Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University and related NEWS through 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
in
 105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā
Categories:

Archives:
Meta:
September 2007
M T W T F S S
« Aug   Oct »
 12
3456789
10111213141516
17181920212223
24252627282930
09/14/07
15-10-2007-The Awakened One-The Wings to Awakening -D. The Four Bases of Power
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 5:53 pm
comments (0)
14-10-2007-True Teachings of The Awakened One-To General Siha (On Generosity)
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 5:42 pm




http://ariyamagga.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/history-of-buddhism-43.jpg

http://ariyamagga.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/history-of-buddhism-43.jpg



True Teachings of The Awakened One

To General Siha (On Generosity)

Translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

General
Siha, known for his generosity, asks the Buddha about the fruits of
generosity that one can experience in this life. The Buddha describes
four such fruits; a fifth (a happy rebirth) Siha can only take on faith.

I
have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying near
Vesali, in the < ?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns =
“urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags” />Great Forest, at the
Gabled Pavilion. Then General Siha went to the Blessed One and, on
arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting
there he said to the Blessed One: “Is it possible, lord, to point out a
fruit of generosity visible in the here & now?”

“It
is possible, Siha. One who gives, who is a master of giving, is dear
& charming to people at large. And the fact that who is generous, a
master of giving, is dear & charming to people at large: this is a
fruit of generosity visible in the here & now.

“Furthermore,
good people, people of integrity, admire one who gives, who is a master
of giving. And the fact that good people, people of integrity, admire
one who gives, who is a master of giving: this, too, is a fruit of
generosity visible in the here & now.

“Furthermore,
the fine reputation of one who gives, who is a master of giving, is
spread far & wide. And the fact that the fine reputation of one who
gives, who is a master of giving, is spread far & wide: this, too,
is a fruit of generosity visible in the here & now.

“Furthermore,
when one who gives, who is a master of giving, approaches any assembly
of people — noble warriors, brahmans, householders, or contemplatives —
he/she does so confidently & without embarrassment. And the fact
that when one who gives, who is a master of giving, approaches any
assembly of people — noble warriors, brahmans, householders, or
contemplatives — he/she does so confidently & without embarrassment:
this, too, is a fruit of generosity visible in the here & now.

“Furthermore,
at the break-up of the body, after death, one who gives, who is a
master of giving, reappears in a good destination, the heavenly world.
And the fact that at the break-up of the body, after death, one who
gives, who is a master of giving, reappears in a good destination, the
heavenly world: this is a fruit of generosity in the next life.”

When
this was said, General Siha said to the Blessed One: “As for the four
fruits of generosity visible in the here & now that have been
pointed out by the Blessed One, it’s not the case that I go by
conviction in the Blessed One with regard to them. I know them, too. I
am one who gives, a master of giving, dear & charming to people at
large. I am one who gives, a master of giving; good people, people of
integrity, admire me. I am one who gives, a master of giving, and my
fine reputation is spread far & wide: ‘Siha is generous, a doer, a
supporter of the Sangha.’ I am one who gives, a master of giving, and
when I approach any assembly of people — noble warriors, brahmans,
householders, or contemplatives — I do so confidently & without
embarrassment.

“But
when the Blessed One says to me, ‘At the break-up of the body, after
death, one who gives, who is a master of giving, reappears in a good
destination, the heavenly world,’ that I do not know. That is where I go
by conviction in the Blessed One.”

“So
it is, Siha. So it is. At the break-up of the body, after death, one
who gives, who is a master of giving, reappears in a good destination,
the heavenly world.”

One who gives is dear.

People at large admire him.

He gains honor. His status grows.

He enters an assembly unembarrassed.

He is confident — the man unmiserly.

Therefore the wise give gifts.

            Seeking bliss,

they would subdue the stain

            of miserliness.

Established in the three-fold heavenly world,

they enjoy themselves long

in fellowship with the devas.

Having made the opportunity for themselves,

having done what is skillful,

then when they fall from here

they fare on, self-radiant, in Nandana.1

There they delight, enjoy, are joyful,

replete with the five sensuality strands.

Having followed the words of the sage who is Such,

they enjoy themselves in heaven —

            disciples of the One Well-gone.


1984 செ செப் 13 2016

பாடங்கள்


பயன்படுத்தி தமிழ், இந்த Google மொழிபெயர்ப்பு சரியான மொழிபெயர்ப்பு வழங்க செய்க

http://www.translate.google.com/
http://ariyamagga.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/history-of-buddhism-43.jpg

விழித்தெழுந்த ஒரு உண்மையான போதனைகள்

பொது Siha செய்ய (தாராள)

மூலம் பாலி மொழி பெயர்க்கப்பட்டது

தனிஸ்ஸாரோ Bhikkhu

பொது
Siha, அவரது பெருந்தன்மை அறியப்படுகிறது, ஒரு இந்த வாழ்க்கையில் அனுபவிக்க
முடியும் என்று தாராள பழங்கள் பற்றி புத்தர் கேட்கிறார்.
புத்தர் போன்ற நான்கு பழங்கள் விவரிக்கிறது; ஐந்தில் ஒரு (ஒரு மகிழ்ச்சியான மறுபிறப்பு) Siha மட்டுமே நம்பிக்கை எடுத்து முடியும்.

பின்னர்
பொது Siha ஆசிர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட ஒருவர் வருகையை, விழுந்து அவனை
வணங்கினார்கள் நிலையில், சென்று, ஒரு பக்கத்தில் உட்கார்ந்தான்.
அவர் அங்கு உட்கார்ந்து என அவர் ஆசிர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட ஒருவர் கூறினார்:
“இங்கே மற்றும் இப்போது தெரியும் தாராள பழம் சுட்டிக்காட்ட அது சாத்தியம்,
ஆண்டவனே, இல்லையா?”

.
“அது சாத்தியம், Siha கொடுக்கும் ஒரு மாஸ்டர் யார் செய்பவர்,, அன்பே
& மக்கள் அழகான பெரிய உள்ளது யார், கொடுத்து ஒரு மாஸ்டர், தாராளமாக
உள்ளது என்ற உண்மையை அன்பே & பெரிய அளவில் மக்கள் அழகானவை:. இந்த
இங்கே மற்றும் இப்போது தெரியும் தாராள ஒரு பழம் ஆகும்.

“என்றார்.
மேலும், நல்ல மக்கள், ஒருமைப்பாடு மக்கள், கொடுக்கும் ஒரு மாஸ்டர் யார்
செய்பவர், நல்ல மக்கள், ஒருமைப்பாடு மக்கள், கொடுக்கும் ஒரு மாஸ்டர் யார்
செய்பவர், ரசிப்பார்கள் என்று உண்மையில் பாராட்ட:, இந்த மிக, ஆகும்
தாராள பழம் இங்கே மற்றும் இப்போது தெரியும்.

“மேலும்,
செய்பவர் சிறந்த நற்பெயரை, கொடுக்கும் ஒரு மாஸ்டர் யார், இதுவரை மற்றும்
பரந்த பரவல் மற்றும் கொடுக்கிறது யார் ஒரு நற்பெயர், கொடுக்கும் ஒரு
மாஸ்டர் யார், இதுவரை மற்றும் பரந்த பரவியது என்று உண்மையில்:. இந்த
, கூட, இங்கே மற்றும் இப்போது தெரியும் தாராள ஒரு பழம் ஆகும்.

“மேலும்,
கொடுக்கும் ஒரு மாஸ்டர் யார் செய்பவர், மக்கள் எந்த சட்டசபை அணுகும்
போது - உன்னத வீரர்கள், பிராமணர்களுக்கு, வீட்டுக்காரர்கள், அல்லது
contemplatives -. அவன் / அவள் இல்லை மிகவும் நம்பிக்கையுடன் & சங்கடம்
இல்லாமல் உண்மையில் ஒருவர், கொடுக்கும் போது அந்த
உன்னத வீரர்கள், பிராமணர்களுக்கு, வீட்டுக்காரர்கள், அல்லது
contemplatives - - கொடுக்கும் ஒரு மாஸ்டர் யார், மக்கள் எந்த சட்டசபை
அணுகுமுறைகள் அவன் / அவள் சங்கடம் இல்லாமல் மிகவும் நம்பிக்கையுடன் &
செய்கிறது: இந்த, கூட, இங்கே மற்றும் இப்போது தெரியும் தாராள ஒரு பழம்
ஆகும்.

“மேலும்,
மரணத்திற்குப் பின் மனித உடல் உடைப்பதில், மணிக்கு, கொடுத்து ஒரு
மாஸ்டர், யார் செய்பவர், ஒரு நல்ல இலக்கு, பரலோக உலக. உண்மையில் மீண்டும்
தோன்றுகிறது என்று உடல் உடைப்பதில் மணிக்கு, பின்னர்
கொடுத்து ஒரு மாஸ்டர், ஒரு நல்ல இலக்கு மீண்டும் தோன்றுகிறது மரணம்,
செய்பவர்,, பரலோக உலக: இந்த அடுத்த வாழ்க்கையில் தாராள ஒரு பழம் “.

இந்த
கூறப்பட்ட போது, பொது Siha ஆசிர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட ஒருவர் கூறினார்: “இங்கே
மற்றும் இப்போது தெரியும் ஆசிர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட ஒருவர் மூலம்
சுட்டிக்காட்டினார் என்று தாராள நான்கு பழங்கள் பொறுத்தவரை, அது நான்
ஆசிர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட ஒருவர் தண்டனை செல்ல அந்த வழக்கில் இல்லை
..
அவர்கள் குறித்து நான் மிகவும் நான் யார் கொடுக்கிறது, பெரிய அளவில்
கொடுத்து, அன்பே & மக்கள் அழகான ஒரு மாஸ்டர் ஒரு இருக்கிறேன்,
அவர்களுக்கு தெரியும் நான் யார் கொடுக்கிறது, கொடுத்து ஒரு மாஸ்டர் ஒரு
இருக்கிறேன். நல்ல மக்கள், ஒருமைப்பாடு மக்கள், என்னை பாராட்ட
.
நான் யார் கொடுக்கிறது, கொடுத்து ஒரு மாஸ்டர், என் நற்பெயரை இதுவரை
& பரந்த பரவுகிறது ஒருவன்: ‘. Siha ஒரு வேலையை, சங்கம் என்ற ஒரு
ஆதரவாளர் தாராளமாக உள்ளது’
நான் யார் கொடுக்கிறது, கொடுத்து ஒரு மாஸ்டர் ஒரு இருக்கிறேன், மற்றும்
நான் மக்கள் எந்த சட்டசபை அணுகும் போது - உன்னத வீரர்கள்,
பிராமணர்களுக்கு, வீட்டுக்காரர்கள், அல்லது contemplatives - நான் மிகவும்
நம்பிக்கையுடன் & சங்கடம் இல்லாமல் செய்ய.

“ஆனால்
ஆசிர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட ஒருவர் எனக்கு தெரியாது என்று ‘மரணத்திற்குப் பின் மனித
உடல் உடைப்பதில்,, செய்பவர், கொடுத்து ஒரு மாஸ்டர், பரலோக உலக ஒரு நல்ல
இடமாக மீண்டும் தோன்றுகிறது, மணிக்கு,’ என்னை நோக்கி, போது
நான் ஆசிர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட ஒருவர் தண்டனை மூலம் சென்று அங்கு. தான். “

“அதனால் தான், Siha. அது ஆகிவிடுகிறது. கொடுத்து ஒரு மாஸ்டர், பரலோக
உலக ஒரு நல்ல இடமாக மீண்டும் தோன்றுகிறது, உடலின் மரணத்துக்கு பின்னர்
உடைந்ததில், செய்பவர், மணிக்கு.”

செய்பவர் அன்பே.

பெரிய அளவில் மக்கள் பாராட்டுக்களைப் பெற்றார்.

அவர் மரியாதை பெறுகிறது. அவரது நிலையை வளரும்.

அவர் ஒரு சட்டமன்ற unembarrassed நுழைகிறது.

அவர் நம்பிக்கை - மனிதன் unmiserly.

எனவே வாரியாக பரிசு கொடுக்க.

            
பேரின்பம் முயன்று,

அவர்கள் கறை அடிபணிய வேண்டும்

            
கஞ்சத்தனம்.

மூன்று மடங்கு பரலோக உலக நிறுவப்பட்டது,

அவர்கள் தங்களை நீண்ட அனுபவிக்க

தேவர்கள் ஐக்கியத்தில்.

தங்களை வாய்ப்பு கொண்டு,

திறமையான என்ன செய்து கொண்டு,

பின்னர் அவர்கள் இங்கே இருந்து விழும் போது

அவர்கள், சுய கதிரியக்க, மீது கட்டணம் Nandana.1 உள்ள

அங்கு அவர்கள் அனுபவிக்க, மகிழ்விக்க,, மகிழ்வடைகிறார்கள்

ஐந்து உணர்ச்சி மிகு போக்குகளுக்கு நடந்துள்ளதுடன்.

இத்தகைய யார் முனிவர் வார்த்தைகள் தொடர்ந்து நிலையில்,

அவர்கள் பரலோகத்தில் தங்களை அனுபவிக்க -

            
ஒரு சீடர்கள் நன்கு சென்று.

comments (0)
13-10-2007-Spiritual Community of The True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One-Thai Forest Traditions
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 5:31 pm

Spiritual Community of The True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One

Temples of Gold: Seven Centuries of Thai Buddhist Paintings

Kindly visit:

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org/blog_admin/wp-admin/post.php

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/thai/index.html

Thai Forest Traditions
selected teachers

Teachers are listed below in roughly chronological order. For some notes on the names and titles of Thai monks, see the endnotes.1

From the Kammathana2 forest tradition:

Sao Kantasilo, Phra Ajaan (1861-1941)
Ajaan Sao and his student Ajaan Mun established the Kammatthana tradition. A true forest-dweller, Ajaan Sao left no written records of his teachings. Another of his students — Phra Ajaan Phut Thaniyo — did, however, record some of them in Ajaan Sao’s Teaching: A Reminiscence of Phra Ajaan Sao Kantasilo, giving us a tantalizing glimpse into Ajaan Sao’s terse but powerful teaching style.



Mun Bhuridatto, Phra Ajaan (1870-1949)
Ajaan Mun was born in 1870 in Baan Kham Bong, a farming village in Ubon Ratchathani province, northeastern Thailand. Ordained as a Buddhist monk in 1893, he spent the remainder of his life wandering through Thailand, Burma, and Laos, dwelling for the most part in the forest, engaged in the practice of meditation. He attracted an enormous following of students and, together with his teacher, Phra Ajaan Sao Kantasilo Mahathera (1861-1941), established the forest meditation tradition (the Kammatthana tradition) that subsequently spread throughout Thailand and to several countries abroad. He passed away in 1949 at Wat Suddhavasa, Sakon Nakhorn province.

— Adapted from A Heart Released.

