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29 04 2012 SUNDAY LESSON 595 FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research And Practice UNIVERSITY And THE BUDDHISTONLINE GOOD NEWS LETTER by ABHIDHAMMA RAKKHITA through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org Dhammapada: Verses and Stories Dhammapada Verse 150 The Body Is A City Of Bones
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29 04 2012 SUNDAY LESSON 595 FREE ONLINE eNālāndā
Research And Practice UNIVERSITY And
THE BUDDHISTONLINE GOOD NEWS LETTER by ABHIDHAMMA RAKKHITA through
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

Dhammapada: Verses and Stories

Dhammapada
Verse 150
The Body Is A City Of
Bones





Verse
150. The Body Is A City Of Bones

This city’s made of bones
plastered with flesh and blood,
within are stored decay and death,
besmearing and conceit.

Explanation: This body is made of bones which form its
structure. This bare structure is plastered and filled with flesh and blood.
Inside this citadel are deposited decay, death, pride and ingratitude.

V.
FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED


PURE LAND
BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eight_Consciousnesses

Eight
Consciousnesses

The
Eight Consciousnesses is a
classification developed in the tradition of the
Yogacara school of Buddhism. They enumerate the five senses, supplemented by the mind , the “obscuration” of the mind (manas), and finally
the fundamental
store-house
consciousness
, which is the basis of the other seven.

Contents

  • 4
    Consciousness
  • 4.2
    Transformations of consciousness
  • 5
    Understanding in Buddhist Tradition
  • 5.2
    Korea
  • 6 See
    also
  • 7 Notes
  • 8
    References
  • 9 Sources
  • 10
    External links
  • Etymology

    The Sanskrit term for the Eight
    Consciousnesses is
    A
    ṣṭavijñāna, from aṣṭa “eight”
    and
    vijñāna “consciousness”. The Tibetan term is rnam-shes
    tshogs-brgyad
    )[1]

    The Sanskrit term for store-house consciousness is ālayavijñāna,
    from ālaya “abode, dwelling”;
    Tibetan: kun gzhi rnam shes; Chinese: 阿賴耶識, Japanese: arayashiki (阿頼耶識?)

    The Eight
    Consciousnesses (A
    ṣṭa
    Vijñāna)

    All
    Eight Consciousness are “aggregates” or
    skandha.

    The
    first six are the sensate “consciousnesses” plus the mind. The
    Yogacara School that espoused the Cittamatra
    Doctrine

    proffer two more consciousnesses:

    1. Eye-consciousnes (Tibetan: mig-gi
      rnam-shes
      ), seeing apprehended by the visual sense organs;
    2. Ear-consciousness (Tibetan: rna’i
      rnam-shes
      ), hearing apprehended by the auditory sense organs;
    3. Nose-consciousness (Tibetan: sna’i
      rnam-shes
      ), smelling apprehended through the olfactory organs;
    4. Tongue-consciousness (Tibetan: lce’i
      rnam-shes
      ), tasting perceived through the gustatory organs;
    5. Body-consciousness (Tibetan: lus-kyi
      rnam-shes
      ), tactile feeling apprehended through skin contact,
      touch.
    6. Ideation-consciousnes (Tibetan: yid-kyi
      rnam-shes
      ), the aspect of mind known in Sanskrit as citta or manovijñāna,
      the “
      mind
      monkey
      “;
      the consciousness of
      ideation.
    7. Manas
      consciousness

      (Sanskrit: klistamanas =
      klesha; Tibetan: nyon-yid
      rnam-shes
      ), obscuration-consciousness (”obscuration”,
      “poison”, “enemy”; manas “ideation”,
      “moving mind”, “mind monkey”), the consciousness which
      through apprehension, gathers the hindrances, the poisons, the karmic
      formations;
    8. “Store-house
      consciousness” (Sanskrit: ālāyavijñāna; Tibetan: kun-gzhi
      rnam-shes
      ), The seed consciousness (bi^ja-vijn~a^na), “the
      consciousness which is the basis of the other seven”.
      [2] It is the
      aggregate which administers and yields
      rebirth.[a]

    Origins
    and development

    Pali Canon

    The first five sense-consciousnesses along with the sixth
    consciousness are identified in the
    Sutta Pitaka, especially the Salayatana Vagga subsection of the Samyutta Nikaya:

    “Monks, I
    will teach you the All. Listen & pay close attention. I will speak.”

