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09/17/07
28-10-2007-Sarvajan Hitay Sarvajan Sukhay-BSP only national alternative, says Maya on Modi turf-Mayawati pitches for reservation for upper caste poor -Mayawati woos upper castes; keen to replicate U.P. in Gujarat
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 9:00 pm

Sarvajan Hitay Sarvajan Sukhay

A Vote for BSP!

Is a Vote for Entire Peoples’ Welfare, Happiness and Prosperity!

 

Monday, September 17, 2007
 

BSP only national alternative, says Maya on Modi turf

Express News Service

Posted online: Monday, September 17, 2007 at 0000 hrs

VADODARA, SEPTEMBER 16: Chief Minister Mayawati projected the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) as the only national alternative that would cater to all sections of the society in a rally at Vadodara’s Polo Ground on Sunday.

 

Mayawati, who arrived an hour and a half late at the rally venue, said though her party needed time to gain ground in the state, it was hopeful of doing well gradually.

Riding high on the electoral success in UP, Mayawati said the BSP, in a marked departure from the Congress, BJP and their allies, was not funded by industrialists and capitalists. “We use the hard-earned money of the poor, and that too from each section of the society.” She also said the BSP delivers what it promises. In Gujarat, she wanted to dispel the notion that the BSP is against the upper castes. Talking about the slogan “Tilak Tarazu Aur Talwar, Unko Maro Jute Chaar”, Mayawati said it was not coined by the BSP, but attributed to it by rivals.

 

“We are not anti-upper castes. Otherwise, why would we give tickets to Brahmins?” said Mayawati, while referring to the BSP’s Brahmin face Satish Chandra Mishra.

 

Accusing the Congress and BJP of dividing the people on the basis of caste and religion, Mayawati said the BSP was the only party which worked towards uniting all sections .

 

While rebel BJP leader Nalin Bhatt shared the dais with Mayawati, other leaders from the BJP, Republican Party and the Lok Janshakti and some High Court advocates among others.

 

My-uttarpradesh

 

 


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https://drambedkarbooks.files.wordpress.com/2016/01/behanji5.jpg?w=500

A Vote for BSP!

Is a Vote for Entire Peoples’ Welfare, Happiness and Prosperity!




Mayawati pitches for reservation for upper caste poor


Vadodara,
Sept 16 (ANI): With an eye on Gujarat Assembly polls, Uttar Pradesh
Chief Minister Mayawati today pitched for reservation for poor among the
upper castes, and accused both the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the
Congress party for not paying attention to this.Mayawati told a party
rally here that she had met Prime Minister Manmohan Singh demanding
reservations for the upper caste poor and told him that her Bahujan
Samaj Party (BSP) would support the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) to
make an amendment in the Constitution.”However, the Prime Minister had
replied in the negative about the BSP’s proposal,” Mayawati
added.Mayawati said that 10 per cent reservations each for scheduled
castes, scheduled tribes, minorities and weaker sections of upper castes
have been made in new industrial units or projects in the State after
her party came to power.”If it can be done in UP, then why it cannot be
done at national level?” she added.Mayawati further said that both the
Congress and the BJP are closer to corporate houses and capitalists; and
they will oppose the reservation for upper caste poor.She said that her
party will have no tie-up with any political party for Gujarat Assembly
polls and will put up candidates for all the 182 seats. (ANI)




1982 सूर्य सितं, 11 2016 और अधिक पढ़ें
सबक

यह गूगल अनुवाद के लिए कृपया हिंदी और उर्दू में सही अनुवाद कर

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बसपा के लिए एक वोट!

पूरे ‘पीपुल्स कल्याण, सुख और समृद्धि के लिए एक वोट है!

मायावती ने ऊंची जाति के गरीबों के लिए आरक्षण के लिए पिचों

वडोदरा,
सितम्बर 16 (आईएएनएस): गुजरात विधानसभा चुनावों पर एक आँख के साथ, उत्तर
प्रदेश की मुख्यमंत्री मायावती ने आज ऊंची जातियों के बीच में गरीबों के
लिए आरक्षण के लिए खड़ा किया, और आरोपी दोनों भारतीय जनता पार्टी (भाजपा)
और ध्यान नहीं दे रही कांग्रेस पार्टी
this.Mayawati
करने के लिए यहां एक पार्टी रैली को बताया कि वह ऊंची जाति के गरीबों के
लिए आरक्षण की मांग को प्रधानमंत्री मनमोहन सिंह से मुलाकात की थी और उनसे
कहा है कि उसे बहुजन समाज पार्टी (बसपा) की संयुक्त प्रगतिशील गठबंधन
(संप्रग) का समर्थन करेगी में संशोधन करने के लिए
संविधान।
“हालांकि, प्रधानमंत्री ने बसपा के प्रस्ताव के बारे में नकारात्मक जवाब
दिया था,” मायावती added.Mayawati ने कहा कि 10 फीसदी आरक्षण अनुसूचित
जाति, अनुसूचित जनजाति, अल्पसंख्यकों और सवर्णों के कमजोर वर्गों के लिए
प्रत्येक नए औद्योगिक में किया गया है
इकाइयों
या उसकी पार्टी के बाद राज्य में परियोजनाओं के सत्ता में आया था। “यह
उत्तर प्रदेश में किया जा सकता है, तो क्यों यह राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर नहीं
किया जा सकता है?”
वह आगे added.Mayawati ने कहा कि कांग्रेस और भाजपा दोनों कॉर्पोरेट घरानों और पूंजीपतियों के करीब हैं; और
वे आरक्षण ऊंची जाति के लिए poor.She ने कहा कि उनकी पार्टी गुजरात
विधानसभा चुनाव के लिए किसी भी राजनीतिक पार्टी के साथ कोई टाई-अप किया है
और सभी 182 सीटों के लिए उम्मीदवारों के ऊपर डाल दिया जाएगा विरोध करेंगे।
(आईएएनएस)


1982 اتوار ستمبر 11 2016
سبق

براہ مہربانی اس گوگل ترجمہ کے لیے ہندی اور اردو میں درست ترجمہ بنانے

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بی ایس پی کے لئے ووٹ!

پورے پیپلز ویلفیئر، خوشی اور خوشحالی کے لئے ایک ووٹ ہے!

مایاوتی اونچی ذات غریبوں کے لئے بکنگ کے لئے پچوں

وڈودرا،
ستمبر 16 (اے این آئی): گجرات اسمبلی انتخابات پر نظر کے ساتھ، اترپردیش
کے وزیر اعلی مایاوتی نے آج بالائی ذاتوں کے درمیان غریب کے لئے بکنگ کے
لئے کھڑا کیا، اور ملزمان دونوں بھارتیہ جنتا پارٹی (بی جے پی) اور توجہ
نہیں دے کے لئے کانگریس پارٹی
this.Mayawati
میں فریق ریلی یہاں ہے کہ وہ اونچی ذات غریبوں کے لیے وزیر اعظم منموہن
سنگھ کا مطالبہ تحفظات سے ملاقات کی تھی اور بتایا اسے بتایا کہ اس کی
بہوجن سماج پارٹی (بی ایس پی) میں ایک ترمیم بنانے کے لئے متحدہ ترقی پسند
اتحاد (یو پی اے) کی حمایت کا اعلان
آئین.
“تاہم، وزیر اعظم بسپا کی تجویز کے بارے میں نفی میں جواب دیا تھا،”
مایاوتی added.Mayawati نے کہا ہے کہ 10 فیصد تحفظات تخسوچت ذات، تخسوچت
جنجاتی، اقلیتوں اور اونچی ذات کے کمزور طبقوں کے لئے ہر نئے صنعتی میں
بنایا گیا ہے
اس
پارٹی کے بعد ریاست میں یونٹس یا منصوبوں کے اقتدار میں آنے. “اسے میں کیا
جا سکتا ہے، تو پھر کیوں یہ قومی سطح پر نہیں کیا جا سکتا؟”
اس نے مزید کہا کہ added.Mayawati دونوں کانگریس اور بی جے پی کارپوریٹ گھروں اور سرمایہ داروں کے قریب ہیں؛ اور
وہ ریزرویشن اونچی ذات کے لئے poor.She کہا ان کی پارٹی گجرات اسمبلی
انتخابات کے لئے کسی سیاسی جماعت سے کوئی ٹائی اپ ہے اور تمام 182 نشستوں
کیلئے امیدوار کھڑے کریں گے کہ مخالفت کرے گی.
(اے این آئی)


Kerala News Headlines

Latest News, Online TV from India and Kerala, Videos, Kerala Discussion Forum…
 

Mayawati woos upper castes; keen to replicate U.P. in Gujarat

Bahujan Samaj Party to contest all 182 seats in Assembly elections Open News Site

 

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The Awakened One-The Wings to Awakening -G. The Seven Factors of Awakening (§§92-100)
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 8:29 pm

The Awakened One

The Wings to Awakening

An Anthology from the Pali Canon

Translated and Explained
by
Thanissaro Bhikkhu
(Geoffrey DeGraff)

G. The Seven Factors of Awakening (§§92-100)

The seven factors of Awakening (bojjhanga) are closely related to the practice of the four frames of reference. The texts use two patterns to describe this relationship. The first pattern is a spiral, showing how the seven factors of Awakening build on the four frames of reference [§92]. This point is reflected in the position of mindfulness — defined as the practice of any one of the four frames of reference — as the first factor in the list. Discernment, in the role of the analysis of mental qualities into skillful and unskillful, builds on right mindfulness and leads to persistence, which in the form of right effort/exertion maximizes the skillful qualities and minimizes the unskillful ones. This in turn leads to four factors associated with jhana: rapture, serenity, concentration, and equanimity. Equanimity, here, is not a neutral feeling, but rather a balancing or moderation — an evenness of mind — with regard to any feeling or object that arises. It is identical with the equanimity in the fourth jhana [§149] and with the inherent equanimity in the fifth factor of five-factored noble concentration [§150], which can develop out of any of the four jhanas. As such it can either lead to greater mastery of meditation — as the purity of mindfulness that accompanies the fourth jhana provides the basis for even more precise analysis of qualities, thus allowing the causal loop to spiral to a higher level — or else develop into the state of non-fashioning that opens to Awakening.

Abhidhamma texts seem to contradict the point that equanimity feeds back into mindfulness in this way, for they maintain that the factors of Awakening are transcendent — in other words, that they come into play only as one reaches the point of Awakening, where no temporal feedback would take place. The discourses, however, show that the factors of Awakening can function in the development of mundane concentration as well. Passage §96 shows how the “feeding” of the factors of Awakening is needed to “starve” the hindrances, mental qualities that have to be suppressed before mundane concentration can be attained. Passage §98 shows how the factors function in developing the four attitudes that lead to “release of awareness” — a mundane form of release — and indicates the highest state to which those attitudes can lead for one who has penetrated no higher, i.e., who has attained none of the transcendent levels. These passages demonstrate that the factors of Awakening can function on the level of mundane jhana in addition to the level at the verge of Awakening. Thus, equanimity as a factor of Awakening on the mundane plane can feed back into the process of meditation, providing a steady basis for more continuous mindfulness and clearer analysis of mental qualities, until all the factors of the list ripen to transcendence.

The second pattern for describing the relationship between the factors of Awakening and the four frames of reference is more holographic. As we have already noted [II/B], all the factors in the list are all implicit in the “approach” stage of frames-of-reference meditation, and the texts themselves make this point by saying that the development of any one of the frames of reference involves bringing the factors of Awakening to the culmination of their development [§92].

The differences between these two patterns — a spiraling sequence building on the four frames of reference, and a holographic formula implicit in the frames of reference — is largely one of emphasis. As the dual nature of this/that conditionality indicates — with mental factors building on one another over time and strengthening one another in the present — both aspects act together in actual practice.

Viewed as a spiraling sequence, the factors of Awakening offer some interesting contrasts to the five faculties. Both sets depict one of the causal loops in the skillful development of the mind, but here the emphasis is not on how mindfulness and concentration help to develop discernment, but on how mindfulness and discernment help to develop concentration. This different dynamic is reflected in the mental qualities that act as underlying agents in the development of each set. As we have seen [II/E], heedfulness underlies the development of the faculties; it grows from a sense of conviction in the principle of kamma into members of the “concentration aggregate” — right effort and right mindfulness — in the noble eightfold path. In the case of the factors of Awakening, appropriate attention is what underlies the development of every element in the set [§95]; it grows from a component factor of conviction [§70] into a member of the “discernment aggregate”: right view. Thus, in each set, the agent underlying its development reflects the intermediate members of the set in their role of fostering the final member.

A closer look at the topic of appropriate attention will show how the processes of discernment can foster concentration to the point where both issue in Awakening. Because this topic is so central to the practice, we will have to treat it in detail.