A newly revised biography of Ajaan Mun, written by Ajaan Maha Boowa, is available from » Wat Pah Baan Taad. For more about Ajaan Mun and the history of the Kammatthana tradition, see the essay “The Customs of the Noble Ones,” by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.




Dune Atulo, Phra Ajaan (1888-1983)
Ajaan Dune Atulo was born on October 4, 1888 in Praasaat Village in Muang District, Surin province. At the age of 22 he ordained in the provincial capital. Six years later, disillusioned with his life as an uneducated town monk, he left to study in Ubon Ratchathani, where he befriended Ajaan Singh Khantiyagamo and reordained in the Dhammayut sect. Shortly thereafter, he and Ajaan Singh met Ajaan Mun, who had just returned to the Northeast after many years of wandering. Impressed with Ajaan Mun’s teachings and with his deportment, both monks abandoned their studies and took up the wandering meditation life under his guidance. They were thus his first two disciples. After wandering for 19 years through the forests and mountains of Thailand and Cambodia, Ajaan Dune received an order from his ecclesiastical superiors to head a combined study and practice monastery in Surin. It was thus that he took over the abbotship of Wat Burapha, in the middle of the town, in 1934. There he remained until his death in 1983.

— From Gifts He Left Behind.




Thate Desaransi, Phra Ajaan (1902-1994)
Ajaan Thate was internationally recognized as a master of meditation. In addition to his large following in Thailand, Ajaan Thate has trained many western disciples.



Lee Dhammadharo, Phra Ajaan (1907-1961)
Ajaan Lee was one of the foremost teachers in the Thai forest ascetic tradition of meditation founded at the turn of the century by his teacher, Phra Ajaan Mun Bhuridatta. His life was short but eventful. Known for his skill as a teacher and his mastery of supranatural powers, he was the first to bring the ascetic tradition out of the forests of the Mekhong basin and into the mainstream of Thai society in central Thailand.

— From The Autobiography of Phra Ajaan Lee.




Khamdee Pabhaso, Phra Ajaan (1902-1984)
Ajaan Khamdee was born into a farming family in Khon Kaen province in northeastern Thailand. At the age of 22 he ordained at the local temple in line with Thai custom, but was dissatisfied with the type of practice customary at village temples. As a result, in 1928 he reordained in the Dhammayut sect, and in the following year became a student of Ajaan Singh Khantiyagamo, a senior disciple of Ajaan Mun. Taking up the life of a wandering monk, he sought out quiet places in various parts of northeastern Thailand until coming to Tham Phaa Puu (Grandfather Cliff Cave) in Loei province, near the Laotian border, in 1955. Finding it an ideal place to practice, he stayed there for most of the remainder of his life, moving down to the foot of the hill below the cave when he became too old to negotiate the climb.

Well-known as a teacher of strong character and gentle temperament, he attracted a large following of students, both lay and ordained. By the time of his death, a sizable monastery had grown up around him at the foot of Grandfather Cliff.

— From Making the Dhamma Your Own.




Sim Buddhacaro, Phra Ajaan (1909-1992)
Looang Boo Sim Buddhacaro was born on the 26th November 1909 in Sakhon Nakhon Province, North-East Thailand. His parents were farmers and dedicated supporters of the local monastery. At the age of 17 Looang Boo Sim took novice ordination and shortly afterwards became a disciple of the Ajaan Mun. Looang Boo Sim stayed with Ajaan Mun and various of his senior disciples for many years, taking full ordination at the age of 20 at Wat Sri Candaravasa, Khon Kaen.

In later years he was the Abbot of a number of monasteries in various parts of Thailand and was given the ecclesiastical title of Phra Khroo Santivaranana in 1959. In 1967 he established a monastery in the remote mountains of Chiang Dao in Chiang Mai province that remained his residence until his death in 1992.

— Adapted from Simply So.




Maha Boowa Ñanasampanno, Phra Ajaan (1913-   )
Venerable Ajaan Maha Boowa was born in Udorn-thani, North-east Thailand in 1913. He became a monk in the customary way at a local monastery and went on to study the Pali language and texts. At this time he also started to meditate but had not yet found a suitable Teacher. Then he caught sight of the Ven. Ajaan Mun and immediately felt that this was someone really special, someone who obviously had achieved something from his Dhamma practice.

After finishing his Grade Three Pali studies he therefore left the study monastery and followed Ven. Ajaan Mun into the forests of N.E. Thailand. When he caught up with Ven. Ajaan Mun, he was told to put his academic knowledge to one side and concentrate on meditation. And that was what he did. He often went into solitary retreat in the mountains and jungle but always returned for help and advice from Ven. Ajaan Mun. He stayed with Ven. Ajaan Mun for seven years, right until the Ven. Ajaan’s passing away.

The vigor and uncompromising determination of his Dhamma practice attracted other monks dedicated to meditation and this eventually resulted in the founding of Wat Pa Bahn Tahd, in some forest near the village where he was born. This enabled his mother to come and live as a nun at the monastery.

Ven. Ajaan Maha Boowa is well known for the fluency and skill of his Dhamma talks, and their direct and dynamic approach. They obviously reflect his own attitude and the way he personally practiced Dhamma. This is best exemplified in the Dhamma talks he gives to those who go to meditate at Wat Pa Bahn Tahd. Such talks usually take place in the cool of the evening, with lamps lit and the only sound being the insects and cicadas in the surrounding jungle. He often begins the Dhamma talk with a few moments of stillness — this is the most preparation he needs — and then quietly begins the Dhamma exposition. As the theme naturally develops, the pace quickens and those listening increasingly feel its strength and depth.

The formal Dhamma talk might last from thirty-five to sixty minutes. Then, after a more general talk, the listeners would all go back to their solitary huts in the jungle to continue the practice, to try to find the Dhamma they had been listening about — inside themselves.

— From To the Last Breath.




Fuang Jotiko, Phra Ajaan (1915-1986)
Ajaan Fuang was one of Ajaan Lee’s most devoted students, spending some 24 rains retreats in the company of his renowned teacher. After Ajaan Lee’s death, Ajaan Fuang continued on at Wat Asokaram, Ajaan Lee’s bustling monastery near Bangkok. A true forest monk at heart, Ajaan Fuang left Wat Asokaram in 1965 in search of greater solitude more conducive to meditation, and ultimately ended up at Wat Dhammasathit in Rayong province, where he lived as abbot until his death in 1986.

— Adapted from Awareness Itself.




Chah Subhaddo, Phra Ajaan (1918-1992)

Ajaan Chah was born in 1918 in a village in the northeastern part of Thailand. He became a novice at a young age and received higher ordination at the age of twenty. He followed the austere Forest Tradition for years, living in forests and begging for almsfood as he wandered about on mendicant pilgrimage. He practiced meditation under a number of masters, including Ajaan Mun, who had an indelible influence on Ajaan Chah, giving his meditation the direction and clarity that it lacked. Ajaan Chah later became an accomplished meditation teacher in his own right, sharing his realization of the Dhamma with those who sought it. The essence of the teaching was rather simple: be mindful, don’t hang on to anything, let go and surrender to the way things are.

Ajaan Chah’s simple yet profound teaching style had a special appeal to Westerners, and in 1975 he established Wat Pah Nanachat, a special training monastery for the growing number of Westerners who sought to practice with him. In 1979 the first of several branch monasteries in Europe was established in Sussex, England by his senior Western disciples (among them Ajaan Sumedho, who is presently senior incumbent at the »Amaravati Buddhist Monastery, England). Today there are ten branch monasteries in Europe, Australia, and New Zealand.

Ajaan Chah passed away in January, 1992 following a long illness.

— Adapted from A Tree in a Forest (Chungli, Taiwan: Dhamma Garden, 1994) and Bodhinyana.




Suwat Suvaco, Phra Ajaan (1919-2002)
Born on August 29, 1919, Ajaan Suwat ordained at the age of 20 and became a student of Ajaan Funn Acaro two or three years later. He also studied briefly with Ajaan Mun. Following Ajaan Funn’s death in 1977, Ajaan Suwat stayed on at the monastery to supervise his teacher’s royal funeral and the construction of a monument and museum in Ajaan Funn’s honor. In the 1980’s Ajaan Suwat came to the United States, where he established four monasteries: one near Seattle, Washington; two near Los Angeles; and one in the hills of San Diego County (Metta Forest Monastery). He returned to Thailand in 1996, and died in Buriram on April 5, 2002 after a long illness.



From other Thai traditions:

Kee Nanayon, Upasika (Kor Khao-suan-luang) (1901-1979)
Upasika Kee Nanayon, who wrote under the penname, K. Khao-suan-luang, was one of the foremost woman teachers of Dhamma in modern Thailand. Born in 1901, she started a practice center for women in 1945 on a hill in the province of Rajburi, to the west of Bangkok, where she lived until her death in 1979. Known for the simplicity of her way of life, and for the direct, uncompromising style of her teaching, she had a way with words evident not only in her talks, which attracted listeners from all over Thailand, but also in her poetry, which was widely published.



Nararatana Rajamanit, Chao Khun (Tryk Dhammavitakko) (1898-1971)
Prior to his ordination, Chao Khun Nararatana was a member of King Rama VI’s personal staff, and was so trusted by the king that he was given the rank of Chao Phraya — the highest Thai rank of conferred nobility — when he was only 25. After the king’s death in 1926, he ordained at Wat Thepsirin in Bangkok, and remained a monk until passing away from cancer in 1971. From the year 1936 until his death, he never left the wat compound. Even though the wat was one of the most lavishly endowed temples in Bangkok, Chao Khun Nararatana lived a life of exemplary austerity and was well known for his meditative powers. He left no personal students, however, and very few writings.

— From An Iridescence on the Water.




Notes

1. The long names and titles of Buddhist monks sometimes bewilder Westerners who are new to these teachings. Once the basic principles and customs are understood, however, the names of Thai monks are easily grasped.

  • Phra: “Venerable.” An honorific that refers to a monk of any rank or seniority. In informal situations Than (”reverend” or “venerable”) is used.
  • Ajaan, Ajarn, Ajahn, etc.: “Teacher” or “mentor” (derived from the Pali acariya, “teacher”). This title may be applied to monks and laypeople, alike.
  • Chao Khun: One of several ecclesiastical titles conferred upon senior monks selected by the King.
  • Maha: A prefix given to a monk who has passed the third level of the standard Pali exams.
  • Looang Boo, Luang Pu: “Venerable grandfather”. A term of respectful affection applied to a senior monk.
  • Luang Phaw: “Venerable father.” A term of respectful affection applied to a senior monk.
  • Upasika: A female lay-follower of the Buddha. Upasaka is the corresponding term for a male.

If the title “Mahathera” is applied to a monk’s name, then the terminal vowel in his name changes. For example: Ajaan Mun Bhuridatto or Ajaan Mun Bhuridatta Mahathera; Ajaan Sao Kantasilo or Ajaan Sao Kantasila Mahathera; etc.

For more on the use of personal titles in Thailand, see “Part I: Personal Titles” in The Autobiography of Phra Ajaan Lee.

2. Kammatthana: Literally, “basis of work” or “place of work.” The word refers to the “occupation” of a meditating monk: namely, the contemplation of certain meditation themes by which the forces of defilement (kilesa), craving (tanha), and ignorance (avijja) may be uprooted from the mind. Although every meditator who practices meditation in line with the Buddha’s teachings engages in kammatthana, the term is most often used specifically to identify the forest tradition lineage founded by Phra Ajaans Mun and Sao. See the Glossary for more about the general meaning of the word.

For an introduction to the history of the Kammatthana tradition, see the essay “The Customs of the Noble Ones,” by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.

See also: “Legends of Somdet Toh,” by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.

12-10-2007-Sarvajan Hitaya Sarvajan Sukhaya-Directives issued to complete pending works of Dr. Ambedkar villages by December 31 at all costs -Mayawati to develop gram sabhas -U.P. Govt. cancels B.Ed exams
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 7:38 am





http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k5E1aDEiJDw&mode=related&search=



 



Directives issued to complete pending works of Dr. Ambedkar villages by December 31 at all costs





September 13, 2007 The Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Km.
Mayawati, while reaffirming Government’s commitment in the policy of
Sarvajan Hitai, Sarvajan Sukhai, said that the all round development of
as many as 17,100 Gram Sabhas would be ensured in the next five
financial years under the Dr. Ambedkar Gramin Samagra Vikas Yojna. She
said that under the scheme five each gram sabhas with highest and lowest
population would be selected from every constituency in every financial
year, thereafter 10 each gram sabha would be selected and all of them
would be saturated with the basic facilities. Thus, development of
almost 1.20 lakh majras and revenue villages would be possible. This
effort would usher in a new era prosperity and progress, she pointed
out. The Chief Minister was informing the media representatives about
this important decision taken by the cabinet here today. She said that
it was the top priority of the State Government to ensure all round
development of the gram sabhas under the Dr. Ambedkar Gram Sabha Vikas
Yojna. Currently, this scheme was being implemented by the Dr. Ambedkar
Gram Sabha Vikas Department. Now, the name of this department has been
changed to Dr. Ambedkar Gramin Samagra Vikas Department. She said that
considering the financial condition, the scheme would be implemented in a
phased manner. Km. Mayawati said that the State Government did not
believe in political discrimination. She said that the works initiated
for the development under the Dr. Ambedkar Gram Viakas Yojna during her
earlier regimes were not completed by the previous Governments. The
properties built under the scheme were neither given proper maintenance
nor were any repairs carried out, she pointed out. Therefore, the State
Government has issued directives to complete the pending works of Dr.
Ambedkar villages by December 31, 2007 at all costs. She said that the
State Government was serious towards the balanced development of urban
areas and very soon a scheme for ensuring all round development of the
towns of the urban areas would be implemented. The Chief Minister said
that 403 assembly constituencies were in the State, out of which 380 and
23 constituencies belonged to the rural and urban areas respectively.
Our government was committed for the development of all constituencies.
The policy of our government was of ‘Sarvajan Hitai, Sarvajan Sukhai’.
Therefore, under the Dr. Ambedkar Gramin Samagra Vikas Yojana, the
criteria for selection of villages would be the population of
Sarvasamaj, instead of scheduled caste/scheduled tribe people, so that
the people belonging to all sections of society could be benefited
equally by development. She said that only three months would be left
after December 31, 2007 in the current financial year, therefore in the
first phase of January 2008 to March 31, 2008, five Gram Sabhas would be
selected in each assembly constituency. In the financial year of
2007-08, 1900 Gram Sabhas would be selected. She said that in the second
phase of April 1, 2008 to March 31, 2009, 3,800, third phase April 01,
2009 to March 31, 2010, 3,800, fourth phase April 01, 2010 to March 31,
2011, 3,800 and fifth phase of April 01, 2011 to March 31, 2012, 3,800
in total 17,100 Gram Sabhas would be selected. Km. Mayawati said that
the important programmes and schemes of 13 departments would be
effectively and qualitatively implemented in these Gram Sabhas. The
implementation of important programmes like — link roads, rural
electrification, construction of primary schools, construction of drains
— khadanja, clean latrines, Indira Awas Yojana, clean drinking water,
free boring, Swarn Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana, Rozgar Guarantee
Yojana, Sampoorn Gramin Rozgar YoJana, allotment of agriculture land,
allotment of ceiling surplus land, Patta allotment for fisheries and
potteries, residential patta allotment, old age pension, financial
assistance to destitute women and pension to physically handicapped
people would be ensured, besides, construction of health sub-centres
under family welfare programmes, health facilities, polio eradication,
registration of birth and death rate in rural areas, scheduled
castes/scheduled tribes and backward castes scholarship, general
category students scholarship living below the poverty line and
minorities scholarship. The Chief Minister said that under Dr. Ambedkar
Gramin Samagra Vikas Yojana the repairing work of created public
properties would be done during each phase. The concerning departments
would be responsible for repairing and maintenance works. For it, the
department would arrange the money in its general budget. The
beneficiaries would themselves look after the maintenance works of
created properties under beneficial programmes and schemes. A committee
would be constituted under the chairmanship of district magistrate for
implementation and monitoring of Dr. Ambedkar Gramin Samagra Vikas
Yojana. This committee would prepare the work plan for the development
of Gram Sabhas, besides implementation and monitoring work. She said
that our government was doing all possible efforts for removing regional
imbalances without any discrimination and benefiting all sections of
the society. The development of any area would not be over looked. The
development opportunities would be given to all, she added. *******



