offline. The steps required for E-Filing process are:
1. Login: For login you need User ID and Password. (Advocate on
record are provided ID and password from the Registry.
Petitioner-in-person has to create his ID and Password by submitting
his/her Identity proof.
E-FILING by Supreme Court of India
The Supreme Court of India has introduced E-FILING. Now you can file a case in the Supreme Court through the internet and also avail of the following services:
Tele : 91-11-23388556
E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
Website : www.supremecourtofindia.nic.in
Computer Business Review appeared more certain with the “How Google search results are influencing elections” headline for its version of the story, the Guardian reported.”…. if Google changed its course, it would undermine people’s trust in its results and company.”
A press release put out on 13 May by the American Institute for Behavioral Research and Technology, an independent research organisation based in California created a furore around the topic when it released a report headlined “Could Google have fixed the Lok Sabha elections? A landmark new study in India shows it’s possible,” the report added.
Let us appeal to the Computer Business Review and the American Institute for Behavioral Research and Technology, an independent research organisation based in California to review and research on the following technology:
Napolean had once said that “I can face two battalions but not two scribes”. Scribes are aware that the Supreme Court had directed that all the EVMs must be replaced with TAMPER PROOF machines. But the CEC had not bothered tto replace all the EVMs and went for Lok Sabha elections. Napoleans suggested scribes have to do some investigative journalism and expose the CEC to save this MURDER of DEMOCRACY and STOP
SUB:An Appeal to do research on all Electronic Voting Machines those were to be replaced with Tamper proof machines as per the directives of Supreme court of India
Appeal to the Computer Business Review and the American Institute for Behavioral Research and Technology, an independent research organisation
based in California to review and research on the following technology:
Napolean had once said that “I can face two battalions but not two scribes”.
Scribes are aware that the Supreme Court had directed that all the EVMs must be replaced with TAMPER PROOF machines. But the CEC had not
bothered to replace all the EVMs and went for Lok Sabha elections.
Napoleans suggested scribes have to do some investigative journalism and expose the CEC to save this MURDER of DEMOCRACY and STOP
‘fixing’ Indian Lok Sabha elections.
With reference to
‘FIXING’ Indian Lok Sabha elections
Computer Business Review appeared more certain with the “How Google search
results are influencing elections” headline for its version of the
story, the Guardian reported.”…. if Google changed its course, it
would undermine people’s trust in its results and company.”
A press release put out on 13 May by the American Institute for Behavioral Research and Technology, an independent research organisation based in California created a furore around the topic when it released a report headlined “Could Google have fixed the Lok Sabha elections? A landmark new study in India shows it’s possible,” the report added. (ANI)
The American Institute for Behavioral Research and Technology is a nonprofit, nonpartisan 501(c)(3) organization based in Vista, California, USA, which promotes and conducts research that has the potential to increase the well-being and functioning of people worldwide. It currently has ongoing research projects in eleven different topic areas.
The mission of the American Institute for Behavioral Research and Technology is to conduct, promote, and advance research on behavior that
has the potential to improve the human condition, to develop possible applications of such research, and to educate the public about both this research and its applications. It pursues this mission by conducting relevant research, presenting such research at scientific conferences, publishing reports of such research in both scientific and popular publications, developing possible applications of such research and presenting and publishing reports of such applications, and keeping the public informed about relevant research and applications through
classes, workshops, Internet activities, videos, and a variety of other publishing and media activities.
Computer Business Review appeared more certain with the “How Google search results are influencing elections” headline
for its version of the story, the Guardian reported.”…. if Google
changed its course, it would undermine people’s trust in its results and
A press release put out on 13 May by the American Institute for
Behavioral Research and Technology, an independent research organisation
based in California created a furore around the topic when it released a
report headlined “Could Google have fixed the Lok Sabha elections? A
landmark new study in India shows it’s possible,” the report added.
http://mattersindia.com/google-search-threatens-democracy-study/ Google Search threatens democracy: Study
Published: 9:31 am, May 15, 2014 Story By: mattersindia.com
A threat to democracy
As India eagerly awaits the outcome of the just concluded general
elections, a study by an American institute says the real threat to
democracy comes from an unexpected corner: Google Search.
search results can pose a real threat to democracy as it could swing a
close election by influencing the voting preferences of undecided
voters, wars the American Institute for Behavioral Research and
Technology in California that studied more than 2,000 undecided voters
The study conducted in recent weeks suggests that Google has the power to fix elections “without anyone being the wiser.”
This is possible because of the power that search rankings have on people’s opinions, the researchers said.
show that the higher the rank, the more people trust the result, which
is why companies are spending billions now to push their products
“So could highly-ranked search results that make
Arvind Kejriwal look better than Narendra Modi drive votes to Kejriwal?”
the researchers set out to determine, The Times of India reported.
research conducted last year in the US, researchers found that search
rankings biased in favor of a candidate could push the preferences of
undecided voters towards that candidate by 15 percent or more.
researchers have shown that votes can easily be pushed toward one
candidate or another by about 12 percent — double that amount in some
demographic groups — enough to determine the outcomes of many close
“This is a very serious matter — a real threat to
democracy,” said Dr Robert Epstein, lead researcher in the study and
Senior Research Psychologist at the American institute.