The term “appropriate attention” (yoniso manasikara)can also be rendered as “wise reflection,” “the proper approach,” or “systematic attention.” It is essentially the basic insight that enables one to see which issues are worth paying attention to, and which ones should be ignored. Passage §51 gives what is probably the best depiction of this process. One ignores questions that lead to the proliferation of mental effluents, and pays attention to questions that help weaken them. As we noted in I/B, the knowledge that puts an end to the effluents deals with experience in the phenomenological mode. Thus, the best questions for weakening the effluents are ones that lead the mind into that mode. Now, not all questions are helpful in this way. Some deal in terms that focus the mind on narrative or cosmological issues in ways that actually obstruct a phenomenological viewpoint. For this reason, the Buddha found it necessary to divide questions into four classes: those meriting a categorical answer, those meriting an analytical answer, those deserving a counter-question, and those deserving to be put aside [A.IV.43]. The first class includes questions that are already well-phrased and can yield straight answers useful in weakening one’s mental effluents. The second class includes those that are poorly phrased but are close enough to becoming useful that they can be clarified by a redefinition of terms. The third class covers instances where the real issue is not the question as phrased, but the confused line of thinking or hidden agendas behind the asking of the question. Once these underlying elements are exposed and corrected by the proper counter-question, fruitful questions can then be framed. The final class of questions covers instances where both the question and the act of asking it are so misguided that any attempt to get involved in the issue would lead only to the proliferation of mental effluents, and so the whole issue should be put aside.

Of these four classes of questions, the class that merits categorical answers is of most interest here, for it constitutes the class that can act as a focal point for appropriate attention. The vast majority of the questions that the Buddha asks and answers categorically in the texts fall into three general sorts: (a) those that seek to identify terms and categories useful for the task of ending stress and suffering; (b) those that seek to place particular events in their proper category; and (c) those that seek to understand the causal role of events assigned to the various categories: how they condition, and are conditioned by, one another. A sub-set of (c) consists of questions concerning the effect that one’s questions and one’s approach to the practice in general have on the mind. All of these three sorts of question are closely related to the three stages of frames-of-reference meditation: sorts (a) and (b) relate to the first stage, and sort (c) to the second, whereas the sub-set of (c) dealing with the questioning approach itself leads directly to the third. This last sub-set also forms the overall principle for delineating all four classes of questions mentioned above: the effect that the process of asking and answering has on the mind. In simple terms, this principle means viewing experience in terms of cause and effect, viewing questions in terms of cause and effect, classifying them according to the results that come from trying to answer them, and treating them only in ways that will help lead to the ending of suffering and stress. This is the proper function of appropriate attention in its most mature form.

To arrive at this mature level, however, appropriate attention must be developed step by step. These steps can be shown by taking the passages given in this section and viewing them in the context of the practice of the fourth frame of reference: focusing on the mental qualities of the hindrances and the factors of Awakening in and of themselves in the course of developing concentration.

The first step is simply to identify the hindrances and factors of Awakening as they are experienced, noting their presence and absence in the mind — a movement toward what the Buddha called “entering into emptiness” [II/B]. As III/D makes clear, there are several preliminary steps in concentration practice leading up to the ability to do this. When these are mastered, one can focus on, say, the hindrance of ill-will not in terms of the object of the ill-will, but on the quality of ill-will as a mere event in the mind. The question here is not, “What am I angry about?” or “What did that person do wrong?” but simply “What is happening in my mind? How can it be classed?” Given the well-known Buddhist teaching on not-self, some people have wondered why the questions of appropriate attention at this step would use such concepts as “me” and “my,” but these concepts are essential at this stage — where the mind is still more at home in the narrative mode of “self” and “others” — in pointing out that the focus of the inquiry should be directed within, rather than without. This helps to bring one’s frame of reference to the experience of mental qualities as phenomena in and of themselves, and away from the narratives that provoked the anger to begin with. Only when this shift in reference is secure can the concepts of “me” and “my” be dispensed with, in the third step below.

The second step in appropriate attention — corresponding to the second stage of frames-of-reference practice — is to inquire into the causal functioning of the hindrances and factors of Awakening, to see how they arise and cease in the course of one’s concentration practice. The aim here is to gain insight into the workings of the hindrances and factors of Awakening as one tries to eliminate the former and bring the latter to full development. The passages in this section dealing with this step treat the issue in terms of two metaphors — balance on the one hand, feeding and starving on the other — and list the desired results of the meditation as a standard of measurement for gauging the success of one’s practice.

We have met with the role of balance already in the four bases of power and the five faculties. What is special here is that, instead of finding a balance within each factor of Awakening, the meditator is to use different factors to balance out specific hindrances. The more active members — analysis of qualities, persistence, and rapture — can be used to offset sluggish mind states; the more calming members — serenity, concentration, and equanimity — counteract restless mind states. Mindfulness is the only member of the set that is inherently skillful at all times [§97], for it is the one that keeps the need for balance in mind. To combine the portrayals of balance under this set and under the bases of power, we can say that the more active factors of Awakening should be used to prevent specific bases of power — such as desire — from being too sluggish or restricted, whereas the more calming factors of Awakening should be used to prevent desire, etc., from being too active or scattered [§66]. It is interesting also to note that, although analysis of qualities is a potential cause for restlessness, it is also the factor needed to judge when its own activity is going overboard and needs to be calmed with concentration.

Under the metaphor of feeding and starving, the skill of appropriate attention is said to feed all the factors of Awakening, just as inappropriate attention starves them and feeds the hindrances in their place. As §96 points out, the role of appropriate attention at this level is to inquire into the property that acts as a foothold for each hindrance or factor of Awakening. The feeding process is especially direct with analysis of qualities as a factor of Awakening — a near equivalent of appropriate attention — and the hindrance of uncertainty. These two form a pair, in that the feeding of analysis of qualities as a factor of Awakening in and of itself starves the hindrance of uncertainty, and vice versa. Appropriate attention to the effects of skillful and unskillful qualities in the mind — in other words, focusing on questions that identify such qualities as the hindrances and the factors of Awakening, and inquire into their causes and effects — not only feeds this factor of Awakening but also enables one to develop its fellow factors. Inappropriate attention to issues that excite uncertainty — asking questions that can lead only to doubt and perplexity — not only feeds the hindrance of uncertainty, but leads to a sense of confusion that prevents all the factors of Awakening from developing.

With some of the other factors of Awakening — such as mindfulness, rapture, and equanimity — the texts are vague as to exactly which properties form their potential footholds. A few of these properties can be inferred from other texts, so they are cross-referenced in the relevant passages. The remaining instances can serve as challenges for each meditator to explore through practice. Challenges of this sort are valuable in forcing one to become self-reliant at observing cause and effect and asking the right questions: two skills that are basic to the development of appropriate attention and the path of practice as a whole.

As one becomes more successful in identifying these properties and attending to them in the appropriate way, one’s skill at concentration practice improves. Concentration and equanimity then feed back into the loop by purifying mindfulness in the practice of jhana [§72], providing a steady basis for discernment in terms of more precise analysis of qualities and more subtlety in one’s attention. This can lead either to improved abilities at concentration or to a more self-referential mode away from the “object” of the practice and turning toward the “approach” [II/B], where these activities of discernment become sensitive to themselves as events in the causal network. In particular, they can begin to ask questions about their own acts of questioning, to see what latent assumptions are still causing them uncertainty and getting in the way of their further development. In this way, they come to the third step in their development.

According to the texts, the most insidious issues that can excite uncertainty are questions that center on the concept of “I”: “Do I exist?” “Do I not exist?” In the cosmological or metaphysical mode, this concept leads to such questions as: “Does the self exist?” “Does it not exist?” In the psychological or personal narrative mode, it leads to a sense of self-identity, attachment to the object with which one identifies, and all the suffering that inherently results. In either mode, this concept leads to uncertainty about the past and future: “Did I exist in the past?” “Will I exist in the future?” “What will I be?” All of these questions obviously pull the mind out of the phenomenological mode; passage §51 shows that the Buddha regarded them as leading to mental effluents and thus unworthy of attention. The one time he was asked point-blank as to whether or not there is a self [S.XLIV.10; MFU, pp. 85-86], he refused to answer, thus showing that the question deserves to be put aside.

What then of the well-known Buddhist teachings on not-self? From a few of the ways in which these teachings are expressed in the texts, it might be inferred that the Buddha held to the principle that there is no self. Here, though, it is important to remember the Buddha’s own comment on how his teachings are to be interpreted [A.II.25]. With some of them, he said, it is proper to draw inferences, whereas with others it is not. Unfortunately, he did not illustrate this principle with specific examples. However, it seems safe to assume that if one tries to draw inferences from his statements to give either a categorical answer (No, there is no self; or Yes, there is) or an analytical answer (It depends on how you define “self”) to a question that the Buddha showed by example should not be asked or answered, one is drawing inferences where they should not be drawn.

A more fruitful line of inquiry is to view experience, not in terms of the existence or non-existence of the self, but in terms of the categories of the four noble truths, which §51 identifies as the truly proper subject of appropriate attention. If we look at the way the Buddha phrases questions about not-self [S.XXII.59, MFU, pp. 79-80] in the context of the duties appropriate to the four noble truths [§195], we see that they function as tools for comprehending stress and abandoning the attachment and clinging that function as its cause. Thus they help bring about the ending of the mental effluents. Rather than asking, “Do I exist?”, one should ask, “Is this mine? Is this me? If these things are regarded as me or mine, will there be suffering?” These questions, when properly answered (No, No, and Yes), can lead directly to the phenomenological mode and on to release from attachment and from suffering and stress. Thus they are worth asking.

When applied to the hindrances and factors of Awakening, this line of inquiry can bring the mind to the third stage of frames-of-reference meditation by calling into question the “me” and “my” assumed in the first step of questioning. This undermines any sense of self-identification, first with the hindrances — such as “I’m drowsy” — and then with the factors of Awakening — such as “My mind is serene” [§167]. All that then remains is the radically phenomenological mode that enters fully into the emptiness on the verge of non-fashioning [II/B], where there are no longer any questions, but simply awareness that “There are mental qualities”…”There is this.” This is the threshold to Awakening.

Throughout the process of developing appropriate attention in the course of the second and third stages of frames-of-reference meditation, the spiraling loop of the factors of Awakening continually feeds back on itself, as the factor of equanimity allows the factors of mindfulness and analysis of qualities to gauge the success of the practice and call for adjustments where needed. The standard of measurement to be used in this evaluation is given in the formula that frequently accompanies the definition of the factors of Awakening in the texts: each factor ideally should depend on “seclusion…dispassion…cessation, resulting in letting go.” The terms in this list occur both in mundane [§98] and in transcendent [§92] contexts, which indicates that they have both mundane and transcendent levels of meaning. On the mundane level, they play a role in the practice of jhana [for the role of letting go in concentration see §71]. As they develop and reach transcendence, they bring the mind to the state of non-fashioning. By basing one’s practice on the seclusion, dispassion, and cessation found in the jhana that takes letting go as its object [§72], and by feeding it through the constant evaluation provided by appropriate attention and analysis of qualities to the point of ever more refined levels of letting go, one brings together the mental qualities of attention and intention in a mutually reinforcing way that heads in the direction of Awakening. At the highest level of letting go — the “knowing but not holding” that we equated with the perceptual mode of emptiness on the verge of non-fashioning in section II/E — appropriate attention gives way to transcendent clear knowing, and the intention underlying the practice of jhana gives way to the stillness of the resulting transcendent freedom. This is how the factors of Awakening, in the words of the texts [§92], “when developed & pursued, lead to the culmination of clear knowing & release.”





Passages from the Pali Canon [go to top]


§ 92. Once the Blessed One was staying at Saketa, in the Añjana Forest Game Refuge. Then Kundaliya the Wanderer came to where the Blessed One was staying and on arrival greeted him courteously and, after engaging in pleasant conversation, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One, ‘Ven. Gotama, I like to frequent gatherings in parks. It is my habit at midday, after my morning meal, to go from park to park, from garden to garden. There I encounter various priests & contemplatives discoursing on the rewards of defending their own tenets in debate, and the rewards of condemning those of others. Now in the experience of what reward does Ven. Gotama dwell?’

‘The Tathagata dwells experiencing the reward of the fruits of clear knowing & release.’

‘But what are the qualities that, when developed & pursued, lead to the culmination of clear knowing & release?’

‘The seven factors of Awakening…’

‘And what are the qualities that…lead to the culmination of the seven factors of Awakening?’

‘The four frames of reference…’

‘And what are the qualities that…lead to the culmination of the four frames of reference?’

‘The three courses of right conduct…’

‘And what are the qualities that…lead to the culmination of the three courses of right conduct?’

