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939 LESSON 03-06-2013 MONDAY-FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY up a level தமிழில் திரிபிடக மூன்று தொகுப்புகள் மற்றும் பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள் சுருக்கமான வரலாற்று முன் வரலாறு ஸுத்தபிடக புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள் புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் ஒன்பது மண்டலங்கள் TIPITAKA-ஸுத்தபிடக-போதிசத்தா மேன்மை பொருந்திய நேர்த்தி வாய்ந்த மனிதர் ஸுத்த நீதி வாக்கியம் - விழிப்புணர்வு மேல் ஆஜரா கிருத்தல் - ( மஹா+ ஸதிபத்தான)-Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta- Iமெய்யார்வ தியானம் -D.தாக்கிக் துரத்திடுதல் பிரிவு- Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba-Section on Repulsiveness
Filed under: General
Posted by: site admin @ 3:29 pm

939 LESSON 03-06-2013 MONDAY-FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

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மிழில் திரிபி  மூன்று தொகுப்புள்
மற்றும்
பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள்
சுருக்கமான வரலாற்று முன் வரலாறு
ஸுத்தபிடக
புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள்
புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் ஒன்பது மண்டலங்கள் 
TIPITAKA-ஸுத்தபிடக-
போதிசத்தா மேன்மை பொருந்திய நேர்த்தி வாய்ந்த மனிதர் ஸுத்த நீதி வாக்கியம்
-
விழிப்புணர்வு மேல் ஆஜரா கிருத்தல் -
( மஹா+ ஸதிபத்தான)-
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta-
Iமெய்யார்வ  தியானம் -D.தாக்கிக் துரத்திடுதல் பிரிவு- Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba-Section on Repulsiveness

from FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and
Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org



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TIPITAKA-ஸுத்தபிடக-Section-A

TIPITAKA

TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
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animated buddha photo: Animated Buddha buddhawan.gif


http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Wikipitaka:About


Wikipitaka - The Completing Tipitaka

Wikipitaka© is an attempt to compile and complete an English
translation of the Tipitaka, the Buddhist sacred scripture, and its
commentaries in order to enable complete features of online text:
searching, browsing, linking, instant editing as well as looking up
terms in an online dictionary.



Unmet Needs

  • While Buddhism is the third largest world’s religion, there is no complete online English translation of the Tipitaka.
  • There is absolutely no online commentary of the Tipitaka
  • While searching is what make electronic text distinct, the existing online Tipitaka’s are not searchable.
  • Terminology used in the existing translations of the Tipitaka are diverse, hard to comprehend.
  • Terminology used in the Tipitaka are in Pali-Sanskrit, and
    readers of the Tipitaka usually encounter difficulty in understanding
    them.

Uniqueness

  • Searchability
  • Standardized translation
  • Wiki format which allows users to participate in the process
    of completing (building) the Tipitaka, which is considered the supreme
    merit by Buddhists
  • Expanded scripture: Wikiptaka© is the first and the only web
    service that provides an expansive feature of the Tipitaka: different
    translations, commentaries, exegeses, interpretations, historical
    significances, discussions, dictionary, and encyclopedia.

Wikipitaka’s Advantages

  • Complete Features of an Online Text: such as search, browse, link, addition, edition and discussion.

The Wikipitaka© will be linked to an existing Dictionary of Buddhism,
such as Andover-Harvard Library’s Dictionary of Buddhism or
Stanford-subscribed Encyclopedia of Buddhism.

With client-side internet technology, users can simply
double-click on the text to search the dictionary which appears on a
new, popup page.

  • Expansive Canon: Wikiptaka© is the first and the only
    web service that provides an expansive feature of the Tipitaka:
    different translations, commentaries, exegeses, interpretations,
    historical significances, discussions, dictionary, and encyclopedia.
    Because in reality, there are several texts that attach to or elaborate
    on the Tipitaka, but these “secondary” texts are not yet online.

Under each sutta page, there will be five tabs (or links) for
Original Pali Text, Commentary, Significance, Interpretation, and
Discussion Forum. With help of users, we can complete this expansion
very soon.

Sitemap
Schematic depiction of Wikipitaka sitemap
FahshineAdded by Fahshine

  • Inclusiveness & More User Involvement: Users get to
    take an active role in the web space. By the nature of a wiki, it opens
    up for people to edit, add, or erase any of the texts. This will make
    users feel as if they were a part of the community and continue using
    the website. Because of this openness, Wikipedia have more than two
    billion pages within five years, and we hope to succeed with this policy
    as well.

What you can do in Wikipitaka

Main Page

The Main Page is divided into three sections:

Registration

Register Now!
You can freely edit the existing pages. But to add a new page, you are
required to register using your e-mail address. This process is kept
easy for your convenience.

Search

On the toolbar of every page, there is a search bar.
You can use this search bar to search for any specific terms or phrase
in the Tipitaka as well as the accompanying pages. Search result ranks
by percentage of relevancy.

Synonym Search

There is a separate list of Pali terms in Glossary.
These terms are linked to their possible translations, once a user
search for a term in the list, the search engine will automatically
search the website for all possible translations of the term as well as
its variations. By this method, we can guarantee that the user will get
every passage relevant to his or her keyword.

Dictionary

Wikipitaka© can be link to an online Dictionary of Buddhism. There is a link to the dictionary on the toolbar.

Administrative Staff

For full description see Management Team.

Academic Committee

For full description see Management Team.

Academic CommitteeEdit

At the moment, Wikipitaka has just a handful of staff who help maintaining the website:

  1. Scripture Specialists
  2. Language Specialists
    1. Primary Languages: Pali-Sanskrit
    2. Secondary Languages: Thai (Burmese, Cambodian, Chinese, Japanese, Laos, Mongolian, Sinhalese, and Tibetan)
    3. Target Languages: English (French, German, Italian, etc.)
  3. Culture-History Specialists

These specialists can be recruited from two resources:

  1. Buddhist scholars in Buddhist Universities, Pali-Sanskrit schools, and Buddhist temples:
    This group can be reached through special connections with
    administrative figures in the institutions such as presidents and
    abbots. For instance:
    1. We have been in touch with the Director of Wat Bowonniwet
      Vihara Pariyatti School (Thailand’s oldest School of Buddhist Learning)
      for nine years, since one of our management team members was ordained
      under his supervision.
    2. We are a good friend of some Ph.D. students in Sanskrit at the Faculty of Arts, Chulalongkorn University.
    3. We have a strong connection with the webmaster and the abbot
      of Dhammakaya Foundation, a large and affluent Buddhist institution.
  2. Active and knowledgeable Wikipitaka© members like you!

If Wikipitaka© gets so large that it cannot be administered by the
standing management team alone, there must be sufficiently large number
of members of members. The CEO, upon suggestion of Academic Committee,
will communicate with some active members of the community and invite
them to join the Academic Committee and/or Web Administrator team. They
can serve in the course of one year or a quarter.

Our Goal

Target Users

This website will best serve the interest of scholars as well as practitioners of Buddhism. As a complete, searchable online Pali Canon, Wikipitaka© will provide Buddhist scholars a powerful tool to explore and analyze the Tipitaka.

Target Number of Users

The main target group is not only western scholars but also Buddhist scholars in major Buddhist countries.
This includes Burma, Cambodia, China, Japan, Laos, Mongolia, Singapore,
Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, and Vietnam. In these countries,
Buddhism has about 376 million followers (Wikipedia). By estimation, 0.1 percent of Buddhist is considered scholars who would find Wikipitaka© useful. That is, the number of users of Wikipitaka© is estimated to be 376,000.

Size

Because the goal of Wikipitaka© is to emulate other
online sacred scriptures, such as The Qur’an and The Bible, the basic
goal is to reach the same, if not greater, number of users (customers)
proportionate to the religious population.

According to one of the online Qur’an websites, Kor’an, it
reaches the total number of users of 126,814 (as at 10:42 pm PST, May
3, 2006) within 5 months (December 3, 2005-May 3, 2006). That is, on
average, 25,363 users visit the site monthly. This is in comparison with
one of the (few) existing online Tipitaka websites, “Tipitaka Online”,
whose number of users reaches 616,633 (as at 10:44 pm PST, May 3, 2006)
in 8 years (May 15, 1998-May 4, 2006), with the average of 6,423
visitors a month. We see that the number of monthly users of “Kor’an” is
four times greater than that of the Tipitaka wile the total number of
Islam followers is only twice as big as the number of Buddhism
followers. Using Kor’an website as a standard (this website won “Best
Islamic Site Award”), we aim our target size (as in 2006) to at least 13,000 users a month.

Penetration and Access of the Target Users

Even though Buddhism is the fourth largest religion in
the world (Wikipedia), most of the Buddhist Scholars are in developing
countries where internet access is not so common (as in 2006). Also,
most of the Buddhist scholars live an ascetic life style and might not
have an access to the Internet. Thus, most of the target users might not
be able to access the website in 2006.

Yet, in Thailand for example, monks and nuns have increasingly become technologically aware
as the number of Buddhist websites maintained by practitioners and
monks increases significantly during 2000-2005. Because the number of
internet users in monastery settings is proportionate to the total
number of internet users in Thailand, Wikipitaka© will be successful
when the internet usage reaches a level at which the people accept it as
a daily activity.

In The Growth and Development of the Internet in the United States
by Martin Kenny in 2001, Kenny concludes that the factors that
contribute to the rapid growth of the Internet are political economy of
the telecommunications system, the willingness of Americans to order
remotely, and the creation of an infrastructure centered upon venture
capital meant to support hightechnology entrepreneurship. In Thailand,
the government invests much of its spending into creating these
conditions through its brand new Ministry of ICT (Information and
Communication Technology). For example, high speed internet ADSL cost
has been decreasing constantly since last year. This results in the
dramatic increase in the number of ADSL users as well as the overall
internet users. The strong support from the government results in the
increase in national internet usage. As shown in Figure 2, the number of
Thai internet users grows linearly ever year since 2000 and grows
266.1% in 2000-2005 (http://www.internetworldstats.com/).
With
the growth of high speed internet and the decrease in its cost, the
number of internet users is estimated to increase exponentially in 2006
and the year beyond.

With the expansion of the internet usage in Thailand and in other
Buddhist countries alike, we can predict that within ten years,
Buddhist scholars will have an access to the Internet, and Wikipitaka©
can be accessed by every target user and participant. This means it is
better to launch this project when the target community is ready, that
is when most of the Buddhist scholars are familiar with the Internet and
online research. This process can take five or ten years to come true.

Other Online Tipitaka Websites

Because of the language differences, no translation can
capture the true meaning of the Tipitaka. So, it is very important to
look at many translations of a passage and treat them as mirrors that
reflect one ultimate meaning of the Tipitaka. See the complete list at
Wikipitaka’s Partner websites.

Existing Websites

There are just a handful of online Tipitaka websites (as
listed below). None of which allows searching which is the key feature
in an electronic text. Also, none of which has a complete, standardized
translation of the Tipitaka. Also, most of them are rarely updated.

List of existing online Tipitaka:

  1. Accesstoinsight.org: one of the most complete, reliable collection of Pali Canon
  2. Tipitaka Online: A translation from Burmese Tipitaka by Dr.
    Maung M. Lwin. Starting eight years ago, it is still an ongoing attempt
    to complete the translation. The website uses yahoo e-mail list as a
    discussion forum, yet there has been no respond from other member beside
    Dr. Lwin himself recently.
  3. Metta.lk: The collection contains Pali, Sinhala, and English
    translations. The English collection is by various authors often
    downloaded from the Internet.
  4. Tipitaka.com: a complete Thai translation.
  5. Palikanon.com: an incomplete Spanish translation.

Potential Websites

Although it is always possible for anyone to startup a
new website of a similar kind, we firmly believe that at the moment
there is no such an attempt. Because this is not a particular popular
moment for Buddhism, yet a peak period for startup internet companies,
and most of the Buddhist followers are in the countries with low
internet accessibility, it is unlikely that any other potential
competitor would come up with the same idea at the moment.

