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09/10/07
29-9-2007-The Awakened One-PART II: THE SEVEN SETS -A. The Treasures of the Teaching (§§18-25)
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The Awakened One

PART II: THE SEVEN SETS

A. The Treasures of the Teaching (§§18-25)

Nowhere in the Canon does the Buddha list the seven sets of teachings under the name of Wings to Awakening. He mentions the seven sets as a group many times when he is summarizing his main teachings, but there is no firm evidence as to whether he ever actually gave a name to the group. In one passage he applies the term “wings to self-Awakening” to the five faculties [§77]; and in two passages [§§24-25] he makes reference to the seven Wings to Awakening, which may or may not denote the seven sets. Nevertheless, given the fact that the Buddha called the five faculties wings to self-Awakening, and all seven sets are equivalent to the five faculties, the name “Wings to Awakening” for all seven seems appropriate. This was the name that they definitely had in early post-canonical texts, such as the Petakopadesa, and that they have maintained ever since.

The seven sets have played an important role throughout the history of Buddhism, in all of its various branches. They provided the framework for the earliest Abhidhamma texts, systematic presentations of the doctrine that were added to the early Canons a few centuries after the Buddha’s passing away. They were also part of the first Buddhist text translated into Chinese, and later came to exemplify “Hinayana” teachings in T’ien-t’ai and other Chinese doctrinal systems. Tantric Buddhism features mandalas containing 37 deities, symbolic of the 37 factors making up the seven sets. Tibetan architecture, probably following the treatises of the medieval Indian universities, identifies the various parts of standard stupa design as symbols of the seven sets. Thus the Wings provide one of the few common threads that, in actual or symbolic form, run through all the traditions claiming descent from the Buddha.

One of the peculiarities of the Wings, viewed as a whole, is that two sets are duplicates: the five faculties and the five strengths contain the same five factors. Several theories have been advanced as to why the Buddha included what is essentially the same set twice. One is that he wanted to indicate that the five factors that make up each set could exist in the mind in two distinct levels of intensity, one sufficient for the path to stream-entry, the first level of Awakening, and the other needed for Arahantship, the highest level. This may parallel the passage [§106] where the Buddha makes a similar distinction between the noble eightfold path of stream-entry and the tenfold path of Arahantship. There is some disagreement among later writers as to which of the two sets, the faculties or the strengths, should be considered the more intense, although there is one canonical passage [§85] where the term “faculty” seems to rank on a higher level than “strength.”

Another hypothesis — not necessarily at odds with the first — is that the Buddha wanted the number of factors to total 37 because the number had symbolic meaning. In ancient times, before the development of the decimal system, multiplication tables were arranged in hexagonal patterns. The complete table used to calculate the ratios used in tuning musical instruments to reciprocal scales — scales that played the same notes going up as going down — had one member in the middle surrounded by three hexagonal rings containing, in ascending order, six, twelve, and eighteen members, giving a total of 37 members. (See the diagram on the back cover of this book.) The table of whole-number ratios that formed the basis for trigonometry, and thus for the study of astronomy, contained 37 members. Thus the number 37 carried connotations of basic completeness. This principle is at work in Plato’s Laws, where the ideal city has 37 guardians, and it may also be at work here.

A related consideration may be that the number seven, in the seven sets, was symbolic of treasure. The sea, in the time of the Buddha, was said to have seven treasures [§18], and the universal monarch was said to have seven treasures that formed his spontaneous regalia [M.129]. The Buddha explicitly borrows this number symbolism when he states that the seven sets are the treasures of his teaching.

Another possibility, which we have already noted [I/A], is that musicians in the Buddha’s time recognized seven systems for tuning the musical scale — all other systems being rejected as discordant — and the Buddha may have borrowed this numerical symbolism to suggest that his teachings formed a complete guide to all the possible ways in which a Samana — a person in tune (sama) — could tune his or her mind to the truth.

From a less historical and more practical point of view, the important question about the seven sets is how they fit into the general plan of Buddhist practice. Their role is most succinctly stated in §25: the development of the seven sets follows on the development of virtue and leads naturally into the development of transcendent discernment, thus filling the role that other passages assign to concentration practice. This suggests — and again, the suggestion is borne out by passages that deal with the issue in more detail — that the seven sets are to be developed in the course of a concentration practice based on a moral life and aimed at the development of discernment. When §23 ends its list of preconditions for the practice of the seven sets with four meditation practices — actually three, as the perception of inconstancy is an integral part of mindfulness of in-and-out breathing — it is simply listing the concentration practices most frequently recommended in the texts as focal points for developing the skills of the seven sets. Nevertheless, although the seven sets focus most specifically on the practice of concentration, the close interconnections among virtue, concentration, and discernment mean that the sets include the factors of virtue and discernment as well, thus encompassing the entire path of Buddhist practice.

A virtuous and moral life as an absolute prerequisite for practicing the sets. This is a point that cannot be overstated, a fact reflected in the large number of canonical passages that hammer it home: far too many to include in this anthology. Some of the sets — the five faculties/strengths and the noble eightfold path — actually include the practice of a virtuous life in their factors, under the faculty/strength of conviction, and under the factors of right speech, right action, and right livelihood in the eightfold path. The remaining sets, the texts tell us, are meant to follow on the development of personal virtue in the same way that sunrise follows on the pre-dawn colors in the eastern sky.

The texts give the precepts that underline a virtuous life, not as rules imposed by an outside authority, but as guidelines for action that a person would voluntarily undertake when accepting the importance of the principles of kamma and skillful action in shaping the course of one’s experiences. Killing, for instance, is obviously an unskillful action when viewed in the full light of its kammic consequences. The same holds true with other actions forbidden by the precepts, such as drinking alcohol, stealing, illicit sex, lying, and abusive language. [For a more complete list, see §§103-104.] Passage §103 shows that the Buddha’s teachings on virtue consist not only of the “don’t’s” of the precepts, but also of the “do’s” of such positive standards as sympathy, reliability, and genuine helpfulness. Skillfulness is not simply a matter of avoiding bad consequences; it also actively cultivates the good.