Restraint of the senses…And how does restraint of the senses, when developed & pursued, lead to the culmination of the three courses of right conduct? There is the case where a monk, on seeing a pleasant form with the eye, does not hanker after it, does not delight in it, does not give rise to passion for it. Unmoved in body & unmoved in mind, he is inwardly well composed & well released. On seeing an unpleasant form with the eye, he is not upset, his mind is not unsettled, his feelings are not wounded, his mind does not become resentful. Unmoved in body & unmoved in mind, he is inwardly well composed & well released.

On hearing a pleasant…unpleasant sound with the ear…On smelling a pleasant…unpleasant smell with the nose…On tasting a pleasant…unpleasant taste with the tongue…On feeling a pleasant…unpleasant tactile sensation with the body…

On cognizing a pleasant idea with the intellect, he does not hanker after it, does not delight in it, does not give rise to passion for it. Unmoved in body & unmoved in mind, he is inwardly well composed & well released. On cognizing an unpleasant idea with the intellect, he is not upset, his mind is not unsettled, his feelings are not wounded, his mind does not become resentful. Unmoved in body & unmoved in mind, he is inwardly well composed & well released. This is how, Kundaliya, restraint of the senses, when developed & pursued, leads to the culmination of the three courses of right conduct.

And how are the three courses of right conduct developed & pursued so as to lead to the culmination of the four frames of reference? There is the case where a monk abandons wrong conduct in terms of his deeds and develops right conduct in terms of his deeds; abandons wrong conduct in terms of his speech and develops right conduct in terms of his speech; abandons wrong conduct in terms of his thoughts and develops right conduct in terms of his thoughts. This is how, Kundaliya, the three courses of right conduct, when developed & pursued, lead to the culmination of the four frames of reference.

And how are the four frames of reference developed & pursued so that the seven factors of Awakening come to completion?

{[1] On whatever occasion the monk remains focused on the body in & of itself — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world, on that occasion his mindfulness is steady & without lapse. When his mindfulness is steady & without lapse, then mindfulness as a factor of Awakening becomes aroused. He develops it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its development.

[2] Remaining mindful in this way, he examines, analyzes, & comes to a comprehension of that quality with discernment. When he remains mindful in this way, examining, analyzing, & coming to a comprehension of that quality with discernment, then analysis of qualities as a factor of Awakening becomes aroused. He develops it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its development.

[3] In one who examines, analyzes, & comes to a comprehension of that quality with discernment, unflagging persistence is aroused. When unflagging persistence is aroused in one who examines, analyzes, & comes to a comprehension of that quality with discernment, then persistence as a factor of Awakening becomes aroused. He develops it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its development.

[4] In one whose persistence is aroused, a rapture not-of-the-flesh arises. When a rapture not-of-the-flesh arises in one whose persistence is aroused, then rapture as a factor of Awakening becomes aroused. He develops it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its development.

[5] For one who is enraptured, the body grows calm and the mind grows calm. When the body & mind of an enraptured monk grow calm, then serenity as a factor of Awakening becomes aroused. He develops it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its development.

[6] For one who is at ease — his body calmed — the mind becomes concentrated. When the mind of one who is at ease — his body calmed — becomes concentrated, then concentration as a factor of Awakening becomes aroused. He develops it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its development.

[7] He oversees the mind thus concentrated with equanimity. When he oversees the mind thus concentrated with equanimity, equanimity as a factor of Awakening becomes aroused. He develops it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its development.

(Similarly with the other three frames of reference: feelings, mind, & mental qualities.)}

This is how, Kundaliya, the four frames of reference, when developed & pursued, lead to the culmination of the seven factors of Awakening.

And how are the seven factors of Awakening developed & pursued so as to lead to the culmination of clear knowing & release? There is the case where a monk develops mindfulness as a factor of Awakening dependent on seclusion…dispassion…cessation, resulting in letting go. He develops analysis of qualities as a factor of Awakening…persistence as a factor of Awakening…rapture as a factor of Awakening…serenity as a factor of Awakening…concentration as a factor of Awakening…equanimity as a factor of Awakening dependent on seclusion…dispassion…cessation, resulting in letting go. This is how, Kundaliya, the seven factors of Awakening, when developed & pursued, lead to the culmination of clear knowing & release.’

When this had been said, Kundaliya the Wanderer said to the Blessed One: ‘Magnificent, Ven. Gotama, magnificent. Just as if he were to place upright was overturned, to reveal what was hidden, to show the way to one who was lost, or to carry a lamp into the dark so that those with eyes could see forms, in the same way has Ven. Gotama — through many lines of reasoning — made the Dhamma clear.I go to Ven. Gotama for refuge, to the Dhamma, & to the community of monks. May Ven. Gotama regard me as a lay follower gone for refuge from this day forth as long as life shall last.’

– S.XLVI.6 { + M.118}


§ 93. Now in what way does a monk develop & pursue mindfulness of in-&-out breathing so that it bears great fruit & great benefits?

There is the case where a monk develops mindfulness as a factor of Awakening accompanied by mindfulness of in-&-out breathing — dependent on seclusion…dispassion…cessation, resulting in letting go. He develops analysis of qualities as a factor of Awakening… persistence as a factor of Awakening…rapture as a factor of Awakening…serenity as a factor of Awakening…concentration as a factor of Awakening…equanimity as a factor of Awakening dependent on seclusion…dispassion…cessation, resulting in letting go. This is how mindfulness of in-&-out breathing is developed & pursued so that it bears great fruit & great benefits.

– S.LIV.2


§ 94. Now what is the manner of reckoning by which the seven factors of Awakening are fourteen?

[1] Any mindfulness with regard to internal qualities is mindfulness as a factor of Awakening. And any mindfulness with regard to external qualities is also mindfulness as a factor of Awakening. Thus this forms the definition of ‘mindfulness as a factor of Awakening,’ and it is in this manner that it is two.

[2] Any time one examines, investigates, & scrutinizes internal qualities with discernment, that is analysis of qualities as a factor of Awakening. And any time one examines, investigates, & scrutinizes external qualities with discernment, that too is analysis of qualities as a factor of Awakening. Thus this forms the definition of ‘analysis of qualities as a factor of Awakening,’ and it is in this manner that it is two.

[3] Any bodily persistence is persistence as a factor of Awakening. And any mental persistence is also persistence as a factor of Awakening. Thus this forms the definition of ‘persistence as a factor of Awakening,’ and it is in this manner that it is two.

[4] Any rapture accompanied by directed thought & evaluation is rapture as a factor of Awakening. And any rapture unaccompanied by directed thought & evaluation is also rapture as a factor of Awakening. Thus this forms the definition of ‘rapture as a factor of Awakening,’ and it is in this manner that it is two.

[5] Any bodily serenity is serenity as a factor of Awakening. And any mental serenity is also serenity as a factor of Awakening. Thus this forms the definition of ’serenity as a factor of Awakening,’ and it is in this manner that it is two.

[6] Any concentration accompanied by directed thought & evaluation is concentration as a factor of Awakening. And any concentration unaccompanied by directed thought & evaluation is also concentration as a factor of Awakening. Thus this forms the definition of ‘concentration as a factor of Awakening,’ and it is in this manner that it is two.

[7] Any equanimity with regard to internal qualities is equanimity as a factor of Awakening. And any equanimity with regard to external qualities is also equanimity as a factor of Awakening. Thus this forms the definition of ‘equanimity as a factor of Awakening,’ and it is in this manner that it is two.

This is the manner of reckoning by which the seven factors of Awakening are fourteen.

– S.XLVI.52


§ 95. I do not envision any one quality by which unarisen factors of Awakening do not arise, and arisen factors of Awakening do not go to the culmination of their development, like inappropriate attention. When a person’s attention is inappropriate, unarisen factors of Awakening do not arise, and arisen factors of Awakening do not go to the culmination of their development.

I do not envision any one quality by which unarisen factors of Awakening arise, and arisen factors of Awakening go to the culmination of their development, like appropriate attention. When a person’s attention is appropriate, unarisen factors of Awakening arise, and arisen factors of Awakening go to the culmination of their development. [§§51; 53]

– A.I.75-76


§ 96. Monks, I will teach you the feeding & starving of the five hindrances & of the seven factors of Awakening. Listen & pay close attention. I will speak…

Feeding the Hindrances. And what is the food for the arising of unarisen sensual desire, or for the growth & increase of sensual desire once it has arisen? There is the theme of beauty. To foster inappropriate attention to it: This is the food for the arising of unarisen sensual desire, or for the growth & increase of sensual desire once it has arisen.

And what is the food for the arising of unarisen ill will, or for the growth & increase of ill will once it has arisen? There is the theme of irritation. To foster inappropriate attention to it: This is the food for the arising of unarisen ill will, or for the growth & increase of ill will once it has arisen.

And what is the food for the arising of unarisen sloth & drowsiness, or for the growth & increase of sloth & drowsiness once it has arisen? There are boredom, weariness, yawning, drowsiness after a meal, & sluggishness of awareness. To foster inappropriate attention to them: This is the food for the arising of unarisen sloth & drowsiness, or for the growth & increase of sloth & drowsiness once it has arisen.

And what is the food for the arising of unarisen restlessness & anxiety, or for the growth & increase of restlessness & anxiety once it has arisen? There is non-stillness of awareness. To foster inappropriate attention to that: This is the food for the arising of unarisen restlessness & anxiety, or for the growth & increase of restlessness & anxiety once it has arisen.

And what is the food for the arising of unarisen uncertainty, or for the growth & increase of uncertainty once it has arisen? There are phenomena that act as a foothold for uncertainty. To foster inappropriate attention to them: This is the food for the arising of unarisen uncertainty, or for the growth & increase of uncertainty once it has arisen.

Feeding the Factors of Awakening. Now, what is the food for the arising of unarisen mindfulness as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of mindfulness…once it has arisen? There are mental qualities that act as a foothold for mindfulness as a factor of Awakening [well-purified virtue & views made straight; see §27]. To foster appropriate attention to them: This is the food for the arising of unarisen mindfulness as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of mindfulness…once it has arisen.

And what is the food for the arising of unarisen analysis of qualities as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of analysis of qualities… once it has arisen? There are mental qualities that are skillful & unskillful, blameworthy & blameless, gross & refined, siding with darkness & with light [§§2-3]. To foster appropriate attention to them: This is the food for the arising of unarisen analysis of qualities as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of analysis of qualities…once it has arisen.

And what is the food for the arising of unarisen persistence as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of persistence…once it has arisen? There is the potential for effort, the potential for exertion, the potential for striving. To foster appropriate attention to them: This is the food for the arising of unarisen persistence as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of persistence…once it has arisen.

And what is the food for the arising of unarisen rapture as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of rapture…once it has arisen? There are mental qualities that act as a foothold for rapture as a factor of Awakening. To foster appropriate attention to them: This is the food for the arising of unarisen rapture as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of rapture…once it has arisen.

And what is the food for the arising of unarisen serenity as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of serenity…once it has arisen? There is physical serenity & there is mental serenity. To foster appropriate attention to them: This is the food for the arising of unarisen serenity as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of serenity…once it has arisen.

And what is the food for the arising of unarisen concentration as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of concentration…once it has arisen? There are themes for calm, themes for non-distraction [these are the four frames of reference; see §148]. To foster appropriate attention to them: This is the food for the arising of unarisen concentration as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of concentration…once it has arisen.

And what is the food for the arising of unarisen equanimity as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of equanimity…once it has arisen? There are mental qualities that act as a foothold for equanimity as a factor of Awakening. To foster appropriate attention to them: This is the food for the arising of unarisen equanimity as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of equanimity…once it has arisen.

Starving the Hindrances. Now, what is lack of food for the arising of unarisen sensual desire, or for the growth & increase of sensual desire once it has arisen? There is the theme of unattractiveness. To foster appropriate attention to it: This is lack of food for the arising of unarisen sensual desire, or for the growth & increase of sensual desire once it has arisen.

And what is lack of food for the arising of unarisen ill will, or for the growth & increase of ill will once it has arisen? There is the release of the mind [through good will, compassion, appreciation, or equanimity]. To foster appropriate attention to that: This is lack of food for the arising of unarisen ill will, or for the growth & increase of ill will once it has arisen.

And what is lack of food for the arising of unarisen sloth & drowsiness, or for the growth & increase of sloth & drowsiness once it has arisen? There is the potential for effort, the potential for exertion, the potential for striving. To foster appropriate attention to them: This is lack of food for the arising of unarisen sloth & drowsiness, or for the growth & increase of sloth & drowsiness once it has arisen.

And what is lack of food for the arising of unarisen restlessness & anxiety, or for the growth & increase of restlessness & anxiety once it has arisen? There is stillness of awareness. To foster appropriate attention to that: This is lack of food for the arising of unarisen restlessness & anxiety, or for the growth & increase of restlessness & anxiety once it has arisen.

