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17 04 2012 TUESDAY LESSON 583 FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research And Practice UNIERSITY And THE BUDDHIST ONLINE GOOD NEWS LETTER by ABHIDHAMMA RAKKHITA through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org17 04 2012 TUESDAY LESSON 583 FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research And Practice UNIERSITY And THE BUDDHIST ONLINE GOOD NEWS LETTER by ABHIDHAMMA RAKKHITA through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org Dhammapada: Verses and Stories Dhammapada Verse 137 The Evil Results of Hurting The Pious
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17 04 2012 TUESDAY LESSON 584 FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research And Practice UNIERSITY And THE BUDDHIST ONLINE GOOD NEWS LETTER by ABHIDHAMMA RAKKHITA through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

Dhammapada: Verses and
Stories

Dhammapada
Verse 137
 
The
Evil Results of Hurting The Pious

 

Verse
137. The Evil Results of Hurting The Pious

Whoever forces the forceless
or offends the inoffensive,
speedily comes indeed
to one of these ten states:

Explanation: If one attacks one who is harmless, or ill-treat
innocent beings, ten woeful states lie here and now to one of which he shall
befall.

IV.EDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR
DHYANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

MEDITATION

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/glossary.html

 

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.118.than.html

Anapanasati
Sutta: Mindfulness of Breathing

translated
from the Pali by

Thanissaro
Bhikkhu

© 2006–2012

I have heard that on one occasion the
Blessed One was staying at Savatthi in the Eastern
Monastery, the palace of Migara’s mother, together with
many well-known elder disciples — with Ven. Sariputta, Ven. Maha Moggallana, Ven. Maha Kassapa,
Ven. Maha Kaccana, Ven. Maha Kotthita,
Ven. Maha Kappina, Ven. Maha Cunda, Ven. Revata, Ven. Ananda, and other
well-known elder disciples. On that occasion the elder monks were teaching
& instructing. Some elder monks were teaching & instructing ten monks,
some were teaching & instructing twenty monks, some were teaching &
instructing thirty monks, some were teaching & instructing forty monks. The
new monks, being taught & instructed by the elder monks, were discerning
grand, successive distinctions.

Now on that occasion — the Uposatha day of
the fifteenth, the full-moon night of the Pavarana ceremony — the Blessed One
was seated in the open air surrounded by the community of monks. Surveying the
silent community of monks, he addressed them:

“Monks, I am content with this
practice. I am content at heart with this practice. So arouse even more intense
persistence for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the
as-yet-unreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized. I will remain right
here at Savatthi [for another month] through the ‘White Water-lily’ Month, the
fourth month of the rains.”

The monks in the countryside heard,
“The Blessed One, they say, will remain right there at Savatthi through
the White Water-lily Month, the fourth month of the rains.” So they left
for Savatthi to see the Blessed One.

Then the elder monks taught & instructed
the new monks even more intensely. Some elder monks were teaching &
instructing ten monks, some were teaching & instructing twenty monks, some
were teaching & instructing thirty monks, some were teaching &
instructing forty monks. The new monks, being taught & instructed by the
elder monks, were discerning grand, successive distinctions.

Now on that occasion — the Uposatha day of
the fifteenth, the full-moon night of the White Water-lily Month, the fourth
month of the rains — the Blessed One was seated in the open air surrounded by
the community of monks. Surveying the silent community of monks, he addressed
them:

“Monks, this
assembly is free from idle chatter, devoid of idle chatter, and is established
on pure heartwood: such is this community of monks, such is this assembly. The
sort of assembly that is worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of
offerings, worthy of respect, an incomparable field of merit for the world:
such is this community of monks, such is this assembly. The sort of assembly to
which a small gift, when given, becomes great, and a great gift greater: such
is this community of monks, such is this assembly. The sort of assembly that it
is rare to see in the world: such is this community of monks, such is this
assembly — the sort of assembly that it would be worth traveling for leagues,
taking along provisions, in order to see.

“In this community of monks there are monks
who are arahants, whose mental effluents are ended, who have reached
fulfillment, done the task, laid down the burden, attained the true goal, laid
to waste the fetter of becoming, and who are released through right gnosis:
such are the monks in this community of monks.

“In this community of monks there are
monks who, with the wasting away of the five lower fetters, are due to be
reborn [in the Pure Abodes], there to be totally unbound, destined never again
to return from that world: such are the monks in this community of monks.

“In this community of monks there are
monks who, with the wasting away of [the first] three fetters, and with the
attenuation of passion, aversion, & delusion, are once-returners, who — on
returning only once more to this world — will make an ending to stress: such
are the monks in this community of monks.

“In this community of monks there are
monks who, with the wasting away of [the first] three fetters, are
stream-winners, steadfast, never again destined for states of woe, headed for
self-awakening: such are the monks in this community of monks.

“In this community of monks there are
monks who remain devoted to the development of the four frames of reference…
the four right exertions… the four bases of power… the five faculties…
the five strengths… the seven factors for awakening… the noble eightfold
path: such are the monks in this community of monks.

“In this community of monks there are
monks who remain devoted to the development of good will… compassion… appreciation…
equanimity… [the perception of the] foulness [of the body]… the perception
of inconstancy: such are the monks in this community of monks.

“In this community of monks there are
monks who remain devoted to mindfulness of in-&-out breathing.

“Mindfulness of in-&-out breathing,
when developed & pursued, is of great fruit, of great benefit. Mindfulness
of in-&-out breathing, when developed & pursued, brings the four frames
of reference to their culmination. The four frames of reference, when developed
& pursued, bring the seven factors for awakening to their culmination. The
seven factors for awakening, when developed & pursued, bring clear knowing
& release to their culmination.

Mindfulness of In-&-Out Breathing

“Now how is mindfulness of in-&-out
breathing developed & pursued so as to be of great fruit, of great benefit?

“There is the
case where a monk, having gone to the wilderness, to the shade of a tree, or to
an empty building, sits down folding his legs crosswise, holding his body
erect, and setting mindfulness to the fore.[1]

Always mindful, he breathes in; mindful he breathes out.

[1] Breathing in long, he discerns, ‘I am breathing in long’; or
breathing out long, he discerns, ‘I am breathing out long.’ [2] Or breathing in short, he
discerns, ‘I am breathing in short’; or breathing out short, he discerns, ‘I am
breathing out short.’ [3] He
trains himself, ‘I will breathe in sensitive to the entire body.’[2]
He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out sensitive to the entire body.’ [4] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe
in calming bodily fabrication.’[3]
He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out calming bodily fabrication.’

[5] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in sensitive to rapture.’
He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out sensitive to rapture.’ [6] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe
in sensitive to pleasure.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out sensitive to
pleasure.’ [7] He trains
himself, ‘I will breathe in sensitive to mental fabrication.’[4]
He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out sensitive to mental fabrication.’ [8] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe
in calming mental fabrication.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out calming
mental fabrication.’

[9] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in sensitive to the mind.’
He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out sensitive to the mind.’ [10] He trains himself, ‘I will
breathe in satisfying the mind.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out
satisfying the mind.’ [11] He
trains himself, ‘I will breathe in steadying the mind.’ He trains himself, ‘I
will breathe out steadying the mind.’ [12]
He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in releasing the mind.’ He trains himself,
‘I will breathe out releasing the mind.’[5]

[13] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in focusing on
inconstancy.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out focusing on inconstancy.’ [14] He trains himself, ‘I will
breathe in focusing on dispassion [literally, fading].’ He trains
himself, ‘I will breathe out focusing on dispassion.’ [15] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in focusing on cessation.’
He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out focusing on cessation.’ [16] He trains himself, ‘I will
breathe in focusing on relinquishment.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out
focusing on relinquishment.’

“This is how mindfulness of
in-&-out breathing is developed & pursued so as to be of great fruit,
of great benefit.

The Four Frames of Reference

“And how is mindfulness of in-&-out
breathing developed & pursued so as to bring the four frames of reference
to their culmination?

 ”[1] On whatever occasion a monk breathing in long discerns, ‘I am
breathing in long’; or breathing out long, discerns, ‘I am breathing out long’;
or breathing in short, discerns, ‘I am breathing in short’; or breathing out short,
discerns, ‘I am breathing out short’; trains himself, ‘I will breathe
in…&… out sensitive to the entire body’; trains himself, ‘I will
breathe in…&…out calming bodily fabrication’: On that occasion the monk
remains focused on the body in & of itself — ardent, alert, &
mindful — putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world. I
tell you, monks, that this — the in-&-out breath — is classed as a body
among bodies, which is why the monk on that occasion remains focused on the
body in & of itself — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed
& distress with reference to the world.

[2] On whatever occasion a monk trains himself, ‘I will breathe
in…&…out sensitive to rapture’; trains himself, ‘I will breathe
in…&…out sensitive to pleasure’; trains himself, ‘I will breathe
in…&…out sensitive to mental fabrication’; trains himself, ‘I will
breathe in…&…out calming mental fabrication’: On that occasion the monk
remains focused on feelings in & of themselves — ardent, alert,
& mindful — putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world.
I tell you, monks, that this — careful attention to in-&-out breaths — is
classed as a feeling among feelings,[6]
which is why the monk on that occasion remains focused on feelings in & of
themselves — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed & distress
with reference to the world.

[3] On whatever occasion a monk trains himself, ‘I will breathe
in…&…out sensitive to the mind’; trains himself, ‘I will breathe
in…&…out satisfying the mind’; trains himself, ‘I will breathe
in…&…out steadying the mind’; trains himself, ‘I will breathe
in…&…out releasing the mind’: On that occasion the monk remains focused
on the mind in & of itself — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting
aside greed & distress with reference to the world. I don’t say that there
is mindfulness of in-&-out breathing in one of lapsed mindfulness and no
alertness, which is why the monk on that occasion remains focused on the mind
in & of itself — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed &
distress with reference to the world.

[4] On whatever occasion a monk trains himself, ‘I will breathe
in…&…out focusing on inconstancy’; trains himself, ‘I will breathe
in…&…out focusing on dispassion’; trains himself, ‘I will breathe
in…&…out focusing on cessation’; trains himself, ‘I will breathe
in…&…out focusing on relinquishment’: On that occasion the monk remains
focused on mental qualities in & of themselves — ardent, alert,
& mindful — putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world.
He who sees with discernment the abandoning of greed & distress is one who
watches carefully with equanimity, which is why the monk on that occasion
remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves — ardent, alert,
& mindful — putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world.

“This is how mindfulness of
in-&-out breathing is developed & pursued so as to bring the four
frames of reference to their culmination.

The Seven Factors for Awakening

“And how are the four frames of
reference developed & pursued so as to bring the seven factors for
awakening to their culmination?

[1] On whatever occasion the monk remains focused on the body
in & of itself — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed &
distress with reference to the world, on that occasion his mindfulness is
steady & without lapse. When his mindfulness is steady & without lapse,
then mindfulness as a factor for awakening becomes aroused. He develops
it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its development.

[2] Remaining mindful in this way, he examines, analyzes, &
comes to a comprehension of that quality with discernment. When he remains
mindful in this way, examining, analyzing, & coming to a comprehension of
that quality with discernment, then analysis of qualities as a factor
for awakening becomes aroused. He develops it, and for him it goes to the
culmination of its development.

[3] In one who examines, analyzes, & comes to a comprehension
of that quality with discernment, persistence is aroused unflaggingly. When
persistence is aroused unflaggingly in one who examines, analyzes, & comes
to a comprehension of that quality with discernment, then persistence as
a factor for awakening becomes aroused. He develops it, and for him it goes to
the culmination of its development.

[4] In one whose persistence is aroused, a rapture
not-of-the-flesh arises. When a rapture not-of-the-flesh arises in one whose
persistence is aroused, then rapture as a factor for awakening becomes
aroused. He develops it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its
development.

[5] For one enraptured at heart, the body grows calm and the mind
grows calm. When the body & mind of a monk enraptured at heart grow calm,
then serenity as a factor for awakening becomes aroused. He develops it,
and for him it goes to the culmination of its development.

[6] For one who is at ease — his body calmed — the mind becomes
concentrated. When the mind of one who is at ease — his body calmed — becomes
concentrated, then concentration as a factor for awakening becomes
aroused. He develops it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its
development.

[7] He carefully watches the mind thus concentrated with
equanimity. When he carefully watches the mind thus concentrated with
equanimity, equanimity as a factor for awakening becomes aroused. He
develops it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its development.

(Similarly with the other three frames of
reference: feelings, mind, & mental qualities.)

“This is how the four frames of
reference are developed & pursued so as to bring the seven factors for
awakening to their culmination.

Clear Knowing & Release

“And how are the seven factors for
awakening developed & pursued so as to bring clear knowing & release to
their culmination? There is the case where a monk develops mindfulness
as a factor for awakening dependent on seclusion, dependent on dispassion,
dependent on cessation, resulting in relinquishment. He develops analysis of
qualities
as a factor for awakening… persistence as a factor for
awakening… rapture as a factor for awakening… serenity as a
factor for awakening… concentration as a factor for awakening… equanimity
as a factor for awakening dependent on seclusion, dependent on dispassion,
dependent on cessation, resulting in relinquishment.

“This is how the seven factors for
awakening are developed & pursued so as to bring clear knowing &
release to their culmination.”

That is what the Blessed One said.
Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

Notes

1.