In keeping with the teaching that kamma is essentially intention, the precepts are designed to focus on the state of mind motivating the act. A precept is broken only when one does so intentionally. Thus the practice of observing the precepts requires constant attention to the factor of intention in one’s actions; it also requires that one develop the “sublime attitudes(brahma-vihara) of good will, compassion, appreciation, and equanimity [§98], which strengthen one’s ability to side with skillful intentions. In this way, the Buddha’s approach to morality is to use the realm of personal action as an arena for the comprehensive training of the mind.

These three aspects of the Buddhist approach to morality — the avoidance of bad kamma, the development of skillful mental states, and the purification of intention — follow the pattern of the heart of the Buddha’s teachings as presented in the first verse of §7. They also explain why virtue is a necessary foundation for the practice of concentration: A moral life brings about absence of remorse [A.X.1]; people who, in all honesty, have no reason for remorse over their actions or for anxiety over their consequences, feel a natural sense of inner joy. This joy is intensified when they reflect on the positive acts of kindness and generosity that they have performed for others. Thus intensified, this joy then provides the basis for the inner pleasure that allows for concentration. In this way, a healthy sense of self-worth is a necessary precondition for a stable mind [§238].

In addition, the practice of virtue forces one to develop a number of the “concentration” factors in the sets themselves, on a preliminary level of skill, thus making them strong and fit for formal concentration practice. To maintain a precept, one must keep it constantly in mind: this strengthens mindfulness. One must stick to one’s determination to abide by one’s principles: this strengthens persistence. One must pay attention to the present moment, for that is where the decision to keep or break a precept is made; and one must remain firm in one’s cultivation of the sublime attitudes: these factors strengthen concentration. One must be clear about one’s motives for acting, and at the same time be sensitive in knowing how to apply a particular precept to one’s present situation: e.g., being quick to see how to avoid an issue in which telling the truth might be harmful, yet without telling a lie. This strengthens one’s ability to analyze the mind in the present moment, intensifying one’s powers of discernment in general. These four factors — mindfulness, effort, concentration, and discernment — are the central elements in all of the seven sets. Thus, the practice of virtue exercises, on a rudimentary level, the qualities of mind needed for concentration practice.

A close look at the seven sets will show that a similar relationship exists between these qualities, as they are developed in concentration practice, and the transcendent discernment toward which they lead. On the one hand, concentration is needed as a basis for discernment; on the other hand, discernment is exercised in developing concentration, becoming more precise and penetrating as a result. To understand how this happens, we must first note that the seven sets fall into two types. The first type consists of the four frames of reference, the four right exertions, and the four bases of power. Each of these sets focuses on a single factor in the “concentration aggregate” [§105] of the noble eightfold path: the frames of reference on mindfulness, the right exertions on effort, and the bases of power on concentration. Their factors are defined in such a way that the proper development of any one set involves the other two sets, together with the factor of discernment. In this sense they point out the “holographic” nature of the path: each part must include the whole, just as every piece of a hologram can reproduce the entire holographic image.

The sets included in the second type are the five faculties, the five strengths, the seven factors of Awakening, and the noble eightfold path. Each of these sets lists its factors in a causal chain progressing through a spiraling loop. The five faculties and strengths start with conviction, which then leads naturally to persistence, mindfulness, concentration, and then discernment. Discernment, in turn, provides a basis for even firmer conviction. Similarly, the seven factors of Awakening start with mindfulness, which develops into an analysis of (present) mental qualities, persistence, rapture, serenity, concentration, and finally equanimity. Equanimity, in turn, provides a steady basis for the further development of mindfulness. The noble eightfold path starts out with right view and right resolve, which together constitute discernment, leading to right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration. Concentration, in turn, forms a basis for the clearer development of discernment. In this way the various factors of the path are mutually reinforcing in an upward spiral that leads to Awakening.

Comparing the sets in the second type with one another, however, we find a certain complexity in their feedback loops. In terms of their most important factors, we see that the faculties and strengths depict the causal sequence as:

effort » mindfulness » concentration » discernment;

the factors of Awakening give it as:

mindfulness » discernment » effort » concentration;

and the noble eightfold path:

discernment » effort » mindfulness » concentration.

Although the sequences differ, they have one pattern in common: concentration always follows after right effort and mindfulness. This suggests not only that concentration depends on these two factors, but also that effort and mindfulness, when properly developed, are meant to lead to concentration. This suggestion is borne out in the texts that deal with these factors in detail [§§1, 33-35, 58, 61].

The two factors with the most variegated roles in these lists are mindfulness and discernment. Mindfulness is essential at every step along the way. There are passages [§26] teaching that mindfulness is a prerequisite for virtue, which — together with right view — is in turn a prerequisite for right mindfulness [§27]. Similarly, mindfulness is necessary for concentration, which in turn can be devoted to the development of greater mindfulness [§149], which can lead further to discernment.

As for discernment: If we look at the lists placing discernment after the other factors, we find that certain aspects of discernment are presumed by the earlier factors. In the five faculties, for instance, conviction includes belief in the principle of kamma, which is one of the elements of right discernment. In the lists that place discernment toward the beginning of the process, we find transcendent discernment added on to the end: the seven factors of Awakening, when fully developed, lead to clear knowing (transcendent discernment) and release; when the noble eightfold path reaches the point of full Awakening, it leads to right knowledge (transcendent discernment again) and right release. The implication here is that discernment, functioning on different levels, keeps adding feedback loops of ever greater sensitivity every step along the way. This point is made explicit in §106.

For this reason, skillfulness — as a constant, sensitive mindfulness and discernment toward one’s own actions — lies at the essence of every moment in the continued development of the path. On the one hand it creates the conditions necessary for the path to develop: knowledge of what is skillful and unskillful must necessarily precede right effort and mindfulness, and must help mindfulness lead to concentration. On the other hand, the factors of mindfulness and concentration are necessary for discernment to become even more sensitive to the present moment. Thus, as the path spirals through its many feedback loops, it exercises discernment, making it stronger in the same way that muscles are strengthened with exercise. At the same time, the development of the path steadies the conditions that provide discernment with the solid basis it needs to become more and more precise, just as a solid foundation is necessary for sensitive measuring equipment. In this way discernment develops from a knowledge of what is skillful and unskillful, first gained through the advice and example of others, on through a more intuitive understanding of skillfulness gained through repeated action and reflection on one’s actions, to a knowledge of the four noble truths and the duties appropriate to each, and finally to the knowledge that those duties have been fulfilled [§195]. The Wings thus put mundane discernment to use, and in so doing make it transcendent.