And what is lack of food for the arising of unarisen uncertainty, or for the growth & increase of uncertainty once it has arisen? There are mental qualities that are skillful & unskillful, blameworthy & blameless, gross & refined, siding with darkness & with light. To foster appropriate attention to them: This is lack of food for the arising of unarisen uncertainty, or for the growth & increase of uncertainty once it has arisen.

Starving the Factors of Awakening. Now, what is lack of food for the arising of unarisen mindfulness as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of mindfulness…once it has arisen? There are mental qualities that act as a foothold for mindfulness as a factor of Awakening. To foster inappropriate attention to them: This is lack of food for the arising of unarisen mindfulness as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of mindfulness…once it has arisen.

And what is lack of food for the arising of unarisen analysis of qualities as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of analysis of qualities… once it has arisen? There are mental qualities that are skillful & unskillful, blameworthy & blameless, gross & refined, siding with darkness & with light. To foster inappropriate attention to them: This is lack of food for the arising of unarisen analysis of qualities as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of analysis of qualities…once it has arisen.

And what is lack of food for the arising of unarisen persistence as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of persistence…once it has arisen? There is the potential for effort, the potential for exertion, the potential for striving. To foster inappropriate attention to them: This is lack of food for the arising of unarisen persistence as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of persistence…once it has arisen.

And what is lack of food for the arising of unarisen rapture as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of rapture…once it has arisen? There are mental qualities that act as a foothold for rapture as a factor of Awakening. To foster inappropriate attention to them: This is lack of food for the arising of unarisen rapture as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of rapture…once it has arisen.

And what is lack of food for the arising of unarisen serenity as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of serenity…once it has arisen? There is physical serenity & there is mental serenity. To foster inappropriate attention to them: This is lack of food for the arising of unarisen serenity as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of serenity…once it has arisen.

And what is lack of food for the arising of unarisen concentration as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of concentration…once it has arisen? There are the themes for concentration, themes for non-confusion. To foster inappropriate attention to them: This is lack of food for the arising of unarisen concentration as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of concentration…once it has arisen.

And what is lack of food for the arising of unarisen equanimity as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of equanimity…once it has arisen? There are mental qualities that act as a foothold for equanimity as a factor of Awakening. To foster inappropriate attention to them: This is lack of food for the arising of unarisen equanimity as a factor of Awakening, or for the growth & increase of equanimity…once it has arisen.

S.XLVI.51


§ 97. Fire. Monks, on occasions when the mind is sluggish, that is the wrong time to develop serenity as a factor of Awakening, concentration as a factor of Awakening, equanimity as a factor of Awakening. Why is that? The sluggish mind is hard to raise up by those mental qualities. Just as if a man, wanting to make a small fire blaze up, were to place wet grass in it, wet cow dung, & wet sticks; were to give it a spray of water and smother it with dust. Is it possible that he would make the small fire blaze up?

No, lord.

In the same way, when the mind is sluggish, that is the wrong time to develop serenity as a factor of Awakening, concentration as a factor of Awakening, equanimity as a factor of Awakening. Why is that? The sluggish mind is hard to raise up by those mental qualities.

Now, on occasions when the mind is sluggish, that is the right time to develop analysis of qualities as a factor of Awakening, persistence as a factor of Awakening, rapture as a factor of Awakening. Why is that? The sluggish mind is easy to raise up by those mental qualities. Just as if a man, wanting to make a small fire blaze up, were to place dry grass in it, dry cow dung, & dry sticks; were to blow on it with his mouth and not smother it with dust. Is it possible that he would make the small fire blaze up?

Yes, lord.

In the same way, when the mind is sluggish, that is the right time to develop analysis of qualities as a factor of Awakening, persistence as a factor of Awakening, rapture as a factor of Awakening…

Now, on occasions when the mind is restless, that is the wrong time to develop analysis of qualities as a factor of Awakening, persistence as a factor of Awakening, rapture as a factor of Awakening. Why is that? The restless mind is hard to calm down with those mental qualities. Just as if a man, wanting to put out a large fire, were to place dry grass in it, dry cow dung, & dry sticks; were to blow on it with his mouth and not smother it with dust. Is it possible that he would put it out?

No, lord.

In the same way, when the mind is restless, that is the wrong time to develop analysis of qualities as a factor of Awakening, persistence as a factor of Awakening, rapture as a factor of Awakening…

Now, on occasions when the mind is restless, that is the right time to develop serenity as a factor of Awakening, concentration as a factor of Awakening, equanimity as a factor of Awakening. Why is that? The restless mind is easy to calm down with those mental qualities. Just as if a man, wanting to put out a large fire, were to place wet grass in it, wet cow dung, & wet sticks; were to give it a spray of water and smother it with dust. Is it possible that he would put it out?

Yes, lord.

In the same way, when the mind is restless, that is the right time to develop serenity as a factor of Awakening, concentration as a factor of Awakening, equanimity as a factor of Awakening. Why is that? The restless mind is easy to calm down with those mental qualities.

As for mindfulness, I tell you, that is beneficial everywhere.

– S.XLVI.53


§ 98. Release of Awareness. And how is the release of awareness through good will developed, what is its destiny, what is its excellence, its reward, & its consummation?

There is the case where a monk develops mindfulness as a factor of Awakening accompanied by good will, dependent on seclusion…dispassion… cessation, resulting in letting go. He develops analysis of qualities as a factor of Awakening…persistence as a factor of Awakening…rapture as a factor of Awakening…serenity as a factor of Awakening…concentration as a factor of Awakening…equanimity as a factor of Awakening accompanied by good will, dependent on seclusion…dispassion…cessation, resulting in letting go. If he wants, he remains percipient of loathsomeness in the presence of what is not loathsome. If he wants, he remains percipient of unloathsomeness in the presence of what is loathsome. If he wants, he remains percipient of loathsomeness in the presence of what is not loathsome & what is. If he wants, he remains percipient of unloathsomeness in the presence of what is loathsome & what is not. If he wants — in the presence of what is loathsome & what is not — cutting himself off from both, he remains equanimous, alert, & mindful [§§46; 181]. Or he may enter & remain in the beautiful liberation. I tell you, monks, the release of awareness through good will has the beautiful as its excellence — in the case of one who has penetrated to no higher release.

And how is the release of awareness through compassion developed, what is its destiny, what is its excellence, its reward, & its consummation?

There is the case where a monk develops mindfulness as a factor of Awakening accompanied by compassion…etc…If he wants — in the presence of what is loathsome & what is not — cutting himself off from both, he remains equanimous, alert, & mindful. Or, with the complete transcending of perceptions of [physical] form, with the disappearance of perceptions of resistance, and not heeding perceptions of diversity, thinking, ‘Infinite space,’ he enters & remains in the sphere of the infinitude of space. I tell you, monks, the release of awareness through compassion has the sphere of the infinitude of space as its excellence — in the case of one who has penetrated to no higher release.

And how is the release of awareness through appreciation developed, what is its destiny, what is its excellence, its reward, & its consummation?

There is the case where a monk develops mindfulness as a factor of Awakening accompanied by appreciation…etc…If he wants — in the presence of what is loathsome & what is not — cutting himself off from both, he remains equanimous, alert, & mindful. Or, with the complete transcending of the sphere of infinitude of space, thinking ‘Infinite consciousness,’ he enters & remains in the sphere of the infinitude of consciousness. I tell you, monks, the release of awareness through appreciation has the sphere of the infinitude of consciousness as its excellence — in the case of one who has penetrated to no higher release.

And how is the release of awareness through equanimity developed, what is its destiny, what is its excellence, its reward, & its consummation?

There is the case where a monk develops mindfulness as a factor of Awakening accompanied by equanimity…etc…If he wants — in the presence of what is loathsome & what is not — cutting himself off from both, he remains equanimous, alert, & mindful. Or, with the complete transcending of the sphere of infinitude of consciousness, thinking ‘There is nothing,’ he enters & remains in the sphere of nothingness. I tell you, monks, the release of awareness through equanimity has the sphere of nothingness as its excellence — in the case of one who has penetrated to no higher release.

– S.XLVI.54


§ 99. Imagine, Uttiya, a royal frontier fortress, with strong foundations, strong walls & towers, and a single gate. There at the gate is a wise gate-keeper, experienced & intelligent, who keeps out strangers and lets in only those he knows. As he patrols along the road around the fortress he would not see any joints or openings in the wall large enough for even a cat to slip through. And although he wouldn’t know exactly how many living beings entered or left the fortress, he would know that whatever living beings of any size entered or left the fortress, they would all leave or enter through the gate.

In the same way, the Tathagata is not concerned that the whole world or half of it or one third of it will escape by means of [the Dhamma]. What he does know is this: ‘All of those who have escaped from the world or are escaping or will escape, have done so by abandoning the five hindrances — those defilements of awareness that weaken discernment — their minds well-established in (well-tuned to) the four frames of reference, developing as they actually are the seven factors of Awakening. That is how they escaped from the world or are escaping or will escape.

– A.X.95


§ 100.

Whose minds are well-developed
in the factors of self-awakening,
who delight in non-clinging,
relinquishing grasping:
    resplendent,
    their effluents ended,
    they, in the world,
    are Unbound.

DHP.89

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True Teachings of The Awakened One-Conviction-The five rewards that a layperson can expect for having conviction (faith) in the Triple Gem.
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True Teachings of The Awakened One

Conviction

 

Translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

The five rewards that a layperson can expect for having conviction (faith) in the Triple Gem.

 

“For a lay person, there are these five rewards of conviction. Which five?

“When the truly good people in the world show compassion, they will first show compassion to people of conviction, and not to people without conviction. When visiting, they first visit people of conviction, and not people without conviction. When accepting gifts, they will first accept those from people with conviction, and not from people without conviction. When teaching the Dhamma, they will first teach those with conviction, and not those without conviction. A person of conviction, on the break-up of the body, after death, will arise in a good destination, the heavenly world. For a lay person, these are the five rewards of conviction.

Just as a large banyan tree, on level ground where four roads meet, is a haven for the birds all around, even so a lay person of conviction is a haven for many people: monks, nuns, male lay followers, & female lay followers.”

A massive tree

whose branches carry fruits & leaves,

with trunks & roots

& an abundance of fruits:

               There the birds find rest.

In that delightful sphere

they make their home.

Those seeking shade

               come to the shade,

those seeking fruit

               find fruit to eat.

So with the person consummate

in virtue & conviction,

humble, sensitive, gentle,

               delightful, & mild:

To him come those without effluent —

               free from passion,

               free from aversion,

               free from delusion —          

the field of merit for the world.

They teach him the Dhamma

               that dispels all stress.

And when he understands,

               he is freed from effluents,

               totally unbound.

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Spiritual Community of The True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One
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Spiritual Community of The True Followers of The Path Shown by The Awakened One

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http://www.accesstoinsight.org/index.html

 

Index by Title

Clicking on a title in the index below will take you directly to the text or to another page that will tell you more about it. The date accompanying each text indicates the year of the edition on which the transcription is based. Only the major divisions of the Pali canon are listed here; for individual suttas, please see the Index of Suttas.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V WXYZ

A [go up]

Abhidhamma Pitaka
Abhidhamma in Practice, The (N.K.G. Mendis; BPS WH 322, 1985)
“Advantages of Realizing the Doctrine of Anatta, The” (Ledi Sayadaw, in
Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 3, Egolessness (BPS WH 202, 1984))
Affirming the Truths of the Heart: The Buddhist Teachings on Samvega and Pasada (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1997)
Agendas of Mindfulness, The (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2002)
Aims of Buddhist Education (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1997)
All About Change (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2004)
All of Us (Beset by Birth, Decay and Death) (Ayya (Sister) Khema; 1988)
Amata Dhamma — see
To the Last Breath (Ajaan Maha Boowa; 1992)
Ananda: The Guardian of the Dhamma (Hellmuth Hecker; BPS WH 273, 1980)
Anapana Sati: Meditation on Breathing (Ariyadhamma Mahathera; BPS BL 115, 1988)
Anathapindika: The Great Benefactor (Hellmuth Hecker; BPS WH 334, 1986)
“Anatta According to Theravada” (Bhikkhu Ñanamoli, in
Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 3, Egolessness (BPS WH 202, 1984))
Angulimala: A Murderer’s Road to Sainthood (Hellmuth Hecker; BPS WH 312, 1984)
Anguttara Nikaya
Anguttara Nikaya: An Anthology (Part III: Books Eight to Eleven) (Nyanaponika Thera, ed.; BPS WH 238, 1976)
“Anicca (Impermanence) According to Theravada” (Bhikkhu Ñanamoli, in
Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 1, Impermanence (BPS WH 186, 1981))
“Aniccam: The Buddhist Theory of Impermanence” (Bhikkhu Ñanajivako, in
Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 1, Impermanence (BPS WH 186, 1981))
Anicca Vata Sankhara (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1999)
Answer Key to Warder’s Introduction to Pali (John Kelly; 2003)
Association with the Wise (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1994)
Atthakavagga (The Octet Chapter), The: An Introduction (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1997)
Auspicious Month, An (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1991)
Autobiography of a Forest Monk, The (Ajaan Thate; 1996)
Autobiography of Phra Ajaan Lee, The (Ajaan Lee; 1994)
Awareness Itself (Ajaan Fuang; 1999)