Key Assumptions

  1. Internet Penetration: We assume that by the
    time we launch Wikipitaka©, the internet penetration in major Buddhist
    countries such as Thailand, Sri Lanka, and China will be high enough to
    allow enough Buddhist scholars to access the website and join the
    community.
  2. Users’ Willingness to Share their Knowledge: Like
    Wikipedia, the success of Wikipitaka© has to depend on users’
    participation. We will post a famous Buddhist aphorism: “Among all
    charity, charity of knowledge is the greatest” to emphasize the
    importance of this project and appeal to Buddhist practitioners to seek a
    way to accumulate good karma even in the Cyber World.
  3. Credibility: Although the purpose of Wikipitaka© is to
    provide the most complete and accurate translation of the Tipitaka, some
    skeptics can always criticize the lack of central authority and thus
    the credibility of the translation. However, there is no better way to
    defend ourselves than letting the truth prove itself, like the case of
    Wikipedia.

See Also

up a level

D.தாக்கிக் துரத்திடுதல் பிரிவு


ஒருவேளை பிக்குக்களுக்களே,அங்கே ஒரு பை இரண்டு வாயில்கள்
உடையதாயிருப்பின், பல்வேறு  வகைப்பட்ட தானியம், குன்று நெல் பயிர், நெல்
பயிர், பச்சைப்பருப்பு, மாட்டு பட்டாணி, எள்ளு விதை, தொலியல். ஒரு மனிதன்
நல்ல பார்வையாற்றல் உடையவராயிருத்தல் கட்டு அவிழ்க்கப் பட்டவுடன் ஆழ்ந்து
ஆராய விரும்பி ,”இது குன்று நெல் பயிர்,நெல் பயிர், பச்சைப்பருப்பு, மாட்டு
பட்டாணி, எள்ளு விதை, தொலியல்என அறீவார்.” அதே போல்,  பிக்குக்களுக்களே,
ஒரு பிக்கு, இதே உடம்பில்,உச்சைந்தலை முடியிலிருந்து கீழ்நோக்கி உள்ளங்கால்
வரை, மெல்லிய தோல் மற்றும் பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட அசுத்தம் நிறைந்த, ‘இந்த
kāya, உடம்பு தலை முடி, உடம்புமுடி, நகம், பற்கள், மெல்லியல் தோல், தசை,
தசை நாண், எலும்பு, எலும்புச்சோறு, சிறுநீரகம், இதயம், கல்லீரல்,மார்புவரி,
மண்ணீரல், சுவாசப்பை,குடல், குடல்தாங்கி, இரைப்பை அதனுடைய உள்ளடங்கல்,
மலம், பித்தநீர், கபம், சீழ், இரத்தம், வியர்வை, கொழுப்பு, கண்ணீர்,
மசகிடு, உமிழ்நீர், மூக்குச்சளி, உயவுநீர்மஞ் சார்ந்த நீர்த்தன்மையுள்ள
மற்றும் சிறுநீர் அதன் வரம்பிடலில் உள்ளது என அறீவார்.



மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, இதே உடம்பில்,உச்சைந்தலை முடியிலிருந்து
கீழ்நோக்கி உள்ளங்கால் வரை, மெல்லிய தோல் மற்றும் பல்வேறு வகைப்பட்ட
அசுத்தம் நிறைந்த, ‘இந்த kāya, உடம்பு தலை முடி, உடம்புமுடி, நகம், பற்கள்,
மெல்லியல் தோல், தசை, தசை நாண், எலும்பு, எலும்புச்சோறு, சிறுநீரகம்,
இதயம், கல்லீரல்,மார்புவரி, மண்ணீரல், சுவாசப்பை,குடல், குடல்தாங்கி,
இரைப்பை அதனுடைய உள்ளடங்கல், மலம், பித்தநீர், கபம், சீழ், இரத்தம்,
வியர்வை, கொழுப்பு, கண்ணீர், மசகிடு, உமிழ்நீர், மூக்குச்சளி, உயவுநீர்மஞ்
சார்ந்த நீர்த்தன்மையுள்ள மற்றும் சிறுநீர் அதன் வரம்பிடலில் உள்ளது என
அறீவார்.


இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.
D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba

D. பத்திகூலமனஸிகார பப்ப



புன
ச பரங் பிக்காவெ, பிக்கு இமம்யெவ காயங், உத்தங் பாடத்தலா அதொ கெஸமத்தக,
தச பரியந்தங் பூரங் நானப்பகாரஸ்ஸ அஸுசினொ பச்சவெக்கதி: ‘அத்தி இமஸ்மிங்
காயெ கெஸா லொமா நகா தந்தா தகொ மங்ஸங் ந்ஹாரு  அத்தி அதிமிஞ்ஜங் வக்கங்
அடயங் யகனங் கிலொமகங் பிஹகங் பப்பாஹஸங் அந்தங் அந்தகுணங் உதரியங் கரிஸங்
பித்தங் ஸெமஹங் புப்பொ லொஹிதங் ஸெடொ மெடொ அஸ்ஸு வஸ கெளொ ஸிங்ஹாணிகா
லஸிகா முத்தங்’தி.

ஸெய்யதாபி, பிக்காவெ, உபதோமுகா புதொலி பூரா நானாவிஹிதஸ்ஸ தண்ணஸ்ஸ, ஸெய்யதிதங் ஸாலினங் விஹினங் முக்கங்
 மாஸானங் திலானங் தண்டுலானங். தமேனங் சக்குமா புரிஸொ முணிசித்வ ப்ச்சவெகெய்ய: ‘இமெ சஸாலி இமெ விஹி, இமெ முக்கா, இமெ  மாஸா, இமெ  திலா இமெ தண்டுலா’தி. ஏவமேவ கொ,பிக்காவெ, பிக்கு இமம்யெவ காயங், உத்தங் பாடத்தலா அதொ கெஸமத்தக, தச பரியந்தங் பூரங் நானப்பகாரஸ்ஸ அஸுசினொ பச்சவெக்கதி: ‘அத்தி இமஸ்மிங் காயெ கெஸா லொமா நகா தந்தா தகொ மங்ஸங் ந்ஹாரு  அத்தி
அதிமிஞ்ஜங் வக்கங் அடயங் யகனங் கிலொமகங் பிஹகங் பப்பாஹஸங் அந்தங்
அந்தகுணங் உதரியங் கரிஸங் பித்தங் ஸெமஹங் புப்பொ லொஹிதங் ஸெடொ மெடொ
அஸ்ஸு வஸ கெளொ ஸிங்ஹாணிகா லஸிகா முத்தங்’தி.
    

இதி அஜ்ஜஹத்தங் வா காயெ காயானுபஸ்ஸி விஹாரதி, பஹித்தா வா
காயெ காயானுபஸ்ஸி விஹாரதி, அஜ்ஜஹத்த-பஹித்தா வா காயெ காயானுபஸ்ஸி விஹாரதி;
ஸமுதய-தம்மானுபஸ்ஸி வா காயஸமிங் விஹாரதி, வய-தம்மானுபஸ்ஸி வா காயஸமிங்
விஹாரதி, ஸமுதய- வய-தம்மானுபஸ்ஸி வா காயஸமிங் விஹாரதி; ‘அத்தி காயொ’தி வா
பணஸ்ஸ சதி பச்சுபத்திதா ஹோதி யாவதேவ நாணமத்தய  பட்டிஸதி-மத்தாய,{1}
அனிஸிதொ ச விஹாரதி, ந ச கின்சி லோகெ உபாதியதி. ஏவம்பி கொ, பிக்காவெ, பிக்கு காயெ காயானுபஸ்ஸி விஹாரதி


D.Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba

Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ pādatalā adho kesa·matthakā, taca·pariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa asucino paccavekkhati:Atthi imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃti.

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, ubhatomukhā
putoḷi pūrā nānāvihitassa dhaññassa, seyyathidaṃ sālīnaṃ vīhīnaṃ
muggānaṃ māsānaṃ tilānaṃ taṇḍulānaṃ. Tamenaṃ cakkhumā puriso muñcitvā
paccavekkheyya: ‘Ime sālī ime vīhī, ime muggā, ime māsā, ime tilā, ime
taṇḍulā’ ti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ
pādatalā adho kesa·matthakā, taca·pariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa
asucino paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco
maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ
papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ
sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti. 




Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 





D. Section on Repulsiveness

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the
soles of the feet up and from the hair on the head down, which is
delimited by its skin and full of various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya (body),
there are the hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin,
flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura,
spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces,
bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal
mucus, synovial fluid and urine.”


Just as if, bhikkhus, there was a bag having two openings and filled
with various kinds of grain, such as hill-paddy, paddy, mung beans,
cow-peas, sesame seeds and husked rice. A man with good eyesight, having
unfastened it, would consider [its contents]: “This is hill-paddy, this
is paddy, those are mung beans, those are cow-peas, those are sesame
seeds and this is husked rice;” in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
considers this very body, from the soles of the feet up and from the
hair on the head down, which is delimited by its skin and full of
various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya (body),
there are the hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin,
flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura,
spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces,
bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal
mucus, synovial fluid and urine.”


Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya (the body in the threshold of the body)internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya (the body in the threshold of the body) externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya (the body in the threshold of the body) internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya (Rise, origin, commencement; origination, cause; multitude) of phenomena (sapindus detergens)in kāya (body), or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena (sapindus detergens) in kāya (body); or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya (the body in the threshold of the body).



2

Sàma¤¤aphala
Sutta

Pali

English 
(2)

Sinhala







Pali

Suttantapiñake
Dãghanikàyo


Sãlakkhandhavaggo


Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammàsambuddhassa.


2 Sàma¤¤aphalasuttaü


1. Evaü
me sutaü. Ekaü samayaü bhagavà ràjagahe viharati jãvakassa
komàrabhaccassa ambavane mahatà bhikkhusaïghena saddhiü aóóhateëasehi
bhikkhusatehi. Tena kho pana samayena ràjà màgadho ajàtasattu
vedehiputto tadahuposathe paõõarase komudiyà càtumàsiniyà puõõàya
puõõamàya rattiyà ràjàmaccaparivuto uparipàsàdavaragato nisinno hoti.
Atha kho ràjà màgadho ajàtasattu vedehiputto tadahuposathe udànaü
udànesi:

“Ramaõãyà vata
bho dosinà ratti, abhiråpà vata bho dosinà ratti, dassanãyà vata bho
dosinà ratti, pàsàdikà vata bho dosinà ratti, lakkha¤¤à vata bho dosinà
ratti. Kannu khvajja samaõaü và bràhmaõaü và payirupàseyyàma yanno
payirupàsato cittaü pasãdeyyà”ti

2. Evaü vutte
a¤¤ataro ràjàmacco ràjànaü màgadhaü ajàtasattuü vedehiputtaü etadavoca:
‘ayaü deva påraõo kassapo saïghã ceva gaõã ca gaõàcariyo ca ¤àto yasassã
titthaükaro1 sàdhusammato bahujanassa ratta¤¤å cirapabbajito addhagato
vayo anuppatto. Taü devo påraõaü kassapaü payirupàsatu. Appevanàma
devassa påraõaü kassapaü payirupàsato cittaü pasãdeyyà’ti. Evaü vutte
ràjà màgadho ajàtasattu vedehiputto tuõhã ahosi.

3. A¤¤ataro’pi
kho ràjàmacco ràjànaü màgadhaü ajàtasattuü vedehiputtaü etadavoca:
‘ayaü deva [PTS Page 048] [\q 48/] makkhalã gosàlo saïghã ceva gaõã ca
gaõàcariyo ca ¤àto yasassã titthaükaro sàdhusammato bahujanassa ratta¤¤å
cirapabbajito addhagato vayo anuppatto. Taü devo makkhaliü gosàlaü
payirupàsatu. Appevanàma devassa makkhaliü gosàlaü payirupàsato cittaü
pasãdeyyà’ti. Evaü vutte ràjà màgadho ajàtasattu tuõhã ahosi.

1. Titthakaro, bahusu.

[BJT Page 84] [\x 84/]

4. A¤¤ataro’pi
kho ràjàmacco ràjànaü màgadhaü ajàtasattuü vedehiputtaü etadavoca:
‘ayaü deva ajito kesakambalo saïghã ceva gaõã ca gaõàcariyo ca ¤àto
yasassã titthaükaro sàdhusammato bahujanassa ratta¤¤å cirapabbajito
addhagato vayo anuppatto. Taü devo ajitaü kesakambalaü payirupàsatu.
Appevanàma devassa ajitaü kesakambalaü payirupàsato cittaü pasãdeyyà’ti.
Evaü vutte ràjà màgadho ajàtasattu tuõhã ahosi.