All of this explains why the Buddha said that of all the wings to self-Awakening, discernment is chief [§77]. In its more rudimentary forms it provides the conditions and feedback necessary for each step along the way; its transcendent form, at the culmination of the path, leads directly to Awakening.

The experience of Awakening, according to the texts, can take any one of four levels:

In all four levels, the basic dynamic is the same: virtue, concentration, and discernment bring the mind skillfully to a state of “non-fashioning(atammayata) [§179] where all present input into the cycle of kamma is suspended. This state of non-fashioning then opens the way for the experience of the Unfabricated. To put this in terms of the two knowledges that constitute Awakening, the skillful mastery of the processes of kamma to the point of non-fashioning corresponds to the knowledge of the regularity of the Dhamma, and the experience of the Unfabricated corresponds to the knowledge of Unbinding.

Although all four levels require mature levels of the path factors of virtue, concentration, and discernment to bring about the two knowledges that constitute Awakening, they differ in the relative maturity of the path factors that lead up to them. Stream-entry occurs at the full maturation of virtue; non-returning, at the full maturation of concentration; and Arahantship, at the full maturation of discernment [A.III.88; MFU, pp. 103]. Thus they also differ in the depth to which they penetrate the two knowledges of Awakening and in their ability to cut the fetters that perpetuate bondage to the cycle of kamma and rebirth. The texts report a few cases where meditators go straight through all four levels to the level of Arahantship, but in most cases the meditator will pass through the four levels step-by-step, sometimes over course of many years or even several lifetimes.

In this book, except where otherwise noted, discussions of the Awakening experience as described in the discourses focus on the level where virtue, concentration, and discernment are all fully mature, the Awakening total, and the resulting freedom absolutely unlimited. This is the point where all seven sets of the Wings to Awakening ultimately aim.


Passages from the Pali Canon [go to top]

§ 18. Paharada, just as the ocean has these many treasures of various kinds — pearls, sapphires, lapis lazuli, shells, quartz, coral, silver, gold, rubies, & cat’s eyes — in the same way, this doctrine & discipline has these many treasures of various kinds: the four frames of reference, the four right exertions, the four bases of power, the five faculties, the five strengths, the seven factors of awakening, the noble eightfold path. This is the seventh wonder & marvel…that the monks, having seen again & again in this doctrine & discipline, delight in.

– A.VIII.19

§ 19. Then [after relinquishing the will to continue fabricating his life processes] the Blessed One went to the audience hall and on arrival sat down on the seat prepared for him. When he was seated, he addressed the monks: ‘The qualities I have pointed out, having known them directly: You should grasp them thoroughly, cultivate them, develop them, & pursue them so that this holy life may long endure & remain steadfast for the benefit, welfare, & happiness of the multitude, out of sympathy for the world, for the benefit, welfare, & happiness of human & celestial beings. And what are those qualities? The four frames of reference, the four right exertions, the four bases of power, the five faculties, the five strengths, the seven factors of awakening, the noble eightfold path. These are the qualities I have pointed out, having known them directly, that you should grasp thoroughly, cultivate, develop, & pursue…for the benefit, welfare, & happiness of human & celestial beings.’ Then the Blessed One addressed the monks, ‘I exhort you, monks: All fabrications are subject to decay. Bring about completion by means of heedfulness. It will not be long before the Tathagata’s total Unbinding. He will attain total Unbinding in three month’s time.’

That is what the Blessed One said. Then…he said further:

Young & old
wise & foolish
rich & poor:
    all end up dying.

As a potter’s clay vessels
    large & small
    fired & unfired
all end up broken,
    so too life
    heads to death.

Then the Teacher said further:

Ripe my age, little the life
    remaining to me.
Leaving you, I will go,
having made a refuge
    for myself.
Be heedful, monks,
    mindful, virtuous.
With your resolves well-concentrated,
    look after your minds.
    He who, in this
    doctrine & discipline,
    remains heedful,
    leaving the round
        of birth,
    will make an end
        of stress.

D.16

§ 20. Suppose a hen has eight, ten, or twelve eggs: If she doesn’t cover them rightly, warm them rightly, or incubate them rightly, then even though this wish may occur to her — ‘O that my chicks might break through the egg shells with their spiked claws or beaks and hatch out safely!’ — still it is not possible that the chicks will break through the egg shells with their spiked claws or beaks and hatch out safely. Why is that? Because the hen has not covered them rightly, warmed them rightly, or incubated them rightly. In the same way, even though this wish may occur to a monk who dwells without devoting himself to development — ‘O that my mind might be released from effluents through lack of clinging!’ — still his mind is not released from the effluents through lack of clinging. Why is that? From lack of developing, it should be said. Lack of developing what? The four frames of reference, the four right exertions, the four bases of power, the five faculties, the five strengths, the seven factors of Awakening, the noble eightfold path…

But suppose a hen has eight, ten, or twelve eggs that she covers rightly, warms rightly, & incubates rightly: Even though this wish may not occur to her — ‘O that my chicks might break through the egg shells with their spiked claws or beaks and hatch out safely!’ — still it is possible that the chicks will break through the egg shells with their spiked claws or beaks and hatch out safely. Why is that? Because the hen has covered them, warmed them, & incubated them rightly. In the same way, even though this wish may not occur to a monk who dwells devoting himself to development — ‘O that my mind might be released from effluents through lack of clinging!’ — still his mind is released from the effluents through lack of clinging. Why is that? From developing, it should be said. Developing what? The four frames of reference, the four right exertions, the four bases of power, the five faculties, the five strengths, the seven factors of Awakening, the noble eightfold path.