B [go up]

Bag of Bones: A Miscellany on the Body (Bhikkhu Khantipalo; BPS WH 271/272, 1980)
Balanced Way, The (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1987)
Ballad of Liberation from the Khandhas, The (Ajaan Mun; 1995)
Basic Breath Meditation Instructions (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1994)
Basic Themes (Ajaan Lee; 1994)
Befriending the Suttas: Tips on Reading the Pali Discourses (John Bullitt)
Beginning Insight Meditation, and Other Essays (Dorothy Figen; BPS BL 85, 1988)
Beginnings: Suggested Entry Points to this Website
Benefits of Walking Meditation, The (Sayadaw U Silananda; BPS BL 137, 1995)
Better Than a Hundred Years (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1999)
Beyond Coping: The Buddha’s Teachings on Aging, Illness, Death, and Separation (Study Guide) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed.; 1999)
Beyond the Tipitaka: A Field Guide to Post-canonical Pali Literature (John Bullitt; 2002)
Bhikkhu Patimokkha, The: The Bhikkhus’ Code of Discipline (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, trans.)
Bhikkhu Tissa Dispels Some Doubts (Leonard Price; BPS BL 102, 1985)
Bhikkhuni Patimokkha, The: The Bhikkhunis’ Code of Discipline (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, trans.)
Bhikkhus’ Rules — A Guide for Laypeople: The Theravadin Buddhist Monk’s Rules Compiled and Explained, The (Bhikkhu Ariyesako; 1999)
Blatantly Clear in the Heart (Ajaan Suwat; 2001)
Blessed One’s City of Dhamma, The: From the Milindapañha (I.B. Horner; BPS BL 130, 1993)
Blessings of Pindapata, The (Bhikkhu Khantipalo; 1964)
Bodhinyana: A Collection of Dhamma Talks (Ajaan Chah; 1982)
Body Contemplation (Study Guide) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed.; 2003)
The Book of Protection (Paritta) (Piyadassi Thera; 1999)
Breath Meditation Condensed (Upasika Kee Nanayon; 1995)
Buddha and His Dhamma, The (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS WH 433, 1999)
Buddha’s Encounters With Mara, The (Ananda W.P. Guruge; BPS WH 419, 1997)
Buddha’s Words on Kamma, The (Ñanamoli Thera; BPS WH 248, 1993)
Buddhism: A Method of Mind Training (Leonard Bullen; BPS BL 42, 1991)
Buddhism and Death (M. O’C. Walshe; BPS WH 261, 1978)
Buddhism and Sex (M. O’C. Walshe; BPS WH 225, 1986)
Buddhism and Social Action (Ken Jones; BPS, 1981)
Buddhism and the God-idea (Nyanaponika Thera; 1994)
Buddhism in a Nutshell (Narada Thera; BPS, 1982)
Buddhism in Myanmar: A Short History (Roger Bischoff; BPS WH 399, 1995)
Buddhism in Sri Lanka: A Short History (H.R. Perera; BPS WH 100, 1988)
Buddhism in Thailand: Its Past and Its Present (Karuna Kusalasaya; BPS WH 85, 2005)
Buddhist Attitude Towards Nature, The (Lily de Silva; from BPS WH 346, 1987)
Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka (A.G.S. Kariyawasam; BPS WH 402-4, 1995)
Buddhist Culture, the Cultured Buddhist (Robert Bogoda; BPS BL 139, 1996)
“Buddhist Doctrine of Anicca (Impermanence), The” (Y. Karunadasa, in
Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 1, Impermanence (BPS WH 186, 1981))
The Buddhist Layman (Bogoda/Jootla/Walshe; BPS WH 294, 1982)
Buddhist Meditation (Francis Story; BPS BL 15, 1986)
Buddhist Meditation and Depth Psychology (Douglas M. Burns; BPS WH 88, 1994)
Buddhist Monastic Code, Volume I: The Patimokkha Training Rules Translated and Explained (2nd ed.) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2007)
Buddhist Monastic Code, Volume II: The Khandhaka Rules Translated and Explained (2nd ed.) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2007)
Buddhist Monk’s Discipline, The: Some Points Explained for Laypeople (Bhikkhu Khantipalo; BPS WH 130, 1984)
Buddhist Publication Society Newsletter Essays (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS 1985-1997)
Buddhist Reflections on Death (V.F.Gunaratna; BPS WH 102, 1982)
Buddhist Response to Contemporary Dilemmas of Human Existence, A (Bhikkhu Bodhi, 1994)
Buddhist Stories from the Dhammapada Commentary (Part II) (E.W. Burlingame; BPS WH 324, 1985)
Buddhist Women at the Time of the Buddha (Hellmuth Hecker; BPS WH 292, 1982)
Buddho (Ajaan Thate; 1994)




C [go up]

Case for Study, The (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1986)
To the Cemetery and Back (Leonard Price; BPS BL 96, 1983)
Chanting Guide, A: Pali Passages with English Translations (Dhammayut Order in the United States of America; 1998)
To Comprehend Suffering (Ajaan Suwat; 2002)
Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma, A (Introduction) (Bhikkhu Bodhi, ed.; BPS, 1993)
Consciousnesses (Ajaan Lee; 1997)
Contemplation of Feeling: The Discourse Grouping on the Feelings (Nyanaponika Thera; BPS WH 303, 1983)
Courageous Faith (Nyanaponika Thera; 1994)
Craft of the Heart, The (Ajaan Lee; 1994)
Crossing the Ocean of Life (Ajaan Lee; 1998)
Customs of the Noble Ones, The (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1999)




D [go up]

Dana: The Practice of Giving (Bhikkhu Bodhi, ed.; BPS WH 367, 1990)
Demons of Defilement, The (Kilesa Mara) (Ajaan Lee; 1961 [1997])
De-perception (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2002)
Detachment and Compassion in Early Buddhism (Elizabeth J. Harris; BPS BL 141, 1997)
Devotion in Buddhism (Nyanaponika Thera; 1994)
Dhamma and Non-duality (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1994-95)
Dhamma for Everyone (Ajaan Lee; 1960 [2003])
Dhamma Teaching of Acariya Maha Boowa in London, The (Maha Boowa; 1980)
Dhamma Without Rebirth? (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1987)
Dhammapada: A Translation (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1997)
Dhammapada, The: The Buddha’s Path of Wisdom (Acharya Buddharakkhita; BPS 1985)
Digha Nikaya
Directions for Insight (Upasika Kee Nanayon; 1995)
Discipline of Sobriety, A (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1997)
Discourse Collection, The: Selected Texts from the Sutta Nipata (John D. Ireland, trans.; BPS WH 82, 1983)
Discourse on Right View, The (Bhikkhu Ñanamoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS WH 377, 1991)
Discourse on the Snake Simile, The (Nyanaponika Thera; BPS WH 48, 1974)
Discourses of the Ancient Nuns (Bhikkhu Bodhi, trans.; BPS BL 143, 1997)
Disenchantment (Ajaan Suwat; 2001)
Divine Mantra, The (Ajaan Lee; 2006)
Does Rebirth Make Sense? (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 2000)
Duties of the Sangha (Ajaan Lee; 1995)




E [go up]

Economy of Gifts, The (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1997)
Edicts of King Asoka, The (Ven. S. Dhammika; BPS WH 386, 1993)
Educating Compassion (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2006)
“Egolessness” (Nyanatiloka Mahathera, in
Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 3, Egolessness (BPS WH 202, 1984))
Elements of ATI Style, The (Bullitt)
Elimination of Anger, The (Piyatissa Thera; BPS BL 68, 1975)
Emptiness (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1997)
Essentials of Buddha Dhamma in Meditative Practice, The (U Ba Khin, with an essay on U Ba Khin by Eric Lerner; BPS WH 231, 1981)
Essential Practice, The: Dhamma Discourses of Venerable Webu Sayadaw (Part I) (Webu Sayadaw; BPS WH 375, 1991)
Essential Practice, The: Dhamma Discourses of Venerable Webu Sayadaw (Part II) (Webu Sayadaw; BPS WH 384, 1992)
Ever-present Truth, The: Teachings of Phra Ajaan Mun Bhuridatta Mahathera (Ajaan Mun; 1995)
Everyman’s Ethics (Narada Thera; BPS WH 14, 1985)
Eye of Discernment, The: An Anthology from the Teachings of Phra Ajaan Lee Dhammadaro (Ajaan Lee; 1999)




F [go up]

“Fact of Impermanence, The” (Piyadassi Thera, in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 1, Impermanence (BPS WH 186, 1981))
Faith in Awakening (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2006)
Fistful of Sand, A (Ajaan Suwat; 1999)
Five Aggregates, The (Study Guide) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed.; 2002)
Five Mental Hindrances and Their Conquest, The (Nyanaponika Thera; BPS WH 26, 1993)
Five Piles of Bricks: The Khandhas as Burden & Path (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2002)
Five Spiritual Faculties, The (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1992-93)
Food for the Heart (Ajaan Chah; 1992)
Food for Thought (Ajaan Lee; 1995)
Food of Kindness, The (Ayya Medhanandi; 2005)
For the Welfare of Many (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1994)
Forest Meditations: The Verses of the Arahant Talaputa (Bhikkhu Khantipalo, trans.; BPS WH 243, 1983)
Foundations of Mindfulness, The (Nyanasatta Thera; BPS WH 19, 1993)
Four Noble Truths, The (Study Guide) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed.; 1999)
Four Nutriments of Life, The (Nyanaponika Thera; BPS WH 105, 1981)
Four Sublime States, The (Nyanaponika Thera; BPS WH 6, 1993)
Frames of Reference (Ajaan Lee; 1994)
Freedom from Fear (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2002)
Frequently Asked Questions About Access to Insight (Bullitt)
Frequently Asked Questions About Buddhism (Bullitt)
From Views to Vision (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1993-94)
Fundamentals of Buddhism: Four Lectures (Nyanatiloka Mahathera; BPS WH 394, 1994)




G [go up]

Gemstones of the Good Dhamma (Saddhamma-maniratana): An Anthology of Verses from the Pali Scriptures (Ven. S. Dhammika; BPS WH 342, 1987)
“Generosity: The Inward Dimension” (Nina van Gorkom, in
Dana: The Practice of Giving (BPS WH 367, 1990))
Getting the Message (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2006)
Gifts He Left Behind: The Dhamma Legacy of Ajaan Dune Atulo (Bodhinandamuni; 2005)
Giving Dignity to Life (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1998)
“Giving from the Heart” (M. O’C. Walshe, in
Dana: The Practice of Giving (BPS WH 367, 1990))
“Giving in the Pali Canon” (Lily de Silva, in
Dana: The Practice of Giving (BPS WH 367, 1990))
Going for Refuge/Taking the Precepts (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS WH 282, 1981)
Going Forth: A Call to Buddhist Monkhood (Sumana Samanera; BPS WH 27, 1983)
Going Against the Flow (Upasika Kee Nanayon; 1995)
Good Dose of Dhamma for Meditators When They Are Ill, A (Upasika Kee Nanayon; 1995)
Guardians of the World, The (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1993)
Guided Meditation, A (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 1999)
Guide to Awareness, A: Dhamma Talks on the Foundations of Mindfulness (Satipatthana Sutta) (Somdet Phra Ñanasamvara, 1997)




H [go up]

Handbook for the Relief of Suffering, A (Ajaan Lee; 1995)
Happy Married Life, A: A Buddhist Perspective (Ven. K. Sri Dhammananda; 1987)
Healing of the Bull, The: A Story (Suvimalee Karunaratna; 1996)
Healing Power of the Precepts, The (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1997)
Heart Awakened, The (Eileen Siriwardhana; BPS BL 93, 1983)
Heart Released, A (Ajaan Mun; 1995)
(To be Seen) Here and Now (Ayya (Sister) Khema; 1989)
Home for the Mind, A (Ajaan Suwat; 2002)




I [go up]

Ideal Solitude: An Exposition of the Bhaddekaratta Sutta (Bhikkhu Ñanananda; BPS WH 188, 1973)
Inner Strength (Ajaan Lee; 1998)
Inspiration from Enlightened Nuns (Susan Elbaum Jootla; BPS WH 349, 1988)
Integrity of Emptiness, The (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2006)
Introduction to the Patimokkha Training Rules, An (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1994)
Investigation for Insight (Susan Elbaum Jootla; BPS WH 301, 1983)
Iridescence on the Water, An (Chao Khun Nararatana Rajamanit)
Itivuttaka: The Buddha’s Sayings (excerpts) (John D. Ireland; BPS, 1997)
Itivuttaka — This Was Said by The Buddha (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, trans.; 2001)