1982 सूर्य सितं, 11 2016 और अधिक पढ़ें
सबक

यह गूगल अनुवाद के लिए कृपया हिंदी और उर्दू में सही अनुवाद कर

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k5E1aDEiJDw&mode=related&search=

 

निर्देशों हर हालत में 31 दिसंबर तक डॉ अम्बेडकर गांवों के लंबित कार्यों को पूरा करने के लिए जारी किए

सितंबर 13, 2007 को उत्तर प्रदेश के मुख्यमंत्री किमी। मायावती,
Sarvajan Hitai, Sarvajan Sukhai की नीति में सरकार की प्रतिबद्धता की
पुष्टि करते हुए कहा कि के रूप में कई के रूप में 17,100 ग्राम सभाओं डॉ
अम्बेडकर ग्रामीण समग्र विकास योजना के तहत अगले पांच वित्तीय वर्षों में
सुनिश्चित किया जाएगा के सर्वांगीण विकास।
उन्होंने
कहा कि इस योजना के पांच-पांच ग्राम सभाओं उच्चतम और निम्नतम आबादी के साथ
तहत प्रत्येक वित्तीय वर्ष में हर विधानसभा क्षेत्र से चयन किया जाएगा कि,
उसके बाद 10 प्रत्येक ग्राम सभा का चयन किया जाएगा और उन सभी बुनियादी
सुविधाओं से संतृप्त किया जाएगा।
इस प्रकार, लगभग 1.20 लाख majras और राजस्व गांवों का विकास संभव होगा। यह प्रयास एक नए युग की समृद्धि और प्रगति का श्रीगणेश होता है, वह बाहर बताया। मुख्यमंत्री इस महत्वपूर्ण कैबिनेट ने आज यहां द्वारा लिए गए निर्णय के बारे में मीडिया के प्रतिनिधियों को सूचित किया गया था। उन्होंने
कहा कि यह डॉ अम्बेडकर ग्राम सभा विकास योजना के तहत ग्राम सभाओं के
सर्वांगीण विकास सुनिश्चित करने के लिए राज्य सरकार की सर्वोच्च प्राथमिकता
थी।
वर्तमान में, इस योजना के डॉ अम्बेडकर ग्राम सभा विकास विभाग द्वारा कार्यान्वित किया जा रहा था। अब, इस विभाग के नाम पर डॉ अम्बेडकर ग्रामीण समग्र विकास विभाग को बदल दिया गया है। उन्होंने कहा कि वित्तीय स्थिति को देखते हुए इस योजना को चरणबद्ध तरीके से लागू किया जाएगा। किमी। मायावती ने कहा कि राज्य सरकार ने राजनीतिक भेदभाव में विश्वास नहीं किया। उन्होंने
कहा कि उसके पहले शासनों के दौरान डॉ अम्बेडकर ग्राम Viakas योजना के तहत
विकास के लिए शुरू की काम करता है पिछली सरकारों द्वारा पूरा नहीं किया
गया।
इस योजना के तहत बनाया गुण न दी उचित रखरखाव थे और न ही बाहर किए गए किसी भी मरम्मत कर रहे थे, वह बाहर बताया। इसलिए
राज्य सरकार ने जारी किया है निर्देशों को हर कीमत 31 दिसंबर, 2007 तक डॉ
अम्बेडकर गांवों के लंबित कार्यों को पूरा करने के लिए।
उन्होंने
कहा कि राज्य सरकार ने शहरी क्षेत्रों के संतुलित विकास की दिशा में गंभीर
था और बहुत जल्द ही शहरी क्षेत्रों के नगरों के सर्वांगीण विकास को
सुनिश्चित करने के लिए एक योजना लागू की जाएगी।
मुख्यमंत्री ने कहा कि 403 विधानसभा सीटों राज्य में थे, जिनमें से 380 और 23 सीटों पर क्रमश: ग्रामीण और शहरी क्षेत्रों के थे। हमारी सरकार ने सभी निर्वाचन क्षेत्रों के विकास के लिए प्रतिबद्ध है। हमारी सरकार की नीति ‘Sarvajan Hitai, Sarvajan Sukhai’ की थी। इसलिए,
डॉ अम्बेडकर ग्रामीण समग्र विकास योजना के तहत, गांवों के चयन के लिए
मानदंड Sarvasamaj की जनसंख्या, होगा बजाय अनुसूचित जाति / अनुसूचित जनजाति
के लोगों की है, ताकि समाज के सभी वर्गों के लोगों से विकास के द्वारा
समान रूप से लाभान्वित किया जा सकता है
उन्होंने
कहा कि केवल तीन महीने 31 मार्च 2008 तक 31 दिसंबर, चालू वित्त वर्ष में
2007 के बाद छोड़ दिया जाएगा, इसलिए जनवरी 2008 के पहले चरण में पांच ग्राम
सभाओं प्रत्येक विधानसभा क्षेत्र में चयन किया जाएगा।
वर्ष 2007-08 के वित्तीय वर्ष में 1900 ग्राम सभाओं का चयन किया जाएगा। उन्होंने
कहा कि 1 अप्रैल, 2008 के दूसरे चरण में 31 मार्च, 2009, 3800 को, तीसरे
चरण अप्रैल 01, 31 मार्च 2009, 2010, 3800 के लिए, चौथे चरण अप्रैल 01,
2010 से 31 मार्च, 2011, 3800 और पांचवें चरण के लिए
अप्रैल 01, 2011 के कुल 17,100 ग्राम सभाओं में 31 मार्च, 2012, 3800 के लिए चयन किया जाएगा। किमी। मायावती
ने कहा कि महत्वपूर्ण कार्यक्रमों और 13 विभागों की योजनाओं के प्रभावी
ढंग से और गुणात्मक इन ग्राम सभाओं में लागू किया जाएगा।
महत्वपूर्ण
कार्यक्रमों के क्रियान्वयन की तरह - लिंक सड़कों, ग्रामीण विद्युतीकरण,
प्राथमिक स्कूलों के निर्माण, नालियों का निर्माण - khadanja, स्वच्छ
शौचालयों, इंदिरा आवास योजना, स्वच्छ पेयजल, नि: शुल्क बोरिंग, स्वर्ण
जयंती ग्राम स्वरोजगार योजना, रोजगार गारंटी योजना, सम्पूर्ण ग्रामीण
रोजगार
योजना, कृषि भूमि, छत अधिशेष भूमि का आवंटन, मछली पालन और मिट्टी के बर्तन
के लिए पत्ता आवंटन, आवासीय पट्टा आवंटन, वृद्धावस्था पेंशन, वित्तीय
सहायता महिलाओं और पेंशन निराश्रित करने के आवंटन के शारीरिक रूप से
विकलांग लोगों को यह सुनिश्चित किया जाएगा, इसके अलावा, स्वास्थ्य उप के
निर्माण
परिवार
कल्याण कार्यक्रम, स्वास्थ्य सुविधाओं, पोलियो उन्मूलन, ग्रामीण
क्षेत्रों, अनुसूचित जाति / अनुसूचित जनजाति और पिछड़ी जातियों को
छात्रवृत्ति, सामान्य श्रेणी के छात्रों को छात्रवृत्ति गरीबी रेखा से नीचे
रहने वाले और अल्पसंख्यकों छात्रवृत्ति में जन्म और मृत्यु दर के पंजीकरण
के अंतर्गत -centres।
मुख्यमंत्री
ने कहा कि डॉ अम्बेडकर ग्रामीण समग्र विकास योजना के तहत बनाए गए
सार्वजनिक संपत्तियों की मरम्मत का काम प्रत्येक चरण के दौरान किया जाएगा।
संबंधित विभागों की मरम्मत और रखरखाव कार्यों के लिए जिम्मेदार होगा। इसके लिए विभाग ने अपने आम बजट में पैसे की व्यवस्था होगी। लाभार्थियों के लिए खुद को लाभकारी कार्यक्रमों और योजनाओं के तहत बनाई संपत्तियों के रखरखाव के काम करता है के बाद लग रही होगी। कार्यान्वयन और डॉ अम्बेडकर ग्रामीण समग्र विकास योजना की निगरानी के लिए जिलाधिकारी की अध्यक्षता में एक समिति का गठन किया जाएगा। इस समिति के कार्यान्वयन और निगरानी के काम के अलावा ग्राम सभाओं के विकास के लिए कार्य योजना तैयार करेगी। उन्होंने
कहा कि हमारी सरकार बिना किसी भेदभाव के क्षेत्रीय असंतुलन को दूर करने और
समाज के सभी वर्गों को लाभ के लिए हर संभव प्रयास कर रहा था।
किसी भी क्षेत्र के विकास पर देखा नहीं किया जाएगा। विकास के अवसरों सभी को दिया जाएगा, उसने कहा। *******

1982 اتوار ستمبر 11 2016
سبق

براہ مہربانی اس گوگل ترجمہ کے لیے ہندی اور اردو میں درست ترجمہ بنانے

http://www.youtube.com/watch؟v=k5E1aDEiJDw&mode=related&search=

 

ہدایات ہر قیمت پر 31 دسمبر تک ڈاکٹر امبیڈکر دیہات کے التواء کاموں کو مکمل کرنے سے جاری

ستمبر 13، 2007 وزیر اعلی اترپردیش کلومیٹر. مایاوتی،
Sarvajan Hitai، Sarvajan Sukhai کی پالیسی میں حکومت کے عزم کا اعادہ
کرتے ہوئے کہا ہے کہ کے طور پر کئی کے طور 17.100 گرام سبھا ڈاکٹر امبیڈکر
دیہی Samagra وکاس یوجنا کے تحت آئندہ پانچ مالی سالوں میں یقینی بنایا
جائے گا کی ہمہ جہت ترقی.
وہ
سب سے زیادہ اور سب سے کم آبادی والے سکیم پانچ میں سے ہر ایک گرام سبھا
کے تحت، ہر مالی سال میں ہر حلقے سے منتخب کیا جائے گا کہ اس کے بعد 10 ہر
ایک گرام سبھا انتخاب کیا جائے گا اور ان سب کو بنیادی سہولیات کے ساتھ سیر
کی جائے گی.
اس طرح، میں تقریبا 1.20 لاکھ majras اور آمدنی ولیجز کی تیاری ممکن ہو جائے گا. اس کوشش کے ایک نئے دور خوشحالی اور ترقی میں شروع کرے گا، وہ اس کی نشاندہی. وزیر اعلی آج یہاں کابینہ کی طرف سے لیا اس اہم فیصلے کے بارے میں ذرائع ابلاغ کے نمائندوں کو مطلع کیا گیا تھا. وہ
اسے ڈاکٹر امبیڈکر گرام سبھا وکاس یوجنا کے تحت گرام سبھا کی ہمہ جہت ترقی
یقینی بنانے کے لیے ریاستی حکومت کی اولین ترجیح قرار دیا.
فی الحال، اس سکیم کے ڈاکٹر امبیڈکر گرام سبھا وکاس محکمہ کی طرف سے لاگو کیا جا رہا تھا. اب، اس شعبہ کے نام ڈاکٹر امبیڈکر دیہی Samagra وکاس ڈیپارٹمنٹ کو تبدیل کردیا گیا ہے. انہوں نے کہا کہ مالی حالت پر غور، سکیم چرنبدق میں لاگو کیا جائے گا. کلومیٹر. مایاوتی نے کہا کہ ریاستی حکومت کے سیاسی امتیازی سلوک میں یقین نہیں تھا کہ. وہ
اپنی پچھلی حکومتوں کے دوران ڈاکٹر امبیڈکر گرام Viakas یوجنا کے تحت ترقی
کے لئے شروع کئے گئے کاموں کو پچھلے حکومتوں کی طرف سے مکمل نہیں کیا گیا
تھا.
اسکیم کے تحت تعمیر کی خصوصیات نہ تو دی مناسب دیکھ بھال تھے اور نہ ہی باہر کیا کسی بھی مرمت تھے، وہ اس کی نشاندہی. ہر قیمت پر 31 دسمبر، 2007 کی طرف سے ڈاکٹر امبیڈکر دیہات کے زیر التوا کاموں کو مکمل کرنے لہذا ریاستی حکومت جاری کر دیا ہدایات. وہ
ریاستی حکومت شہری علاقوں کی متوازن ترقی کی طرف سنجیدہ تھا اور بہت جلد
شہری علاقوں کے شہروں کی ہمہ جہت ترقی یقینی بنانے کے لئے ایک سکیم لاگو کی
جائے گی.
وزیراعلی
نے کہا کہ 403 اسمبلی حلقوں جن میں سے 380 اور 23 حلقوں سے بالترتیب دیہی
اور شہری علاقوں سے تعلق رکھتے ہیں، ریاست میں تھے.
ہماری حکومت نے تمام حلقوں کی ترقی کے لئے مصروف عمل کیا گیا تھا. ہماری حکومت کی پالیسی کو ‘Sarvajan Hitai، Sarvajan Sukhai’ کی تھی. لہذا،
ڈاکٹر امبیڈکر دیہی Samagra وکاس یوجنا کے تحت، دیہات کے انتخاب کے لئے
معیار Sarvasamaj کی آبادی، بجائے تخسوچت ذات / تخسوچت جنجاتی کے لوگوں کی،
معاشرے کے تمام طبقوں سے تعلق رکھنے والے افراد کو ترقی کی طرف سے یکساں
طور پر فائدہ اٹھایا جا سکتا ہے تاکہ ہو گا
. انہوں
نے کہا کہ صرف تین ماہ 31 مارچ، 2008 تک، 31 دسمبر، رواں مالی سال میں
2007 کے بعد چھوڑ دیا جائے گا اس وجہ سے جنوری 2008 کے پہلے مرحلے میں کہا،
پانچ گرام سبھا ہر اسمبلی حلقہ انتخاب میں منتخب کیا جائے گا.
2007-08 کے مالی سال میں 1900 گرام سبھا انتخاب کیا جائے گا. انہوں
نے کہا کہ 1 اپریل، 2008 کے دوسرے مرحلے میں 31 مارچ، 2009، 3،800 کرنا،
تیسرے مرحلے اپریل 01، 2009 31 مارچ، 2010، 3،800 کرنے کے لئے، چوتھے مرحلے
اپریل 01، 2010 31 مارچ، 2011، 3،800 اور پانچویں مرحلے کے لئے
اپریل 01، 2011 کی کل 17،100 گرام سبھا میں 31 مارچ، 2012، 3،800 کرنے کے لئے منتخب کیا جائے گا. کلومیٹر. مایاوتی اہم پروگراموں اور 13 محکموں کے منصوبوں کو مؤثر طریقے سے اور گتاتمک ان گرام سبھا میں لاگو کی جائے گی. اہم
پروگراموں کے عمل پسند ہے - رابطہ سڑکیں، دیہی الیکٹریفکیشن، پرائمری
سکولوں کی تعمیر، نالوں کی تعمیر کا کام - khadanja، صاف شوچالی، اندرا
رہائش منصوبہ، پینے کے صاف پانی، مفت بورنگ، Swarn جینتی گرام سوروزگار
منصوبہ، روزگار گارنٹی اسکیم، Sampoorn دیہی
روزگار
اسکیم، زرعی زمین، چھت سرپلس اراضی کی الاٹمنٹ، ماہی گیری اور potteries
لئے patta الاٹمنٹ، رہائشی patta الاٹمنٹ، پنشن، خواتین اور پینشن مفلس کو
مالی مدد کی الاٹمنٹ معذور لوگوں کو یقینی بنایا جائے گا، اس کے علاوہ، صحت
ذیلی کی تعمیر
خاندان
فلاحی پروگراموں، صحت کی سہولیات، پولیو کے خاتمے، دیہی علاقوں، تخسوچت
ذات / تخسوچت جنجاتی اور پچھڑے ذاتوں اسکالر شپ، عام قسم کے طلباء اسکالر
شپ خط غربت اور اقلیتوں اسکالر شپ سے نیچے رہنے میں پیدائش اور موت کی شرح
کی رجسٹریشن کے تحت -centres.
وزیر
اعلی نے کہا کہ ڈاکٹر امبیڈکر دیہی Samagra وکاس یوجنا کے تحت پیدا پبلک
املاک کو مرمت کے کام کو ہر مرحلے کے دوران کیا جائے گا.
بارہ محکموں کی مرمت اور بحالی کا کام کے لئے ذمہ دار ہو جائے گا. اس کے لئے، محکمہ اس کے عام بجٹ میں رقم کا بندوبست کریں گے. فائدہ اٹھانے والوں کو خود فائدہ مند پروگرام اور منصوبوں کے تحت پیدا خصوصیات کی بحالی کا کام کرنے کے بعد نظر آئے گا. ایک کمیٹی ڈاکٹر امبیڈکر دیہی Samagra وکاس یوجنا کے نفاذ اور نگرانی کے لئے ضلع مجسٹریٹ کی صدر میں قائم کی جائے گی. یہ کمیٹی عمل درآمد اور نگرانی کام کے علاوہ گرام سبھا، کی ترقی کے لئے کام کی منصوبہ بندی تیار کرے گا. انہوں
نے کہا کہ ہماری حکومت بلا تفریق علاقائی عدم توازن کو دور کرنے اور
معاشرے کے تمام طبقوں کو فائدہ کے لئے ہر ممکن کوشش کر رہی تھی.
کسی بھی علاقے کی ترقی سے زیادہ دیکھا نہیں کیا جائے گا. ترقی کے مواقع سب کے لئے دی جائے گی، انہوں نے مزید کہا. *******




