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24 04 2012 TUESDAY LESSON 591 FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research And Practice UNIVERSITY And THE BUDDHIST ONLINE GOOD NEWS LETTER by AWAKEN ONE WITH AWARENESS ABHIDHAMMA RAKKHITA through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org Dhammapada: Verses and Stories Dhammapada Verse 145 Sukhasamanera Vatthu Those Who Restrain Their Own Mind
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24 04 2012 TUESDAY LESSON 591 FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research And Practice UNIVERSITY And THE BUDDHIST ONLINE GOOD NEWS LETTER by AWAKEN
ONE WITH AWARENESS ABHIDHAMMA RAKKHITA through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

Dhammapada:
Verses and Stories

Dhammapada Verse
145
Sukhasamanera Vatthu Those Who Restrain Their Own Mind


 

Verse
145. Those Who Restrain Their Own Mind

Irrigators govern water,
fletchers fashion shafts,
as joiners shape their timber
those of good conduct tame themselves.

Explanation: Irrigators direct the water. Fletchers shape the
arrows. Carpenters shape the wood. The wise consciously control themselves.

Dhammapada: Verses and Stories

Dhammapada
Verse 145
Sukhasamanera Vatthu

Udakam hi nayanti nettika
usukara namayanti tejanam
darum namayanti tacchaka

attanam damayanti subbata.

Verse 145: Farmers1 channel the water; fletchers
straighten the arrows; carpenters work the timber; the wise tame themselves.


1. Farmers: lit., makers of irrigation canals.


The Story of Samanera* Sukha

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered
Verse (145) of this book, with reference to a samanera named Sukha.

Sukha was made a samanera at the age of seven years by Thera
Sariputta. On the eighth day after being made a samanera he followed Thera
Sariputta on his alms-round. While doing the round they came across some
farmers irrigating their fields, some fletchers straightening their arrows and
some carpenters making things like cart-wheels, etc. Seeing these, he asked
Thera Sariputta whether these inanimate things could be guided to where one
wished or be made into things one wished to make, and the thera answered him in
the affirmative. The young samanera then pondered that if that were so, there
could be no reason why a person could not tame his mind and practise
Tranquillity and Insight Meditation.

So, he asked permission from the thera to return to the
monastery. There, he shut himself up in his room and practised meditation in
solitude, Sakka and the devas also helped him in his practice by keeping the
monastery very quiet. That same day, the eighth day after his becoming a
samanera, Sukha attained arahatship. In connection with this, the Buddha said
to the congregation of bhikkhus, “When a person earnestly practises the
Dhamma, even Sakka and the devas give protection and help. I myself have kept
Sariputta at the entrance so that Sukha should not be disturbed. The samanera,
having seen the farmers irrigating their fields, the fletchers straightening
their arrows and the carpenters making cart-wheels and other things, trains his
mind and practises the Dhamma. Thus, he has now become an arahat.”

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:


Verse
145: Farmers** channel the water; fletchers straighten the arrows; carpenters
work the timber; the wise tame themselves.

* This story is the same as that of Samanera Pandita (Verse 80)

** Farmers: lit., makers of irrigation canals

End of Chapter Ten: Punishment (Dandavagga)

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR
DHYANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Formless_Realm

Formless
Realm

The Formless Realm or Ārūpyadhātu
(
Sanskrit)
or Arūpaloka (Pāli) (Tib: gzugs med pa’i khams) is a realm in
Buddhist
cosmology
.[1]
It would have no place in a purely physical cosmology, as none of the beings
inhabiting it has either shape or location; and correspondingly, the realm has
no location either. This realm belongs to those devas who attained and remained
in the Four Formless Absorptions (catu
-samāpatti) of the arūpadhyānas
in a previous life, and now enjoys the fruits (vipāka) of the good
karma of that accomplishment.
Bodhisattvas,
however, are never born in the Ārūpyadhātu even when they have attained the
arūpadhyānas.

There are four types of Ārūpyadhātu
devas, corresponding to the four types of arūpadhyānas:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhist_cosmology

Buddhist
cosmology

Buddhist cosmology
is the description of the shape and evolution of the
Universe
according to the
Buddhist
scriptures
and commentaries.