J [go up]

Jataka Tales of the Buddha, Part I (Ken and Visakha Kawasaki; BPS BL 135, 1995)
Jataka Tales of the Buddha, Part II (Ken and Visakha Kawasaki; BPS BL 138, 1996)
Jataka Tales of the Buddha, Part III (Ken and Visakha Kawasaki; BPS BL 142, 1997)
Jataka Tales of the Buddha, Part IV (Ken and Visakha Kawasaki; BPS BL 144, 1998)
Jataka Tales of the Buddha, Part V (Ken and Visakha Kawasaki; BPS BL 158, 2002)
Jhana Not by the Numbers (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2005)
Jhanas in Theravada Buddhist Meditation, The (Henepola Gunaratana; BPS WH 351/353, 1988)
Journey into Buddhism, A (Elizabeth J. Harris; BPS BL 134; 1994)




K [go up]

Kalama Sutta: The Buddha’s Charter of Free Inquiry (Soma Thera, tr; with an essay by Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS WH 8, 1981)
Kamma and its Fruit (Nyanaponika Thera; 1994)
Kamma (Study Guide) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed.; 2000)
Karma (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1996)
Karma of Questions, The: Essays on the Buddhist Path (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2002)
(Upasika) Kee Nanayon and the Social Dynamic of Theravadin Buddhist Practice (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1995)
Keeping the Breath in Mind & Lessons in Samadhi (Ajaan Lee; 2000)
Key to to the Exercises in A.K. Warder’s Introduction to Pali, A (Brahmali Bhikkhu; 2005)
Khuddaka Nikaya
Knowledge (Ajaan Lee; 1997)




L [go up]

Lay Buddhist Practice (Bhikkhu Khantipalo; BPS WH 206, 1982)
Laying Down the Rod (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1991)
Legends of Somdet Toh (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2006)
Lessons in Samadhi (Ajaan Lee) — see
Keeping the Breath in Mind & Lessons in Samadhi
Life Isn’t Just Suffering (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2000)
Life of Maha-Moggallana (Hellmuth Hecker; BPS WH 263, 1979)
Life of Sariputta, The (Nyanaponika Thera; BPS WH 90, 1987)
Life’s Highest Blessings: The Maha Mangala Sutta (Dr. R.L. Soni; BPS WH 254, 1987)
Lifestyles and Spiritual Progress (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1998)
To Light a Fire (Webu Sayadaw; BPS BL 122, 1990)
Light of Discernment, The (Ajaan Suwat; 2002)
Lion’s Roar, The: Two Discourses of Buddha (Bhikkhu Ñanamoli, trans.; Bhikkhu Bodhi, ed.; BPS WH 390, 1993)
Listen Well (Ajaan Fuang Jotiko; 2001)
Living Dhamma (Ajaan Chah; 1992)
Living Message of the Dhammapada, The (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS BL 129, 1993)
Look at the Kalama Sutta, A (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1988)
Looking Inward (Upasika Kee Nanayon; 1995)
Loyalty to Your Meditation (Ajaan Lee; 2001)




M [go up]

Maha Kaccana: Master of Doctrinal Exposition (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS WH 405, 1995)
Maha Kassapa: Father of the Sangha (Hellmuth Hecker; BPS WH 345, 1987)
Majjhima Nikaya
Making the Dhamma Your Own (Phra Ajaan Khamdee Pabhaso; 1999)
Mastery of Pride (Brian Fawcett; BPS BL 14, 1962)
Matrceta’s Hymn to the Buddha: An English Rendering of the Satapancasatka (Ven. S. Dhammika; BPS WH 360, 1989)
Meaning of the Buddha’s Awakening, The (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1997)
Meditating on No-self (Ayya (Sister) Khema; BPS BL 95, 1984)
Meditations: Forty Dhamma Talks (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2003)
Meditations 2 (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2006)
Meditations 3 (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2006)
Meeting the Divine Messengers (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1996)
Merit (Study Guide) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed.; 2005)
Message for a Globalized World (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1996)
Metta: The Philosophy and Practice of Universal Love (Acharya Buddharakkhita; BPS WH 365, 1989)
Mind Like Fire Unbound, The: An Image in the Early Buddhist Discourses (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; Barre, MA: Dhamma Dana Publications, 1993)
Of Mindsets and Monkeypots (Petr Karel Ontl; BPS BL 131, 1993)
Ministering to the Sick and Terminally Ill (Lily de Silva; BPS BL 132, 1994)
Mudita: The Buddha’s Teaching on Unselfish Joy (various; BPS WH 170, 1983)




N [go up]

Navigating the New Millennium (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 2000)
New Undertaking, A (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1985)
Nibbana (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1996)
Nibbana As Living Experience/The Buddha and The Arahant: Two Studies from the Pali Canon (Lily de Silva; BPS WH 407/408, 1996)
Nobility of the Truths, The (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1991-92)
Noble Conversation (Study Guide) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed.; 2003)
Noble Eightfold Path, The: The Way to the End of Suffering (Bhikkhu Bodhi; 1994)
Noble Strategy: Essays on the Buddhist Path (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 1999)
Non-violence (Study Guide) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed.; 2001)
No-self or Not-self? (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1996)
No-self Characteristic, On the (N.K.G. Mendis; BPS WH 268, 1979)
Not-self Strategy, The (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1993)
Note on Openness, A (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1991)
Nothing Higher to Live For (Bhikkhu Nyanasobhano; BPS BL 124, 1991)
Nourishing the Roots: Essays on Buddhist Ethics (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS WH 259, 1990)




O [go up]

One Foot in the World: Buddhist Approaches to Present-day Problems (Lily de Silva; BPS WH 337, 1986)
One Tool Among Many: The Place of Vipassana in Buddhist Practice (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1998)
Opening the Door to the Dhamma: Respect in Buddhist Thought & Practice (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2001)
Our Reactions to Dukkha (Elizabeth Ashby; BPS BL 26, 1965)
Our Real Home (Ajaan Chah; BPS BL 111, 1987)




P [go up]

Pali Verb Conjugation and Noun/Pronoun Declension Tables (Bhikkhu Nyanatusita, 2005)
Parayana Vagga (The Chapter on the Way to the Far Shore), The: An Introduction (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1997)
Path of Concentration and Mindfulness, The (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 1997)
Path to Peace and Freedom for the Mind, The (Ajaan Lee)
“Physical and Biological Aspects of Anatta” (Edward Greenly, in
Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 3, Egolessness (BPS WH 202, 1984))
Position of Women in Buddhism, The (Dr. (Mrs.) L.S. Dewaraja; BPS WH 280, 1981)
Positive Response: How to Meet Evil with Good (Acharya Buddharakkhita; BPS BL 109, 1987)
Power of Good Will, The (Ajaan Lee; 2003)
Power of Goodness, The (Ajaan Lee; 2004)
Power of Mindfulness, The (Nyanaponika Thera; BPS WH 121, 1986)
Practical Advice for Meditators (Bhikkhu Khantipalo; BPS WH 116, 1986)
Practice in a Word, The (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2004)
“The Practice of Giving” (Susan Elbaum Jootla, in
Dana: The Practice of Giving (BPS WH 367, 1990))
Practice of Loving-kindness (metta), The (Ñanamoli Thera; BPS WH 7, 1987)
Pride and Conceit (Dr. Elizabeth Ashby and Brian Fawcett; BPS BL 14, 1962)
Prisoners of Karma: A Story (Suvimalee Karunaratna; 1991)
Problem of Conflict, The (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1989)
Progress of Insight, The (Mahasi Sayadaw; BPS, 1994)
Protection Through Satipatthana (Nyanaponika Thera; BPS BL 34, 1990)
Psychology of Emotions in Buddhist Perspective, The (Dr. Padmasiri de Silva; BPS WH 237, 1976)
Pure & Simple (Upasika Kee Nanayon; 2003)
Purification of Mind (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1986)
Purity of Heart (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2006)
Pushing the Limits: Desire & Imagination in the Buddhist Path (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2006)




Q [go up]

Quest for Meaning, The (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1989)
Questions of Skill (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2001)




R [go up]

Radical Buddhism (Leonard Price; BPS BL 92, 1982)
Radical Therapy: Buddhist Precepts in the Modern World (Lily de Silva; BPS BL 123, 1991)
Reading the Mind (Upasika Kee Nanayon; 1995)
Recognizing the Dhamma (Study Guide) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed.; 2000)
Reconciliation, Right & Wrong (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2004)
Refuge: an Introduction to the Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2001)
Refuge in Awakening, A (Ajaan Lee; 1998)
Refuge in the Buddha (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1992)
Remedy for Despair, A (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1989)
Reminiscence of Phra Ajaan Sao Kantasilo, A (Phra Ajaan Phut Thaniyo)
Removal of Distracting Thoughts, The (Soma Thera; BPS WH 21, 1981)
Renunciation (T. Prince; BPS BL 36, 1986)
Respect in Buddhist Thought & Practice: See
Opening the Door to the Dhamma: Respect in Buddhist Thought & Practice (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2001)
Right to Ask Questions, The (Larry Rosenberg; 2003)
Right Attitude (Ajaan Suwat; 2001)
Right Concentration (Ajaan Suwat; 2001)
Right Speech (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1999)
Road to Nirvana is Paved with Skillful Intentions, The (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1999)




S [go up]

Samsara (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2002)
Samsara Divided by Zero (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2000)
Samyutta Nikaya
Samyutta Nikaya: An Anthology (Part I) (John D. Ireland; BPS WH 107, 1981)
Samyutta Nikaya: An Anthology (Part II) (Bhikkhu Ñanananda; BPS WH 183, 1983)
Samyutta Nikaya: An Anthology (Part III) (M. O’C. Walshe; BPS WH 318, 1985)
Satipatthana Vipassana: Insight Through Mindfulness (Mahasi Sayadaw; BPS WH 370, 1990)
Search for Security, The (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1990)
“Search for a Self or Soul, The” (C.F. Knight, in
Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 3, Egolessness (BPS WH 202, 1984))
Seeing Things as They Are (Nyanaponika Thera; 1994)
“Self” (G.N. Lewis, in
Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 3, Egolessness (BPS WH 202, 1984))
Self-made Private Prison, The (Lily de Silva; BPS BL 120, 1990)
Self-transformation (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1990)
Seven Factors of Enlightenment, The (Piyadassi Thera; BPS WH 1, 1960)
Shelter (Ajaan Lee; 2000)
Simile of the Cloth and the Discourse on Effacement, The (Nyanaponika Thera, ed.; BPS WH 61, 1988)
Simple Guide to Life, A (Robert Bogoda; BPS WH 397, 1994)
Simply So (Ajaan Sim; 1995)
Single Mind, A (Ajaan Fuang; 1999)
Sketch of the Buddha’s Life: Readings from the Pali Canon, A” (in the Path to Freedom pages)
Skill of Release, The (Ajaan Lee; 1995)
“Soul and Substance” (William Gilbert, in
Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 3, Egolessness (BPS WH 202, 1984))
“Spell of Narcissism and the Anatta Doctrine, The” (M.W. Padmasiri de Silva, in
Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 3, Egolessness (BPS WH 202, 1984))
Starting Out Small: A Collection of Talks for Beginning Meditators (Ajaan Lee; 2000)
Starting Out Small: A Collection of Talks for Beginning Meditators (Portfolio 2) (Ajaan Lee; 2003)
Starting Out Small: A Collection of Talks for Beginning Meditators (Portfolio 3) (Ajaan Lee; 2005)
Statement of Conscience, A (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1988)
Steps Along the Path (Ajaan Thate; 1994)
Stop, Look, and Let Go (Upasika Kee Nanayon; 1999)
Straight from the Heart (Ajaan Maha Boowa; 1996)
Straightening Out Your Views (Ajaan Suwat; 2002)
Strategy of a Peaceful Mind, The (Ajaan Suwat; 2005)
Stream-entry and After (Study Guide) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed.; 2004)
Strength Training for the Mind (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2007)
Study Guides
Subrahma’s Problem (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1997)
Sutta Nipata
Sutta Pitaka




T [go up]