“If two candidates were both trying to push their rankings higher, they would be competing, and that’s fine. But if
Google, which has a monopoly on search in India, were to favor one
candidate, it could easily put that candidate in office by manipulating
search rankings, and no one could counter what they were doing.
if without human intervention the company’s search algorithm favored
one candidate, thousands of votes would still be driven to that
candidate,” said Epstein.
In the new study, participants were
randomly assigned to groups in which search rankings favored either
Kejriwal, Rahul Gandhi, or Modi.
Real search rankings and web
pages were used, and people were asked to research all the candidates
just as they would on Google. The only difference between the groups was
the order in which the search results were displayed.
study suggests that biased search rankings can be used to fix the
outcome of races in India in which the winner is projected to win by a
margin up to 2.9 percent.
This can be done just by influencing
undecided voters who use the internet — a small but important group of
voters that is sure to grow in coming years, researchers said.
Worldwide, the researchers said, upwards of 25 percent of national elections are won by margins under 3 percent.
The study also shows that certain demographic groups are especially vulnerable.
voting preferences of 19 percent of women over 35 were shifted in the
study, as were the voting preferences of 18 percent of voters who were
“Of particular concern is the fact that 99 percent of
the people in our study seemed to be unaware that the search rankings
they saw were biased. That means Google has the power to manipulate
elections without anyone suspecting they’re doing so,” said Epstein.
prevent undue influence, election-related search rankings need to be
regulated and monitored, as well as subjected to equal-time rules,”
Over a billion cuckoos cackle, cry and crap in India.
It is a nation where intelligence rules in closed quarters, idiocy in the open. Just like the open toilets under the benign gaze of Mother Nature — there are more cell phones than toilets in India, a survey reports. Oh! the average Indian retorts — and, then, goes on to do “business” as usual, sitting on the haunches, as sorry-assed as before — or sorts.
We are an indifferent, intelligently inclined idiocy — oops! democracy, We make gods out of mud, then, prostrating before them, we remain, as before, a dud. And, some times, in the name of our fancied little god and his glory, my motherland’s favorite sons also kill each other, with the deep ingrained vigor of all our bestial ancestry, and like a whiff of wind are gone — dead.
Lest it becomes confusing, let’s say it as it is — we Indians, like every other human being, are truly one really, really queer kin of apes. In some fields, ahead of others and beyond compare; in other areas, we are as silly and supercilious as a bull-hounded mare. In a nutshell, Indians, at least in the loftier mystical and evolved spiritual circles “get” some things well — like higher metaphysics — while failing miserably, simplistically, in simple,
After all, who in one’s right mind would yet allow the use of absolutely antiquated, completely out-dated, easily hack-able and highly tamper-able “high school technology” based, obsolete EVMs (electronic voting machines) in national elections, even now — in 2014?
More than 80 democracies in the world have simply done away with them, dumping them in the trash, or simply declared the usage of this simplistic voting system susceptible to fraud, and hence declaring the same as illegal — as the Supreme Courts of Germany and Holland indeed have done. Even Japan, from where EVMs originated, has long abandoned its rogue babies, and is using paper ballot system since then. All the advanced democracies in the West, except the most
dull-headed ones, have reverted to a voter verifiable system or the
ballot paper. In Canada, even at the ,most basic school level, ballot
paper voting is in use.
Last year, the Supreme Court of India, having been convinced of an undeniable, edible possibility of EVMs getting tampered with and that easily hacked — even from afar — had ordered the imbecilic Election Commission and the indolent Government of India to provide about 1600 crore (1600, 0000000) rupees — convert this into your respective currency! — for manufacturing these VVPAT (Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail) voting machines; which show a verifiable paper receipt to the
This is the Fundamental Right of a citizen of India, as per the laws laid down by the Constitution. However, recent newspaper reports tell us that only 20, 000 such voting machines have been provided for the entire country in this, 2014 election! India has 29 states now — with Telagana being the latest. In most of them, depending upon their size etc., either about 400 VVPAT machines are being deployed, or some such similar ridiculous number — more or less — has been made available in the length and breadth of the country. It’s an asinine, bland, cruel, demeaning joke we 1.25 billion jokers have been “blessed” with by the powers that be.
All “patriotic” hackers of our motherland are going to make hay in May 2014 and Uttar Pradesh Assembly Mar 2017!
As to how EVMs can be hacked into, tampered with, and results favorably manipulated via software interference and other means — from near and from far, far away — this can easily be found by anybody by just going to Google etc. and filling “EVM HACKING, TAMPERING” or something to this effect in the Search. And lo, behold! a plethora of\ information will just overwhelm your overly chilled-out, lesser employed, un-billed brains.