Contents

 [hide

  • 2.1.3 Desire Realm
    (Kāmadhātu)
  • 2.1.4 The
    foundations of the earth
  • 2.2 Sahasra cosmology
  • 3 Temporal cosmology
  • 3.3 Savartakalpa
  • 3.4 Savartasthāyikalpa
  • 3.5 Other
    destructions
  • 4 Mahayana views
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • Introduction

    The self-consistent
    Buddhist cosmology which is presented in commentaries and works of Abhidharma
    in both Theravāda
    and Mahāyāna
    traditions, is the end-product of an analysis and reconciliation of
    cosmological comments found in the Buddhist sūtra and vinaya
    traditions. No single sūtra sets out the entire structure of the universe.
    However, in several sūtras the Buddha describes other worlds and states of
    being, and other sūtras describe the origin and destruction of the universe.
    The synthesis of these data into a single comprehensive system must have taken
    place early in the history of Buddhism, as the system described in the Pāli
    Vibhajyavāda
    tradition (represented by today’s Theravādins) agrees, despite some trivial
    inconsistencies of nomenclature, with the Sarvāstivāda
    tradition which is preserved by Mahāyāna Buddhists.

    The picture of the world
    presented in Buddhist cosmological descriptions cannot be taken as a literal
    description of the shape of the universe. It is inconsistent,
    and cannot be made consistent, with astronomical data that were already known
    in ancient India. However, it is not intended to be a description of how
    ordinary humans perceive their world[citation needed];
    rather, it is the universe as seen through the divyacak
    us
    (Pāli: dibbacakkhu), the “divine eye” by which a Buddha
    or an arhat
    who has cultivated this faculty can perceive all of the other worlds and the
    beings arising (being born) and passing away (dying) within them, and can tell
    from what state they have been reborn and into what state
    they will be reborn. The cosmology has also been interpreted in a symbolical or
    allegorical sense (see Ten spiritual realms).

    Buddhist cosmology can be
    divided into two related kinds: spatial cosmology, which describes the
    arrangement of the various worlds within the universe, and temporal cosmology,
    which describes how those worlds come into existence, and how they pass away.

    Spatial
    cosmology

    Spatial cosmology can
    also be divided into two branches. The vertical (or
    cakravāa) cosmology describes the
    arrangement of worlds in a vertical pattern, some being higher and some lower.
    By contrast, the horizontal (sahasra) cosmology describes the grouping
    of these vertical worlds into sets of thousands, millions or billions.

    Vertical cosmology

    In the vertical
    cosmology, the universe exists of many worlds (
    lokā) – one might say “planes” – stacked one upon
    the next in layers. Each world corresponds to a mental state or a state of
    being. A world is not, however, a location so much as it is the beings which
    compose it; it is sustained by their karma
    and if the beings in a world all die or disappear, the world disappears too.
    Likewise, a world comes into existence when the first being is born into it.
    The physical separation is not so important as the difference in mental state;
    humans and animals, though they partially share the same physical environments,
    still belong to different worlds because their minds perceive and react to
    those environments differently.

    The vertical cosmology is
    divided into thirty-one planes of existence and the planes into three realms,
    or dhātus, each corresponding to a different type of mentality. These
    three (Tridhātu) are the Ārūpyadhātu, the Rūpadhātu, and the Kāmadhātu. The
    latter comprises the “five or six
    realms
    “. In some instances all of the beings born in the
    Ārūpyadhātu and the Rūpadhātu are informally classified as “gods” or
    “deities” (devā
    ),
    along with the gods of the Kāmadhātu, notwithstanding the fact that the deities
    of the Kāmadhātu differ more from those of the Ārūpyadhātu than they do from
    humans. It is to be understood that deva is an imprecise term referring
    to any being living in a longer-lived and generally more blissful state than
    humans. Most of them are not “gods” in the common sense of the term,
    having little or no concern with the human world and rarely if ever interacting
    with it; only the lowest deities of the Kāmadhātu correspond to the gods
    described in many polytheistic religions.