To the fore (parimukham): The Abhidhamma takes an
etymological approach to this term, defining it as around (pari-) the
mouth (mukham). In the Vinaya, however, it is used in a context
(Cv.V.27.4) where it undoubtedly means the front of the chest. There is also
the possibility that the term could be used idiomatically as “to the
front,” which is how I have translated it here.

2.

The commentaries insist that “body” here means the
breath, but this is unlikely in this context, for the next step — without
further explanation — refers to the breath as “bodily fabrication.”
If the Buddha were using two different terms to refer to the breath in such
close proximity, he would have been careful to signal that he was redefining
his terms (as he does below, when explaining that the first four steps in
breath meditation correspond to the practice of focusing on the body in and of
itself as a frame of reference). The step of breathing in and out sensitive to
the entire body relates to the many similes in the suttas depicting jhana as a
state of whole-body awareness (see
MN
119
).

3.

“In-&-out breaths are bodily; these are things tied up
with the body. That’s why in-&-out breaths are bodily fabrications.” —
MN
44
.

4.

“Perceptions & feelings are mental; these are things
tied up with the mind. That’s why perceptions & feelings are mental
fabrications.” —
MN
44
.

5.

AN
9.34
shows how the mind,
step by step, is temporarily released from burdensome mental states of greater
and greater refinement as it advances through the stages of jhana.

6.

As this shows, a meditator focusing on feelings in themselves as
a frame of reference should not abandon the breath as the basis for his/her
concentration.

See also: SN 54.8.

Dipa
Sutta: The Lamp

translated
from the Pali by

Thanissaro
Bhikkhu

© 2006–2012

“Monks, concentration through
mindfulness of in-&-out breathing, when developed & pursued, is of
great fruit, of great benefit. And how is concentration through mindfulness of
in-&-out breathing developed & pursued so as to be of great fruit, of
great benefit?

 ”There is the case where a monk,
having gone to the wilderness, to the shade of a tree, or to an empty building,
sits down folding his legs crosswise, holding his body erect, and setting
mindfulness to the fore.
[1] Always mindful, he breathes in; mindful he breathes
out.

“[1] Breathing in long, he discerns, ‘I
am breathing in long’; or breathing out long, he discerns, ‘I am breathing out
long.’ [2] Or breathing in short, he discerns, ‘I am breathing in short’; or
breathing out short, he discerns, ‘I am breathing out short.’ [3] He trains
himself, ‘I will breathe in sensitive to the entire body.’
[2] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out sensitive to the
entire body.’ [4] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in calming bodily
fabrication.’
[3] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out calming the
bodily fabrication.’

“[5] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe
in sensitive to rapture.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out sensitive to
rapture.’ [6] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in sensitive to pleasure.’ He
trains himself, ‘I will breathe out sensitive to pleasure.’ [7] He trains
himself, ‘I will breathe in sensitive to mental fabrication.’
[4] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out sensitive to
mental fabrication.’ [8] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in calming mental
fabrication.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out calming mental
fabrication.’

“[9] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe
in sensitive to the mind.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out sensitive to
the mind.’ [10] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in gladdening the mind.’ He
trains himself, ‘I will breathe out gladdening the mind.’ [11] He trains
himself, ‘I will breathe in steadying the mind.’ He trains himself, ‘I will
breathe out steadying the mind. [12] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in
releasing the mind.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out releasing the
mind.’
[5]

“[13] He trains himself, ‘I will
breathe in focusing on inconstancy.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out
focusing on inconstancy.’ [14] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in focusing
on dispassion.’
[6] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out focusing on
dispassion.’ [15] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in focusing on cessation.’
He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out focusing on cessation.’ [16] He trains
himself, ‘I will breathe in focusing on relinquishment.’ He trains himself, ‘I
will breathe out focusing on relinquishment.’

“This is how concentration through
mindfulness of in-&-out breathing is developed & pursued so as to be of
great fruit, of great benefit.

“I, too, monks, before my awakening,
when I was an unawakened bodhisatta, frequently remained with this abiding.
When I frequently remained with this abiding, neither my body was fatigued nor
were my eyes, and my mind, through lack of clinging/sustenance, was released
from fermentations.

“So if a monk should wish: ‘May neither
my body be fatigued nor my eyes, and may my mind, through lack of
clinging/sustenance, be released from fermentations,’ then he should attend
carefully to this same concentration through mindfulness of in-&-out
breathing.

“If a monk should wish: ‘May my
memories & resolves related to the household life be abandoned,’ then he
should attend carefully to this same concentration through mindfulness of
in-&-out breathing.

“If a monk should wish: ‘May I remain
percipient of loathsomeness in the presence of what is not loathsome,’ then he
should attend carefully to this same concentration through mindfulness of
in-&-out breathing.

 ”If a monk should wish: ‘May I
remain percipient of unloathsomeness in the presence of what is loathsome,’
then he should attend carefully to this same concentration through mindfulness
of in-&-out breathing.

 ”If a monk should wish: ‘May I remain
percipient of loathsomeness in the presence of what is not loathsome & what
is,’ then he should attend carefully to this same concentration through
mindfulness of in-&-out breathing.

 ”If a monk should wish: ‘May I
remain percipient of unloathsomeness in the presence of what is loathsome &
what is not,’ then he should attend carefully to this same concentration
through mindfulness of in-&-out breathing.

 ”If a monk should wish: ‘May I —
in the presence of what is loathsome & what is not — cutting myself off
from both — remain equanimous, mindful, & alert,’ then he should attend
carefully to this same concentration through mindfulness of in-&-out
breathing.

“If a monk should wish: ‘May I — quite
secluded from sensuality, secluded from unskillful qualities — enter &
remain in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born from seclusion,
accompanied by directed thought & evaluation,’ then he should attend
carefully to this same concentration through mindfulness of in-&-out
breathing.

“If a monk should wish: ‘May I, with
the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, enter & remain in the
second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of concentration, unification of
awareness free from directed thought & evaluation — internal assurance,’
then he should attend carefully to this same concentration through mindfulness
of in-&-out breathing.

“If a monk should wish, ‘May I, with
the fading of rapture, remain equanimous, mindful, & alert, sense pleasure
with the body, and enter & remain in the third jhana, of which the noble
ones declare, “Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasant abiding,”‘
then he should attend closely to this very same concentration through
mindfulness of in-&-out breathing.

“If a monk should wish, ‘May I, with
the abandoning of pleasure & pain — as with the earlier disappearance of
elation & distress — enter & remain in the fourth jhana: purity of
equanimity & mindfulness, neither-pleasure-nor-pain,’ then he should attend
closely to this very same concentration through mindfulness of in-&-out
breathing.

“If a monk should wish: ‘May I, with
the complete transcending of perceptions of (physical) form, with the
disappearance of perceptions of resistance, and not heeding perceptions of
diversity, (perceiving,) ‘Infinite space,’ enter & remain in the dimension
of the infinitude of space,’ then he should attend carefully to this same
concentration through mindfulness of in-&-out breathing.

“If a monk should wish: ‘May I, with
the complete transcending of the dimension of the infinitude of space,
(perceiving,) ‘Infinite consciousness,’ enter & remain in the dimension of
the infinitude of consciousness,’ then he should attend carefully to this same
concentration through mindfulness of in-&-out breathing.

“If a monk should wish: ‘May I, with
the complete transcending of the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness,
(perceiving,) ‘There is nothing,’ enter & remain in the dimension of
nothingness,’ then he should attend carefully to this same concentration
through mindfulness of in-&-out breathing.

“If a monk should wish: ‘May I, with
the complete transcending of the dimension of nothingness, enter & remain
in the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception,’ then he should
attend carefully to this same concentration through mindfulness of in-&-out
breathing.

“If a monk should wish: ‘May I, with
the complete transcending of the dimension of neither perception nor
non-perception, enter & remain in the cessation of perception &
feeling,’ then he should attend carefully to this same concentration through
mindfulness of in-&-out breathing.

“When concentration through mindfulness
of in-&-out breathing is thus developed, thus pursued, then if he senses a
feeling of pleasure, he discerns that it is inconstant, not grasped at, not
relished. If he senses a feeling of pain, he discerns that it is inconstant,
not grasped at, not relished. If he senses a feeling of
neither-pleasure-nor-pain, he discerns that it is inconstant, not grasped at,
not relished. If he senses a feeling of pleasure, he senses it disjoined from it.
If he senses a feeling of pain, he senses it disjoined from it. If he senses a
feeling of neither-pleasure-nor-pain, he senses it disjoined from it. When
sensing a feeling limited to the body, he discerns that ‘I am sensing a feeling
limited to the body.’ When sensing a feeling limited to life, he discerns that
‘I am sensing a feeling limited to life.’ He discerns that ‘With the break-up
of the body, after the termination of life, everything that is experienced, not
being relished, will grow cold right here.’

“Just as an oil
lamp burns in dependence on oil & wick; and from the termination of the oil
& wick — and from not being provided any other sustenance — it goes out
unnourished; in the same way, when sensing a feeling limited to the body, he discerns
that ‘I am sensing a feeling limited to the body.’ When sensing a feeling
limited to life, he discerns that ‘I am sensing a feeling limited to life.’ He
discerns that ‘With the break-up of the body, after the termination of life,
everything that is sensed, not being relished, will grow cold right
here.’”

Notes

1.

To the fore (parimukham): The Abhidhamma takes an
etymological approach to this term, defining it as around (pari-) the
mouth (mukham). In the Vinaya, however, it is used in a context
(Cv.V.27.4) where it undoubtedly means the front of the chest. There is also
the possibility that the term could be used idiomatically as “to the
front,” which is how I have translated it here.

2.

The commentaries insist that “body” here means the
breath, but this is unlikely in this context, for the next step — without
further explanation — refers to the breath as “bodily fabrication.”
If the Buddha were using two different terms to refer to the breath in such
close proximity, he would have been careful to signal that he was redefining
his terms (as he does below, when explaining that the first four steps in
breath meditation correspond to the practice of focusing on the body in and of
itself as a frame of reference). The step of breathing in and out sensitive to
the entire body relates to the many similes in the suttas depicting jhana as a
state of whole-body awareness (see
MN
119
).

3.

“In-&-out breaths are bodily; these are things tied up
with the body. That’s why in-&-out breaths are bodily fabrications.” —
MN
44
.

4.

“Perceptions & feelings are mental; these are things
tied up with the mind. That’s why perceptions & feelings are mental
fabrications.” —
MN
44
.

5.

AN
9.34
shows how the mind,
step by step, is temporarily released from burdensome mental states of greater
and greater refinement as it advances through the stages of jhana.

6.

Lit., “fading.”

See also: MN 118; SN 54.6.

Arittha Sutta: To
Arittha

(On Mindfulness of
Breathing)

translated from the
Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

© 2006–2012

At Savatthi. There the Blessed One said, “Monks, do you
develop mindfulness of in-&-out breathing?”

When this was said, Ven. Arittha replied to the Blessed One, “I
develop mindfulness of in-&-out breathing, lord.”

“But how do you develop mindfulness of in-&-out
breathing, Arittha?”

“Having abandoned sensual desire for past sensual
pleasures, lord, having done away with sensual desire for future sensual
pleasures, and having thoroughly subdued perceptions of irritation with regard
to internal & external events, I breathe in mindfully and breathe out
mindfully.”
[1]

“There is that mindfulness of in-&-out breathing,
Arittha. I don’t say that there isn’t. But as to how mindfulness of
in-&-out breathing is brought in detail to its culmination, listen and pay
close attention. I will speak.”

“As you say, lord,” Ven. Arittha responded to the
Blessed One.

The Blessed One said, “And how, Arittha, is mindfulness of
in-&-out breathing brought in detail to its culmination? There is the case
where a monk, having gone to the wilderness, to the shade of a tree, or to an
empty building, sits down folding his legs crosswise, holding his body erect,
and setting mindfulness to the fore.
[2] Always mindful, he
breathes in; mindful he breathes out.

“[1] Breathing in long, he discerns, ‘I am breathing in
long’; or breathing out long, he discerns, ‘I am breathing out long.’ [2] Or breathing
in short, he discerns, ‘I am breathing in short’; or breathing out short, he
discerns, ‘I am breathing out short.’ [3] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in
sensitive to the entire body.’
[3] He trains himself, ‘I
will breathe out sensitive to the entire body.’ [4] He trains himself, ‘I will
breathe in calming bodily fabrication.’
[4] He trains himself, ‘I
will breathe out calming bodily fabrication.’

“[5] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in sensitive to
rapture.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out sensitive to rapture.’ [6] He
trains himself, ‘I will breathe in sensitive to pleasure.’ He trains himself,
‘I will breathe out sensitive to pleasure.’ [7] He trains himself, ‘I will
breathe in sensitive to mental fabrication.’
[5] He trains himself, ‘I
will breathe out sensitive to mental fabrication.’ [8] He trains himself, ‘I
will breathe in calming mental fabrication.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe
out calming mental fabrication.’

“[9] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in sensitive to the
mind.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out sensitive to the mind.’ [10] He
trains himself, ‘I will breathe in satisfying the mind.’ He trains himself, ‘I
will breathe out satisfying the mind.’ [11] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe
in steadying the mind.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out steadying the
mind.’ [12] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in releasing the mind.’ He
trains himself, ‘I will breathe out releasing the mind.’
[6]

“[13] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in focusing on
inconstancy.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out focusing on inconstancy.’
[14] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in focusing on dispassion.’[7]

He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out focusing on dispassion.’ [15] He trains
himself, ‘I will breathe in focusing on cessation.’ He trains himself, ‘I will
breathe out focusing on cessation.’ [16] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in
focusing on relinquishment.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out focusing on
relinquishment.’