Just as when a carpenter or carpenter’s apprentice sees the marks of his fingers or thumb on the handle of his adze but does not know, ‘Today my adze handle wore down this much, or yesterday it wore down that much, or the day before yesterday it wore down this much,’ still he knows it is worn through when it is worn through. In the same way, when a monk dwells devoting himself to development, he does not know, ‘Today my effluents wore down this much, or yesterday they wore down that much, or the day before yesterday they wore down this much,’ still he knows they are worn through when they are worn through.

Just as when an ocean-going ship, rigged with masts & stays, after six months on the water, is left on shore for the winter: Its stays, weathered by the heat & wind, moistened by the clouds of the rainy season, easily wither & rot away. In the same way, when a monk dwells devoting himself to development, his fetters easily wither & rot away.

– A.VII.68

§ 21. A certain monk went to his preceptor and on arrival said to him, ‘My body, sir, now feels like it’s drugged. I’ve lost my bearings. Things are unclear to me. Sloth & drowsiness surround my mind at all times. I am unhappy in leading the holy life. I have doubts about mental qualities (or: things — dhammas).’

Then the preceptor, taking his student, went to see the Buddha (and told him what his student had said. The Buddha replied:)

‘That’s the way it is for a person who does not guard the doors to his sense faculties, who does not know moderation in eating, who is not devoted to wakefulness, who does not clearly understand skillful qualities, and who is not devoted day after day to the development of the wings to awakening…Thus you should train yourself, monk: “I will guard my senses, will know moderation in eating, will devote myself to wakefulness, will clearly understand skillful qualities, and will devote myself day after day to the development of the wings to awakening.” That’s how you should train yourself.

Then the monk, having received this instruction from the Blessed One, got up from his seat, bowed down, circled the Blessed One, keeping him on his right, and then went away. Dwelling alone, secluded, heedful, ardent, & resolute, he in no long time reached & remained in the supreme goal of the holy life, for which clansmen rightly go forth from home into homelessness, knowing it & realizing it for himself in the here & now. He knew: ‘Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for the sake of this world.’ And thus he became another one of the Arahants.

– A.V.56

§ 22. Endowed with three qualities, a monk is one who follows the way that cannot be faulted and he has aroused the basis for ending the effluents. Which three? There is the case where a monk guards the doors to his sense faculties, knows moderation in eating, & is devoted to wakefulness.

And how does a monk guard the doors to his sense faculties? There is the case where a monk, on seeing a form with the eye, does not grasp at any theme or variations by which — if he were to dwell without restraint over the faculty of the eye — evil, unskillful qualities such as greed or distress might assail him. He practices with restraint. He guards the faculty of the eye. He achieves restraint with regard to the faculty of the eye. (Similarly with the ear, nose, tongue, body & intellect.) This is how a monk guards the doors to his sense faculties.

And how does a monk know moderation in eating? There is the case where a monk, considering it appropriately, takes his food not playfully, nor for intoxication, nor for putting on bulk, nor for beautification, but simply for the survival & continuance of this body, for ending its afflictions, for the support of the holy life, thinking, ‘I will destroy old feelings [of hunger] & not create new feelings [from overeating]. Thus I will maintain myself, be blameless, & live in comfort.’ This is how a monk knows moderation in eating.

And how is a monk devoted to wakefulness? There is the case where a monk during the day, sitting & pacing back & forth, cleanses his mind of any qualities that would hold the mind in check. During the first watch of the night [dusk to 10 p.m.], sitting & pacing back & forth, he cleanses his mind of any qualities that would hold the mind in check. During the second watch of the night [10 p.m. to 2 a.m.], reclining on his right side, he takes up the lion’s posture, one foot placed on top of the other, mindful, alert, with his mind set on getting up [either as soon as he awakens or at a particular time]. During the last watch of the night [2 a.m. to dawn], sitting & pacing back & forth, he cleanses his mind of any qualities that would hold the mind in check. This is how a monk is devoted to wakefulness.

Endowed with these three qualities, a monk is one who follows the way that cannot be faulted and he has aroused the basis for ending the effluents.

– A.III.16

§ 23. Monks, if wanderers who are members of other sects should ask you, ‘What, friend, are the prerequisites for the development of the wings to self-awakening?’…you should answer, ‘There is the case where a monk has admirable people as friends, companions, colleagues. This is the first prerequisite for the development of the wings to self-awakening.

‘Furthermore, the monk is virtuous. He dwells restrained in accordance with the Patimokkha, consummate in his behavior & sphere of activity. He trains himself, having undertaken the training rules, seeing danger in the slightest faults. This is the second prerequisite for the development of the wings to self-awakening.

‘Furthermore, he gets to hear at will, easily & without difficulty, talk that is truly sobering & conducive to the opening of awareness, i.e., talk on having few wants, on contentment, on seclusion, on non-entanglement, on arousing persistence, on virtue, on concentration, on discernment, on release, and on the knowledge & vision of release. This is the third prerequisite for the development of the wings to self-awakening.

‘Furthermore, he keeps his persistence aroused for abandoning unskillful mental qualities and for taking on skillful mental qualities. He is steadfast, solid in his effort, not shirking his duties with regard to skillful mental qualities. This is the fourth prerequisite for the development of the wings to self-awakening.

‘Furthermore, he is discerning, endowed with the discernment of arising & passing away — noble, penetrating, leading to the right ending of stress. This is the fifth prerequisite for the development of the wings to self-awakening.’

Monks, when a monk has admirable people as friends, companions, colleagues, it is to be expected that he will be virtuous, will dwell restrained in accordance with the Patimokkha, consummate in his behavior & sphere of activity, and will train himself, having undertaken the training rules, seeing danger in the slightest faults.

When a monk has admirable people as friends, companions, colleagues, it is to be expected that he will get to hear at will, easily & without difficulty, talk that is truly sobering and conducive to the opening of awareness, i.e., talk on having few wants, on contentment, on seclusion, on non-entanglement, on arousing persistence, on virtue, on concentration, on discernment, on release, and on the knowledge & vision of release…that he will keep his persistence aroused for abandoning unskillful mental qualities, and for taking on skillful mental qualities — steadfast, solid in his effort, not shirking his duties with regard to skillful mental qualities…that he will be discerning, endowed with discernment of arising & passing away — noble, penetrating, leading to the right ending of stress.