    The term “brahmā” is used both as a
    name and as a generic term for one of the higher devas. In its broadest sense,
    it can refer to any of the inhabitants of the Ārūpyadhātu and the Rūpadhātu. In
    more restricted senses, it can refer to an inhabitant of one of the nine lower
    worlds of the Rūpadhātu, or in its narrowest sense, to the three lowest worlds
    of the Rūpadhātu. A large number of devas use the name “Brahmā”, e.g.
    Brahmā Sahampati, Brahmā Sanatkumāra, Baka Brahmā, etc. It is not always clear
    which world they belong to, although it must always be one of the worlds of the
    Rūpadhātu below the Śuddhāvāsa worlds.

    Formless Realm (Ārūpyadhātu)

    Main article: Formless Realm

    The Ārūpyadhātu (Sanskrit)
    or Arūpaloka (Pāli) (Tib:
    gzugs med pa’i khams) or “Formless realm” would have no place
    in a purely physical cosmology, as none of the beings inhabiting it has either
    shape or location; and correspondingly, the realm has no location either. This
    realm belongs to those devas who attained and remained in the Four Formless
    Absorptions (
    catu-samāpatti) of the arūpadhyānas in a previous
    life, and now enjoys the fruits (vipāka) of the good karma of that accomplishment. Bodhisattvas,
    however, are never born in the Ārūpyadhātu even when they have attained the
    arūpadhyānas.

    There are four types of
    Ārūpyadhātu devas, corresponding to the four types of arūpadhyānas:

    Form Realm (Rūpadhātu)

    The Rūpadhātu (Pāli:
    Rūpaloka; Tib: gzugs kyi khams) or “Form realm” is, as the
    name implies, the first of the physical realms; its inhabitants all have a
    location and bodies of a sort, though those bodies are composed of a subtle
    substance which is of itself invisible to the inhabitants of the Kāmadhātu. According
    to the Janavasabha Sutta, when a brahma (a being from the Brahma-world of the
    Rūpadhātu) wishes to visit a deva of the
    Trāyastriśa heaven (in the Kāmadhātu), he has
    to assume a “grosser form” in order to be visible to them. There are
    17-22 Rūpadhātu in Buddhism texts, the most common saying is 18.[1][2]

    The beings of the Form
    realm are not subject to the extremes of pleasure and pain, or governed by
    desires for things pleasing to the senses, as the beings of the Kāmadhātu are.
    The bodies of Form realm beings do not have sexual distinctions.

    Like the beings of the
    Ārūpyadhātu, the dwellers in the Rūpadhātu have minds corresponding to the dhyānas (Pāli: jhānas). In
    their case it is the four lower dhyānas or rūpadhyānas.
    However, although the beings of the Rūpadhātu can be divided into four broad
    grades corresponding to these four dhyānas, each of them is subdivided into
    further grades, three for each of the four dhyānas and five for the Śuddhāvāsa
    devas, for a total of seventeen grades (the Theravāda tradition counts one less
    grade in the highest dhyāna for a total of sixteen).

    Physically, the Rūpadhātu
    consists of a series of planes stacked on top of each other, each one in a
    series of steps half the size of the previous one as one descends. In part,
    this reflects the fact that the devas are also thought of as physically larger
    on the higher planes. The highest planes are also broader in extent than the
    ones lower down, as discussed in the section on Sahasra cosmology. The
    height of these planes is expressed in yojanas, a measurement of very
    uncertain length, but sometimes taken to be about 4,000 times the height of a
    man, and so approximately 4.54 miles (7.31 km) or 7.32 kilometers.

    Pure Abodes

    The Śuddhāvāsa (Pāli:
    Suddhāvāsa; Tib: gnas gtsang ma) worlds, or “Pure Abodes”, are
    distinct from the other worlds of the Rūpadhātu in that they do not house
    beings who have been born there through ordinary merit or meditative
    attainments, but only those Anāgāmins (”Non-returners”)
    who are already on the path to Arhat-hood and who will attain enlightenment directly
    from the Śuddhāvāsa worlds without being reborn in a lower plane (Anāgāmins can
    also be born on lower planes). Every Śuddhāvāsa deva is therefore a protector
    of Buddhism. (Brahma Sahampati, who appealed
    to the newly enlightened Buddha to teach, was an Anagami from a previous Buddha[3]).
    Because a Śuddhāvāsa deva will never be reborn outside the Śuddhāvāsa worlds,
    no Bodhisattva
    is ever born in these worlds, as a Bodhisattva must ultimately be reborn as a
    human being.

