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8313 FRIDAY LESSON 854 -தமிழில் திரிபிடக மூன்று தொகுப்புகள்-மற்றும் பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள் சுருக்கமான வரலாற்று முன் வரலாறு-Great wise men and venerated sages from Sri Lanka and South India united to accomplish greater Tasks.-Pariyatti Learning Center-REAL BUDDHIST CULTURE Theravada Tipitaka-Guide to creating Sinhala and Tamil Unicode fonts -TIPITAKA- SINHALA TRIPITAKA-PALI - ENGLISH - SINHALA
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8313 FRIDAY LESSON 854

மிழில் திரிபி  மூன்று தொகுப்புள்
மற்றும்
பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள்
சுருக்கமான வரலாற்று முன் வரலாறு


Pariyatti Learning Center

REAL BUDDHIST CULTURE

Theravada Tipitaka

Guide to creating Sinhala and Tamil Unicode fonts

TIPITAKA-


SINHALA TRIPITAKA-PALI - ENGLISH - SINHALA


from FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

http://www.lankaweb.com/news/items08/201008-6.html



Great wise men and venerated
sages from Sri Lanka and South India united to accomplish greater Tasks.

By Charles.S.Perera

In Tiruchi of the ancient Chola country in South India was found a
51″ Buddhist Statute in granite dating back to 10th or 11th Century
AD. In Tamil Nadu there were Tamil Buddhists. The Tamil Buddhsits in
Tamil Nadu, and Sinhala Buddhists in Sri Lanka had cordial relations.
Vennearable Buddhaghosa who translated the Sinhala Commentaries on Buddhist
texts and wrote a compendium of the tripitaka came from Tailang in South
India.

Ghosa who later became Venerable Buddhaghosa was a great Hindu intellectual
who was well versed in the Vedas.

One of the senior monks, Venerable Revata from Sri Lanka, one day heard
Sanskrit Vedic Verses sung by a wandering ascetic. Venerable Revata
was very impressed by his recitation of Sanskrit stanzas. He called
him to his temple, he was Ghosa. Venerable Revata spoke to him about
Buddhist Suttas written in Pali. Ghosa who listened to the Venerable
Revata reciting verses from the Abhidhamma, took a great liking to it.
He wanted to study the original Buddhist texts.

On his request Ghosa was ordained as a monk and given the name Buddhaghosa.
Venerable Revata told him that the original manuscripts containing the
Sutta discourses of the Budhha, were taken by Venerabla Arahant Mahinda
thero to Sri Lanka in the third century BC. These texts along with the
commentaries in Sinhala were at Mahavihara in Anuradhapura, in Sri Lanka.
Venerable Reveta requested Venerable Buddhaghosa to go to Sri Lanka,
and translate the Sinhala Commentaries into Pali and bring them to India
for the greater good of the Buddha Sasana.

Thereupon Venerable Buddhaghosa came back to his native Tailang in
South India, and proceeded from there by boat to Sri Lanka. On his way,
he met in the high seas Venerable Bhuddhadatta who was returning to
his home country in Uragapur in the ancient Chola Country in South India.
On hearing each others experiences, Venerable Buddhadatta, requested
Venerable Buddhaghosa to send him copies of his work in Sri Lanka.

Venerable Buddhaghosa disembarked at the port of Jambukola, in Jaffna,
and proceeded from there to Anuradhapura in 5 century AD. Sri Lanka
was ruled at the time by King Mahanama. Venerable Buddhaghosa was received
at the Maha Vihara in Anuradhapura, by Venerable Sangapala thero.. Venerable
Buddhaghosa studied Thervada Buddhist texts under the direction of Venerable
Sangapala the Sinhala monk. His permission to translate the Sinhala
Commentaries in to Pali was granted after he compiled a compendium of
the whole of the teachings of the Buddha in the Tripitaka. Venerable
Buddhaghosa included into it all the commentaries in Sinhala to the
Tripitaka. It is the Visuddhimagga.

Rohan L.Jayetilleke says in respect of this great encyclopaedic work
of the Great Venerable Buddhaghosa from the ancient Tamil Nadu,

” The Visuddhimagga above all is a testimony to the intellectual
attainments of Buddhaghosha in knowledge it is encyclopaedic and enshrining
a deep insight, is the most valuable contribution of any Indian to the
continuation of a Pali Theravada Buddhism, at a time Buddhism was in
the vain in India and Sanskrit language had eclipsed Pali, in all spheres
of activity both, secular, religious and literary “.

When permission was granted to Venerable Buddhaghosa by the Priests
of the Mahavihara to undertake this great task, he took residence at
Ganthakara Parivena in the Mahavihara and translated all commentaries
including the whole of Abhidhamma from Sinhala to Pali.

Thereafter, the Venerabla Buddhadatta thero, who had taken residence
in a Vihara on the Baks of Kaveri River, in South India, on receiving
the copies of the manuscripts from Venerable Buddhaghosa, after reading
the commentaries to the Abhidhamma, and the Vinaya , wrote Abhidhammavatara,
and Vinayavinicca based on Venerable Buddhaghosa’s stupendous work.

That was the incomparable relationship the intellectual spiritual Leaders
of the ancient Tamil Nadu, had with Sri Lanka and the Sinhala spiritual
Leaders.

Let us pray that time would come that South India will have such great
men of immeasurable value to establish spiritual and lay relations with
equally great men in Sri Lanka.



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http://www.metta.lk/tipitaka/2Sutta-Pitaka/1Digha-Nikaya/index.html

Digha
Nikàya



English
Introduction


by T.W.Rhys Davis taken from the PTS Vol I

Volume
1

1

Brahmajàla
Sutta

Pali

English

Sinhala

2

Sàma¤¤aphala
Sutta

Pali

English 
(2)

Sinhala

3

Ambaññha
Sutta

Pali

English

Sinhala

4

Soõadaõóa
Sutta

Pali

English

Sinhala

5

Kåñadanta
Sutta

Pali

English

Sinhala

6

Mahàli
Sutta

Pali

English

Sinhala

7

Jàliya
Sutta

Pali

English

Sinhala

8

Kassapa
Sãhanàda Sutta

Pali

English

Sinhala

9

Poññhapàda
Sutta

Pali

English

Sinhala

10

Subha
Sutta

Pali

English

Sinhala

11

Kevaóóha
Sutta

Pali

English  (2)

Sinhala

12

Lohicca
Sutta

Pali

English  (2)

Sinhala

13

Tevijja
Sutta

Pali

English

Sinhala

 
Volume 2

14

Mahàpadàna
Sutta

Pali

English

Sinhala

15

Mahànidàna
Sutta

Pali

English

Sinhala

16

Mahà
Parinibbàna Sutta

Pali

English  (2)  (3)

Sinhala

17

Mahà
Sudassana Sutta

Pali

English 

Sinhala

18

Jana
Vasabha Sutta

Pali

English 

Sinhala

19

Mahà
Govinda Sutta

Pali

English 

Sinhala

20

Mahà
Samaya Sutta

Pali

English 

Sinhala

21

Sakka
Pa¤ha Sutta

Pali

English  (2)  (3) 

Sinhala

22

Mahà
Satipaññhàna Sutta

Pali

English 

Sinhala

23

Pàyàsi
Sutta

Pali

English

Sinhala

 
Volume 3

24

Pàtika
Sutta

Pali

English

Sinhala

25

Udumbarika
Sutta

Pali

English 

Sinhala

26

Cakkavatti
Sutta

Pali

English 

Sinhala

27

Agga¤¤a
Sutta

Pali

English 

Sinhala

28

Sampasàdaniya
Sutta

Pali

English 

Sinhala

29

Pàsàdika
Sutta

Pali

English 

Sinhala

30

Lakkhaõa
Sutta

Pali

English 

Sinhala

31

Sãgàlovàda
Sutta

Pali

English

Sinhala

32

âñànàñiya
Sutta

Pali

English 

Sinhala

33

Saïgãti
Sutta

Pali

English 

Sinhala

34

Dasuttara
Sutta

Pali

English

Sinhala




Our email Address is metta <at/> metta <dot> lk” src=”http://www.metta.lk/address.gif” width=”583″ height=”45″></dot></font></center><br />
<hr /></p>
	<p>http://www.metta.lk/tipitaka/2Sutta-Pitaka/1Digha-Nikaya/Digha1/01-brahmajala-p.html</p>
</font></b></font></p>
	<div id=

[PTS Vol D - 1] [\z D /] [\f I /]
[PTS Page 001] [\q 1/]


[BJT Vol D - 1] [\z D /] [\w I /]


[BJT Page 002] [\x 2/]

Suttantapiñake
Dãghanikàyo


Sãlakkhandhavaggo


Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammàsambuddhassa.


1.Brahmajàlasuttaü


1. Evaü
me sutaü ekaü samayaü bhagavà antarà ca ràjagahaü antarà ca nàlandaü
addhànamaggapañipanno hoti mahatà bhikkhusaïghena saddhiü pa¤camattehi
bhikkhusatehi. Suppiyo’pi kho paribbàjako antarà ca ràjagahaü antarà ca
nàlandaü addhànamaggapañipanno hoti saddhiü antevàsinà brahmadattena
màõavena.

Tatra sudaü
suppiyo paribbàjako anekapariyàyena buddhassa avaõõaü bhàsati, dhammassa
avaõõaü bhàsati, saïghassa avaõõaü bhàsati. Suppiyassa pana
paribbàjakassa antevàsã brahmadatto màõavo anekapariyàyena buddhassa
vaõõaü bhàsati, dhammassa vaõõaü bhàsati, saïghassa vaõõaü bhàsati.
Itiha te ubho àcariyantevàsã a¤¤ama¤¤assa ujuvipaccanãkavàdà bhagavantaü
piññhito piññhito anubaddhà1 honti bhikkhusaïghaü ca.

2. Atha kho
bhagavà ambalaññhikàyaü ràjàgàrake ekarattivàsaü upagaüchi saddhiü
bhikkhusaïghena. Suppiyo’pi kho paribbàjako ambalaññhikàyaü ràjàgàrake
ekarattivàsaü upagaüchi saddhiü antevàsinà brahmadattena màõavena.
Tatra’pi sudaü suppiyo paribbàjako anekapariyàyena buddhassa avaõõaü
bhàsati, dhammassa avaõõaü bhàsati, saïghassa avaõõaü bhàsati.
Suppiyassa [PTS Page 002] [\q 2/] pana paribbàjakassa antevàsã
brahmadatto màõavo buddhassa vaõõaü bhàsati, dhammassa vaõõaü bhàsati,
saïghassa vaõõaü bhàsati. Itiha te ubho àcariyantevàsã a¤¤ama¤¤assa
ujuvipaccanãkavàdà viharanti.

[BJT Page 004] [\x 4/]

3. Atha kho
sambahulànaü bhikkhånaü rattiyà paccåsasamayaü paccuññhitànaü
maõóalamàëe sannisinnànaü sannipatitànaü ayaü saïkhiyàdhammo udapàdi:
“acchariyaü àvuso, abbhutaü àvuso, yàva¤cidaü tena bhagavatà jànatà
passatà arahatà sammàsambuddhena sattànaü nànàdhimuttikatà
suppañividità. Ayaü hi suppiyo paribbàjako anekapariyàyena buddhassa
avaõõaü bhàsati, dhammassa avaõõaü bhàsati, saïghassa avaõõaü bhàsati.
Suppiyassa pana paribbàjakassa antevàsã brahmadatto màõavo buddhassa
vaõõaü bhàsati, dhammassa vaõõaü bhàsati, saïghassa vaõõaü bhàsati.
Itiha’me ubho àcariyantevàsã a¤¤ama¤¤assa ujuvipaccanãkavàdà bhagavantaü
piññhito piññhito anubaddhà honti bhikkhusaïghaü cà”ti.

4. Atha kho
bhagavà tesaü bhikkhånaü imaü saïkhiyàdhammaü viditvà yena maõóalamàëo
tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà pa¤¤atte àsane nisãdi. Nisajja kho bhagavà
bhikkhå àmantesi: “kàya nu’ttha bhikkhave etarahi kathàya sannisinnà
sannipatità? Kà ca pana vo antarà kathà vippakatà?”Ti.

Evaü vutte te
bhikkhå bhagavantaü etadavocuü: “idha bhante amhàkaü rattiyà
paccåsasamayaü paccuññhitànaü maõóalamàëe sannisinnànaü sannipatitànaü
ayaü saïkhiyàdhammo udapàdi “acchariyaü àvuso, abbhutaü àvuso yàva¤cidaü
tena bhagavatà arahatà sammàsambuddhena sattànaü nànàdhimuttikatà
suppañividità. Ayaü hi suppiyo paribbàjako anekapariyàyena buddhassa
avaõõaü bhàsati, dhammassa avaõõaü bhàsati, saïghassa avaõõaü bhàsati.
Suppiyassa pana paribbàjakassa antevàsã brahmadatto màõavo buddhassa
vaõõaü bhàsati, dhammassa vaõõaü bhàsati, saïghassa vaõõaü bhàsati.
Itiha’me ubho àcariyantevàsã a¤¤ama¤¤assa ujuvipaccanãkavàdà bhagavantaü
piññhito piññhito anubaddhà honti bhikkhusaïgha¤cà’ti. Ayaü kho no
bhante antaràkathà vippakatà. Atha bhagavà anuppatto”ti.

5. “Mamaü và
bhikkhave pare avaõõaü bhàseyyuü, dhammassa và avaõõaü bhàseyyuü,
saïghassa và [PTS Page 003] [\q 3/] avaõõaü bhàseyyuü, tatra tumhehi na
àghàto na appaccayo na cetaso anabhiraddhi karaõãyà. Mamaü và bhikkhave
pare avaõõaü bhàseyyuü, dhammassa và avaõõaü bhàseyyuü, saïghassa và
avaõõaü bhàseyyuü, tatra ce tumhe assatha kupità và anattamanà và,
tumhaü yevassa tena antaràyo. Mamaü và bhikkhave pare avaõõaü bhàseyyuü,
dhammassa và avaõõaü bhàseyyuü, saïghassa và avaõõaü bhàseyyuü, tatra
tumhe assatha kupità và anattamanà và, api nu paresaü subhàsitaü
dubbhàsitaü tumhe àjàneyyàthà?”Ti.

“No hetaü bhante. “

“Mamaü và
bhikkhave pare avaõõaü bhàseyyuü, dhammassa và avaõõaü bhàseyyuü,
saïghassa và avaõõaü bhàseyyuü, tatra tumhehi abhåtaü abhåtato
nibbeñhetabbaü: ‘iti’petaü abhåtaü. Iti’petaü atacchaü. Natthi cetaü
amhesu. Na ca panetaü amhesu saüvijjatã’ti. “

[BJT Page 006] [\x 6/]

6. “Mamaü và
bhikkhave pare vaõõaü bhàseyyuü, dhammassa và vaõõaü bhàseyyuü,
saïghassa và vaõõaü bhàseyyuü, tatra tumhehi na ànando na somanassaü na
cetaso ubbilàvitattaü1 karaõãyaü. Mamaü và bhikkhave pare vaõõaü
bhàseyyuü, dhammassa và vaõõaü bhàseyyuü, saïghassa và vaõõaü bhàseyyuü,
tatra ce tumhe assatha ànandino sumanà ubbilàvino2, tumhaü yevassa tena
antaràyo. Mamaü và bhikkhave pare vaõõaü bhàseyyuü, dhammassa và vaõõaü
bhàseyyuü, saïghassa và vaõõaü bhàseyyuü, tatra và tumhehi bhåtaü
bhåtato pañijànitabbaü: “iti’petaü bhåtaü, iti’petaü tacchaü. Atthi
cetaü amhesu. Saüvijjati ca panetaü amheså’ti. “

7.
“Appamattakaü kho panetaü bhikkhave oramattakaü sãlamattakaü, yena
puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya. Katama¤ca taü bhikkhave
appamattakaü oramattakaü sãlamattakaü, yena puthujjano tathàgatassa
vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya. ?

[PTS Page 004] [\q 4/]

8.
“Pàõàtipàtaü pahàya pàõàtipàtà pañivirato samaõo gotamo nihitadaõóo
nihitasattho lajjã dayàpanno sabbapàõabhåtahitànukampã viharatã”ti. Iti
và hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

9.
“Adinnàdànaü pahàya adinnàdànà pañivirato samaõo gotamo dinnàdàyã
dinnapàñikaïkhã athenena sucibhåtena attanà viharatã”ti. Iti và hi
bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

10.
“Abrahmacariyaü pahàya brahmacàrã samaõo gotamo àràcàrã virato methunà
gàmadhammà”ti. Iti và hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü
vadamàno vadeyya.

11. “Musàvàdaü
pahàya musàvàdà pañivirato samaõo gotamo saccavàdã saccasandho theto
paccayiko avisaüvàdako lokassà”ti. Iti và hi bhikkhave puthujjano
tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

1. Ubbillàvitattaü, ma cha saü.

2. Ubbillàvino, ma cha saü.

[BJT Page 008] [\x 8/]

12. “Pisuõaü
vàcaü pahàya pisuõàya vàcàya pañivirato samaõo gotamo. Ito sutvà na
amutra akkhàtà imesambhedàya. Amutra và sutvà na imesaü akkhàtà
amåsambhedàya. Iti bhinnànaü và sandhàtà saühitànaü và anuppadàtà.
Samaggàràmo samaggarato samagganandã samaggakaraõiü vàcaü bhàsità”ti.
Iti và hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

13. “Pharusaü
vàcaü pahàya pharusàya vàcàya pañivirato samaõo gotamo. Yà sà vàcà neëà
kaõõasukhà pemanãyà hadayaïgamà porã bahujanakantà bahujanamanàpà,
tathàråpiü vàcaü bhàsità”ti. Iti và hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa
vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

14.
“Samphappalàpaü pahàya samphappalàpà pañivirato samaõo gotamo, kàlavàdã
bhåtavàdã atthavàdã dhammavàdã vinayavàdã, nidhànavatiü vàcaü bhàsità
kàlena [PTS Page 005] [\q 5/] sàpadesaü pariyantavatiü atthasaühitanti”
iti và hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

15.
“Bãjagàmabhåtagàmasamàrambhà pañivirato samaõo gotamo. Ekabhattiko
samaõo gotamo rattåparato virato vikàlabhojanà.
Naccagãtavàditavisåkadassanà pañivirato samaõo gotamo.
Màlàgandhavilepanadhàraõamaõóanavibhåsanaññhànà pañivirato samaõo
gotamo. Uccàsayanamahàsayanà pañivirato samaõo gotamo.
Jàtaråparajatapañiggahaõà pañivirato samaõo gotamo.
âmakadha¤¤apañiggahaõà pañivirato samaõo gotamo. âmakamaüsapañiggahaõà
pañivirato samaõo gotamo. Itthikumàrikapañiggahaõà pañivirato samaõo
gotamo. Dàsidàsapañiggahaõà pañivirato samaõo gotamo. Ajeëakapañiggahaõà
pañivirato samaõo gotamo. Kukkuñasåkarapañiggahaõà pañivirato samaõo
gotamo. Hatthigavàssavaëavapañiggahaõà pañivirato samaõo gotamo.
Khettavatthupañiggahaõà pañivirato samaõo gotamo. Dåteyya
pahiõagamanànuyogà pañivirato samaõo gotamo. Kayavikkayà pañivirato
samaõo gotamo. Tulàkåña - kaüsakåña - mànakåñà pañivirato samaõo gotamo.
Ukkoñana - va¤cananikati - sàciyogà pañivirato samaõo gotamo. Chedana -
vadhabandhana - viparàmosa - àlopasahasàkàrà pañivirato samaõo gotamo
“ti. Iti và hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno
vadeyya.

Cullasãlaü niññhitaü.

[BJT Page 010] [\x 10/]

16. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü bãjagàmabhåtagàmasamàrambhaü anuyuttà viharanti seyyathãdaü:
målabãjaü khandhabãjaü phalubãjaü aggabãjaü bãjabãjameva pa¤camaü. Iti
và itievaråpà bãjagàmabhåtagàmasamàrambhà pañivirato samaõo gotamo”ti.
Iti và hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

17. [PTS Page
006] [\q 6/] “yathà và paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni
bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te evaråpaü sannidhikàraparibhogaü anuyuttà
viharanti. Seyyathãdaü: annasannidhiü pànasannidhiü vatthasannidhiü
yànasannidhiü sayanasannidhiü gandhasannidhiü àmisasannidhiü. Iti và iti
evaråpà sannidhikàraparibhogà pañivirato samaõo gotamo”ti. Iti và hi
bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

18. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü visåkadassanaü anuyuttà viharanti. Seyyathãdaü: naccaü gãtaü
vàditaü pekkhaü akkhànaü pàõissaraü vetàlaü1 kumbhathånaü sobhanakaü2
caõóàlaü vaüsaü dhovanaü3 hatthiyuddhaü assayuddhaü daõóayuddhaü
muññhiyuddhaü nibbuddhaü uyyodhikaü balaggaü senàbyuhaü anãkadassanaü.
Iti và itievaråpà visåkadassanà pañivirato samaõo gotamo”ti. Iti và hi
bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

1. Vetàlaü, [P T S.]

2. Sobhaõa garakaü, [P T S.]

3. Dhopanaü, [P T S.]

4. Meõóakayuddhaü, katthaci.

[BJT Page 012] [\x 12/]

19. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü jåtappamàdaññhànànuyogaü anuyuttà viharanti - seyyathãdaü:
aññhapadaü dasapadaü àkàsaü parihàrapathaü santikaü khalikaü ghañikaü
salàkahatthaü akkhaü païgacãraü vaïkakaü mokkhacikaü ciïgulakaü
pattàëhakaü rathakaü [PTS Page 007] [\q 7/] dhanukaü akkharikaü
manesikaü yathàvajjaü. Iti và itievaråpà jåtappamàdaññhànànuyogà
pañivirato samaõo gotamo”ti. Iti và hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa
vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

20. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü uccàsayanamahàsayanaü anuyuttà viharanti. Seyyathãdaü: àsandiü
pallaïkaü gonakaü1 cittakaü pañikaü pañalikaü tulikaü vikatikaü
uddalomiü ekantalomiü kaññhissaü koseyyaü kuttakaü hatthattharaü
assattharaü rathattharaü ajinappaveõiü kàdalimigapavarapaccattharaõaü
sauttaracchadaü ubhatolohitakåpadhànaü. Iti và itievaråpà
uccàsayanamahàsayanà pañivirato samaõo gotamo”ti. Iti và hi bhikkhave
puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

21. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü maõóanavibhusanaññhànànuyogaü anuyuttà viharanti - seyyathãdaü:
ucchàdanaü parimaddanaü nahàpanaü sambàhanaü àdàsaü a¤janaü
màlàvilepanaü mukhacuõõakaü mukhalepanaü hatthabandhaü sikhàbandhaü
daõóakaü nàëikaü asiü chattaü citråpàhanaü uõhãsaü maõiü vàlavãjaniü
odàtàni vatthàni dãghadasàni. Iti và itievaråpà
maõóanavibhusanaññhànànuyogà pañivirato samaõo gotamo”ti. Iti và hi
bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

1. Goõakaü, katthaci.

[BJT Page 014] [\x 14/]

22. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü tiracchànakathaü anuyuttà viharanti. Seyyathãdaü: ràjakathaü
corakathaü mahàmattakathaü senàkathaü bhayakathaü yuddhakathaü
annakathaü pànakathaü vatthakathaü sayanakathaü màlàkathaü gandhakathaü
¤àtikathaü yànakathaü gàmakathaü nigamakathaü nagarakathaü
janapadakathaü itthikathaü1 [PTS Page 008] [\q 8/] sårakathaü
visikhàkathaü kumbhaññhànakathaü pubbapetakathaü nànattakathaü
lokakkhàyikaü samuddakkhàyikaü itibhavàbhavakathaü. Iti và itievaråpàya
tiracchànakathàya pañivirato samaõo gotamo”ti. Iti và hi bhikkhave
puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

23. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü viggàhikakathaü anuyuttà viharanti. Seyyathãdaü: na tvaü imaü
dhammavinayaü àjànàsi. Ahaü imaü dhammavinayaü àjànàmi. Kiü tvaü imaü
dhammavinayaü àjànissasi? Micchàpañipanno tvamasi, ahamasmi sammà
pañipanno. Sahitaü me, asahitaü te. Pure vacanãyaü pacchà avaca. Pacchà
vacanãyaü pure avaca. âciõõaü2 te viparàvattaü. âropito te vàdo.
Niggahito tvamasi. Cara vàdappamokkhàya. Nibbeñhehi và sace pahosã’ti.
Iti và itievaråpàya viggàhikakathàya pañivirato samaõo gotamo”ti. Iti và
hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

24. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü dåteyyapahiõagamanànuyogaü anuyuttà viharanti. Seyyathãdaü:
ra¤¤aü ràjamahàmattànaü khattiyànaü bràhmaõànaü gahapatikànaü kumàrànaü
‘idha gaccha. Amutràgaccha. Idaü hara. Amutra idaü àharà’ti. Iti và
itievaråpà dåteyyapahiõagamanànuyogà pañivirato samaõo gotamo’ti. Iti và
hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

25. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te kuhakà
ca honti lapakà ca nemittikà ca nippesikà ca làbhena làbhaü
nijigiüsitàro. Iti và itievaråpà kuhanalapanà pañivirato samaõo
gotamo”ti. Iti và hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno
vadeyya.

Majjhimasãlaü niññhitaü.

1. Itthi kathaü purisa kathaü, machasaü.

2. Adhiciõõaü, machasaü.

[BJT Page 016] [\x 16/]

26. [PTS Page
009] [\q 9/] “yathà và paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni
bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü
kappenti - seyyathãdaü: aïgaü nimittaü uppàtaü supinaü lakkhaõaü
måsikacchinnaü aggihomaü dabbihomaü thusahomaü kaõahomaü taõóulahomaü
sappihomaü telahomaü homaü lohitahomaü aïgavijjà vatthuvijjà khattavijjà
sivavijjà bhåtavijjà bhurivijjà ahivijjà visavijjà vicchikavijjà
måsikavijjà sakuõavijjà vàyasavijjà pakkajjhànaü1 saraparittàõaü
migapakkhaü. Iti và itievaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà pañivirato
samaõo gotamo”ti. Iti và hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü
vadamàno vadeyya.

27. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü kappenti - seyyathãdaü:
maõilakkhaõaü daõóalakkhaõaü vatthalakkhaõaü asilakkhaõaü usulakkhaõaü
dhanulakkhaõaü àvudhalakkhaõaü itthilakkhaõaü purisalakkhaõaü
kumàralakkhaõaü kumàrãlakkhaõaü dàsalakkhaõaü dàsãlakkhaõaü
hatthilakkhaõaü assalakkhaõaü mahisalakkhaõaü usabhalakkhaõaü
golakkhaõaü ajalakkhaõaü meõóalakkhaõaü kukkuñalakkhaõaü vaññalakkhaõaü
godhàlakkhaõaü kaõõikàlakkhaõaü kacchapalakkhaõaü migalakkhaõaü. Iti và
itievaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà pañivirato samaõo gotamo’ti.
Iti và hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

28. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü kappenti - seyyathãdaü:
‘ra¤¤aü niyyànaü bhavissati. Ra¤¤aü atiyànaü bhavissati. Abbhantarànaü
ra¤¤aü upayànaü bhavissati. Bàhirànaü [PTS Page 010] [\q 10/] ra¤¤aü
apayànaü bhavissati. Bàhirànaü ra¤¤aü upayànaü bhavissati. Abbhantarànaü
ra¤¤aü apayànaü bhavissati. Abbhantarànaü ra¤¤aü jayo bhavissati.
Bàhirànaü ra¤¤aü paràjayo bhavissati. Bàhirànaü ra¤¤aü jayo bhavissati.
Abbhantarànaü ra¤¤aü paràjayo bhavissati’. Iti imassa jayo bhavissati.
Imassa paràjayo bhavissati. Iti và itievaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya
micchàjãvà pañivirato samaõo gotamo’ti. Iti và bhikkhave puthujjano
tathàgatassa vaõaõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

1. Pakkhajjhànaü, katthaci

[BJT Page 018] [\x 18/]

29. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü kappenti - seyyathãdaü:
candaggàho bhavissati, suriyaggàho bhavissati, nakkhattaggàho
bhavissati, candimasuriyànaü pathagamanaü bhavissati, candimasuriyànaü
uppathagamanaü bhavissati, nakkhattànaü pathagamanaü bhavissati,
nakkhattànaü uppathagamanaü bhavissati, ukkàpàto bhavissati, disàóàho
bhavissati, bhåmicàlo bhavissati, devadundubhi bhavissati,
candimasuriyanakkhattànaü uggamanaü ogamanaü saükilesaü vodànaü
bhavissati. Evaüvipàko candaggàho bhavissati, evaüvipàko suriyaggàho
bhavissati, evaüvipàko nakkhattaggàho bhavissati, evaüvipàkaü
candimasuriyànaü pathagamanaü bhavissati, evaüvipàkaü candimasuriyànaü
uppathagamanaü bhavissati, evaü vipàkaü nakkhattànaü pathagamanaü
bhavissati, evaüvipàkaü nakkhattànaü uppathagamanaü bhavissati,
evaüvipàko ukkàpàto bhavissati, evaüvipàko disàóàho bhavissati,
evaüvipàko bhåmicàlo bhavissati. Evaüvipàko devadundåbhi bhavissati,
evaüvipàkaü candimasuriyanakkhattànaü uggamanaü ogamanaü saïkilesaü
vodànaü bhavissati. Iti và [PTS Page 011] [\q 11/] itievaråpàya
tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà pañivirato samaõo gotamo’ti. ” Iti và hi
bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

30. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü kappenti - seyyathãdaü:
subbuññhikà bhavissati, dubbuññhikà bhavissati, subhikkhaü bhavissati,
dubbhikkhaü bhavissati, khemaü bhavissati, bhayaü bhavissati, rogo
bhavissati, àrogyaü bhavissati. Muddà gaõanà saïkhànaü kàveyyaü
lokàyataü. Iti và itievaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà pañivirato
samaõo gotamo’ti. ” Iti và hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü
vadamàno vadeyya.

31. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü kappenti - seyyathãdaü:
àvàhanaü vivàhanaü saüvadanaü vivadanaü saïkiraõaü vikiraõaü
subhagakaraõaü dubbhagakaraõaü viruddhagabbhakaraõaü jivhànitthambhanaü1
hanusaühananaü hatthàbhijappanaü hanujappanaü kaõõajappanaü àdàsapa¤haü
kumàrikapa¤haü devapa¤haü àdiccupaññhànaü mahatupaññhànaü abbhujjalanaü
sirivhànaü. Iti và itievaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà pañivirato
samaõo gotamo’ti. ” Iti và hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü
vadamàno vadeyya.

1. Nitthaddhanaü. Bahåsu.

[BJT Page 020] [\x 20/]

32. [PTS Page
012] [\q 12/] “yathà và paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni
bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü
kappenti - seyyathãdaü: santikammaü paõidhikammaü bhårikammaü1
vassakammaü vossakammaü vatthukammaü vatthuparikammaü vatthuparikiraõaü
àcamanaü nahàpanaü juhanaü vamanaü virecanaü uddhavirecanaü
adhovirecanaü sãsavirecanaü kaõõatelaü nettatappanaü natthukammaü
a¤janaü pacca¤janaü sàlàkiyaü sallakattiyaü dàrakatikicchà
målabhesajjànaü anuppadànaü osadhãnaü pañimokkho. Iti và itievaråpàya
tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà pañivirato samaõo gotamo’ti. ” Iti và hi
bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

33. Idaü kho taü bhikkhave appamattakaü oramattakaü sãlamattakaü yena puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

Mahàsãlaü niññhitaü.

34. Atthi
bhikkhave a¤¤eva dhammà gambhãrà duddasà duranubodhà santà paõãtà
atakkàvacarà nipuõà paõóitavedanãyà, ye tathàgato sayaü abhi¤¤à
sacchikatvà pavedeti, yehi tathàgatassa yathàbhuccaü vaõõaü sammà
vadamànà vadeyyuü. Katame ca te bhikkhave dhammà gambhãrà duddasà
duranubodhà santà paõãtà atakkàvacarà nipuõà paõóitavedanãyà ye
tathàgato sayaü abhi¤¤à sacchikatvà pavedeti, yehi tathàgatassa
yathàbhuccaü vaõõaü sammà vadamànà vadeyyuü?

35. Santi
bhikkhave eke samaõabràhmaõà pubbantakappikà pubbantànudiññhino
pubbantaü àrabbha anekavihitàni [PTS Page 013] [\q 13/] adhivuttipadàni
abhivadanti aññhàdasahi vatthåhi. Te ca bhonto samaõabràhmaõà kimàgamma
kimàrabbha pubbantakappikà pubbantànudiññhino pubbantaü àrabbha
anekavihitàni adhivuttipadàni abhivadanti aññhàrasahi vatthåhi?

1. Bhåtakammaü. Kesåci.

[BJT Page 022] [\x 22/]

36. Santi
bhikkhave eke samaõabràhmaõà sassatavàdà sassataü attàna¤ca loka¤ca
pa¤¤àpenti catåhi vatthåhi. Te ca bhonto samaõabràhmaõà kimàgamma
kimàrabbha sassatavàdà sassataü attàna¤ca loka¤ca pa¤¤àpenti catåhi
vatthåhi?

37. Idha
bhikkhave ekacco samaõo và bràhmaõo và àtappamanvàya padhànamanvàya
anuyogamanvàya appamàdamanvàya sammàmanasikàramanvàya tathàråpaü
cetosamàdhiü phusati yathà samàhite citte anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü
anussarati. Seyyathãdaü: “ekampi jàtiü dve’pi jàtiyo tisso’pi jàtiyo
catasso’pi jàtiyo pa¤ca’pi jàtiyo dasa’pi jàtiyo vãsatimpi jàtiyo
tiüsampi jàtiyo cattàrãsampi jàtiyo pa¤¤àsampi jàtiyo jàtisatampi
jàtisahassampi jàtisatasahassampi anekàni’pi jàtisatàni anekàni’pi
jàtisahassàni anekàni’pi jàtisatasahassàni amutràsiü evannàmo evaïgotto
evaüvaõõo evamàhàro evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedi evamàyupariyanto. So tato
cuto amutra upapàdiü1 tatràpàsiü evannàmo evaïgotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro
evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedã evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto
idhåpapanno’ti. “

Iti sàkàraü
sauddesaü anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü [PTS Page 014] [\q 14/] anussarati.
So evamàha: ’sassato attà ca loko ca va¤jho kåñaññho esikaññhàyiññhito.
Teva sattà sandhàvanti saüsaranti cavanti upapajjanti, atthitveva
sassatisamaü. Taü kissa hetu? Ahaü hi àtappamanvàya anuyogamanvàya
appamàdamanvàya sammàmanasikàramanvàya tathàråpaü cetosamàdhiü phusàmi
yathàsamàhite citte anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü anussaràmi. Seyyathãdaü:
“ekampi jàtiü dve’pi jàtiyo tisso’pi jàtiyo catasso’pi jàtiyo pa¤ca’pi
jàtiyo dasa’pi jàtiyo vãsatimpi jàtiyo tiüsampi jàtiyo cattàrãsampi
jàtiyo pa¤¤àsampi jàtiyo jàtisatampi jàtisahassampi jàtisatasahassampi
anekàni’pi jàtisatàni anekàni’pi jàtisahassàni anekàni’pi
jàtisatasahassàni amutràsiü evannàmo evaïgotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro
evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedi evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto amutra
upapàdiü tatràpàsiü evannàmo evaïgotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro
evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedã evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto
idhåpapanno’ti. Iti sàkàraü sauddesaü anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü
anussaràmi. Iminàmahaü etaü jànàmi: yathà sassato attà ca loko ca va¤jho
kåñaññho esikaññhàyiññhito. Teva sattà sandhàvanti saüsaranti cavanti
upapajjanti atthitveva sassatisama”nti.

Idaü bhikkhave pañhamaü ñhànaü yaü àgamma yaü àrabbha eke samaõabràhmaõà sassatavàdà ssasataü attàna¤ca loka¤ca pa¤¤àpenti.

1. Udapàdiü sã mu.

[BJT Page 24] [\x 24/]

38. Dutiye ca bhonto samaõabràhmaõà kimàgamma kimàrabbha sassatavàdà sassataü attàna¤ca loka¤ca pa¤¤àpenti?

Idha bhikkhave
ekacco samaõo và bràhmaõo và àtappamanvàya padhànamanvàya
anuyogamanvàya appamàdamanvàya sammàmanasikàramanvàya tathàrupaü
cetosamàdhiü phusati yathà samàhite citte anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü
anussarati - seyyathãdaü: ekampi saüvaññavivaññaü dve’pi
saüvaññavivaññàni tãõi’pi saüvaññavivaññàni cattàri’pi saüvaññavivaññàni
pa¤ca’pi saüvaññavivaññàni’ dasa’pi saüvaññavivaññàni ‘amutràsiü
evannàmo evaïgotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedã [PTS
Page 015] [\q 15/] evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto amutra upapàdiü.
Tatràpàsiü evannàmo evaïgotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro
evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedã evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto
idhåpapanno’ti. ” Iti sàkàraü sauddesaü anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü
anussarati.

So evamàha:
’sassato attà ca loko ca va¤jho kuñaññho esikaññhàyiññhito. Teva sattà
sandhàvanti saüsaranti cavanti upapajjanti atthitveva sassatisamaü. Taü
kissa hetu? Ahaü hi àtappamanvàya padhànamanvàya anuyogamanvàya
appamàdamanvàya sammàmanasikàramanvàya tathàrupaü cetosamàdhiü phusàmi
yathà samàhite citte anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü anussaràmi - seyyathãdaü:
ekampi saüvaññavivaññaü dve’pi saüvaññavivaññàni tãõi’pi
saüvaññavivaññàni cattàri’pi saüvaññavivaññàni pa¤ca’pi
saüvaññavivaññàni’ dasa’pi saüvaññavivaññàni ‘amutràsiü evannàmo
evaïgotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedã
evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto amutra upapàdiü. Tatràpàsiü evannàmo
evaïgotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedã
evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto idhåpapanno’ti. ” Iti sàkàraü sauddesaü
aneka vihitaü pubbenivàsaü anussaràmi. Iminà’pàhaü etaü jànàmi yathà
sassato attà ca loko ca va¤jho kuñaññho esikaññhàyiññhito. Teva sattà
sandhàvanti saüsaranti cavanti upapajjanti. Atthitveva sassatisamaü’ti. “

Idaü bhikkhave dutiyaü ñhànaü yaü àgamma yaü àrabbha eke samaõabràhmaõà sassatavàdà sassatà attàna¤ca loka¤ca pa¤¤àpenti.

39. Tatiye ca bhonto samaõabràhmaõà kimàgamma kimàrabbha sassatavàdà sassataü attàna¤ca loka¤ca pa¤¤àpenti?

[BJT Page 26] [\x 26/]

Idha bhikkhave
ekacco samaõo và bràhmaõo và àtappamanvàya padhànamanvàya
anuyogamanvàya appamàdamanvàya sammàmanasikàramanvàya tathàråpaü
cetosamàdhiü phusati yathà samàhite citte anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü
anussarati - seyyathãdaü: dasa’pi saüvaññavivaññaü vãsatimpi
saüvaññavivaññàni tiüsampi saüvaññavivaññàni cattàrãsampi
saüvaññavivaññàni “amutràsiü evannàmo evaügotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro
evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedã evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto amutra
upapàdiü. 1 Tatràpàsiü evannàmo evaïgotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro
evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedã evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto
idhåpapanno’ti. ” Iti sàkàraü sauddesaü aneka vihitaü pubbenivàsaü
anussarati.

So evamàha:
“sassato attà ca 016 loko ca va¤jho kåñaññho esikaññhàyiññhito. Teva
sattà sandhàvanti saüsaranti cavanti upapajjanti atthitveva
sassatisamaü. Taü kissa hetu? Ahaü hi àtappamanvàya padhànamanvàya
anuyogamanvàya appamàdamanvàya sammàmanasikàramanvàya tathàråpaü
cetosamàdhiü phusàmi yathà samàhite citte anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü
anussaràmi - seyyathãdaü: dasa’pi saüvaññavivaññàni vãsatimpi
saüvaññavivaññàni tiüsampi saüvaññavivaññàni cattàrãsampi
saüvaññavivaññàni “amutràsiü evannàmo evaügotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro
evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedã evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto amutra
upapàdiü. Tatràpàsiü evannàmo evaïgotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro
evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedã evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto
idhåpapanno’ti. Iti sàkàraü sauddesaü anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü
anussaràmi. Iminà mahaü etaü jànàmi. Yathà sassato attà ca loko ca
va¤jho kåñaññho esikaññhàyiññhito teva sattà sandhàvanti saüsaranti
cavanti upapajjanti atthitveva sassatisamaü’ti. “

Idaü bhikkhave tatiyaü ñhànaü yaü àgamma yaü àrabbha eke samaõabràhmaõà sassatavàdà sassataü attànaü ca lokaü ca pa¤¤àpenti.

40. Catutthe ca bhonto samaõabràhmaõà kimàgamma kimàrabbha sassatavàdà sassataü attàna¤ca loka¤ca pa¤¤àpenti. ?

Idha bhikkhave
ekacco samaõo và bràhmaõo và takkã hoti vãmaüsã. So takkapariyàhataü
vãmaüsànucaritaü sayampañibhànaü evamàha: ’sassato attà ca loko ca
va¤jho kåñaññho esikaññhàyiññhito. Teva sattà sandhàvanti saüsaranti
cavanti upapajjanti atthitveva sassatisamanti.

1. Udapàdiü, sã mu.

[BJT Page 28] [\x 28/]

Idaü bhikkhave catutthaü ñhànaü yaü àgamma yaü àrabbha eke samaõabràhmaõà sassatavàdà sassataü attànaü ca lokaü ca pa¤¤àpenti.

41. Imehi kho
te bhikkhave samaõabràhmaõà sassatavàdà sassataü attàna¤ca loka¤ca
pa¤¤àpenti catåhi vatthåhi. Ye hi keci bhikkhave samaõà và bràhmaõà và
sassatavàdà sassataü attàna¤ca loka¤ca pa¤¤àpenti, sabbe te imeheva
catåhi etesaü và a¤¤atarena natthi ito bahiddhà

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[\q xxv/]


Skip Introduction


INTRODUCTION
TO THE
BRAHMA-JâLA SUTTA

THE phase of beliefs
which this Suttanta is intended to meet, into which its argument fits,
has been set out in some setail in the opening chapter of my `American
Lectures.’ As there pointed out [
1],
the discussion which thus opens this series of dialogues forms also the
first question in the Kathà Vatthu, and the first question in the
Milinda. We cannot be far wrong if, in our endeavours to understand the
real meaning of the original Buddhism, we attach as much weight to this
question as did the author or authors of these ancient and authoritative
Buddhist books.


The Suttanta sets out in sixty-two divisions [2]
various speculations or theories in which the theorisers, going out
always from various forms of the ancient view of a `soul’-a sort of
subtle manikin inside the body but separate from it, and continuing,
after it leaves the body, as a separate entity-attempt to reconstruct
the past, or to arrange the future. All such speculation is condemned.
And necessarily so, since the Buddhist philosophy is put together
without this ancient idea of `soul.’


The Buddhist scheme endeavours, in
other words, to include all the truth which previous thinkers had
grafted on to the old savage theories of a semi-material, subtle,
permanent entity inside the body, while rejecting those theories
themselves; it endeavours to retain all the philosophic truth which
previous thinkers had grafted on to the theosophies-the corollaries of
the soul theories-while rejecting those theosophies themselves. The
reasons given for this position are threefold firstly, that such
speculators about ultimate things, [\q xxvi/] either in the past or the
future, have insufficient evidence. see only one side of the shield; [
3] secondly, that such speculations do not lead to emancipation, to Arahatship; [4]
and thirdly, that such theories are really derived from the hopes, the
feelings, and the sensations arising from evanescent phenomena [
5]-they
belong, in other words, to the realm of hastily formed, empirical
opinion (diññhi), not to that of’ the higher wisdom (pa¤¤à). So that
Buddhism, in the first place, holds a position somewhat similar to the
modern Agnostic position. Secondly, while acknowledging the importance
of feeling and of intellect, it lays special stress upon the regulation,
the cultivation, of the Will [
6]. And thirdly, it distinguishes between a lower and a higher wisdom, [7].

Several scholars, and especiallyÞwith more knowledge and detailÞDr.
Karl Neumann, have maintained that the position of Buddhism in the
history of Indian philosophy is analogous to that of Schopenhauer in
European philosophy. On the other hand, it is maintained by Professor
Deussen that Schopenhauer’s position is analogous to that of the
Upanishads. The reconciliation will probably be found to be that what
Buddhism took over, with more or less of modification, from the
Upanishads, is about the same as that part of the Upanishad doctrine
which is found, in European phraseology, in Schopenhauer; and what
Buddhism rejected alto-ether is not to be found in Schopenhauer. He
himself, who however knew both systems only from second-hand and
inaccurate authorities, says, `If I am to take the results of my own
Philosophy as the standard of truth, I should be obliged to concede to
Buddhism the pre-eminence over other (systems of philosophy).’

However this question may be
decided-and its discussion, at the necessary length, by a competent
student of philosophy, is a very pressing want-it is certain from the
details given in our Suttanta that there were then current in Northern
India many other philosophic and theosophic speculations besides those
the priests found it expedient to adopt, and have preserved for us in
the Upanishads. And who can doubt but that some, if not all of them, may
also have had their influence on the new doctrine? There was always
much philosophising in India outside the narrow and inexact limits [\q
xxvii/] of the so-called six Darsanas; and we have to thank Buddhist
scholars for preserving, in their Pàli and Sanskrit works, the evidences
of such philosophy as the priests wished to exclude from notice [
8].


[\q 001/]
(
Introduction)

DIALOGUES OF THE BUDDHA

DäGHA NIKâYA.
[COLLECTION OF LONG DIALOGUES.]


I. BRAHMA-JâLA SUTTA [9]
The Perfect Net


1. Thus have I heard. The Blessed One was once going along the high road between Ràjagaha and Nàlandà [10] with a great company of the brethren, with about five hundred brethren. And Suppiya the mendicant [11]
too was going along the high road between Ràjagaha and Nàlandà with his
disciple the youth Brahmadatta. Now just then Suppiya the mendicant was
speaking in many ways in dispraise of the Buddha, in dispraise of the
Doctrine, in dispraise of the Order. But young Brahmadatta, his pupil,
gave utterance, in many ways, to praise of the Buddha, to praise of the
Doctrine, to praise of the Order. Thus. they two, teacher and pupil,
holding opinions in direct contradiction one to the other, were
following, step by [\q 002/] step, after the Blessed One and the company
of the brethren.


2. Now the Blessed One put up at the royal rest-house in the Ambalaññhikà. pleasance [12]
to pass the night, and with him the company of the brethren. And so
also did Suppiya the mendicant, and with him his young disciple
Brahmadatta. And there, at the rest-house, these two carried on the same
discussion as before.

[2] 3. And in the early dawn a number of the brethren assembled, as
they rose up, in the pavilion; and this was the trend of the talk that
sprang up among them, as they were seated there. `How wonderful a thing
is it, brethren, and how strange that the Blessed One, he who knows and
sees, the Arahat, the Buddha Supreme, should so clearly have perceived
how various are the inclinations of men! For see how while Suppiya the
mendicant speaks in many ways in dispraise of the Buddha, the Doctrine,
and the Order, his own disciple young Brahmadatta, speaks, in as many
ways, in praise of them. So do these two, teacher and pupil, follow step
by step after the Blessed One and the company of the brethren, giving
utterance to views in direct contradiction one to the other.’

4. Now the Blessed One, on realising what was the drift of their
talk, went to the pavilion, and took his seat on the mat spread out for
him. And when he had sat down he said: `What is the talk on which you
are engaged sitting here, and what is the subject of the conversation
between you?’ And they told him all. And he said:

[\q 003/] Minor Details Of Mere Morality

5. `Brethren, if outsiders should speak against me, or against
the Doctrine, or against the Order, you should not on that account
either bear malice, or suffer heart-burning, or feel ill will. If you,
on that account, should be angry and hurt, that would stand in the way
of your, own self-conquest. If, when others speak against us, you feel
angry at that, and displeased, would you then be able to judge how far
that speech of theirs is well said or ill?’

`That would not be so, Sir.’

`But when outsiders speak in dispraise of me, or of the Doctrine, or
of the Order, you should unravel what is false and point it out as
wrong, saying: ßFor this or that reason this is not the fact, that is
not so, such a thing is not found among us, is not in us.û

6. `But also, brethren, if outsiders should speak in praise of me, in
praise of the Doctrine, in praise of the Order, you should not, on that
account, be filled with pleasure or gladness, or be lifted up in heart.
Were you to be so that also would stand in the way of your
self-conquest. When outsiders speak in praise of me, or of the Doctrine,
or of the Order, you should acknowledge what is right to be the fact,
saying: ßFor this or that reason this is the fact, that is so, such a
thing is found among us, is in us.û

7. `It is in respect only of trifling things, of matters of little
value, of mere morality, that an unconverted man, when praising the
Tathàgata, would speak. And what are such trifling, minor details of
mere morality that he would praise.

[4] [THE MORALITIES [13]. PART I.]


8. ßPutting away the killing of
living things, Gotama the recluse holds aloof from the destruction [\q
004/] of life. He has laid the cudgel and the sword aside, and ashamed
of roughness, and full of mercy, he dwells compassionate and kind to all
creatures that have lifeû It is thus that the unconverted man,
when-speaking in praise of the Tathàgata, might speak [
14].


`Or he might say: ßPutting away the
taking of what has not been given, Gotama the recluse lived aloof from
grasping what is not his own. He takes only what is given, and expecting
that gifts will come [
15], he passes his life in honesty and purity of heart.û


Or he might say: ßPutting away
unchastity, Gotama the recluse is chaste. He holds himself aloof, far
off, from the vulgar practice, from the sexual act [
16].û

9. `Or he might say: ßPutting away lying words, Gotama the recluse
holds himself aloof from falsehood. He speaks truth, from the truth he
never swerves; faithful and trustworthy, he breaks not his word to the
world.û

`Or he might say: ßPutting away slander, Gotama the recluse holds
himself aloof from calumny. What he hears here he repeats not elsewhere
to raise a quarrel [\q 005/] against the people here; what he hears
elsewhere he repeats not here to raise a quarrel against the people
there. Thus does he live as a binder together of those who are divided,
an encourager of those who are friends, a peacemaker, a lover of peace,
impassioned for peace, a speaker of words that make for peace.û

`Or he might say: ßPutting- away
rudeness of speech, Gotama the recluse holds himself aloof from harsh
language. Whatsoever word is blameless, pleasant to the car, lovely,
reaching to the heart, urbane [
17], pleasing to the people, beloved of the people-such are words he speaks.û


`Or he might say: ßPutting away frivolous talk [18],Gotama
the recluse holds himself aloof from vain conversation. In season he
speaks, in accordance with the facts, words full of meaning, on
religion, on the discipline of the Order. He speaks, and at the right
time, words worthy to be laid up in one’s heart, [5] fitly illustrated,
clearly divided, to the point.û

10. `Or he might say:


ßGotama the recluse holds himself aloof from causing injury to seeds or plants [19].
He takes but one meal a day, not eating at night, refraining from food after hours (after midday).
He refrains from being a spectator at shows at fairs, with nautch dances, singing, and music.
He abstains from wearing, adorning, or ornamenting himself with garlands, scents, and unguents.
He abstains from the use of large and lofty beds.
He abstains from accepting silver or gold.
He abstains from accepting uncooked grain.
He abstains from accepting raw meat.
He abstains from accepting women or girls.
He abstains from accepting bondmen or bondwomen.
[\q 006/] He abstains from accepting sheep or goats.
He abstains from accepting fowls or swine.
He abstains from accepting elephants, cattle. horses, and mares.
He abstains from accepting cultivated fields or waste.
He abstains from the acting as a, go-between or messenger.
He abstains from buying and selling.
He abstains from cheating with scales or bronzes [
20] or measures.
He abstains from the crooked ways of bribery, cheating, and fraud.
He abstains from maiming, murder, putting in bonds, highway robbery, dacoity, and violence.û
`Such are the things, brethren, which an unconverted man, when speaking in praise of the Tathàgata, might say.’


Here ends the Cåla Sãla [the Short Paragraphs on Conduct]

11. `Or he might say: ßWhereas
some recluses and Brahmans, while living on food provided by the
faithful, continue addicted to the injury of seedlings and growing
plants whether propagated from roots or cuttings or joints or buddings
or seeds [
21]-Gotama the [\q 007/] recluse holds aloof from such injury to seedlings and growing plants.û


12. [6] `Or he might say: ßWhereas
some recluses and Brahmans, while living on food provided by the
faithful, continue addicted to the use of things stored up; stores, to
wit, of foods, drinks, clothing, equipages, bedding, perfumes, and
curry-stuffs [
22]- Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such use of things stored up.û


13. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some
recluses and Brahmans while living on food provided by the faithful,
continue addicted to visiting shows [
23]; that is to say,


(1) Nautch dances (naccaü) [24].
(2) Singing of songs (gãtaü).
(3) Instrumental music (vàditaü).
(4) Shows at fairs (pekkhaü) [
25].
[\q 008/] (5) Ballad recitations (akkhànaü) [
26].
(6) Hand music (pàõissaraü) [
27].
(7) The chanting of bards (vetàlaü) [
28].
(8) Tam - tam playing (kumbhathånaü) [
29]. [\q 009/]
(9) Fairy scenes (sobhanagarakaü) [
30].
(10) Acrobatic feats by Caõóàlas (caõóàla-vaüsa-dhopanaü) [
31].
(11) Combats of elephants, horses, buffaloes, bulls, goats, rams, cocks, and quails.
(12) Bouts at quarter- staff [
32], boxing, wrestling [33].
(13-16) Sham-fights, roll-calls, manoeuvres, reviews [
34].û


`Gotama the recluse holds aloof from visiting such shows.’