5. A¤¤ataro’pi
kho ràjàmacco ràjànaü màgadhaü ajàtasattuü vedehiputtaü etadavoca:
‘ayaü deva pakudho kaccàyano1 saïghã ceva gaõã ca gaõàcariyo ca ¤àto
yasassã titthaükaro sàdhusammato bahujanassa ratta¤¤å cirapabbajito
addhagato vayo anuppatto. Taü devo pakudhaü kaccàyanaü payirupàsatu.
Appevanàma devassa pakudhaü kaccàyanaü payirupàsato cittaü pasãdeyyà’ti.
Evaü vutte ràjà màgadho ajàtasattu tuõhã ahosi.

6. A¤¤ataro’pi
kho ràjàmacco ràjànaü màgadhaü ajàtasattuü vedehiputtaü etadavoca:
‘ayaü deva sa¤jayo beëaññhaputto saïghã ceva gaõã ca gaõàcariyo ca ¤àto
yasassã titthaükaro sàdhusammato bahujanassa ratta¤¤å cirapabbajito
addhagato vayo anuppatto. Taü devo sa¤jayaü beëaññhaputtaü payirupàsatu.
Appevanàma devassa sa¤jayaü beëaññhaputtaü payirupàsato cittaü
pasãdeyyà’ti. Evaü vutte ràjà màgadho ajàtasattu tuõhã ahosi.

7. A¤¤ataro’pi
kho ràjàmacco ràjànaü màgadhaü ajàtasattuü vedehiputtaü etadavoca:
‘ayaü deva [PTS Page 049] [\q 49/] nigaõñho nàtaputto saïghã ceva gaõã
ca gaõàcariyo ca ¤àto yasassã titthaükaro sàdhusammato bahujanassa
ratta¤¤å cirapabbajito addhagato vayo anuppatto. Taü devo nigaõñhaü
nàtaputtaü payirupàsatu. Appevanàma devassa nigaõñhaü nàtaputtaü
payirupàsato cittaü pasãdeyyà’ti. Evaü vutte ràjà màgadho ajàtasattu
tuõhã ahosi.

8. Tena kho
pana samayena jãvako komàrabhacco ra¤¤o màgadhassa ajàtasattussa
vedehiputtassa avidåre tuõhãbhåto nisinno hoti. Atha kho ràjà màgadho
ajàtasattu vedehiputto jãvakaü komàrabhaccaü etadavoca: ‘tvaü pana samma
jãvaka kiü tuõhã?’Ti.

1. Kaccàno, katthaci.

[BJT Page 86] [\x 86/]

“Ayaü deva
bhagavà arahaü sammàsambuddho amhàkaü ambavane viharati mahatà
bhikkhusaïghena saddhiü aóóhateëasehi bhikkhusatehi. Taü kho pana
bhagavantaü gotamaü evaü kalyàõo kittisaddo abbhuggato: ‘iti pi so
bhagavà arahaü sammàsambuddho vijjàcaraõasampanno sugato lokavidå
anuttaro purisadammasàrathã satthà devamanussànaü buddho bhagavà’ti. Taü
devo bhagavantaü payirupàsatu. Appevanàma devassa bhagavantaü
payirupàsato cittaü pasãdeyyà”ti.

“Tena hi samma jãvaka hatthiyànàni kappàpehã”ti.

9. ‘Evaü
devà’ti kho jãvako komàrabhacco ra¤¤o màgadhassa ajàtasattussa
vedehiputtassa pañissutvà1 pa¤camattàni hatthinikàsatàni2 kappàpetvà
ra¤¤o ca àrohanãyaü nàgaü, ra¤¤o màgadhassa ajàtasattussa vedehiputtassa
pañivedesi: ‘kappitàni kho te deva hatthiyànàni yassa’dàni kàlaü
ma¤¤asã’ti.

Atha kho ràjà
màgadho ajàtasattu vedehiputto pa¤casu hatthinikàsatesu paccekà itthiyo
àropetvà àrohaõãyaü nàgaü abhiråhitvà ukkàsu dhàriyàmànàsu ràjagahamhà
niyyàsi mahacca ràjànubhàvena. Yena jãvakassa komàrabhaccassa ambavanaü
tena pàyàsi.

10. Atha kho
ra¤¤o màgadhassa ajàtasattussa vedehiputtassa avidåre ambavanassa
ahudeva bhayaü ahu chambhitattaü ahu lomahaüso. Atha kho ràjà màgadho
[PTS Page 050] [\q 50/] ajàtasattu vedehiputto bhãto saüviggo
lomahaññhajàto jãvakaü komàrabhaccaü etadavoca: ‘kacci maü samma jãvaka
na va¤cesi? Kacci maü samma jãvaka na palambhesi? Kacci maü samma jãvaka
na paccatthikànaü desi? Kathaü hi nàma tàva mahato bhikkhusaïghassa
aóóhateëasànaü bhikkhusatànaü neva khipitasaddo bhavissati na
ukkàsitasaddo na nigghoso?’Ti.

“Mà bhàyi
mahàràja3 na taü deva va¤cemi. Na taü deva palambhemi. Na taü deva
paccatthikànaü demi. Abhikkama mahàràja, abhikkama mahàràja. Ete
maõóalamàëe4 dãpà jhàyantã”ti.

1. Pañissuõitvà, machasaü.

2. Hatthikà, sã. Hatthiniyà, katthaci.

3. Mà hàyi mahàràja mà bhàyi mahàràja, sitri.

4. Maõóalasàëe, machasaü.

[BJT Page 88] [\x 88/]

11. Atha kho
ràjà màgadho ajàtasattu vedehiputto yàvatikà nàgassa bhåmi nàgena gantvà
nàgà paccorohitvà pattiko’va yena maõóalamàëassa dvàraü tenupasaïkami.
Upasaïkamitvà jãvakaü komàrabhaccaü etadavoca: kahaü pana samma jãvaka
bhagavà?Ti.

“Eso mahàràja bhagavà. Eso mahàràja bhagavà majjhimaü thambhaü nissàya puratthàbhimukho nisinno purakkhato bhikkhusaïghassà”ti.

12. Atha kho
ràjà màgadho ajàtasattu vedehiputto yena bhagavà tenupasaïkami.
Upasaïkamitvà ekamantaü aññhàsi. Ekamantaü dhito kho ràjà màgadho
ajàtasattu vedehiputto tuõhãbhåtaü tuõhãbhåtaü bhikkhusaïghaü
anuviloketvà rahadamiva vippasannaü, udànaü udànesi: ‘iminà me upasamena
udàyibhaddo1 kumàro samannàgato hotu yenetarahi upasamena bhikkhusaïgho
samannàgato’ti.

“âgamà kho tvaü mahàràja yathàpemaü”ti?

“Piyo me
bhante udàyibhaddo1 kumàro. Iminà me bhante upasamena udàyibhaddo1
kumàro samannàgato hotu yenetarahi upasamena bhikkhusaïgho
samannàgato”ti.

13. Atha kho
ràjà màgadho ajàtasattu vedehiputto bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà
bhikkhusaïghassa a¤jalimpaõàmetvà [PTS Page 051] [\q 51/] ekamantaü
nisãdi. Ekamantaü nisinno kho ràjà màgadho ajàtasattu vedehiputto
bhagavantaü etadavoca: “puccheyyàmahaü bhante bhagavantaü ki¤cideva
desaü, sace me bhagavà okàsaü karoti pa¤hassa veyyàkaraõàyà”ti.

“Puccha mahàràja yadàkaïkhasã”ti.

14. “Yathà nu
kho imàni bhante puthusippàyatanàni seyyathãdaü2: hatthàrohà assàrohà
rathikà dhanuggahà3 celakà calakà piõóadàyakà4 uggà ràjaputtà
pakkhandino mahànàgà sårà cammayodhino dàsakaputtà5 àëàrikà6 kappakà
nahàpakà7 sådà8 màlàkàrà9 rajakà pesakàrà naëakàrà10 kumbhakàrà gaõakà
muddikà, yàni và pana¤¤àni’pi evaügatikàni11 puthusippàyatanàni, te
diññheva dhamme sandiññhikaü sippaphalaü upajãvanti. Te tena attànaü
sukhenti pãnenti. 12 Màtàpitaro sukhenti pãnenti. Puttadàraü sukhenti
pãnenti. Mittàmacce sukhenti pãnenti. Samaõesu bràhmaõesu13 uddhaggikaü
dakkhiõaü patiññhàpenti14 sovaggikaü sukhavipàkaü saggasaüvattanikaü.
Sakkà nu kho bhante evameva15 diññheva dhamme sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü
pa¤¤àpetunti”. 16

1. Udayabhaddo, kesuvi.

2. Seyyathãdaü, machasaü.

3. Dhanuggàhà, sitri.

4. Dosikà, sitira. Dàsaka [PTS]

5. Dàsikaü, machasaü.

6. âlàrikà, sitira.

7. Nahàpakaü, machasaü. Nahàpikà, syà.

8. Sårà, machasaü.

9. Màla, machasaü.

10. Nàla, syà.

11. Gatàni, sã. [I.]

12. Pinenti, machasaü. Pãõenti, syà (sabbattha)

13. Samaõabràhmaõesu, sã. [I.] Sãtira.

14. Patiññha, sã. [I]

15. Evamevaü, (katthaci. )

16. Pa¤¤àpenti, sã. [I.]

[BJT Page 90] [\x 90/]

15. “Abhijànàsi no tvaü mahàràja imaü pa¤haü a¤¤e samaõabràhmaõe pucchità”ti.

“Abhijànàmahaü bhante imaü pa¤haü a¤¤e samaõabràhmaõe pucchità”ti.

“Yathàkathaü pana te mahàràja byàkariüsu, sace te agaru bhàsasså”ti.

“Na kho me bhante garu yatthassa bhagavà và nisinno bhagavantaråpo và”ti. [PTS Page 052] [\q 52/] “tena hi mahàràja bhàsasså”ti.

16.
“Ekamidàhaü bhante samayaü yena påraõo kassapo tenupasaïkamiü.
Upasaïkamitvà påraõena kassapena saddhiü sammodiü. Sammodanãyaü kathaü
sàràõãyaü vãtisàretvà ekamantaü nisãdiü. Ekamantaü nisinno kho ahaü
bhante påraõaü kassapaü etavocaü: yathà nu kho imàni bho kassapa
puthusippàyatanàni seyyathãdaü hatthàrohà assàrohà rathikà dhanuggahà
celakà calakà piõóadàyakà uggà ràjaputtà pakkhandino mahànàgà sårà
cammayodhino dàsakaputtà àëàrikà kappakà nahàpakà sådà màlàkàrà rajakà
pesakàrà naëakàrà kumbhakàrà gaõakà muddikà, yàni và pana¤¤àni’pi
evaügatikàni puthusippàyatanàni, te diññheva dhamme sandiññhikaü
sippaphalaü upajãvanti. Te tena attànaü sukhenti pãnenti. Màtàpitaro
sukhenti pãnenti. Puttadàraü sukhenti pãnenti. Mittàmacce sukhenti
pãnenti. Samaõesu bràhmaõesu uddhaggikaü dakkhiõaü patiññhàpenti
sovaggikaü sukhavipàkaü saggasaüvattanikaü. Sakkà nu kho kassapa evameva
diññheva dhamme sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü pa¤¤àpetunti”.