    “As you say, lord,” the monks responded.

    The Blessed One
    said, “What is the All? Simply the eye & forms, ear & sounds, nose
    & aromas, tongue & flavors, body & tactile sensations, intellect
    & ideas. This, monks, is called the All. [1] Anyone who would say,
    ‘Repudiating this All, I will describe another,’ if questioned on what exactly
    might be the grounds for his statement, would be unable to explain, and
    furthermore, would be put to grief. Why? Because it lies beyond range.”[3]

    Yogacara

    Main article: Yogacara

    The Yogacara-school gives a detailed explanation of the
    workings of the mind and the way it constructs the reality we experience. It is
    “meant to be an explanation of experience, rather than a system of
    ontology”.
    [4] Vasubandhu is considered to be
    the sytematizer of Yogacara-thought.
    [5] Vasubandhu used the
    concept of the
    six consciousnesses, on which he elaborated in the Triśikaikā-kārikā (Treatise in Thirty
    Stanzas).
    [6]

    Consciousness

    According
    to the traditional interpretation, Vasubandhu states that there are eight
    consciousnesses:

    According
    to Kalupahana, this classification of eight consciousnesses is based on a
    misunderstanding of Vasubandhu’s Tri
    śikaikā-kārikā by later
    adherents.
    [9][b]

    Aālayavijñāna

    The ālaya-vijñāna forms the “base-consciousness”
    (mūla-vijñāna) or “causal consciousness”. According to the
    traditional interpretation, the other seven consciousnesses are
    “evolving” or “transforming” consciousnesses originating in
    this base-consciousness.

    The store-house consciousness accumulates all potential
    energy for the mental (nama) and physical (rupa) manifestation of
    one’s existence (namarupa).
    It is the storehouse-consciousness which induces transmigration or rebirth,
    causing the origination of a new existence

    Rebirth and purification

    The store-house consciousness receives impressions from
    all functions of the other consciousnesses, and retains them as potential
    energy,
    bija or
    “seeds”, for their further manifestations and activities. Since it
    serves as the container for all experiential impressions it is also called the
    “seed consciousness” (種子
    ) or container consciousness.

    According to Yogacara teachings, the
    seeds stored in the store consciousness of sentient beings are not pure.
    [c]

    The store consciousness, while being originally immaculate
    in itself, contains a “mysterious mixture of purity and defilement, good
    and evil”. Because of this mixture the transformation of consciousness
    from defilement to purity can take place and
    awakening is possible.[10]

    Through the process of purification the dharma
    practitioner can became a Arahat, when the four defilements of the mental
    functions
    [d] of the
    manas-consciousness are purified.
    [e] [f]

    Tathagata-garbha thought

    According to the Lankavatara Sutra and the schools of Chan/Zen Buddhism, the alaya-vjnana is
    identical with the
    tathagata-garbha[g], and is
    fundamentally pure.
    [11]

    The equation of alaya-vjnana and tathagatagarbha was
    contested. It was seen as “something akin to the Hindu notions of ātman
    (permanent, invariant self) and
    prak
    ti (primordial
    substrative nature from which all mental, emotional and physical things
    evolve).
    [12] The critique led by
    the end of the eighth centuryto the rise of …

    [T]he
    logico-epistemic tradition [of Yogācāra] and […] a hybrid school that
    combined basic Yogācāra doctrines with Tathāgatagarbha thought.

    The logico-epistemological wing in part side-stepped the
    critique by using the term citta-santāna, “mind-stream”,
    instead of ālaya-vijñāna, for what amounted to roughly the same idea. It
    was easier to deny that a “stream” represented a
    reified self.

    On the other
    hand, the Tathāgatagarbha hybrid school was no stranger to the charge of
    smuggling notions of selfhood into its doctrines, since, for example, it
    explicitly defined the tathāgatagarbha as “permanent, pleasurable, self,
    and pure (nitya, sukha, ātman, śuddha). Many
    Tathāgatagarbha texts, in fact, argue for the acceptance of selfhood (ātman)
    as a sign of higher accomplishment. The hybrid school attempted to conflate tathāgatagarbha
    with the ālaya-vijñāna.
    [12]

    Transformations of consciousness

    The traditional interpretation of the eight
    consciousnesses may be discarded on the ground of a reinterpretation of
    Vasubandhu’s works.