14. `Or. he might say: ßWhereas some
recluses and Brahmans, while living on food provided by the faithful,
continue addicted to games and recreations [
35]; that is to say,


(1) Games on boards with eight, or with ten, rows of squares [36].
(2) The same games [\q 010/] played by imagining such boards in the air [
37].
(3) Keeping going over diagrams drawn on the ground so that one steps only where one ought to go [
38].
(4) Either removing the pieces or men from a heap with one’s nail, or
putting them into a heap, in each case without shaking it. He who shakes
the heap, loses [
39]
(5) Throwing dice [
40]
(6) Hitting a short stick with a long one [
41].
(7) Dipping the hand with the fingers stretched out in lac, or red dye,
or flower-water, and striking the wet hand on the ground or on a wall,
`calling out `What shell it be?’ and showing the form required
-elephants, horses, &c. [
42]
(8) Games with balls [
43]
(9) Blowing through toy pipes made of leaves [
44]
(10) Ploughing with. toy ploughs [
45]
(11) Turning summersaults [
46].
(12) Playing with toy windmills made of palm-leaves [
47].
[\q 011/] (13) Playing with toy measures made of palm-leaves.
(14, 15) Playing with toy carts or toy bows [
48]
(16) Guessing at letters traced in the air, or on a. playfellow’s back [
49]
(17) Guessing the play fellow’s thoughts.,
(18) Mimicry of deformities.û


[7] Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such games and recreations.û

15. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some
recluses and Brahmans, while living on food provided by the faithful,
continue addicted to the use of high and large couches; that is to say [
50],


(1) `Moveable settees, high, and six feet long (àsandi) [51]
(2) Divans with animal figures carved on the sup-ports (pallanko) [
52].
[\q 012/] 1. BRAHMA-JâLA SUTTA.
(3) Goats’ hair coverlets with very long fleece (gonako) [
53].
(4) Patchwork counterpanes of many colours (cittakà).
(5) White blankets (Pañikà).
(6) Woollen coverlets embroidered with flowers (pañalikà).
(7) Quilts stuffed with cotton wool (tålikà).
(8) Coverlets embroidered with figures of lions, tigers, &c. (vikatikà).
(9) Rugs with fur on both sides (uddalomã).
(10) Rugs with fur on one side (ekantalomã).
(11) Coverlets embroidered with gems(kaññhissaü).
(12) Silk coverlets (koseyyaü).
(13) Carpets large enough for sixteen dancers (kuttakaü).
(14-16) Elephant, horse, and chariot rugs.
(17) Rugs of antelope skins sewn together (ajina-paveõi).
(18) Rugs of skins of the plantain antelope.
(19) Carpets with awnings [\q 013/] above them (sauttara-cchadaü).
(20) Sofas with red pillows for the head and feet.û


16. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some recluses and Brahmans, while
living on food provided by the faithful, continue addicted to the use of
means for adorning and beautifying themselves; that is to say,


Rubbing in scented powders on one’s body, shampooing it, and bathing it,
patting the limbs with clubs after the manner of wrestlers [
54].
The use of mirrors, eye-ointments, garlands,
rouge, cosmetics, bracelets, necklaces,
walking-sticks, reed cases for drugs, rapiers,
sunshades, embroidered slippers, turbans, diadems,
whisks of the yak’s tail, and long-fringed white robes,û


`Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such means of adorning and beautifying the person [55].û

17. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some recluses and Brahmans, while
living on food provided by the faithful, continue addicted to such low
conversation as these:

Tales of kings, of robbers, of
ministers of state, tales of war, of terrors, of battles; talk about
foods and drinks, clothes, beds, garlands, perfumes; talks about
relationships, equipages, villages, town, cities, and countries; tales
about women [8], and about heroes; gossip at street corners [
56], or places whence [\q 014/] water is fetched; ghost stories [57]; desultory talk [58]; speculations about the creation of the land or sea [59], or about existence and non-existence [60].û

`Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such low conversation.’

18. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some
recluses and Brahmans, while living on food provided by the faithful,
continue addicted to the use of wrangling phrases [
61] such as


ßYou don’t understand this doctrine and discipline, I do.
How should you know about this doctrine and discipline?
ßYou have fallen into wrong views. It is I who am in the right.û
ßI am speaking to the point, you are not [
62
ßYou are putting last what ought to come first, first what ought to come last [
63].û
ßWhat you’ve excogitated so long, that’s all quite upset.û
[\q 015/] ßYour challenge has been taken up [
64]
ßYou are proved to be wrong [
65].û
ßSet to work to clear your views [
66].û
ßDisentangle yourself if you can [
67].û


`Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such wrangling phrases.’

19. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some recluses and Brahmans, while
living on food provided by the faithful, continue addicted to taking
messages, going on errands, and acting as go-betweens; to wit, on kings,
ministers of state, Kshatriyas, Brahmans, or young men, saying: `Go
there, come hither, take this with you, bring that from thence.û

`Gotama the recluse abstains from such servile duties.’

20. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some recluses and Brahmans, while living on food provided by the faithful, are tricksters [68], droners out (of holy words for pay) [69], [\q 016/] diviners [70], and exorcists [71], ever hungering to add gain to gain [72] - Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such deception and patter.û’


Here ends the Majjhima Sãla [the Longer Paragraphs on Conduct].

[9] 2 I. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful, earn their living by
wrong means of livelihood, by low arts, such as these:


(1) PalmistryÞprophesying long life, prosperity, &c from marks on child’s hands, feet. &c. [73].
(2) Divining by means of omens and signs [
74].
(3) Auguries drawn from thunderbolts and other celestial portents [
75].
[\q 017/] (4) Prognostication by interpreting dreams [
76].
(5) Fortune-telling from marks on the body [
77].
(6) Auguries from the marks on cloth gnawed by mice [
78].
(7) Sacrificing to Agni [
79].
(8) Offering oblations from a spoon [
80].
(9-13) Making offerings to gods of husks, of the red powder between the
grain and the husk, of husked grain ready for boiling, of ghee, and of
oil [
81].
(14) Sacrificing by spewing mustard seeds, &c., into the fire out of one’s mouth [
82].
(15) Drawing blood from one’s right knee as a sacrifice to the gods [
83].
[\q 018/] (16) Looking at the knuckles, &c., and, after muttering a
charm, divining whether a man is well born or lucky or not [
84].
(17) Determining whether the site, for a proposed house or pleasance, is lucky or not [
85].
(18) Advising on customary law [
86].
(19) Laying demons in a cemetery [
87].
(20) Laying ghosts [
88].
(21) Knowledge of the charms to be used when lodging in an earth house [
89].
(22) Snake charming [
90].
[\q 019/] (23) The poison craft [
91].
(24) The scorpion craft [
92].
(25) The mouse craft [
93].
(26) The bird craft [
94].
(27) The crow craft [
95].
(28) Foretelling the number of years that a man has yet to live.
(29) Giving charms to ward off arrows [
96].
(30) The animal wheel [
97].û


`Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such low arts.’

22. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some recluses and Brahmans, while
living on food provided by the faithful, earn their living by wrong
means of livelihood, by low arts, such as these:

Knowledge of the signs of good and bad
qualities in the following things and of the marks in them denoting the
health or luck of their owners: to wit, gems [
98], staves, garments, swords, arrows, bows, other weapons, women [99], men [100], boys [101], girls [102], slaves, slave-girls, elephants, horses, buffaloes, bulls, oxen, goats [103], sheep [104], fowls [105], quails [106], iguanas [107], earrings [108], tortoises, and other animals.û

`Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such low arts.’

23. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some recluses [\q 020/] and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful, earn their living by
wrong means of livelihood, by low arts, such as soothsaying, to the
effect that:


[10] The chiefs will march out.
The chiefs will march back.
The home chiefs will attack, and the enemies’ retreat.
The enemies’ chiefs will attack, and ours will retreat.
The home chiefs will gain the victory, and the foreign chiefs suffer defeat.
The foreign chiefs will gain the victory, and ours will suffer defeat [
109]
Thus will there be victory on this side, defeat on that.û


`Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such low arts.’

2 4. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some recluses and Brahmans, while
living on food provided by the faithful, earn their living by wrong
means of livelihood, by such low arts as foretelling


( 1) There will be an eclipse of the moon.
(2) There will be en eclipse of the sun.
(3) There will be en eclipse of a star (nakshatra) [
110].
(4) There will be aberration of the sun or the moon.
(5) The sun or the moon will return to its usual path.
(6) There will be aberrations of the stars.
(7) The stars will return to their usual course [
111].
[\q 021/] (8) There will be a fall of meteors [
112]
(9) There will be a jungle fire [
113].
(10) The-re will be an earthquake.
(11) The god will thunder.
(12-15) There will be rising and setting, clearness and dimness, of the sun or the moon or the stars [
114], or foretelling of each of these fifteen phenomena that they will betoken such and such a result.û [11]


25. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some recluses and Brahmans, while
living on food provided by the faithful, earn their living by wrong
means of livelihood, by low arts, such as these:


Foretelling an abundant rainfall.
Foretelling a deficient rainfall.
Foretelling a good harvest
Foretelling scarcity of food.
Foretelling tranquillity.
Foretelling disturbances.
Foretelling a pestilence.
Foretelling a healthy season.
Counting on the fingers [
115].
[\q 022/] Counting without using the fingers [
116].
Summing up large totals [
117].
Composing ballads, poetising [
118].
Casuistry, sophistry [
119].û


`Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such low arts.’

26. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some recluses and Brahmans, while
living on food provided by the faithful, earn their living by wrong
means of livelihood, by low arts, such as


[\q 023/] (1) Arranging a lucky day for marriages in which the bride or bridegroom is brought home [120].
(2) Arranging a lucky day for marriages in which the bride or bridegroom is sent
forth [
121].
(3) Fixing a lucky time for the conclusion of treaties of peace [or using charms to procure harmony] [
122].
(4) Fixing a lucky time for the outbreak of hostilities [or using charms to make discord] [
123].
(5) Fixing-a lucky time for the calling in of debts [or charms for success in throwing dice] [
124].
(6) Fixing a lucky time for the expenditure of money [or charms to bring ill luck to an opponent throwing dice] [
125].
(7) Using charms to make people lucky [
126].
(8) Using charms to make people unlucky.
(9) Using charms to procure abortion.
(10) Incantations to bring on dumbness.
(11) Incantations to keep a man’s jaws fixed.
(12) Incantations to make a man throw up his hands.
(13) Incantations to bring on deafness, [
127].
[\q 024/] (14) Obtaining oracular answers by means of the magic mirror [
128].
(15) Obtaining oracular answers through a girl possessed [
129].
(16) Obtaining oracular answers from a god [
130].
(17) The worship of the Sun [
131].
(18) The worship of the Great One [
132].
(19) Bringing forth flames from one’s mouth.
(20) Invoking Siri, the goddess of Luck [
133].û


`Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such low arts.’

[\q 025/] [12] 27. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some recluses and
Brahmans, while living on food provided by, the faithful, earn their
living by wrong means of livelihood, by low arts, such as these:


(1) Vowing gifts to a god if a certain benefit be granted.
(2) Paying such vows.
(3) Repeating charms while lodging in an earth house [
134].
(4) Causing virility [
135].
(S) Making a man impotent [
136].
(6) Fixing on lucky sites for dwelling [
137].
(7) Consecrating sites [
138].
(8) Ceremonial rinsings of the month.
(9) Ceremonial bathings [
139].
(10) Offering sacrifices.
(11-14) Administering emetics and purgatives.
(15) Purging people to relieve the head (that is by giving drugs to make people sneeze).
(16) Oiling people’s ears (either to make them grow or to heal sores on them).
(17) Satisfying people’s eyes (soothing them by dropping medicinal oils into them).
(18) Administering drugs through the nose, [
140].
(19) Applying collyrium to the eyes.
(20) Giving medical ointment for the eyes.
(21) Practising as an oculist.
(22) Practising as a surgeon.
(23) Practising as a doctor for children.
[\q 026/] I. BRAHMA-JâLA SUTTA.
(24) Administering roots and drugs.
(25) Administering medicines in rotation [
141


`Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such low arts.’

`These, brethren, are the trifling matters, the minor details, of
mere morality, of which the unconverted man when praising the Tathàgata,
might speak.’

Here end the Long Paragraphs on Conduct.

28. `There are, brethren, other
things profound, difficult to realise, hard to understand,
tranquillising, sweet, not to be grasped by mere logic, subtle,
comprehensible only by the wise [
142]
These things the Tathàgata, having himself realised them and seen them
face to face, hath set forth; and it is of them that they, who would
rightly praise the Tathàgata in accordance with the truth, should speak.

`And what are they?

29. `There are recluses and Brahmans,
brethren, who reconstruct the ultimate beginnings of things, whose
speculations are concerned with the ultimate past [
143],
and who on eighteen grounds put forward various [\q 027/] assertions
regarding it. [13] And about what, with reference to what, do those
venerable ones do so?


30. `There are, brethren, some recluses and Brahmans who are Eternalists [144],
and who, on four grounds, proclaim that both the soul and the world are
eternal. And about what, with reference to what, do those venerable
ones do so?


31. `In the first place, brethren,
some recluse or Brahman by means of ardour, of exertion, of application,
of earnestness, of careful thought, reaches up to such rapture of heart
that, rapt in heart, he calls to mind his various dwelling-places in
times gone by-in one birth, or in two, or three, or four, or five, or
ten, or twenty, or thirty, or forty, or fifty, or a hundred, or a
thousand, or in several hundreds or thousands or laks of births-to the
effect that ” There I had such and such a name, was of such and such a
lineage [
145] and caste [146],
lived on such and such food, experienced such and such pains and
pleasures, had such and such a span of years. And when I fell from
thence I was reborn in such and such a place tinder such and such a
name, in such and such a lineage and caste, living on such and such
food, experiencing such and such pains and pleasures, with such and such
a span of years. And when I fell from thence I was reborn here.û Thus
does he recollect, in full detail both of condition and of custom, his
various dwelling [\q 028/] places in times zone by. [14] And he says to
himself: ßEternal is the soul; and the world, giving birth to nothing
new, is stedfast as a mountain peak, as a pillar firmly fixed. and
though these living creatures transmigrate and pass away, fall from one
state of existence and spring up in another, yet they ale forever and
ever. And why must that be so? Because I, by means of ardour of exertion
of application of earnestness of careful thought, can reach up to such
rapture of heart that, rapt in heart, I can call to mind, and in full
detail both of condition and of custom, my various dwelling-places in
times gone by-by that is it that I know this-that the soul is eternal;
and that the world, giving birth to nothing new, is stedfast as a
mountain peak, as a pillar firmly fixed; and that though these living
creatures transmigrate and pass away, fall from one state of existence
and spring up in another, yet they are forever and ever.û

`This, brethren, is the first state of things on account of which,
starting from which, some recluses and Brahmans are Eternalists, and
maintain that both the soul and the world are eternal.

32. [The second case put is in all
respects the same save that the previous births thus called to mind
extend over a still longer period up to ten world aeons [
147].]

33. [15] [The third case put is in all respects the same save that
the previous births thus called to mind extend over a still longer
period up to forty world aeons.]

34. [16] `And in the fourth place, brethren, on what ground is it,
starting from what, that those venerable ones are Eternalists, and
maintain that the soul and the world are eternal.

`In this case, brethren, some recluse
or Brahman [\q 029/] is addicted to logic and reasoning. He gives
utterance to the following conclusion of his own, beaten out by his
argumentations and based on his sophistry [
148];
“Eternal is the soul; and the world, giving birth to nothing new is
steadfast as a mountain peak, as a pillar firmly fixed; and these living
creatures, though they transmigrate and pass away, fall from one state
of existence and spring up in another, yet they are forever and ever.

ß’This, brethren, is the fourth state of things on the ground of
which, starting from which, some recluses and Brahmans are Eternalists,
and maintain that the soul and the world are eternal.

35. `These, brethren, are those recluses and Brahmans who are
Eternalists, and in four ways maintain that both the soul and the world
are eternal. For whosoever of the recluses and Brahmans are such and
maintain this, they do so in these four ways, or in one or other of the
same, and outside these there is no way in which this opinion is arrived
at.

36. `Now of these, brethren, the
Tathàgata knows that these speculations thus arrived at, thus insisted
on, will have such and such a result, such and such an effect on the
future condition of those who trust in them. [17] That does he know, and
he knows also other things far beyond (far better than those
speculations) [
149]; and having that knowledge he is not puffed up, and thus untarnished he has, in his own heart [150], realised the way of escape from them [151],
has understood, as they really are, the rising up and passing away of
sensations. their sweet taste, their danger, how they cannot be relied
on; and not grasping after any (of [\q 030/] those things men are eager
for) he, the Tathàgata, is quite set free [
152].


37. `These [153],
brethren, are those other things, profound, difficult to realise, hard
to understand, tranquillising, sweet, not to be grasped by mere logic,.
subtle, comprehensible only by the wise, which the Tathàgata, having
himself realised and seen face to face, hath set forth; and it is
concerning these that they who would rightly praise the Tathàgata in
accordance with the truth, should speak.’


Here ends the First Portion for Recitation.


Chapter II

The Eternalists

1. `There are, brethren, some recluses and Brahmans who are
Eternalists with regard to some things, and in regard to others
Non-Eternalists; who on four grounds maintain that the soul and the
world are partly eternal and partly not.

`And what is it that these venerable ones depend upon, what is it that they start from, in arriving at this conclusion?

2. `Now there comes a time, brethren, when, sooner or later, after
the lapse of a long long period, this world-system passes away. And when
this happens beings have mostly been reborn in the World of Radiance,
and there they dwell made of mind, feeding on joy, radiating light from
themselves, traversing the air, continuing in glory; and thus they
remain for a long long period of time.

3. Now there comes also a time, brethren, when,[\q 031/] sooner or
later, this world-system begins to re-evolve. When this happens the
Palace of Brahmà appears, but it is empty. And some being or other,
either because his span of years has passed or his merit is exhausted,
falls from that World -of Radiance, and comes to life in the Palace of
Brahmà. And there also he lives made of mind, feeding on joy, radiating
light from himself, traversing the air, continuing in glory; and thus
does he remain for a long long period of time.

4. `Now there arises in him, from his dwelling there so long alone, a
dissatisfaction and a longing: ßO! would that other beings might come
to join me in this place! ” And just then, either because their span of
years had passed or their merit was exhausted, other beings fall from
the World of Radiance, and appear in the Palace of Brahma as companions
to him, and in all respects like him. [18]

5. `On this, brethren, the one who was
first reborn thinks thus to himself: ßI am Brahmà, the Great Brahmà,
the Supreme One, the Mighty, the All-seeing, the Ruler, the Lord of all,
the Maker, the Creator, the Chief of all, appointing to each his place,
the Ancient of days the Father of all that are and are to be [
154].
`These other beings are of my creation. And why is that so? A while ago
I thought, `Would that they might come!’ And on my mental aspiration,
behold the beings came.û

`And those beings themselves, too, think thus: ßThis must be Brahmà,,
the Great Brahmà, the Supreme, the Mighty, the All-seeing, the Ruler,
the Lord of all, the Maker, the Creator, the Chief of all, appointing to
each his place, the Ancient of days, the Father of all that are [\q
032/] and are to be. And we must have been created by him. And why?
Because, as we see, it was he who was here first, and we came after
that.û

6. `On this, brethren, the one who first came into existence there is
of longer life, and more glorious, and more powerful than those who
appeared after him. And it might well be, brethren, that some being on
his falling from that state, should come hither. And having come hither
he might go forth from the household life into the homeless state. And
having thus become a recluse he, by reason of ardour of exertion of
application of earnestness of careful thought, reaches up to such
rapture of heart that, rapt in heart, he calls to mind his last
dwelling-place, but not the previous ones. He says to himself: ßThat
illustrious Brahmà, the Great Brahmà, the Supreme One, the Mighty, the
All-seeing, the Ruler, the Lord of all, the Maker, the Creator, the
Chief of all, appointing to each his place, the Ancient of days, the
Father of all that are and are to be, he by whom we were created, he is
stedfast immutable eternal, of a nature that knows no change, and he
will remain so forever and ever. But we who were created by him have
come hither as being impermanent mutable limited in duration of life.

[19] `This, brethren, is the first state of things on account of
which, starting out from which, some recluses and Brahmans, being
Eternalists as to some things, and Non-eternalists as to others,
maintain that the soul and the world are partly eternal and partly not.

7. `And what is the second?

`There are, brethren, certain gods called the ßDebauched by Pleasureû [155].
`For ages they pass their time in the pursuit of the laughter and sport
of sensual lusts. In consequence thereof their self-possession is
corrupted, and through the loss of their self-control they fall from
that state [
156].

[\q 033/] 8. `Now it might well be, brethren, that some being, on his
falling from that state, should come hither. And having come hither he
should, as in the last case, become a recluse, and acquire the power of
recollecting his last birth, but only his last one.

9. `And he would say to himself: ßThose gods who are not debauched by
pleasure are stedfast, immutable, eternal, of a nature that knows no
change, and they will remain so forever and ever. [20] But we-who fell
from that state, having lost our self-control through being debauched by
pleasure-we have come hither as being impermanent, mutable, limited in
duration of life.û

10. `And what is the third?

`There are, brethren, certain gods called “the Debauched in Mind [157].û They burn continually with envy [158]
one against another, and being thus irritated, their hearts become
ill-disposed towards each other, and being thus debauched, their bodies
become feeble, and their minds imbecile. And those gods fall from that
state.

11. `Now it might well be, brethren, that some [\q 034/] being, on
his falling from that state, should come hither; and having become a
recluse should `as in the other cases, acquire the power of recollecting
his last birth, but only his last one.

12. `And lie would say to himself: ßThose gods who are not debauched
in mind do not continually burn with envy against each other, so their
hearts do not become evil disposed one towards another, nor their bodies
feeble and their minds imbecile. Therefore they fall not from that
state; they are stedfast, immutable, eternal, of a nature that knows no
change, and they will remain so forever and ever. [21] But we were
corrupted in mind, being constantly excited by envy against one another.
And being thus envious and corrupt our bodies became feeble, and our
minds imbecile, and we fell from that state, and have come hither as
Being impermanent, mutable, limited in duration of life.û

`This, brethren, is the third case.

13. `And what is the fourth?

In this case, brethren, some recluse
or Brahman is addicted to logic and reasoning. He gives utterance to the
following conclusion of his own, beaten out by his argumentations and
based on his sophistry: ßThis which is called eye and ear and nose and
tongue and body is a self which is impermanent, unstable, not eternal,
subject to change. But this which is called heart, or mind, or
consciousness is a self which is permanent, stedfast, eternal, and knows
no change, and it will remain forever and ever [
159].

This, brethren, is the fourth state of things, on the ground of
which, starting from which, some recluses [\q 035/] and Brahmans are
Semi-eternalists, and in four ways maintain that the soul and the world
are in some respects eternal, and in some not.

14. `These, brethren, are those recluses and Brahmans who are
Semi-eternalists, and in four ways maintain that the soul and the world
are eternal in some cases and not in others. For whosoever of the
recluses and Brahmans are such and maintain this, they do so in these
four ways or in one or other of the same; and outside these there is no
way in which this opinion is arrived at.

[22] 15. `Now of these, brethren, the Tathàgata knows that these
speculations, thus arrived at, thus insisted on, will have such and such
a result, such and such an effect on the future condition of those who
trust in them. That does he know, and he knows also other things far
beyond (far better than those speculations); and having that knowledge,
he is not puffed up, and thus untarnished he has, in his own heart,
realised the way of escape from them, has understood, as they really
are, the rising up and passing away of sensations, their sweet taste,
their danger, how they cannot be relied on, and not grasping after any
(of those things men are eager for) he, the Tathàgata, is quite set
free.

`These, brethren, are those other things, profound, difficult to
realise, hard to understand, tranquillising, sweet, not to be grasped by
mere logic, subtle, comprehensible only by the wise, which the
Tathàgata, having himself realised and seen face to face, hath set
forth; and it is concerning these that they who would rightly praise the
Tathàgata in accordance with the truth, should speak.’

The Extensionists

16. `There are, brethren, certain recluses and Brahmans who are Extensionists [160],
and who in four ways set forth the infinity or finiteness of the world.
And [\q 036/] on what ground, starting out from what, do these
venerable ones maintain this?


17. `In the first case, brethren, some
recluse or Brahman, by means of ardour of exertion of application of
earnestness of careful thought, reaches up to such rapture of heart that
he, rapt in heart., dwells in the world imagining it finite. And he
says thus to himself: ßFinite is the world, so that a path could be
traced round it [
161].
And why is this so? Since I, by means of ardour of exertion of
application of earnestness of careful thought, can reach up to such
rapture of heart that, rapt in heart, I dwell in the world perceiving it
to be finite-by that I know this.û

`This, brethren, is the first case.

18. `The second case is similar, only
that the conclusion is: [23] `Infinite is the world without a limit.
Those recluses and Brahmans who say it is finite, so that a path could
be traced round it, are wrong [
162].û

19. `The third case is similar, only that the conclusion is that he
imagines the world limited in the upward and downward directions, but
infinite across; he declares both the former conclusions to be wrong.

20. `In the fourth case, brethren, some recluse or Brahman is
addicted to logic and reasoning. He gives utterance to the following
conclusion of his own, beaten out by his argumentations and based on his
sophistry: ßThis world is neither finite nor yet infinite. Those
recluses and Brahmans who maintain either the first, or the second, or
the third conclusion, are wrong. [24] Neither is the world finite, nor
is it infinite.û

`This, brethren, is the fourth case.

[\q 037/] 21. `These, brethren, are those recluses and Brahmans who
are Extensionists, and in four ways maintain that the world is finite or
infinite. For whosoever of the recluses and Brahmans are such, and
maintain this, they do so in these four ways or in one or other of the
same; and outside these there is no way in which this opinion is arrived
at.

22. `Now of these, brethren, the Tathàgata knows that these
speculations thus arrived at, thus insisted on, will have such and such a
result, such and such an effect on the future condition of those who
trust in them. That does he know, and he knows also other things far
beyond (far better than those speculations); and having that knowledge
he is not puffed up, and thus untarnished he has, in his own heart,
realised the way of escape from them, has understood, as they really
are, the rising up and passing away of sensations, their sweet taste,
their danger, how they cannot be relied on, and not grasping after any
(of those things men are eager for) he, the Tathàgata, is quite set
free.

`These, brethren, are those other things, profound, difficult to
realise, hard to understand, tranquillising, sweet, not to be grasped by
mere logic, subtle, comprehensible only by the wise, which the
Tathàgata, having himself realised and seen face to face, hath set
forth; and it is concerning these that they who would rightly praise the
Tathàgata in accordance with the truth, should speak.’

The Eel-Wrigglers

23. `There are, brethren, some recluses and Brahmans who wriggle
like eels; and when a question is put to them on this or that they
resort to equivocation, to eel-wriggling, and this in four ways.

`Now on what ground starting out from what, do those venerable ones do so?

24. `In the first place, brethren,
some recluse or Brahman does not understand the good in its real nature,
nor the evil. And he thinks: -”I neither know [\q 038/] the good, as it
really is, nor the evil. [25] That being so, were I to pronounce this
to be good or that to be evil, I might be influenced therein by my
feelings or desires, by ill will or resentment. And under these
circumstances I might be wrong; and my having been wrong might cause me
the pain of remorse; and the sense of remorse might become a hindrance
to me [
163].û
Thus fearing and abhorring the being wrong in an expressed opinion, he
will neither declare anything to be good, nor to be bad; but on a
question being put to him on this or that, he resorts to eel-wriggling.
to equivocation, and says: ßI don’t take it thus. I don’t take it the
other way. But I advance no different opinion. And I don’t deny your
position. And I don’t say it is neither the one, nor the other [
164].

`This is the first case.

`And what is the second?

25. [The same, reading] Under these
circumstances I might fall into that grasping condition of heart which
causes rebirth; and my so falling might cause me the pain of remorse;
and the sense of remorse might become a hindrance to me.û [26] Thus
fearing and abhorring the falling into that state [
165], he will neither declare (&c., as in Section 24).

`This is the second case.

`And what is the third?

26. [The same, reading] `And he
thinks: ßI neither know the good, as it really is, nor the evil. Now
there are recluses and Brahmans who are clever, subtle, experienced in
controversy, hair-splitters, who ,go about, methinks, breaking to pieces
by their wisdom [\q 039/] the speculations of others. Were I to
pronounce this to be good, or that to be evil, these men might join
issue with me, call upon me for my reasons, point out my errors. And on
their doing so, I might be unable to explain [
166].
And that might cause me the pain of remorse; and the sense of remorse
might become a hindrance to me.û Thus fearing and abhorring the joinder
of issue, he will neither declare (&c., as in Section 24).

`This is the third case. [27]

`And what is the fourth?

27. `In this case, brethren, some
recluse or Brahman is dull, stupid. And it is by reason of his dullness,
his stupidity, that when a question on this or that is put to him, he
resorts to equivocation, to wriggling, like an eel: ßIf you ask me
whether there is another world,Þwell, if I thought there were, I would
say so. But I don’t say so. And I don’t think it is thus or thus. And I
don’t think it is otherwise. And I don’t deny it. And I don’t say there
neither is, nor is not, another world.û Thus does he equivocate, and in
like manner about each of such propositions as the following [
167]:


a.