“This, Arittha, is how mindfulness of in-&-out
breathing is brought in detail to its culmination.”

Notes

1.

The
Commentary reads this statement as indicating that Arittha has attained the
third level of Awakening, non-return, but it is also possible to interpret the
statement on a more mundane level: Arittha is simply practicing mindfulness in
the present moment, having temporarily subdued desire for past and future
sensual pleasures, and having temporarily subdued any thought of irritation
with regard to the present.

2.

To the
fore (parimukham): The Abhidhamma takes an etymological approach to this
term, defining it as around (pari-) the mouth (mukham). In the
Vinaya, however, it is used in a context (Cv.V.27.4) where it undoubtedly means
the front of the chest. There is also the possibility that the term could be
used idiomatically as “to the front,” which is how I have translated
it here.

3.

The
commentaries insist that “body” here means the breath, but this is
unlikely in this context, for the next step — without further explanation —
refers to the breath as “bodily fabrication.” If the Buddha were
using two different terms to refer to the breath in such close proximity, he
would have been careful to signal that he was redefining his terms (as he does
below, when explaining that the first four steps in breath meditation
correspond to the practice of focusing on the body in and of itself as a frame
of reference). The step of breathing in and out sensitive to the entire body
relates to the many similes in the suttas depicting jhana as a state of
whole-body awareness (see
MN 119).

4.

“In-&-out
breaths are bodily; these are things tied up with the body. That’s why
in-&-out breaths are bodily fabrications.” —
MN 44.

5.

“Perceptions
& feelings are mental; these are things tied up with the mind. That’s why
perceptions & feelings are mental fabrications.” —
MN 44.

6.

AN 9.34 shows how the mind, step by step, is temporarily released
from burdensome mental states of greater and greater refinement as it advances
through the stages of jhana.

7.

Lit.,
“fading.”

See also: MN 118; SN 54.8.

 

 

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/ptf/dhamma/sacca/sacca4/samma-samadhi/jhana.html

Jhana

jhana

© 2005–2012

Jhana is a meditative state of profound
stillness and concentration in which the mind becomes fully immersed and
absorbed in the chosen object of attention. It is the cornerstone in the
development of
Right Concentration.

The
definition (with similes)

[First jhana]

“There is the case where a monk — quite
withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful qualities — enters and
remains in the first jhana: rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal,
accompanied by directed thought and evaluation. He permeates and pervades,
suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture and pleasure born from
withdrawal. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and pleasure
born from withdrawal.

Just as if a
skilled bathman or bathman’s apprentice would pour bath powder into a brass
basin and knead it together, sprinkling it again and again with water, so that
his ball of bath powder — saturated, moisture-laden, permeated within and
without — would nevertheless not drip; even so, the monk permeates, suffuses
and fills this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of withdrawal.
There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born
from withdrawal…

[Second jhana]

“Furthermore, with the stilling of
directed thoughts & evaluations, he enters and remains in the second jhana:
rapture and pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from
directed thought and evaluation — internal assurance. He permeates and
pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture and pleasure born
of composure. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and
pleasure born of composure.

Just like a lake with
spring-water welling up from within, having no inflow from east, west, north,
or south, and with the skies periodically supplying abundant showers, so that
the cool fount of water welling up from within the lake would permeate and
pervade, suffuse and fill it with cool waters, there being no part of the lake
unpervaded by the cool waters; even so, the monk permeates and pervades,
suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of
composure. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and
pleasure born of composure…

[Third jhana]

“And furthermore, with the fading of
rapture, he remains equanimous, mindful, & alert, and senses pleasure with
the body. He enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones
declare, ‘Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasant abiding.’ He permeates
and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the pleasure divested of
rapture, so that there is nothing of his entire body unpervaded with pleasure
divested of rapture.

Just as in a blue-,
white-, or red-lotus pond, there may be some of the blue, white, or red lotuses
which, born and growing in the water, stay immersed in the water and flourish
without standing up out of the water, so that they are permeated and pervaded,
suffused and filled with cool water from their roots to their tips, and nothing
of those blue, white, or red lotuses would be unpervaded with cool water; even
so, the monk permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the
pleasure divested of rapture. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded
with pleasure divested of rapture…

[Fourth jhana]

“And furthermore, with the abandoning
of pleasure and stress — as with the earlier disappearance of elation and
distress — he enters and remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity and
mindfulness, neither-pleasure-nor-pain. He sits, permeating the body with a
pure, bright awareness, so that there is nothing of his entire body unpervaded
by pure, bright awareness.

Just as if a man
were sitting wrapped from head to foot with a white cloth so that there would
be no part of his body to which the white cloth did not extend; even so, the
monk sits, permeating his body with a pure, bright awareness. There is nothing
of his entire body unpervaded by pure, bright awareness.”

AN 5.28

Mastery of
jhana is a mark of wisdom

“I declare a person endowed with four
qualities to be one of great discernment, a great man. Which four?

“There is the case, brahman, where he practices
for the welfare & happiness of many people and has established many people
in the noble method, i.e., the rightness of what is admirable, the rightness of
what is skillful.

“He thinks any thought he wants to
think, and doesn’t think any thought he doesn’t want to think. He wills any
resolve he wants to will, and doesn’t will any resolve he doesn’t want to will.
He has attained mastery of the mind with regard to the pathways of thought.

“He attains — whenever he wants,
without strain, without difficulty — the four jhanas that are heightened mental
states, pleasant abidings in the here-&-now.

“With the ending of mental
fermentations — he remains in the fermentation-free awareness-release &
discernment-release, having directly known & realized them for himself
right in the here-&-now.

“…I declare a person endowed with
these four qualities to be one of great discernment, a great man.”

AN 4.35

Jhana and
insight, hand-in-hand

There’s
no jhana for one with no discernment, no discernment for one with no jhana. But
one with both jhana & discernment: he’s on the verge of Unbinding.

Dhp 372

See
also:

Right
Concentration

samma
samadhi

© 2005–2012

Right Concentration is the last of the eight path factors in the Noble
Eightfold Path
, and belongs to the concentration
division
of the path.

The
definition

“And what is right concentration? There is the case where a
monk — quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful (mental)
qualities — enters & remains in the
first jhana: rapture &
pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought &
evaluation. With the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, he enters
& remains in the
second jhana: rapture &
pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought
& evaluation — internal assurance. With the fading of rapture, he remains
equanimous, mindful, & alert, and senses pleasure with the body. He enters
& remains in the
third jhana, of which the
Noble Ones declare, ‘Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasant abiding.’ With
the abandoning of pleasure & pain — as with the earlier disappearance of
elation & distress — he enters & remains in the
fourth jhana: purity of
equanimity & mindfulness, neither pleasure nor pain. This is called right
concentration.”

SN 45.8

Purification
depends on concentration

“I tell you, the ending of the
mental fermentations
depends on the first jhana… the second jhana… the third… the fourth… the
dimension of the infinitude of space… the dimension of the infinitude of
consciousness… the dimension of nothingness. I tell you, the ending of the
mental fermentations depends on the dimension of neither perception nor
non-perception.”

AN 9.36

The
four developments of concentration

“These are the four developments of concentration. Which
four? There is the development of concentration that, when developed &
pursued, leads to a pleasant abiding in the here & now. There is the
development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to the
attainment of knowledge & vision. There is the development of concentration
that, when developed & pursued, leads to mindfulness & alertness. There
is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads
to the ending of the effluents.

(1) “And what is the development of concentration that, when
developed & pursued, leads to a pleasant abiding in the here & now?
There is the case where a monk — quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn
from unskillful qualities — enters & remains in the
first jhana: rapture &
pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought &
evaluation. With the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, he enters
& remains in the
second jhana: rapture &
pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought
& evaluation — internal assurance. With the fading of rapture, he remains
equanimous, mindful, & alert, and senses pleasure with the body. He enters
& remains in the
third jhana, of which the
Noble Ones declare, ‘Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasant abiding.’ With
the abandoning of pleasure & pain — as with the earlier disappearance of
elation & distress — he enters & remains in the
fourth jhana: purity of
equanimity & mindfulness, neither pleasure nor pain. This is the
development of concentration that… leads to a pleasant abiding in the here
& now.

(2) “And what is the development of concentration that…
leads to the attainment of knowledge & vision? There is the case where a
monk attends to the perception of light and is resolved on the perception of
daytime [at any hour of the day]. Day [for him] is the same as night, night is
the same as day. By means of an awareness open & unhampered, he develops a
brightened mind. This is the development of concentration that, when developed
& pursued, leads to the attainment of knowledge & vision.

(3) “And what is the development of concentration that…
leads to mindfulness & alertness? There is the case where feelings are
known to the monk as they arise, known as they persist, known as they subside.
Perceptions are known to him as they arise, known as they persist, known as
they subside. Thoughts are known to him as they arise, known as they persist,
known as they subside. This is the development of concentration that, when
developed & pursued, leads to mindfulness & alertness.

(4) “And what is the development of concentration that…
leads to the ending of the effluents? There is the case where a monk remains
focused on arising & falling away with reference to the five
clinging-aggregates: ‘Such is form, such its origination, such its passing
away. Such is feeling… Such is perception… Such are fabrications… Such is
consciousness, such its origination, such its disappearance.’ This is the
development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to the
ending of the effluents.

“These are the four developments of concentration.”

AN 4.41

Noble
right concentration

“Now what, monks, is noble right concentration with its
supports & requisite conditions? Any singleness of mind equipped with these
seven factors —
right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right
livelihood
, right effort, & right
mindfulness
— is called noble right concentration with its supports &
requisite conditions.”

MN 117

What
are you waiting for?

Get
up! Sit up! What’s your need for sleep? And what sleep is
there for the afflicted, pierced by
the arrow
(craving)
, oppressed? Get up! Sit up! Train firmly for the sake of peace, Don’t let the
king of death, — seeing you heedless — deceive you, bring you under his sway.

Sn 2.10

“Over there are the roots of trees; over there, empty
dwellings. Practice
jhana, monks. Don’t
be heedless. Don’t later fall into regret. This is our message to you.”

SN 35.145

See also:

See also:

http://www.dharma.org/ims/mr_glossary.html



http://www.dharma.org/ims/images/header_mr.jpg

Glossary of
Buddhist Terms

 

Abhidhamma/Abhidharma
(Pali/Sanskrit)

The third section of the
Buddhist canon devoted to human psychology and philosophy

Anapanasati
(Pali)

Mindfulness of breathing

Anatta
(Pali)

Not self, insubstantiality,
one of the
three characteristics of existence

Anicca
(Pali)

Impermanent, one of the three characteristics of existence. Buddhist
teachings emphasize that all conditioned mental and physical phenomena are
impermanent - nothing lasts, nothing stays the same.

Arahant
(Pali)

Enlightened one; someone
whose mind is completely free from the defilements; a person who is no longer
bound to cyclic existence

Beginner’s
Mind

A mind that is open to the
experience of the moment, free of conceptual overlays; first made popular by
the Zen teacher Suzuki Roshi

Bhikkhu
(Pali)

A Buddhist monk

Bhikkhuni
(Pali)

A Buddhist nun

Bodhi
(Pali/Sanskrit)

Enlightenment, awakening

Bodhicitta
(Sanskrit)

Wisdom-heart or the awakened
heart/mind; the aspiration for supreme enlightenment so that all sentient
beings may be free from suffering

Bodhisatta/Bodhisattva
(Pali/Sanskrit)

One who has taken a vow to
become a fully enlightened Buddha; someone known for an unbounded readiness and
availability to help all sentient beings

Bodhi
Tree

The tree under which the
Buddha attained enlightenment in Bodh Gaya, India - a fig tree popularly called
Pipal (Ficus Religiosa)

Brahma-Vihara
(Pali, Sanskrit)

Heavenly or sublime abode,
the four mind states said to lead to a rebirth in a heavenly realm:
lovingkindness (metta), compassion (karuna), appreciative joy (mudita)
and equanimity (upekkha)

Buddha
(Pali, Sanskrit)

Fully awakened one
(Sanskrit); specifically the historical Buddha, Sakyamuni, who lived and taught
in India 2,500 years ago; one of the
three jewels of refuge

Buddha-Dharma/Dhamma
(Sanskrit/Pali)

The teachings of the Buddha

Dana
(Pali/Sanskrit)

The practice of giving;
generosity. Dana is the first of the
ten paramis, or qualities to be perfected in order to become a Buddha.

Dhammapada
(Pali)

The best known of all the
Buddhist scriptures; a collection of 423 verses, spoken by the Buddha, that
focuses on the value of ethical conduct and mental training

Dependent
Origination

The doctrine that all mental
and physical phenomena arise and pass away depending on causes and conditions

Dharma/Dhamma
(Sanskrit/Pali)

The Buddha’s teachings,
truth, the basic building blocks of reality; one of the
three jewels of refuge

Dukkha
(Pali)

Suffering; of pain, both
mental and physical, of change, and endemic to cyclic existance; the first
Noble Truth that acknowledges the
reality of suffering

Ego

The pattern of conditioned
habits that we mistake for a sense of self

Enlightenment

Awakening

Feeling
Tone

Vedana (Pali); the pleasant,
unpleasant or neutral tone that arises with every experience; one of the
five aggregates

Investigation

Vicaya (Pali); Interest and
inquiry into experience. One of the
seven factors of
enlightenment

Jhana
(Pali)

Mental absorption, a state
of strong concentration that temporarily suspends the
five hindrances

Joy

Piti (Pali); A gladdening of the
mind and body. One of the
seven factors of
enlightenment

Kalyana
Mitta (Pali)

Spiritual friend. In the
Theravada Buddhist meditation tradition, teachers are often referred to as
spiritual friends.