    According to scholar Roger R. Jackson, a
    “‘fundamental unconstructed awareness’ (mūla-nirvikalpa-jñāna)”
    is “described […] frequently in Yogacara literature.”
    [13] , Vasubandhu’s work

    According to Kalupahana, instead of positing additional
    consciousnesses, the Tri
    śikaikā-kārikā describes the transformations
    of this consciousness:

    Taking vipaka,
    manana and vijnapti as three different kinds of functions, rather
    than caharacteristics, and understanding vijnana itself as a function (vijnanatiti
    vijnanam
    ), Vasubandhu seems to be avoiding any form of substantialist
    thinking in relation to consciousness.
    [14]

    These transformations are threefold:[14]

    Whatever, indeed,
    is the variety of ideas of self and elements that prevails, it occurs in the
    transformation of consciousness. Such transformation is threefold, [namely,][15]

    The first transformation results in the alaya:

    the resultant,
    what is called mentation, as well as the concept of the object. Herein, the
    consciousness called alaya, with all its seeds, is the resultant.
    [16]

    The alaya-vijnana therefore is not an eight consciousness,
    but the resultant of the transformation of consciousness:

    Instead of being
    a completely distinct category, alaya-vijnana merely represents the
    normal flow of the stream of consciousness uninterrupted by the appearance of
    reflective self-awareness. It is no more than the unbroken stream of
    consciousness called the life-proces by the Buddha. It is the cognitive
    process, containing both emotive and conative aspects of human experience, but
    without the enlarged egoistic ermotions and dognatic graspings characteristic
    of the next two transformations.
    [9]

    The second transformation is manana,
    self-consciousness or “Self-view, self-confusion, self-esteem and
    self-love”.
    [17] According to the
    Lankavatara and later interpreters it is the seventh consciousness.
    [18] It is
    “thinking” about the various perceptions occurring in the stream of
    consciousness”.
    [18] The alaya is
    defiled by this self-interest;

    [I]t can be
    purified by adopting a non-substantialist (anatman) perspective and
    thereby allowing the alaya-part (i.e. attachment) to dissipate, leaving
    consciousness or the function of being intact.
    [17]

    The third transformation is visaya-vijnapti, the
    concept of the object”.
    [19] In this
    transformation the concept of objects is created. By creating these
    concepts human beings become “susceptible to grasping after the
    object”:[19]

    Vasubandhu is
    critical of the third transformation, not because it relates to the conception
    of an object, but because it generates grasping after a “real object”
    (sad artha), even when it is no more than a conception (vijnapti)
    that combines experinece and reflection.[20]

    A similar perspective is give by Walpola Rahula. According to Walpola Rahula, all the elements of the Yogācāra
    storehouse-consciousness are already found in the Pāli Canon.
    [21] He writes that the
    three layers of the mind (citta, manas, and vijñana) as
    presented by Asa
    ga are also mentioned in the Pāli
    Canon:

    Thus we can see
    that ‘Vijñāna’ represents the simple reaction or response of the sense organs
    when they come in contact with external objects. This is the uppermost or superficial
    aspect or layer of the ‘Vijñāna-
    skandha‘. ‘Manas’ represents the aspect of its mental
    functioning, thinking, reasoning, conceiving ideas, etc. ‘Citta’ which is here
    called ‘Ālayavijñāna’, represents the deepest, finest and subtlest aspect or
    layer of the Aggregate of consciousness. It contains all the traces or
    impressions of the past actions and all good and bad future possibilities.
    [22]

    Understanding
    in Buddhist Tradition

    China

    Fa Hsiang and Hua Yen

    Although Vasubandhu had postulated
    numerous ālaya-vijñāna-s, a separate one for each individual person in the
    para-kalpita, this multiplicity was later eliminated in the
    Fa
    Hsiang
    and Hua Yen metaphysics. These
    schools inculcated instead the doctrine of a single universal and eternal
    ālaya-vijñāna. This exalted enstatement of the ālaya-vijñāna is described in
    the Fa Hsiang as “primordial unity”
    [23].