Taking Stock of Oneself (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1987)
Taming the Mind: Discourses of the Buddha (editors of the BPS; BPS WH 51, 1983)
Taste of Freedom, A (Ajaan Chah; 1991)
Taste of the Holy Life, A: An Account of an International Ordination in Myanmar (Susan Elbaum Jootla; BPS BL 133; 1994)
Taste of Freedom, The (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS BL 71, 1976)
Teacher of the Devas (Susan Elbaum Jootla; BPS WH 414, 1997)
Teachings of Ajahn Chah, The (Ajaan Chah; 2004)
Technical Notes (Bullitt)
Ten Perfections, The (Study Guide) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed.; 1999)
Ten Recollections, The (Study Guide) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed.; 1999)
That the True Dhamma Might Last a Long Time: Readings Selected by King Asoka (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed. and trans.; 1996)
Theragatha (Verses of the Elder Monks)
Theravada Buddhism: A Chronology (Bullitt)
Therigatha (Verses of the Elder Nuns)
Things As They Are (Ajaan Maha Boowa; 1996)
Thoughts on the Dhamma (Mahasi Sayadaw; BPS WH 298, 1983)
Three Cardinal Discourses of the Buddha (Bhikkhu Ñanamoli; BPS WH 17, 1981)
Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 1, Impermanence (Nyanaponika Thera, ed.; BPS WH 186, 1981)
Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 3, Egolessness (Nyanaponika Thera, ed.; BPS WH 202, 1984)
Threefold Refuge, The (Nyanaponika Thera; BPS WH 76, 1983)
Timeless and True (Ajaan Fuang Jotiko; 1998)
Tipitaka
To the Last Breath: Dhamma Talks on Living and Dying (Ajaan Maha Boowa; 1992)
Tolerance and Diversity (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1993)
Toward a Threshold of Understanding (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1995)
Trading Candy for Gold: Renunciation as a Skill (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1999)
Transcendental Dependent Arising: A Translation and Exposition of the Upanisa Sutta (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS WH 277, 1980)
Treatise on the Paramis, A (Acariya Dhammapala (6th c.), translated by Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS WH 409/411, 1996)
Tribute to Two Monks, A (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1998)
Two Dialogues on Dhamma (Bhikkhu Nyanasobhano; BPS WH 363/364, 1989)
Two Faces of the Dhamma (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1985)
Two Paths to Knowledge (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1999)
Two Styles of Insight Meditation (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 2000)




U [go up]

Udana
Unentangled Knowing, An: The Teachings of a Thai Buddhist Lay Woman (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, trans.; 1995)
Untangling the Present: The Role of Appropriate Attention (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2006)
Uposatha Sila: The Eight-Precept Observance (Ñanavara Thera (Somdet Phra Buddhaghosacariya); 1993)
Using Meditation to Deal with Pain, Illness, and Death (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 1993)




V [go up]

Vangisa: An Early Buddhist Poet (John D. Ireland; 1997)
Vedanta and Buddhism: A Comparative Study (Helmuth von Glasenapp; BPS WH 2, 1978)
Ven. Balangoda Ananda Maitreya: A Personal Appreciation (Bhikkhu Bodhi; 1998)
Verb for Nirvana, A (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2005)
Vinaya Pitaka
Violence and Disruption in Society: A Study of the Early Buddhist Texts (Elizabeth J. Harris; BPS WH 392, 1994)
Visakha Puja (Ajaan Lee; 1998)
Vision and Routine (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1985)
Vital Link, The (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1988)




WXYZ [go up]

“Walk in the Woods, A” (Khantipalo Bhikkhu, in Three Basic Facts of Existence, The: Volume 1, Impermanence (BPS WH 186, 1981))
Walking Even Amidst the Uneven (Bhikkhu Bodhi; BPS Newsletter essay, 1996)
Way of Mindfulness, The: The Satipatthana Sutta and Its Commentary (Soma Thera; BPS, 1999)
Way of Wisdom, The (Edward Conze; BPS WH 65, 1993)
Way to Stream-entry, The (Study Guide) (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, ed.; 1999)
Weight of Mountains, The (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2001)
What Can Be Done About Conceit? (Dr. Elizabeth Ashby; BPS BL 14, 1962)
What is the Triple Gem? (Ajaan Lee; 1994)
What is Theravada Buddhism? (Bullitt)
Wheel of Birth and Death, The (Bhikkhu Khantipalo; BPS WH 147, 1970)
“When you know for yourselves…”: The Authenticity of the Pali Suttas (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 2002)
Why End Suffering (Nyanaponika Thera; 1994)
Wings to Awakening, The: An Anthology from the Pali Canon (Thanissaro Bhikkhu; 1996)
With Robes and Bowl (Bhikkhu Khantipalo; BPS WH 83, 1986)
Women in Early Buddhist Literature (I.B. Horner; BPS WH 30, 1982)
Words Leading to Disenchantment: Two Essays (Soma Thera; BPS BL 79, 1978)
Worn-Out Skin, The (Nyanaponika Thera; BPS WH 83, 1989)
Young People’s Life of the Buddha, A (Bhikkhu Silacara; 1953)

24-10-2007-Sarvajan Hitay Sarvajan Sukhay-BSP begins preparations for Lok Sabha polls -BSP is best placed of all-
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 6:51 am

Sarvajan Hitay Sarvajan Sukhay

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Latest News, Online TV from India and Kerala, Videos, Kerala Discussion Forum…

BSP begins preparations for Lok Sabha polls

Aiming at a repeat of its success in the recent Uttar Pradesh Assembly elections in which it secured a majority on its own, the Bahujan Samaj Party has now started preparations for the Lok Sabha polls.


Online edition of India’s National Newspaper
Monday, Sep 17, 2007

Mayawati woos upper castes; keen to replicate U.P. in Gujarat

Manas Dasgupta

Bahujan Samaj Party to contest all 182 seats in Assembly elections

— Photo: PTI

All set: Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister and BSP chief Mayawati waves to supporters in Vadodara on Sunday as she prepares for the coming Gujarat Assembly elections.

VADODARA: Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati is to keen on replicating U.P. in Gujarat in the coming Assembly elections by presenting a united front of upper castes and backward classes against the Congress and the BJP.

Addressing a public meeting organised by the Bahujan Samaj Party to welcome some former members of the BJP, including the suspended former State general secretary, Nalin Bhatt, here on Sunday, Ms. Mayawati said her party would contest all the 182 seats in the State. She said she was not looking for power in the State immediately, but was patiently building up the party. The “Bahujan Samaj” had strong vote banks; they were scattered over various constituencies. She said her party would not allow its support base to be wasted by aligning with any other party.

In an apparent bid to woo the upper caste voters, both Ms. Mayawati and her party general secretary and Minister Satish Chandra Mishra repeatedly said the BSP was not against them. The Chief Minister disowned the slogans once made popular to describe the BSP’s strong support base among the backward classes. She said the slogan that her party wanted to “boot out” the Brahmins, the Vaishyas and the Kshatriyas was the “creation” of the Congress and the BJP and was intended to create a division between the Dalits and the upper castes. She insisted that the BSP believed in a classless society

Ms. Mayawati refrained from naming Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi or attacking his alleged communal policies. Instead, she gave details of the steps being taken by her government in U.P. for the benefit of the backward classes, the poor and the unemployed among the upper castes.

Advocating reservation in jobs both in the public and private sectors, Ms. Mayawati said the BSP government in U.P. had stopped giving any facility to private industries unless they agreed to provide at least 30 per cent reservation in jobs, 10 per cent each for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, the socially and educationally backward classes and the poor and the unemployed among the upper castes.

She had met Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to seek enforcement of reservation in the private sector, but was told it would be “difficult” to implement. “But we have already done it in U.P. and if my party comes to power at the Centre, it will be implemented at the national level. But till then, we will keep pressuring the Centre.”

Ms. Mayawati said her party had agreed to extend support to the UPA government at the Centre if it was prepared to take the initiative to amend the Constitution to provide for reservation for the poor and the jobless among the upper castes.

Neither the Congress nor the BJP was interested in improving the lot of the poor, she said.

Mayawati aiming at Lok Sabha

< ?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = “urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office” /> 

< ?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = “urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags” />Lucknow: Aiming at a repeat of its success in the recent Uttar Pradesh Assembly elections in which it secured a majority on its own, the BSP has now started preparations for the Lok Sabha polls.

The party, which is of the view that the next parliamentary election could be held sometime next year, has begun preparations much in advance, focusing on strengthening its base, both in the State and outside, party sources said.

 

The BSP feels that completing ground work well in advance will enable it to gain an advantage over its rivals, and it has hence started the exercise for the next Lok Sabha polls, sources said. They said the aim was to win maximum seats in the elections to help the BSP play a greater role in national politics. The party is also working hard at consolidating its base in states like Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan, where Assembly elections are round the corner, they said.

 

BSP president Mayawati recently visited Himachal and Gujarat. Her close confidante Satish Misra has been trying to repeat this trend in Rajasthan through ‘Brahmin sammelans’. Those who have been sounded include the majority of sitting MPs, leaders of other parties. PTI

 

U.P. to appeal against court order

 

Special Correspondent

 

LUCKNOW: The Uttar Pradesh government will file a special appeal in the Allahabad High Court against the court’s order to cancel the appointment of 13,000 Urdu teachers in primary schools. The order was delivered by the single Judge Bench of Justice Arun Tandon on Friday. Of the 13,000 assistant Urdu teachers selected during the Mulayam Singh regime in 2005-06, around 8,000 are undergoing two years’ training in Basic Teacher’s Course (BTC).

 

Shailesh Krishna, Principal Secretary to the Chief Minister, said here on Sunday that the appeal would be filed after studying the court’s order.

 

Latest Hindu News

BSP is best placed of all

Sun, 09/16/2007 - 20:00

The Mayawati factor is going to dominate the political landscape over the next year. I must admit that Ms Mayawati, by her political action and deeds, is establishing herself as a ‘decisive’ leader for the future. The three Assembly by-election results saw the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) wresting two seats from the Samajwadi Party (SP). The BSP won the Farrukhabad seat (Congress leader Salman Khurshid’s home base) and Swar Tanda by decisive margins and lost to the SP in Gunnar by 13,000 votes. Gun…

After BJP rebels, BSP gets down to wooing tribals, Muslims in Gujarat

Thu, 09/06/2007 - 22:00

WITH the Bahujan Samaj Party Supremo (BSP) Mayawati slated to address a public meeting in Vadodara as a run-up to the state Assembly polls on September 16, party men are now headhunting for faces and leaders. Having declared that they will contest on all the 182 Assembly seats and have no truck with any party in < ?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = “urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags” />Gujarat, BSP men are now poaching on the rebels and discontent, more so from the BJP ……

Maya snatches Mulayam seats

Tue, 09/04/2007 - 00:00

Mayavati today continued her winning streak in Uttar Pradesh, wresting from the Samajwadi Party two of three seats to which Assembly bypolls were held….

Political heat puts retail in Maya freezer

Fri, 08/24/2007 - 05:00

The Mayavati government today shut down all new-age retail stores selling farm products in the state, including 20 Reliance Fresh outlets and several Spencer’s stores opened yesterday, in the face of violent protests led by the Samajwadi Party….

Maya mulls middle path in Reliance row

Tue, 09/04/2007 - 00:00

The Mayavati government may ask retail outlets like Reliance Fresh to procure vegetables from state-run wholesale markets, and not directly from farmers, sources said today….

Mayavati slams PM in Gujarat

Mon, 09/17/2007 - 03:00

Mayavati today took her social engineering strategy to Gujarat, accusing the BJP and the Congress of conspiring to deny quotas to the upper-caste poor….

India eNews Logo

Uttar Pradesh IAS officers in dilemma over new head

By Sharat Pradhan. Uttar Pradesh, India, 07:00 PM IST

The Indian Administrative Service (IAS) Association of Uttar Pradesh is caught in a dilemma over nomination of a new president as the two prospective nominees were once voted as among the ‘three most corrupt’ bureaucrats by the association members.

The issue has even caused a divide in the association, whose office bearers have no qualms about allowing either of the ‘most corrupt’ to head the body. But a section of senior and young bureaucrats are opposed to the idea of allowing a tainted colleague to head the representative body of the elite service.

Both officers in question, Brijendra Yadav and Neera Yadav, belong to the 1971 batch of the IAS. However, Brijendra happens to be senior to Neera within the batch and has staked claim to the top position.

Association secretary Sanjay Bhoosreddy is opposing Brijendra’s case, saying the latter had resigned from the association almost two decades ago, though he has no written evidence to that effect.

‘They want to ease me out to pave way for Neera Yadav,’ Brijendra Yadav told IANS here Sunday.

Significantly, 10 years ago when the association undertook a unique exercise of identifying the ‘three most corrupt’ amongst them through a secret ballot, both Brijendra and Neera had figured in the list.

While Brijendra got sidelined due to poor health, Neera went on to hold the top bureaucratic position of the state’s chief secretary during the Mulayam Singh Yadav regime. She was, however, ousted by an order of the Supreme Court following a public interest litigation (PIL) focusing on her tainted image.

Initially she was shifted to an almost equally key position of chairperson of the State Board of Revenue, only to be later moved by the Mayawati government to a far less important position of chairperson of the Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (UPSRTC).

Since then, she has been desperate to acquire some position of prominence. As association secretary Bhoosreddy is UPSRTC managing director, it apparently became simpler for Neera to push her own case to head the IAS body.