Karma/Kamma
(Sanskrit/Pali)

Action, deed; the law of
cause and effect; intentional action, either wholesome or unwholesome that
brings either pleasant or unpleasant results respectively

Kilesa
(Pali)

Defilement; unwholesome
qualities; a factor of mind that obscures clear seeing; a hindrance to
meditation; also know as afflictive emotion

Karuna
(Pali)

Compassion; one of the four Brahma-Vihara (sublime abodes)

Mental
Noting

A technique used in meditation
to help direct the mind to the object of meditation

Merit

The auspicious power of
wholesome action that brings positive karmic results

Metta
(Pali)

Loving kindness, gentle
friendship; a practice for generating lovingkindness said to be first taught by
the Buddha as an antidote to fear. It helps cultivate our natural capacity for
an open and loving heart and is traditionally offered along with other
Brahma-Vihara meditations that enrich compassion, joy in the happiness of
others and equanimity. These practices lead to the development of
concentration, fearlessness, happiness and a greater ability to love.

Middle
Way

A spiritual path that avoids
extremes of self-mortification and self-indulgence, as discovered and taught by
the Buddha

Mindfulness

Sati (Pali). Careful attention to
mental and physical processes; a key ingredient of meditation; one of the
five spiritual faculties; one of the seven factors of
enlightenment
;
an aspect of the
Noble Eightfold Path

Mudita
(Pali)

Appreciative or empathetic
joy; the cultivation of happiness when seeing someone else’s good fortune or
happy circumstances; one of the four
Brahma-Vihara (sublime abodes)

Neutral
Person

In the context of metta
(lovingkindness) practice, someone for whom you feel no particular liking or
disliking

Nirvana/
Nibbana (Sanskrit/Pali)

Extinction of the fires of
attachment, hatred and delusion that cause suffering; liberation from cyclic existence

Pali

The ancient language of the
scriptures of Theravada Buddhism

Panna
(Pali)

Wisdom; one of the five spiritual faculties

Parami
(Pali)

The qualities of character
to be perfected in order to become a Buddha.
The ten parami are…

Precept

A principle that defines a
certain standard of ethical conduct; the foundation of all Buddhist meditation
practice; see the
five precepts

Restlessness
and Remorse

Uddhacca-kukkucca
(Pali).
Agitation of the mind; one of the
five hindrances to meditation

Saddha
(Pali)

Faith, confidence; one of
the
five spiritual faculties

Samadhi
(Pali)

Concentration; a deep state
of meditation; one of the
five spiritual faculties; one of the seven factors of
enlightenment
;
an aspect of the
Noble Eightfold Path

Samatha
(Pali)

A term referring to the
group of meditation practices that aim at samadhi

Samsara
(Pali, Sanskrit)
Wandering on; round of rebirths; the ocean of worldly suffering; the state of
being governed by the
five hindrances

Sangha
(Pali)

The community of
practitioners of the Buddhist path, or those beings who have attained direct
realization of the nature of reality,  one of the
three jewels of refuge.

Sankhara
(Pali)

Mental or physical formation

Sati
(Pali)

Mindfulness; one of the five spiritual faculties; of the seven factors of
enlightenment
;
an aspect of the
Noble Eightfold Path

Satipatthana
(Pali)

The four foundations of
mindfulness
:
contemplation of body, feeling, mind and mind-objects; the Buddha’s
quintessential teachings on mindfulness

Sense
Doors

The six perceptual gates
through which we experience the world.
The six sense doors are…

Sila
(Pali)

Moral or ethical conduct,
virtue, the foundation of Buddhist practice

Skeptical
Doubt

Vicikiccha (Pali). The kind of doubt
that undermines faith; one of the
five hindrances to meditation

Skillful
Means

Action based on kindness,
respect, truthfulness, timeliness and wisdom

Sloth
and Torpor

Thina-middha (Pali) Sleepiness; one of
the
five hindrances to meditation

Sutta/Sutra
(Pali/Sanskrit)

Thread, heard; a discourse
by the Buddha or one of his disciples

Theravada
(Pali)

Path of the Elders; the form
of Buddhism found throughout many parts of Southeast Asia.
Vipassana meditation is a central
part of this tradition.

Three
Refuges

The three jewels of refuge
are the Buddha, the Dharma (doctrine) and the Sangha. Practitioners take refuge
in the fact that the Buddha found a way to freedom, taught the Dharma as the
path to that freedom, and founded the Sangha as the supportive community that
follows the way.

Tranquility

Passaddhi (Pali); Physical and mental
calm. One of the
seven factors of
enlightenment

Upekkha
(Pali)

Equanimity; the ability to
maintain a spacious impartiality of mind in the midst of life’s changing
conditions; one of the four
Brahma-Vihara (sublime abodes); one of the seven factors of
enlightenment

Vedana
(Pali)

Feeling; the pleasant,
unpleasant or neutral feeling tone that arises with all experience; one of the
five aggregates

Vinaya
(Pali)

Discipline; the rules and
regulations governing the conduct of Buddhist monks and nuns

Vipassana
(Pali)

To see clearly; insight
meditation; the simple and direct practice of moment-to-moment mindfulness.
Through careful and sustained observation, we experience for ourselves the
ever-changing flow of the mind/body process. This awareness leads us to accept
more fully the pleasure and pain, fear and joy, sadness and happiness that life
inevitably brings. As insight deepens, we develop greater equanimity and peace
in the face of change, and wisdom and compassion increasingly become the
guiding principles of our lives.

The Buddha first taught vipassana over 2,500 years ago. The various methods of
this practice have been well preserved in the Theravada tradition of Buddhism.
IMS retreats are all rooted in this ancient and well-mapped path to awakening
and draw on the full spectrum of this tradition’s lineages.

Viriya
(Pali)

The physical and mental
energy needed for diligent mindfulness practice; the strong, courageous heart
of energy. One of the
five spiritual faculties; one of the seven factors of
enlightenment

Wrong
View

The tendency of the mind to
cling to concepts at the expense of reality; taking what is impermanent to be
permanent, what is dissatisfying to be satisfying, what is selfless to be self

Yogi
(Pali)

One who is undertaking the
spiritual path of awakening; a meditator

The
Three Characteristics

The three characteristics of
all conditioned physical and mental phenomena:

  1. Impermanent;
    anicca (Pali)
  2. Unsatisfactory,
    suffering; dukkha (Pali)
  3. Non-self; anatta
    (Pali)

The Three
Feeling Tones

Each moment of experience is
felt as one of three feeling tones:

  1. Pleasant
  2. Unpleasant
  3. Neutral;
    neither pleasant nor unpleasant

The Three Kinds
of Suffering

The Buddha taught that we
can understand different kinds of suffering through these three categories:

  1. The
    suffering of mental and physical pain
  2. The
    suffering of change
  3. The
    suffering of conditionality

The
Four Brahma-Vihara

These four ’sublime abodes’
reflect the mind state of enlightenment:

  1. Lovingkindness;
    metta (Pali)
  2. Compassion;
    karuna (Pali)
  3. Appreciative
    joy; mudita (Pali)
  4. Equanimity;
    upekkha (Pali) 

The
Four Foundations of Mindfulness

The Buddha’s quintessential
teachings on mindfulness:

  1. Contemplation
    of body
  2. Contemplation
    of feeling
  3. Contemplation
    of mind
  4. Contemplation
    of mind-objects

The
Four Noble Truths

This was the Buddha’s first
and fundamental teaching about the nature of our experience and our spiritual
potential:

  1. The
    existence of suffering
  2. The origin of
    suffering
  3. The
    cessation of suffering
  4. The path to
    the cessation of suffering - the Noble Eightfold Path

The
Five Aggregates of Clinging

The five aspects of
personality in which all physical and mental phenomena exist:

  1. Materiality;
    rupa (Pali)
  2. Feeling; vedana
    (Pali)
  3. Perception;
    sanna (Pali)
  4. Mental
    formations; sankhara (Pali)
  5. Consciousness;
    vinnana (Pali)

The
Five Hindrances

These are the classical
hindrances to meditation practice:

  1. Desire,
    clinging, craving; kamacchanda (Pali)
  2. Aversion,
    anger, hatred; vyapada (Pali)
  3. Sleepiness,
    sloth, torpor; thina-midha (Pali)
  4. Restlessness
    and remorse; uddhacca-kukkucca (Pali)
  5. Skeptical
    doubt; vicikiccha (Pali) 

The
Five Precepts

An ethical life is founded
on these standards of conduct:

  1. To refrain
    from killing
  2. To refrain
    from stealing
  3. To refrain
    from sexual misconduct
  4. To refrain
    from false, harsh and idle speech
  5. To refrain
    from intoxicants that cloud the mind

The
Five Spiritual Faculties

These are inherent faculties
of mind and heart that, when fully developed, lead to the end of suffering.

  1. Faith; saddha
    (Pali)
  2. Energy; viriya
    (Pali)
  3. Mindfulness;
    sati (Pali)
  4. Concentration;
    samadhi (Pali)
  5. Wisdom; panna
    (Pali)

The
Six Sense Doors

Everything we experience
comes through these portals:

  1. Eye
    (Seeing)
  2. Ear
    (Hearing)
  3. Nose (Smelling)
  4. Tongue
    (Tasting)
  5. Body
    (Touching)
  6. Mind

The Six
Wholesome and Unwholesome Roots of Mind

The mind is always under the
influence of one of these states:

Wholesome

  1. Generosity;
    dana (Pali)
  2. Lovingkindness;
    metta (Pali)
  3. Wisdom; panna
    (Pali)

Unwholesome

  1. Greed; lobha
    (Pali)
  2. Hatred; dosa
    (Pali)
  3. Delusion; moha
    (Pali) 

The Seven Factors of Enlightenment

The mental qualities that
provide the conditions conducive to awakening:

  1. Mindfulness;
    sati
    (Pali)
  2. Investigation;
    vicaya (Pali)
  3. Energy; viriya
    (Pali)
  4. Joy; piti
    (Pali)
  5. Tranquility;
    passaddhi (Pali)
  6. Concentration;
    samadhi (Pali)
  7. Equanimity;
    upekkha (Pali)

The Noble Eightfold Path

This is the path the Buddha
taught to those seeking liberation:

  1. Right view
  2. Right
    thought
  3. Right
    speech
  4. Right
    action
  5. Right livelihood
  6. Right
    effort
  7. Right
    mindfulness
  8. Right
    concentration

The
Eight Worldly Vicissitudes

According to the Buddha, we
will experience these vicissitudes throughout lives, no matter what our
intentions or actions:

  1. Gain and
    loss
  2. Praise and
    blame
  3. Pleasure and
    pain
  4. Fame and
    disrepute

The
Ten Parami

These are the qualities of
character that, when perfected, lead to Buddhahood:

  1. Generosity
  2. Morality
  3. Renunciation
  4. Wisdom
  5. Energy
  6. Patience
  7. Truthfulness
  8. Resoluteness
  9. Lovingkindness
  10. Equanimity

 

 

http://www.meditateinlondon.org.uk/about-meditation.php?gclid=CJa8l7-tuK8CFUx76wodtWxUiA


About
meditation

The purpose of
meditation is to make our mind calm and peaceful. If our mind is peaceful, we
will be free from worries and mental discomfort, and so we will experience true
happiness; but if our mind is not peaceful, we will find it very difficult to
be happy, even if we are living in the very best conditions.
 

In this section

 

 

Related
websites

About
meditation

 


If we train in meditation, our mind will gradually become more and more peaceful, and we
will experience a purer and purer form of happiness. Eventually, we will be
able to stay happy all the time, even in the most difficult circumstances.

Usually we find it difficult to control our mind. It
seems as if our mind is like a balloon in the wind - blown here and there by
external circumstances. If things go well, our mind is happy, but if they go
badly, it immediately becomes unhappy. For example, if we get what we want,
such as a new possession or a new partner, we become excited and cling to them
tightly.

However, since we cannot have everything we want, and
since we will inevitably be separated from the friends and possessions we
currently enjoy, this mental stickiness, or attachment, serves only to cause us
pain. On the other hand, if we do not get what we want, or if we lose something
that we like, we become despondent or irritated.

For example, if we are forced to work with a colleague
whom we dislike, we will probably become irritated and feel aggrieved, with the
result that we will be unable to work with him or her efficiently and our time
at work will become stressful and unrewarding.

Such fluctuations of mood arise because we are too
closely involved in the external situation. We are like a child making a sand castle
who is excited when it is first made, but who becomes upset when it is
destroyed by the incoming tide.

By training in meditation, we create an inner space and
clarity that enables us to control our mind regardless of the external
circumstances. Gradually we develop mental equilibrium, a balanced mind that is
happy all the time, rather than an unbalanced mind that oscillates between the
extremes of excitement and despondency.

If we train in meditation systematically, eventually we
will be able to eradicate from our mind the delusions that are the causes of
all our problems and suffering. In this way, we will come to experience a
permanent inner peace, known as “liberation” or “nirvana”.
Then, day and night in life after life, we will experience only peace and
happiness.