Online edition of India’s National Newspaper
Friday, Sep 14, 2007

Mayawati to develop gram sabhas

Special Correspondent

Scheme to be launched in all 380 rural Assembly seats




Work to be staggered in five phases beginning January 2008

Separate scheme for the 23 urban-based constituencies soon




LUCKNOW: Chief Minister Mayawati on Thursday set the ball rolling for the integrated development of over 17,000 gram sabhas in 380 rural-based Assembly constituencies across the State. For a change, the proportion of Dalit population will not form the criterion of development; instead the criterion will be the population of “Sarv Samaj” ( all the communities).

Announcing the Bhimrao Ambedkar Rural Integrated Development Programme, earlier known as Ambedkar Village Development Scheme, Ms. Mayawati said the scheme would be launched simultaneously in all 380 rural Assembly constituencies. The scheme would be staggered in five phases beginning January 2008 and ending March 2012.

Addressing a press conference here, Ms. Mayawati said in the first phase from January 2008 to March 2008, five gram sabhas in each of the 380 constituencies would be selected for development. This would total 1,900 gram sabhas in the first phase.

In the second phase from April 2008 to March 2009, 3,800 gram sabhas would be taken up for integrated development. Subsequently 3,800 gram sabhas would be selected for development in each of the third (April 2009-March 2010), fourth (April 2010-March 2011) and fifth (April 2011-March 2012) phases, respectively. Considering that a gram sabha comprises on an average 10 villages and cluster of villages, around 1,19,700 villages would be developed.

Since, only the rural-based 380 of the total of 403 Assembly constituencies have been included in the Ambedkar Rural Integrated Development Programme, a separate development scheme for the 23 remaining urban-based constituencies would be launched soon, the Chief Minister added.

She said her Government desired that the benefits of integrated development percolate down to all sections of the rural society.

Fresh impetus

Ms. Mayawati said during her earlier stints as Chief Minister, 19,248 villages had been selected for development under the Ambedkar Development Scheme. She lamented that their development was ignored by other governments. A fresh impetus has been made to complete the unfinished development works in these villages by December 31, 2007.

A dozen Government departments would be involved in integrated development of the 17,100 gram sabhas. The Ambedkar Rural Integrated Development Scheme will include construction of approach roads in villages, rural electrification, construction of water channels, clean toilets, availability of potable drinking water and Indira Avas Yojana. The other components include free boring, construction of primary school buildings, employment generation programmes, allotment of “pattas”, polio eradication, pension for the aged and disabled, and scholarships for the Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes, the Other Backward Castes, students living below the poverty line, and minorities.

U.P. Govt. cancels B.Ed exams

Lucknow: The Uttar Pradesh government on Thursday cancelled B.Ed examinations of Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar University in Agra following detection of “largescale anomalies” in the examination process, a senior official said.

According to Principal Secretary (Higher Education) Rakesh Kumar Mittal, the examinations were held last year by the university during the tenure of A S Kukla as Vice-Chancellor who was removed from the post on charges of irregularities.

comments (0)
11-10-2007-The Awakened One-Part II: The Seven Sets-C. The Four Right Exertions
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 6:44 am


https://what-buddha-said.net/Pics/Right_View_dawns_the_4_Noble_Truths.jpg

https://what-buddha-said.net/Pics/Right_View_dawns_the_4_Noble_Truths.jpg



True Teachings of The Awakened One

 http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_i9nLhuX_v_U/TA-OnGpIXlI/AAAAAAAAAAM/tpjS_0eKb7g/s1600/1birds.gif


http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_i9nLhuX_v_U/TA-OnGpIXlI/AAAAAAAAAAM/tpjS_0eKb7g/s1600/1birds.gif

http://www.bibhasde.com/Buddha_monk.jpg

http://www.bibhasde.com/Buddha_monk.jpg


To Nagita

 

The raucous carryings-on of a group of brahmans lead the Buddha to reflect on the rewards of detachment.

Translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

Translator’s
note: The frame story here is common to three suttas: AN 5.30, AN 6.42,
and AN 8.86. Although the conversation takes a different turn in each
case, in all three cases the Buddha takes the opportunity to teach some
unusually plain-spoken truths.

I
have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One, on a wandering tour
among the Kosalans with a large community of monks, arrived at a Kosalan
brahman village named Icchanangala. There he stayed in the Icchanangala
forest grove.

The
brahman householders of Icchanangala heard it said, “Gotama the
contemplative — the son of the Sakyans, having gone forth from the
Sakyan clan — on a wandering tour among the Kosalans with a large
community of monks — has arrived at Icchanangala and is staying in the
Icchanangala forest grove. And of that Master Gotama this fine
reputation has spread: ‘He is indeed a Blessed One, worthy, &
rightly self-awakened, consummate in knowledge & conduct, well-gone,
a knower of the cosmos, an unexcelled trainer of those persons ready to
be tamed, teacher of human & divine beings, awakened, blessed. He
has made known — having realized it through direct knowledge — this
world with its devas, maras, & brahmas, its generations with their
contemplatives & priests, their rulers & common people; has
explained the Dhamma admirable in the beginning, admirable in the
middle, admirable in the end; has expounded the holy life both in its
particulars & in its essence, entirely perfect, surpassingly pure.
It is good to see such a worthy one.’”

So
the brahman householders of Icchanangala, when the night was gone,
taking many staple & non-staple foods, went to the gate house of the
Icchanangala forest grove. On arrival they stood there making a loud
racket, a great racket.

Now
at that time Ven. Nagita was the Blessed One’s attendant. So the
Blessed One addressed Ven. Nagita: “Nagita, what is that loud racket,
that great racket, like fishermen with a catch of fish?”

“Lord,
those are the brahman householders of Icchanangala standing at the gate
house to the Icchanangala forest grove, having brought many staple
& non-staple foods for the sake of the Blessed One & the
community of monks.”

“May
I have nothing to do with honor, Nagita, and honor nothing to do with
me. Whoever cannot obtain at will — without difficulty, without trouble —
as I do, the pleasure of renunciation, the pleasure of seclusion, the
pleasure of peace, the pleasure of self-awakening, let him consent to
this slimy-excrement-pleasure, this torpor-pleasure, this pleasure of
gains, offerings, & fame.”

“Lord,
let the Blessed One acquiesce [to their offerings] now! Let the One
Well-gone acquiesce now! Now is the time for the Blessed One’s
acquiescence, lord! Now is the time for the Blessed One’s acquiescence,
lord! Wherever the Blessed One will go now, the brahmans of the towns
& countryside will be so inclined. Just as when the rain-devas send
rain in fat drops, the waters flow with the incline, in the same way,
wherever the Blessed One will go now, the brahmans of the towns &
countryside will be so inclined. Why is that? Because such is the
Blessed One’s virtue & discernment.”

“May
I have nothing to do with honor, Nagita, and honor nothing to do with
me. Whoever cannot obtain at will — without difficulty, without trouble —
as I do, the pleasure of renunciation, the pleasure of seclusion, the
pleasure of peace, the pleasure of self-awakening, let him consent to
this slimy-excrement-pleasure, this torpor-pleasure, this pleasure of
gains, offerings, & fame.

“When one eats & drinks & chews & savors, there is excrement & urine: That is one’s reward.

“When
one loves, there arises the state of change & aberration, sorrow,
lamentation, pain, distress, & despair: That is one’s reward.

“When
one is committed to the theme of the unattractive, one takes a stance
in the loathsomeness of the theme of beauty: That is one’s reward.

“When
one remains focused on the inconstancy of the six media of sensory
contact, one takes a stance in the loathsomeness of contact: That is
one’s reward.

“When
one remains focused on the arising & passing away of the five
clinging aggregates, one takes a stance in the loathsomeness of
clinging: That is one’s reward.”


1984 செ செப் 13 2016

பாடங்கள்


பயன்படுத்தி தமிழ், இந்த Google மொழிபெயர்ப்பு சரியான மொழிபெயர்ப்பு வழங்க செய்க

http://www.translate.google.com/

விழித்தெழுந்த ஒரு உண்மையான போதனைகள்

 

Nagita செய்ய

 

கரகரப்பான carryings-ம் பிராமணர்களுக்கு ஒரு குழு புத்தர் பற்றின்மை வெகுமதிகளை பிரதிபலிக்கும் வழிவகுக்கும்.

மூலம் பாலி மொழி பெயர்க்கப்பட்டது

தனிஸ்ஸாரோ Bhikkhu

மொழிபெயர்ப்பாளர் குறிப்பு: ஒரு 5.30, ஒரு 6.42, மற்றும் ஒரு 8.86: இங்கே கிளைக்கதையை மூன்று சூத்திரங்கள் பொதுவானது. உரையாடல் ஒவ்வொரு வழக்கில் வித்தியாசமான ஒரு திருப்பத்தை எடுக்கும்
என்றாலும், அனைத்து மூன்று நிகழ்வுகளிலும் புத்தர் சில வழக்கத்திற்கு மாறாக
சாதாரண பேசியுள்ள உண்மைகள் கற்பிக்க வாய்ப்பு எடுக்கும்.

நான்,
ஒரு சந்தர்ப்பத்தில் ஆசிர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட ஒருவர் மீது என்று கேள்விப்பட்டேன்
துறவிகள் ஒரு பெரிய சமூகத்துடன் Kosalans மத்தியில் ஒரு அலையும்
சுற்றுப்பயணம், Icchanangala என்ற ஒரு Kosalan பிரம்மம் கிராமத்திற்கு
வந்தார்கள்.
அங்கு அவர் Icchanangala Forest Grove தங்கியிருந்தார்.

துறவிகள்
ஒரு பெரிய சமூகத்துடன் Kosalans மத்தியில் ஒரு அலையும் சுற்றுப்பயணம் - -,
Sakyans மகன் முன்னும் பின்னுமாக Sakyan குலத்தை இருந்து போய் -
Icchanangala வந்திருக்கிறார் உள்ளே தங்கி Icchanangala என்ற பிரம்மன்
வீட்டுக்காரர்கள் அது கெளதம தியான “, நான் கேள்விப்பட்டேன்
.
Icchanangala Forest Grove என்று மாஸ்டர் கெளதம இந்த நற்பெயர் பரவி
வருகிறது: ‘அவர் உண்மையில் ஒரு ஆசிர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட ஒருவர், தகுதி, மற்றும்
சரியாக சுய விழித்துக்கொண்டது, அறிவு மற்றும் நடத்தையில் முழுநிறைவான,
நன்றாக சென்று, அகிலம் ஒரு அறிந்தவர், ஒரு unexcelled
தயாராக
அந்நபர்கள் பயிற்சியாளர், அடக்க வேண்டும் மனித மற்றும் தெய்வீக மனிதர்கள்,
விழித்துக்கொண்டது போது ஆசிரியர், அவன் பெரும் பாக்கியம் உடையவன்
அறிவித்திருந்த -. நேரடி அறிவு மூலம் அதை உணர்ந்து கொண்டு - அதன்
தேவர்களும், Maras, மற்றும் brahmas, தங்கள் contemplatives மற்றும்
பாதிரியார்கள் மீது அதன் தலைமுறைகளாக இந்த உலக
,
அவர்கள் ஆட்சியாளர்கள் மற்றும் பொது மக்கள்; தொடக்கத்தில் அறநெறிப்
போற்றத்தக்க, மத்தியில் போற்றத்தக்க, இறுதியில் போற்றத்தக்க விளக்கினார்
உள்ளது; அதன் விவரங்கள் மற்றும் அதன் சாரம், முற்றிலும், சரியான
surpassingly தூய இரண்டு புனித வாழ்க்கை விடுவித்தவர்களுக்கு வருகிறது.
இது போன்ற ஒரு தகுதி பார்க்க நன்றாக இருக்கிறது. ‘ “

எனவே
Icchanangala, இரவு பல பிரதான மற்றும் அல்லாத உணவுப் எடுத்து, சென்று
போது பிரம்மன் வீட்டுக்காரர்கள், Icchanangala Forest Grove வாசல்
வீட்டிற்கு சென்றார்.
வருகையை அவர்கள் உரத்த மோசடி, ஒரு பெரிய மோசடி செய்து அங்கு நின்று.