‘As per the precedent of having the senior most IAS officer to head the state IAS association, Neera Yadav should have automatically become president immediately after the retirement of last incumbent Shambhu Nath on March 31. After all, she was the senior most member of the association, since Brijendra Yadav had snapped all ties with the association 20 years ago,’ Bhoosreddy pointed out.

‘We have decided to hold an emergency general meeting of the association on Sep 21 so that we can complete the procedure of nominating our new president.’

He lamented that, ‘this was the first time in the history of the association that it has remained headless for five months.’

Asked if serious corruption charges against Neera Yadav, still under investigation by the central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) or indictment by the apex court would not reflect poorly on the association’s image if she were to head the body, Bhoosreddy remarked: ‘Immorality or corruption are non-issues, unless someone is actually convicted by a court.

‘As far as the association is concerned, we go by our constitution which prescribes seniority as the sole criterion for heading the body,’ he maintained.

Flaying Bhoosreddy for his stand, a number of IAS officers are determined to oppose the move.

‘How can we allow this august body to be headed by someone who has brought disrepute and disgrace to the country’s top service?’ asked Vijay Shankar Pandey, an IAS officer of the 1979 batch.

Having earlier led the in-house crusade to identify the ‘three most corrupt IAS officers’, Pandey was firmly of the view that ‘it would be most unfortunate if such tainted persons are allowed to be made president of our prestigious body.’

Suggesting a simple solution to the crisis, he said: ‘We could surely pick up the third senior most IAS officer as next president since the reputation of the two in question was highly tainted.’

The third most senior officer, V.K. Malhotra, is rated as ‘above board.’

 

 

Updated: 17 Sep 2007, 0837hrs IST  |  Powered by Indiatimes

BSP worker dies in Vadodara rally
16 Sep 2007, 2011 hrs IST,PTI

VADODARA: A man attending a public rally organised by Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) in Vadodara fainted at the venue and died, police sources said.

Vallabhai Jodia, who had come from Veraval town, fainted at Polo Ground. He was rushed to a city hosptial, where he was pronounced dead, they said.

The cause of the death will be known once the post- mortem report comes, they said.

 

Maoist Resistance

Saturday, September 15, 2007

Haryana:Dalit unrest

Dalit rally

T.K. RAJALAKSHMI
in Gohana

Dalit resentment becomes widespread in Haryana following the murder of a Valmiki youth.

PTI

Police personnel trying to control protesters at Gohana.

ON the night of August 27, Rakesh Lara, a popular local leader of Valmikis, the community considered to be the lowest in the Dalit hierarchy, was shot dead by three motorcycle-borne assailants in Gohana town of Sonepat district in Haryana. The date was perhaps a coincidence: on August 27, 2005, Baljeet Siwach, a Jat youth, was murdered by some Valmiki youth following a petty quarrel. In the reprisal that followed, 50 Dalit homes were singled out for arson and looting.

As soon as news of Lara’s death spread, a police assistance booth was set on fire in Sonepat, window panes of vehicles were broken and two oil tankers were almost set afire on National Highway 71. For the next two days, Dalit resentment became widespread in Haryana and neighbouring Punjab. Angry Valmikis, in response to a call given by the All India Valmiki Mahasabha, poured out on the streets in an unprecedented manner in Hisar, Sirsa, Sonepat, Rohtak, Hansi, Gurgaon, Bhiwani, Jhajjar, Panipat, Karnal, Yamunanagar, Fatehabad, Ambala and Panchkula districts and in Chandigarh and set public property on fire. In Punjab, members of the Balmiki Samaj in Sangrur, Jalandhar, Amritsar, Phagwara, Nawanshahar and Patiala districts staged protests. Normalcy returned on August 30 after some arrests were made. Even the lynching of five Dalits on October 15, 2002, in the presence of the police and civil administration officials at Duleena in Jhajjar district, did not draw the kind of reaction that Lara’s death provoked.

The Gohana administration had not anticipated protests on this scale. The message that seemed to go out to the Valmikis was that Lara’s murder was a revenge killing carried out at the behest of the upper castes, apparently with support from government officials.

It was widely believed that the 2005 incident would not have happened without the backing of Lara. There was little doubt then that the administration had acted in a partisan manner by allowing an upper-caste mob to loot and burn Valmiki homes. Lara went underground and the Valmiki families fled, fearing reprisal. The Dalit youth was, however, discharged in the Siwach murder case.

AKHILESH KUMAR

Bhupinder Singh Hooda. His government is facing Dalit ire.

By and large, the protests that followed Lara’s killing were led by a motley group of organisations representing “backward and Dalit” interests. In some districts, the protests were spearheaded by caste organisations affiliated to the main Opposition party, the Indian National Lok Dal (INLD), and in some others by the rival factions within the Congress. In Gohana, Congress legislator Dharampal Malik was not allowed to participate in the condolence meeting called by the Valmiki community. The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) jumped into the fray, demanding the arrest of the killers, and served an ultimatum on the Bhupinder Singh Hooda-led Congress government to deliver results by the month end. BSP State president Prakash Bharti told mediapersons that he had been deputed by BSP supremo and Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati to assess the situation.

CHAMPION OF THE DOWNTRODDEN

As a community that has been struggling for social acceptability, Valmikis saw Lara as the champion of the downtrodden. In 2001, this local hero grabbed the collar of a Deputy Superintendent of Police whom he accused of helping members of the dominant caste in a land grab case. “How could he [Lara] do that? It was as good as challenging the system,” Arun Nehra, DSP, Gohana, told Frontline. Nehra himself has come under a lot of pressure since Lara’s murder. There are demands from caste organisations for his removal. “For two years, I kept the peace in Gohana. No one can accuse me of taking sides,” the police officer, known for his uprightness, said. The investigation into Lara’s murder has been taken from his jurisdiction and handed over to the Superintendent of Police, Sonepat. The Haryana Police are now relieved that the government has ordered an inquiry by the Central Bureau of Investigations (CBI).

The police maintain that Lara was a small-time thug and extortionist. His iconic status was unjustified, especially as he had eight cases pending against him for robbery, assault and other crimes, they say. Valmikis refute this. “If he was a criminal, would hundreds of people turn up at his cremation?” asked Rampal Singh Pradhan, representing the Valmiki Mahasabha. “In fact, he used to protest against extortion. Where are the industries in Gohana for him to extort money from? There are only two bazaars here.” Lara’s mother, Shakuntala, is certain that her son was not an extortionist. “Yes, he used to help adjudicate disputes,” she said, but insisted that he intervened mostly on behalf of the poor.

T.K. RAJALAKSHMI

Mother, wife and sisters of Rakesh Lara at a public mourning for the murdered Dalit youth, in Gohana.

Pran Ratnakar of the Dalit Nyaya Andolan, an organisation fighting for the rights of Dalits all over India, told Frontline that Valmikis had no intention of making the issue into a Jat-versus-Valmiki one. “We have lost faith i n the administration and the police here. Even if the CBI inquiry does not come out with anything concrete, we’ll believe it,” he said. Valmikis feel that there is an attempt to target Valmiki youth as the community has attained some economic success in the past few years. “They [Jats] do not like the status we’ve acquired for ourselves. They probably want to see us only as safai karamcharis,” said Ratnakar, who is a small-time property dealer in Panipat.

Clearly, the social resentments run deep. Lara was seen primarily as a Dalit, and that is the identity that assumes importance with his fellow Valmikis after his murder. Whether or not he was an extortionist becomes immaterial from this perspective. No wonder, then, that the protests have taken on a caste dimension.

The Sonepat S.P., Navdeep Singh Virk, told Frontline that the flare-up could have been far worse as it was known that members of the dominant community were involved in the murder. Virk said the police had little reason to believe t hat there was a caste or revenge angle to the murder. None of the five accused was related to Baljeet Siwach, Virk said, adding that they were all history-sheeters. “The person who fired the shot was a lifer who had jumped parole,” Nehra informed the S.P. Police theories seem to suggest two reasons for the murder. One theory is that it was the outcome of a turf war; the other is that Lara got killed because he extorted protection money from shopkeepers, including those from his own community. Plans to murder him were hatched both “inside” and “outside” jail, police sources say.

DALIT ASSERTION

There is no doubt that Dalits and backward castes are an exploited lot in the State. However, the overall social situation has changed drastically since the Duleena incident of 2002. The Dalits now assert themselves and articulate their anger at all available fora. The situation in cities and towns is no longer one of dependence. In a factory or an industry, a Dalit is less likely to be discriminated against. In towns, Dalit women work in upper-caste homes. They even cook food for their employers.

On the other hand, the caste politics practised by prominent political parties has affected Valmikis too. Lara, it is learnt, not only was a protector of his community but worked for certain political parties (he was known to be an INLD worker). But after the 2005 arson in Gohana, he “changed”, as did many other Valmiki youth. Caste consciousness became stronger among the youth, and the political parties only helped entrench the feeling.

T.K. RAJALAKSHMI

Family members of the rape victim at Ahulana village in Sonepat district. The potter family is facing a social boycott.

Ironically, on August 26, Chief Minister Hooda announced major relief measures in the form of enhanced minimum wages and special relief for farmers. “The problem is that even if Hooda adopts such measures, he is only seen as patronising members of his own community,” Inderjit Singh, State secretary of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), said. His party colleague S.N. Solanki, who is a lawyer in Sonepat, said Lara’s murder was not a caste killing but the result of the charged atmosphere in the State. It was interpreted as one because of the increasing number of reports on atrocities against Dalits and backward castes, he said.

UP IN ARMS

Even as the Gohana administration grappled with the situation following Lara’s murder, in nearby Ahulana village, members of the Vishwakarma community, a backward caste, were up in arms against the Sonepat administration for refusing to register a case of rape against two young men belonging to a dominant caste. The alleged incident, involving a Vishwakarma woman, took place on July 18.

This correspondent visited the village. The victim’s family, potters by profession, claimed that the Station House Officer, Ishwar Rathi of the Barauda police station, refused to register a case on the basis of the victim’s complaint. Her relations said the SHO had promised to arrange for a medical examination by a woman doctor, but it was not done. Finally, a case of molestation was registered against the two Jat youth.

To add insult to injury, on August 21, the Ahulana panchayat, allegedly with the connivance of the elected sarpanch, ordered a social boycott of the family and warned that anyone found violating the boycott would be fined Rs.1,100. The boycott was seen as a ploy to get the family to withdraw the police complaint.

“This means no one will let us enter their fields or sell us fodder, milk or any essential provisions. No one will talk to us; our children will suffer humiliation at school,” said Sher Singh, the victim’s uncle.

In Ahulana, there are around 40 homes of potters and 100-odd homes belonging to the upper castes. “Everyone is scared of annoying the powerful in the village,” said Suresh, brother-in-law of the victim. The S.P. held that the family was not cooperating with the investigation and had refused to give the clothes the victim wore on the day of the rape for forensic examination, a charge denied by the victim’s family.

T.K. RAJALAKSHMI

The social boycott of the potter family has deprived their livestock of fodder.

On August 13, angry members of the Dalit and backward communities took to the streets demanding justice for the Ahulana victim and a Dalit woman in Joli village, again in Gohana subdivision, victim of an alleged rape attempt. The protesters condemned the formula of “compromise” (that is, withdraw the complaint and the social boycott will be lifted) used every time an atrocity is committed on Dalits and backward castes.

“Why can’t the police lift the social boycott? Is it permissible under the law?” asked Mahender Singh Panchal, secretary of the Backward Classes and Dalit Welfare Committee, an organisation floated to protect the interests of these communities. The Gohana DSP said that the molestation case was in court and there was little that the accused could do in terms of manipulating the law. He, however, prevailed on the sarpanch to ensure that no “social” harassment of the victim’s family took place.

The Hooda government may have little to do with the upsurge of revolt by the backward and Dalit communities. The problem is that successive administrations have ignored this simmering discontent, which, along with other socio-economic problems, including changes on the agrarian scene, is threatening to prove a major headache for the Hooda government.

The Duleena lynching took place during the INLD-Bharatiya Janata Party regime. The same parties are now portraying themselves as champions of Dalit rights. The accused in the Duleena case were let off on bail after an apology was extracted from them. Not a single government official was held accountable. Despite demands for a CBI inquiry, the Om Prakash Chautala government refused to recommend one. It was during INLD-BJP rule that an elected Dalit sarpanch of Pehrawar village in Rohtak district went missing. His body has never been found (Frontline, January 16, 2004).

Among the political parties, only the Left, notably the CPI(M), has consistently protested against these atrocities without any hidden “caste agenda”. The Congress, which makes platitudinous noises at the Centre about the welfare of backward classes and Dalits, often takes a U-turn when it comes to the crunch in States where upper-caste constituencies matter, in an electoral sense.

 



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