17. Evaü vutte
bhante påraõo kassapo maü etadavoca: karoto kho mahàràja kàrayato
chindato chedàpayato pacato pàcayato socayato socàpayato kilamayato1
kilamàpayato phandayato phandàpayato pàõamatipàtayato adinnaü àdiyato
sandhiü chindato nillopaü harato ekàgàrikaü karoto paripanthe tiññhato
paradàraü gacchato musà bhaõato karoto na karãyati pàpaü.
Khurapariyantena ce’pi cakkena yo imissà pañhaviyà2 pàõe ekamaüsakhalaü
ekamaüsapu¤jaü kareyya, natthi tato nidànaü pàpaü, natthipàpassa àgamo.
Dakkhiõa¤ce’pi gaïgàya3 tãraü gaccheyya hananto ghàtento chindanto
chedàpento pacanto pàcento, natthi tato nidànaü pàpaü, natthi pàpassa
àgamo. Uttara¤ce’pi gaïgàya3 tãraü gaccheyya dadanto dàpento yajanto
yajàpento, natthi tato nidànaü pu¤¤aü, natthi pu¤¤assa àgamo. [PTS Page
053] [\q 53/] dànena damena saüyamena saccavajjena natthi pu¤¤aü natthi
pu¤¤assa àgamo’ti.

1. Kilamato, kesuci.

2. Karato phandato, [PTS]

3. Gaügàtãraü, [PTS]

[BJT Page 92] [\x 92/]

Itthaü kho me bhante påraõo1 kassapo sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü puññho samàno akiriyaü byàkàsi. 2

Seyyathàpi
bhante ambaü và puññho labujaü byàkareyya2 labujaü và puññho ambaü
byàkareyya2, evameva kho me bhante påraõo1 kassapo sandiññhikaü
sàma¤¤aphalaü puññho samàno akiriyaü byàkàsi. 2

Tassa mayhaü
etadahosi: ‘kathaü hi nàma màdiso samaõaü và bràhmaõaü và vijite
vasantaü apasàdetabbaü ma¤¤eyyà’ti. So kho ahaü bhante påraõassa
kassapassa bhàsitaü neva abhinandiü nappañikkosiü. 3 Anabhinanditvà
appañikkositvà anattamano anattamanavàcaü anicchàretvà tameva vàcaü
anuggaõhanto4 anikujjanto5 uññhàyàsanà pakkàmiü. 6

18. Ekamidàhaü
bhante samayaü yena makkhalã gosàlo tenupasaükamiü. Upasaükamitvà
makkhalinà gosàlena7 saddhiü sammodiü. Sammodanãyaü kathaü sàràõiyaü8
vãtisàretvà ekamantaü nisãdiü. Ekamantaü nisinno kho ahaü bhante
makkhaliü gosàlaü9 etadavocaü:10 ‘yathà nu kho imàni bho gosàla
puthusippàyatanàni seyyathãdaü: hatthàrohà assàrohà rathikà dhanuggahà
celakà calakà piõóadàyakà uggà ràjaputtà pakkhandino mahànàgà sårà
cammayodhino dàsakaputtà àëàrikà kappakà nahàpakà sådà màlàkàrà rajakà
pesakàrà naëakàrà kumbhakàrà gaõakà muddikà, yàni và pana¤¤àni’pi
evaügatikàni puthusippàyatanàni, te diññheva dhamme sandiññhikaü
sippaphalaü upajãvanti. Te tena attànaü sukhenti pãnenti. Màtàpitaro
sukhenti pãnenti. Puttadàraü sukhenti pãnenti. Mittàmacce sukhenti
pãnenti. Samaõesu bràhmaõesu13 uddhaggikaü dakkhiõaü patiññhàpenti
sovaggikaü sukhavipàkaü saggasaüvattanikaü. Sakkà nu kho bhante evameva
diññheva dhamme sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü pa¤¤àpetunti”.

19. Evaü vutte
bhante makkhali gosàlo maü etadavoca: ‘natthi mahàràja hetu natthi
paccayo sattànaü saükilesàya. Ahetu appaccayà sattà saükilissanti.
Natthi hetu natthi paccayo sattànaü visuddhiyà. Ahetu appaccayà sattà
visujjhanti. Natthi attakàre natthi parakàre natthi purisakàre natthi
balaü natthi viriyaü natthi purisathàmo natthi purisaparakkamo. Sabbe
sattà sabbe pàõà sabbe bhåtà sabbe jãvà avasà abalà aviriyà
niyatisaïgatibhàvapariõatà chassevàbhijàtisu sukhadukkhaü
pañisaüvedenti.

Cuddasa [PTS
Page 054] [\q 54/] kho panimàni yonippamukhasatasahassàni saññhi ca
satàni cha ca satàni, pa¤ca ca kammuno satàni, pa¤ca ca kammàni, tãõi ca
kammàni, kamme ca aóóhakamme ca.

1. Puràõo, machasaü.

2. Vyà, [PTS]

3. Napañikkosiü, [PTS]

4. Anugaõhanto, [PTS]

5. Anikkujjanto, machasaü. Syà.

6. Pakkàmiü, machasaü.

7. Makkhaligosàlena, [PTS]

8. Sàraõãyaü, machasaü

9. Makkhaligosàlaü, [PTS]

10. Etadavoca, [PTS]

11. Pa¤¤àpenti [PTS]

[BJT Page 94] [\x 94/]

Dvaññhi
pañipadà, dvaññhantarakappo, chaëabhijàtiyo, aññha purisabhåmiyo,
ekånapa¤¤àsa àjãvakasate, ekånapa¤¤àsa paribbàjakasate, ekånapa¤¤àsa
nàgàvàsasate, vãse indriyasate, tiüsa nirayasate, chattiüsa rajodhàtuyo,
satta sa¤¤ãgabbhà, satta asa¤¤ãgabbhà, satta nigaõñhigabbhà, satta
devà, satta mànusà, satta pesàcà, satta sarà, satta pavuñà, satta
pavuñasatàni, satta papàtà, satta papàtasatàni, satta supinà, satta
supinasatàni, cåëàsãti mahàkappuno satasahassàni yàni bàle ca paõóite ca
sandhàvitvà saüsaritvà dukkhassantaü karissanti.

Tattha natthi
iminàhaü sãlena và vatena và tapena và brahmacariyena và aparipakkaü và
kammaü paripàcessàmãti paripakkaü và kammaü phussa phussa byantã
karissàmãti hevaü natthi. Doõamite sukhadukkhe pariyantakate. Saüsàre
natthi hàyanavaóóhane, natthi ukkaüsàvakaüse. Seyyathàpi nàma suttaguëe
khitte nibbeñhiyamànameva paëeti, evameva bàle ca paõóite ca sandhàvitvà
saüsaritvà dukkhassantaü karissantãti.

Itthaü kho me
bhante makkhalã gosàlo sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü puññho samàno
saüsàrasuddhiü byàkàsi. Seyyathàpi bhante ambaü và puññho labujaü
byàkareyya, labujaü và puññho ambaü byàkareyya, evameva kho me bhante
makkhalã gosàlo sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü puññho samàno saüsàrasuddhiü
byàkàsi. Tassa mayhaü bhante etadahosi: kathaü hi nàma màdiso samaõaü và
bràhmaõaü và vijite vasantaü apasàdetabbaü ma¤¤eyyàti. So kho ahaü
bhante makkhalissa [PTS Page 055] [\q 55/] gosàlassa bhàsitaü neva
abhinandiü nappañikkosiü. Anabhinanditvà appañikkositvà anattamano
anattamanavàcaü anicchàretvà tameva vàcaü anuggaõhanto anikujjanto
uññhàyàsanà pakkàmiü.

20. Ekamidàhaü
bhante samayaü yena ajito kesakambalo1 tenupasaïkamiü. Upasaïkamitvà
ajitena kesakambalena2 saddhiü sammodiü. Sammodanãyaü kathaü sàràõãyaü3
vãtisàretvà ekamantaü nisãdiü. Ekamantaü nisinno kho ahaü bhante ajitaü
kesakambalaü4 etadavocaü:5 ‘yathà nu kho imàni bho ajita
puthusippàyatanàni seyyathãdaü hatthàrohà assàrohà rathikà dhanuggahà
celakà calakà piõóadàyakà uggà ràjaputtà pakkhandino mahànàgà sårà
cammayodhino dàsakaputtà àëàrikà kappakà nahàpakà sådà màlàkàrà rajakà
pesakàrà naëakàrà kumbhakàrà gaõakà muddikà, yàni và pana¤¤àni’pi
evaügatikàni puthusippàyatanàni, te diññheva dhamme sandiññhikaü
sippaphalaü upajãvanti. Te tena attànaü sukhenti pãnenti. Màtàpitaro
sukhenti pãnenti. Puttadàraü sukhenti pãnenti. Mittàmacce sukhenti
pãnenti. Samaõesu bràhmaõesu uddhaggikaü dakkhiõaü patiññhàpenti
sovaggikaü sukhavipàkaü saggasaüvattanikaü. Sakkà nu kho bhante evameva
diññheva dhamme sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü pa¤¤àpetunti?”8.

1. Kesakambalã, katthaci.

2. Kesakambalinà, katthaci

3. Sàraõãyaü. Machasaü.

4. Kesakambaliü, katthaci

5. Etadavoca, katthaci.

6. Seyyathãdaü, machasaü.

7. Kho ajito, katthaci

8. Pa¤¤àpenti, machasaü.

[BJT Page 96] [\x 96/]

Evaü vutte
bhante ajito kesakambalo1 maü etadavoca: “natthi mahàràja dinnaü. Natthi
yiññhaü. Natthi hutaü. Natthi sukañadukkañànaü kammànaü phalaü vipàko.
Natthi ayaü loko. Natthi paro2 loko. Natthi màtà. Natthi pità. Natthi
sattà opapàtikà. Natthi loke samaõabràhmaõà sammaggatà3 sammàpañipannà
ye ima¤ca lokaü para¤ca lokaü sayaü abhi¤¤à sacchikatvà pavedenti.
Càtummahàbhåtiko ayaü puriso yadà kàlaü karoti, pañhavã pañhavikàyaü
anupeti anupagacchati. âpo àpokàyaü anupeti anupagacchati. Tejo
tejokàyaü anupeti anupagacchati. Vàyo vàyokàyaü anupeti anupagacchati,
àkàsaü induyàni saükamanti. âsandipa¤camà purisà mataü àdàya gacchanti.
Yàva àëahanà padàni pa¤¤àyanti. Kàpotakàni aññhãni bhavanti. Bhasmantà
àhutiyo. Dattupa¤¤attaü yadidaü dànaü. Tesaü tucchaü musà vilàpo ye keci
atthikavàdaü vadanti. Bàle ca paõóite ca kàyassa bhedà ucchijjanti
vinassanti na honti parammaraõà”ti.

Itthaü kho me
bhante ajito kesakambalo sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü puññho samàno
ucchedaü byàkàsi. Seyyathàpi bhante ambaü và puññho labujaü [PTS Page
056] [\q 56/] byàkareyya, labujaü và puññho ambaü byàkareyya, evameva
kho bhante ajito kesakambalo sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü puññho samàno
ucchedaü byàkàsi.

Tassa mayhaü
bhante etadahosi: ‘kathaü hi nàma màdiso samaõaü và bràhmaõaü và vijite
vasantaü apasàdetabbaü ma¤¤eyyà’ti so kho ahaü bhante ajitassa
kesakambalassa bhàsitaü neva abhinandiü nappañikkosiü. Anabhinanditvà
appañikkositvà anattamano anattamanavàcaü anicchàretvà tameva vàcaü
anuggaõhanto anikujjanto uññhàyàsanà pakkàmiü.

1. Kesakambali, [PTS]

2. Paraloko, katthaci.

3. Samaggatà, samaggagatà, machasaü.

[BJT Page 98] [\x 98/]

21. Ekamidàhaü
bhante samayaü yena pakudho kaccàyano tenupasaïkamiü. Upasaïkamitvà
pakudhena kaccàyanena saddhiü sammodiü. Sammodanãyaü kathaü sàràõãyaü
vãtisàretvà ekamantaü nisãdiü. Ekamantaü nisinno kho ahaü bhante
pakudhaü kaccàyanaü etadavocaü: yathà nu kho imàni bho kaccàyana
puthusippàyatanàni, seyyathãdaü: hatthàrohà assàrohà rathikà dhanuggahà
celakà calakà piõóadàyakà uggà ràjaputtà pakkhandino mahànàgà sårà
cammayodhino dàsakaputtà àëàrikà kappakà nahàpakà sådà màlàkàrà rajakà
pesakàrà naëakàrà kumbhakàrà gaõakà muddikà, yàni và pana¤¤àni’pi
evaügatikàni puthusippàyatanàni, te diññheva dhamme sandiññhikaü
sippaphalaü upajãvanti. Te tena attànaü sukhenti pãnenti. Màtàpitaro
sukhenti pãnenti. Puttadàraü sukhenti pãnenti. Mittàmacce sukhenti
pãnenti. Samaõesu bràhmaõesu uddhaggikaü dakkhiõaü patiññhàpenti
sovaggikaü sukhavipàkaü saggasaüvattanikaü. Sakkà nu kho kaccàyana
evameva diññheva dhamme sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü pa¤¤àpetu?Nti.