    Since these devas rise
    from lower planes only due to the teaching of a Buddha, they can remain empty
    for very long periods if no Buddha arises. However, unlike the lower worlds,
    the Śuddhāvāsa worlds are never destroyed by natural catastrophe. The
    Śuddhāvāsa devas predict the coming of a Buddha and, taking the guise of
    Brahmins, reveal to human beings the signs by which a Buddha can be recognized.
    They also ensure that a Bodhisattva in his last life will see the four signs
    that will lead to his renunciation.

    The five Śuddhāvāsa
    worlds are:

    Bhatphala worlds

    The mental state of the
    devas of the
    Bhatphala worlds corresponds to the fourth dhyāna, and is
    characterized by equanimity (upek
    ā).
    The Bhatphala worlds form the upper limit to the destruction of the
    universe by wind at the end of a mahākalpa (see Temporal cosmology below),
    that is, they are spared such destruction.

    Śubhaktsna worlds

    The mental state of the
    devas of the
    Śubhaktsna worlds corresponds to the third dhyāna, and is
    characterized by a quiet joy (sukha). These devas have bodies that radiate a steady
    light. The
    Śubhaktsna worlds form the upper limit to the destruction of the
    universe by water at the end of a mahākalpa (see Temporal cosmology below),
    that is, the flood of water does not rise high enough to reach them.

    Ābhāsvara worlds

    The mental state of the
    devas of the Ābhāsvara worlds corresponds
    to the second dhyāna, and is characterized by delight (prīti) as
    well as joy (sukha);
    the Ābhāsvara devas are said to shout aloud in their joy, crying aho sukham!
    (”Oh joy!”). These devas have bodies that emit flashing rays of light
    like lightning. They are said to have similar bodies (to each other) but
    diverse perceptions.

    The Ābhāsvara worlds form
    the upper limit to the destruction of the universe by fire at the end of a
    mahākalpa (see Temporal cosmology below),
    that is, the column of fire does not rise high enough to reach them. After the
    destruction of the world, at the beginning of the vivartakalpa, the worlds are
    first populated by beings reborn from the Ābhāsvara worlds.

    Brahmā worlds

    Main article: Brahma (Buddhism)

    The mental state of the
    devas of the Brahmā worlds corresponds to the first dhyāna, and is characterized
    by observation (vitarka)
    and reflection (vicāra)
    as well as delight (prīti)
    and joy (sukha).
    The Brahmā worlds, together with the other lower worlds of the universe, are
    destroyed by fire at the end of a mahākalpa (see Temporal cosmology below).

    Desire Realm (Kāmadhātu)

    Main article: Desire realm

    The beings born in the
    Kāmadhātu (Pāli: Kāmaloka; Tib: ‘dod pa’i khams) differ in degree of
    happiness, but they are all, other than arhats and Buddhas, under the
    domination of Māra and are bound by sensual
    desire, which causes them suffering

    Heavens

    The following four worlds
    are bounded planes. each 80,000 yojanas square, which float in the air above
    the top of Mount Sumeru.
    Although all of the worlds inhabited by devas (that is, all the worlds down to
    the Cāturmahārājikakāyika world and sometimes including the Asuras) are
    sometimes called “heavens”, in the western sense of the word the term
    best applies to the four worlds listed below:

    Worlds of Sumeru

    Main article: Sumeru

    The world-mountain of
    Sumeru is an immense, strangely shaped peak which arises in the center of the
    world, and around which the Sun and Moon revolve. Its base rests in a vast
    ocean, and it is surrounded by several rings of lesser mountain ranges and
    oceans. The three worlds listed below are all located on or around Sumeru: the
    Trāyastriśa devas live on its peak, the Cāturmahārājikakāyika devas live on its
    slopes, and the Asuras live in the ocean at its base. Sumeru and its
    surrounding oceans and mountains are the home not just of these deities, but
    also vast assemblies of beings of popular mythology who only rarely intrude on
    the human world.