இப்போது காலம் வண மணிக்கு. Nagita ஆசிர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட ஒருவர் வேலைக்காரன் இருந்தது. எனவே ஆசிர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட ஒருவர் வண உரையாற்றினார். Nagita: “Nagita, என்ன என்று உரத்த மோசடி, என்று பெரிய மோசடி, மீன் ஒரு பந்தை கொண்டு மீனவர்கள் போன்ற?”

“ஆண்டவரே, அந்த Icchanangala Forest Grove வாசலில் வீட்டில் நின்று
Icchanangala என்ற பிரம்மன் வீட்டுக்காரர்கள், ஆசிர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட ஒருவர்
மற்றும் துறவிகள் சமூகத்தில் பொருட்டு பல பிரதான மற்றும் அல்லாத உணவுப்
கொண்டுவந்துள்ள உள்ளன.”

,
சிரமம் இல்லாமல் சிரமம் இல்லாமல் - - துறத்தல் இன்பம், இம்முடிவை இன்பம்,
அமைதி இன்பம் நான் என,. “நான் விருப்பத்திற்கு பெற எவர் முடியாது மரியாதை,
Nagita, மற்றும் என்னுடன் செய்ய மரியாதை எதுவும் செய்ய எதுவும் இருக்கலாம்
, சுய விழிப்புணர்வு இன்பம், அவரை இந்த அற்பத்தனமான-சாணம், இன்பம், இந்த
திமிர், இன்பம், வெற்றிகள், பிரசாதம், மற்றும் புகழ் இந்த இன்பம்
சம்மதிப்போமானால். “

“ஆண்டவரே,
இப்பொழுது [தங்கள் பிரசாதம்] ஆசிர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட ஒருவர் ஏற்றுக் கொள்!
இனி ஒரு நன்கு சென்று மண்டியிடுவதா நாம்! இப்போது ஆசிர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட
ஒருவர் இணங்கியதை, ஆண்டவன் நேரம் இல்லை! இப்போது ஆசிர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட ஒருவர்
இணங்கியதை நேரம் ஆண்டவன்! எங்கு
நெருப்பிற்குள்ளிருந்து
இப்போது போக வேண்டும், நகரங்கள் மற்றும் கிராமப்புறங்களில்
பிராமணர்களுக்கு அதனால் தான் மழை-தேவாஸ் கொழுப்பு சொட்டு மழை அனுப்பும்
போது போன்ற சாய் இருக்கும்., கடல், சாய் ஓடும் எங்கு ஆசிர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட
ஒருவர் இப்போது போக வேண்டும் அதே வழியில், உள்ள
, நகரங்கள் மற்றும் கிராமப்புறங்களில் பிராமணர்களுக்கு எனவே. இது ஏன்?
சாய் இருக்கும் அத்தகைய ஆசிர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட ஒருவர் தான் நல்லொழுக்கம்
மற்றும் உணர்விலும் என்பதால். “

,
சிரமம் இல்லாமல் சிரமம் இல்லாமல் - - துறத்தல் இன்பம், இம்முடிவை இன்பம்,
அமைதி இன்பம் நான் என,. “நான் விருப்பத்திற்கு பெற எவர் முடியாது மரியாதை,
Nagita, மற்றும் என்னுடன் செய்ய மரியாதை எதுவும் செய்ய எதுவும் இருக்கலாம்
, சுய விழிப்புணர்வு இன்பம், அவரை இந்த அற்பத்தனமான-சாணம், இன்பம், இந்த
திமிர், இன்பம், வெற்றிகள், பிரசாதம், மற்றும் புகழ் இந்த இன்பம்
சம்மதிப்போமானால்.

“ஒரு சாப்பிடுவார் & பானங்கள் மற்றும் சவச்சி மற்றும் வாசனையான போது, அங்கு சாணம் மற்றும் சிறுநீர்: அந்த ஒரு வெகுமதி ஆகும்.

“அன்பு, மாற்றம் மற்றும் பிறழ்ச்சி, துக்கம், புலம்பல், வலி, துன்பம்,
மற்றும் விரக்தியிலும் மாநில எழுகிறது: அந்த ஒரு வெகுமதி ஆகும்.

“ஒரு கவர்ச்சியற்றுத் தீம் கடமைப்பட்டுள்ளது போது, ஒரு அழகு தீம்
loathsomeness ஒரு நிலைப்பாட்டை எடுக்கும் என்று ஒரு வெகுமதி ஆகும்.

“ஒரு உணர்ச்சி தொடர்பு ஆறு ஊடக நிலையாமையை கவனம் உள்ளது போது, ஒரு
தொடர்பு loathsomeness ஒரு நிலைப்பாட்டை எடுக்கும் என்று ஒரு வெகுமதி
ஆகும்.

“ஒரு
எழும் & விட்டு ஐந்து தொங்கிக்கொண்டிருக்கிறது கூட்டாய் கடந்து
கவனம் உள்ளது போது, ஒரு காக்கவும் என்ற loathsomeness ஒரு நிலைப்பாட்டை
எடுக்கும் என்று ஒரு வெகுமதி ஆகும்.”


comments (0)
10-10-2007-True Teachings of The Awakened One-To Nagita-The raucous carryings-on of a group of brahmans lead the Buddha to reflect on the rewards of detachment.
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 6:32 am



http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_i9nLhuX_v_U/TA-OnGpIXlI/AAAAAAAAAAM/tpjS_0eKb7g/s1600/1birds.gif


http://www.bibhasde.com/Buddha_monk.jpg

http://www.bibhasde.com/Buddha_monk.jpg


To Nagita

 

The raucous carryings-on of a group of brahmans lead the Buddha to reflect on the rewards of detachment.

Translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

Translator’s
note: The frame story here is common to three suttas: AN 5.30, AN 6.42,
and AN 8.86. Although the conversation takes a different turn in each
case, in all three cases the Buddha takes the opportunity to teach some
unusually plain-spoken truths.

I
have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One, on a wandering tour
among the Kosalans with a large community of monks, arrived at a Kosalan
brahman village named Icchanangala. There he stayed in the Icchanangala
forest grove.

The
brahman householders of Icchanangala heard it said, “Gotama the
contemplative — the son of the Sakyans, having gone forth from the
Sakyan clan — on a wandering tour among the Kosalans with a large
community of monks — has arrived at Icchanangala and is staying in the
Icchanangala forest grove. And of that Master Gotama this fine
reputation has spread: ‘He is indeed a Blessed One, worthy, &
rightly self-awakened, consummate in knowledge & conduct, well-gone,
a knower of the cosmos, an unexcelled trainer of those persons ready to
be tamed, teacher of human & divine beings, awakened, blessed. He
has made known — having realized it through direct knowledge — this
world with its devas, maras, & brahmas, its generations with their
contemplatives & priests, their rulers & common people; has
explained the Dhamma admirable in the beginning, admirable in the
middle, admirable in the end; has expounded the holy life both in its
particulars & in its essence, entirely perfect, surpassingly pure.
It is good to see such a worthy one.’”

So
the brahman householders of Icchanangala, when the night was gone,
taking many staple & non-staple foods, went to the gate house of the
Icchanangala forest grove. On arrival they stood there making a loud
racket, a great racket.

Now
at that time Ven. Nagita was the Blessed One’s attendant. So the
Blessed One addressed Ven. Nagita: “Nagita, what is that loud racket,
that great racket, like fishermen with a catch of fish?”

“Lord,
those are the brahman householders of Icchanangala standing at the gate
house to the Icchanangala forest grove, having brought many staple
& non-staple foods for the sake of the Blessed One & the
community of monks.”

“May
I have nothing to do with honor, Nagita, and honor nothing to do with
me. Whoever cannot obtain at will — without difficulty, without trouble —
as I do, the pleasure of renunciation, the pleasure of seclusion, the
pleasure of peace, the pleasure of self-awakening, let him consent to
this slimy-excrement-pleasure, this torpor-pleasure, this pleasure of
gains, offerings, & fame.”

“Lord,
let the Blessed One acquiesce [to their offerings] now! Let the One
Well-gone acquiesce now! Now is the time for the Blessed One’s
acquiescence, lord! Now is the time for the Blessed One’s acquiescence,
lord! Wherever the Blessed One will go now, the brahmans of the towns
& countryside will be so inclined. Just as when the rain-devas send
rain in fat drops, the waters flow with the incline, in the same way,
wherever the Blessed One will go now, the brahmans of the towns &
countryside will be so inclined. Why is that? Because such is the
Blessed One’s virtue & discernment.”

“May
I have nothing to do with honor, Nagita, and honor nothing to do with
me. Whoever cannot obtain at will — without difficulty, without trouble —
as I do, the pleasure of renunciation, the pleasure of seclusion, the
pleasure of peace, the pleasure of self-awakening, let him consent to
this slimy-excrement-pleasure, this torpor-pleasure, this pleasure of
gains, offerings, & fame.

“When one eats & drinks & chews & savors, there is excrement & urine: That is one’s reward.

“When
one loves, there arises the state of change & aberration, sorrow,
lamentation, pain, distress, & despair: That is one’s reward.

“When
one is committed to the theme of the unattractive, one takes a stance
in the loathsomeness of the theme of beauty: That is one’s reward.

“When
one remains focused on the inconstancy of the six media of sensory
contact, one takes a stance in the loathsomeness of contact: That is
one’s reward.

“When
one remains focused on the arising & passing away of the five
clinging aggregates, one takes a stance in the loathsomeness of
clinging: That is one’s reward.”


1984 செ செப் 13 2016

பாடங்கள்


பயன்படுத்தி தமிழ், இந்த Google மொழிபெயர்ப்பு சரியான மொழிபெயர்ப்பு வழங்க செய்க

http://www.translate.google.com/

விழித்தெழுந்த ஒரு உண்மையான போதனைகள்

 

Nagita செய்ய

 

கரகரப்பான carryings-ம் பிராமணர்களுக்கு ஒரு குழு புத்தர் பற்றின்மை வெகுமதிகளை பிரதிபலிக்கும் வழிவகுக்கும்.

மூலம் பாலி மொழி பெயர்க்கப்பட்டது

தனிஸ்ஸாரோ Bhikkhu

மொழிபெயர்ப்பாளர் குறிப்பு: ஒரு 5.30, ஒரு 6.42, மற்றும் ஒரு 8.86: இங்கே கிளைக்கதையை மூன்று சூத்திரங்கள் பொதுவானது. உரையாடல் ஒவ்வொரு வழக்கில் வித்தியாசமான ஒரு திருப்பத்தை எடுக்கும்
என்றாலும், அனைத்து மூன்று நிகழ்வுகளிலும் புத்தர் சில வழக்கத்திற்கு மாறாக
சாதாரண பேசியுள்ள உண்மைகள் கற்பிக்க வாய்ப்பு எடுக்கும்.

நான்,
ஒரு சந்தர்ப்பத்தில் ஆசிர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட ஒருவர் மீது என்று கேள்விப்பட்டேன்
துறவிகள் ஒரு பெரிய சமூகத்துடன் Kosalans மத்தியில் ஒரு அலையும்
சுற்றுப்பயணம், Icchanangala என்ற ஒரு Kosalan பிரம்மம் கிராமத்திற்கு
வந்தார்கள்.
அங்கு அவர் Icchanangala Forest Grove தங்கியிருந்தார்.

துறவிகள்
ஒரு பெரிய சமூகத்துடன் Kosalans மத்தியில் ஒரு அலையும் சுற்றுப்பயணம் - -,
Sakyans மகன் முன்னும் பின்னுமாக Sakyan குலத்தை இருந்து போய் -
Icchanangala வந்திருக்கிறார் உள்ளே தங்கி Icchanangala என்ற பிரம்மன்
வீட்டுக்காரர்கள் அது கெளதம தியான “, நான் கேள்விப்பட்டேன்
.
Icchanangala Forest Grove என்று மாஸ்டர் கெளதம இந்த நற்பெயர் பரவி
வருகிறது: ‘அவர் உண்மையில் ஒரு ஆசிர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட ஒருவர், தகுதி, மற்றும்
சரியாக சுய விழித்துக்கொண்டது, அறிவு மற்றும் நடத்தையில் முழுநிறைவான,
நன்றாக சென்று, அகிலம் ஒரு அறிந்தவர், ஒரு unexcelled
தயாராக
அந்நபர்கள் பயிற்சியாளர், அடக்க வேண்டும் மனித மற்றும் தெய்வீக மனிதர்கள்,
விழித்துக்கொண்டது போது ஆசிரியர், அவன் பெரும் பாக்கியம் உடையவன்
அறிவித்திருந்த -. நேரடி அறிவு மூலம் அதை உணர்ந்து கொண்டு - அதன்
தேவர்களும், Maras, மற்றும் brahmas, தங்கள் contemplatives மற்றும்
பாதிரியார்கள் மீது அதன் தலைமுறைகளாக இந்த உலக
,
அவர்கள் ஆட்சியாளர்கள் மற்றும் பொது மக்கள்; தொடக்கத்தில் அறநெறிப்
போற்றத்தக்க, மத்தியில் போற்றத்தக்க, இறுதியில் போற்றத்தக்க விளக்கினார்
உள்ளது; அதன் விவரங்கள் மற்றும் அதன் சாரம், முற்றிலும், சரியான
surpassingly தூய இரண்டு புனித வாழ்க்கை விடுவித்தவர்களுக்கு வருகிறது.
இது போன்ற ஒரு தகுதி பார்க்க நன்றாக இருக்கிறது. ‘ “

எனவே
Icchanangala, இரவு பல பிரதான மற்றும் அல்லாத உணவுப் எடுத்து, சென்று
போது பிரம்மன் வீட்டுக்காரர்கள், Icchanangala Forest Grove வாசல்
வீட்டிற்கு சென்றார்.
வருகையை அவர்கள் உரத்த மோசடி, ஒரு பெரிய மோசடி செய்து அங்கு நின்று.