And furthermore, monks, when the monk is established in these five qualities, there are four additional qualities he should develop: He should develop [contemplation of] the unattractive so as to abandon lust. He should develop good will so as to abandon ill will. He should develop mindfulness of in-&-out breathing so as to cut off distractive thinking. He should develop the perception of inconstancy so as to uproot the conceit, ‘I am.’ For a monk perceiving inconstancy, the perception of not-self is made firm. One perceiving not-self attains the uprooting of the conceit, ‘I am’ — Unbinding in the here & now.

A.IX.1

§ 24. These three divine sounds sound forth among the devas on appropriate occasions. Which three? When a disciple of the noble ones, shaving off his hair & beard, clothing himself in the ochre robe, makes up his mind to go forth from the home life into homelessness, on that occasion the divine sound sounds forth among the devas: ‘This disciple of the noble ones has made up his mind to do battle with Mara‘…

When a disciple of the noble ones lives engaged in developing the seven [sets of] qualities that are wings to awakening, on that occasion the divine sound sounds forth among the devas: ‘This disciple of the noble ones is doing battle with Mara’…

When a disciple of the noble ones, through the ending of effluents dwells in the release of awareness & release of discernment that are free from effluent, having known & made them manifest for himself in the here & now, on that occasion the divine sound sounds forth among the devas: ‘This disciple of the noble ones has won the battle. Having been in the front lines of the battle, he now dwells victorious’…These are the three divine sounds that sound forth among the devas on appropriate occasions.

ITI.82

§ 25. A monk who has admirable virtue, admirable qualities, & admirable discernment is called, in this doctrine & discipline, one who is complete, fulfilled, supreme among men.

And how is a monk a person with admirable virtue? There is the case where a monk is virtuous. He dwells restrained in accordance with the Patimokkha, consummate in his behavior & sphere of activity. He trains himself, having undertaken the training rules, seeing danger in the slightest faults. In this way a monk is a person with admirable virtue. Thus he is of admirable virtue.

And how is a monk a person with admirable qualities? There is the case where a monk lives engaged in developing of the seven [sets of] qualities that are wings to awakening. In this way a monk is a person with admirable qualities. Thus he is of admirable virtue & admirable qualities.

And how is a monk a person with admirable discernment? There is the case where a monk, through the ending of effluents dwells in the release of awareness & release of discernment that are free from effluent, having known & made them manifest for himself in the here & now. In this way a monk is a person with admirable discernment. Thus he is of admirable virtue, admirable qualities, admirable discernment. In this doctrine & discipline he is called one who is complete, fulfilled, supreme among men.

One devoid of wrong-doing
in thought, word, or deed,
is called a person of admirable virtue:
    the conscientious monk.

One well-developed in the qualities
that go to the attainment of self-awakening,
is called a person of admirable qualities:
    the unassuming monk.

One discerning right here for himself
the ending of stress
is called a person of admirable discernment:
    the monk without effluent.

One consummate in these things,
untroubled, with doubt cut away,
unattached in all the world,
    is called one who has abandoned the All.

ITI.97

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28-9-2007-True Teachings of The Awakened One-Supported-Five factors that lead to the fulfillment of right view.
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Supported

 

Five factors that lead to the fulfillment of right view.

“Monks,
when right view is supported by five factors, it has awareness-release
as its fruit, awareness-release as its reward; it has
discernment-release as its fruit, discernment-release as its reward.
Which five?

“There is the case where right view is supported by
virtue, supported by learning, supported by discussion, supported by
tranquillity, supported by insight.

“When supported by these five
factors, right view has awareness-release as its fruit,
awareness-release as its reward; it has discernment-release as its
fruit, discernment-release as its reward.”

விழித்தெழுந்த ஒரு உண்மையான போதனைகள்

ஆதரவு

வலது பார்வையில் பூர்த்தி வழிவகுக்கும் என்று ஐந்து காரணிகள்.

மாங்க்ஸ், சரியான பார்வை ஐந்து காரணிகள் மூலம் துணைபுரிகிறது போது, அது விழிப்புணர்வு வெளியீடு அதன் பழம், அதன் பரிசாக விழிப்புணர்வு வெளியீடு என உள்ளது; அது அதன் பழம், அதன் பலனை எந்த ஐந்து உன்னிப்பையும் வெளியீடு உன்னிப்பையும் வெளியீடு.?

எங்கே, தகுதியினால் சரியான பார்வை துணைபுரிகிறது கற்றல் ஆதரவு, விவாதம் ஆதரவு, அமைதி ஆதரவு, பார்வையை ஆதரவு வழக்கு உள்ளது.

இந்த ஐந்து காரணிகளின் ஆதரவு போது, சரியான பார்வை அதன் பழம், அதன் பரிசாக விழிப்புணர்வு வெளியீடு விழிப்புணர்வு வெளியீடு உள்ளது; அதன் பழம், அதன் பரிசாக உணர்விலும் வெளியீடு உன்னிப்பையும் வெளியீடு உள்ளது.


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27-9-2007-Spiritual Community of The True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One-Tipitaka :-General Index
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Spiritual Community of The True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One

Kindly visit:

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Standing Buddha, 1st Painting

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A bit of original artwork:

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Tipitaka :

General Index

This index can help you locate sutta translations, articles, transcribed talks, books, and other things on this website. This is not an exhaustive index: not every text is indexed here, nor have I included references to each and every occurrence of a given topic in the texts. Nevertheless, I hope you find it helpful in steering you in the right direction.

The tilde (~) stands for the head-word in a given entry. Short essays and individual chapters from books are shown in quotation marks. Books and longer works are shown in italics. Links to terms listed elsewhere in this index are shown in bold face.