    Earthly realms

    ·        
     

    ·        
     

    ·        
     

    ·        
     

    Hells (Narakas)

    Main article: Naraka (Buddhism)

    Naraka or Niraya (Tib: dmyal
    ba
    ) is the name given to one of the worlds of greatest suffering, usually
    translated into English as “hell” or “purgatory”. As with
    the other realms, a being is born into one of these worlds as a result of his karma,
    and resides there for a finite length of time until his karma has achieved its
    full result, after which he will be reborn in one of the higher worlds as the
    result of an earlier karma that had not yet ripened. The mentality of a being
    in the hells corresponds to states of extreme fear and helpless anguish in
    humans.

    Physically, Naraka is
    thought of as a series of layers extending below Jambudvīpa into the earth.
    There are several schemes for counting these Narakas and enumerating their
    torments. One of the more common is that of the Eight Cold Narakas and Eight
    Hot Narakas.

    Cold Narakas

    Each lifetime in these
    Narakas is twenty times the length of the one before it.

    Hot Narakas

    The foundations of the earth

    All of the structures of
    the earth, Sumeru and the rest, extend downward to a depth of 80,000 yojanas
    below sea level – the same as the height of Sumeru above sea level. Below this
    is a layer of “golden earth”, a substance compact and firm enough to
    support the weight of Sumeru. It is 320,000 yojanas in depth and so extends to
    400,000 yojanas below sea level. The layer of golden earth in turn rests upon a
    layer of water, which is 8,000,000 yojanas in depth, going down to 8,400,000
    yojanas below sea level. Below the layer of water is a “circle of
    wind”, which is 16,000,000 yojanas in depth and also much broader in
    extent, supporting 1,000 different worlds upon it.

    Sahasra cosmology

    While the vertical
    cosmology describes the arrangement of the worlds vertically, the sahasra
    (Sanskrit: “thousand”) cosmology describes how they are grouped
    horizontally. The four heavens of the Kāmadhātu, as mentioned, occupy a limited
    space no bigger than the top of Mount Sumeru. The three Brahmā-worlds, however,
    stretch out as far as the mountain-wall of
    Cakravāa, filling the entire sky. This whole group of worlds, from Mahābrahmā
    down to the foundations of water, constitutes a single world-system. It
    corresponds to the extent of the universe that is destroyed by fire at the end
    of one mahākalpa.

    Above Mahābrahmā are the
    Ābhāsvara worlds. These are not only higher but also wider in extent; they
    cover 1,000 separate world-systems, each with its own Sumeru,
    Cakravāa, Sun, Moon, and four continents.
    This system of 1,000 worlds is called a
    sāhasra-cūika-lokadhātu, or “small chiliocosm”. It corresponds
    to the extent of the universe that is destroyed by water at the end of 8
    mahākalpas.

    Above the Ābhāsvara
    worlds are the
    Śubhaktsna worlds, which cover 1,000
    chiliocosms, or 1,000,000 world-systems. This larger system is called a dvisāhasra-madhyama-lokadhātu,
    or “medium dichiliocosm”. It corresponds to the extent of the
    universe that is destroyed by wind at the end of 64 mahākalpas.

    Likewise, above the Śubhaktsna worlds, the Śuddhāvāsa and Bhatphala worlds cover 1,000 dichiliocosms,
    or 1,000,000,000 world-systems. This largest grouping is called a trisāhasra-mahāsāhasra-lokadhātu
    or “great trichiliocosm”.

    Temporal
    cosmology

    Buddhist temporal cosmology
    describes how the universe comes into being and is dissolved. Like other Indian
    cosmologies, it assumes an infinite span of time and is cyclical. This does not
    mean that the same events occur in identical form with each cycle, but merely
    that, as with the cycles of day and night or summer and winter, certain natural
    events occur over and over to give some structure to time.

    The basic unit of time measurement
    is the mahākalpa or “Great Eon”. The exact length of this time
    in human years is never defined exactly, but it is meant to be very long, to be
    measured in billions of years if not longer.