இப்போது காலம் வண மணிக்கு. Nagita ஆசிர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட ஒருவர் வேலைக்காரன் இருந்தது. எனவே ஆசிர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட ஒருவர் வண உரையாற்றினார். Nagita: “Nagita, என்ன என்று உரத்த மோசடி, என்று பெரிய மோசடி, மீன் ஒரு பந்தை கொண்டு மீனவர்கள் போன்ற?”

“ஆண்டவரே, அந்த Icchanangala Forest Grove வாசலில் வீட்டில் நின்று
Icchanangala என்ற பிரம்மன் வீட்டுக்காரர்கள், ஆசிர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட ஒருவர்
மற்றும் துறவிகள் சமூகத்தில் பொருட்டு பல பிரதான மற்றும் அல்லாத உணவுப்
கொண்டுவந்துள்ள உள்ளன.”

,
சிரமம் இல்லாமல் சிரமம் இல்லாமல் - - துறத்தல் இன்பம், இம்முடிவை இன்பம்,
அமைதி இன்பம் நான் என,. “நான் விருப்பத்திற்கு பெற எவர் முடியாது மரியாதை,
Nagita, மற்றும் என்னுடன் செய்ய மரியாதை எதுவும் செய்ய எதுவும் இருக்கலாம்
, சுய விழிப்புணர்வு இன்பம், அவரை இந்த அற்பத்தனமான-சாணம், இன்பம், இந்த
திமிர், இன்பம், வெற்றிகள், பிரசாதம், மற்றும் புகழ் இந்த இன்பம்
சம்மதிப்போமானால். “

“ஆண்டவரே,
இப்பொழுது [தங்கள் பிரசாதம்] ஆசிர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட ஒருவர் ஏற்றுக் கொள்!
இனி ஒரு நன்கு சென்று மண்டியிடுவதா நாம்! இப்போது ஆசிர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட
ஒருவர் இணங்கியதை, ஆண்டவன் நேரம் இல்லை! இப்போது ஆசிர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட ஒருவர்
இணங்கியதை நேரம் ஆண்டவன்! எங்கு
நெருப்பிற்குள்ளிருந்து
இப்போது போக வேண்டும், நகரங்கள் மற்றும் கிராமப்புறங்களில்
பிராமணர்களுக்கு அதனால் தான் மழை-தேவாஸ் கொழுப்பு சொட்டு மழை அனுப்பும்
போது போன்ற சாய் இருக்கும்., கடல், சாய் ஓடும் எங்கு ஆசிர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட
ஒருவர் இப்போது போக வேண்டும் அதே வழியில், உள்ள
, நகரங்கள் மற்றும் கிராமப்புறங்களில் பிராமணர்களுக்கு எனவே. இது ஏன்?
சாய் இருக்கும் அத்தகைய ஆசிர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட ஒருவர் தான் நல்லொழுக்கம்
மற்றும் உணர்விலும் என்பதால். “

,
சிரமம் இல்லாமல் சிரமம் இல்லாமல் - - துறத்தல் இன்பம், இம்முடிவை இன்பம்,
அமைதி இன்பம் நான் என,. “நான் விருப்பத்திற்கு பெற எவர் முடியாது மரியாதை,
Nagita, மற்றும் என்னுடன் செய்ய மரியாதை எதுவும் செய்ய எதுவும் இருக்கலாம்
, சுய விழிப்புணர்வு இன்பம், அவரை இந்த அற்பத்தனமான-சாணம், இன்பம், இந்த
திமிர், இன்பம், வெற்றிகள், பிரசாதம், மற்றும் புகழ் இந்த இன்பம்
சம்மதிப்போமானால்.

“ஒரு சாப்பிடுவார் & பானங்கள் மற்றும் சவச்சி மற்றும் வாசனையான போது, அங்கு சாணம் மற்றும் சிறுநீர்: அந்த ஒரு வெகுமதி ஆகும்.

“அன்பு, மாற்றம் மற்றும் பிறழ்ச்சி, துக்கம், புலம்பல், வலி, துன்பம்,
மற்றும் விரக்தியிலும் மாநில எழுகிறது: அந்த ஒரு வெகுமதி ஆகும்.

“ஒரு கவர்ச்சியற்றுத் தீம் கடமைப்பட்டுள்ளது போது, ஒரு அழகு தீம்
loathsomeness ஒரு நிலைப்பாட்டை எடுக்கும் என்று ஒரு வெகுமதி ஆகும்.

“ஒரு உணர்ச்சி தொடர்பு ஆறு ஊடக நிலையாமையை கவனம் உள்ளது போது, ஒரு
தொடர்பு loathsomeness ஒரு நிலைப்பாட்டை எடுக்கும் என்று ஒரு வெகுமதி
ஆகும்.

“ஒரு
எழும் & விட்டு ஐந்து தொங்கிக்கொண்டிருக்கிறது கூட்டாய் கடந்து
கவனம் உள்ளது போது, ஒரு காக்கவும் என்ற loathsomeness ஒரு நிலைப்பாட்டை
எடுக்கும் என்று ஒரு வெகுமதி ஆகும்.”

comments (0)
9-10-2007-0Spiritual Community of The True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One-Contributing Authors and Translators-Biographical Notes
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 6:26 am

Spiritual Community of The True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One

 
Kindly visit:
 
Contributing Authors and Translators
 
 
Biographical Notes
 

These biographical notes were adapted from the sources that follow each entry.

This is a work in progress. I welcome your help in filling any of the gaping biographical holes. If you have any information to provide, please let me know. I’d be especially grateful for references to previously published sources (book, newspaper, magazine, official website, etc.) that I can cite as trustworthy references.