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26-9-2007-Spiritual Community of The True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One-Tipitaka :-General Index
Filed under: General
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Spiritual Community of The True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One

Kindly visit:

http://www.wayofdesign.com/thaipics/jataka-x.htm

Standing Buddha, 1st Painting

user posted image

A bit of original artwork:

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/index-subject.html

Tipitaka :

General Index

This index can help you locate sutta translations, articles, transcribed talks, books, and other things on this website. This is not an exhaustive index: not every text is indexed here, nor have I included references to each and every occurrence of a given topic in the texts. Nevertheless, I hope you find it helpful in steering you in the right direction.

The tilde (~) stands for the head-word in a given entry. Short essays and individual chapters from books are shown in quotation marks. Books and longer works are shown in italics. Links to terms listed elsewhere in this index are shown in bold face.

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25-9-2007-Sarvajan Hitaya Sarvajan Sukhaya-C.M. garlands Pt. G.B. Pant’s statue, pays homage to the late leader -C.M. directs officers to take stringent action against rioters -30,000 from U.P for Haj
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Sarvajan Hitaya Sarvajan Sukhaya

C.M. garlands Pt. G.B. Pant’s statue, pays homage to the late leader

Lucknow : September 10, 2007 The Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister, Km. Mayawati here today garlanded the statue of Bharat Ratna Pt. Govind Ballabh Pant on the occasion of his birth anniversary and paid homage to the late leader. The statue is situated in front of the Vidhan Sabha. On the occasion, she said that the country cannot forget the sacrifices of our freedom fighters and leaders. Recounting the services of Pt. Pant, the C.M. described him as a colossus. She said that Pt. Pant introduced several important development schemes in U.P. as the first Chief Minister of the State. He left an indelible mark, while holding several important posts at the Centre, she stated. Because of his efficient functioning, he was held in high esteem by his contemporaries, she pointed out. His efforts for the integrity and unity of the country would always be remembered, she added. The C.M. said that all of us should draw inspiration from his personality and deeds and translate his dreams into reality. It would be the best tribute to him, she said. The PWD and Excise Minister, Mr. Naseemuddin Siddiqui, Revenue Minister, Mr. Fagu Chauhan, Rural Development Minister Mr. Daddu Prasad, Mines and Minerals Minister Mr. Babu Singh Kushwaha and Urban Development Minister Mr. Nakul Dubey also paid floral tributes to the late leader. Besides, the Cabinet Secretary, Mr. Shashank Shekhar Singh, Chief Secretary Mr. Prashant Kumar Mishra, APC Mr. Anees Ansari, Principal Secretary Finance Mr. Shekhar Agarwal, Principal Secretaries to C.M. Mr. V.K. Sharma, Mr. Shailesh Krishna, Kunwar Fateh Bahadur, DGP Mr. Vikram Singh, Secretary to C.M. Mr. Navneet Sehgal, Secretary Information Mr. Diwakar Tripathi and a large number of senior administrative officers of government and administration also paid homage to late Pantji. *******

C.M. directs officers to take stringent action against rioters

Lucknow : September 09, 2007 The Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister, Km. Mayawati has directed all the officers related with the maintenance of law and order to take stringent action against those indulging in rioting and arson and trying to damage public and private property. Km. Mayawati said that the Government was committed to improve the academic atmosphere in all the universities and degree colleges of the State. The colleges and universities were the holy centres of education and their sanctity should be maintained at all the costs, she emphasised. The ban on the elections of the student unions had been imposed with a view to improving the academic atmosphere at the universities and degree colleges of the State and also to regularise the academic session, she pointed out. Colleges and universities would not be allowed to become a cosy shelter for outlaws indulging in their petty politics, she said. The Chief Minister said that the law and order would not be compromised at any cost and strict action would be taken against those who tried to aggravate the situation. The Government would not allow the goonda elements and criminals to damage the public property and play havoc with security and peace, she added. Those trying to indulge in arson, rioting and violence and trying to damage public and private properties would be dealt with severely, she warned. *******


Online edition of India’s National Newspaper
Monday, Sep 10, 2007

Schools, colleges to remain closed today

Jaunpur: Educational institutions would remain closed here on Monday in view of the ongoing agitations by students protesting Uttar Pradesh government’s decision to ban student union elections. District Magistrate U. Aparna said that the decision was taken to maintain law and order in the city. A number of students had protested the decision of the government to ban student union polls after which the administration decided to close educational institutions.

30,000 from U.P for Haj

Special Correspondent

For the first time Haj flights will also take off from Varanasi




The pilgrimage will be performed in December 2007

Lucknow Haj House will take care of all formalities



LUCKNOW: Around 30,000 persons from Uttar Pradesh will undertake the annual Haj pilgrimage in 2007 and for the first time Haj flights will originate from Varanasi. The Haj flights from Varanasi will cater to the pilgrims from Eastern Uttar Pradesh.

Already Haj flights take off from Lucknow and New Delhi. The inaugural flights carrying the pilgrims from UP will leave simultaneously from Lucknow, Varanasi and New Delhi on November 11 this year. The pilgrimage will be performed in December 2007.

The Chairman of Uttar Pradesh Haj Committee, Naseemuddin Siddiqui, said here on Sunday that the Central Haj Committee, Mumbai had fixed this year’s Haj quota from UP at 23,913. Following efforts of the State Government and Haj Committee, the quota was increased to 29,989 pilgrims, Mr. Siddiqui said.

Mr. Siddiqui, who is the PWD, Irrigation and Sugarcane Development Minister in the Mayawati Cabinet said 2729 Hajis from 15 Eastern UP districts will board the flight from Varanasi , 8947 from Lucknow and 18,414 from New Delhi.

He said UP’s quota of 29,989 Hajis was the highest in the country.

The Haj panel chairman said all the formalities including checking in, immigration, custom clearance and banking formalities would be completed at the Haj House in the State capital. He said for the first time the master trainers ( those who in turn trained the Hajis for performing the pilgrimage ) would be trained in Lucknow by the representatives of Central Haj Committee, Consulate General of India in Jeddah, KSA ( Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) and the Ministry of External Affairs. Besides, training would be imparted to the pilgrims at the Tehsil level.

Training to the pilgrims will also be imparted in 354 registered madrasas in the State where arrangement will also be made for doctors and vaccinators.