    A mahākalpa is divided into
    four kalpas or “eons”, each distinguished from the others by the
    stage of evolution of the universe during that kalpa. The four kalpas are:

    Each one of these kalpas is divided
    into twenty antarakalpas (Pāli antarakappa, “inside
    eons”) each of about the same length. For the Sa
    vartasthāyikalpa
    this division is merely nominal, as nothing changes from one antarakalpa to the
    next; but for the other three kalpas it marks an interior cycle within the
    kalpa.

    Vivartakalpa

    The Vivartakalpa begins
    with the arising of the primordial wind, which begins the process of building
    up the structures of the universe that had been destroyed at the end of the
    last mahākalpa. As the extent of the destruction can vary, the nature of this
    evolution can vary as well, but it always takes the form of beings from a
    higher world being born into a lower world. The example of a Mahābrahmā being
    the rebirth of a deceased Ābhāsvara deva is just one instance of this, which
    continues throughout the Vivartakalpa until all the worlds are filled from the
    Brahmaloka down to Naraka. During the Vivartakalpa the first humans appear;
    they are not like present-day humans, but are beings shining in their own
    light, capable of moving through the air without mechanical aid, living for a
    very long time, and not requiring sustenance; they are more like a type of
    lower deity than present-day humans are.[9]

    Over time, they acquire a
    taste for physical nutriment, and as they consume it, their bodies become
    heavier and more like human bodies; they lose their ability to shine, and begin
    to acquire differences in their appearance, and their length of life decreases.
    They differentiate into two sexes and begin to become sexually active. Then
    greed, theft and violence arise among them, and they establish social
    distinctions and government and elect a king to rule them, called Mahāsammata,
    “the great appointed one”. Some of them begin to hunt and eat the
    flesh of animals, which have by now come into existence.[10]

    Vivartasthāyikalpa

    First antarakalpa

    The Vivartasthāyikalpa
    begins when the first being is born into Naraka, thus filling the entire
    universe with beings. During the first antarakalpa of this eon, human lives are
    declining from a vast but unspecified number of years (but at least several
    tens of thousands of years) toward the modern lifespan of less than 100 years.
    At the beginning of the antarakalpa, people are still generally happy. They
    live under the rule of a universal monarch or “wheel-turning king” (cakravartin),
    who conquer. The Mahāsudassana-sutta (DN.17) tells of the life of a cakravartin
    king, Mahāsudassana (Sanskrit: Mahāsudarśana) who lived for 336,000 years. The
    Cakkavatti-sīhanāda-sutta (DN.26) tells of a later dynasty of cakravartins,
    Dahanemi (Sanskrit: Dṛḍhanemi) and five of his descendants, who had a lifespan of over
    80,000 years. The seventh of this line of cakravartins broke with the
    traditions of his forefathers, refusing to abdicate his position at a certain
    age, pass the throne on to his son, and enter the life of a śrama
    a. As a result of his subsequent
    misrule, poverty increased; as a result of poverty, theft began; as a result of
    theft, capital punishment was instituted; and as a result of this contempt for
    life, murders and other crimes became rampant.

    The human lifespan now
    quickly decreased from 80,000 to 100 years, apparently decreasing by about half
    with each generation (this is perhaps not to be taken literally), while with
    each generation other crimes and evils increased: lying, greed, hatred, sexual
    misconduct, disrespect for elders. During this period, according to the
    Mahāpadāna-sutta (DN.14) three of the four Buddhas of this antarakalpa lived:
    Krakucchanda Buddha (Pāli: Kakusandha), at the time when the lifespan was
    40,000 years; Kanakamuni Buddha (Pāli: Konāgamana) when the lifespan was 30,000
    years; and Kāśyapa Buddha (Pāli: Kassapa) when the lifespan was 20,000 years.

    Our present time is taken
    to be toward the end of the first antarakalpa of this Vivartasthāyikalpa, when
    the lifespan is less than 100 years, after the life of Śākyamuni Buddha (Pāli:
    Sakyamuni), who lived to the age of 80.