(2) There is not another world.
(3) There both is, and is not, another world.
(4) There neither is, nor is not, another world.


b.


(1) There are Chance Beings (so called because they spring into
existence, either here or in another world, without the intervention of
parents, and seem therefore to come without a cause).
(2) There are no such beings.
(3) There both are, and are not, such beings.
(4) There neither are, nor are not, such beings.

c


(1) There is fruit, result, of good and bad actions. [\q 040/] (2) There is not.
(3) There both is, and is not.
(4) There neither is, nor is not.

d.


(1) A man who has penetrated to the truth [168] continues to exist after death.
(2) He does not.
(3) H e both does, and does not.
(4) He neither does, nor does not.




`This, brethren, is the fourth case [169].

[28] 28. `These, brethren, are those recluses and Brahmans who
wriggle like eels; and who, when a question is put to them on this or
that, resort to equivocation, to eel-wriggling; and that in four ways.
For whosoever do so, they do so in these four ways, or in one or other
of the same; there is no other way in which they do so.

29. `Now of these, brethren, the Tathàgata knows that these
speculations thus arrived at, thus insisted on, will have such and such a
result, such and such an effect on the future condition of those who
trust in them. That does he know, and he knows also other things far
beyond (far better than those speculations); and having that knowledge
he is not puffed up, and thus untarnished he has, in his own heart,
realised the way of escape from them, has understood, as they really
are, the rising up and passing away of sensations, their sweet taste,
their danger, how they cannot be relied on, and not grasping after any
(of those things men are eager for) he, the Tathàgata, is quite set
free.

`These brethren, are those other things, profound, difficult to
realise, hard to understand, tranquillising, [\q 041/] sweet, not to be
grasped by mere logic, subtle, comprehensible only by the wise, which
the Tathàgata, having himself realised and seen face to face, hath set
forth; and it is concerning these that they who would rightly praise the
Tathàgata in accordance with the truth, should speak.’

The Fortuitous-Originists

30. `There are, brethren, some recluses and Brahmans who are Fortuitous-Originists [170],
and who in two ways maintain that the soul and the world arise without a
cause. And on what ground, starting out from what, do they do so?


31. `There are, brethren, certain gods called Unconscious Beings [171].
As soon as an idea occurs to them they fall from that state. Now it may
well be, brethren, that a being, on falling from that state, should
come hither; and having come hither he might go forth from the household
life into the homeless state. And having thus become a recluse he, by
reason of ardour and so on (as in the other cases) reaches up to such
rapture of heart that, rapt in heart, he calls to mind how that idea
occurred to him, but not more than that. He says to himself: ßFortuitous
[\q 042/] in origin are the soul and the world. And why so? Because
formerly I was not, but now am. Having not been, I have come to be.û
[29]

`This, brethren, is the first state of things on account of which,
starting out from which some recluses and Brahmans become
Fortuitous-Originists, and maintain that the soul and the world arise
without a cause.

32,33 `And what is the second?

In this case, brethren, some recluse or Brahman is addicted to logic
and reasoning. He gives utterance to the following conclusion of his
own, beaten out by his argumentations, and based on his sophistry: ßThe
soul and the world arose without a cause.û

`This, brethren, is the second case.

34. `Now of these, brethren, the Tathàgata knows that these
speculations thus arrived at, thus insisted on, will have such and such a
result, such and such an effect on the future condition of those who
trust in them. That does he know, and he knows also other things far
beyond (far better than those speculations); and having that knowledge
he is not puffed up, and thus untarnished he has, in his own heart,
realised the way of escape from them, has understood, as they really
are, the rising up and passing away of sensations, their sweet taste,
their danger, how they cannot be relied on, and not grasping after any
(of those things men are eager for) he, the Tathàgata, is quite set
free.

`These, brethren, are those other things, profound, difficult to
realise, hard to understand, tranquillising, sweet, not to be grasped by
mere logic, subtle, comprehensible only by the wise, which the
Tathàgata, having himself realised and seen face to face, hath set
forth; and it is concerning these that they who would rightly praise the
Tathàgata in accordance with the truth, should speak.’

[30] 35. `These, brethren, are the
recluses and Brahmans who reconstruct the ultimate beginnings of things,
whose speculations are concerned with the [\q 043/] ultimate past, and
who on eighteen grounds put forward various assertions regarding the
past [
172]. And those who do so, all of them, do so in one or other of these eighteen ways. There is none beside.

36. `Now of these, brethren, the Tathàgata knows that these
speculations thus arrived at, thus insisted on, will have such and such a
result, such and such an effect on the future condition of those who
trust in them. That does he know, and he knows also other things far
beyond (far better than those speculations); and having that knowledge
he is not puffed up, and thus untarnished he has, in his own heart,
realised the way of escape from them, has understood, as they really
are, the rising up and passing away of sensations, their sweet taste,
their danger, how they cannot be relied on, and not grasping after any
(of those things men are eager for) he, the Tathàgata, is quite set
free.

`These, brethren, are those other things, profound, difficult to
realise, hard to understand, tranquillising, sweet, not to be grasped by
mere logic, subtle, comprehensible only by the wise, which the
Tathàgata, having himself realised and seen face to face, hath set
forth; and it is concerning these that they who would rightly praise the
Tathàgata in accordance with the truth, should speak.’

The Believers in Future Life

37. `There are, brethren, recluses and Brahmans who arrange the
future, whose speculations are concerned with the future, and who on
forty-four grounds put forward various assertions regarding the future.
And on account of what, starting out from what, do they do so?

38. `There are, brethren, recluses and Brahmans who [31] hold the doctrine of a conscious existence after death [173], and who maintain in sixteen ways that [\q 044/] the soul after death is conscious. And how do they do so?

`They say of the soul: ßThe soul after death, not subject to decay, and conscious,


(1) has form [174],
(2 is formless [
175],
(3) has, and has not, form,
(4) neither has, nor has not, form,
(5) is finite,
(6) is infinite,
(7) is both,
(8) is neither,
(9) has one mode of consciousness,
(10) has various modes of consciousness
(11) has limited consciousness
(12) has infinite consciousness
(13) is altogether happy
(14) is altogether miserable
(15) is both
(16) is neither.û


39. `These, brethren, are those recluses and Brahmans who hold the
doctrine of a conscious existence after death, and who maintain in
sixteen ways that the soul after death is conscious. And those who do
so, all of them, do so in one or other of these sixteen ways. There is
none beside.

40. `Now of these, brethren, the Tathàgata knows that these
speculations thus arrived at, thus insisted on, will have such and such a
result, such and such an effect on the future condition of those who
trust in them. That does he know, and he knows also other things far
beyond (far better than those speculations) and having that knowledge he
is not puffed up, and thus untarnished he has, in his own heart,
realised the way of escape from them, has understood, as they really
are, the rising up and passing away of sensations, their sweet taste,
their danger, how they cannot be relied on, and not grasping after any
(of those things men are eager for) he, the Tathàgata, is quite set
free.

`These, brethren, are those other things, profound, difficult to
realise, hard to understand, tranquillising, sweet, not to be grasped by
mere logic, subtle, comprehensible. only by the wise, which the
Tathàgata, having himself realised and seen face to face, hath set
forth; and it is concerning these that they who would rightly raise the
Tathàgata in accordance with the truth, should speak.’

Here ends the Second Portion for Recitation. [32]

Chapter III

1. `There are, brethren, recluses and Brahmans who hold the
doctrine of an unconscious existence after death, and who maintain in
eight ways that the soul after death is unconscious. And how do they do
so?

2. `They say of the soul: ßThe soul after death, not subject to decay, and unconscious,


(1) has form,
(2) is formless,
(3) has, and has not, form,
(4) neither has, nor has not form
(5) is finite,
(6) is infinite,
(7) is both,
(8) is neither.

3. `These, brethren, are those recluses and Brahmans who hold the
doctrine of an unconscious existence after death, and who maintain in
eight ways that the soul after death is unconscious. And those who do
so, all of them, do so in one or other of those eight ways. There is
none beside.

4. `Now of these, brethren, the Tathàgata knows that these
speculations thus arrived at, thus insisted on, will have such and such a
result, such and such an effect on the future condition of those who
trust in them. That does he know, and he knows also other things far
beyond (far better than those speculations); and having that knowledge
he is not puffed up, and thus untarnished he has, in his own heart,
realised the [\q 046/] way of escape from them, has understood, as they
really are, the rising up and passing, away of sensations, their sweet
taste, their dancer, how they cannot be relied on, and not grasping
after any (of those things men are eager for) he, the Tathàgata is quite
set free.

`These, brethren, are those other things, profound, difficult to
realise, hard to understand, tranquillising, sweet, not to be grasped by
mere logic, subtle, comprehensible only by the wise, which the
Tathàgata, having himself realised and seen face to face, hath set forth
and it is concerning these that they who would rightly praise the
Tathàgata in, accordance with the truth, should speak.

5-8. [33] [Similar sections for those who maintain in eight ways that
the soul after death is neither conscious nor unconscious.]

The Annihilationists

[176]
9. [34] `There are, brethren, recluses and Brahmans who are
Annihilationists, who in seven ways maintain the cutting off, the
destruction, the annihilation of a living being [
177]. And on account of what, starting out from what, do they do so?

10. `In the first place, brethren, some recluse or Brahman puts forth
the following opinion, the following view: ßSince, Sir, this soul has
form, is built up of the four elements, and is the offspring of father
and mother, it is cut off, destroyed, on the dissolution of the body;
and does not continue after death; and then, Sir, the soul is completely
annihilated.û Thus is it that some maintain the cutting off, the
destruction, the annihilation of a living, being,

11. `To him another says: `There is, Sir, such a soul as you
describe. That I do not deny. But the whole soul, Sir, is not then
completely annihilated. For there is a further soul - divine, having
form, belonging to the sensuous plane, feeding on solid food. That you
neither know of nor perceive. But I know [\q 047/] and have experienced
it. And since this soul, on the dissolution of the body, is cut off and
destroyed, does not continue after death, then is it, Sir, that the soul
is completely annihilated.û Thus is it that some maintain the cutting
off, the destruction, the annihilation of a living being.

12. `To him another says: ßThere is, Sir, such a soul as you
describe. That I do not deny. But the whole soul, Sir, is not then
completely annihilated. For there is a further soul-divine, having form,
made of mind, with all its major and minor parts complete, not
deficient in any organ. This you neither know of nor perceive. But I
know and have experienced it. And since this soul, on the dissolution of
the body, is cut off and destroyed, does not continue after death, then
is it, Sir, that the soul is completely annihilated.û Thus is it that
some maintain the cutting off, the destruction, the annihilation of a
living being.

13. `To him another says: ßThere is,
Sir, such a soul as you describe. That I do not deny. But the whole
soul, Sir, is not then completely annihilated. For there is a further
soul, which by passing beyond ideas of form, by the dying out of ideas
of resistance, by paying no heed to ideas of difference, conscious that
space is infinite, reaches up to the plane of the infinity of space [
178].
This you neither know of nor perceive. [35] But I know and have
experienced it. And since this soul, on the dissolution of the body, is
cut off and destroyed, does not continue after death, then is it, Sir,
that the soul is completely annihilated.û Thus is it that some maintain
the cutting off, the destruction, the annihilation of a living being.

14. `To him another says: ßThere is, Sir, such ,a soul as you
describe. That I do not deny. But the whole soul, Sir, is not then
completely annihilated.

[\q 048/] For there is a further soul,
which having passed beyond the plane of the infinity of space, knowing
that consciousness is infinite, reaches up to the plane of the infinity
of consciousness [
179].
This you neither know of nor perceive. But I know and have experienced
it. And since this soul, on the dissolution of the body, is cut off and
destroyed, does not continue after death, then is it, Sir, that the soul
is completely annihilated.û Thus is it that some maintain the cutting
off, the destruction, the annihilation of a living being.


15. `To him another says: ßThere is,
Sir, such a soul as you describe. That I do not deny. But the whole
soul, Sir, is not then completely annihilated. For there is a further
soul, which by passing quite beyond the plane of the infinity of
consciousness, knowing that there is nothing, reaches up to the plane of
no obstruction [
180].
This you neither know of nor perceive. But I know and have experienced
it. And since this soul, on the dissolution of the body, is cut off and
destroyed, does not continue after death, then is it, Sir, that the soul
is completely annihilated.û Thus is it that some maintain the cutting
off, the destruction, the annihilation of a living, being.


16. `To him another says: ßThere is,
Sir, such a soul as you describe. That I do not deny. But the whole
soul, Sir, is not then completely annihilated. For there is a further
soul, which by passing quite beyond the plane of no obstruction,
realises `This is good, this is excellent,’ and reaches up to the plane
of neither ideas nor the absence of ideas [
181]
This you [\q 049/] neither know of, nor perceive. But I know and have
experienced it. And since this soul, on the dissolution of the body, is
cut off, destroyed, does not continue after death, then is it, Sir, that
the soul is completely annihilated.û Thus is it that some maintain the
cutting off, the destruction, !the annihilation of a living being.

17. `These, brethren, are the recluses and Brahmans who are
Annihilationists and in seven ways maintain the cutting off, the
destruction, the annihilation of a living being. [36] And whosoever do
so they, all of them, do so in one or other of these seven ways. There
is none beside.

18. [Repetition of Section 40, above p. 44, setting forth that other,
higher, knowledge of a Tathàgata, for which alone he can be rightly
praised.]

19. `There are, brethren, recluses and Brahmans who hold the doctrine
of happiness in this life, who in five ways maintain the complete
salvation, in this visible world, of a living being. And relying on
what, starting out from what, do they do so?

20. `Hereon, brethren, some recluse or
Brahman may have the following opinion, the following view: ßWhensoever
the soul, in full enjoyment and possession [\q 050/] of the five
pleasures of sense, indulges all its functions, then, Sir, the soul has
attained, in this visible world, to the highest Nirvàõa [
182]. ” Thus do some maintain the complete happiness, in the visible world, of a living being.

21. `To him another says: ßThere is, Sir, such a soul as you
describe. That I do not deny. But the soul does not by that alone attain
to the highest Nirvàõa. And why not? Sensuous delights, Sir, are
transitory, they involve pain, their very nature is to fluctuate. And
grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and loathing arise out of their
inconstancy and change. [37] But whensoever the soul, putting away
sensuous delights and evil dispositions, enters into and abides in the
First Jhàna, the state of joy and ease, born of seclusion, accompanied
by reflection, accompanied by investigation, then, Sir, has the soul
attained, in this visible world, to the highest Nirvàõa.û Thus do some
maintain the complete happiness, in the visible world, of a living
being.

22. `To him another says: ßThere is, Sir, such a soul as you
describe. That I do not deny. But the soul does not by that alone attain
to the highest Nirvàõa. And why not? Because inasmuch as that state
involves reasoning and investigation it is stamped as being gross. But
whensoever, Sir, the soul, suppressing both reasoning and investigation,
enters into and abides in the Second Jhàna, the state of joy and case,
born of serenity,, without reflection or investigation, a state of
elevation of mind, internal calm of heart, then, Sir, has the soul
attained, in this visible world, to the highest Nirvàõa.û Thus do some
maintain the complete happiness, in the visible world, of a living
being.

[\q 051/] 23. `To him another says: ßThere is, Sir, such a soul as
you describe. That I do not deny. But the soul does not by that alone
attain to the highest Nirvàõa. And why not? Because inasmuch as that
state involves the sense of joy, of exhilaration of heart, it is stamped
as being gross. But whensoever, Sir, the soul, by absence of the
longing after joy remains in equanimity, mindful and self-possessed, and
experiences in the body that ease of which the Arahats speak (when they
say) `the man serene and thoughtful dwells at case,’ and so enters into
and abides in the Third Jhàna-then, Sir, has the soul attained, in this
visible world, to the highest Nirvàõa.û Thus do some maintain the
complete happiness, in the visible world, of a living being.

24. `To him another says: ßThere is.
Sir, such a soul as you describe. That I do not deny. But the soul does
not by that alone attain to the highest Nirvàõa. And why not? Because
inasmuch as that state involves a constant dwelling of the mind on the
case it has enjoyed it is stamped as gross. [38] But whensoever, Sir,
the soul, by putting away ease, by putting away pain, by the previous
dying away both of joys and griefs has entered into and abides in the
Fourth Jhàna [
183]
Þ a state made pure by self-possession and equanimity, without pain and
without ease-then, Sir, has the soul attained, in this visible world,
to the highest Nirvàõa.û Thus do some maintain the complete happiness,
in the visible world, of a living, being.

25. `These, brethren, are the recluses and Brahmans who hold the
doctrine of happiness in this life, who in five ways maintain the
complete salvation, in this visible world, of a living being. And those
who do [\q 052/] so, all of them, do so in one or other of these five
ways. There is none beside.

26. [Repetition of Section 40, above p. 44, setting forth that other,
higher, knowledge of a Tathàgata, for which alone he can be rightly
praised.]

27. `These, brethren, are the recluses and Brahmans who arrange the
future, whose speculations are concerned with the future, and who on
forty-four grounds put forward various assertions regarding the future.
And those who do so, all of them, do so in one or other of these
.forty-four ways. There is none beside.

28. [Repetition of Section 40, above p. 44, setting forth that other,
higher, knowledge of a Tathàgata, for which alone he can be rightly
praised.]

[39] 29. `These, brethren, are the recluses and Brahmans who
reconstruct the past, and arrange the future, or who do both, whose
speculations are concerned with both, and who in sixty-two ways put
forward propositions with regard to the past and to the future, and
those who do so, all of them, do so in one or other of these sixty-two
ways. There is none beside.

30. [Repetition Of Section 40, above p. 44, setting forth that other,
higher, knowledge of a `Tathàgata, for which alone he can be rightly
praised.]

[40] 32. `Of these, brethren, those recluses and Brahmans who are
Eternalists, who in four ways maintain that the soul and the world are
eternal:


(2) those who are Semi-eternalists, who in four ways maintain that the soul and the world are partly eternal and partly not:

(3) those who are Extensionists, who in four ways maintain the infinity or the finiteness of the world:

(4) those who are Eel-wrigglers, who when a question is put to them
on this or that resort, in four ways, to equivocation, to wriggling like
eels:

(5) those who are Fortuitous-Originists, who in two ways maintain that the soul and the world arose without, a cause:

(6) those who in any of these eighteen ways reconstruct the past:

(7) those who hold the doctrine of a conscious existence after death,
who maintain in sixteen ways that the soul after death is conscious:

(8) those who hold the doctrine of an unconscious existence after
death, who maintain in eight ways that the soul after death is
unconscious:

(9) those who maintain in eight ways that the soul after death is neither conscious nor unconscious:

(10) those who are Annihilationists, who maintain ill seven ways the
cutting off, the destruction, the annihilation of a living being:

(11) those who hold the doctrine of happiness in this life, who in
five ways maintain the complete salvation, in this visible world, of a
living being

That opinion of theirs is based only on the personal sensations, on the worry and writhing consequent thereon [184], of those venerable recluses and Brahmans, who know not, neither perceive, and are subject to all kinds of craving:

45 foll. [41,42] `Those opinions of theirs are therefore based upon contact (through the senses).

58 foll. [43] That they should experience those sensations without such contact, such a condition of things could not be.

71. [44] `They all of them, receive
those sensations through continual contact in the spheres of touch. To
them on account of the sensations arises craving, on account of the
craving arises the fuel (that is, the necessary condition, the food, the
basis, of future lives), from the fuel results becoming, from the
tendency to become arises rebirth, and from rebirth comes death, and
grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair. It is, brethren, when a
brother understands, [\q 054/] as they really are, the origin and the
end, the attraction, the danger, and the way of escape from the six
realms of contact, that he gets to know what is above, beyond, them all [
185].

72. [45] `For whosoever, brethren, whether recluses or Brahmans, are
thus reconstructors of the past or arrangers of the future, or who are
both, whose speculations are concerned with both, who put forward
various propositions with regard to the past and to the future, they,
all of them, are entrapped in the net of these sixty-two modes; this way
and that they plunge about, but they are in it; this way and that they
may flounder, but they are included in it, caught in it.

`Just, brethren, as when a skilful fisherman or fisherlad should drag
a tiny pool of water with a fine-meshed net he might fairly think:
ßWhatever fish of size may be in this pond, every one will be in this
net; flounder about as they may, they will be included in it, and
caught”-just so is it with these speculators about the past and the
future, in this net, flounder. as they may, they are included and
caught. [46]

73. `The outward form, brethren, of him who has won the truth [186],
stands before you, but that which binds it to rebirth is cut in twain.
So long as his body shall last, so long do gods and men behold him. On
the dissolution of the body, beyond the end of his life, neither gods
nor men shall see him.

`Just, brethren, as when the stalk of a bunch of mangoes has been
cut, all the mangoes that were hanging on that stalk go with it; just
so, brethren, though the outward form of him who has won the truth
stands before you, that which binds it to rebirth has been cut in twain.
So long as his body shall last, so long do gods and men behold him. On
the dissolution of the body, beyond the end of his life, neither gods
nor men shall see him.’

[\q 055/] 74. When he had thus spoken, the venerable ânanda said to
the Blessed One: `Strange, Lord, is this, and wonderful! And what name
has this exposition of the truth?’

`ânanda, you may remember this exposition as the Net of Advantage,
and as the Net of Truth, and as the Supreme Net, and as the Net of
Theories; remember it even as the Glorious Victory in the day of
battle!’

Thus spake the Blessed One, and glad at heart the brethren exalted
his word. And on the delivery of this discourse the thousandfold
world-system shook.

Here ends the Brahma-Jàla Sutta.


[1] `American Lectures on Buddhism.’ London, 1896, pp. 38~43.


[2] Summed up below, pp. 52, 53; and set out more fully in the list in the `American Lectures,’ pp. 31-33.


[3] See the fable quoted below, pp. 187, 188.


[4] See below, pp. 44, 188.


[5] See for instance below, pp. 53, 54.


[6] See the paper on `The Will in Buddhism,’ J R. A. S., 1898.


[7] See below, p. 42, &c., of this Suttanta.


[8]
Professor Cowell has been good enough to inform me that, in his
opinion, the attempted restriction of all philosophy to the six
Darsanas, and the very use of the term, is late mediaeval. The six are
of course not mutually exclusive; and this, and the omissions in the
classification of philosophy under these six heads, render it rather
like a classification of animals into men, horses, birds, ghosts,
beetles, and sparrows.


[9]
The whole of this Sutta was translated into English by the Rev. Daniel
Gogerly, Wesleyan missionary in Ceylon, in the journal of the Ceylon
Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society for 1846 (reprinted by P. Grimblot
in his `Sept Suttas Palis,’ Paris, 1876).


[10]
Nàlandà, afterwards the seat of the famous Buddhist university, was
about seven miles north of Ràjagaha, the capital of Magadha, the modern
Raj-gir (Sum. p. 35).


[11] Suppiya was a follower of the celebrated teacher Sa¤jaya, whose views are set out and controverted in the next Sutta.


[12]
Ambalaññhikà, `the mango sapling.’ It was, says Buddhaghosa (pp. 41,
42), a well-watered and shady park so called from a mango sapling by the
gateway. It was surrounded with a rampart, and had in it a rest-house
adorned with paintings for the king’s amusement.

There was another garden so named at Anuràdhapura in Ceylon, to the
east of the Brazen Palace (Sum. 1, 13 1). This was so named, no doubt,
after the other which was famous as the scene of the `Exhortation to
Ràhula starting with falsehood,’ mentioned in Asoka’s Bhabra Edict (see
my `Buddhism,’ pp. 224, 225).

[13]
These titles occur, in the MSS., at the end of the sections of the
tract that now follows. It forms a part of each of the Suttas in the
first division, the first third, of this collection of Suttas. The
division is called therefore the Sãla Vagga or Section containing the
Sãlas. The tract itself must almost certainly have existed as a separate
work before the time when the discourses, in each of which it recurs,
were first put together.

Certain paragraphs from this tract occur also elsewhere. So in
Majjhima I, 179 we have the whole of the short paragraphs; in Majjhima,
Nos. 76 and 77, and in Mahàvagga V, 8, 3, we have Section 17; in
Majjhima II, 3 we have most of Section 18; and so on. The whole of this
tract has been translated into English by Gogerly (in Grimblot, see page
1, note), into French by Burnouf (also in Grimblot, pp. 212 foll.), and
into German by Dr. Neumann (in his Buddhistische Anthologie, pp. 67
foll.).

[14]
This refrain is repeated at the end of each clause. When the Sãlas
recur below, in each Sutta, the only difference is in the refrain. See,
for instance, the translation of p. 100 in the text.


[15]
Neumann has `waiting for a gift’ which is a possible rendering: but
pàtikankhati has not yet been found elsewhere in the sense of `waiting
for.’ The usual meaning of the word expresses just such a trifling
matter as we have been led, from the context, to expect.


[16]
Gàma-dhammà, `from the village habit, the practice of country folk the
“pagan”‘ way.’ One might render the phrase by `pagan’ if that word had
not acquired, in English, a slightly different connotation. It is the
opposite of porã, urbane (applied to speech, below, Section9)ôr. Neumann
misses the point here, but has `h”flich’ below.


[17] Porã. See note above on Section 8.


[18] Sampha-ppalàpa. Sampha occurs alone in the Hemavata Sutta, and at Jàt. VI, 295; A. 11, 23.


[19] Samàrambhà cannot mean `planting’ as Dr. Neumann renders it.


[20]
Kaüsa-kåña. The context suggests that kaüsa (bronze) may here refer to
coins, just as we say in English `a copper,’ and the word is actually so
used in the 11th and 12th Bhikkhunã Nissaggiya Rules -the oldest
reference in Indian books to coins. The most ancient coins, which were
of private (not state) coinage, were either of bronze or gold.
Buddhaghosa (p.79) explains the expression here used as meaning the
passing off of bronze vessels as gold. Gogerly translates `weights,’
Childers sub voce has `counterfeit metal,’ and Neumann has `Màss.’
Buddhaghosa is obliged to take kaüsa in the meaning of `gold pot,’ which
seems very forced; and there is no authority for kaüsa meaning either
weight or mass. On the whole the coin explanation seems to me to be the
simplest.


[21]
Buddhaghosa gives examples of each of these five classes of the
vegetable. kingdom without explaining the terms. But it is only the
fourth which is doubtful. It may mean `graftings,’ if the art of
grafting was then known in the Ganges valley.


[22]
âmisa. Buddhaghosa (p. 83) gives a long list of curry-stuffs included
under this term. If he is right then Gogerly’s `raw grain’ is too
limited a translation, and Neumann’s `all sorts of articles to use’ too
extensive. In its secondary meaning the word means something. nice, a
relish, a dainty.’


[23]
Visåka-dassanaü. This word has only been found elsewhere in the phrase
diññhi-visåkaü, `the puppet shows of heresy’ (Majjhima I, pp. 8, 486;
and Serissaka Vimàna LXXXIV, 26). The Sinhalese renders it
wiparãta-darsaõa.


[24] Dancing. cannot mean here a dancing in which the persons referred to took part. It must be ballet or nautch dancing.