Evaü vutte
bhante pakudho kaccàyano maü etadavoca: “sattime mahàràja kàyà akañà
akañavidhà animmità animmàtà va¤jhà kuñaññhà esikaññhàyiññhità. Te na
i¤janti, na vipariõamanti, na a¤¤ama¤¤aü vyàbàdhenti, nàlaü a¤¤ama¤¤assa
sukhàya và dukkhàya và sukhadukkhàya và. Katame satta? Pañhavikàyo
àpokàyo tejokàyo vàyokàyo sukhe dukkhe jãve sattame. Ime satta kàyà
akañà akañavidhà animmità animmàtà va¤jhà kuñaññhà esikaññhàyiññhità. Te
na i¤janti, na vipariõamanti, na a¤¤ama¤¤aü vyàbàdhenti, nàlaü
a¤¤ama¤¤assa sukhàya và dukkhàya và sukhadukkhàya và. Tattha natthi
hantà và ghàtetà và sotà và sàvetà và vi¤¤àtà và vi¤¤àpetà và. Yo’pi
tiõhena satthena sãsaü chindati, na koci ka¤ci jãvità voropeti.
Sattannaü yeva kàyànamantarena satthaü vivaramanupatatã”ti.

[PTS Page 057]
[\q 57/] itthaü kho me bhante pakudho kaccàyano sandiññhikaü
sàma¤¤aphalaü puññho samàno a¤¤ena a¤¤aü byàkàsi. Seyyathàpi bhante
ambaü và puññho labujaü byàkareyya, labujaü và puññho ambaü byàkareyya,
evameva kho me bhante pakudho kaccàyano sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü
puññho samàno a¤¤ena a¤¤aü byàkàsi.

Tassa mayhaü
bhante etadahosi: kathaü hi nàma màdiso samaõaü và bràhmaõaü và vijite
vasantaü apasàdetabbaü ma¤¤eyyà?Ti. So kho ahaü bhante pakudhassa
kaccàyanassa bhàsitaü neva abhinandiü. Nappañikkosiü. Anabhinanditvà
appañikkositvà anattamano anattamanavàcaü anicchàretvà tameva vàcaü
anuggaõhanto anikkujjanto uññhàyàsanà pakkàmiü.

22. Ekamidàhaü
bhante samayaü yena nigaõñho nàtaputto tenupasaïkamiü. Upasaïkamitvà
nigaõñhena nàtaputtena saddhiü sammodiü. Sammodanãyaü kathaü sàràõãyaü
vãtisàretvà ekamantaü nisãdiü. Ekamantaü nisinno kho ahaü bhante
nigaõñhaü nàtaputtaü etadavocaü:

[BJT Page 100] [\x 100/]

“Yathà nu kho
imàni bho aggivessana puthusippàyatanàni, seyyathãdaü: hatthàrohà
assàrohà rathikà dhanuggahà celakà calakà piõóadàyakà uggà ràjaputtà
pakkhandino mahànàgà sårà cammayodhino dàsakaputtà àëàrikà kappakà
nahàpakà sådà màlàkàrà rajakà pesakàrà naëakàrà kumbhakàrà gaõakà
muddikà, yàni và pana¤¤àni’pi evaügatikàni puthusippàyatanàni, te
diññheva dhamme sandiññhikaü sippaphalaü upajãvanti. Te tena attànaü
sukhenti pãnenti. Màtàpitaro sukhenti pãnenti. Puttadàraü sukhenti
pãnenti. Mittàmacce sukhenti pãnenti. Samaõesu bràhmaõesu uddhaggikaü
dakkhiõaü patiññhàpenti sovaggikaü sukhavipàkaü saggasaüvattanikaü.
Sakkà nu kho bho aggivessana evameva diññheva dhamme sandiññhikaü
sàma¤¤aphalaü pa¤¤àpetu”?Nti

Evaü vutte
bhante nigaõñho nàtaputto maü etadavoca: “idha mahàràja nigaõñho
càtuyàmasaüvarasaüvuto hoti. Katha¤ca mahàràja nigaõñho
càtuyàmasaüvarasaüvuto hoti? Idha mahàràja nigaõñho sabbavàrivàrito ca
hoti, sabbavàriyuto ca, sabbavàridhuto ca, sabbavàriphuño 1ca. Evaü kho
mahàràja nigaõñho càtuyàmasaüvarasaüvuto hoti. Yato kho mahàràja
nigaõñho evaü càtuyàmasaüvarasaüvuto hoti, ayaü vuccati mahàràja
nigaõñho gatatto ca yatatto ca ñhitatto cà”ti.

[PTS Page 058]
[\q 58/] itthaü kho me bhante nigaõñho nàtaputto sandiññhikaü
sàma¤¤aphalaü puññho samàno càtuyàmasaüvaraü byàkàsi. Seyyathàpi bhante
ambaü và puññho labujaü byàkareyya, labujaü và puññho ambaü byàkareyya,
evameva kho bhante nigaõñho nàtaputto sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü puññho
samàno càtuyàmasaüvaraü byàkàsi.

Tassa mayhaü
bhante etadahosi: kathaü hi nàma màdiso samaõaü và bràhmaõaü và vijite
vasantaü apasàdetabbaü ma¤¤eyyà?’Ti. So kho ahaü bhante nigaõñhassa
nàtaputtassa bhàsitaü neva abhinandiü. Nappañikkosiü. Anabhinanditvà
appañikkositvà anattamano anattamanavàcaü anicchàretvà tameva vàcaü
anuggaõhanto anikkujjanto uññhàyàsanà pakkàmiü.

23. Ekamidàhaü
bhante samayaü yena sa¤jayo belaññhiputto2 tenupasaïkamiü.
Upasaïkamitvà sa¤jayena belaññhiputtena saddhiü sammodiü. Sammodanãyaü
kathaü sàràõãyaü vãtisàretvà ekamantaü nisãdiü. Ekamantaü nisinno kho
ahaü bhante sa¤jayaü belaññhiputtaü etadavocaü: “yathà nu kho imàni bho
sa¤jaya puthusippàyatanàni, seyyathãdaü hatthàrohà assàrohà rathikà
dhanuggahà celakà calakà piõóadàyakà uggà ràjaputtà pakkhandino mahànàgà
sårà cammayodhino dàsakaputtà àëàrikà kappakà nahàpakà sådà màlàkàrà
rajakà pesakàrà naëakàrà kumbhakàrà gaõakà muddikà, yàni và pana¤¤àni’pi
evaügatikàni puthusippàyatanàni, te diññheva dhamme sandiññhikaü
sippaphalaü upajãvanti. Te tena attànaü sukhenti pãnenti. Màtàpitaro
sukhenti pãnenti. Puttadàraü sukhenti pãnenti. Mittàmacce sukhenti
pãnenti. Samaõesu bràhmaõesu uddhaggikaü dakkhiõaü patiññhàpenti
sovaggikaü sukhavipàkaü saggasaüvattanikaü. Sakkà nu kho sa¤jaya evameva
diññheva dhamme sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü pa¤¤àpetu”?Nti

1. Phuññho, [PTS] Phuóo (jenamàgadhã).

2. Belaññhaputto, katthaci.

[BJT Page 102] [\x 102/]

Evaü vutte
bhante sa¤jayo belaññhiputto maü etadavoca: ‘atthi paro loko?’Ti iti ce
maü pucchasi, ‘atthi paro loko’ti iti ce me assa, ‘atthi paro loko’ti
iti te naü byàkareyyaü. Evanti’pi me no. Tathà’ti’pi me no.
A¤¤athà’ti’pi me no. No ‘ti’pi me no. No no ‘ti’pi me no. ‘Natthi paro
loko?’Ti iti ce maü pucchasi, ‘natthi paro loko’ti iti ce me assa,
‘natthi paro loko’ti iti te naü byàkareyyaü. Evanti’pi me no.
Tathà’ti’pi me no. A¤¤athà’ti’pi me no. No ‘ti’pi me no. No no ‘ti’pi me
no. ‘Atthi ca natthi ca paro loko?’Ti iti ce maü pucchasi, ‘atthi ca
natthi ca paro loko’ti iti ce me assa, ‘atthi ca natthi ca paro loko’ti
iti te naü byàkareyyaü. Evanti’pi me no. Tathà’ti’pi me no.
A¤¤athà’ti’pi me no. No ‘ti’pi me no. No no ‘ti’pi me no. ‘Nevatthi na
natthi paro loko?’Ti iti ce maü pucchasi, ‘nevatthi na natthi paro
loko’ti iti ce me assa, ‘nevatthi na natthi paro loko’ti iti te naü
byàkareyyaü. Evanti’pi me no. Tathà’ti’pi me no. A¤¤athà’ti’pi me no. No
‘ti’pi me no. No no ‘ti’pi me no. ‘Atthi sattà opapàtikà?’Ti iti ce maü
pucchasi, ‘atthi sattà opapàtikà’ti iti ce me assa, ‘atthi sattà
opapàtikà’ti iti te naü byàkareyyaü. Evanti’pi me no. Tathà’ti’pi me no.
A¤¤athà’ti’pi me no. No ‘ti’pi me no. No no ‘ti’pi me no. ‘Atthi ca
natthi ca sattà opapàtikà?’Ti iti ce maü pucchasi, ‘atthi ca natthi ca
sattà opapàtikà’ti iti ce me assa, ‘atthi ca natthi ca sattà
opapàtikà’ti iti te naü byàkareyyaü. Evanti’pi me no. Tathà’ti’pi me no.
A¤¤athà’ti’pi me no. No ‘ti’pi me no. No no ‘ti’pi me no. ‘Nevatthi na
natthi sattà opapàtikà?’Ti iti ce maü pucchasi, ‘nevatthi na natthi
sattà opapàtikà’ti iti ce me assa, ‘nevatthi na natthi sattà
opapàtikà’ti iti te naü byàkareyyaü. Evanti’pi me no. Tathà’ti’pi me no.
A¤¤athà’ti’pi me no. No ‘ti’pi me no. No no ‘ti’pi me no. ‘Atthi
sukañadukkañànaü kammànaü phalaü vipàko?’Ti iti ce maü pucchasi, ‘atthi
sukañadukkañànaü kammànaü phalaü vipàko’ti iti ce me assa, ‘atthi
sukañadukkañànaü kammànaü phalaü vipàko’ti iti te naü byàkareyyaü.
Evanti’pi me no. Tathà’ti’pi me no. A¤¤athà’ti’pi me no. No ‘ti’pi me
no. No no ‘ti’pi me no. ‘Natthi sukañadukkañànaü kammànaü phalaü
vipàko?’Ti iti ce maü pucchasi, ‘natthi sukañadukkañànaü kammànaü phalaü
vipàko’ti iti ce me assa, ‘natthi sukañadukkañànaü kammànaü phalaü
vipàko’ti iti te naü byàkareyyaü. Evanti’pi me no. Tathà’ti’pi me no.
A¤¤athà’ti’pi me no. No ‘ti’pi me no. No no ‘ti’pi me no. ‘Atthi ca
natthi ca sukañadukkañànaü kammànaü phalaü vipàko?’Ti iti ce maü
pucchasi, ‘atthi ca natthi ca sukañadukkañànaü kammànaü phalaü vipàko’ti
iti ce me assa, ‘atthi ca natthi ca sukañadukkañànaü kammànaü phalaü
vipàko’ti iti te naü byàkareyyaü. Evanti’pi me no. Tathà’ti’pi me no.
A¤¤athà’ti’pi me no. No ‘ti’pi me no. No no ‘ti’pi me no. ‘Nevatthi na
natthi sukañadukkañànaü kammànaü phalaü vipàko?’Ti iti ce maü pucchasi,
‘nevatthi na natthi sukañadukkañànaü kammànaü phalaü vipàko’ti iti ce me
assa, ‘nevatthi na natthi sukañaduk