However, the only solace for us naive fools is that quite a few unscrupulous politicians and every other most “honorable” political party worthy of its “salt”, would surely be playing this comic-tragic game of hacking into and hijacking the votes of a billion people! Thus, one who outsmarts the other such fine folks,
armed with their hacking forks in this merry-go-around, will win.
The rest — this or that “tsunami” or wave in favor of one or the other, poll forecasts and the “newbie”, the over enthused,
seeming game changers in the making — well, they may well fall flat on their dumb faces, if not on their smart asses.
That the Supreme Court of India too, while passing the order of putting new VVAT voting machines in use in a “phased manner”, has unwittingly shirked its duty. In fact, it committed a grave error of judgment. Perhaps dealt a fatal blow to Indian democracy. It should have ordered, as a caution, that till the time this newer set of about 1300ooo voting machines is manufactured in full and so deployed throughout India, ballot paper system would be brought in. No such precautionary measure was decreed by the apex court.
Well, crib all you want. But don’t cry, my dear countrymen. After all, the same model of EVMs is yet very much in use in South Africa, Bangla Desh, Bhutan, Nepal, Nigeria, Venezuela etc. These poor folks of the said “non-techy” countries — millions of them — too cannot figure out as to what the hell had, yet is happening, in their dear short-circuited “developed” democracies. Nor will you.
Don’t worry, be happy! You are not alone “out there”.
Oh, by the way, the somewhat notorious lawyer who had brought in this case — of the present lot of EVMs being tamper-able and hack-able — and, who, had successfully fought it so, forcing the Supreme Court to order the installation of a fail-safe voting mechanism (of Voter Verifiable Paper Audit machines replacing the susceptible earlier Electronic Voting Machines) to ensure a free and fair electoral process in India — well, this oh-so-very honorable fellow too has fallen silent,
like a demure maiden. This most vociferous gentleman had openly declared on social websites, especially Twitter, that in case VVPAT machines do not get installed in time for 2014 elections, then, there would be a “constitutional crisis” — putting it out there like an Indian “pehalwan”, a la WWW wrestler, that he would challenge the same in the apex court. He had most emphatically underlined he would ensure that either the new fail-safe voting machines or the old time-tested paper ballot system will be put in use during this general election in India.
However, recently, when asked specifically on Twitter about this matter — as to what this lovely man is doing or is going to do about this impending doomsday electoral scenario — there was a deafening silence from his side. May be owing to the fact that since the Supreme Court judgement late last year, this self-righteous rightist has joined the ultra-rightist political bandwagon.
The latter has been projected by pollsters to overwhelmingly sweep these elections — as a direct result of the doings of the monstrous public relations firm hired from the land of the let-it-be, oops! free. This US firm is the same that was used fruitfully by President Bush and Hillary Clinton for their respective
political campaigns. It has — let there be no doubt about
it — successfully projected its client as the potential winner and the
next numero uno in Indian politics.
What the majority of the Indians have missed in fine print is that the outgoing Chief Minister of the state of Rajasthan, in the last year elections, had officially filed a complaint with the election commission that the EVMs used in his state were pre-programmed and tampered with — and that the same had come from the state of which this presently hyped-up future Prime Minister of India, is the current Chief Minister.
Now, the lawyer who had gone to the dogs to awaken India and the rest of the world about the mischief and malfeasance possible with the old model of EVMs — and had in fact written a book on this subject — is in a wink-wink deep-throat “smadhi”. A silence that speaks truths we dumb billion idiots on this part of slippery earth cannot fathom. Perhaps it’s a precursor of the things to come.
Let us hope the jolly good hackers of this-that party screw-up each other’s devilish, outright evil plans. In a dog eat dog political crap pit we hapless billion creatures have to walk through every election, maybe this time the ape sitting by the side — the wide-eyed hopeful citizen of India — at least gets a tiny part of the
apple pie this messy hacking cat fight will leave behind, on the side lanes. Perhaps these little crumbs will be enough for us to stay afloat. though not gloat.
In a nutshell, simply put, whosoever “out-hacks” the other, will win.
Then again, we are an ancient civilization of more than 33, 0000000 gods and goddesses — some civilized, others not so civil. Let’s hope one of these fancied deities has a soft corner for us dumbos. Otherwise, we are going to get screwed. A billion times over.
Therefore, I made doubly sure I did not vote. I sat on my ass on voting day — not that I don’t do so everyday. This voting day, I absolutely did. Not only figuratively and metaphorically, but literally. I may have many buts in life, but at least today I have a little sore, yet not so sorry a butt.
We are a fool’s paradise.
Long live the banana republic of India!
[The officer pressed the button number 4, but the slip that came out was of number 2 (BJP). As everyone around started laughing. The administrative officials who were present were shocked as journalists had been specially called to witness the use of VVPAT (Voter Verified
Paper Audit Trail) during elections.]
EVM scandal in Madhya Pradesh: VVPAT receipt shows vote going to BJP
irrespective of button pressed