    The remainder of the
    antarakalpa is prophesied to be miserable: lifespans will continue to decrease,
    and all the evil tendencies of the past will reach their ultimate in destructiveness.
    People will live no longer than ten years, and will marry at five; foods will
    be poor and tasteless; no form of morality will be acknowledged. The most
    contemptuous and hateful people will become the rulers. Incest will be rampant.
    Hatred between people, even members of the same family, will grow until people
    think of each other as hunters do of their prey.[11]

    Eventually a great war
    will ensue, in which the most hostile and aggressive will arm themselves and go
    out to kill each other. The less aggressive will hide in forests and other
    secret places while the war rages. This war marks the end of the first
    antarakalpa.[12]

    Second antarakalpa

    At the end of the war,
    the survivors will emerge from their hiding places and repent their evil
    habits. As they begin to do good, their lifespan increases, and the health and
    welfare of the human race will also increase with it. After a long time, the
    descendants of those with a 10-year lifespan will live for 80,000 years, and at
    that time there will be a cakravartin king named
    Sakha. During his reign, the current bodhisattva in the Tuita heaven will descend and be
    reborn under the name of Ajita. He will enter the life of a śramaa and will gain perfect enlightenment
    as a Buddha; and he will then be known by the name of Maitreya
    (Pāli: Metteyya).

    After Maitreya’s time,
    the world will again worsen, and the lifespan will gradually decrease from
    80,000 years to 10 years again, each antarakalpa being separated from the next
    by devastating war, with peaks of high civilization and morality in the middle.
    After the 19th antarakalpa, the lifespan will increase to 80,000 and then not
    decrease, because the Vivartasthāyikalpa will have come to an end.

    Saṃvartakalpa

    The Savartakalpa begins when beings cease to be born in Naraka. This
    cessation of birth then proceeds in reverse order up the vertical cosmology,
    i.e., pretas then cease to be born, then animals, then humans, and so on up to
    the realms of the deities.

    When these worlds as far
    as the Brahmaloka are devoid of inhabitants, a great fire consumes the entire
    physical structure of the world. It burns all the worlds below the Ābhāsvara
    worlds. When they are destroyed, the
    Savartasthāyikalpa begins.

    Saṃvartasthāyikalpa

    There is nothing to say
    about the
    Savartasthāyikalpa, since nothing happens in it
    below the Ābhāsvara worlds. It ends when the primordial wind begins to blow and
    build the structure of the worlds up again.

    Other destructions

    The destruction by fire
    is the normal type of destruction that occurs at the end of the
    Savartakalpa. But every eighth mahākalpa, after
    seven destructions by fire, there is a destruction by water. This is more
    devastating, as it eliminates not just the Brahma worlds but also the Ābhāsvara
    worlds.

    Every sixty-fourth
    mahākalpa, after 56 destructions by fire and 7 destructions by water, there is
    a destruction by wind. This is the most devastating of all, as it also destroys
    the
    Śubhaktsna worlds. The higher worlds are
    never destroyed.

    Mahayana
    views

    Mahayana
    Buddhism
    accepted the cosmology as above.[13][14]
    But they believe there are pure land worlds where buddhas and bodhisattvas
    teach sentient beings in human forms.[15]
    A cosmology with some difference is further explained in the Worlds, chapter 5
    of Avatamsaka Sutra.

    See also

     

    16
    04 2012 monday
    LESSON
    583
    FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research And  THE
    BUDDHIST
    ONLINE GOOD
    NEWS LETTER
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    84000 Khandas divided into 275250 as to the
    stanzas of the original text and
    into 361550 divided  into 2547 banawaras containing 737000 stanzas and
    29368000

    separate letters

    Awakeness Practices

    All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the
    Pali Suttas

    Traditionally
    the are 84,000 Dharma Doors -
    84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so;

    certainly the Buddha taught a
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    (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1).
    There are 3 sections:

    The discourses of Buddha
    are divided into 84,000, as to
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    that was spoken by Buddha.”I
    received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000

    Khandas, and  from the
    priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained

    by me.” They are divided into
    275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text,

    and into 361,550, as to the stanzas
    of the commentary. All the discourses

    including both those of Buddha and
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    into 2,547 banawaras, containing
    737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

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    EIGHTFOLD
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    SIX
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    FIVE
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    EIGHTEEN
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    FOUR
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