Regarding the problems faced by the Hajis from the State in Saudi Arabia, Mr. Siddiqui said he would conduct a meeting of the Haj Commitee soon to work out measures to tackle the problem. He added that the matter would be taken up at the highest level.


1981 शनि सितं, 10 2016 और अधिक पढ़ें

सबक

कृपया तमिल, हिंदी और उर्दू में यह गूगल के अनुवाद को सही
का उपयोग करते हुए
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Sarvajan Hitaya Sarvajan Sukhaya

से.मी। माला पं। G.B. पंत की प्रतिमा, दिवंगत नेता को श्रद्धांजलि देता है

लखनऊ: 10 सितम्बर, 2007 के उत्तर प्रदेश के मुख्यमंत्री, किमी। मायावती ने आज यहां भारत रत्न पंडित की प्रतिमा पर माल्यार्पण किया। दिवंगत नेता को उनकी जयंती के अवसर और श्रद्धांजलि अर्पित पर गोविंद बल्लभ पंत। प्रतिमा विधान सभा के सामने स्थित है। इस अवसर पर उन्होंने कहा कि देश में हमारे स्वतंत्रता सेनानियों और नेताओं के बलिदान को नहीं भूल सकते। पं की सेवाओं को याद करते। पंत, सी.एम. उसे एक बादशाह के रूप में वर्णन किया। उन्होंने कहा कि पंडित ने कहा। पंत यूपी में कई महत्वपूर्ण विकास योजनाएं शुरू की राज्य के पहले मुख्यमंत्री के रूप में। उन्होंने कहा कि एक अमिट छाप छोड़ दिया है, केंद्र में कई महत्वपूर्ण पदों को धारण करते हुए, उसने कहा। उनके कुशल कामकाज की वजह से, वह अपने समकालीनों से उच्च सम्मान में आयोजित किया गया था, वह बाहर बताया। ईमानदारी और देश की एकता के लिए उनके प्रयासों को हमेशा याद किया जाएगा, उन्होंने कहा। सी.एम. कहा कि हम सभी उनके व्यक्तित्व और कामों से प्रेरणा लेते हैं और हकीकत में अपने सपनों अनुवाद होना चाहिए। यह उसके लिए सबसे अच्छा श्रद्धांजलि होगी, उसने कहा। लोक
निर्माण विभाग और आबकारी मंत्री श्री नसीमुद्दीन सिद्दीकी, राजस्व मंत्री,
श्री फागू चौहान, ग्रामीण विकास मंत्री श्री Daddu प्रसाद, खान एवं खनिज
मंत्री श्री बाबू सिंह कुशवाहा और शहरी विकास मंत्री श्री नकुल दुबे भी को
पुष्पांजलि अर्पित की
दिवंगत नेता। इसके
अलावा, कैबिनेट सचिव, श्री शशांक शेखर सिंह, मुख्य सचिव श्री प्रशांत
कुमार मिश्रा, एपीसी श्री अनीस अंसारी, प्रमुख सचिव वित्त श्री शेखर
अग्रवाल, सी.एम. करने के लिए प्रमुख सचिव
श्री विजय कुमार शर्मा, श्री शैलेश कृष्ण, कुंवर फतेह बहादुर, डीजीपी श्री विक्रम सिंह, सचिव सी.एम. को श्री
नवनीत सहगल, सचिव सूचना श्री दिवाकर त्रिपाठी और देर Pantji करने के लिए
सरकार और प्रशासन को भी श्रद्धांजलि अर्पित की वरिष्ठ प्रशासनिक अधिकारियों
की एक बड़ी संख्या है।
*******

से.मी। अधिकारियों को निर्देश दंगाइयों के खिलाफ कड़ी कार्रवाई करने के लिए

लखनऊ: सितंबर 09, 2007 के उत्तर प्रदेश के मुख्यमंत्री, किमी। मायावती
ने सभी कानून और व्यवस्था दंगे और आगजनी में लिप्त और सार्वजनिक और निजी
संपत्ति को नुकसान करने की कोशिश कर रहे लोगों के खिलाफ कड़ी कार्रवाई करने
के रखरखाव के साथ संबंधित अधिकारियों को निर्देश दिया है।
किमी। मायावती ने कहा कि सरकार ने सभी विश्वविद्यालयों और डिग्री राज्य के कॉलेजों में शैक्षणिक माहौल में सुधार के लिए प्रतिबद्ध था। कॉलेजों और विश्वविद्यालयों में शिक्षा के पवित्र केन्द्रों थे और उनकी पवित्रता को हर कीमत पर बनाए रखा जाना चाहिए, वह भी बल दिया। छात्र
संघों के चुनाव पर प्रतिबंध विश्वविद्यालयों और राज्य के डिग्री कॉलेजों
में शैक्षणिक माहौल में सुधार के लिए और भी शैक्षणिक सत्र को नियमित करने
के लिए एक दृश्य के साथ लगाया गया था, वह बाहर बताया।
कॉलेजों
और विश्वविद्यालयों को अपने क्षुद्र राजनीति में लिप्त अपराधियों के लिए
एक आरामदायक आश्रय बनने के लिए अनुमति नहीं दी जाएगी, उसने कहा।
मुख्यमंत्री
ने कहा कि कानून और व्यवस्था किसी भी कीमत पर समझौता नहीं किया जाएगा और
सख्त कार्रवाई, जो उन लोगों की स्थिति बढ़ करने की कोशिश की के खिलाफ उठाए
जाएंगे।
सरकार
गुंडा तत्वों और अपराधियों को सार्वजनिक संपत्ति को नुकसान पहुंचा और
सुरक्षा और शांति के साथ कहर खेलने के लिए अनुमति नहीं होगी, उसने कहा।
आगजनी,
दंगा और हिंसा में लिप्त करने की कोशिश और सार्वजनिक और निजी संपत्ति को
नुकसान करने की कोशिश कर रहे लोगों को गंभीर रूप से निपटा जाएगा, वह
चेतावनी दी थी।
*******
30,000 हज के लिए U.P से
पहली बार हज उड़ानें भी वाराणसी से दूर ले जाएगा