[25]
Literally `shows.’ This word, only found here, has always been rendered
`theatrical representations.’ Clough first translated it so in his
Sinhalese Dictionary, p. 665, and he was followed by Gogerly, Burnouf,
myself (in `Buddhist Suttas,’ p. 192), and Dr. Neumann (p. 69),-and
Weber (Indian Literature, pp. 199, 319) seems to approve this. But it is
most unlikely that the theatre was already known in the fifth century
B. C. And Buddhaghosa (p. 84) explains it, quite simply, as
naña-samajjà. Now samajjo is a very interesting old word (at least in
its Pàli form). The Sanskrit, according to the Petersburg Dictionary,
has only been found in modern dictionaries. The Pàli occurs in other old
texts such as Vinaya 11, 107; IV, 267 (both times in the very same
context as it does here); ibid. II, 150; 1V, 85; Sigàlovàda Sutta,
p.300; and it is undoubtedly the same word as samàja in the first of the
fourteen Edicts of Asoka. In the Sigàlovàda there are said to be six
dangers at such a samajjo; to wit, dancing, singing, music, recitations,
conjuring tricks, and acrobatic shows. And in the Vinaya passages we
learn that at a samajjo not only amusements but also food was provided;
that high officials were invited, and had special seats; and that it
took place at the top of a bill. This last detail of `high places’ (that
is sacred places) points to a religious motive as underlying the whole
procedure. The root aj (??greak??agw??, ago, whence our `act’) belongs
to the stock of common Aryan roots, and means carrying on. What was the
meaning of this `carrying on together’? Who were the people who took
part? Were they confined to one village? or have we here a survival from
old exogamic communistic dancings together? Later the word means simply
fair,’ as at Jàtaka III, 541:

`Many the bout 1 have played with quarterstaves at the fair,’ with
which Jàtaka I, 394 may be compared. And it is no doubt this side of the
festival which is here in the mind of the author; but `fair’ is
nevertheless a very inadequate rendering. The Sinhalese has rapid
movement in dance-figures’ (ranga-maõóalu).

[26]
These ballad recitations in prose and verse combined were the source
from which epic poetry was afterwards gradually developed. Buddhaghosa
has no explanation of the word, but gives as examples the Bhàrata and
the Ràmàyaõa. The negative anakkhànaü occurs Majjhima I, 503.


[27]
Buddhaghosa explains this as `playing on cymbals’; and adds that it is
also called pàõitàëaü. The word is only found here and at Jàtaka V, 5o6,
and means literally `hand-sounds.’


[28]
Buddhaghosa says `deep music, but some say raising dead bodies to life
by spells.’ His own explanation is, I think, meant to be etymological;
and to show that he derives the word from vi + tàëa. This would bring
the word into connection with the Sanskrit vaitàëika, `royal bard.’ The
other explanation connects the word with Vetàla, `a demon,’ supposed to
play pranks (as in the stories of the Vetàla-pa¤ca-viüsati) by
reanimating corpses. Dr. Neumann adopts it. But it does not agree so
well with the context; and it seems scarcely justifiable to see, in this
ancient list, a reference to beliefs which can only be traced in
literature more than a thousand years later. Gogerly’s rendering funeral
ceremonies,’ which I previously followed, seems to me now quite out of
the question.


[29]
It is clear from Jàtaka V, 5o6 that this word means a sort of music.
And at Vinaya IV, 285 kumbhathånikà are mentioned in connection with
dancers, acrobats, and hired mourners. Buddhaghosa is here obscure and
probably corrupt, and the derivation is quite uncertain. Gogerly’s guess
seems better than Burnouf’s or Neumann’s. The Sinhalese has `striking a
drum big enough to hold sixteen gallons.’


[30]
Buddhaghosa seems to understand by this term (literally `of Sobha
city’) the adornments or scenery used for a ballet-dance.
(Pañibhàõa-cittam at Vinaya 11, 151; IV, 61, 298, 358; Sum. 1, 42 is the
nude in art.) Weber has pointed out (Indische Studien, II, 38; III,
153) that Sobha is a city of the, fairies much given to music and
love-making. It is quite likely that the name of a frequently used scene
for a ballet because a proverbial phrase for all such scenery. But the
Sinhalese has `pouring water over the heads of dancers, or nude
paintings.’


[31]
Buddhaghosa takes these three words separately, and so do all the MSS.
of the text, and the Sinhalese version. But 1 now think that the passage
at Jàtaka IV, 390 is really decisive, and that we have here one of the
rare cases where we can correct our MSS. against the authority of the
old commentator. But 1 follow him in the general meaning he assigns to
the strange expression `Caõóàla-bamboo washings.’


[32] See Jàtaka III, 541.


[33]
Nibbuddhaü. The verbal form nibbujjhati occurs in the list at Vinaya
III, 180 (repeated at 11, 10); and our word at Milinda 232.


[34]
All these recur in the introductory story to the 50th Pàcittiya (Vinaya
IV, 107). On the last compare Buddhaghosa on Mahàvagga V, I, 2 9.


[35] All these terms recur at Vinaya III, 180 (repeated at II, 10).


[36]
Chess played originally on a board of eight times ten squares was
afterwards played on one of eight times eight squares. Our text cannot
be taken as evidence of real chess in the fifth century B. C., but it
certainly refers to games from which it and draughts must have been
developed. The Sinhalese Sanna says that each of these games was played
with dice and pieces such as kings and so on. The word for pieces is
poru (from purisa)-just our men.’


[37] âkàsaü. How very like blindfold chess !


[38] Parihàra-pathaü. A kind of primitive `hop-scotch.’ The Sinhalese says the steps must be made hopping-.


[39] Santikà. Spellicans, pure and simple.


[40]
Khalikà. Unfortunately the method of playing is not stated. Compare
Eggeling’s note as in his Satapatha-Bràhmaõa 11I, 106, 7. In the
gambling-scene on the Bharhut `Tope (Cunningham, PI. XLV, No. 9) there
is a board marked out on the stone of six times five squares (not six by
six), and six little cubes with marks on the sides visible lie on the
stone outside the board.


[41] Jhañikaü Something like `tip-cat.’ Siü - kelãmaya in Sinhalese.


[42] Sa1àka-hatthaü. On flour-water as colouring matter, see Jàtaka I, 220.


[43] Akkhaü. The usual meaning is `a die.’ But the Sinhalese translator agrees with Buddhaghosa. Neither gives any details.


[44] Pangacãram. The Sinhalese for this toy is pat-kulal. Morris in J. P. T. S., 1889, p. 205, compares the Marathãpungi.


[45] Vankakaü. From Sanskrit vrika. See journal of the Pàli Text Society, 1889, p. 206.


[46]
Mokkhacikà,. So the Sinhalese. Buddhaghosa has an alternative
explanation of turning over on a trapeze, but gives this also. See
Vinaya I, 275, and J. P. T. S., 1885, p. 49.


[47] Cingulikaü. See Morris in the J. P. T. S., 1885, p. 5o, who compares cingulàyitvà at Aïguttara III, 15, 2.


[48] All these six, from No. 10 inclusive, are mentioned in the Majjhima, vol. 1, p. 266, as children’s games.


[49]
Akkharikà. it is important evidence for the date at which writing was
known in India that such a game should be known in the fifth century B.
C.


[50] The following list recurs Vinaya I, 192 = 11, 163 = Aïguttara 1, 181, &c.


[51]
âsandã. Buddhaghosa merely says `a seat beyond the allowed measure,’
but that must refer to height, as the only rule as to measure in seats
is the 87th Pàcittiya in which the height of beds or chairs is limited
to eight `great’ inches (probably about eighteen inches). The Sinhalese
Sanna adds `a long chair for supporting the whole body.’ At Jàt. I, 208 a
man lies down on an àsandã so as to be able to-look up and watch the
stars. At Dãgha I, 55 = Majjhima 1,515 = Saüyutta 111, (where the
reading must be corrected), the âsandã is used as a bier. The âsandã is
selected as the right sort of seat for the king in both the Vàjapeya and
Inauguration ceremonies because of its height (Eggeling, Sat.-Bràh.
III, 35, 105). It is there said to be made of common sorts of wood, and
perforated; which probably means that the frame was of wood and the seat
was of interlaced cane or wickerwork. The diminutive àsandiko, with
short legs and made square (for sitting, not lying on), is allowed in
the Buddhist Order by Vinaya 11, 149. And even the àsandã is allowed, if
the tall legs be cut down, by Vinaya II, 169, 170 (where the reading
chinditvà seems preferable, and is read in the quotation at Sum. 1, 88).
The renderings `large cushion’ at `Vinaya Texts,’ II, 27 and `stuffed
couch’ at 111, 209 must be accordingly corrected. Gogerly translates
`large couch,’ Burnouf une chaise longue,’ and Neumann bequeme
Lehnstuhl.’


[52]
Pallanko. It is noteworthy that, in spite of the use of a divan with
animals carved on its supports being here objected to, it is precisely
the sort of seat on which the Buddha himself, or Buddhist personages of
distinction, are often, in later sculptures, represented as sitting
(Grunwedel, `Buddhistische kunst,’ pp. III, 124, 137; Mitra, `Budh
Gayà,’ Plates XI, XX, &c. &c.). At Mahàvaüsa 25 sãhàsana and
pallanko are used of the same seat (Asoka’s throne), and sãhàsana is
used of Duññha Gamini’s throne, ibid. 157. But the Lion throne of
Nissanka Malla, found at Pollonnaruwa, is not a pallanko, but an actual
stone lion, larger than life size (’Indian Antiquary,’ vol. 1, p. 135.
Compare the similar seat in Grunwedel, p. 95).

By Vinaya 11, 170 the possession of a pallanka was allowed to the
Order if the animal figures were broken off (the translation in `Vinaya
Texts,’ III, 209, must be altered accordingly, reading vàle for vale, as
at Vinaya IV, 312). By Vinaya II, 163 it is laid down that members of
the Order were not to use a complete pallanko even in laymen’s houses,
so that Nigrodha’s action in the passage just quoted (Mahàvaüsa 25) was
really a breach of the regulations.

[53]
The words from gonako down to kaññhissaü inclusive, and also kuttakaü,
are found only in this list, and Buddhaghosa seems to be uncertain as to
the exact meaning of some of them. All except No. 7 might be used in
laymen’s houses (’Vinaya Texts,’ III, 197), and all might be possessed
by the Order i used only as floor coverings (ibid. 111, 209); except
again No. 7, the cotton wool of which might be utilised for pillows. As
there is a doubt about the spelling it may be noticed that the Sanna
reads goõakaü and uddalomiü: and the MS. in the R. A. S. (which repeats
each sentence) has -gonakaü and uddalomiü both times.


[54] Sambàhanaü. Perhaps rubbing the limbs with flat pieces of wood. See Buddhaghosa here and at `Vinaya Texts,’ III, 60.


[55]
This is not quite accurate. Out of the twenty items here objected to,
three (shampooing, bathing, and the use of sunshades) were allowed in
the Order, and practised by Gotama himself. Bathrooms, and halls
attached to them, are permitted by `Vinaya Texts,’ III, 189; shampooing
by ibid. III, 68, 297. There are elaborate regulations for the provision
of hot steam baths and the etiquette to be observed in them; and
instances of the use of the ordinary bath in streams or rivers are
frequent. The use of sunshades is permitted by `Vinaya Texts,’ 111, 13
2-3, and is referred to ibid. 111, 88, 274.


[56]
Visikhà-kathà. Buddhaghosa (p.90) takes this word (literally
street-talk’) in the sense of talk about streets, whether ill or well
situate, and whether the inhabitants are bold or poor, &c.


[57] Pubba-peta-kathà. The commentator confines this to boasting talk about deceased relatives or ancestors.


[58]
Nànatta-kathaü, literally `difference-talk.’ The expression seems
somewhat forced, if taken as meaning `desultory’; but I see no better
explanation.


[59]
Lokakkhàyikà. Buddhaghosa refers this specially to such speculations as
are put forth according to the Lokàtyata system by the Vitaõóas (also
called Lokàyatikas). These are materialistic theorisers, of whose system
very little is, so far, known. See the note at `Vinaya Texts, vol. iii,
p. 151. 1 have collected other references to them in my `Milinda,’ vol.
i, p.7; and to these Dãgha I, 11 114,120, and Attha Sàlinã, p.3, may
now be added. They are probably referred to below in chap. iii of this
Sutta, SectionSection 10, 20.


[60] `This list of foolish talks recurs in Suttas 76-78 in the Majjhima, and at Vinaya I,188.


[61] These expressions all recur at Majjhima II, 3.


[62]
Sahitaü me, literally `the put together is to me,’ &c. The idiom is
only found here, and may mean either as rendered above, or `the context
is on my side,’ or `the text (of the Scriptures) is on my side,’ or
merely `that which is of use is on my side.’ This last, given by the
Sanna, amounts to the same as the version adopted above.


[63] Putting the cart before the horse.


[64]
âropito te vàdo. On the use of this idiom compare the Commentary on the
Therã Gàthà, p. 101. There is a misprint here in the text, aropito for
àropito. `Issue has been joined against you would be a possible
rendering. It is the phrase used, when some one has offered to hold
debate (maintain a thesis) against all corners, by an opponent who takes
up the challenge.


[65]
Niggahãto si. On this idiom compare the opening paragraphs of the Kathà
Vatthu and the Commentary on them (especially pp. 9,10). It is
literally `you are censured.’


[66]
3 Cara vàda-pamokkhàya. So Buddhaghosa. But Gogerly renders, `Depart,
that you may be freed from this disputation and the only parallel
passage seems to support this view. It is Majjhima 1, 133, where it is
said to be wrong to learn the Scriptures for the sake of the advantage
of being freed from discussion or debate where texts are quoted against
one. Pamokkha occurs besides at Saüyutta I, 2, Jàtaka V, 30, 31, and
Mahàvaüsa 158, but not in this connection.


[67]
So the author of Milinda in making his hero Nàgasena use just such a
phrase (Mil. P. 27) is making him commit a breach of propriety.


[68]
Kuhakà. `Astonish the world with the three sorts of trickery,’ says
Buddhaghosa. These are also referred to without explanation at Jàtaka
IV, 297 (where we should, 1 think, read kuhana).


[69] Lapakà. Compare Itivuttaka, No. 99 = Aïguttara I, 165, 168; and also Milinda 228, Jàtaka III, 349.


[70]
Nemittakà, `interpreters of signs and omens.’ See the note on nimittaü
in the next paragraph. Compare Milinda 299; Jàt. IV, 124.


[71]
Nippesikà, `scarers away’ (? of ghosts, or bad omens). But the
Commentary and Sanna give no help, and the word has only been found in
this list.


[72]
All the five words in this list recur at A. III, iii but the context
there is as undecisive as it is here, and the Commentary (fol. di of the
`Turnour MS. at the India Office), though slightly different, gives no
better help.


[73]
Aïgaü, literally `limbs.’ Buddhaghosa distinguishes this from lakkhaõaü
(No. 5 in this list), and from anga-vijjà (No. 16). It is not found, in
this sense, anywhere in the texts.


[74]
Nimittaü, literally `marks,’ or ,signs.’ Buddhaghosa tells a story in
illustration. King Paõóu, they say (Pàõói in the Sanna), took three
pearls in his closed hand, and asked a diviner what he had in it. The
latter looked this way and that for a sign; and seeing a fly which had
been caught by a house-lizard (the Sanna says `by a dog,’ perhaps the
meaning is simply `in sugar’) getting free (üuttà), said at once
`pearls’ (also muttà in Pàli). `How many.û says the king. The diviner,
hearing a dog bark thrice, answered `three.’ Compare Mil. 178, and the
note to the last section on nemittikà, and the story at Mahàvaüsa 82.


[75]
Uppàdo, `the portents of the great ones, thunderbolts falling, and so
on,’ says Buddhaghosa. The Great Ones here mean, 1 think, the spirits or
gods presiding over the sun, moon, and planets (see the note on Section
26). The word corresponds to the Sanskrit Utpàta, though the d is
vouched for by overwhelming authority. But this is only another instance
of a change not infrequent (as Ed. Mller has shown, Pàli Grammar, p.
37); and the one or two cases where Burmese scribes have (wrongly)
corrected to uppàta is another instance to be added to those referred to
in the Introduction to Sum. 1 of their habit of putting an easier
reading where the more difficult one is really right. Childers should
therefore have kept this word separate from the other uppàdo. Comp. Jàt.
1, 374.


[76]
Supinaü. On the theory of dreams compare Mil., pp. 297-301. At Jàt. I,
374 the word is masculine. Perhaps charms to avert bad dreams (Ath.-veda
VI, 46; XVI, 5 and 6) are included in this low art.’ Jàt. No. 77 mocks
at the dream interpreters.


[77]
Lakkhaõaü. The commentator on this word as used in the very same
connection at Jàt. I, 374 adds that it means also the knowledge of good
and bad marks on such persons and things as are mentioned here in our
next paragraph. Buddhaghosa confines its meaning to that given above.
This contradiction is another confirmation of the opinion expressed by
me in 1880 in `Buddhist Birth Stories,’ pp. lxiii foll., that Childers
was wrong in ascribing the Jàtaka Commentary to Buddhaghosa. The word
occurs in Buddhaghosa’s sense at D. I, 114, 120= A. 1, 163, &c.;
Jàt. I, 56.


[78]
Musikàcchinnaü. The allied superstition of thinking it unlucky to wear
clothes gnawed by mice is laughed out of court in the Mangala Jàtaka,
No. 87.


[79] Aggi-homaü. Telling people that a sacrifice, if offered in a fire of such and such a wood, will have such and such a result.


[80]
Dabbi-homaü. Telling people that an oblation of such and such grains,
butter, or so on, poured into the fire from such and such a sort of
spoon, will have such and such a result.


[81]
See Hillebrandt, `Neu und Vollmondsopfer,’ pp. 31, 171, and
Ritual-literatur’ in Bhler’s `Grundriss,’ pp. 71, 72, 114, 176. The
nine homas here objected to may also be compared with the seven at
Ath.-veda VIII, 9, 18.


[82] No instance of this can be traced in the books of the Brahmans.


[83]
Compare the passage in Hillebrandt, in Bhler’s Grundriss,’ p. 176, on
the use of blood for sorcery. In one passage, Rig-vidh. III, 18, 3, it
is one’s own blood that is to be used. But the specific interpretation
given here by Buddhaghosa cannot be paralleled from the Brahmanical
books.


[84]
Anga-vijja. Buddhaghosa thus separates this from the aïgaü of No. 1. In
both the passages Jàt. 11, 200, 250 the knowledge is simply that of
judging from a man’s appearance that he is rough or bad. and it is the
good man in the story (in the second case the Bodisat himself) who is
the anga-vijjà-pàñhako. So at Jàt. V, 458 it is by anga-vijjà that the
Bodisat prophesies that a man will be cruel.


[85]
Vatthu-vijjà. Childers (Dict., p. 559) has `pool’ instead of `house,’
having misread sara for ghara (s and gh are nearly alike in Sinhalese).
The craft is further explained by Buddhaghosa in his comment on the
Mahà-parinibbàna Sutta I, 26. Its success depended on the belief that
the sites were haunted by spirits. See further below, Section 27.


[86]
Khatta-vijjà,. The Burmese MSS. correct the rare khatta into the
familiar khetta. Khetta-vijjà indeed occurs at Ud. III, 9, and may just
possibly there (in connection with writing, arithmetic, tables, &c.)
be correct in the meaning- of `land-surveying, mensuration.’
Buddhaghosa, though his explanation is corrupt, evidently understands
the phrase in a sense similar to that of khatta-dhamma at Jàt. V, 489,
490; Mil. 164 (see also 178); and his gloss nãtisatthaü is probably
nearer the mark than Saïkara’s (on Chànd. Up. VII, 1, 2), which is
dhanur-veda. It is the craft of government, then lying in great part in
adhering- to custom.

The Sutta only follows the Upanishad in looking at all these crafts
as minor matters, but it goes beyond it in looking upon them as a `low’
way, for a Brahman, of gaining a livelihood.

[87]
Siva-vijjà. It is clear that siva is used euphemistically, and we may
here have an early reference to what afterwards developed into the cult
of the god Siva. Buddhaghosa gives an alternative explanation as
knowledge of the cries of jackals.


[88] Bhåta-vijjà. Also in the Chàndogya list (lac. cit.)


[89] Bhåri-vijjà. It is the same as bhåri-kammaü, explained in the same way by Buddhaghosa on Section 27 below.


[90]
Ahi-vijjà. One method is described at Jàt. IV, 457, 8, Perhaps such
charms against snake-bite as Ath.-v. V,13; VI, 12, 56; VII, 88, are
included.


[91] Buddhaghosa says curing or giving poison, or poison spells (compare Ath.-v. VI, 90, 93, 100).


[92] These are explained to mean simply curing the bites of these creatures.


[93] These are explained to mean simply curing the bites of these creatures.


[94] Understanding their language.


[95] Divining- by the appearance and the cawings of crows.


[96] Compare the Ambaññha-vijjà at Sum. 255 and below, p. 96 of the text, Section 23.


[97] Miga-cakkaü. Understanding the language of all creatures.


[98]
The whole of this `low art’ as applied to gems has been collected in a
series of manuals now edited by L. Finot in his `Lapiddires Indiens,’
Paris, 1896.


[99]
The art in these four cases is to determine whether the marks on them
show they will bring good (or bad) luck to the houses in which they
dwell.


[100]
The art in these four cases is to determine whether the marks on them
show they will bring good (or bad) luck to the houses in which they
dwell.


[101]
The art in these four cases is to determine whether the marks on them
show they will bring good (or bad) luck to the houses in which they
dwell.


[102]
The art in these four cases is to determine whether the marks on them
show they will bring good (or bad) luck to the houses in which they
dwell.


[103]
The art in these four cases is to determine whether the marks on them
show they will bring good (or bad) luck to the houses in which they
dwell.


[104] The art in these five cases is to determine whether it is unclean or not to eat them.


[105] The art in these five cases is to determine whether it is unclean or not to eat them.


[106] The art in these five cases is to determine whether it is unclean or not to eat them.


[107] The art in these five cases is to determine whether it is unclean or not to eat them.


[108]
`This comes in here very oddly. But the old commentator had the same
reading, and takes the word in its ordinary senses, not even as amulet.


[109]
Throughout these paragraphs the plural is used. This cannot be
honorific, as the few great kings of that time are always spoken of in
the singular. Yet all the previous translators, except Burnouf,
translate by the singular-’the king will march out,’ &c. It is
evident that we have to understand `chiefs,’ and not the `king `: and
that not absolute monarchies, but republican institutions of a more or
less aristocratic type, were in the mind of the composer of the
paragraph.


[110]
Nakkhatta, translated by Gogerly and Neumann a `planet.’ Buddhaghosa
explains it by `Mars and so on.’ This may apply to planets, but also to
stars in general, and I know no other passage where the meaning of the
word is confined to planets. Burnouf has (constellation,’ but what can
the eclipse of a constellation mean?


[111]
Patha-gamana and uppatha-gamana. Prof. Kielhorn says (in a note he has
been kind enough to send me on this section): What the author means by
these words 1 do not know. But uppatha-gamana would be literally
“aberration, the going away from one’s proper path”; and patha-gamana
therefore should be “following one’s proper course.û 1 am sure the two
words could not mean conjunction and opposition; nor, 1 think, ascension
and declension. It is curious that Buddhaghosa has not explained them.’


[112] Ukkà-pàto. See Jàt. 1, 374; Mil. 178.


[113]
Disà-dàho. Thunder and lightning,’ according to Neumann; fiery
corruscations in the atmosphere,’ according to Gogerly, whom Burnouf
follows. But Buddhaghosa’s words are only explicable of a jungle fire.
Compare Jàt. 1, 212, 213, 374.


[114]
Burnouf takes these four words to refer to four occurrences. Gogerly
and Neumann take them as only two. Buddhaghosa seems to imply four.


[115]
Muddà. There has been great diversity in the various guesses made at
the meaning in this connection of muddà, which usually means `seal’ or
`seal-ring.’ Gogerly has 1 conveyancing,’ and so also Childers; Burnouf
takes this word and the next as one compound in the sense of foretelling
the future by calculating diagrams’; and Neumann has
`Verwaltungsdienste, `administrative services. Buddhaghosa is very curt.
He says only hattha-muddàgaõanà Hatthamuddà is found elsewhere only at
Jàt. III, 528, where hattha- muddaü karoti means `to beckon,’ and at
Vin. V, 163, where it is said of the polite member of the Order that he
makes, no sign with his hand, nor beckons. (On hattha-vikàra compare
Mil. 1, 207, 547 = Vin. I,157 = Vin. II, 216.) Both these passages are
much later than our text, and the sense of beckoning is here impossible.
But muddà is mentioned as a craft at Vin. IV, 7 (where it is called
honourable), at M. I, 85, and several times in the Milinda (pp. 3, 59,
78, 178 of the Pàli text), and muddiko as the person who practises that
craft at D. I, 51 and Vin. IV, 8. The Sinhalese comment on this (quoted
in my translation of the Milinda, 1, 91) shows that the art there was
simply arithmetic, using the joints or knuckles of the fingers as an aid
to memory. And this is no doubt the meaning in our paragraph.


[116]
Gaõanà. Buddhaghosa’s comment on this is acchiddakà-gaõanà, in
contradistinction to the last. It is evidently calculation not broken up
by using, the fingers, mental arithmetic pure and simple. The
accountant who uses this method is called gaõako (D. I, 51; Vin. IV, 8) .
Buddhaghosa’s comment on the latter passage is given by Minayeff at
Pat. 84, but with a wrong reading, akkhiüñaka.


[117]
Saükhànaü, literally `counting up.’ He who has the faculty of doing
this can, on looking at a tree, say how many leaves it has, says
Buddhaghosa. But the first words of his comment are doubtful. He may
perhaps mean calculating masses by means of the rosary. Burnouf skips
this word, and Neumann has simply `counting.’


[118]
Kàveyyaü. The word recurs, in a bad sense, at A. 1, 72= III, 107, and
also at S. I, 110 in the phrase kàveyya-matto, `drunk with prophecy,
inspired.’ Buddhaghosa enumerates, in the words of A. II, 230, four
kinds of poetry, and explains them in nearly the same words as found in
the Manoratha Påranã on that passage. None of the four refer to
sacrificial hymns. Impromptu rhyming, ballad singing, and the
composition of poems are meant.


[119]
Lokàhyataü. Usually rendered `materialism.’ But it is quite clear that
this meaning is impossible in this connection. See Milinda 174.


[120] Compare the Sinhalese bãna (binna) marriage in which the bridegroom is brought into the house of the bride’s family.


[121]
Compare the Sinhalese dãga marriage in which the bride is sent out to
live in the bridegroom’s family. We have no words now in English to
express this difference between marrying and giving in marriage.


[122]
Saüvadanaü. Childers calls this a magic art, following Burnouf who
calls it sorcery. Buddhaghosa explains it as astrology. The fact is all
these expressions are technical terms for acts of astrology or sorcery,
they none of them occur elsewhere either in Pàli or Sanskrit, and the
tradition preserved by Buddhaghosa may be at fault in those cases in
which the use of the word had not survived to later times. The general
sense may be sufficiently clear, but for absolute certainty of
interpretation we must wait till examples are found in Indian books of
the actual use of the words, not in mere lists, but in a connection
which shows the meaning. Ath-v III, 30 is a charm to secure concord in a
family, compare VII, 52; and there are several charms in the
Athara-veda for success in gambling.


[123]
Saüvadanaü. Childers calls this a magic art, following Burnouf who
calls it sorcery. Buddhaghosa explains it as astrology. The fact is all
these expressions are technical terms for acts of astrology or sorcery,
they none of them occur elsewhere either in Pàli or Sanskrit, and the
tradition preserved by Buddhaghosa may be at fault in those cases in
which the use of the word had not survived to later times. The general
sense may be sufficiently clear, but for absolute certainty of
interpretation we must wait till examples are found in Indian books of
the actual use of the words, not in mere lists, but in a connection
which shows the meaning. Ath-v III, 30 is a charm to secure concord in a
family, compare VII, 52; and there are several charms in the
Athara-veda for success in gambling.


[124]
Saüvadanaü. Childers calls this a magic art, following Burnouf who
calls it sorcery. Buddhaghosa explains it as astrology. The fact is all
these expressions are technical terms for acts of astrology or sorcery,
they none of them occur elsewhere either in Pàli or Sanskrit, and the
tradition preserved by Buddhaghosa may be at fault in those cases in
which the use of the word had not survived to later times. The general
sense may be sufficiently clear, but for absolute certainty of
interpretation we must wait till examples are found in Indian books of
the actual use of the words, not in mere lists, but in a connection
which shows the meaning. Ath-v III, 30 is a charm to secure concord in a
family, compare VII, 52; and there are several charms in the
Athara-veda for success in gambling.