kañànaü kammànaü phalaü vipàko’ti iti te naü byàkareyyaü. Evanti’pi me
no. Tathà’ti’pi me no. A¤¤athà’ti’pi me no. No ‘ti’pi me no. No no
‘ti’pi me no. ‘Hoti tathàgato [PTS Page 059] [\q 59/] parammaraõà?’Ti
iti ce maü pucchasi, ‘hoti tathàgato parammaraõà’ti iti ce me assa,
‘hoti tathàgato parammaraõà’ti iti te naü byàkareyyaü. Evanti’pi me no.
Tathà’ti’pi me no. A¤¤athà’ti’pi me no. No ‘ti’pi me no. No no ‘ti’pi me
no. ‘ Na hoti tathàgato parammaraõà?’Ti iti ce maü pucchasi, ‘na hoti
tathàgato parammaraõà’ti iti ce me assa, ‘na hoti tathàgato
paramaraõà’ti iti te naü byàkareyyaü. Evanti’pi me no. Tathà’ti’pi me
no. A¤¤athà’ti’pi me no. No ‘ti’pi me no. No no ‘ti’pi me no. ‘Hoti ca
na hoti ca tathàgato parammaraõà?’Ti iti ce maü pucchasi, ‘hoti ca na
hoti ca tathàgato parammaraõà’ti iti ce me assa, ‘hoti ca na hoti ca
tathàgato parammaraõà’ti iti te naü byàkareyyaü. Evanti’pi me no.
Tathà’ti’pi me no. A¤¤athà’ti’pi me no. No ‘ti’pi me no. No no ‘ti’pi me
no. ‘Neva hoti na na hoti tathàgato parammaraõà?’Ti iti ce maü
pucchasi, ‘neva hoti na na hoti tathàgato parammaraõà’ti iti ce me assa,
‘neva hoti na na hoti tathàgato parammaraõà’ti iti te naü byàkareyyaü.
Evanti’pi me no. Tathà’ti’pi me no. A¤¤athà’ti’pi me no. No ‘ti’pi me
no. No no ‘ti’pi me no’ti.

Itthaü kho me
bhante sa¤jayo belaññhiputto sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü puññho samàno
vikkhepaü byàkàsi. Seyyathàpi bhante ambaü và puññho labujaü byàkareyya,
labujaü và puññho ambaü byàkareyya, evameva kho bhante sa¤jayo
belaññhiputto sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü puññho samàno vikkhepaü
byàkàsi.

Tassa mayhaü
bhante etadahosi: aya¤ca imesaü samaõabràhmaõànaü sabbabàlo sabbamåëho.
Kathaü hi nàma sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü puññho samàno vikkhepaü
byàkarissati?Ti. Tassa mayhaü bhante etadahosi: kathaü hi nàma màdiso
samaõaü và bràhmaõaü và vijite vasantaü apasàdetabbaü ma¤¤eyyà?Ti. So
kho ahaü bhante sa¤jayassa belaññhiputtassa bhàsitaü neva abhinandiü.
Nappañikkosiü. Anabhinanditvà appañikkositvà anattamano anattamanavàcaü
anicchàretvà tameva vàcaü anuggaõhanto anikkujjanto uññhàyàsanà
pakkàmiü.

[BJT Page 104] [\x 104/]

24. So ‘haü
bhante bhagavantampi pucchàmi: yathà nu kho imàni bhante
puthusippàyatanàni, seyyathãdaü: hatthàrohà assàrohà rathikà dhanuggahà
celakà calakà piõóadàyakà uggà ràjaputtà pakkhandino mahànàgà sårà
cammayodhino dàsakaputtà àëàrikà kappakà nahàpakà sådà màlàkàrà rajakà
pesakàrà naëakàrà kumbhakàrà gaõakà muddikà, yàni và pana¤¤àni’pi
evaügatikàni puthusippàyatanàni, te diññheva dhamme sandiññhikaü
sippaphalaü upajãvanti. Te tena attànaü sukhenti pãnenti. Màtàpitaro
sukhenti pãnenti. Puttadàraü sukhenti pãnenti. Mittàmacce sukhenti
pãnenti. Samaõesu bràhmaõesu uddhaggikaü dakkhiõaü patiññhàpenti
sovaggikaü sukhavipàkaü saggasaüvattanikaü. Sakkà nu [PTS Page 060] [\q
60/] kho me bhante evameva diññheva dhamme sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü
pa¤¤àpetu”?Nti

“Sakkà mahàràja “. Tena hi mahàràja ta¤¤evettha pañipucchissàmi. Yathà te khameyya, tathà naü byàkareyyàsi”.

25. “Taü
kimma¤¤asi, mahàràja, idha te assa puriso dàso kammakaro pubbuññhàyã
pacchànipàtã kiïkàrapañissàvã manàpacàrã piyavàdã mukhullokako. Tassa
evamassa: ‘acchariyaü vata bho, abbhutaü vata bho, pu¤¤ànaü gati
pu¤¤ànaü vipàko. Ayaü hi ràjà màgadho ajàtasattu vedehiputto manusso.
Ahampi manusso. Ayaü hi ràjà màgadho ajàtasattu vedehiputto pa¤cahi
kàmaguõehi samappito samaïgãbhåto parivàreti devo ma¤¤e.
Ahampanambhi’ssa dàso kammakaro pubbuññhàyã pacchànipàtã
kiïkàrapañissàvã manàpacàrã piyavàdã mukhullokako. So vatassàhaü pu¤¤àni
kareyyaü. Yannånàhaü kesamassuü ohàretvà kàsàyàni vatthàni acchàdetvà
agàrasmà anagàriyaü pabbajeyya’nti.

So aparena
samayena kesamassuü ohàretvà kàsàyàni vatthàni acchàdetvà agàrasmà
anagàriyaü pabbajeyya. So evaü pabbajito samàno kàyena saüvuto
vihareyya, vàcàya saüvuto vihareyya, manasà saüvuto vihareyya,
ghàsacchàdanaparamatàya santuññho abhirato paviveke.

Ta¤ce te
purisà evamàroceyyuü: ‘yagghe deva jàneyyàsi, yo te puriso dàso
kammakaro pubbuññhàyã pacchànipàtã kiïkàrapañissàvã manàpacàrã piyavàdã
mukhullokako, so deva kesamassuü ohàretvà kàsàyàni vatthàni acchàdetvà
agàrasmà anagàriyaü pabbajito. So evaü pabbajito samàno kàyena saüvuto
viharati, vàcàya saüvuto viharati, manasà saüvuto viharati,
ghàsacchàdanaparamatàya santuññho abhirato paviveke’ti. Api nu tvaü evaü
vadeyyàsi: etu me bho so puriso. Punadeva hotu dàso kammakaro
pubbuññhàyã pacchànipàtã kiïkàrapañissàvã manàpacàrã piyavàdã
mukhullokako”ti.

[BJT Page 106] [\x 106/]

“No hetaü
bhante. Atha kho naü mayameva [PTS Page 061] [\q 61/] abhivàdeyyàmapi,
paccuññheyyàmapi, àsanenapi nimanteyyàma. Abhinimanteyyàmapi naü
cãvarapiõóapàtasenàsanagilànapaccayabhesajjaparikkhàrehi.
Dhammikampi’ssa rakkhàvaraõaguttiü saüvidaheyyàmà”ti.

“Taü kimma¤¤asi mahàràja, yadi evaü sante hoti và sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü no và?”Ti.

“Addhà kho bhante evaü sante hoti sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü”ti.

“Idaü kho te mahàràja mayà pañhamaü diññheva dhamme sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü pa¤¤atta”nti.

26. “Sakkà pana bhante a¤¤ampi evameva diññheva dhamme sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü pa¤¤apetu?”Nti.

“Sakkà
mahàràja. Tena hi mahàràja, ta¤¤evettha pañipucchissàmi. Yathà te
khameyya tathà naü byàkareyyàsi. Taü kimma¤¤asi mahàràja idha te assa
puriso kassako gahapatiko kàrakàrako ràsivaóóhako, tassa evamassa:
“acchariyaü vata bho abbhutaü vata bho pu¤¤ànaü gati pu¤¤ànaü vipàko.
Ayaü hi ràjà màgadho ajàtasattu vedehiputto manusso. Ahampi manusso.
Ayaü hi ràjà màgadho ajàtasattu vedehiputto pa¤cahi kàmaguõehi samappito
samaïgãbhåto parivàreti devo ma¤¤e. Ahampanambhi’ssa kassako gahapatiko
kàrakàrako ràsivaóóhako. So vatassàhaü pu¤¤àni kareyyaü. Yannånàhaü
kesamassuü ohàretvà kàsàyàni vatthàni acchàdetvà agàrasmà anagàriyaü
pabbajeyya’nti.

So aparena
samayena appaü và bhogakkhandhaü pahàya mahantaü và bhogakkhandhaü
pahàya appaü và ¤àtiparivaññaü pahàya mahantaü và ¤àtiparivaññaü pahàya
kesamassuü ohàretvà kàsàyàni vatthàni acchàdetvà agàrasmà anagàriyaü
pabbajeyya. So evaü pabbajito samàno kàyena saüvuto vihareyya, vàcàya
saüvuto vihareyya, manasà saüvuto vihareyya, ghàsacchàdanaparamatàya
santuññho abhirato paviveke.

Taü ce te
purisà evamàroceyyuü: ‘yagghe deva jàneyyàsi. Yo te puriso kassako
gahapatiko kàrakàrako ràsivaóóhako, so deva kesamassuü ogàretvà kàsàyàni
vatthàni acchàdetvà agàrasmà anagàriyaü pabbajito. So evaü pabbajito
samàno kàyena saüvuto viharati vàcàya saüvuto viharati, manasà saüvuto
viharati, [PTS Page 062] [\q 62/] ghàsacchàdanaparamatàya santuññho
abhirato paviveke’ti. Api nu tvaü evaü vadeyyàsi: ‘etu me bho so puriso.
Punadeva hotu kassako gahapatiko kàrakàrako ràsivaóóhako’ti?

[BJT Page 108] [\x 108/]

“No hotaü
bhante. Atha kho naü mayameva abhivàdeyyàmapi paccuññheyyàmapi,
àsanenapi nimanteyyàma, abhinimanteyyàmapi naü
cãvarapiõóapàtasenàsanagilànapaccayabhesajjaparikkhàrehi.
Dhammikampi’ssa rakkhàvaraõaguttiü saüvidaheyyàmà”ti.

“Taü kimma¤¤esi mahàràja, yadi evaü sante hoti và sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü no và?”Ti.

“Addhà kho bhante evaü sante hoti sandiññhikaü samतaphala”nti.

“Idaü kho te mahàràja mayà dutiyaü diññheva dhamme sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü pa¤¤attanti”.

27. “Sakkà
pana bhante a¤¤ampi diññheva dhamme sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü
pa¤¤àpetuü imehi sandiññhikehi sàma¤¤aphalehi abhikkantatara¤ca
paõitatara¤cà?”Ti

“Sakkà mahàràja. Tena hi mahàràja suõohi sàdhukaü manasi karohi bhàsissàmã”ti.

“Evaü bhante”ti kho ràjà màgadho ajàtasattu vedehiputto bhagavato paccassosi.

28. Bhagavà
etadavoca: “idha mahàràja tathàgato loke uppajjati arahaü sammàsambuddho
vijjàcaraõasampanno sugato lokavidå anuttaro purisadammasàrathã satthà
devamanussànaü buddho bhagavà. So imaü lokaü sadevakaü samàrakaü
sabrahmakaü sassamaõabràhmaõiü pajaü sadevamanussaü sayaü abhi¤¤à
sacchikatvà pavedeti. So dhammaü deseti àdikalyàõaü majjhekalyàõaü
pariyosànakalyàõaü sàtthaü sabya¤janaü kevalaparipuõõaü parisuddhaü.
Brahmacariyaü pakàseti.