    The presentation of the three natures by Vasubandhu is
    consistent with the Neo-platonist views of
    Plotinus and his universal
    ‘One’, ‘Mind’, and ‘Soul’.
    [24]

    Chán

    A core teaching of Chan/Zen Buddhism describes the
    transformation of the Eight Consciousnesses into the
    Four Wisdoms.[h] In this teaching,
    Buddhist practice is to turn the light of awareness around, from misconceptions
    regarding the nature of reality as being external, to
    directly see one’s own nature. Thus the Eighth Consciousness is transformed into the Great Perfect
    Mirror Wisdom, the Seventh Consciousness into the Equality (Universal Nature)
    Wisdom, the Sixth Consciousness into the Profound Observing Wisdom, and First
    to Fifth Consciousnesses into the All Performing (Perfection of Action) Wisdom.

    See also

    Notes

    1.    
    ^ This idea may in some
    respects be compared to the usage of the word “citta” in the
    agamas. In the early texts the sankhara-khandha plays some of the roles
    ascribed to the store-house consciousness by later Yogacara thinkers.

    2.    
    ^ Kalupahana: “The above
    explanation of alaya-vijnana makes it very different from that found in
    the Lankavatara. The latter assumes alaya to be the eight
    consciousness, giving the impression that it represents a totally distinct
    category. Vasubandhu does not refer to it as the eight, even though his later
    disciples like Sthiramati and Hsuan Tsang constantly refer to it as such”.
    [9]

    3.    
    ^ Each being has his own one
    and only, formless and no-place-to-abide store-house consciousness. Our
    “being” is created by our own store-consciousness, according to the
    karma seeds stored in it. In “coming and going” we definitely do not
    own the “no-coming and no-going” store-house consciousness, rather we
    are owned by it. Just as a human image shown in a monitor can never be
    described as lasting for any instant, since “he” is just the
    production of electron currents of data stored and flow from the hard disk of
    the computer, so do seed-currents drain from the store-consciousness, never
    last from one moment to the next.

    4.    
    ^ 心所法), self-delusion (我癡), self-view (我見),
    egotism (
    我慢), and self-love (我愛)

    5.    
    ^ By then the polluted mental
    functions of the first six consciousnesses would have been cleansed. The
    seventh or the manas-consciousness determines whether or not the seeds and the
    contentdrain from the alaya-vijnana breaks through, becoming a
    “function” to be perceived by us in the mental or physical world.

    6.    
    ^ In contrast to an Arahat, a
    Buddha is one with all his seeds stored in the eighth Seed consciousness.
    Cleansed and substituted, bad for good, one for one, his
    polluted-seeds-containing eighth consciousness (Alaya Consciousness) becomes an
    all-seeds-purified eighth consciousness (Pure consciousness
    無垢識 ), and he becomes a Buddha.

    7.    
    ^ The womb or matrix of the
    Thus-come-one, the Buddha

    8.    
    ^ It is found in Chapter 7 of
    the
    Platform
    Sutra

    of the Sixth Ancestor Zen Master
    Huineng
    and other Zen masters, such as
    Hakuin Ekaku, in his work titled Keiso
    Dokuqui
    [25],
    and
    Xuyun, in his work titled Daily
    Lectures at Two Ch’an Weeks
    , Week 1, Fourth Day.
    [26]

     

    Korea

    The Interpenetration (通達) and Essence-Function
    (
    體用)
    of Wonhyo (元曉) is described in the Treatise on Awakening Mahāyāna Faith (AMF):

    The author of the
    AMF was deeply concerned with the question of the respective origins of
    ignorance and enlightenment. If enlightenment is originally existent, how do we
    become submerged in ignorance? If ignorance is originally existent, how is it
    possible to overcome it? And finally, at the most basic level of mind, the alaya
    consciousness (
    藏識), is there originally purity or taint? The AMF
    dealt with these questions in a systematic and thorough fashion, working
    through the Yogacāra concept of the alaya consciousness. The technical
    term used in the AMF which functions as a metaphorical synonym for
    interpenetration is “permeation” or “perfumation (
    ),”
    referring to the fact that defilement (
    煩惱)
    “perfumates” suchness (
    眞如), and suchness
    perfumates defilement, depending on the current condition of the mind.
    [27]

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