[125]
Saüvadanaü. Childers calls this a magic art, following Burnouf who
calls it sorcery. Buddhaghosa explains it as astrology. The fact is all
these expressions are technical terms for acts of astrology or sorcery,
they none of them occur elsewhere either in Pàli or Sanskrit, and the
tradition preserved by Buddhaghosa may be at fault in those cases in
which the use of the word had not survived to later times. The general
sense may be sufficiently clear, but for absolute certainty of
interpretation we must wait till examples are found in Indian books of
the actual use of the words, not in mere lists, but in a connection
which shows the meaning. Ath-v III, 30 is a charm to secure concord in a
family, compare VII, 52; and there are several charms in the
Athara-veda for success in gambling.


[126] Subhaga-karanaü. Many such charms are preserved in the Atharva-veda (for instance, X, 3:; 5; XVI, 4; 9)


[127]
It would be useless to seek in the Atharva-veda, which (with the one
exception mentioned in the notes to the next section) gives only the
charms which are supposed to bring benefits, for instances of these
malevolent practices. But we have here direct evidence that black magic,
as was indeed inevitable was as fully trusted in the sixth century B.
C. in the valley of the Ganges as white. We need not be surprised that
the malevolent charms are not recorded.


[128]
Adàsa-pa¤ho. Buddhaghosa says they made a god appear in the mirror and
answer questions put. It is a later conception to discard the god, and
make the mirror itself give pictures of the hidden events. The mirror is
of metal (Par. Dip. 235).


[129] Kumàri-pa¤ho. Through a girl of good family and repute.


[130]
Deva-pa¤ho. Also obtained through a girl, but this time a deva-dàsã or
temple prostitute. It is instructive to find, even under the patriarchal
regime of the sixth century B. C., that men thought they could best
have communications from the gods through the medium of a woman.


[131] âdiccupaññhànam. Such sun-worship is ridiculed in the Jàtaka of the same name, No. 173.


[132]
Buddhaghosa explains the Great One as Mahà Brahma. This seems to me
very doubtful. It is at least odd to find Brahma introduced in this
connection. We may grant that the Buddhists might have put sun-worship
into a list of sorceries, but there was no ceremonial cult of Brahma and
little or none of Brahmà. And however much the new gospel might hold
the speculations of the dominant theosophy in contempt, that would
scarcely explain their being ranked as privates in this regiment.
Burnouf avoids this by rendering the phrase generally `serving the
great,’ and Neumann has `practising sorcery.’ Neither of these guesses
seems happy. Mahat in composition is elsewhere always mahà in Pàli, and
we possibly have here a sandhi for mahatã-upaññhànam, in the sense of
worship of the Great Mother, the Earth, with covert allusion to Mahã.
This would give excellent sense, as the worship of the Mother Earth was
closely associated in the popular mind with witchcraft. A god or goddess
is certainly meant, and one so associated would be best in place here.
It is perhaps worthy of note that in the oldest portion of the
Taittirãya Upanishad, Sun, Moon, Earth, and Srã occur together in a set
of mystic groups, and Sun, Moon, Brahma, and food are all identified by a
word-play with Mahas (Sãkrà-vallã” 4-7).


[133] See Milinda 191, and Jàt. II, 410.


[134]
Bhåri-kammaü. Is this a place sacred to Mother Earth? The ceremony
referred to is the carrying out of the vijjà or craft mentioned in the
list at Section 2 I.


[135]
Vassa- and vossa-kammaü. Morris discusses the etymology of these words,
only found in this list, in the J. P. T. S., 1889, p. 208. The idea of
the second is not, of course, castration, but making a man’s desire to
fail by a spell. Several such are preserved in the Atharva (IV, 4; VI, 1
0 1 to give virility; VI, I 3 8; VII, 1 I 3 to cause impotence).


[136]
Vassa- and vossa-kammaü. Morris discusses the etymology of these words,
only found in this list, in the J. P. T. S., 1889, p. 208. The idea of
the second is not, of course, castration, but making a man’s desire to
fail by a spell. Several such are preserved in the Atharva (IV, 4; VI, 1
0 1 to give virility; VI, I 3 8; VII, 1 I 3 to cause impotence).


[137] Vatthu-kammaü and -parikiraõaü. These constitute the vatthu-vijjà of Section 21.


[138] Vatthu-kammaü and -parikiraõaü. These constitute the vatthu-vijjà of Section 21.


[139] Bathings, that is, of other people.


[140] See Mil. I, 511 and the rules laid down in `Vinaya Texts, II 53-55.


[141]
The Buddhist view of Nos. 11-25 must not be mistaken. It is
sufficiently clear from the numerous examples in the Vinaya (see
especially `Vinaya Texts,’ II, pp. 4I-I44), and from the high praise
accorded to Jãvaka and other physicians, that the objection was to
recluses and Brahmans practising medicine as a means of livelihood. They
might do so gratis for themselves or for their coreligionists, and
laymen might do so for gain.

The use of pañimokkha in No. 25 is curious. It is when, for instance,
a purgative is first given and then a tonic to counteract the other, to
set free from its effect. Compare Jàt. V, 25.

[142] The corresponding Sanskrit terms occur at Divyàvadàna, p. 492. No doubt the reading there ought to be nipuõo.


[143]
These phrases recur S. III, 45. On anuddiññhi see also Gogerly in the,
Ceylon Friend, 1875, p. 133, and Morris in the J. P. T. S., 1886, p.
113; and compare , attànuddiññhi at Mil. 146, 160, 352 S. N. 1119. As in
our colloquial expression a `viewy man,’ diññhi almost always, and
anudiññhi in all the seven passages where it occurs, have a connotation
of contempt-a mere view, an offhand ill-considered opinion, a delusion.
The Greek greak.Øæøa has had a similar history, and dogma or speculation
is a better rendering than view or belief.


[144] Sassata-vàdà.


[145]
Gotra, literally `cow-stall.’ The history of this word has yet to be
written. It probably meant at the time this Sutta was written a family
or lineage traced through the father. On the meaning of gotraja (the
gentiles of Roman Law) in the later law-books see West and Bhler,
`Hindu Law of Inheritance,’ p.17 I.


[146]
Vaõõa, literally colour.’ Gogerly renders it `appearance,’ and Neumann
`Beruf.’ I have chosen caste (though it is not caste in its strictest
sense) because it no doubt refers to the cattàro vaõõà mentioned so
often in the Suttas. it is true that these-Khattiyas, Brahmans, Vessas,
and Suddas-were not castes, but four divisions of the people, each
consisting of many subdivisions (by customs as to connubium and
commensality) which afterwards hardened into castes. ,,See J. R. A. S.,
1897, PP. SO-,90.


[147]
Saüvañña - vivaññaü (rolling up and evolution, from vaññ, to turn). It
is the period of the gradual disintegration and conformation of a world.
Needless to add that the length of this period cannot be expressed in
figures.

Neither the idea nor the word occurs in books known to be before the
Buddha. But both are Indian rather than Buddhist. Saüvarta is found in
the Mahà Bhàrata and the Ràmàyaõa; and the later Sàïkhya notion of
pralaya is closely allied.

[148] This phrase recurs below, chap. iii SectionSection 14, 20.


[149] Sãla, for instance, and samàdhi, and all the other things known to a Buddha, says Buddhaghosa, p. 108.


[150]
Paccattaü. See the common phrases A. II, 198=S. I, 9, 10, 117; M. I,
188=422; M. I, 251, 252 = S. III, 54, &c.; and S. N. 611,906; Mil.
96, 347; Sum. 182. `Without depending on anyone else, himself by
himself,’ says Buddhaghosa.


[151] Nirvana, says Buddhaghosa.


[152]
Gogerly (PP. 77, 78 in Grimblot) has made a sad mess of this paragraph
misunderstanding the grammatical construction of the first clause, and
misinterpreting- paràmasati in the second, and nissaranaü in the third.


[153] Not of course the four speculations, but the higher knowledge which has led him to reject them.


[154]
This string of epithets recurs at M. I, 327 in the course of the story
of the Brahmà, named Baka, who is represented as coming to the very
conclusion set out in our section. The story was a favourite one, and
three recessions of it have been preserved (M. I, 326-331; S. I,
142-144, and Jàt. No. 405). Mr. Crow evidently considered himself the
Mahà Brahmà of the period.

The omission in the Dialogue of all reference to the Kesava Birth
Story may be a sign of greater age or it may be due simply to the fact
that it is not required for the argument there.

[155] Khióóa-padosikà. They are not mentioned elsewhere except in the list of gods in the Mahà Samaya (p. 287).


[156]
Buddhaghosa on this has a curious note. The gods, though of great
glory, are delicate in body. A man, having- gone without food - for
seven days even, may restore his strength by the use of clear broth and
so on. But the gods can’t play tricks with themselves; and if they lose
their heads and forget their meal-times, they die-pass away from that
state. The poor gods! Whether this be really implied in the text or not,
it is at least in harmony with the irony of the Buddha’s talk.


[157]
Mano-padosikà. Only found here and in the list in the Samaya Sutta.
Even there it is almost certainly merely taken from this passage, so
that it looks very much as if both these classes or titles of gods were
simply invented, in irony, for the sake of the argument. Buddhaghosa
identifies this class with the retinue of the four Great Kings-that is
the regents of the four quarters.


[158]
Upanijjhàyanti, from jhàyati, to burn. Elsewhere found only at Vin. 1,
193; II, 269; 111, 118, in all which passages it has the connotation of
`covet, lust after.’ Buddhaghosa takes it here in the sense of envy, and
tells a tale, too long to quote, to show the quarrelsome nature of
these gods. In the sense of `consider’ (from jhàyati, to think) the word
has only been found at S. N., p. 143. There may have been confusion
between the two homonyms, so that ours got to mean to consider in such a
way as to be excited, to burn.’


[159]
Buddhaghosa explains that these speculators perceive how the organs of
sense break up (and sense impressions pass away); but they fail to see
that the same thing holds even more strongly in the case of thoughts,
since no sooner has each mental impression given rise to the succeeding
one than it passes away. Not perceiving that, and depending on the
analogy of birds, who fly away from one tree only to alight on another,
they conclude that the mind, when this individuality is broken up, goes
(as a unity) elsewhere.


[160] Antànantikà.


[161] Parivañumo. Only found here. Buddhaghosa says nothing.


[162]
According to Buddhaghosa (Ats. 160) there are four things that are
infinite-space, the number of world-systems, the number of living
creatures, and the wisdom of a Buddha. Had this doctrine formed part of
the original Buddhism we should expect to find these cattàri - anantàni
in the chapter on the `Fours’ in the Aïguttara, but I do not find them
there.


[163] Either in self-training or in the attainment of bliss in heaven’ says Buddhaghosa (p.115).


[164] Buddhaghosa gives examples of these five equivocations.


[165]
Buddhaghosa explains that if, in his ignorance, he should, by chance,
declare the good to be good, he will be puffed up by the approval of the
wise. But if he should blunder, he will be filled with vexation and ill
will when his error is pointed out. Either of these states of mind will
be the fuel to keep the fire burning, the state technically called
Upàdàna, `grasping.’


[166] Sampàyati. See the note at `Vinaya Texts,’ III, 317, and compare M. I, 85, 96, 472.


[167] Such questions are called elsewhere the common basis of discussions among Brahmans.


[168]
The word here used is Tathàgata, `he who has gone, or perhaps come, to
the truth.’ See Chalmers in the J. R. A. S.’ Jan., 1898, and compare S.
III, 111, 116-118; M. I, I40, 171, 486; S. N. 467. The use of sammaggato
(D. I, 55, &c.) and of gatatto (D. I, 57, &c.) shows that gata
was used elliptically in the sense of gone to the furthest point aimed
at’ among the followers of the other sects that arose at the same time
as Buddhism. The exact derivation and history of the word Tathàgata may
be doubtful, but its meaning is, on the whole, clear enough.


[169] This is the identical answer put below (p. 57 of the text) into the mouth of Sa¤jaya Belaññhaputta.


[170]
Adhicca-samuppannikà. This adhicca (which must be distinguished from
the other adhicca, derived from adhãyati, occurring at Jàt. III, 218 =
IV, 301) recurs at M. 1, 443, where it is opposed in the sense of
`occasional’ to abhiõha at M. I, 442 in the sense of `habitual.’ Udàna
VI, 5 throws light on its use here. It is there associated with words
meaning neither self-originated, nor created by others.’ It is explained
by Buddhaghosa on our passage (Sum. I, 118) as `springing up without a
cause.’ The derivation is doubtful.


[171]
Asa¤¤a-sattà. They spring into being in this wise. Some one of the
Brahman ascetics having practised continual meditation and arrived at
the Fourth Jhàna, sees the disadvantage attached to thinking, and says
to himself: `It is by dwelling on it in thought that physical pain and
all sorts of mental terrors arise. Have done with this thinking. An
existence without it were better.’ And dying in this belief he is reborn
among the Unconscious Ones, who have form only, and neither sensations
nor ideas nor predispositions nor consciousness. So long as the power of
the Jhàna lasts, so long do they last. Then an idea occurs to them-the
idea of rebirth in this world-and they straightway die.


[172] See 1, 1, 29 (p. 12 of the text).


[173]
Literally `who are After-deathers, Conscious-maintainers.’ These
summary epithets are meant to be contemptuous, and the word chosen for
death adds to the force of the phrase. It is not the usual word, but
àghàtana (so read in the text), meaning literally `shambles, place of
execution.’ The ordinary phrase would have been parammaraõikà.


[174] So the Ajãvakas, says Buddhaghosa.


[175] So the Nigaõñhas, says Buddhaghosa.


[176] SectionSection 9-18 are discussed by James D’Alwis in `Buddhist Nirvana,’ p. 47. Comp. Jacobi, `Jaina Såtras,’ II, 236, 339.


[177]
Sato sattassa. Insert the word sato in the text (as in SectionSection
17,19, 41, 42). The Kañha Upanishad I, 20 alludes to such belief.


[178]
Compare the 4th Vimokha. See Rh. D. `Buddhist Suttas,’ pp. 5 2, 213.
The idea of resistance, pañigha, is here not ethical, but refers to the
senses. Having no sense of reaction to touch, of opposition to muscular
effort. it appears from M. I, 164 that this was pretty much the view put
forth by Gotama’s first teacher âlàra Kàlàma.


[179]
Compare the 5th Vimokha. This seems from M. I 165 to have been much the
same as the view held by Ràma, whose son and pupil, Uddaka, was
Gotama’s second teacher.


[180] Compare the 6th Vimokha.


[181]
Though it is not explicitly so stated, this last of these seven
theorisers is no doubt to be considered as believing in all the sorts of
soul held by the others, so that he believes in seven. One may compare
the five souls each more subtle than the last, made respectively of
anna, pràõa, manas, vij¤àõa, and ànanda (food. breadth mind,
consciousness, and joy), described in the Taittirãya Upanishad II, 1-5.
The Buddhist modification of these `theories omits the souls, and treats
instead of various states of mind (produced by stages of meditation),
the attainment of which, during this life, leads to rebirth in
corresponding worlds, or planes of existence, named after those stages.
of meditations. But the oldest Piñaka texts say very little about it,
and the history of Buddhist speculation on the matter has yet to be
formulated.

Centuries afterwards we find a somewhat analogous conception in the
gradually ascending series of seven, each more subtle than the last
(Sthåla-sarãra, änga-sarãra, indriya, manas, ahaïkara, buddhi, and
àtman), set out in the Sàïkhya texts, and the later Vedanta has a
similar series. There is sufficient truth in the idea of the series of
seven set out in our text to explain the persistence of the general idea
in all the Indian systems, but the details and the application are
strikingly different.

The text shows that the four Aråpa Vimokhas of the Buddhist theory
were regarded by the early Buddhists as derived from closely allied
speculations, older than Buddhism, and expressed in almost identical
phraseology.

[182]
Buddhaghosa here (Sum. 1, 121) explains Nirvàõa as the suppression of
pain; pain, dukkha, being bodily, as opposed to domanassa, mental. `In
this visible world’ means in whatever world the particular soul happens
to be at the time. On parikàreti compare V. II, 290 ràjà uyyàne
paricàresi, `the king indulged himself, enjoyed himself, in the garden.’
All its functions’ is added from the Commentary.


[183]
The text shows that the four Jhànas were regarded by the early
Buddhists as older than Buddhism. The very words used are identical; the
only modification introduced in Buddhism being the omission of the
`souls.’ These four, Together. with the four Aråpa Vimokhas (see note on
Section 19), make up the Eight Attainments (Samàpattiyo), often
mentioned in the Jàtaka commentary as practised by pre Buddhistic
recluses.


[184]
On paritasita compare M. 1, 36 na asati paritassati, `is not worried at
what is not `: paritasita, `fidgetiness `or `worry,’ at M. 1, 136; S.
III, 15-19; and Mil. 253, 400. On vipphandita, M. I, 8, 486; Dh. S. 381
(Asl. 253); Jàt. IV, 495.


[185]
In the text the first three of these four propositions are repeated of
each of the eleven classes of theorisers. `The fourth is put in the form
which, to avoid repetition, I have adopted for all the four.


[186] Tathàgata, that is the speaker himself, the Buddha.



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tl,ays Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia NsCIqkaf.a fuz l:dj oek reiajS jevysZos Yd,dj
huz ;efklo t;ekg meusKsfhdah’ meusK meKjQ wdikfhys jev yqkafkdah’
jevysZo ))uyfkks” oeka fudkhuz l:djlska hqla;j isgshdyqo$ f;dmf.a
fudkhuz l:djla mgka f.k isgshdyqoe)) hs weiQy’ ta NsCIQyq ))iajduSks”
wmg fuz l:d OrAuh my< jsh’ ish,a, okakd ish,a, olakd ta wrAy;a iuzud
iuznqoq jQ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia jsiska iJjhkaf.a fkdfhla fkdfhla l,amkd
woyia we;snj huz muK hym;a fia wjfndaO lrK ,oafoao” fuz jegySu mqoquh’
fmr kqjQ fohla jkafkah’ fuz iqmamsh msrsjecshd fkdfhla wdldrfhka
nqoqroqkag OrAuhg ix>hdg fodia mjrhs’ Tyqf.a w;jeisjQ nUo;a kuz
udKjlhd fkdfhla wdldrfhka nqoq.2K oyuz .2K iZ..2K lshhs’ jsreX u;
we;af;da Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiao NsCIq ix>hdo miqmiafia ,qyqnekafoda fj;a’
iajduSka jykai” wmf.a fuz w;2re l:dj mgka .;a;dh’ tl,ays Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafia meusKsfhdah)) hs lSy’

7′
))uyfKks” wkqka udf.a fyda kq.2K lshoao” OrAuh .ek fyda kq.2K lshoao”
ix>hdf.a fyda kq.2K lshoao” ta kq.2Kfhys f;dm jsiska fldam fkdfldg
hq;af;ah” wukdm fkdbmojsh hq;af;ah” is;a wi;2gq fkdlghq;af;ah’ ta kq.2K
lshkakka flfrys boska f;ms lsfmkakdyq kuz fyda fkdi;2gq jkakdyq kuz
thska f;dmgu wka;rdh jkafkah’ lsfulao f;ms wkqkaf.a iqN isoaOsh wiqN
isoaOsh okakyqo$))


[\q 3/]

8′ ))iajduSks ta oekSu ke;))

))uyfKks”
wkqka udf.a fyda OrAufha fyda ix>hdf.a fyda kq.2K lshoao” tjsg f;dm
jsiska fuh” fuz fyhska fjkag kqmqZMjk’ fuh fuz ksid wi;Hh’ fuh wm flfrys
ke;’ fuh wm flfrys olskag ke;’ fndrej fndrej fuka t

))uyfKks”
wkqka udf.a fyda OrAufha fyda ix>hdf.a fyda .2K lshoao” ta .2K
lSfuys f;dm jsiska mS1;s fkdfldg hq;af;ah’ is;a wi;2gq fkdlg hq;af;ah’
is;ays WvZ.2 nj fkdlg hq;af;ah’ uyfKks” wkqka udf.a fyda OrAufha fyda
ix>hdf.a fyda .2K lshoao” f;ms ta .2K lshkakjqka flfrys boska i;2gq
jkakdyq kuz is;a wi;2gq jkafkdajQ kuz WX.2 jkafkdajQ kuz f;dmg thska
wjev jkafkah))’

9′
))uyfKks” wkqka udf.a fyda OrAufha fyda ix>hdf.a fyda .2K lshoao”
tjsg f;dm ta lreK ms

))uyfKks”
;:d.;hkaf.a .2K lshkakdjQ flf,ia iys; ckhd huz lreKlska th lshdkuz th
iqZM fohls’ iqZM iajNdj .;sfhls’ wvq fohls’ tfia .2K lshk mD:.ackfhla
huz lreKlska ;:d.;hkaf.a .2K lshd kuz l2ula lshdo$))

0′
))Y1uK Nj;a f.#;ufhda m1dK>d;h w;ayer oud m1dKhlg ysxid lsrSfuka
iuzmQrAKfhka je



[\q 4/]

-’
))Y1uK Nj;a f.#;ufhda ldu iuzm;a oqre fldg ldu iemfhka je

3=’
))Y1uK f.#;ufhda fndre lSfuka je

))Y1uK
f.#;ufhda msiqkq nia keue;s fla,duz lSu w;yer fla,duz lSfuka
je

))Y1uK
f.#;ufhda mreI jpkh i;ayer mreI jpkfhka je

))Y1uK
Nj;a f.#;ufhda iuzMm1,dmh w;ayer ksire ysia nia nsKSfuka
je

33′
))Y1uK f.#;ufhda ;K” .ia” je,a wdoSkaf.a levSuz” isZoSuzj,ska
je

))Y1uK
f.#;ufhda kegSuz” .S lSuz” jehSuz” flda



[\q 5/]

))Y1uK f.#;ufhda kqiqoqiq Wia wdik” uyd wdikhka f.ka je

))Y1uK
f.#;ufhda rka rsoS” us< uqo,a” wuq udxY” ia;1Ska fyda .Ekq *.eyekq(
orejka” odihska fyda odiSka” tZMjka” negZMjka” l2l2

))Y1uK
f.#;ufhda oQ; .uka iy f.ka f.g hk fufyjrska .Kqfokq lsrSuz wdoS
fj

))uyfKks fufia fyda ;:d.;hkaf.a .2K lshkakdjQ flf,ia iys; wh lshkafkdah)) hs jod< fial’

pQ, YS,h ksus’

34′ ))iuyr mskaj;a uyK
nuqfKda Y1oaOdfjka fok lEu ld fufia fyda ;K .ia je,a wdosh jskdY
lsrSfuys fhoS jdih lr;s’ fuhdldr ;K .ia je,a wdosh jskdY lsrSfuka
iuzmQK!fhka je

))iuyr
mskaj;a uyK nuqfKda Y1oaOdfjka fok lEu ld fuhdldrj foa reiafldg ;nd
m1fhdack .ekSfuys fhoS jdih lr;s’ tjeks foa kuz wdydr jrA. mdj jrA.
frosms

35′
))iuyr mskaj;a uyK nuqfKda Y1oaOdfjka fok lEu ld fujeks jsys,q foa
oelafuys fhoS jdih lr;s’ tjeks foa kuz + kegSuh” .S lsuh” jSKd wdosh
jehSuh” rZ. uZvq,q ne,Suh” f.d;d ri lr lshk ,o fndre l:d weiSuh”
lxi;d,uz fyda w;a;d,uzh” u



[\q 6/]

fidaod
;enSuzh” we;a fmdrh” wYaj fmdrh” uSjqka fmdrh” .j fmdrh” tZM fmdrh”
negZM fmdrh” l2l2ZM fmdrh” jgqjka fmdrh” fmd,q yrUh” usgska usg .eiSfuz
fmdrh” *u,a,j kuz fmdr we,a,Su( hqoaO lsrSu” hqofika msrslaiSuh”
lZojqreh” isjqrZ.fiakdj oelSuh wdoshhs’ fufia fuhdldr jsiqZM oelSfuka
iuzmQrAKfhka je

36′
))iuyr mskaj;a uyK nuqfKda Y1oaOdfjka fok lEu ld m1udohg ldrK jQ
fuhdldr iQoq fl

37′
))iuyr mskaj;a uyK nuqfKda Y1oaOdfjka fok lEu ld fuhdldrjQ Wia wdik uy
wdikhkays jdvsjSfuka hqla;j jdih lr;s’ funZoqjQ Wia wdik uy wdikhkaf.ka
iuzmQrAKfhka je

38′
))iuyr mskaj;a uyK nuqfKda Y1oaOdfjka fok lEu ld fuhdldrjQ *YrSrhg
iunkaOjQ( ieriSuh” wvq ;eka msrjSuh hk lrefKys fhoS jdih lrhs’funZoqjQ
ieriSuz yd w,xldr lsrSuz wdosfhys fhoSfuka iuzmQrAKfhka je

39′
))iuyr mskaj;a uyK nuqfKda Y1oaOdfjka fok lEu ld fuhdldrjQ jev ke;s
l:dfjys fhoS jdih lr;s’ tkuz rcqka .ek l:dh” fidreka .ek l:dh”


[\q 7/]

uyd
weu;shka .ek l:dh” fiakd .ek l:dh” Nh .ek l:dh” hqX .ek l:dh” lEu .ek
l:dh” nSu .ek l:dh” weZoquz me

30′
))iuyr mskaj;a uyK nuqfKda Y1oaOdfjka fok lEu ld fujeks oQ;luz iy
mKsjsv f.k hEfuys fhoS jdih lr;s’ l2ylfhdao fj;s’ isjqmih ,nd .ekSu
msKsi jpk lshkafkdao” ksus;s olajkafkdao” wkqkaf.a .2K ke;s lsrSug l:d
lsrSfuka ,dN ,nkafkdao ,dNfhka ,dNhla fidhkafkdao fj;s’ fujeks oQ;luz
lrkafkdao l2yl *,dNfhka( iuzmQrAKfhka je

3-’ ))iuyr mskaj;a uyK nuqfKda Y1oaOdfjka fok lEu ld fujeks my;a ,dul jsoHdfjka us:HdcSjsldfjka cSjsldj flfr;a’ tkuz+

*I(iduqos1ld
Ydia;1h ksus;af;ka Y2N wY2N lSu W;amd;h lSu” iajmaK Ydia;1h” ,CIK
Ydia;1h” uQisl Ydia;1h” .sksmsoSu” hd. lsrSu” wx. jsoHdh jdia;2 jsoHdh”
kS;s Ydia;1h” fidfydfkys Ydka;s lrk N@; jsoHdh” uka;1 jsoHdh” jsI
jsoHdh” f.dakqiq jsoHdh” uShka lE l, ms



[\q 8/]

*II(
udKslHhkaf.a Y2N wY2N lshk uKs ,CIKh” oZvq kekSfuys Y2N wY2N lshk oKAv
,CIKh” jia;1 ,CIKh” lvq oqkq B wdhqO ,l2Kqh” ia;1S mqreI msrsus

*III(
*wij,a osk( rcqf.a neyEr hdu fyda wdmiq tau fjhs’ we;2ZM kqjr Wka
rcqf.a iuSmhg hdu fjhs’ msg rcqkaf.a bj; hEu fjhs’ we;2ZM kqjr rcqkag ch
fjhs’ msg rcqkag mrdch fjhs’ fufia fudyqh ch jkafkah’ fudyqg mrdch
jkafkah’