For more information about meditation, see Geshe Kelsang’s popular books
The New
Meditation Handbook
and Transform
Your Life
.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meditation

Meditation



A statue of the Buddha
meditating, Borim Temple,
Korea

Meditation is any form of a family of practices in which practitioners train
their
minds or self-induce a mode of
consciousness
to realize some benefit.[1][2][3]

Meditation is generally an inwardly oriented, personal
practice, which individuals do by themselves.
Prayer beads or other ritual objects are commonly used during meditation.
Meditation may involve invoking or cultivating a feeling or internal state,
such as compassion, or attending to a specific focal point. The
term can refer to the state itself, as well as to practices or techniques
employed to cultivate the state.
[4]

There are dozens of specific styles of meditation
practice;[3] the word meditation may
carry different meanings in different contexts. Meditation has been practiced
since antiquity as a component of numerous religious traditions and beliefs.

A 2007 study by the U.S. government found that nearly 9.4%
of U.S. adults (over 20 million) had practiced meditation within the past 12
months, up from 7.6% (more than 15 million people) in 2002.
[5]

Since the 1960s, meditation has been the focus of
increasing
scientific
research
of uneven rigor and quality.[6] In over 1,000 published research studies, various methods of
meditation have been linked to changes in metabolism, blood pressure, brain
activation, and other bodily processes.
[7][8] Meditation has been used in clinical settings as a method of stress
and pain reduction.
[9][10]

Contents

 [hide

  • 4 Religious
    and spiritual meditation
  • 5 Secular
    meditation

  • 6 Modern
    cross-cultural dissemination
  • 7 Western
    context
  • 8 Meditation,
    religion, and drugs
  • 9 Physical
    postures
  • 10
    Scientific studies
  • 11 Popular
    culture
  • 12
    References
  • 13
    Bibliography

  • 14 External
    links
  • Etymology

    Caravans on the Silk Road helped spread meditative
    practices from India.

    The English meditation is derived from the Latin meditatio, from a verb meditari, meaning “to think, contemplate, devise, ponder, meditate”.[11]

    In the Old Testament hāgâ (Hebrew: הגה‎), means to sigh or murmur, but also to
    meditate. When the
    Hebrew Bible was translated into Greek, hāgâ became the Greek melete.
    The Latin Bible then translated hāgâ/melete into meditatio.
    [12] The use of the term meditatio as part of a formal, stepwise
    process of meditation goes back to the 12th-century monk
    Guigo II.[13]

    Apart from its historical usage, the term meditation
    was introduced as a translation for Eastern spiritual practices, referred to as
    dhyāna
    in
    Buddhism
    and in
    Hinduism
    , which comes from the Sanskrit root dhyai, meaning to contemplate or meditate.[4][14] The term “meditation” in English may also refer to
    practices from Islamic
    Sufism,[15] or other traditions such as Jewish Kabbalah and Christian Hesychasm.[16] An edited book about “meditation” published in 2003, for
    example, included chapter contributions by authors describing Buddhist,
    Christian, Hindu, Islamic, and Taoist traditions.
    [17][18] Scholars have noted that “the term ‘meditation’ as it has
    entered contemporary usage” is parallel to the term
    “contemplation” in Christianity.
    [19]

    History

    Man Meditating
    in a Garden Setting

    The history of meditation is intimately bound up with the
    religious context within which it was practiced.
    [20] Even in prehistoric times civilizations used repetitive, rhythmic
    chants and offerings to appease the gods.
    [21] Some authors have even suggested the hypothesis that the emergence of
    the capacity for focused attention, an element of many methods of meditation,[22] may have contributed to the
    final phases of human biological evolution.
    [23] Some of the earliest references to meditation are found in the Bible, dating around 1400
    BCE,
    [24][25] and in the Hindu Vedas from around the 15th century BCE.[20] Around the 6th to 5th centuries BCE, other forms of meditation
    developed in
    Taoist China and Buddhist India.[20]

    In the west, by 20BCE Philo
    of Alexandria
    had written on some form of
    “spiritual exercises” involving attention (prosoche) and
    concentration[26] and by the 3rd century
    Plotinus had developed meditative techniques.

    The Pāli Canon, which dates to 1st century BCE considers Indian Buddhist meditation as a step towards salvation.[27] By the time Buddhism was spreading in China, the Vimalakirti Sutra which dates to 100CE included a number of passages on meditation,
    clearly pointing to
    Zen.[28] The Silk Road transmission of Buddhism introduced meditation to other oriental countries, and in 653 the
    first meditation hall was opened in Japan.
    [29] Returning from China around 1227, Dōgen wrote the instructions for Zazen.[30][31]

    The Islamic practice of Dhikr had involved the repetition of the 99 Names of God since the 8th or
    9th century.
    [32][33] By the 12th century, the practice of Sufism included specific
    meditative techniques, and its followers practiced breathing controls and the
    repetition of holy words.
    [34] Interactions with Indians or the Sufis may have influenced
    the
    Eastern
    Christian
    meditation approach to hesychasm, but this can not be proved.[35][36] Between the 10th and 14th centuries, hesychasm was developed, particularly on Mount Athos in Greece, and involves the repetition of the Jesus prayer.[37]

    Western
    Christian
    meditation contrasts with most
    other approaches in that it does not involve the repetition of any phrase or
    action and requires no specific posture. Western
    Christian
    meditation
    progressed from the 6th century
    practice of Bible reading among
    Benedictine monks called Lectio Divina, i.e. divine reading. Its four formal steps as a “ladder”
    were defined by the monk
    Guigo II in the 12th century with the Latin terms lectio, meditatio,
    oratio, and contemplatio (i.e. read, ponder, pray, contemplate).
    Western
    Christian
    meditation
    was further developed by saints
    such as
    Ignatius
    of Loyola
    and Teresa of Avila in the 16th century.[38][39][40][41]

    By the 18th century, the study of Buddhism
    in the West
    was a topic for intellectuals.
    The philosopher
    Schopenhauer discussed it,[42] and Voltaire asked for toleration towards Buddhists.[43] The first English translation of the Tibetan Book of the Dead was published in
    1927.
    [44]

    Secular forms of meditation were introduced in India in
    the 1950s as a Westernized form of Hindu meditative techniques and arrived in
    the United States and Europe in the 1960s. Rather than focusing on spiritual
    growth, secular meditation emphasizes stress reduction, relaxation and self
    improvement.
    [45][46] Both spiritual and secular forms of meditation have been subjects of
    scientific analyses.
    Research
    on meditation
    began in 1931, with scientific
    research increasing dramatically during the 1970s and 1980s.
    [47] Since the beginning of the ’70s more than a thousand studies of
    meditation in English-language have been reported.
    [47] However, after 60 years of scientific study, the exact mechanism at
    work in meditation remains unclear.
    [9]

    Modern
    definitions and Western models

    Definitions or Characterizations of Meditation:
    Examples from Prominent Reviews
    *

    Definition
    / Characterization

    Review

    •”[M]editation
    refers to a family of self-regulation practices that focus on training
    attention and awareness in order to bring mental processes under greater
    voluntary control and thereby foster general mental well-being and development
    and/or specific capacities such as calm, clarity, and concentration”
    [48]:228-9 Walsh & Shapiro (2006)
    •”[M]editation is used to describe practices that self-regulate the
    body and mind, thereby affecting mental events by engaging a specific
    attentional set…. regulation of attention is the central commonality across
    the many divergent methods”
    [8]:180 Cahn & Polich (2006)
    •”We define meditation… as a stylized mental technique… repetitively
    practiced for the purpose of attaining a subjective experience that is
    frequently described as very restful, silent, and of heightened alertness,
    often characterized as blissful”
    [49]:415 Jevning et al. (1992)
    •”the need for the meditator to retrain his attention, whether through
    concentration or mindfulness, is the single invariant ingredient in… every
    meditation system”
    [16]:107 Goleman (1988) *Influential
    reviews (cited >50 times in
    PsycINFO[50]),
    encompassing multiple methods of meditation.

    Definitions and scope

    Definitions or
    Characterizations of Meditation:
    Examples from Prominent Reviews
    *

    Definition / Characterization

    Review

    •”[M]editation
    refers to a family of self-regulation practices that focus on training
    attention and awareness in order to bring mental processes under greater
    voluntary control and thereby foster general mental well-being and
    development and/or specific capacities such as calm, clarity, and
    concentration”
    [48]:228-9

    Walsh &
    Shapiro (2006)

    •”[M]editation
    is used to describe practices that self-regulate the body and mind, thereby
    affecting mental events by engaging a specific attentional set…. regulation
    of attention is the central commonality across the many divergent
    methods”
    [8]:180

    Cahn &
    Polich (2006)

    •”We
    define meditation… as a stylized mental technique… repetitively practiced
    for the purpose of attaining a subjective experience that is frequently
    described as very restful, silent, and of heightened alertness, often
    characterized as blissful”
    [49]:415

    Jevning et al.
    (1992)

    •”the need
    for the meditator to retrain his attention, whether through concentration or
    mindfulness, is the single invariant ingredient in… every meditation
    system”
    [16]:107

    Goleman (1988)

    *Influential reviews (cited >50 times in PsycINFO[50]),
    encompassing multiple methods of meditation.

    As early as 1971, Naranjo noted that “The word ‘meditation’
    has been used to designate a variety of practices that differ enough from one
    another so that we may find trouble in defining what meditation
    is.”
    [51]:6 There remains no definition of
    necessary and sufficient criteria for meditation that has achieved universal or
    widespread acceptance within the modern scientific community, as one study
    recently noted a “persistent lack of consensus in the literature” and
    a “seeming intractability of defining meditation“.
    [52]:135

    In popular usage, the word “meditation” and the
    phrase “meditative practice” are often used imprecisely to designate
    broadly similar practices, or sets of practices, that are found across many
    cultures and traditions.
    [16][53]

    Some of the difficulty in precisely defining meditation
    has been the need to recognize the particularities of the many various
    traditions.
    [54] There may be differences between the theories of one tradition of
    meditation as to what it means to practice meditation.
    [55] The differences between multiple various traditions, which have grown
    up a great distance apart from each other, may be even starker.
    [55] The defining of what ‘meditation’ is has caused difficulties for modern
    scientists. Scientific reviews have proposed that researchers attempt to more
    clearly define the type of meditation being practiced in order that the results
    of their studies be made clearer.
    [54]:499 Taylor noted that to refer only
    to meditation from a particular faith (e.g., “Hindu” or
    “Buddhist”)

    is not enough,
    since the cultural traditions from which a particular kind of meditation comes
    are quite different and even within a single tradition differ in complex ways.
    The specific name of a school of thought or a teacher or the title of a
    specific text is often quite important for identifying a particular type of
    meditation.
    [56]:2

    The table shows several definitions of meditation that
    have been used by influential modern reviews of research on meditation across
    multiple traditions. Within a specific context, more precise meanings are not
    uncommonly given the word “meditation.”
    [57] For example, ‘meditation’, is sometimes the translation of meditatio
    in Latin, which is the third of four steps of
    Lectio Divina, an ancient form of Christian prayer. ‘Meditation’ may also refer to
    the second of the three steps of
    Yoga in Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras, a step called dhyāna in Sanskrit. Meditation may refer to a
    mental or spiritual state that may be attained by such practices,[4] and may also refer to the
    practice of that state.

    This article mainly focuses on meditation in the broad
    sense of a type of discipline, found in various forms in many cultures, by
    which the practitioner attempts to get beyond the reflexive,
    “thinking” mind
    [58] (sometimes called “discursive thinking”[59] or “logic”[60]) into a deeper, more devout, or more relaxed state. The terms
    “meditative practice” and “meditation” are mostly used here
    in this broad sense. However, usage may vary somewhat by context - readers
    should be aware that in quotations, or in discussions of particular traditions,
    more specialized meanings of “meditation” may sometimes be used (with
    meanings made clear by context whenever possible)

    Western typologies

    Ornstein
    noted that “most techniques of meditation do not exist as solitary
    practices but are only artificially separable from an entire system of practice
    and belief”.
    [61]:143 This means that, for
    instance, while monks engage in meditation as a part of their everyday lives,
    they also engage the codified rules and live together in monasteries in
    specific cultural settings, that go along with their meditative practices.
    These meditative practices sometimes have similarities (often noticed by
    Westerners), for instance concentration on the breath is practiced in both Zen,
    Tibetan and Theravadan contexts, and these similarities or ‘typologies’ are
    noted here.

    Bodhidharma practicing zazen.