Amaravati Sangha (   -   ) [amar]
“Amaravati Sangha” refers to the community of monastics (bhikkhus and ten-precept siladharas) in the Thai forest lineage of Ajaan Chah that are associated with the » Amaravati Buddhist Monastery near Hemel Hempstead, England, and its several branch monasteries across Europe, Australia, and North America. The community has kindly provided a number of sutta translations for distribution on Access to Insight.
Ariyadhamma Mahathera (   -   )
(No information available.)
Ariyesako, Bhikkhu (   -   )
(No information available.)
Ashby, Dr. Elizabeth (   -   )
(No information available.)
Bischoff, Roger (   -   )
(No information available.)
Bodhi, Bhikkhu (1944-   ) [bodh]
Bhikkhu Bodhi (Jeffrey Block), Ph.D., is an American Buddhist monk and Pali scholar. After completing his university studies in philosophy at the Claremont Graduate School, he traveled to Sri Lanka, where he received full ordination in 1973 under the late Ven. Ananda Maitreya. He served as editor of the Buddhist Publication Society (Sri Lanka) from 1984-1988 and and has been its president since 1988. His translations The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha (Somerville: Wisdom Publications, 1995) and The Connected Discourses of the Buddha (Somerville: Wisdom Publications, 2000) are highly regarded by Buddhist scholars and practitioners around the world. He is currently the president of the Sangha Council of Bodhi Monastery (USA) and the chairman of the Yin Shun Foundation. [Source: » Bodhi Monastery website and other sources.]
Bodhinandamuni, Phra (   -   )
Phra Bodhinandamuni (Phra Khru Nandapaññabharana) is a Thai Buddhist monk.
Bogoda, Robert (1918-   )
Robert Bogoda was born in 1918 in Colombo, Sri Lanka. His secondary education was cut short by the sudden demise of his father, which compelled him to work at a modest job as a teacher. While engaged in teaching, he obtained by self study the B.Sc. (Econ.) and M.Sc. (Econ.) degrees from the University of London, specializing in Social Administration. [Source: A Simple Guide to Life (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1994).]
Boowa Ñanasampanno, Phra Ajaan Maha (1913-   )
(See his entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.)
Brahmali Bhikkhu (   -   )
(No information available.)
Buddharakkhita, Acharya (   -   ) [budd]
Acharya Buddharakkhita was born in Manipur, India. He is the founder and current director of the Maha Bodhi Society in Bangalore. In 1956 he served on the editorial board of the Sixth Buddhist Council in Rangoon. He is the author of numerous books and translations from Pali and also edits and publishes the monthly Buddhist journal Dhamma. [Source: Mind Overcoming its Cankers (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 2004).]
Bullen, Leonard (1909-1984)
Leonard A. Bullen was one of the pioneers of the Buddhist movement in Australia. He was the first president of the Buddhist Society of Victoria when it was established in 1953 and one of the first office-bearers of the executive committee of the Buddhist Federation of Australia. He was also a co-editor of the Buddhist journal Metta. [Source: Buddhism: A Method of Mind Training (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1969).]
Bullitt, John (1956-   )
John Bullitt is an American lay Buddhist and long-time student of the Dhamma. He received a B.A. in physics from Grinnell College and an M.A. in geophysics from the University of California, Berkeley. In the early 1990s he helped Ajaan Suwat establish » Metta Forest Monastery in California and edited Bhikkhu Bodhi’s manuscript of The Middle Length Discourses (Boston: » Wisdom Publications, 1995). In 1993 he launched Access to Insight, an online distributor of free Dhamma texts, of which he continues to serve as Editor.
Burlingame, E.W. (   -   )
(No information available.)
Burns, Douglas (   -1975?)
Douglas Burns was an American psychiatrist who intensely studied and practiced Buddhism in Thailand. He was last seen in Bangkok in 1975 before leaving on a trip to southern Thailand. He was presumed dead, but mystery surrounds his disappearance. [Source: Paul Daniels]
Chah Subhaddo, Phra Ajaan (1918-1992)
(See his entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.)
Conze, Edward (   -   )
(No information available.)
DeGraff, Geoffrey — see Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
de Silva, Lily (   -   )
Lily de Silva was educated at the University of Ceylon, Peradeniya, where she received a B.A. with First Class Honors in Pali and the Woodward Prize for Pali and, in 1967, a Ph.D. She taught at the University for many years and served as Chair of the Department of Pali and Buddhist Studies until her retirement in 1994. Dr. de Silva was the editor of the Digha Nikaya Atthakatha Tika (Subcommentary to the Digha Nikaya), published by the Pali Text Society in three volumes, and has long been a regular contributor to Buddhist scholarly and popular journals. [Source: One Foot in the World: Buddhist Approaches to Present-day Problems (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1986) and the Department of Pali & Buddhist Studies, University of Peradeniya (www.pdn.ac.lk/arts/pali/pali.html).]
de Silva, M.W. Padmasiri (   -   )
(No information available.)
Dewaraja, Lorna Srimathie (   -   )
Lorna Dewaraja, M.A. (Ceylon), Ph.D. (London), formerly Associate Professor of History, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka, is currently the Director of the Bandaranaike International Diplomatic Training Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka. [Source: » International Centre for Ethnic Studies, Sri Lanka.]
Dhammapala, Acariya (   -   )
(No information available.)
Dhammananda, Ven. K. Sri (1919-2006)
Born in Kirinde (Matara) Sri Lanka, Martin Garmage was given the name Dhammananda when he ordained as a novice monk at the age of twelve. At age twenty-two he received higher ordination. He pursued scholarly studies in Sanskrit, Pali, Hindi, and Buddhist Philosophy at universities in Sri Lanka and India, eventually receiving a Master of Arts degree in Indian Philosophy and a Doctor of Literature degree from the Benares Hindu University. He then returned to Sri Lanka, where he established the Sudharma Buddhist Institute, which tended to the educational, welfare, and religious needs of local villagers. In 1952 he traveled to Malaysia as a Buddhist missionary, and in 1962 founded the Buddhist Missionary Society to help disseminate the Buddha’s teachings across Malaysia and beyond. He wrote more than 60 books (in English) which have been widely distributed worldwide and translated into more than a dozen languages. He passed away in August 2006. [Source: Adapted from “Life Story Of Ven Dr. K Sri Dhammananda” (http://www.ksridhammananda.com/)]
Dhammayut Order in the United States of America
The Dhammayut Order in the USA is the administrative organization that oversees the Thai Dhammayut temples and monasteries in the USA.
Dhammika, Ven. Shravasti (1951-   )
Ven. Shravasti Dhammika was born in Australia and developed an interest in Buddhism in his early teens. At the age of twenty-two he went to India and was ordained as a Buddhist monk under the Ven. M. Sangharatana Mahathera. He later lived in Sri Lanka where he became well-known for his efforts to promote Buddhism. He worked in Singapore in 1985 as a spiritual Advisor to the Dhamma Mandala Society and several other Buddhist groups. He taught at the Curriculum Development Institute of Singapore’s Education Department and made several television films for the Institute. He currently resides in Singapore. [Source: Gemstones of the Good Dhamma (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1987) and Singapore Dharmanet (www.buddha.sg/sd.htm).]
Dune Atulo, Phra (1888-1983)
(See his entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.)
Fawcett, Brian (   -   )
(No information available.)
Figen, Dorothy (   -   )
(No information available.)
Fuang Jotiko, Phra Ajaan (1915-1986)
(See his entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.)
Gilbert, William (   -   )
(No information available.)
Greenly, Edward (   -   )
(No information available.)
Gunaratana, Ven. Henepola (1927-   ) Listen to suttas read aloud by this teacher
Ven. Gunaratana (Ekanayaka Mudiyanselage Ukkubana) was born in Henepola, Sri Lanka and became a novice monk at the age of 12. He received his higher education at Vidyalankara College and Buddhist Missionary College, Colombo, and in 1947 received higher ordination in Kandy. He worked for five years as a Buddhist missionary among the Harijans (Untouchables) in India and for ten years with the Buddhist Missionary Society in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In 1968 he came to the United States to serve as general secretary of the Buddhist Vihara Society at the Washington Buddhist Vihara. In 1980 he was appointed president of the Society. He received a B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. from The American University, where he also served for many years as Buddhist Chaplain. He is now President of the Bhavana Meditation Center in West Virginia, about 100 miles from Washington, D.C. [Source: “Bhante Henepola Gunaratana,” The Bhavana Society (» http://www.bhavanasociety.org/bhavana.asp?f=about/bhanteG.]
Gunaratna, V.F. (   -   )
(No information available.)
Guruge, Ananda W.P. (   -   )
Ananda W.P. Guruge is a retired Sri Lankan diplomat and a scholar in the field of Indology and Buddhist Studies. He is the author of over thirty books, among the most recent a complete translation of the Sinhalese chronicle, The Mahavamsa, and a biography of King Asoka. [Source: The Buddha’s Encounters with Mara the Tempter (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1997).]
Harris, Elizabeth J. (   -   )
Elizabeth J. Harris studied Buddhism in Sri Lanka from 1986 to 1993 and obtained a Ph.D. degree from the Postgraduate Institute of Pali and Buddhist Studies, University of Kelaniya. She is now Secretary for Inter-faith Relations in The Methodist Church in London. [Source: Detachment and Compassion in Early Buddhism, by Elizabeth J. Harris (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1997).]
Hecker, Hellmuth (   -   ) [heck, hekh]
Hellmuth Hecker is a leading German writer on Buddhism and a translator from the Pali canon. His books include a german translation of the Samyutta Nikaya (parts 4 & 5) a two-volume chronicle on Buddhism in Germany, and a biography of Ven. Nyanatiloka Mahathera, the first German Buddhist monk. [Source: Great Disciples of the Buddha, by Nyanaponika Thera and Hellmuth Hecker (Somerville: Wisdom Publications, 1997).]
Horner, I.B. (1896-1981) [horn]
“Isaline Blew Horner was born in Walthamstow, 1896. She was educated at Prior’s Field, Surrey, and Newnham College, Cambridge, BA, 1917, MA, 1934. She remained at Newnham College as Assistant Librarian, 1918-20, and Acting Librarian, 1920-1. She gave up her post to travel in Ceylon, India and Burma, where she became interested in Buddhism, 1921-3. She returned to Newnham College as Librarian and Fellow, 1923-36; Sarah Smithson Research Fellow, 1928-31; Associate, 1931-59 and 1962-76; and Associate Fellow, 1939-49. She also served on the Governing Body, 1939-49, and gave a donation for the building of the Horner Library, 1961-2. She lived and worked in Manchester, 1936-43, and London, 1943-81, and continued to travel extensively in Ceylon, India and Burma. She was Honorary Secretary of the Pali Text Society, 1942-59, and President and Honorary Treasurer, 1959-81. She was awarded the OBE, 1980. She lived with her companion Elsie Butler, 1926-59. She died in London, May 1981.” [Source: University of Cambridge Faculty Library Archive Collections (» http://www.oriental.cam.ac.uk/archive/horner.html).]
Ireland, John D. (1932-1998) [irel]
John D. (”Jack”) Ireland was born in North London, England. He became a Buddhist at age eighteen and soon began studying Pali. From the 1960’s onward he was a frequent contributor to the Buddhist Publication Society’s Wheel and Bodhi Leaves series of booklets. But he is perhaps best known for his combined translation, The Udana & the Itivuttaka (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1997), in reference to which he wrote to a friend shortly before his death: “I feel I could die contented in the knowledge that I have done something to repay the great happiness the Buddha-dhamma has brought me in this life.” [Source: BPS Newlsetter No. 43 (33d mailing 1999).]
Jackson, Natasha (   -   )
(No information available.)
Jones, Ken (   -   )
(No information available.)
Jootla, Susan Elbaum (1945-   )
Susan Elbaum was born in New York City and obtained B.A. and M.A. degrees in Library Science from the University of Michigan. She lives in the Western Himalayan hill station of Dalhousie with her husband, Balbir S. Jootla. They have both been practicing Vipassana meditation in the tradition of the late Sayagyi U Ba Khin of Burma since 1970 and are now students of his leading disciple, Mother Sayama, who directs the International Meditation Centres in England and Rangoon. [Source: Inspiration from Enlightened Nuns (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1988).]
Kantasilo, Bhikkhu (   -   ) [kant]
(No information available.)
Kariyawasam, A.G.S (1933-2004)
Born in Sri Lanka, Siri Kariyawasam graduated from the Peradeniya University with Second Class Honors in Sanskrit with Sinhalese. He joined the teaching staff of St. Anthony’s College, Baddegama for two years. In 1960 he became Assistant Editor of the Buddhist Encyclopaedia, to which he contributed sixty-six articles, and of which later served as Deputy Chief Editor until his retirement in 1989. He worked at the Buddhist Publication Society from 1991-1998 editing Bhikkhu Bodhi’s publications and in 1998 he succeeded the late Ven. Piyadassi Maha Thera as Editor of Sinhala Buddhist publications. [Source: “Loss of Buddhist scholar, Mr. Kariyawasam passes away,” Dhammathai.org (» http://www.dhammathai.org/e/news/m01/bnews07_5.php).]
Karunadasa, Y. (  -  )
Obtained a PhD in London. No further information available.
Karunaratna, Suvimalee (1939-   )
Suvimalee Karunaratna was born in Sri Lanka in 1939 and received her early education in Washington, D.C. and in Colombo. While living in Rangoon, where her father was posted as the Sri Lankan ambassador to Burma from 1957-61, she received meditation instructions from the Ven. Mahasi Sayadaw and the Ven. Webu Sayadaw. Her first volume of short stories was published in 1973, and several of her short stories have appeared in anthologies of modern writing from Sri Lanka as well as in literary journals. She is the author of several titles in the BPS’s Bodhi Leaves series of booklets, including The Healing of the Bull, Prisoners of Karma, and The Walking Meditation. [From The Healing of the Bull.]
Kawasaki, Ken & Visakha (   -   )
Ken and Visakha Kawasaki live in Michigan, where they publish Relief Notes, an annual newsletter highlighting the activities of the Buddhist Relief Mission and Burmese Relief Center-USA. [Source: » Relief Notes 2004.]
Kee Nanayon, Upasika (K. Khao-suan-luang) (1901-1979)
(See her entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.)
Kelly, John (1952-   ) [kell]
John Kelly is a lay Buddhist and student of the Dhamma and the Pali language, currently living with his wife and family in Brisbane, Australia.
Khamdee Pabhaso, Phra Ajaan (1902-1984)
(See his entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.)
Khantipalo, Bhikkhu (1932-   ) [khan]
Bhikkhu Khantipalo (Laurence Mills) ordained a Buddhist monk in the late 1950s in India. He studied meditation in India and Thailand until 1973, when he arrived in Australia. In 1978 he co-founded (with Ayya Khema) » Wat Buddha Dhamma, where he served for many years as teacher-in-residence. He later returned to the lay life and co-founded the » Bodhi Citta Buddhist Centre. [Source: “Book Review, January 2003,” Kagyu E-vam Buddhist Institute (http://www.evaminstitute.org.au/akshara/Reviews/BkReview_03.htm) and other sources.]
Khema, Ayya (1923-1997) [khem, hekh]
Ayya Khema (née Ilse Kussel) was born in Berlin, Germany, educated in Scotland and China, and later became a U.S. citizen. In 1979 she ordained in Sri Lanka, becoming the first western Theravada Buddhist nun. In 1982 she established Parappuduwa Nuns Island in southern Sri Lanka as a training center for Buddhist nuns and other women of all nationalities wishing to lead a contemplative life. In 1989 she returned to her homeland to found the Buddha-Haus im Allgäu, where she passed away in 1997. [Source: I Give You My Life: The Autobiography of a Western Buddhist Nun (Boston: Shambhala Publications, 1997).]
Khin, U Ba (1899-1971)
Sayagyi U Ba Khin was born in Rangoon, Burma. Though a gifted young student, family pressures forced him to turn down a college scholarship and to earn a living instead; he soon entered civil service. In 1937 he learned meditation from Saya Thetgyi, and although Webu Sayadaw urged him in 1941 to consider teaching meditation, it was not until a decade later that he formally accepted this role. In 1950 he founded the Vipassana Association of the Accountant General’s Office where lay people, mainly civil servants, could learn meditation. In 1950 he co-founded two organizations which were later merged to become the Union of Burma Buddha Sasana Council, the main planning body for the Sixth Buddhist Council, and in 1952 established the International Meditation Centre in Rangoon in 1952. He retired from an outstanding career in government service in 1967. From that time until his death in 1971 he stayed at I.M.C., teaching meditation. [Source: “Sayagyi U Ba Khin,” Vipassana Research Institute, » http://www.vri.dhamma.org/general/subk.html.]
Knight, C.F. (   -   )
(No information available.)
Kumara Bhikkhu (1972-   ) [kuma]
Liew Chin Leag was born in Malaysia, where he received a degree in education from the University of Malaya. After university he was active at Subang Jaya Buddhist Association and Buddhist Wisdom Centre, and became a volunteer teacher in the Brickfields temple’s Sunday Dhamma school. An active contributor to the online Buddhist community, he served as a co-maintainer of the original “Sadhu! The Theravada Buddhism Web Directory” and “Dhamma-list,” an email discussion group. He received the monastic name Kumara at his bhikkhu ordination in 1999. He currently resides at Sasanarakkha Buddhist Sanctuary, furthering his monastic training under the guidance of Ven. Aggacitta Bhikkhu. [Source: Notes provided by the author, 2005.]
Karuna Kusalasaya (   -   )
(No information available.)
Ledi Sayadaw (1846-1923)
For biographical information, see “Biography of the Venerable Mahathera Ledi Sayadaw, Aggamahapandita, D.Litt.” [2006.12.03]
Lee Dhammadharo, Phra Ajaan (1907-1961)
(See his entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.)
Lewis, G.N. (   -   )
(No information available.)
Mahasi Sayadaw (1904-1982) [msyd]
Ven. Mahasi Sayadaw (U Sobhana Mahathera) began his studies at a monastic school in rural Burma. At age 12 he ordained as a novice monk, and in 1923 took higher ordination. After passing all three of the Government Pali examinations he traveled to Mandalay, where he studied under several renowned scholar-monks. He then studied meditation with U Narada and in 1941 returned to his native village, where he introduced the systematic practical course of Satipatthana meditation for which he would eventually become known worldwide. In 1949 he moved to Rangoon, where he taught meditation at an international meditation center for many years. In 1954-56, at the Sixth Buddhist Council in Rangoon, he carried out the duties of the Questioner (pucchaka) — the same role played by the Buddha’s disciple Ven. Maha-Kassapa at the First Buddhist Council, some 2,500 years prior. [Source: The Progress of Insight (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1994).]
Medhanandi, Ayya (1949-   ) Listen to suttas read aloud by this teacher
Ayya Medhanandi was born Mary Fiksel in Montréal, Canada. After university and working with the elderly and disabled, she went on pilgrimage to India. There, an Advaita sage became her guru and for several years she lived as a nun in the rural villages. She continued to receive guidance from him until his death thirteen years later. Following a postgraduate degree at Tufts University, she served as a project manager of international aid programs in Thailand, Senegal, Ecuador and Nepal. In 1987, she took ordination in Myanmar with Sayadaw U Pandita and later joined the Amaravati Nuns’ Community in England where she spent ten years under the tutelage of Ajaan Sumedho. Since 1999, she has been based in New Zealand. [Source: personal communication, 2006.]
Mendis, N.K.G. (  -  )
Dr. N.K.G. Mendis graduated from the Medical Faculty of the University of Sri Lanka in 1946 and did his post-graduate training in India and the U.K. He is a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh and of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. He specialized in thoracic surgery and practiced in Sri Lanka, England and Ghana. Since 1972 he has been in general practice in Nova Scotia, Canada. He acknowledges that, though born to devout Buddhist parents, he has been devoted to Dhamma practice only since 1975, when the circumstances of his life led him to seek refuge in the Triple Gem. He is a supporter of the Buddhist Vihaaras in Washington D.C. and Toronto. [Source: The Abhidhamma in Practice (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1985).]
Mun Bhuridatto, Phra Ajaan (1870-1949)
(See his entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.)
Nanayon, Upasika Kee — see Kee Nanayon, Upasika
Ñanajivako, Bhikkhu (  -  )
No information available.
Ñanamoli Thera (1905-1960) [nymo]
Bhikkhu Ñanamoli (Osbert Moore) was born in England and graduated from Exeter College, Oxford. In 1948 he came to Sri Lanka, where he was ordained the following year. During his eleven years as a monk, he translated from Pali into lucid English some of the most difficult texts of Theravada Buddhism, including the Visuddhimagga. His original draft translation of the Majjhima Nikaya was posthumously edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi and published as The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha (Somerville: Wisdom Publications, 1995). Other books include Mindfulness of Breathing and The Life of the Buddha, both published by the Buddhist Publication Society. [Source: The Life of the Buddha (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1992) and other sources.]
Ñanananda, Bhikkhu (   -   ) [nana]
Bhikkhu Ñanananda is a Buddhist monk of Sri Lanka. Before his ordination, he was an assistant lecturer in Pali at the University of Peradeniya. After entering the Buddhist order in 1969 he resided mostly in remote hermitages. [Source: The Magic of the Mind (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1974)]
Ñanasamvara, Somdet Phra (Venerable Suvaddhano Bhikkhu, HH the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand) (1913-  )
HH Somdet Phra Ñanasamvara was born in Kanchanaburi Province, about 130 kilometers northwest of Bangkok, in 1913. At age thirteen he became a novice and in 1933 he received the higher ordination. On going back to continue his studies in Bangkok he was given new ordination as venerable Bhikkhu Suvaddhano, with the Supreme Patriarch Vajiranyanavong as Preceptor, at Wat Bovornives Vihara the next year. After furthering and completing his Dhamma and Pali studies to the highest grade (grade nine), he succeeded venerable Chao Khun Phra Brahmamuni as abbot in 1960. He was awarded the ecclesiastical title of Somdet in 1972 and has held various positions in the administration of the Thai Sangha. He was made supreme patriarch of Thailand in 1989. [Source: A Guide to Awareness (Bangkok: Mahamakut Rajavidyalaya Press, 1997).]
Ñanavara Thera (Somdet Phra Buddhaghosacariya) (   -   ) [nyva]
(No information available.)
Narada Thera (1898-1983) [nara]
Ven. Narada (Sumanapala) was born in Kotahena, Sri Lanka. A talented student, he attended St. Benedict’s College, a Catholic secondary school. On his eighteenth birthday he became a novice; two years later he received higher ordination. He continued his scholarly studies at University College, Colombo. He spent the last fifty years of his life writing, translating, and tirelessly conducting missionary work, spreading the Dhamma across Asia, Europe, Australia, Africa, and the Americas. [Source: “Venerable Narada Maha Thera: A Buddhist Missionary Par Excellence,” by Olcott Gunasekera (» http://www.budsas.org/ebud/ebdha296.htm;originally appeared in “The Island,” Sri Lanka, Sunday 03 August 2003, http://www.island.lk).]
Nararatana Rajamanit, Chao Khun (Tryk Dhammavitakko) (???-1971)
(See his entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.)
Norman, K.R. (   -   ) [norm]
K.R. Norman is the current vice president of the Pali Text Society.
Nyanaponika Thera (1901-1994) [nypo]
Nyanaponika Thera (Siegmund Feniger) left his native Germany in 1936 for Sri Lanka, where he was ordained as a Buddhist monk by Ven. Nyanatiloka Thera (1878-1957). In 1958 he helped to found the Buddhist Publication Society, of which he served as editor-in-chief until 1984, and as president until his retirement in 1988. He passed away peacefully at his residence, the Forest Hermitage in the Udawattakele Reserve outside of Kandy, on the last day of his 57th rains retreat. His many widely-acclaimed books include The Heart of Buddhist Meditation, The Vision of Dhamma, Abhidhamma Studies, and (with Bhikkhu Bodhi) Numerical Discourses of the Buddha. [Source: Introduction to The Vision of the Dhamma (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1992) and “For the Welfare of Many” by Bhikkhu Bodhi.]
Nyanasatta Thera (   -   ) [nysa]
(No information available.)
Nyanasobhano, Bhikkhu — see Price, Leonard (   -   )
Nyanatiloka Mahathera (1878-1957)
Ven. Nyanatiloka Mahathera was the first Continental European in modern times to become a Buddhist monk and one of the foremost Western exponents of Theravada Buddhism in the twentieth century. Born in Germany, he developed a keen interest in Buddhism in his youth and came to Asia intending to enter the Buddhist Order. He received ordination in Burma in 1903. The greatest part of his life as a monk was spent in Sri Lanka, where he established the Island Hermitage at Dodanduwa as a monastery for Western monks. His translations into German include the Anguttara Nikaya, the Visuddhimagga, and the Milindapañha. Ven. Nyanatiloka passed away in Colombo in 1957. [Source: Fundamentals of Buddhism: Four Lectures by Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1994).]
Nyanatusita, Bhikkhu (1967-   )
Bhikkhu Nyanatusita was born in the Netherlands and was ordained in Sri Lanka in 1993. In 2005 he was appointed editor of the Buddhist Publication Society (Sri Lanka). [Source: personal communication, 2007.]
Oates, L.R. (   -   )
(No information available.)
Olendzki, Andrew (   -   ) [olen]
Andrew Olendzki, Ph.D., is a Pali scholar who trained in Buddhist Studies at Lancaster University in England, as well as at Harvard and the University of Sri Lanka. The former executive director of the Insight Meditation Society (USA), he is currently the executive director of the Barre Center for Buddhist Studies (USA). [Source: » Barre Center for Buddhist Studies website.]
Many of Olendzki’s translations that appear on Access to Insight were originally published in » Insight Journal.
Ontl, Petr Karel (1942-   )
Petr Karel Ontl was born into a Bohemian-American family in Prague, Czechoslovakia, in 1942, and emigrated to the United States in 1949. A certified foreign language teacher, he has worked in the fields of teaching, photography, care for the elderly, and translation. He has been a Theravada Buddhist for the past twenty years and is affiliated with the Bhavana Society in High View, West Virginia. [Source: Of Mindsets and Monkeypots by Petr Karel Ontl (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1993)]
Perera, H.R. (   -   )
(No information available.)
Phut Thaniyo, Phra Ajaan (1921-1999)
A student of Ajaan Sao. (See Ajaan Sao’s entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.)
Piyadassi Thera (1914-1998) [piya]
Piyadassi Thera was born in Colombo, Sri Lanka and attended Nalanda College and the University of Sri Lanka. In 1934 he ordained under the tutelage of Ven. Vajirañana, Sangha Nayaka, a respected authority on Buddhism. The author of some sixty books, Ven. Piyadassi was a popular television and radio lecturer of Dhamma, both in Sinhala and in English. He represented Sri Lanka at several international religious and cultural conferences. He passed away in Colombo in 1998 after a brief illness. [Source: » The Daily News (Sri Lanka), 18 August 2001 and The Buddha’s Ancient Path]
Piyatissa Thera (   -   )
(No information available.)
Price, Leonard (Nyanasobhano Bhikkhu) (   -   )
Born in Louisville, Kentucky, Leonard Price graduated from Dartmouth College, where he majored in English. He subsequently worked as an actor and writer. In 1987 he ordained in Bangkok at Wat Mahadhatu and took the name Nyanasobhano Bhikkhu. He has spent time in Thailand and Sri Lanka, and currently resides in the United States. [From Bhikkhu Tissa Dispels Some Doubts and Nothing Higher to Live For, both published by the Buddhist Publication Society.]
Prince, T (   -   )
(No information available.)
Rhys Davids, C.A.F. (1857-1942) [rhyc]
“Caroline Augusta Foley was born in Wadhurst, Sussex, 27 September 1857. She was educated at home and at University College, London, BA, 1886, MA, 1889. She was a member of staff of the Economic Journal, 1891-5. She worked on behalf of various societies for the welfare of women and children, 1890-4, and was a campaigner for women’s suffrage, 1896-1914. She married Thomas Rhys Davids, 1894. She was appointed Lecturer in Indian Philosophy at Manchester University, 1910-13, and Lecturer in the History of Buddhism at the School of Oriental and African Studies, London, 1918-33. She was Honorary Secretary, 1907-22, and President, 1923-42, of the Pali Text Society. She died in Chipstead, Surrey, 26 June 1942.” [Source: University of Cambridge Faculty Library Archive Collections (» http://www.oriental.cam.ac.uk/archive/rhys.html#cafrd).]
Rosenberg, Larry (   -   ) SuttaReadings.net icon
Larry Rosenberg is the founder of, and a guiding teacher at, the Cambridge Insight Meditation Center. He is also a senior teacher at the Insight Meditation Society. Larry’s spiritual practice began more than 30 years ago with J. Krishnamurti and Vimala Thakar. He received Zen training with Korean Master Seung Sahn and Japanese Master Katagiri Roshi for 8 years before coming to Vipassana. Anagarika Munindra was his first Vipassana teacher. Larry’s main influence has been the Thai Forest tradition. He has practiced with Ajahn Maha Boowa, Ajahn Suwat, and Ajahn Buddhadasa. Larry has also practiced with Thich Nhat Hanh. He is the author of Breath by Breath: The Liberating Practice of Insight Meditation and, more recently, Living in the Light of Death: On the Art of Being Fully Alive. [Source: » CIMC Teachers and Instructors, May 2006.]
Sao Kantasilo, Phra Ajaan (1861-1941)
(See his entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.)
Sayadaw, Mahasi — see Mahasi Sayadaw (   -   )
Sayadaw, Webu — see Webu Sayadaw (   -   )
Silacara, Bhikkhu (J.F. McKechnie) (1871-1950)
J.F. McKechnie was born in Hull, Yorkshire, on October 22nd, 1871. After attending school he worked first as an apprentice stock-cutter in a clothing factory, then emigrated to the United States to work on a fruit and dairy farm. Around the turn of the century he came across the magazine Buddhism in a public library. He answered an advertisement from the magazine’s editor, the Bhikkhu Ananda Metteyya (Alan Bennett), for an editorial assistant in Rangoon, Burma, and soon found himself working for the magazine in Burma. He worked for the magazine for several years, and then ordained in the bhikkhu sangha in 1906. After many years of writing, teaching, and missionary work, in 1925 ill-health forced him to disrobe and return to England, where he continued lecturing and writing. During World War II he moved to an Old Person’s Home, where he died in 1950. [Source: A Young People’s Life of of the Buddha.]
Silananda, Sayadaw U (1927-2005)
The Ven. Sayadaw U Silananda was born in Mandalay, Burma. He became a novice monk in 1943; four years later he received higher ordination. A natural scholar, by 1948 he had passed all three of the Government Pali examinations. In the next six years he received two more advanced scholarly degrees. In 1954-56 he served as one of the distinguished editors of the Tipitaka and Commentaries at the Sixth Buddhist Council in Rangoon. In 1979 he traveled to the US with Ven. Mahasi Sayadaw to teach meditation and Dhamma, after which he stayed on to continue teaching. He served as Spiritual Advisor of the Theravada Buddhist Society of America and was Spiritual Director of four other Buddhist centers across the country. He passed away peacefully on 13 August 2005. [Source: “Sayadaw U Silananda,” by the Theravada Buddhist Society of America (» http://www.tbsa.org/articles/SayadawUSilanandaBio.html) and »”Newsflash”.]
Sim Buddhacaro, Phra Ajaan (1909-1992)
(See his entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.)
Siriwardhana, Eileen (  -  )
Mrs. Eileen Siriwardhana graduated from the University of Ceylon in English, Singhalese and Pali. She is now the Principal of Visakha Vidyalaya, the premier Buddhist Girl’s School in Colombo. She is also a distinguished writer in Singhalese. [Source: The Heart Awakened (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1983).]
Soma Thera (1898-1960) [soma]
Ven. Soma Thera (Victor Emmanuel Perera Pulle) was educated at St. Benedict’s College in Kotahena. After traveling widely in Burma, Thailand, China, and Japan, studying and translating Buddhist texts, he returned to Burma where he was ordained in 1936. He was a member of the Buddhist Mission of Goodwill to India in 1940, and the Buddhist mission to China in 1946. In 1946 he led the first Buddhist mission to Germany. He died suddenly of pulmonary thrombosis in 1960. [Source: The Way of Mindfulness (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1975).]
Soni, Dr. R.L. (  -  ) [soni]
(No information available.)
Story, Francis (1910-1972) [stor]
Francis Story (Anagarika Sugatananda) was born in England in 1910 and became acquainted with Buddhist teachings early in life. For 25 years he lived in Asian countries — India, Burma, and Sri Lanka — where he deeply studied the Buddhist philosophy of life. With that background and endowed with a keen analytical mind, he produced a considerable body of writings, collected and published in three volumes by the Buddhist Publication Society. [Source: Rebirth as Doctrine and Experience: Essays and Case Studies, by Francis Story (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 2000).]
Sumana, Samanera (???-1910)
Samanera Sumana (Fritze Stange) was born in Germany and traveled to Sri Lanka, where he ordained as a novice in 1906. He and a Dutchman named Bergendahl (Samanera Suñño) were the first two pupils of Ven. Nyanatiloka. Sumana’s ill health forced his return to Germany, but that same year he returned to Sri Lanka, re-ordained. He passed away in 1910. [Source: Going Forth: A Call to Buddhist Monkhood, by Samanera Sumana (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1983).]
Suwat Suvaco, Phra Ajaan (1919-2002)
(See his entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.)
Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1949-   ) [than] SuttaReadings.net icon