तीर्थयात्रा दिसंबर 2007 में प्रदर्शन किया जाएगा

लखनऊ हज हाउस सभी औपचारिकताओं का ख्याल रखना होगा



تامل، ہندی اور اردو میں اس گوگل ترجمہ کو درست کریں
کا استعمال کرتے ہوئے
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Sarvajan Hitaya Sarvajan Sukhaya

سینٹی میٹر. ہار پنڈت. جی.بی. پنت کا مجسمہ، مرحوم رہنما کو خراج ادا کرتا ہے

لکھنؤ: ستمبر 10، 2007 کو اتر پردیش کے وزیر اعلی، کلومیٹر. مایاوتی نے آج یہاں بھارت رتن پنڈت کی مورتی ہار. دیر سے لیڈر کو ان کی پیدائش کی سالگرہ کے موقع اور ادا خراج پر گووند Ballabh پنت. مورتی اسمبلی کے سامنے واقع ہے. اس موقع پر انہوں نے کہا کہ ملک کو ہمارے مجاہدین آزادی اور رہنماؤں کی قربانیاں نہیں بھول سکتا کہ. PT کی خدمات دوبارہ گنتی. پنت، C.M. ایک colossus کے طور پر بیان. وہ پنڈت نے کہا کہ. پنت اترپردیش میں کئی اہم ترقیاتی سکیموں کو متعارف کرایا پہلے وزیر اعلی ریاست کے طور پر. مرکز میں کئی اہم عہدوں انعقاد کرتے ہوئے انہوں نے کہا کہ، ایک امٹ نشان چھوڑ دیا، انہوں نے کہا. کیونکہ ان ہی مستعدی کے، وہ ان کے ہم عصر کی طرف سے اعلی اعزاز میں منعقد کیا گیا تھا، اس نے اس کی نشاندہی. سالمیت اور ملک کے اتحاد کے لئے ان کی کوششوں کو ہمیشہ یاد رکھا جائے گا، انہوں نے مزید کہا. C.M. کہا کہ ہم سب ان کی شخصیت اور اعمال سے فکری تحریک اور حقیقت میں ان کے سپنوں کا ترجمہ چاہئے. یہ اس کے لئے سب سے اچھا خراج تحسین پیش کیا جائے گا، انہوں نے کہا. پی
ڈبلیو ڈی اور ایکسائز وزیر Naseemuddin صدیقی، ریونیو وزیر Fagu چوہان،
دیہی ترقی کے وزیر مسٹر Daddu پرساد، کان اور معدنیات کے وزیر مسٹر بابو
سنگھ کشواہا اور شہری ترقی کے وزیر مسٹر Nakul دبی بھی پھولوں خراج تحسین
پیش کیا
مرحوم رہنما. اس
کے علاوہ، کابینہ سکریٹری، مسٹر ششانک شیکھر سنگھ، چیف سیکرٹری مسٹر
پرشانت کمار مشرا، APC جناب انیس انصاری، پرنسپل سیکرٹری خزانہ مسٹر شیکھر
اگروال، C.M. کے پرنسپل سیکرٹریز
جناب وی شرما، جناب شیلیش کرشن، کنور فتح بہادر، ڈی جی پی مسٹر وکرم سنگھ، C.M. سیکرٹری مسٹر
نونیت سہگل، سیکرٹری اطلاعات جناب دواکر ترپاٹھی اور دیر Pantji حکومت اور
انتظامیہ کو بھی ادا کی شردقانجل کے سینئر انتظامی افسران کی ایک بڑی
تعداد.
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سینٹی میٹر. شرپسندوں کے خلاف سخت کارروائی کرنے کی افسروں کو ہدایت

لکھنؤ: ستمبر 09، 2007 کو اتر پردیش کے وزیر اعلی، کلومیٹر. مایاوتی
قانون اور فسادات اور آتش زنی میں ملوث اور سرکاری اور نجی املاک کو نقصان
کرنے کی کوشش کر ان لوگوں کے خلاف سخت کارروائی کرنے کا حکم کی بحالی کے
ساتھ متعلق تمام افسران کو ہدایت کی ہے.
کلومیٹر. مایاوتی نے کہا کہ حکومت ریاست کے تمام جامعات اور ڈگری کالجوں کے تعلیمی ماحول کو بہتر بنانے کے لئے مصروف عمل کیا گیا تھا. کالجوں اور یونیورسٹیوں میں تعلیم کے مقدس مراکز تھے اور ان کے تقدس کو ہر قیمت پر برقرار رکھا جائے، وہ زور دیا. طالب
تنظیموں کے انتخابات پر پابندی یونیورسٹیوں اور ریاست کی ڈگری کالجوں میں
تعلیمی ماحول کو بہتر بنانے کے اور بھی تعلیمی سیشن منظم کرنے کے لئے ایک
نقطہ نظر کے ساتھ نافذ کر دیا گیا تھا، اس نے اس کی نشاندہی.
کالجوں
اور یونیورسٹیوں کو ان گھٹیا سیاست میں ملوث مجرموں کے لئے ایک آرام دہ
پناہ گاہ بننے کی اجازت نہیں دی جائے گی، انہوں نے کہا.
وزیر
اعلی نے امن و امان کی کسی بھی قیمت پر سمجھوتہ نہیں کیا جائے گا اور سخت
کارروائی کی صورت حال خراب کرنے کی کوشش کی جو ان لوگوں کے خلاف کارروائی
کی جائے گی.
حکومت
goonda عناصر اور جرائم پیشہ افراد پبلک پراپرٹی کو نقصان پہنچا اور
سلامتی اور امن کے ساتھ تباہی کھیلنے کی اجازت نہیں دے گا، انہوں نے مزید
کہا.
آتش
زنی، فسادات اور تشدد کے واقعات میں ملوث کرنے کی کوشش کر رہا ہے اور
سرکاری اور نجی املاک کو نقصان کرنے کی کوشش کر ان لوگوں کو شدید کے ساتھ
نمٹا جائے گا، انہوں نے خبردار کیا.
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