    Progress
    on the “intractable” problem of defining meditation was attempted by
    a recent study of views common to 7 experts trained in diverse but empirically
    highly studied (clinical or Eastern-derived) forms of meditation.
    [62] The study identified
    “three main criteria… as essential to any meditation practice: the use
    of a defined technique, logic relaxation, and a self-induced state/mode. Other
    criteria deemed important [but not essential] involve a state of psychophysical
    relaxation, the use of a self-focus skill or anchor, the presence of a state of
    suspension of logical thought processes, a religious/spiritual/philosophical
    context, or a state of mental silence”.
    [52]:135 However, the study
    cautioned that “It is plausible that meditation is best thought of as a
    natural category of techniques best captured by ‘
    family
    resemblances
    ‘…
    or by the related
    prototype
    model of concepts
    “.[52]:135[63]

    In
    modern psychological research, meditation has been defined and characterized in
    a variety of ways; many of these emphasize the role of
    attention.[8][16][48][49]

    In
    the West, meditation is sometimes thought of in two broad categories:
    concentrative meditation and
    mindfulness meditation.[64] These two categories are
    discussed in the following two paragraphs, with concentrative meditation being
    used interchangeably with focused attention and mindfulness meditation being
    used interchangeably with open monitoring,

    direction
    of mental attention… A practitioner can focus intensively on one particular
    object (so-called concentrative meditation), on all mental events that
    enter the field of awareness (so-called mindfulness meditation), or both
    specific focal points and the field of awareness.
    [52]:130[65]

    “One
    style, Focused Attention (FA) meditation, entails the voluntary focusing of
    attention on a chosen object. The other style, Open Monitoring (OM) meditation,
    involves non-reactive monitoring of the content of experience from moment to
    moment.”
    [66]

    Other
    typologies have also been proposed,[67]
    [68][additional
    citations useful]

    and some techniques shift among major categories.
    [69]

    Evidence
    from neuroimaging studies suggests that the categories of meditation, defined
    by how they direct attention, appear to generate different brainwave patterns.
    [67][68][additional
    citations useful]

    Evidence also suggests that using different focus objects during meditation may
    generate different brainwave patterns.
    [70]

    Religious
    and spiritual meditation

    Bahá’í Faith

    In the teachings of the Bahá’í
    Faith
    meditation, along with prayer, is one of the primary tools for
    spiritual development,
    [71] and it mainly refers to one’s reflection on the words of God.[72] While prayer and meditation are linked where meditation happens generally in a
    prayerful attitude, prayer is seen specifically as turning toward God,[73] and meditation is seen as a
    communion with one’s self where one focuses on the divine.
    [72]

    The Bahá’í
    teachings
    note that the purpose of
    meditation is to strengthen one’s understanding of the words of God, and to
    make one’s soul more susceptible to their potentially transformative power,
    [72] and that both prayer and meditation are needed to bring about and to
    maintain a spiritual communion with God.
    [74]

    Bahá’u'lláh, the founder of the religion, never specified any particular form of
    meditation, and thus each person is free to choose their own form.
    [71] However, he specifically did state that Bahá’ís should read a passage
    of the
    Bahá’í
    writings
    twice a day, once in the morning,
    and once in the evening, and meditate on it. He also encouraged people to
    reflect on one’s actions and worth at the end of each day.
    [72] The Nineteen Day Fast, a nineteen-day period of the year, during which Bahá’ís adhere to a
    sunrise-to-sunset
    fast, is also seen as meditative, where Bahá’ís must meditate and pray to
    reinvigorate their spiritual forces.
    [75]

    Buddhism

    Dynamic
    tranquility: the Buddha in
    contemplation.

    Buddhist
    meditation

    refers to the meditative practices associated with the philosophy of Buddhism.
    Core meditation techniques have been preserved in ancient
    Buddhist texts and have proliferated and
    diversified through teacher-student transmissions.
    Buddhists pursue meditation as part
    of the path toward
    Enlightenment and Nirvana.[76] The closest words for
    meditation in the classical languages of Buddhism are
    bhāvanā[77] and jhāna/dhyāna.[78]

    Buddhist
    meditation techniques have become increasingly popular in the wider world, with
    many non-Buddhists taking them up for a variety of reasons. There is
    considerable homogeneity across meditative practices — such as
    breath meditation and various recollections (anussati) —
    that are used across
    Buddhist
    schools
    ,
    as well as significant diversity. In the
    Theravāda tradition alone, there are
    over fifty methods for developing mindfulness and forty for developing
    concentration, while in the
    Tibetan tradition there are
    thousands of visualization meditations.
    [79] Most classical and
    contemporary Buddhist meditation guides are school-specific.
    [80]

    The
    Buddha is said to have identified two paramount mental qualities that arise
    from wholesome meditative practice:

    ·        
    “serenity”
    or “tranquillity” (Pali: samatha) which steadies, composes,
    unifies and concentrates the mind;

    ·        
    “insight”
    (Pali: vipassana) which enables one to see, explore and discern
    “formations” (conditioned phenomena based on the five
    aggregates).[81]

    Through
    the meditative development of serenity, one is able to suppress obscuring
    hindrances; and, with the suppression
    of the hindrances, it is through the meditative development of insight that one
    gains liberating
    wisdom.[82]

    Christianity

    A strong
    believer in
    Christian
    meditation
    ,
    Saint
    Padre
    Pio

    stated: “Through the study of books one seeks God; by meditation one finds
    him”.
    [83]

    Christian
    Meditation
    is a term for form of prayer in
    which a structured attempt is made to get in touch with and deliberately
    reflect upon the revelations of
    God.[84] The word meditation comes from the Latin word meditari which
    means to concentrate. Christian meditation is the process of deliberately
    focusing on specific thoughts (e.g. a
    biblical scene involving Jesus and the Virgin Mary) and reflecting on their meaning in the context of the love of God.[85]

    Christian meditation contrasts with cosmic styles of
    eastern meditation as radically as the portrayal of
    God the Father in the Bible contrasts with discussions of Krishna or Brahman in Indian teachings.[86] Unlike eastern meditations, most styles of Christian meditations do
    not rely on the repeated use of
    mantras, but are intended
    to stimulate thought and deepen meaning. Christian meditation aims to heighten
    the personal relationship based on the love of God that marks Christian
    communion.
    [87][88]

    In Aspects of Christian meditation, the Catholic
    Church
    warned of potential incompatibilities in mixing
    Christian and eastern styles of meditation.
    [89] In 2003, in A Christian reflection on the New Age the Vatican announced that the “Church avoids any concept that is close to
    those of the New Age”.
    [90][91][92]

    Christian meditation is sometimes taken to mean the middle
    level in a broad three stage characterization of prayer: it then involves more
    reflection than first level vocal
    prayer, but is more
    structured than the multiple layers of
    contemplation in Christianity.[93]

    Hinduism

    A large statue
    in
    Bangalore depicting Lord Shiva
    meditating

    There are many schools and styles of meditation within
    Hinduism. Yoga is generally done to prepare one for meditation, and meditation
    is done to realize union of one’s self, one’s
    atman, with the omnipresent and non-dual Brahman. This experience is referred to as moksha by Hindus, and is
    similar to the concept of
    Nibbana in Buddhism.[citation needed] The earliest clear references to meditation in Hindu literature are in the middle Upanishads and the Mahabharata, which includes the Bhagavad Gita.[94][95] According to Gavin Flood, the earlier Brihadaranyaka Upanishad refers to
    meditation when it states that “having becoming calm and concentrated, one
    perceives the self (ātman)
    within oneself”.
    [96]

    Within Patañjali’s ashtanga yoga practice there are eight limbs leading to moksha. These are
    ethical discipline (yamas), rules (niyamas), physical postures (asanas), breath control (pranayama), withdrawal from the senses (pratyahara), one-pointedness of mind (dharana), meditation (dhyana),
    and finally
    samadhi, which is often described as the union of the Self (atman) with the omnipresent (Brahman), and is the ultimate aim of all Hindu yogis.

    Meditation in Hinduism is not confined to any school or
    sect and has expanded beyond Hinduism to the West.
    [96] Today there is a new branch of yoga which combines Christian
    practices with yogic
    postures known popularly as Christian Yoga.[97]

    The influential modern proponent of Hinduism who first
    introduced Eastern philosophy to the West in the late 19th century,
    Swami Vivekananda, describes meditation as follows:

    Meditation has been laid stress upon by all religions. The
    meditative state of mind is declared by the Yogis to be the highest state in
    which the mind exists. When the mind is studying the external object, it gets
    identified with it, loses itself. To use the simile of the old Indian
    philosopher: the soul of man is like a piece of crystal, but it takes the
    colour of whatever is near it. Whatever the soul touches … it has to take its
    colour. That is the difficulty. That constitutes the bondage.
    [98]

    Islam

    Dhikr singing.

    A
    Muslim is obligated to pray
    five times a day: once before sunrise, at noon, in the afternoon, after sunset,
    and once at night. During prayer a Muslim focuses and meditates on
    God
    by reciting the
    Qur’an and engaging in dhikr
    to reaffirm and strengthen the bond between Creator and creation, with the
    purpose of guiding the
    soul to truth.[citation
    needed
    ] Such meditation is intended
    to help maintain a feeling of
    spiritual peace, in the face of whatever
    challenges work, social or family life may present.

    The
    five daily acts of peaceful prayer are to serve as a template and inspiration
    for conduct during the rest of the day, transforming it, ideally, into one
    single and sustained meditation: even
    sleep
    is to be regarded as but another phase of that sustained meditation.
    [99]

    Meditative
    quiescence is said to have a quality of
    healing,
    and—in contemporary terminology—enhancing
    creativity.[100] The Islamic prophet Muhammad spent sustained periods in
    contemplation and meditation. It was during one such period that Muhammad began
    to receive the
    revelations of the Qur’an.[101][102]

    Following
    are the styles, or schools, of meditation in the Muslim traditions:

    Numerous
    Sufi traditions place emphasis upon a
    meditative procedure similar in its cognitive aspect to one of the two
    principal approaches to be found in the
    Buddhist
    traditions
    :
    that of the
    concentration technique, involving
    high-intensity and sharply focused
    introspection. In the Oveyssi-Shahmaghsoudi Sufi order, for example, this is particularly evident,
    where
    muraqaba takes the form of tamarkoz, the latter being a Persian term that means concentration.

    Jainism

    Mahavira in meditative posture

    In Jainism, meditation has been a core spiritual practice,
    one that Jains believe people have undertaken since the teaching of the
    Tirthankara, Rishabha.[104] All the twenty four Tirthankaras practiced deep meditation and
    attained enlightenment.
    [105] They are all shown in meditative postures in the images or idols. Mahavira practiced deep meditation for twelve years and attained enlightenment.[106] The Acaranga
    Sutra
    dating to 500 BC, addresses the meditation system
    of Jainism in detail.
    [107] Acharya
    Bhadrabahu
    of the 4th century BC practiced
    deep Mahaprana meditation for 12 years.
    [108] Kundakunda of 1st century BCE, opened new dimensions of meditation in Jain
    tradition through his books
    Samayasāra, Pravachansar and others.[109]

    Jain meditation and spiritual practices system were
    referred to as salvation-path. It has three important parts called the
    Ratnatraya “Three Jewels”: right perception and faith, right knowledge
    and right conduct.
    [110] Meditation in Jainism aims at realizing the self, attaining
    salvation, take the soul to complete freedom.
    [111] It aims to reach and to remain in the pure state of soul which is
    believed to be pure consciousness, beyond any attachment or aversion. The
    practitioner strives to be just a knower-seer (Gyata-Drashta). Jain meditation
    can be broadly categorized to Dharmya Dhyana and Shukla Dhyana.

    There exists a number of meditation techniques such as pindāstha-dhyāna,
    padāstha-dhyāna, rūpāstha-dhyāna, rūpātita-dhyāna, savīrya-dhyāna
    , etc. In padāstha
    dhyāna
    one focuses on
    Mantra.[112] A Mantra could be either a combination of core letters or words on
    deity or themes. There is a rich tradition of
    Mantra in Jainism. All
    Jain followers irrespective of their sect, whether
    Digambara or Svetambara, practice mantra. Mantra chanting is an important part of daily lives
    of Jain monks and followers. Mantra chanting can be done either loudly or
    silently in mind.
    Yogasana and Pranayama has been an important practice undertaken since
    ages. Pranayama – breathing exercises – are performed to strengthen the ten Pranas
    or vital energy.
    [113] Yogasana and Pranayama balances the functioning of neuro-endocrine
    system of body and helps in achieving good physical, mental and emotional
    health.
    [114]

    Contemplation is a very old and important meditation
    technique. The practitioner meditates deeply on subtle facts. In agnya
    vichāya
    , one contemplates on seven facts - life and non-life, the inflow,
    bondage, stoppage and removal of karmas, and the final accomplishment of
    liberation. In apaya vichāya, one contemplates on the incorrect insights
    one indulges, which eventually develops right insight. In vipaka vichāya,
    one reflects on the eight causes or basic types of karma. In sansathan
    vichāya
    , one thinks about the vastness of the universe and the loneliness
    of the soul.
    [112]

    Acharya
    Mahapragya
    formulated Preksha
    meditation
    in the 1970s and presented a
    well-organised system of meditation.
    Asana and Pranayama,
    meditation, contemplation, mantra and therapy are its integral parts.
    [115] Numerous Preksha meditation centers came into existence around the
    world and numerous meditations camps are being organized to impart training in
    it.

    Judaism

    There is evidence that Judaism has had meditative
    practices that go back thousands of years.
    [116][117] For instance, in the Torah, the patriarch Isaac is described as
    going “לשוח” (lasuach) in the field—a term understood by all
    commentators as some type of meditative practice (
    Genesis 24:63), probably prayer.[118]

    Similarly, there are indications throughout the Tanach (the Hebrew Bible) that meditation
    was used by the prophets.
    [119] In the Old
    Testament
    , there are two Hebrew words for meditation: hāgâ (Hebrew: הגה‎), which means to sigh or murmur, but also to
    meditate
    , and
    â (Hebrew: שיחה‎), which means to muse, or rehearse in one’s mind.