*IV(
pJo1.1yKh iQhH!.1yKh jkafkah’ *.1y( ;drldjkaf.a .1yKh jkafkah” pJo1
iQhH!hkaf.a .uka *iajlSh( udrA.fhys fyda wudrA.fhys jkafkah’ *.1y(
;drldjkaf.a .uka *iajlSh( udrA.fhys fyda wudrA.fhys jkafkah’ W,aldmd;
*;drld jegSu( osidjka oejSu” N@usluzmd” wyi .s.@reuz jkafkah’ pJo1 iQhH!
*.1y( ;drldjkaf.a WodjSu” neiSu” flf,iSu” msrsisZoqjSu jkafkah’ funZoq
jsmdl we;s pJo1.1yKhla iQhH!.1yKhla *.1y( ;drld .1yKhla jkafkah’ pJo1
iQhH hkaf.a funZoq jsmdl we;s udrA. .uk fyda wudrA. .uk fyda *.1y(
;drldjkaf.a udrA. .uk jkafkah’ funZoq jsmdl we;s wudrA. .uk W,aldmd;fhla
*osidjka( oejSfula” N@us luzmdjla” wyi .s.@reula jkafkah’ funZoq jsmdl
we;s pJo1 iQhH! *.1y( ;drldjkaf.a funZoq jsmdl we;s WodjSu” neySu
*neiSu(” flf,iSu” msrsisZZoq jSu jkafkah hkq olajk jsoHdhs’

*V(
fydZoska jeys fyda kshZ. fyda kmqre jeys we;s jkafkah’ wdydr wdosh iq,N
jkafkah fyda ysZ. jkafkah’ Nh fyda f,v we;s jkafkah fyda ke;s jkafkahhs
lSuo yia;1 uqo1d wdoS ,l2Kqj,ska huzfoa m1ldY lsrSfuz Ydia;1h” .Ks;
Ydia;1h” >K m1udk oek .ekSfuz .Ks;h” ldjH Ydia;1h” f,daldh; js;KAv
Ydia;1h” f,daliajNd Ydia;1h hk fuz jsoHdhs’


[\q 9/]

*VII(
jsjdy levjSu” jsjdy lrjSu” ys;a *is;a( oskd.ekSu msKsi jpk lSu” jsfhda.
lrjSu” jia;2 /ia lrjSu” jshouz lrjSu” hym;a Y1shdj we;s lrjSu fyda ke;s
lrjSu” .ema *.rANh( fkdkiakd fia /lSu” osj neZoSu” ylal neZoSu” w;a
fmr

*VII(
ndrydrjSu” ndrydr TmamQ lsrSu” nsuzf.hs isg W.;a uka;1 fhdod l1sd
lsrSu” kmqxilhd mqreIfhl2 lsrSu” mqreIhd kmqxil lsrSu” f.j,a ;ekSu”
f.j,a iEoSug iqoqiq ;ek n,shd. meje;ajSu” *wkqyia we;ehs lshk( j;2frka
lg YqX lrjSu” wkqka keyejSu” wkqka iZoyd .sks msoSu” jukh lrjSu” jsfrApk
lrjSu” lfKA f;,a oeuSu” wefZ.a fnfy;a oeuSu” kiH lsrSu” weig wZoqka
.Eu” wZoqka wdoS isys,a fnfy;a .Eu” *ie;a( lgq wdhqO lgq wdosh fhdod lrk
fjolu” Y,HlrAuh” ore fjolu” fnfy;a u.ska lrk fjolu” *;o( fnfyf;ys jsI
uerSu hkqhs’

tjeks ,dul my;a jsoHdfjka lrk us:H cSjsldfjka iuzmQrAKfhka je

uyfKks”
;:d.;hkaf.a .2K lshkakdjQ flf,ia iys; ckhd fufia fyda .2K
lshkafkah’uyfKks” boska flf,ia iys; ckhd ;:d.;hkaf.a .2K jYfhka funkaola
lshdo th iqZM fohls’ wvq fohls’ iqZM iajNdj .;sfhls))’

4=’
))uyfKks” wkH OrAuho we;a;dy’ .eUqrejQ” oqlfia oelaldjQ” oqlfia jgyd
.;a;djQ” usysrsjQ” ;rAlfhka oek.; fkdyelsjQ” ishquzjQ” mKAvs;hska jsiska
.rel< hq;2jQ huz OrAu we;af;ao th ;:d.;fhda ;ukaf.a Wiia {dkfhka oek
msZvqfldg foaYkd lf



[\q 10/]

43′
))uyfKks” iuyr mskaj;a uyK nuqfKda fmr ialkaO fldgia .ek l,amkd lr;s’
weoySu we;af;da fj;s’ fkdfhla wdldr weoySuz oy wg wdldrhlska m1ldY lr;s’
ljr lreKla ms

44′ ))iuyr ta mskaj;a uyK nuqfKda iodld,sl nj jsYajdi lr wd;auho f,dalho iodld,slhhs i;r wdldrhlska olaj;s))’

45′
))uyfKks” huz uyfKla fyda nuqfKla fyda jShH!fhka jShH!h ks;r fhoSfuka
jvd jShH!h kej; kej; fhoSfuka” fkdmud jSfuka” hym;a fufkys lsrSfuka huz
mrsoafolska is; tlZ.jQ l, fkdfhla wdldrjQ fmr isgs ;eka isys lr;ao$
tkuz” tla cd;shlao” cd;s ish oyilao” wij,a ;ek bmoqfkus’ funZoq kduhla”
f.da;1hla” rEmhla” wdydrhla” iqjoqla” wdhqI we;af;lajSus’ bka pq;jS
f.dia wij,a ;ek bmoqfkus’ thska pq;jS fuys bmoqfkus’ fufia hym;a wdldrjQ
mqreoq lsrSuz iys;jQ fkdfhla wdldr fmr cSj;ajQ ms

fmr
Wmam;a;sh olskakd fufia lshhs’ ))wd;auho f,dalho iodld,slh’ lsis;a
kQmojhs’ mrAj;hla fuka isgsfhah’ ukaodr mrAj;h fuka isgsfhah’ tfyhska ta
wd;auh wdY1h l, i;ajfhda Njfhka Njhg h;s’ cSj;a fj;s’ thska usoS h;s’
Wmos;a” iodl,a isgs;a’ Bg lreKq ljfrAo$ uu flf,ia ySk lrk jShH!fhka
jShH!h ks;r fhoSfuka” jShH!h kej; kej; fhoSfuka” fkdmud jSfuka” hym;a
fufkys lsrSfuka huz mrsoafolska is; tlZ.jQ l, fkdfhla wdldrjQ fmr isgs
;eka isys lf,uzo tf,iska fmr Wmam;a;s isyslsrSfuz {dkh ,enQfjus’ thska
pq;j fuys bmoqfkus’ fufia hym;a wdldrjQ WfoiSuz iys;jQ fkdfhla wdldr fmr
cSj;ajQ ms

wd;auho
f,dalho iodld,slh’ lsis;a kQmojhs’ mrAj;hla fuka isgsfhah’ ukaodr
mrAj;h fuka isgsfhah’ ta wd;auh wdY1h l, i;ajfhda Njfhka Njhg h;s’ cSj;a
fj;s’


[\q 11/]

thska usoS h;s’ Wmos;a” iodl,sl jia;2 fuka ks;r fkdfjkiaj wd;amh we;snj ta ldrKfhka uu oksus)) hs lshdh’

))uyfKks” fuz ta m1:u ldrKhhs))’

46′
))fofjks ldrKfhyso by; fuka isgs;eka isys flfrAo” tf,iska fmr Wmam;a;s
isys;srSfuz {dkh ,nhs’ tkuz+ ))ixjgzg jsjgzg)) kuz l,amhlao” ))ixjgzg
jsjgzg)) kuz l,am oyhlao” wij,a ;ek bmoqfkus’ funZoq kduhla” f.da;1hla”
rEmhla” wdydrhla” iqjoqla” wdhqI we;af;lajSus’ ta uu bka pq;jS fuys
bmoqfkus’ fuhdldr f;areuz lroSuz iys; fkdfhla fmr cd;sj, Wmka ;eka isys
lrhs’

Tyq fufia lshhs’

))wd;auho
f,dalho iodld,slh’ thska hula kQmoS’ mrAj;hl fuka isgsfhah’ ukaodr
mrAj;h fuka isgsfhah’ ta i;ajfhdao Njfhka Njhg h;s’ cd;sfhka cd;shg .uka
lr;s’ pq;fj;a’ Wmos;a’ iodl,sl jia;2 fuka fkdkeiS isgs;a’ Bg lreKq
ljfrAo$ uu huz mrsoafolska is; tlZ.jQ l, fkdfhla wdldrjQ fmr *cd;sj,(
isgs ;eka isys lf,us’ thska pq;j fuys bmoqfkus’ fuhdldr f;areuz lroSuz
iys; fkdfhla fmr cd;sj, Wmka ;eka isys lrus’ wd;auho f,dalho ks;Hh’
uyfur wdosh fuka fkdkeiS we;af;ahhs fuz lreKskao ks;H Ndjh oksus))hs
lshhs’

47′
));2kajeks ldrKfhyso huz uyfKla fyda nuqfKla by; lSfia fmr isgs;eka
isys flfrAo” tf,iska fmr Wmam;a;s isys;srSfuz {dkh ,nhs’ tkuz+ ))ixjgzg
jsjgzg)) kuz l,am y;,sylao” wij,a ;ek bmoqfkus’ ta uu bka pq;jS f.dia
wij,a ;ek bmoqfkus’ ta uu bka pq;j f.dia fuys Wmksus))hs lshd lshhs’

Tyq
fufia lshhs’))wd;auho f,dalho iodld,slh’ ta Njfhka hq;a i;ajfhdao
Njfhka Njhg h;s’ yeisfr;s’ pq;fj;a’ Wmos;a’ iodl,sl jia;2 fuka mj;s;a))’

))uyfKks” fuz ta ;2kajeks ldrKhhs))

[\q 12/]

48′
))y;rjeks ldrKfhyso uyfKks” huz uyfKla fyda nuqfKla ;rAl {dkfhka
jsuihs’ Tyq ;rAlfhka iuzmQrAKfhka jsuiSfuka ,nk ,o ;ukaf.a jegySu ,en
fufia lshhs’ ))wd;auho f,dalho iodld,slh’ thska hula kQmoS’ ta wd;aufhka
hq;a i;ajfhdao Njfhka Njhg h;s’ cd;sfhka cd;shg .uka lr;s’ pq;fj;a’
Wmos;a’ iodl,sl jia;2 fuka fkdkeiS isgs;a))hkqhs’

))fuz ta y;rjeks ldrKhhs))’

49′
))uyfKks” huz uyKyq fyda nuqfKda fyda iodld,sl nj woyd wd;auho f,dalho
iodld,slhhs m1ldY lr;ao ta ish,af,da fulS y;r ldrKfhkau fyda thska
tllska fyda m1ldY lr;s’

40′
))uyfKks” fuz ta lreKq y;r ;:d.;fhda fydZoska oks;s’ fuz jeros u;fhka
hq;a lreKq fufia .;a we;af;da fj;a’ fuz kej; kej; .ekSuz jYfhka
*;rAlfhka( ;SrK lr.;a we;af;da fj;a’ fuz funZoq .;s we;af;da fj;a’
funZoq mrf,dj we;af;da fj;a hkqhs’ ;:d.;fhda th fydZoska oks;s’ bka
u;af;ysjQ foao fydZoska oks;s’ ta fydZo oekqu *;rAlfhka( ;SrKh lr
fkd.ks;s’ flf,ia ke;slsrSu ;:d.;hka jsiska olakd ,oafoa ,enQ ;SrKfhka
fkdfjz’ uyfKks” *oql fyda iem( wdoS fjzokd we;sjSfuz fya;2jo” th
oqrejSfuz fya;2jo” ri jsZoSuo” m1;sM,o” yslauSuo” we;s iegsfhka oek
;:d.;fhda ldudosfhka f;drj flf,iqka f.ka usoqfkdah’

4-’ huz Ou!hka lrKfldgf.k ;:d.;hkaf.a .2Kh we;siegs fydZodldr lshkq leue;af;da lsh;s’

m

&&3′
))uyfKks” tla fldgila iodld,slh’ tla fldgila iodld,sl fkdfjz hhs
woykakdjQ iuyr uyK nuqfKda wd;auh yd f,dalh tla fldgila iodld,slh’ tla
fldgila iodld,sl fkdfjz hhs lreKQ y;rlska m1ldY lr;s))’

4′
))uyfKks” huzlsis l,l oSrA> ld,hla miqjSfuka fuz f,dalh jekfik
ld,hla tkafkah’ f,dj jekfik l, fndfyda fihska iJjfhda wdNiair nUf,dj
Wmos;s’ Tjqyq tys is;ska OHdk n,fhka bmso” m1S;sh wdydr fldgf.k


[\q 13/]

;udu nn

5′
))uyfKks” huzlsis jsfgl oSrA> ld,hla miqjSfuka fuf,dj kej; yg .kSo
f,dj yg.;a l, tys ysiajQ nU jsudkhla my ld,hla isgS’

6′
Tyq l,la tys ;ksj jsiQ nejska” miq;ejSula ld l,lsrSula we;sfjhs’
))fjk;a iJjfhdao fuz Njhg t;a kuz b;d fydZoh))hs me;Sfuka” isf;ys pxp,
njlao we;sfjhs’ bkamiq wdhqI f.jSfuka fyda mska f.jSfuka” wdNiair
nUf,djska pq;j nU jsufkys Wmos;a’ ta i;ajhdf.a iydh njg meusfK;a’ Tjqyqo
tys is;ska ygf.k” m1S;sh wdydr fldgf.k” ;ukaf.au wdf,dal we;sj Y2N
jsudfka isg wyfia yeisrS oSrA> ld,hla isgs;s’

7′
))uyfKks” tjsg huz ta i;ajfhla uq,ska Wmkafkao Tyqg fufia isf;hs’ ))uu”
n1yau fjus’ uyd n1yau fjus’ wksla wh hg;a lr isgskafkus’ wkqka jsiska
hg;a l< fkdyels jkafkus’ taldka;fhka ish,a, olsus’ wkqka ud hg;g
.ksus’ f,dalhg m1Odk fjus’ f,dal l;!D fjus’ f,dalh uejquzldrhd fjus’
f,djg W;2uz fjus’ f,dj fnokafkla fjus’ jiZ. lr.kafkla fjus’ WmkakdjQo
WmoskakdjQo f,dalhdf.a mshd fjus’ fuz iJjfhda ujsiska ujk ,oafodah’
l2ula fyhskao h;a” ))wfyda ;j i;ajfhda;a fuz Njhg tkafkda kuz hym;e))hs
mQrAjfhys ug fufia is;la we;sjsh’ tnejska udf.a isf;a m1drA:kdfjka fuz
iJjfhda fuz Njhg meusKsfhdah)) hkqhs’ ta huz i;ajfhla miqj Wmka jsg
Tyqgo fufia isf;la fjhs’ ))fuz mskaj;a wh n1yauh” uyd n1yauh’ fiiaika
uev mj;ajkafkls”


[\q 14/]

wkqka
jsiska uev fkdmj;ajkafkls’ taldka;fhka ish,a, olskafkls” jijrA;sfhls”
m1Odkfhls” f,dal l;!Dh’ f,dalh uejquzldrhdh’ W;a;ufhls’ f,dj fnokafkls”
jiZ. lr.kafkls’ Wmka f,dalhdf.a msfhls’ fuz msKAj;a nUyq jsiska wms ujk
,oafouq’ thg fya;2j l2ulao$ wm fuys meusK m

8′))uyfKks”
ta huz m wdhqI we;af;lao”
b;d W;2uz rej we;af;lao” uyd msrsjr we;af;lao fjhs’ ta huz i;ajfhla miqj
Wmkafkao” Tyq b;d wvq wdhqIo” refjka b;d wvqjQo msrsjr we;af;laofjz’
uyfKks” ta ldrKh isoaOfjz’ tkuz tala;rd i;ajfhla ta n1yau Njfhka pq;j
fuz usksia njg meusfKA))’

fuz
Njhg wdjdjQ Tyq .sys f.hska kslau Ydikfhys mejsos fjhs’ .sys f.hska
kslau Ydikfhys mejsosj flf,ia ySk lsrSfuz jShH! fldg tu jShH! mqyqKq lr
tu jShH! kej; kej; fhoSug meusK wm1udohg meusK fydZoska Ndjk lsrSuh
meusK” huz fia is; tlZ. lr.;a jsg ;ukaf.a fmr cd;sh isys flfrAo” ta fmr
cd;sfhka u;2 isys fkdflfrAo” Tyq fufia lshhs’

))huz
n1yaufhla fjzo” Tyq uyd n1yauhdh’ uev mj;ajkafkls” uev meje;ajsh
fkdyelaflah’ wkqudkhla ke;sj hula okafkls” hg;a lrkafkls” m1Odkfhls”
idokafkls’ ujkafkls” b;d Wiiah” fnokafkls” jiZ. lr.kafkls” i;ajhskag
msfhls” ta huz hym;a nUl2 jsiska wms ujk ,oaodyq fjuqo” Tyq ks;Hh”
taldka;h iodld,slh” fjkia fkdjk .;sfhka hqla;h” iodld,sl jia;@ka iu.
iuznkaOjQ l, tfiau isgskafkah’ ta hym;a nUq jsiska wms ujk ,oaodyq fjuq”
ta wms wks;Hh” i:sr ke;’ wdhqI wvqh” isgs Njfhka pq;j fuz wd;au Ndjhg
wdfuuq))hs’ fuz ta m1:u lreKhs’


[\q 15/]

9′
fojeksj uyfKks” l1Svdfjka kefikakd kuz fojsfhla we;af;ah’ Tyq fndfyda
fjz,djla iskdfjys;a” l1Svdfjys;a we,S jdih lrhs’ Tyqf.a is; uq

0′
))uyfKks” fuz ldrKh olskakg ,efnz’ tkuz+ tla;rd i;ajfhla ta osjH
f,dalfhka pq;j fuz usksia njg ths’ fuz wd;au Ndjhg wd Tyq .sysf.h w;yer
f.dia Ydikfhys mejsos fjhs’ .sysf.hska f.dia Ydikhg meusKs Tyq flf,ia
ySk lsrSfuz jShH! fldg” tu jShH! mqyqKQlr” tu jShH! kej; kej; fhoSug
meusK” wm1udohg meusK” fydZoska Ndjkd lsrSfuka huzfia is; tlZ. lr.;a jsg
;ukaf.a fmr cd;sh isys flfrAo” bka u;2 isys fkdflfrAo” tfiajQ isf;a
;;a;ajhla ,nhs’

-’
Tyq fufia lshhs+))huz ta mskaj;a fojs flfkla l1Svdfjka fkdjekiqfkao”
Tyq b;d fndfyda ld,hla iskdiSuz l1Svd wdoshg fkdmeusK jdih lrhs’ fndfyda
fjz,djla iskdiSuz l1Svd wdosfhys fkdfhoS jdih lrk Tjqkaf.a isysh
uq

3=’
;2kajeksjo” uyfKks” ))ufkdmfodisl)) *is; ls,qgqjSu( kuz fojsfhla we;’
Tyq fndfyda fjz,d fl1daO is;ska Tjqfkdjqka foi n,hs’ is; ls,qgq lr.kS’
ta fojshd ta osjHNdjfhka pq;fjz’

33′ ))uyfKks” fujeks fohla isoqfjz’ tla;rd i;ajfhla ta osjH Ndjfhka pq;j fuf,djg ths’


[\q 16/]

flf,iqka
ySk lrk hym;a l,amkdjg meusK fujeksjQ isf;ys iudOsh ,nhs’ ta iudOshg
.sh is;ska fmr jsiQ ta cd;sh isys flfrA” bka wE;g isys fkdflfrA’

34′
Tyq fufia lshhs+ ))huz ta mskaj;a fojsfhda is; ls,qgq lrkafkda fkdfj;a
kuz Tjqyq oSrA> ld,hla Tjqfkdjqka foi fldam is;ska fkdn,;a kuz tjsg
Tjqyq jevs l,la Tjqfkdjqka fldam is;ska fkdn,d Tjqfkdjqka flfrys is;a
oqIag fkdflfr;a’ Tjqfkdjqka flfrys oqIag is;a ke;s Tjqyq fjfyi kqjQ YrSr
we;af;dao” fjfyi kqjQ is;a we;af;dao fj;a’ ta fojsfhda osjH wd;au
Ndjfhka pq; fkdfj;a’ Tjqyq ks;Hh” i:srh” iodld,slh” fkdfmrf,k iajNdj
we;shy’ iodld,sl *foa( fuka tfiau isgs;s’ kuq;a wms huz lreKlska is;a
ls,qgq lr .ksuqo” tjsg wms ta fojq Njfhka pq;j fufia wks;Hh” wi:srh”
wdhqI wvq” pq;jk iajNdj we;s fuz usksi;a njg meusKsfhuq))hs’ fuz ta
;2kajk lreKhs’

35′*mrsjrA;k fodaIhla we;(

[\q 17/]

36′
))uyfKks” fl

37′
))uyfKks” fuz f,dalfhys huz uyfKla fyda nuqfKla fyda huz fia is; tlZ.lr
.;a l, *ilaj, fl

38′
))fojeksjo uyfKks” huz uyfKla fyda nuqfKla fyda *ilaj, fl

fuz fojeks lreK fuka m1ldY lr;s’

39′ ));2kajeksjo uyfKks” fuz f,dalfhys huz uyfKla fyda nuqfKla fyda huz fia is; tlZ.lr .;a l, iudOs.; is; Wvska hgska fkdjvd


[\q 18/]

yryg
jevQ nejska f,dalfha Wvska hgska fl

fuz
f,dalh fl

30′
))i;rjeksjo uyfKks” fuys ;rAlfhka jsuiSu lr n,kakdjQ huz uyfKla fyda
nuqfKla we;ao Tyq ;rAl udrA.fhka jsuid ne,Sfuka ;ukaf.a jegySu wkqj
fufia lshhs’ ))fuz f,dalh fl

huz
ta uyK nuqfKda fuz f,dalh fl

3-’
))uyfKks huz uyK nuqfKda fl



[\q 19/]

4=’
))uyfKks ta fuz lreKq ;:d.;fhda oks;s’ fuz jeros u; fufia .;a wh fufia
;SrKh lr.;a wh funZoq .;s we;af;da fj;a” funZoq mrf,djla we;af;da fj;a
hkqhs’ ;:d.;fhda tho oks;s’ ta oekqu *f,daN” oafjzY” fudayfhka we;sjQ(
;SrKhla fkdfjz’ *;rAl wdosfhka( ;SrKhla fkdlrk ;:d.;hkaf.a flf,ia ksjSu
;uka jsiskau wjfndaO lrk ,os’

uyfKks”
fjzokdjkaf.a ke.Suo” neiSuo” N2la;s jsZoSuo” m1;sM,o” yslauSuo we;syegs
oek ;:d.;fhda we,aula fkdfldg flf,iqkaf.ka usoqfkdah’ th ;:d.;fhda Wiia
{dKfhka ;ukau oek jodr;s’ thska *ta OrAufhka( ;:d.;hkaf.a .2K we;syegs
lshkafkda fydZoska lsh;a))’

43′
))uyfKks iuyr uyK nuqfKda )wurd jsfCIm) *w;g wiqfkdjk wdZoqka( kuz
weoySula we;af;da fj;a’ ta ta ;ekoS m1Yak weiQ l, lreKq i;rlska )wurd
jsfCIm) jQfjda jpk oud .eiSfuka )wurd jsfCImhg) meusfK;a))’

44′
))uyfKks” fuz f,dalfhys huz uyfKla fyda nuqfKla fyda fuz l2i,ahhs we;s
yegs fkdokshs’ fufia Tyq fndre lSug Nhska fndre lSug ,cAcdfjka fuz
l2i,ahhs fkdmji;s’ fuz wl2i,ehso fkdmji;s’ ta ta ;ek m1Yak weiQ l, )wurd
jsfCIm) kuz jpk oud .eiSug meusfKA’ fuz m1:u lreKhs))’

45′ ))fojeksjo uyfKks” fuz f,dalfhys huz uyfKla fyda nuqfKla fyda fuz l2i,ahhs yrsyegs fkdokshs’ fuz wl2i,ahhs yrsyegs fkdokshs’

fufia
Tyq ;o we,aug Nhska” ;o we,aug ,cAcdfjka fuz l2i,ahhs fkdmji;s’ fuz
wl2i,ahehs fkdmji;s’ ta ta ;ek m1Yak weiQ l, )wurd jsfCIm) kuz jpk oud
.eiSug meusfKA))’

[\q 20/]

46′ ));2kajeksjo uyfKks” fuys huz uyfKla fyda nuqfKla fyda fuz l2i,ahhs yrs wdldr fkdokshs’ fuz wl2i,ahhs yrs wdldr fkdokshs’

uyfKks
wurd jsfCImljQ iuyr nuqfKda huz lreKlg meusK hula fya;2fldg f.k ta ta
;ekoS m1Yak weiQ l, jpk oud .eiSu kuz jQ wurd jsfCImhg meusfK;ao” fuz ta
;2kajeks lreKhs))’

47′
))i;rjeksjo uyfKks” fuys huz uyfKla fyda nuqfKla kqjK ke;sj f,dl2
fudavfhla fjz’ Tyq wkqjK nejska fndfyda fudav nejska ta ta ;ekoS m1Yak
l< l, )wurd jsfCIm) kuzjQ jpk oud .eiSug meusfKA))’

uyfKks
wurd jsfCImljQ iuyr nuqfKda huz lreKlg meusK hula fya;2fldg f.k ta ta
;ekoS m1Yak l< l, jpk oud .eiSu kuz jQ wurd jsfCImhg meusfK;ao” fuz
ta i;rjeks lreKhs))’

48′ ))fuz i;rska fyda thska tllska fyda tfia meusfK;a’ fuhska msg;a lsis lreKlska fkdfjz))’

49′ ))uyfKks ta fuz lreKq ;:d.;fhda oks;s’))

))uyfKks”
iuyr uyK nuqfKda wfya;2l *bfnz( Wmam;a;s we;ehs jsYajdi lr;s’ Tjqyq
lreKq follska wd;auho f,dalho *bfnz( wfya;2lj Wmkafka hhs m1ldY lr;s’

40′
))uyfKks” ))rEmh muKla we;a;d)) kuz fojs flfkla fjz’ Tyq cSjs;h;a
B



[\q 21/]

4-’
))fojeksjo uyfKks” fuz f,dalfhys huzlsis uyfKla fyda nuqfKla fyda ;rAl
lrkafklaj” jsuikafklaj fufia lshhs))’ ))wd;auho f,dalho wfya;2lj *bfnzu(
Wmkafkah))’

5=’
))uyfKks” ta uyK nuqfKda fya;2jla ke;s Wmam;a;sh we;ehs jsYajdi lr fuz
lreKq folska wd;auho f,dalho *bfnz( fya;2jla ke;sj Wmkafka hhs m1ldY
lr;s’ ta ish,af,dau fuz lreKq folska fyda thska tllska fyda tfia m1ldY
lr;s’ fuhska msg lreKlska fkdfjz))’

53′
))uyfKks” ta fuz uyK nuqfKda w;S;h .ek l,amkd lrkafkdaj” w;S;h .ek
weoySuz we;af;daj” w;S;h .ek lreKq oy wglska fkdfhla u; olajk jpk lsh;s’
ta ish,af,dau fuz lreKq oy wfgka fyda fudjqka w;rska tllska fyda lsh;s’
fuhska msg; jQjla fkdlsh;s))’

54′
))uyfKks” wkd.;h l,amkd lrkakdjQ” wkd.;h .ek jsYajdi we;s” wkd.;h .ek
lreKq y;,sia y;rlska fkdfhla u; olajk jpk lshkakdjQ uyK nuqfKda
we;a;dyqh))’

55′
))uyfKks” urKska u;2 wd;aufhys ,l2Kq *ix{d( we;af;ahhs u; we;s iuyr uyK
nuqfKda we;a;dyqh’ urKska u;af;ys ix{d we;s wd;auho oyih wdldrhlska
Tjqyq m1ldY lr;a’

wd;auh
rEm iys;h” ks;Hh” urKska u;2 ,l2Kq we;af;ahhs m1ldY lr;s’ wd;auh
wremSh” ks;Hh” urKska u;2 ,l2Kq we;af;ahhs m1ldY lr;s’ wd;auh rEm
we;af;ao rEm ke;af;ao fjhs” ks;Hh” urKska u;2 ,l2Kq we;af;ahhs m1ldY
lr;s’ wd;auh rEmhla ke;af;auo wrEm ke;af;a fkdfjhso fjhs’