Thanissaro Bhikkhu (Geoffrey DeGraff) is an American Buddhist monk of the Thai forest kammathana tradition. After graduating from Oberlin College in 1971 with a degree in European Intellectual History, he traveled to Thailand, where he studied meditation under Ajaan Fuang Jotiko, himself a student of the late Ajaan Lee. He ordained in 1976 and lived at Wat Dhammasathit, where he remained following his teacher’s death in 1986. In 1991 he traveled to the hills of San Diego County, USA, where he helped Ajaan Suwat Suvaco establish » Wat Mettavanaram (”Metta Forest Monastery”). He was made abbot of the monastery in 1993. His long list of publications includes translations from Thai of Ajaan Lee’s meditation manuals; Handful of Leaves, a four-volume anthology of sutta translations; The Buddhist Monastic Code, a two-volume reference handbook for monks; Wings to Awakening; and (as co-author) the college-level textbook Buddhist Religions: A Historical Introduction.

Thate Desaransi, Phra Ajaan (1902-1994)
(See his entry on the Thai Forest Traditions page.)
U Ba Khin — see Khin, U Ba (   -   )
U Silananda — see Silananda, Sayadaw U (   -   )
Vajira, Sister (   -   ) [vaji]
A german nun.
van Gorkom, Nina (1928-   )
“Nina van Gorkom was born in 1928 to a family of socialist intellectuals. Her father was a member of the Dutch parliament. She studied at Leyden University and during this time she became a Catholic. In 1952, she married Lodewijk van Gorkom, a Dutch diplomat. In 1965, Lodewijk was posted to Thailand and Nina started learning Thai language. She took a keen interest in Buddhism, attending classes for foreigners at Wat Mahathat. There she met, in the summer of 1966, Sujin Boriharnwanaket. Impressed by the profundity of the Buddhist teachings, she became convinced of the truth of the Buddha’s words and later assisted Khun Sujin in discussions about Buddhism for Thai radio stations. These talks were later published as Buddhism in Daily Life, her first book. Nina and Lodewijk left Thailand in 1970 and lived in Japan, New York, Indonesia (where Lodewijk was the Dutch ambassador) and Austria. Lodewijk retired in 1990 and they now live in The Hague in Holland.” [Source: “Interview with Nina van Gorkom, September 1999, by Robert Kirkpatrick,” Abhidhamma.org (http://www.abhidhamma.org/interview%20with%20nina.html)
von Glasenapp, Helmuth (1891-1963)
Helmuth von Glasenapp was an eminent West German Indologist. He taught at the University of Königsberg and occupied the indological chair of the University of Tübingen. Among his many scholarly publications are books on Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism and comparative religion. [Source: Vedanta and Buddhism: A Comparative Study (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1978).]
Walshe, Maurice O’Connell (1911-1998)
Maurice O’Connell Walshe was born in London and studied German at the universities of London, Berlin, Vienna, and Freiburg, eventually becoming Deputy Director at the Institute of Germanic Studies, London. An active Buddhist since 1951, he was Vice-President of the English Sangha Trust, as well as author of numerous articles on Buddhism. His published works include a three volume set of essays of the 13th century mystic, Meister Eckhart and, in 1987, Thus Have I Heard, a new translation of the Digha Nikaya. A few months before he died he completed a Buddhist Pali dictionary. [Source: Thus Have I Heard (London: Wisdom Publications, 1987) and “Maurice O’Connell Walshe — A Tribute” in » Forest Sangha Newsletter, July 1998.]
Webu Sayadaw (1896-1977)
Webu Sayadaw was born in Upper Burma. He ordained as a novice at age nine and took higher ordination at twenty, assuming the monastic name U Kumara. He studied for seven years at a monastery in Mandalay, after which time he wandered for four years in the solitude of the forest wilderness, practicing the ascetic dhutanga practices. He returned to his native village and began teaching the meditation techniques he had mastered in the wilds. Once he became an established teacher he assumed the name Webu Sayadaw. He continued teaching meditation until his death in 1977. [Source: The Essential Practice: Dhamma Discourses of Venerable Webu Sayadaw (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1991).]
Woodward, F.L. (1871-1952) [wood]
“In 1919, F.L. Woodward, who for 16 years had been principal of Mahinda College in Galle, Sri Lanka, arrived in Australia. He settled on an apple orchard near Launceston in Tasmania, and for the next 33 years devoted his time to translations of the Pali canon for the Pali Text Society. He is perhaps best known for his anthology, Some Sayings of the Buddha, first published in 1925.”[1] He died peacefully at age 81 at Beaconfield in Tasmania.[2] [Sources: [1] “A multi-faceted religious community,” University of Canberra, Australia (www.ce.canberra.edu.au/nowuc/Shades%20of%20Australia/Shades%20of%20Australia/communities_buddhist.html); and [2] Pali Tipitakam Concordance, Vol I (Oxford: PTS, 1990).]
Yahoo! Pali Group [yaho]
The » Yahoo! Pali Group is an online forum where Pali students and scholars gather to discuss the Pali language and to make collaborative translations of texts from the Tipitaka. Contributors to the translations on Access to Insight include: Derek Cameron, Dimitri Ivakhnenko, and Piya Tan.



Note: The four characters in square brackets that follow the names of translators are Reserved Translator Codes, which are used in assigning file names to Pali translations.