    The Jewish mystical tradition, Kabbalah, is inherently a meditative field of study.[120][121] Traditionally Kabbalah is only taught to orthodox Jews over the age
    of forty. The
    Talmud refers to the advantage of the scholar over the prophet, as his
    understanding takes on intellectual, conceptual form, that deepens mental
    grasp, and can be communicated to others. The advantage of the prophet over the
    scholar is in the transcendence of their intuitive vision. The ideal
    illumination is achieved when the insights of mystical revelation are brought
    into conceptual structures. For example,
    Isaac Luria revealed new doctrines of Kabbalah in the 16th Century, that
    revolutionised and reordered its teachings into a new system.
    [122] However, he did not write down his teachings, which were recounted
    and interpreted instead by his close circle of disciples. After a mystical
    encounter, called in Kabbalistic tradition an “elevation of the soul”
    into the spiritual realms, Isaac Luria said that it would take 70 years to
    explain all that he had experienced. As Kabbalah evolved its teachings took on
    successively greater conceptual form and philosophical system. Nonetheless, as
    is implied by the name of Kabbalah, which means “to receive”, its
    exponents see that for the student to understand its teachings requires a
    spiritual intuitive reception that illuminates and personalises the
    intellectual structures.

    Corresponding to the learning of Kabbalah are its
    traditional meditative practices, as for the Kabbalist, the ultimate purpose of
    its study is to understand and cleave to the Divine.
    [123] Classic methods include the mental visualisation of the supernal
    realms the soul navigates through to achieve certain ends. One of the best
    known types of meditation in early Jewish mysticism was the work of the
    Merkabah, from the root /R-K-B/ meaning “chariot” (of God).

    In modern Jewish practice, one of the best known
    meditative practices is called “hitbodedut” (התבודדות, alternatively
    transliterated as “hisbodedus”), and is explained in
    Kabbalistic, Hasidic, and Mussar writings, especially the Hasidic method of Rabbi Nachman
    of Breslav
    . The word derives from the Hebrew
    word “boded” (בודד), meaning the state of being alone.
    [124] Another Hasidic system is the Habad method of
    “hisbonenus”, related to the
    Sephirah of “Binah”, Hebrew for understanding.[125] This practice is the analytical reflective process of making oneself
    understand a mystical concept well, that follows and internalises its study in
    Hasidic writings.

    New Age

    New
    Age meditations are often influenced by Eastern philosophy, mysticism, Yoga,
    Hinduism and Buddhism, yet may contain some degree of Western influence. In the
    West, meditation found its mainstream roots through the social revolution of
    the 1960s and 1970s, when many of the youth of the day rebelled against
    traditional
    belief
    systems

    as a reaction against what some perceived as the failure of Christianity to
    provide spiritual and ethical guidance.
    [126] New Age meditation as
    practised by the early hippies is regarded for its techniques of blanking out
    the mind and releasing oneself from conscious thinking. This is often aided by
    repetitive chanting of a mantra, or focusing on an object.
    [127]

    In
    Zen Yoga, Aaron Hoopes talks of
    meditation as being an avenue to touching the spiritual nature that exists
    within each of us.

    At its core, meditation is
    about touching the spiritual essence that exists within us all. Experiencing
    the joy of this essence has been called enlightenment, nirvana, or even
    rebirth, and reflects a deep understanding within us. The spiritual essence is
    not something that we create through meditation. It is already there, deep
    within, behind all the barriers, patiently waiting for us to recognize it. One
    does not have to be religious or even interested in religion to find value in
    it. Becoming more aware of your self and realizing your spiritual nature is
    something that transcends religion. Anyone who has explored meditation knows
    that it is simply a path that leads to a new, more expansive way of seeing the
    world around us.
    [128]

    Sikhism

    In Sikhism, the practices of simran and Nām Japō encourage quiet meditation. This is focusing one’s attention on the
    attributes of God. Sikhs believe that there are 10 ‘gates’ to the body; ‘gates’
    is another word for ‘chakras’ or energy centres. The top most energy level is
    called the tenth gate or Dasam Duaar. When one reaches this stage through
    continuous practice meditation becomes a habit that continues whilst walking,
    talking, eating, awake and even sleeping. There is a distinct taste or flavour
    when a meditator reaches this lofty stage of meditation, as one experiences
    absolute peace and tranquility inside and outside the body.

    Followers of the Sikh religion also believe that love
    comes through meditation on the lord’s name since meditation only conjures up
    positive emotions in oneself which are portrayed through our actions. The first
    Guru of the Sikhs, Guru Nanak Dev Ji preached the equality of all humankind and
    stressed the importance of living a householder’s life instead of wandering
    around jungles meditating, the latter of which being a popular practice at the
    time. The Guru preached that we can obtain liberation from life and death by
    living a totally normal family life and by spreading love amongst every human being
    regardless of religion.

    In the Sikh religion, kirtan, otherwise known as
    singing the hymns of God is seen as one of the most beneficial ways of aiding
    meditation, and it too in some ways is believed to be a meditation of one kind.

    Taoism

    “Gathering
    the Light”, Taoist meditation from
    The
    Secret of the Golden Flower

    Taoism includes a number of meditative and contemplative
    traditions, said to have their principles described in the
    I Ching, Tao
    Te Ching
    , Chuang Tzu and Tao Tsang among other texts. The multitude of schools relating to Qigong, Neigong, Internal
    alchemy
    , Daoyin and Zhan
    zhuang
    is a large, diverse array of breath-training
    practices in aid of meditation with much influence on later
    Chinese Buddhism and with much influence on traditional Chinese medicine and the Chinese as well as some Japanese
    martial arts
    . The Chinese martial art T’ai chi ch’uan is named after the well-known focus for Taoist and Neo-Confucian meditation, the Taijitu (T’ai Chi T’u), and is often referred to as “meditation in motion”.

    “The Guanzi essay ‘Neiye’ 內業 (Inward training) is the oldest received writing on the subject of
    the cultivation of
    vapor and meditation techniques. The essay was probably composed at the
    Jixia Academy in Qi in the late fourth century B.C.”
    [129]

    Often Taoist Internal
    martial arts
    , especially T’ai chi ch’uan are thought of as moving meditation. A common phrase being,
    “movement in stillness” referring to energetic movement in passive
    Qigong and seated Taoist meditation; with the converse being “stillness in
    movement”, a state of mental calm and meditation in the tai chi form.

    In a form of meditation using visualization, such as
    Chinese
    Qigong, the practitioner concentrates on flows of energy (Qi) in the body,
    starting in the abdomen and then circulating through the body, until dispersed.
    [

    Other

    Jiddu Krishnamurti

    Indian-born philosopher Jiddu
    Krishnamurti
    used the term
    “meditation” to mean something entirely different from the practice
    of any system or method to control the mind, or to consciously achieve a
    specific goal or state:

    Man, in order to escape his conflicts, has invented many
    forms of meditation. These have been based on desire, will, and the urge for
    achievement, and imply conflict and a struggle to arrive. This conscious,
    deliberate striving is always within the limits of a conditioned mind, and in
    this there is no freedom. All effort to meditate is the denial of meditation.
    Meditation is the ending of thought. It is only then that there is a different
    dimension which is beyond time.
    [130]

    For Krishnamurti, meditation was “choiceless
    awareness
    ” in the present:

    Meditation is a state of mind which looks at everything
    with complete attention, totally, not just parts of it. And no one can teach
    you how to be attentive. If any system teaches you how to be attentive, then
    you are attentive to the system and that is not attention. Meditation is one of
    the greatest arts in life - perhaps the greatest, and one cannot possibly learn
    it from anybody, that is the beauty of it. It has no technique and therefore no
    authority. When you learn about yourself, watch yourself, watch the way you
    walk, how you eat, what you say, the gossip, the hate, the jealousy - if you
    are aware of all that in yourself, without any choice, that is part of
    meditation.
    [131]

    Prayer beads

    Most of the ancient religions of the world have a
    tradition of using some type of
    prayer beads as tools in devotional meditation.[132][133][134] Most prayer beads and Christian rosaries consist of pearls or beads linked together by a thread.[132][133] The Roman Catholic
    rosary
    is a string of beads containing five sets with ten
    small beads. Each set of ten is separated by another bead. The Hindu
    japa mala has 108 beads, as well as those used in Jainism and Buddhist
    prayer beads
    .[135] Each bead is counted once as a person recites a mantra until the person
    has gone all the way around the mala, which is counted as 100, with an extra 8
    there to compensate for missed beads.
    [135] The Muslim mishbaha has 99 beads. Specific meditations of each religion may be different.

    Secular
    meditation

    A collective
    meditation in
    Sri
    Lanka

    As stated by the National Center for Complementary
    and Alternative Medicine
    , a U.S. government entity within the
    National Institutes of Health that advocates various forms of
    Alternative
    Medicine
    , “Meditation may be
    practiced for many reasons, such as to increase calmness and physical
    relaxation, to improve psychological balance, to cope with illness, or to
    enhance overall health and well-being.”
    [136]

    Herbert Benson of Harvard
    Medical School
    conducted a series of clinical
    tests on meditators from various disciplines, including the
    Transcendental Meditation technique and Tibetan
    Buddhism
    . In 1975, Benson published a book
    titled The Relaxation Response where he outlined his own version of
    meditation for relaxation.
    [137]

    Biofeedback has been used by many researchers since the 1950s in an effort to
    enter deeper states of mind.
    [138][citation needed]

    Mindfulness

    Over the past 20 years, mindfulness-based programs have become
    increasingly important to Westerners and in the Western medical and
    psychological community as a means of helping people, whether they be
    clinically sick or healthy.
    [139] Jon
    Kabat-Zinn
    , who founded the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program in 1979, has defined mindfulness as ‘moment to moment non-judgmental
    awareness.’
    [140]:626 Several methods are used during
    time set aside specifically for mindfulness meditation, such as body scan
    techniques or letting thought arise and pass, and also during our daily lives,
    such as being aware of the taste and texture of the food that we eat.
    [141] Scientifically demonstrated benefits of mindfulness practice include
    an increase in the body’s ability to heal and a shift from a tendency to use
    the right prefrontal cortex to a tendency to use the left prefrontal cortex,
    associated with a trend away from depression and anxiety and towards happiness,
    relaxation, and emotional balance.
    [142]

    Jacobson’s Progressive Muscle Relaxation was developed by American physician Edmund Jacobson in the early 1920s. In this practice one tenses and then relaxes
    muscle groups in a sequential pattern whilst concentrating on how they feel.
    The method has been seen to help people with many conditions especially extreme
    anxiety.
    [143]

    Modern
    cross-cultural dissemination

    Methods of meditation have been cross-culturally
    disseminated at various times throughout history, such as Buddhism going to
    East Asia, and
    Sufi practices going to many Islamic societies. Of special relevance to the modern
    world is the dissemination of meditative practices since the late 19th century,
    accompanying increased travel and communication among cultures worldwide. Most
    prominent has been the transmission of numerous Asian-derived practices to the
    West. In addition, interest in some Western-based meditative practices has also
    been revived,[144] and these have been
    disseminated to a limited extent to Asian countries.
    [145]

    Ideas about Eastern meditation had begun “seeping
    into American popular culture even before the American Revolution through the
    various sects of European occult Christianity,”
    [56]:3 and such ideas “came pouring
    in [to America] during the era of the
    transcendentalists, especially between the 1840s and the 1880s.”[56]:3 But

    The World Parliament of Religions, held in Chicago in
    1893, was the landmark event that increased Western awareness of meditation.
    This was the first time that Western audiences on American soil received Asian
    spiritual teachings from Asians themselves. Thereafter,
    Swami Vivekananda… [founded] various Vedanta ashrams… Anagarika
    Dharmapala
    lectured at Harvard on Theravada
    Buddhist meditation in 1904;
    Abdul Baha … [toured] the US teaching the principles of Bahai, and Soyen Shaku toured in 1907 teaching Zen…[56]:4

    More recently, in the 1960s, another surge in Western
    interest in meditative practices began. Observers have suggested many types of
    explanations for this interest in Eastern meditation and revived Western
    contemplation.
    Thomas
    Keating
    , a founder of Contemplative
    Outreach
    , wrote that “the rush to the
    East is a symptom of what is lacking in the West. There is a deep spiritual
    hunger that is not being satisfied in the West.”
    [146]:31 Daniel Goleman, a scholar of meditation, suggested that the shift in interest from
    “established religions” to meditative practices “is caused by
    the scarcity of the personal experience of these [meditation-derived]
    transcendental states - the living spirit at the common core of all
    religions.”
    [16]:xxiv

    Another suggested contributing factor is the rise of
    communist political power in Asia, which, “set the stage for an influx of
    Asian spiritual teachers to the West,”
    [56]:7 oftentimes as refugees.[147]

    Western
    context

    Meditating in Madison
    Square Park
    ,
    New
    York City

    In the late 19th century, Theosophists adopted the word “meditation” to refer to various spiritual
    practices drawn from
    Hinduism, Buddhism and other Indian religions. Thus the English word “meditation” does not exclusively
    translate to any single term or concept, and can be used to translate words
    such as the
    Sanskrit dhāraā, dhyana, samadhi and bhavana.[citation needed]

    Meditation may be for a religious purpose, but even before
    being brought to the West it was used in secular contexts.[
    citation needed] Beginning with the Theosophists meditation has been employed in the
    West by a number of religious and spiritual movements, such as
    Yoga, New Age and the New
    Thought
    movement.