[\q 22/]

wd;auh
fl

56′
))uyfKks” iuyr uyK nuqfKda urKska u;2 ,l2Kq ke;ehs woykafkdaj lreKq
wglska urKska u;2 wd;auh urKska u;2 ,l2Kq ke;a;la fldg m1ldY lr;a))’

57′
))urKska miq rEm we;s ks;H wd;auhla fjhs’ th ,l2Kq ke;af;ahhs m1ldY
lr;a’ rEmh ke;s wd;auhla fjhs’ th ,l2Kq ke;af;ahhs m1ldY lr;a’ rEmh
we;a;djQo rEmh ke;a;djQo wd;auhla fjhs’ rEmh ke;a;djQo wrEmh ke;a;djQo
wd;auhla fjhs’ wkka;hla we;a;djQo wd;auhla fjhs’ wkka;hla ke;a;djQo
wd;auhla fjhs’ wkka;hla we;a;djQo” wkka;hla ke;a;djQo wd;auhla fjhs’
wkka;hla fkdu we;a;djQo” wkka;hla fkdu ke;a;djQo wd;auhla fjhs’ th
urKska u;2 ks;HjQ nejska ,l2Kq ke;af;ahhs m1ldY lr;a))’

58′
))uyfKks” iuyr uyK nuqfKda u;2 fkdu ix{d *,l2Kq( we;s” fkdu wix{d
*,l2Kla kqjQfoa( we;s u; we;af;da fj;a’ Tyq lreKq wglska urKska u;2
wd;auh fkdu ix{d fkdu wix{d fldg mKj;a))’


[\q 23/]

59′
))urKska u;2 wd;auh ks;Hh” rEm we;a;lah” fkdu ix{d we;s fkdu wix{d
we;shhs m1ldY lr;a’ urKska u;2 wrEmSjQ wd;auh ks;Hh” fkdu ix{d we;sjQ
fkdu wix{d we;sjQhhs m1ldY lr;a’ rEmSjQo wrEmSjQo wd;auh ks;Hh” fkdu
ix{d we;sjQ fkdu wix{d we;sjQhhs m1ldY lr;a’ fkdu rEm we;s fkdu wrEm
we;s wd;auh ks;Hh” fkdu ix{d we;sjQ fkdu wix{d we;sjQhhs m1ldY lr;a’
fl

50′
))uyfKks” iuyr uyK nuqfKda ixidrhla ke;ehs jsYajdi lr i;ajhdf.a
ke;sjSu” jskdYh iy Njh ke;sjS hEu lreKq y;lska m1ldY lr;a))’ ))mskaj;”
i;r uyd N2;hkaf.ka yg.;a ujqmshkaf.a iuznkaOfhka Wmka rAEmhla we;s fuz
wd;auh YrSrfhka ;ajka jSfuka ke;s jkafkah” jskdY jkafkah” urKska u;2
fkdjkafkah’ mskaj;” fumuKlska fuz wd;auh fydZoska ke;sjS .sfhah))’

5-’
fjk wfhla Tyqg fufia lshhs’+ ))mskaj;” Tn lshk ta wd;auh we;af;ah” th
we;af;a ke;ehs fkdlshus’ mskaj;” fuf;lska ta wd;auh fydZodldr ke;sjS
.sfha ke;’ mskaj;” rEmhla we;s” ldu f,dalfha yeisfrk lEu lk wkH osjH
wd;auhla we;af;ah’ th Tn fkdokshs” fkdolshs’ uu th oksus” olsus’ mskaj;”
ta wd;auh YrSrfhka fjkajQ miq ke;sjS hkafkah’ urKska u;2 fkdjkafkah’
mskaj;” tmuKlska fuz wd;auh ke;sjS .sfha fjhs))’


[\q 24/]

6=’
fjk wfhla Tyqg fufia lshhs’+ ))mskaj;” Tn lshk ta wd;auh we;” th ke;ehs
fkdlshus’ mskaj;” fumuKlska ta wd;auh fydZodldr ke;sjS fkd.sfhah’
mskaj;” rEmhla we;s” is;a Wmojk ,o” ish,q wjhj we;s” oekSug Wmldr jk
fkdmsrsyqk wjhjhka we;s wkH osjH wd;auhla we;af;ah’ th Tn fkdokshs”
fkdolshs’ uu th oksus” olsus’ mskaj;” hulska ta wd;auh YrSrfhka
fjkajSfuka isfZokafkah’ urKska u;2 fkdjkafkah’ mskaj;” tmuKlska fuz
wd;auh ukdfldg ke;sjS .sfha fjhs))’

63′
fjk wfhla Tyqg fufia lshhs’+ ))mskaj;” Tn lshk ta wd;auh we;” th ke;ehs
fkdlshus’ mskaj;” fumuKlska ta wd;auh fydZodldr ke;sjS fkd.sfhah’
mskaj;” wkH yeu ldrKhlska rEm ,l2Kq msglsrSfuka kefk ,l2Kq neiSfuka
fkdfhla wd;au ,l2Kq wu;l jSfuka wdldYh ksula ke;ehs ))wdldYdk[apdh;k))
kuz m

64′
fjk wfhla Tyqg fufia lshhs’+ ))mskaj;” Tn lshk ta wd;auh we;” th ke;ehs
fkdlshus’ mskaj;” fuf;lska ta wd;auh fydZodldr ke;sjS fkd.sfhah’
mskaj;” yeu wdldrfhka ))wdldYdk[apdh;k)) kuz m



[\q 25/]

65′
fjk wfhla Tyqg fufia lshhs’+ ))mskaj;” Tn lshk ta wd;auh we;” th ke;ehs
fkdlshus’ mskaj;” fuf;lska ta wd;auh fydZodldr ke;sjS fkd.sfhah’

mskaj;”
yeu wdldrfhka ))js[[dK[apdh;kh)) kuz n1yau f,dalfhka blaujS lsisjla
ke;ehs ))wdls[apd[a[dh;kh)) kuz n1yau f,dalhg meusKs wd;auhla we;’ th Tn
fkdokshs” fkdolshs’ uu th oksus” olsus’ mskaj;” huz ld,hloS ta wd;auh
YrSrfhka fjkajS ke;sjS hkafkao” urKska u;2 fkdjkafkao” mskaj;” fumuKlska
fuz wd;auh fydZodldr ke;sjS .sfha hhs)) fufia huz flfkla i;ajhdf.a
ke;sjS hdu” jskdYh” Njh ke;sjS hdu m1ldY lrhs))’

66′
fjk wfhla Tyqg fufia lshhs’+ ))mskaj;” Tn lshk ta wd;auh we;” th ke;ehs
fkdlshus’ mskaj;” fuf;lska ta wd;auh fydZodldr ke;sjS fkd.sfhah’
mskaj;” yeu wdldrfhka ))js[[dK[apdh;kh)) kuz n1yau f,dalfhka blaujS
lsisjla ke;ehs ))wdls[apd[a[dh;kh)) kuz n1yau f,dalh blau fldg fuh
Ydka;h” fuh usysrshhs ))fkaji[a[dkdi[a[dh;kh)) kuz n1yau f,dalhg meusKs
wd;auhla we;’ th Tn fkdokshs” fkdolshs’ uu th oksus” olsus’ mskaj;” huz
ld,hloS ta wd;auh YrSrfhka fjkajS ke;sjS hkafkao” jskdY jkafkao” urKska
u;2 fkdjkafkao” mskaj;” fumuKlska ta wd;auh fydZodldr ke;sjS .sfha hhs))
fufia huz flfkla i;ajhdf.a ke;sjS hdu” jskdYh” Njh ke;sjS hdu m1ldY
lrhs))’

67′ ))uyfKks” iuyr uyK nuqfKda *osgzGOuzu ksnzndkjdo( fuz wd;au NdjfhaoSu ksrAjdKh w;afjzhhs woykafkda fj;s))’

68′
))uyfKks” fuz f,dalfhys huz uyfKla fyda nuqfKla fyda funZoq u; we;af;la
funZoq weoySuz we;af;la fjhs’ ))mskaj;” huz osfkl fuz wd;auh mxpldu

[\q 26/]

.2Kfhka hq;2jQfha” w;ajQfha bkaos1hhka mskjdo” fumuKlska” fuz wd;auh fuz wd;au NdjfhaoSu ksrAjdKhg meusKsfha fjhs)) lshdh))’

69′
fjk wfhla Tyqg fufia lshhs’+ ))Tn lshk ta wd;auh we;” th ke;ehs
fkdlshus’ mskaj;” fuz wd;auh fumuKlska fuz wd;aufhau ksjKg fkdmeusKsfha
fjhs’ Bg fya;2 l2ulao$ luziem wks;Hh” oqlh’ fmrf

60′
fjk wfhla Tyqg fufia lshhs’+ ))Tn lshk ta wd;auh we;” th ke;ehs
fkdlshus’ mskaj;” ta wd;auh fumuKlska fuz wd;aufhaoS ksjKg meusKsfha
ke;’ Bg fya;2 l2ulao$ tys huz jsiZod n,k jspdrfhda fj;ao” Tjqka ksid ta
OHdkh ,dul fia fmfkhs’ mskaj;” huz ld,hloS fuz wd;auh jsiZod n,k
jspdrhskaf.a i;2gqjSfuka isf;a jsfYaI i;2gq .;sh iy tlZ.luska hqla;jQ”
jsiZod ne,Sfuka f;drjQ” jspdr rys;jQ” iudOsfhka we;sjQ m1S;sh iy iem
we;s fojeks OHdkhg meusK jdih flfrAo” mskaj; fumKlska fuz wd;auh fuz
wd;aufhaoSu ksjKg meusKsfha fjhs))’

6-’
fjk wfhla Tyqg fufia lshhs’+ ))Tn lshk ta wd;auh we;” th ke;ehs
fkdlshus’ mskaj;” ta wd;auh fumuKlska fuz wd;aufhaoS ksjKg meusKsfha
ke;’ Bg fya;2 l2ulao$ tys m1S;sho” isf;a WvZ.2 njo fya;2fldg f.k ta
OHdkh ,dulhhs fmfka’


[\q 27/]

mskaj;”
huz ld,hloS fuz wd;auh m1S;sfha fkdwe,Sfuka isys we;sj kqjK we;sj
Wkkaoqjla we;sj jdih lrhso” YrSrfhka iem jsZoSo” W;a;ufhda h OHdkhlg
WkkaoQ ke;snj we;af;dah” isys we;af;dah” iem jsfjzlh we;af;dahhs lsh;ao”
ta ;2kajeks OHdkhg meusK jdih flfrAo” mskaj; fumKlska fuz wd;auh fuz
wd;aufhaoSu ksjKg meusKsfha fjhs))’

7=’
fjk wfhla Tyqg fufia lshhs’+ ))Tn lshk ta wd;auh we;” th ke;ehs
fkdlshus’ mskaj;” ta wd;auh fumuKlska fuz wd;aufhaoS ksjKg meusKsfha
ke;’ Bg fya;2 l2ulao$ tys iemhhs isf;ys OHdkfhka ke.sg ke.sg iemh kej;
isys lsrSu fjzo” thska th ,dulhhs yefZ.a’ mskaj;” huz lf,l fuz wd;auh
iem ke;s lsrSfukao” oql ke;s lsrSfukao” m

73′
))uyfKks” ta uyK nuqfKda *f,dal( wjidkh .ek l,amkd lr *f,dal( wjidkh
.ek u; we;slr f.k lreKq y;,sia i;rlska *f,dal( wjidkh .ek fkdfhla u;
olajk jpk lsh;s))’

74′
))uyfKks” huzlsis uyK nuqfKda *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau l,amkd lr;ao”
*f,dal( wjidkh .ek l,amkd lr;ao” *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh l,amkd
lr;ao” *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh .ek u; we;sf;da fj;ao” *f,dalfha(
mgka .ekau wjidkh .ek lreKq yeg follska fkdfhla wdldr u; olajk jpk
lsh;s))’

75′
))uyfKks” fuz ldrKfhys u; yeg fol w;2frka hulska ta uyK nuqfKda
iodld,sl njl woykafkda wd;auho f,dalho iodld,sl fldg m1ldY lr;ao”


[\q 28/]

huz
uyK nuqfKda fldgila iodld,slh” fldgila iodld,sl fkdfjzh hk u; we;af;daj
wd;auho f,dalho fldgila iodld,slhhso” fldgila iodld,sl fkdfjzhhso m1ldY
lr;a))’

76′ ))huz ta uyK nuqfKda ksula we; ksula ke; hk u;h we;af;daj f,dalfha ksula we;s njo ke;s njo m1ldY lr;a))’

huz
ta uyK nuqfKda *wdZoka fuka( wiqfkdjk .;s we;af;daj ta ta ldrKfhys
m1Yak jspdrk ,oaodyq jpkhkaf.a jshjq,a .;shg fl,jrla ke;s jshjq,a .;shg
meusfKkao”

77′ huz ta uyK nuqfKda wfya;2lj Wmkafkah hk hk u;h we;af;daj wd;auho” f,dalho wfya;2lj Wmka nj m1ldY lr;ao”

78′ huz ta uyK nuqfKda wjidkh l,amkd lrkafkdaj wjidkh .ek u; we;af;daj wjidkh .ek u; m1ldY lr;ao”

urKska u;2 wd;auh ,l2Kq we;a;lahhs u; we;af;daj urKska u;2 wd;auh ,l2Kq we;a;la fldg m1ldY lr;ao”

urKska u;2 wd;auh ,l2Kq ke;a;lahhs u; we;af;daj urKska u;2 wd;auh ,l2Kq ke;a;la fldg m1ldY lr;ao”

urKska
u;2 wd;auh .ek ))m1lg ix{djla ke;af;ah)) *fkjix{d kdix{( hk u;
we;af;daj urKska u;2 wd;auh m1lg ix{djla ke;s fohla fldg m1ldY lr;ao”

ixidrhla ke;ehs u; we;af;daj lreKq i;lska i;ajhdf.a *cSjs;fhka( isZoSu” jskdYh” Njh ke;sjSu m1ldY lr;ao”

fuz cd;sfhau ksjka w;afjzhhs u; we;af;daj i;ajhdf.a fuz cd;sfhau ksjka w;ajSu m1ldY lr;ao”

[\q 29/]

*f,dal( wjidkh l,amkd lrkafkdaj *f,dal( wjidkh .ek u; we;af;daj *f,dal( wjidkh .ek fkdfhla u; m1ldY lr;ao”

*f,dalfha(
mgka .ekau l,amkd lr;ao” *f,dal( wjidkh .ek l,amkd lr;ao” *f,dalfha(
mgka .ekau wjidkh l,amkd lr;ao” *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh .ek u;
we;sf;daj *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh .ek fkdfhla wdldr u; m1ldY lr;ao”

iodld,sl njl woykafkda wd;auho f,dalho iodld,sl fldg m1ldY lr;ao”

fldgila
iodld,slh” fldgila iodld,sl fkdfjzh hk u; we;af;daj wd;auho f,dalho
fldgila iodld,sl fldg” fldgila iodld,sl fkdfldg m1ldY lr;ao”

th bkaos1hhkaf.a iamrAYh ksidfjz’

79′
))ksula we; ksula ke;)) hk u;h we;af;daj lreKq i;rlska f,dalfha ksula
we;s njo ke;s njo m1ldY lr;ao” tho bkaos1hhkaf.a iamrAYh ksidfjz’

*wdZoka
fuka( wiqfkdjk .;s we;af;daj ta ta ldrKfhys m1Yak jspdrk ,oaodyq
jpkhkaf.a jshjq,a .;shg fl,jrla ke;s jshjq,a .;shg meusfKoao tho
bkaos1hhkaf.a iamrAYh ksidfjz’

70′
*wd;auho f,dalho( wfya;2lj Wmkafkah hk u;h we;af;daj wd;auho” f,dalho
wfya;2lj Wmkakla fldg m1ldY lr;ao” tho bkaos1hhkaf.a iamrAYh ksidfjz’

f,dal
wjidkh l,amkd lr *f,dal( wjidkh .ek u; we;af;daj *f,dal( wjidkh .ek
fkdfhla wdldr u; m1ldY lr;ao” tho bkaos1hhkaf.a iamrAYh ksidfjz’

urKska
u;2 wd;auh ,l2Kq we;a;lahhs u; we;af;daj urKska u;2 wd;auh ,l2Kq
we;a;la fldg m1ldY lr;ao” tho bkaos1hhkaf.a iamrAYh ksidfjz’

7-’
))uyfKks” huz uyK nuqfKda urKska u;2 wd;auh ,l2Kq ke;a;lahhs u;
we;af;daj lreKq wglska wd;auh ,l2Kq ke;a;la fldg m1ldY lr;ao” tho
bkaos1hhkaf.a iamrAYh ksidfjz’

[\q 30/]

*wd;auh
ms

*wd;auh
.ek( ixidrhla ke;ehs u; we;af;daj i;ajhdf.a *cSjs;fhka( isZoSu” jskdYh”
Njh ke;sjSu m1ldY lr;ao” tho bkaos1hhkaf.a iamrAYh ksidfjz’

fuz cd;sfhau ksjka w;afjzhhs u; we;af;daj i;ajhdf.a fuz cd;sfhau ksjka w;ajSu m1ldY lr;ao” tho bkaos1hhkaf.a iamrAYh ksidfjz’

*f,dal(
wjidkh l,amkd lrkafkdaj *f,dal( wjidkh .ek u; we;af;daj *f,dal( wjidkh
.ek fkdfhla u; m1ldY lr;ao” tho bkaos1hhkaf.a iamrAYh ksidfjz’

*f,dalfha(
mgka .ekau l,amkd lr;ao” *f,dal( wjidkh .ek l,amkd lr;ao” *f,dalfha(
mgka .ekau wjidkh l,amkd lr;ao” *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh .ek u;
we;sf;daj *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh .ek fkdfhla wdldr u; m1ldY lr;ao”
tho bkaos1hhkaf.a iamrAYh ksidfjz’

iodld,sl njla woykafkdaj wd;auho f,dalho iodld,sl fldg m1ldY lr;ao” tho bkaos1hhkaf.a iamrAYh ksidfjz’

fldgila
iodld,slh” fldgila iodld,sl fkdfjzh hk u; we;af;daj wd;auho f,dalho
fldgila iodld,sl fldg” fldgila iodld,sl fkdfldg m1ldY lr;ao” Tjqkaf.a ta
yeZ.Su iamrAYfhka f;drjQjlehs hk fuz ldrKh ienE nj fkdfmfka’

ksula we; ksula ke; hk u;h we;af;daj f,dalfha ksula we;s njo ke;s njo m1ldY lr;ao”


[\q 31/]

Tjqkaf.a ta yeZ.Su iamrAYfhka f;drjQjlehs hk fuz ldrKh ienE nj fkdfmfka’

*wdZoka
fuka( wiqfkdjk .;s we;af;daj ta ta ldrKfhys m1Yak jspdrk ,oaodyq
jpkhkaf.a jshjq,a .;shg fl,jrla ke;s jshjq,a .;shg meusfK;ao” Tjqkaf.a
ta yeZ.Su iamrAYfhka f;drjQjlehs hk fuz ldrKh ienE nj fkdfmfka’

wfya;2lj
Wmkafkah hk u; we;af;daj wd;auho” f,dalho wfya;2lj Wmka nj m1ldY lr;ao”
Tjqkaf.a ta yeZ.Su iamrAYfhka f;drjQjlehs hk fuz ldrKh ienE nj
fkdfmfka’

8=’
*f,dal( wjidkh l,amkd lrkafkdaj wjidkh .ek u; we;af;daj *f,dal( wjidkh
.ek fkdfhla wdldr u; m1ldY lr;ao” Tjqkaf.a ta yeZ.Su iamrAYfhka
f;drjQjlehs hk fuz ldrKh ienE nj fkdfmfka’

urKska
u;2 wd;auh ,l2Kq we;a;lahhs u; we;af;daj urKska u;2 wd;auh ,l2Kq
we;a;la fldg m1ldY lr;ao” Tjqkaf.a ta yeZ.Su iamrAYfhka f;drjQjlehs hk
fuz ldrKh ienE nj fkdfmfka’

urKska
u;2 wd;auh ,l2Kq ke;a;lahhs u; we;af;daj urKska u;2 wd;auh ,l2Kq
ke;a;la fldg m1ldY lr;ao” Tjqkaf.a ta yeZ.Su iamrAYfhka f;drjQjlehs hk
fuz ldrKh ienE nj fkdfmfka’

83′
))uyfKks” huz ta uyK nuqfKda urKska u;2 wd;auh .ek ))m1lg ix{djla
ke;af;ah)) *fkjix{dkdix{( hk u; we;af;daj urKska u;2 wd;auh m1lg ix{djla
ke;s fohla fldg m1ldY lr;ao” Tjqkaf.a ta yeZ.Su iamrAYfhka f;drjQjlehs
hk fuz ldrKh ienE nj fkdfmfka’

ixidrhla
ke;ehs u; we;af;daj i;ajhdf.a *cSjs;fhka( isZoSu” jskdYh” Njh ke;sjSu
m1ldY lr;ao” Tjqkaf.a ta yeZ.Su iamrAYfhka f;drjQjlehs hk fuz ldrKh ienE
nj fkdfmfka’

[\q 32/]

fuz
cd;sfhau ksjka w;afjzhhs u; we;af;daj i;ajhdf.a fuz cd;sfhau ksjka
w;ajSu m1ldY lr;ao” Tjqkaf.a ta yeZ.Su iamrAYfhka f;drjQjlehs hk fuz
ldrKh ienE nj fkdfmfka’

*f,dal(
wjidkh l,amkd lrkafkdaj *f,dal( wjidkh .ek u; we;af;daj *f,dal( wjidkh
.ek fkdfhla u; m1ldY lr;ao” Tjqkaf.a ta yeZ.Su iamrAYfhka f;drjQjlehs hk
fuz ldrKh ienE nj fkdfmfka’

*f,dalfha(
mgka .ekau l,amkd lr;ao” *f,dal( wjidkh .ek l,amkd lr;ao” *f,dalfha(
mgka .ekau wjidkh l,amkd lr;ao” *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh .ek u;
we;sf;daj *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh .ek fkdfhla wdldr u; m1ldY lr;ao”
Tjqkaf.a ta yeZ.Su iamrAYfhka f;drjQjlehs hk fuz ldrKh ienE nj
fkdfmfka’

84′
))uyfKks” huz ta uyK nuqfKda iodld,sl njla woykafkdaj wd;auho f,dalho
iodld,sl fldg m1ldY lr;ao” fldgila iodld,slh” fldgila iodld,sl fkdfjzh
hk u; we;af;da fj;ao” ksula we; ksula ke; hk u; we;af;da fj;ao” *wdZoka
fuka( wiqfkdjk .;s we;af;da fj;ao” *wd;auho f,dalho( wfya;2lj Wmkafkah
hk u; we;af;da fj;ao” *f,dal( wjidkh l,amkd lrkafkda fj;ao” urKska u;2
wd;auh ,l2Kq we;a;lahhs u; we;af;da fj;ao” urKska u;2 wd;auh ,l2Kq
ke;a;lahhs u; we;af;da fj;ao” urKska u;2 wd;auh .ek ))m1lg ix{djla
ke;af;ah)) *fkjix{d kdix{( hk u; we;af;da fj;ao” ixidrhla ke;ehs u;
we;af;da fj;ao” fuz cd;sfhau ksjka w;afjzhhs u; we;af;da fj;ao” *f,dal(
wjidkh l,amkd lrkafkda fj;ao” *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau l,amkd lrkafkda
fj;ao” wjidkh .ek l,amkd lr;ao” *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh l,amkd
lr;ao” *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh .ek u; we;sf;daj *f,dalfha( mgka
.ekau wjidkh .ek fkdfhla wdldr u; m1ldY lr;ao” ta ish,af,dau yh wdldr
iamrAYhkaf.a

[\q 33/]

jEhfuka
iamrAY fldg yeZ.Suz we;slr .kakdyqh’ Tjqkag ))fjzokdfjka ;kaydj fjhs”
;kaydj fya;2fjka ;o we,au fjhs” ;o we,au fya;2fjka Njh fjhs” Njh
fya;2fjka *cd;sh( bmoSu fjhs” bmoSu fya;2fjka osrSu” urK” fYdal”
je

uyfKks”
huz lf,l uyfKla yh wdldr iamrAY *iamrAYdh;khkaf.a( Wmam;a;sho” neiSuo”
N2la;s jsZoSuo” m1;sM, jsZoSuo ;;2 f,i okSo Tyq fuz ish,a,gu jvd b;d
Wiia OrAuhka okS))’

85′
))uyfKks” huzlsis uyfKla fyda nuqfKla fyda *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau l,amkd
lrkafkda fyda *f,dal( wjidkh l,amkd lrkafkda fyda” *f,dalfha( mgka
.ekau wjidkh l,amkd lrkafkda fyda” *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh .ek u;
we;sf;daj *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh .ek fkdfhla wdldr u; m1ldY lr;ao”
ta ish,af,da *us:Hd( oef,ys we;2<;a lrk wh tysu u;2fjkakdyqh’
mdfjkakdyqh’ + tys we;2<;a jQjdyQ *c,h hgg .shdyq( u;2fjkakdyq
mdfkkakdyqh’

uyfKks” huz oCI uiqka urkafkla js,lg nei tys uiqka ish,af,da oe, we;2,g lrk ,oaodyq tys neZoqkdyq” lsusfokakyqh” mdfjkakdyqh’

uyfKks”
tf,iskau huz lsis uyfKla fyda nuqfKla fyda *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau l,amkd
lrkafklaj fyda *f,dal( wjidkh l,amkd lrkafklaj fyda” mgka .ekau wjidkh
l,amkd lrkafklaj fyda” *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh .ek u; we;sf;laj
*f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh .ek fkdfhla wdldr u; m1ldY lr;ao” ta
ish,af,dau *us:Hd( oef,ys we;2<;a lrk ,oaodyq tysu u;2fjkakdyqh’
lsusfokakyq mdfjkakdyqh’ tys we;2<;a jQjdyQh” oe, we;2<;
neZoqkdyq” u;2fjkakdyq mdfkkakdyqh’

uyfKks” huz fia wU j,af,a kgqj lemqk l, kgqfjz neZoqk ishZM wU f.vs kgqj wkqj hkafkao” uyfKks” tf,iu Njhg we;s wdYdj isZosk,o


[\q 34/]

;:d.;hkaf.a
YrSrh mj;S’ huz;dla YrSrh mj;So” ta ;dla fojz usksiaiq ta YrSrh ols;s’
YrSrh nsZoS fjkajSfuka miq cSjs;h *m1;sikaOs rys;j( msrsyqKq nejska fojs
usksiaiq ;:d.;hka fkdols;s’

86′
fufia jZod< l, wdhqIau;a wdkkao iajduSka jykafia Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag
fufia lshd isgs fial’ ))iajduSks” mqoquhs’ iajduSks” fndfyda mqoquhs’
iajduSks” fuz OrAu l1uhg fudkhuz kula jsh hq;2o$))

))wdkkaoh”
tfia jSkuz” fuz OrAu l1uh ))wrA: cd,))hhs *ku( orj” ))OrAu cd,))hhso th
orj” ))oDIags cd,))hhso th orj” ))ksre;a;r ix.1du jsch))hhso th
orjehs)) Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fufia jod, fial’ i;2gq is;a we;s ta NsCIqyq
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia foiQ OrAuhg meiiQy’ fuz .d:d ke;s iQ;1h *fjhHdlrK
OrAuh( foaYkd lrk l, oi oyila f,dal Od;2j luzmd jsh’

m


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