    Meditation techniques have also been used by Western
    theories of counseling and psychotherapy. Relaxation training works toward
    achieving mental and muscle relaxation to reduce daily stresses. Jacobson is
    credited with developing the initial progressive relaxation procedure. These
    techniques are used in conjunction with other behavioral techniques. Originally
    used with
    systematic desensitization, relaxation
    techniques are now used with other clinical problems. Meditation, hypnosis and
    biofeedback-induced relaxation are a few of the techniques used with relaxation
    training. One of the eight essential phases of
    EMDR (developed by Francine Shapiro),
    bringing adequate closure to the end of each session, also entails the use of
    relaxation techniques, including meditation. Multimodal therapy, a technically
    eclectic approach to behavioral therapy, also employs the use of meditation as
    a technique used in individual therapy.
    [148]

    From the point of view of psychology and physiology, meditation can induce an altered state of consciousness.[149] Such altered states of consciousness may correspond to altered
    neuro-physiologic states.
    [15

    Meditation,
    religion, and drugs

    Many traditions in which meditation is practiced, such as Transcendental Meditation,[151] Buddhism,[152] Hinduism,[153] and other religions, advise members not to consume intoxicants, while others, such as the Rastafarian movements and Native American
    Church, view drugs as integral to their religious lifestyle.

    The fourth of the five precepts of the Pancasila, the ethical code in the Theravada and Mahayana Buddhist traditions, states that adherents must not ingest, “intoxicating
    drinks and drugs causing heedlessness.”

    On the other hand, the ingestion of psychoactives has been
    a central feature in the rituals of many religions, in order to produce
    altered states of consciousness. In several traditional shamanistic ceremonies, drugs are used as agents of ritual. In the Rastafari
    movement
    , cannabis is believed to be a gift from Jah and a sacred herb to be used regularly, while
    alcohol is considered to debase man.
    Bob Marley meditated daily on his long hammock in a corridor-like room with
    wooden floor and shutters.[citation
    needed
    ]
    Native Americans use
    peyote, as part of
    religious ceremony, continuing today.
    [154] In India, the soma drink has a long history of use alongside prayer and sacrifice, and
    is mentioned in the
    Vedas.

    During the 1960s, eastern meditation traditions and
    psychedelics, such as
    LSD, became popular in America, and it was suggested that LSD use and
    meditation were both means to the same spiritual/existential end.
    [155] Many practictioners of eastern traditions rejected this idea,
    including many who had tried LSD themselves. In The Master Game,
    Robert S de Ropp writes that the “door to full consciousness” can be
    glimpsed with the aid of substances, but to “pass beyond the door”
    requires yoga and meditation. Other authors, such as
    Rick Strassman, believe that the relationship between religious experiences reached
    by way of meditation and through the use of psychedelic drugs deserves further
    exploration.
    [156] Also see Psychedelic psychotherapy.

    Physical
    postures

    Various postures are taken up in meditation. Sitting,
    supine, and standing postures are used. The bodily positions applied during
    yoga are described at the Wikipedia page
    Asana.

    Popular in Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism are the full-lotus, half-lotus, Burmese, and kneeling positions. Meditation is sometimes done while walking, known as kinhin, or while doing a
    simple task mindfully, known as
    samu.

    Scientific
    studies

    Meditation has been linked to a variety of health
    benefits. In a study conducted on college students by Oman, Shapiro, Thoresen,
    Plante, and Flinders (2008), they were able to demonstrate findings that
    meditation may tend to changes in the neurological process cultivating
    physiological health benefits. This finding was supported by an expert panel at
    the National Institutes of Health. The practice of meditation has also been
    linked with various favourable outcomes that include: “effective functioning,
    including academic performance, concentration, perceptual sensitivity, reaction
    time, memory, self control, empathy, and self esteem.”(Oman et al.,
    2008, pg. 570) In their evaluation of the effects of two meditation-based
    programs they were able to conclude that meditating had stress reducing effects
    and cogitation, and also increased forgiveness. (Oman et al., 2008)

    In a cross-sectional survey research design study lead by
    Li Chuan Chu (2009), Chu demonstrated that benefits to the psychological state
    of the participants in the study arose from practicing meditation. Meditation
    enhances overall psychological health and preserves a positive attitude towards
    stress. (Chu, 2009)

    Mindfulness Meditation has now entered the health care
    domain because of evidence suggesting a positive correlation between the
    practice and emotional and physical health. Examples of such benefits include:
    reduction in stress, anxiety, depression, headaches, pain, elevated blood
    pressure, etc. Researchers at the University of Massachusetts found that those
    who meditated approximately half an hour per day during an eight week period
    reported that at the end of the period, they were better able to act in a state
    of awareness and observation. Respondents also said they felt non-judgmental.
    (Harvard’s Women’s Health Watch, 2011)

    Over 1,000 publications on meditation have appeared to
    date.[
    citation needed] Many of the early studies lack a theoretically unified perspective,
    often resulting in poor methodological quality,
    [157] as discussed above in the section Definition and scope.

    A review of scientific studies identified relaxation,
    concentration, an altered state of awareness, a suspension of logical thought
    and the maintenance of a self-observing attitude as the behavioral components
    of meditation;
    [69] it is accompanied by a host of biochemical and physical changes in
    the body that alter
    metabolism, heart rate, respiration, blood
    pressure
    and brain activation.[7][8] Meditation has been used in clinical settings as a method of stress and pain reduction. Meditation has also been studied specifically for its
    effects on stress.
    [158][159] Despite the large number of scientific publications on meditation,
    its measurable effect on
    brain activity is still not well understood.

    In June, 2007 the United States National Center for Complementary
    and Alternative Medicine
    published an independent,
    peer-reviewed, meta-analysis of the state of research on meditation and health
    outcomes.
    [6] The report reviewed 813 studies in five broad categories of
    meditation:
    mantra meditation, mindfulness
    meditation
    , yoga, T’ai chi and Qigong. The result was mixed. The report concluded that “firm
    conclusions on the effects of meditation practices in healthcare cannot be
    drawn based on the available evidence. However, the results analyzed from
    methodologically stronger research include findings sufficiently favorable to
    emphasize the value of further research in this field.”
    [6]:210 More rigor in future studies was
    called for.
    [6]:v

    More recent research suggests that meditation may increase
    attention spans. A recent
    randomized study published in Psychological Science reported that
    practicing meditation led to doing better on a task related to sustained
    attention.
    [160]

    Popular
    culture

    Various forms of meditation have
    been described in popular culture sources. In particular,
    science fiction stories such as Frank Herbert’s Dune, Star
    Trek
    , Artemis Fowl, Star Wars, Maskman, Lost
    Horizon
    by James Hilton, and Stargate
    SG-1
    have featured characters who
    practice one form of meditation or another. Meditation also appears as overt
    themes in novels such as
    Jack Kerouac’s The
    Dharma Bums
    and Herman Hesse’s Siddhartha.

    http://www.learningmeditation.com/


    We
    have NEW meditations available on CDs in our on-line shop.
    Go there now!

    Welcome
    to Learning Meditation. I hesitate to use the word meditation. To me, as well
    as many others, the word “meditation” conjures up the picture of a
    bearded man sitting cross-legged in front of an entrance to a cave or high on
    a mountain top. Climbing the mountain and reaching him is part of the arduous
    journey toward self-fulfillment, self-improvement. Once we find him we ask,
    “What is the meaning of life?” or “How do we achieve peace in
    ourselves and our lives?” This all-knowing man tells us the answers are
    “inside ourselves” and tells us to go and contemplate. I don’t know
    if that answer was worth the journey!

    Well,
    I am not a wise man on a mountain. I am just like you — involved in life and
    work, seeking more serenity and calm in my life. I am still learning to do it
    better, using meditation as a guide on my journey. I invite you to take this
    journey yourselves. I invite you to use meditation to find the answers to your
    questions.

    Copyright 1997 - 2011 Patsy Grey
    Enterprises (PGE)
    Site Credits
    Privacy Policy

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e0rSmxsVHPE

    How to meditate

     

    VOICE OF SARVAJAN

    http://india.nydailynews.com/newsarticle/4f8b22d10169a52811000000/mayawati-attacks-samajwadi-party


    NYDailyNews.com

    Mayawati attacks Samajwadi Party

    At a gathering of party
    workers in Agra, Mayawati spoke critically of the Samajwadi Party, saying it
    should work towards fulfilling its decisions, rather than reversing the ones
    taken during her regime.

    Former Uttar Pradesh chief minister and Bahujan
    Samaj Party supremo Mayawati Sunday refuted allegations by the ruling Samajwadi
    Party that her government wasted precious space by developing parks.

    She said if the Samajwadi Party was so keen to
    construct hospitals and colleges in the parks developed by her government to honour
    the leaders and social reformers, then it could start with Ram Manohar Lohia
    Park in Lucknow.

    She was addressing a huge gathering of party
    workers at Bheem Nagri as part of the three-day Ambedkar Jayanti celebrations.

    Mayawati also met party MPs and legislators to
    discuss strategies for the next Lok Sabha elections.

    IANS



    http://zeenews.india.com/news/uttar-pradesh/keep-away-from-political-vendetta-mayawati-to-sp_770253.html

    Keep away from political vendetta : Mayawati to
    SP

     

    Agra (UP): BSP
    chief Minister Mayawati on Monday warned the ruling Samajwadi Party in Uttar Pradesh
    not to embark on political vendetta and advised it to use the vacant land of
    Ram Manohar Lohia Park, constructed during the Mulayam Singh Yadav regime, for
    setting up IT park or hospital.

    “Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav is talking about IT park to divert people’s
    attention from the tall election promises he had made,” she told a
    gathering of BSP workers at Bheem Nagri here.


    Taking a swipe at SP, Mayawati said it can set up
    an IT park or a hospital in Ram Manohar Lohia park.

    She accused the SP government of harassing SC/ST officials and those who had
    occupied high posts in her tenure.

    She also alleged
    her security has been drastically reduced which has adversely affected her
    movement.

    “If anything untoward happened to me, the Centre and the state government
    should be held accountable for it,” she said.

    Mayawati said during her tenure she never indulged in political revenge
    and did not take action against pro-SP officials and others responsible for the
    police recruitment scam.

    She claimed the SP government has brought back ‘goonda raj’ in UP.


    16
    04 2012 monday
    LESSON
    583
    FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research And  THE
    BUDDHIST
    ONLINE GOOD
    NEWS LETTER
    by ABHIDHAMMA RAKKHITA through
    http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org


    84000 Khandas divided into 275250 as to the
    stanzas of the original text and
    into 361550 divided  into 2547 banawaras containing 737000 stanzas and
    29368000

    separate letters

    Awakeness Practices

    All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the
    Pali Suttas

    Traditionally
    the are 84,000 Dharma Doors -
    84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so;

    certainly the Buddha taught a
    large number of practices that lead to

    Awakeness. This web page attempts
    to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas

    (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1).
    There are 3 sections:

    The discourses of Buddha
    are divided into 84,000, as to
    separate addresses. The division includes all

    that was spoken by Buddha.”I
    received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000

    Khandas, and  from the
    priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained

    by me.” They are divided into
    275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text,

    and into 361,550, as to the stanzas
    of the commentary. All the discourses

    including both those of Buddha and
    those of the commentator, are divided

    into 2,547 banawaras, containing
    737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

    WISDOM IS POWER

    Awakened One Shows the Path to
    Attain Ultimate Bliss

    Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss
    Just Visit:

    http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

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    through the following

    Schools of Learning :

    Buddha Taught his Dhamma Free of
    cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā

    follows suit

    As the Original Nālandā University
    did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā

    University.

    Main Course Programs:

    I.
    KAMMA

    REBIRTH

    AWAKEN-NESS

    BUDDHA

    THUS
    COME ONE

    DHAMMA

    II.

    ARHAT

    FOUR
    HOLY TRUTHS

    EIGHTFOLD
    PATH

    TWELVEFOLD
    CONDITIONED ARISING

    BODHISATTVA

    PARAMITA

    SIX
    PARAMITAS

    III.

    SIX
    SPIRITUAL POWERS

    SIX PATHS OF
    REBIRTH

    TEN DHARMA
    REALMS

    FIVE
    SKANDHAS

    EIGHTEEN
    REALMS

    FIVE MORAL
    PRECEPTS

    IV.

    MEDITATION

    MINDFULNESS

    FOUR
    APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

    LOTUS
    POSTURE

    SAMADHI

    CHAN
    SCHOOL

    FOUR
    DHYANAS

    FOUR
    FORMLESS REALMS

    V.

    FIVE
    TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

    MAHAYANA
    AND HINAYANA COMPARED

    PURE
    LAND

    BUDDHA
    RECITATION

    EIGHT
    CONSCIOUSNESSES

    ONE
    HUNDRED DHARMAS

    EMPTINESS

    VI.

    DEMON

    LINEAGE

    with

    Level I:
    Introduction to Buddhism

    Level
    II: Buddhist Studies

    TO
    ATTAIN

    Level
    III: Stream-Enterer

    Level
    IV: Once - Returner

    Level V:
    Non-Returner


    Level VI: Arhat

    Jambudvipa,

    i.e,
    PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

    mathematics,

    astronomy,

    alchemy,

    and

    anatomy

    Philosophy
    and Comparative Religions;

    Historical
    Studies;

    International
    Relations and Peace Studies;

    Business
    Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

    Languages
    and Literature;

     

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