29. Taü
dhammaü suõàti gahapati và gahapatiputto và a¤¤atarasmiü và kule
paccàjàto. So taü dhammaü [PTS Page 063] [\q 63/] sutvà tathàgate
saddhaü pañilabhati. So tena saddhàpañilàbhena samannàgato iti
pañisaücikkhati: ’sambàdho gharàvaso rajàpatho1. Abbhokàso pabbajjà.
Nayidaü sukaraü agàraü ajjhàvasatà ekantaparipuõõaü ekantaparisuddhaü
saükhalikhitaü brahmacariyaü carituü. Yannånàhaü kesamassuü ohàretvà
kàsàyàni vatthàni acchàdetvà agàrasmà anagàriyaü pabbajeyya’nti.

1. Rajopatho, katthaci.

[BJT Page 110] [\x 110/]

So aparena
samayena appaü và bhogakkhandhaü pahàya mahantaü và bhogakkhandhaü
pahàya appaü và ¤àtiparivaññaü pahàya mahantaü và ¤àtiparivaññaü pahàya
kesamassuü ohàretvà kàsàyàni vatthàni acchàdetvà agàrasmà anagàriyaü
pabbajati. So evaü pabbajito samàno pàtimokkhasaüvarasaüvuto viharati
àcàragocarasampanno aõumattesu vajjesu bhayadassàvã. Samàdàya sikkhati
sikkhàpadesu kàyakammavacãkammena samannàgato kusalena. Parisuddhàjãvo
sãlasampanno indriyesu guttadvàro bhojane matta¤¤å satisampaja¤¤esu
samannàgato sattuññho.

29. Katha¤ca
mahàràja bhikkhu sãlasampanno hoti? Idha mahàràja bhikkhu pàõàtipàtaü
pahàya pàõàtipàtà pañivirato hoti nihitadaõóo nihitasattho lajjã
dayàpanno. Sabbapàõabhåtahitànukampã viharati. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

Adinnàdànaü
pahàya adinnàdànà pañivirato hoti dinnàdàyã dinnapàñikaïkhã. Athenena
sucibhåtena attanà viharati. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

Abrahmacariyaü pahàya brahmacàrã hoti àràcàrã1 virato methunà gàmadhammà. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

Musàvàdaü pahàya musàvàdà pañivirato hoti saccavàdã saccasandho theto2 paccayiko avisaüvàdako lokassa. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

Pisuõaü vàcaü3
pahàya pisuõàya vàcàya pañivirato hoti. Ito sutvà na amutra akkhàtà
imesaü bhedàya. [PTS Page 064] [\q 64/] amutra và sutvà na imesaü
akkhàtà amåsaü bhedàya. Iti bhinnànaü và sandhàtà, sahitànaü và
anuppadàtà4 samaggàràmo5 samaggarato samagganandiü samaggakaraõiü vàcaü
bhàsità hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

Pharusaü
vàcaü6 pahàya pharusàya vàcàya pañivirato hoti. Yà sà vàcà neëà
kaõõasukhà pemanãyà7 hadayaïgamà porã bahujanakantà bahujanamanàpà,
tathàråpaü8 vàcaü bhàsità hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

Samphappalàpaü
pahàya samphappalàpà pañivirato hoti kàlavàdã bhåtavàdã atthavàdã
dhammavàdã vinayavàdã. Nidhànavatiü vàcaü bhàsità hoti kàlena sàpadesaü
pariyantavatiü atthasa¤hitaü. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

1. Anàcàri, machasaü.

2. òheto, syà.

3. Pisuõàvàcaü, [PTS]

4. Anuppàdàtà, [PTS]

5. Samaggaràmo, machasaü.

6. Pharusàvàcaü, [PTS] Sitira

7. Pemaniyà, machasaü. 8. Evaråpiü. [PTS] Sitira.

[BJT Page 112] [\x 112/]

30.
Bãjagàmabhåtagàmasamàrambhà1 pañivirato hoti. Ekabhattiko2 hoti
rattåparato3 pañivirato4 vikàlabhojanà. Naccagãtavàditavisåkadassanà5
pañivirato hoti. Màlàgandhavilepanadhàraõamaõóanavibhusanaññhànà
pañivirato hoti. Uccàsayanamahàsayanà pañivirato hoti.
Jàtaråparajatapañiggahaõà6 pañivirato hoti. âmakadha¤¤apañiggahaõà6
pañivirato hoti. âmakamaüsapañiggahaõà6 pañivirato hoti.
Itthikumàrikapañiggahaõà6 pañivirato hoti. Dàsidàsapañiggahaõà6
pañivirato hoti. Ajeëakapañiggahaõà6 pañivirato hoti.
Kukkuñasåkarapañiggahaõà6 pañivirato hoti. Hatthigavassavaëavà7
pañiggahaõà pañivirato hoti. Khettavatthupañiggahaõà pañivirato hoti.
Dåteyyapaheõa8 gamanànuyogà pañivirato hoti. Kayavikkayà pañivirato
hoti. Tulàkåñakaüsakåñamànakåñà9 pañivirato hoti.
Ukkoñanava¤cananikatisàci10 yogà pañivirato hoti.
Chedanavadhabandhanaviparàmosaàlopasahasàkàrà11 pañivirato hoti.
Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

Cullasãlaü12 niññhitaü

31. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü bãjagàmabhåtagàmasamàrambhaü13 anuyuttà viharanti, seyyathãdaü:
målabãjaü khandhabãjaü phalubãjaü14 aggabãjaü bijabãjameva15 pa¤camaü.
Iti và itievaråpà16 bãjagàmabhåtagàmasamàrambhà17 [PTS Page 065] [\q
65/] pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

32. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü sannidhikàraparibhogaü anuyuttà viharanti, seyyathãdaü:
annasannidhiü pànasannidhiü vatthasannidhiü yànasannidhiü
sayanasannidhiü gandhasannidhiü àmisasannidhiü. Iti và iti evaråpà
sannidhikàraparibhogà pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

1. Samàrabbhà, machasaü.

2. Ekaü bhattiko, machasaü.

3. Rattuparato, machasaü.

4. Virato, the. Se.

5. Visåkaü, machasaü.

6. Pariggahaõà, (sabbattha)

7. Gavassaü, se. Vaëavaü, machasaü.

8. Pahiõa, sãmu. Machasa. Syà.

9. Kåñaü, machasaü.

10. Sàvi, machasaü.

11. Sahasaü, machasaü.

12. Cåëa sãlaü, machasaü.

13. Samàrabbhà, machasaü.

14. Phalaü, se. Phaluü, si. The.

15. Bija bãjaü eva. The.

16. Iti evarupà, kesuci.

17. Samàrabbhà, machasaü.

[BJT Page 114] [\x 114/]

33. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü visåkadassanaü anuyuttà viharanti, seyyathãdaü: naccaü gãtaü
vàditaü pekkhaü akkhàtaü pàõissaraü vetàlaü kumbhathånaü sobhanakaü1
caõóàlaü vaüsaü dhopanakaü2 hatthiyuddhaü assayuddhaü mahisayuddhaü3
usabhayuddhaü ajayuddhaü meõóayuddhaü4 kukkuñayuddhaü vaññakayuddhaü
daõóayuddhaü muññhiyuddhaü5 nibbuddhaü uyyodhikaü balaggaü senàbyåhaü
aõãkadassanaü6. Iti và iti evaråpà visåkadassanà pañivirato hoti.
Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

34. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü jåtappamàdaññhànànuyogaü anuyuttà viharanti, seyyathãdaü:
aññhapadaü dasapadaü àkàsaü parihàrapathaü santikaü khalikaü ghañikaü
salàkahatthaü akkhaü païgacãraü vaïkakaü mokkhacikaü ciïgulakaü
pattàëhakaü rathakaü dhanukaü akkharikaü manesikaü yathàvajjaü. Iti và
iti evaråpà jåtappamàdaññhànànuyogà pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti
sãlasmiü.

35. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü uccàsayanamahàsayanaü anuyuttà viharanti, seyyathãdaü: àsandiü
pallaïkaü gonakaü cittakaü pañikaü pañalikaü tålikaü vikatikaü uddalomiü
ekantalomiü kaññhissaü koseyyaü kuttakaü hatthattharaü assattharaü
rathattharaü ajinappaveõiü kàdalimigapavarapaccattharaõaü
sauttaracchadaü ubhatolohitakåpadhànaü. Iti và iti [PTS Page 066] [\q
66/] evaråpà uccàsayanamahàsayanà pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti
sãlasmiü.

1. Sobhanagarakaü, katthaci. Sobhanakarakaü, [PTS] Sobhanagharakaü, machasaü.

2. Dhovanaü, katthaci. Dhopanaü, sitira.

3. Mahiüsaü, machasaü.

4. Meõóakaü, machasaü.

5. Sãhala potthakesu na dissati.

6. Anãka - kesuci.

[BJT Page 116] [\x 116/]

36. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü maõóanavibhusanaññhànànuyogaü anuyuttà viharanti, seyyathãdaü:
ucchàdanaü parimaddanaü nahàpanaü sambàhanaü àdàsaü a¤janaü
màlàvilepanaü mukhacuõõakaü1 mukhalepanaü2 hatthabandhaü sikhàbandhaü
daõóakaü nàëikaü khaggaü chattaü citråpàhanaü uõhãsaü maõiü vàlavãjaniü
odàtàni vatthàni dãghadasàni. Iti và iti evaråpà
maõóanavibhusanaññhànànuyogà pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

37. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü tiracchànakathaü anuyuttà viharanti, seyyathãdaü: ràjakathaü
corakathaü mahàmattakathaü senàkathaü bhayakathaü yuddhakathaü
annakathaü pànakathaü vatthakathaü sayanakathaü màlàkathaü gandhakathaü
¤àtikathaü yànakathaü gàmakathaü nigamakathaü nagarakathaü
janapadakathaü itthikathaü purisakathaü (kumàrakathaü kumàrikathaü)3
sårakathaü visikhàkathaü kumbhaññhànakathaü pubbapetakathaü
nànattakathaü lokakkhàyikaü samuddakkhàyikaü itibhavàbhavakathaü. Iti và
itievaråpàya tiracchànakathàya pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti
sãlasmiü.

38. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpà viggàhikakathaü anuyuttà viharanti, seyyathãdaü: “na tvaü imaü
dhammavinayaü àjànàsi. Ahaü imaü dhammavinayaü àjànàmi. Kiü tvaü imaü
dhammavinayaü àjànissasi? Micchàpañipanno tvamasi. Ahamasmi
sammàpañipanno. Sahitaü me, asahitaü te. Pure vacanãyaü pacchà avaca.
Pacchà vacanãyaü pure avaca. âciõõaü4 te viparàvattaü. âropito te vàdo.
Niggahãto tvamasi. Cara vàdappamokkhàya. Nibbeñhehi và sace pahosã”ti.
Iti và itievaråpàya viggàhikakathàya pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti
sãlasmiü.

39. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü dåteyyapahiõagamanànuyogamanuyuttà [PTS Page 067] [\q 67/]
viharanti, seyyathãdaü: ra¤¤aü ràjamahàmattànaü khattiyànaü bràhmaõànaü
gahapatikànaü kumàrànaü “idha gaccha. Amutràgaccha. Idaü hara. Amutra
idaü àharà”ti. Iti và itievaråpà dåteyyapahiõagamanànuyogà pañivirato
hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

1. Mukhacuõõaü, machasaü.

2. Mukhàlepanaü, sãmu.

3. Marammapotthakesuyeva dissate

4. Aviciõõaü, kesuci.

[BJT Page 118] [\x 118/]

40. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te kuhakà
ca honti lapakà ca nemittikà ca nippesikà ca làbhena ca làbhaü
nijigiüsitàro. Iti và itievaråpà kuhanalapanà pañivirato hoti.
Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

Majjhimasãlaü niññhitaü.

41. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü1 kappenti, seyyathãdaü:
aïgaü nimittaü uppàtaü2 supiõaü3 lakkhaõaü måsikacchinnaü aggihomaü
dabbihomaü thusahomaü taõóulahomaü sappihomaü telahomaü mukhahomaü
lohitahomaü aïgavijjà vatthuvijjà khattavijjà4 sivavijjà bhåtavijjà
bhurivijjà ahivijjà visavijjà vicchikavijjà måsikavijjà sakuõavijjà
vàyasavijjà pakkajjhànaü5 saraparittànaü migacakkaü. Iti và itievaråpàya
tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

42. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü kappenti, seyyathãdaü:
maõilakkhaõaü vatthalakkhaõaü daõóalakkhaõaü6 asilakkhaõaü usulakkhaõaü
dhanulakkhaõaü àvudhalakkhaõaü7 itthilakkhaõaü purisalakkhaõaü
kumàralakkhaõaü kumàrilakkhaõaü dàsalakkhaõaü dàsilakkhaõaü
hatthilakkhaõaü assalakkhaõaü mahisalakkhaõaü8 usabhalakkhaõaü
golakkhaõaü9 ajalakkhaõaü meõóalakkhaõaü10 kukkuñalakkhaõaü
vaññakalakkhaõaü godhàlakkhaõaü kaõõikàlakkhaõaü kacchapalakkhaõaü
migalakkhaõaü. Iti và itievaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà
pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

43. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya [PTS Page 068] [\q 68/] micchàjãvena jãvikaü
kappenti seyyathãdaü: ra¤¤aü niyyànaü bhavissati, ra¤¤aü aniyyànaü
bhavissati, abbhantarànaü ra¤¤aü upayànaü bhavissati, bàhirànaü ra¤¤aü
apayànaü bhavissati, bàhirànaü ra¤¤aü upayànaü bhavissati, abbhantarànaü
ra¤¤aü apayànaü bhavissati, abbhantarànaü ra¤¤aü jayo bhavissati,
abbhantarànaü ra¤¤aü paràjayo bhavissati. Iti imassa jayo bhavissati.
Imassa paràjayo bhavissati. Iti và itievaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya
micchàjãvà pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

1. Jãvitaü, machasaü.

2. Uppàdaü, sãmu.

3. Supinaü, machasaü. Supiõakaü, si.

4. Khettaü, kesuci.

5. Pakkha, kesuci.

6. Daõóalakkhaõaü satthalakkhaõaü, machasaü.

7. âyudha, kesuci.

8. Mahiüsa, machasaü.

9. Goõa, machasaü.

10. Meõóaka, kesuci.

[BJT Page 120] [\x 120/]

44. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü kappenti. Seyyathãdaü:
candaggàho bhavissati. Suriyaggàho bhavissati. Nakkhattagàho bhavissati.
Candimasuriyànaü pathagamanaü bhavissati. Candimasuriyànaü
uppathagamanaü bhavissati. Nakkhattànaü pathagamanaü bhavissati.
Nakkhattànaü uppathagamanaü bhavissati. Ukkàpàto bhavissati. Dãsàóàho
bhavissati. Bhåmicàlo bhavissati. Devadundåbhi bhavissati.
Candimasuriyanakkhattànaü uggamanaü ogamanaü1 saükilesaü vodànaü
bhavissati. Evaüvipàko candaggàho bhavissati. Evaüvipàko suriyaggàho
bhavissati. Evaüvipàko nakkhattaggàho bhavissati. Evaüvipàkaü
candimasuriyànaü pathagamanaü bhavissati. Evaüvipàkaü candimasuriyànaü
uppathagamanaü bhavissati. Evaüvipàkaü nakkhattànaü pathagamanaü
bhavissati. Evaüvipàkaü nakkhattànaü uppathagamanaü bhavissati.
Evaüvipàko ukkàpàto bhavissati. Evaüvipàko disàóàho bhavissati.
Evaüvipàko bhumivàlo bhavissati. Evaüvipàko devadundåbhi bhavissati.
Evaüvipàko candimasuriyanakkhattànaü uggamanaü ogamanaü saïkilesaü
vodànaü bhavissati. Iti và evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà
pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

45. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya [PTS Page 069] [\q 69/] micchàjãvena jãvikaü
kappenti. Seyyathãdaü: subbuññhikà bhavissati. Dubbuññhikà bhavissati.
Subhikkhaü bhavissati. Dubbhikkhaü bhavissati. Khemaü bhavissati. Bhayaü
bhavissati. Rogo bhavissati. ârogyaü bhavissati. Muddà gaõanà saükhànaü
kàveyyaü lokàyataü. Iti và itievaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena
pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

46. Yathà pana
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü kappenti. Seyyathãdaü:
àvàhanaü vivàhanaü saüvadanaü vivadanaü saükiraõaü vikiraõaü
subhagakaraõaü dubbhagakaraõaü viruddhagabbhakaraõaü jivhànitthambhanaü2
hanusaühananaü hatthàbhijappanaü hanujappanaü kaõõajappanaü àdàsapa¤haü
kumàripa¤haü devapa¤haü àdiccupaññhànaü mahatupaññhànaü abbhujjalanaü
sirivhàyanaü. Iti và itievaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà
pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

1. Oggamanaü, kesuci.

2. Jivhànitthaddhanaü. Bahusu.

[BJT Page 122] [\x 122/]

47. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü kappenti. Seyyathãdaü:
santikammaü paõidhikammaü bhåtakammaü bhurikammaü vassakammaü
vossakammaü vatthukammaü vatthuparikiraõaü àcamanaü nahàpanaü juhanaü
vamanaü virecanaü uddhavirecanaü adhovirecanaü sãsavirecanaü kaõõatelaü
nettatappanaü natthukammaü a¤janaü pacca¤janaü sàlàkiyaü sallakattiyaü
dàrakatikicchà målabhesajjànaü anuppadànaü osadhãnaü pañimokkho. Iti và
itievaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa
hoti sãlasmiü.

48. Sa kho1 so
mahàràja bhikkhu evaü sãlasampanno na kutoci bhayaü samanupassati
yadidaü sãlasaüvarato. Seyyathàpi mahàràja khattiyo muddhàvasitto2
nihatapaccàmitto na [PTS Page 070] [\q 70/] kutoci bhayaü samanupassati
yadidaü paccatthikato, evameva kho mahàràja bhikkhu evaü sãlasampanno na
kutoci bhayaü samanupassati yadidaü sãlasaüvarato. So iminà ariyena
sãlakkhandhena samannàgato ajjhattaü anavajjasukhaü pañisaüvedeti. Evaü
kho mahàràja bhikkhu sãlasampanno hoti.

49. Katha¤ca
mahàràja bhikkhu indriyesu guttadvàro hoti? Idha mahàràja bhikkhu
cakkhunà råpaü disvà na nimittaggàhã hoti nànubya¤janaggàhã.
Yatvàdhikaraõamenaü cakkhundriyaü asaüvutaü viharantaü abhijjhà
domanassà pàpakà akusalà dhammà anvassaveyyuü3 tassa saüvaràya
pañipajjati. Rakkhati cakkhundriyaü cakkhundriye saüvaraü àpajjati.
Sotena saddaü sutvà na nimittaggàhã hoti nànubya¤janaggàhã.
Yatvàdhikaraõamenaü sotindriyaü asaüvutaü viharantaü abhijjhà domanassà
pàpakà akusalà dhammà anvassaveyyuü tassa saüvaràya pañipajjati.
Rakkhati sotindriyaü sotindriye saüvaraü àpajjati. Ghàõena gandhaü
ghàyitvà na nimittaggàhã hoti nànubya¤janaggàhã. Yatvàdhikaraõamenaü
ghàõindriyaü asaüvutaü viharantaü abhijjhà domanassà pàpakà akusalà
dhammà anvassaveyyuü tassa saüvaràya pañipajjati. Rakkhati ghàõindriyaü
ghàõindriye saüvaraü àpajjati. Jivhàya rasaü sàyitvà na nimittaggàhã
hoti nànubya¤janaggàhã. Yatvàdhikaraõamenaü jivhindriyaü asaüvutaü
viharantaü abhijjhà domanassà pàpakà akusalà dhammà anvassaveyyuü3 tassa
saüvaràya pañipajjati. Rakkhati jivhindriyaü jivhindriye saüvaraü
àpajjati. Kàyena phoññhabbaü phusitvà na nimittaggàhã hoti
nànubya¤janaggàhã. Yatvàdhikaraõamenaü kàyindriyaü asaüvutaü viharantaü
abhijjhà domanassà pàpakà akusalà dhammà anvassaveyyuü3 tassa saüvaràya
pañipajjati. Rakkhati kàyindriyaü kàyindriye saüvaraü àpajjati. Manasà
dhammaü vi¤¤àya na nimittaggàhã hoti nànubya¤janaggàhã.
Yatvàdhikaraõamenaü manindriyaü asaüvutaü viharantaü abhijjhà domanassà
pàpakà akusalà dhammà anvassaveyyuü3 tassa saüvaràya pañipajjati.
Rakkhati manindriyaü. Manindriye saüvaraü àpajjati. So iminà ariyena
indriyasaüvarena samannàgato ajjhattaü abyàsekasukhaü pañisaüvedeti.
Evaü kho mahàràja bhikkhu indriyesu guttadvàro hoti.

1. Atha kho, kesuci.

2. Muddhàbhisinto, kesuci.

3. Anvàsaveyyuü, anvàssaveyyu, kesuci.

[BJT Page 124] [\x 124/]

50. Katha¤ca
mahàràja bhikkhu satisampaja¤¤ena samannàgato hoti? Idha mahàràja
bhikkhu abhikkante pañikkante sampajànakàrã hoti. âlokite vilokite
sampajànakàrã hoti. Sami¤jite1 pasàrite sampajànakàrã hoti.
Saïghàñipattacãvaradhàraõe sampajànakàrã hoti. Asite pãte khàyite sàyite
sampajànakàrã hoti. Uccàrapassàvakamme sampajànakàrã hoti. Gate ñhite
nisinne sutte jàgarite bhàsite tuõhãbhàve sampajànakàrã hoti. Evaü kho
[PTS Page 071] [\q 71/] mahàràja bhikkhu satisampaja¤¤ena samannàgato
hoti.

51. Katha¤ca
mahàràja bhikkhu santuññho hoti? Idha mahàràja bhikkhu santuññho hoti
kàyaparihàriyena cãvarena kucchiparihàriyena2 piõóapàtena. So yena
yeneva pakkamati samàdàyeva pakkamati. Seyyathàpi mahàràja pakkhi sakuõo
yena yeneva óeti sapattabhàro’va óeti, evameva kho mahàràja bhikkhu
santuññho hoti kàyaparihàriyena cãvarena kucchiparihàriyena piõóapàtena.
So yena yeneva pakkamati samàdàyeva pakkamati. Evaü kho mahàràja
bhikkhu santuññho hoti.

52. So iminà
ca ariyena sãlakkhandhena3 samannàgato iminà ca ariyena indriyasaüvarena
samannàgato iminà ca ariyena satisampaja¤¤ena samannàgato imàya ca
ariyàya santuññhiyà samannàgato vivittaü senàsanaü bhajati ara¤¤aü
rukkhamålaü pabbataü kandaraü giriguhaü susànaü vanapatthaü abbhokàsaü
palàlapu¤jaü. So pacchàbhattaü piõóapàtapañikkanto nisãdati pallaïkaü
àbhujitvà ujuü kàyaü paõãdhàya parimukhaü satiü upaññhapetvà.

53. So
abhijjhaü loke pahàya vigatàbhijjhena cetasà viharati. Abhijjhàya cittaü
parisodheti. Byàpàdapadosaü pahàya abyàpannacitto viharati
sabbapàõabhåtahitànukampã. Byàpàdapadosà cittaü parisodheti.
Thãnamiddhaü pahàya vigatathãnamiddho viharati àlokasa¤¤ã sato
sampajàno. Thãnamiddhà cittaü parisodheti. Uddhaccakukkuccaü pahàya
anuddhato viharati ajjhattaü våpasannacitto. Uddhaccakukkuccà cittaü
parisodheti. Vicikicchaü pahàya tiõõavicikiccho viharati akathaükathã
kusalesu dhammesu. Vicikicchàya cittaü parisodheti.

1. Sammi¤jite, kesuci.

2. Paribhàrikena, sãmu.

3. Iminà sãlakkhandhena, sabbattha.

[BJT Page 126] [\x 126/]

54. Seyyathàpi
mahàràja puriso iõaü àdàya kammante payojeyya, tassa te kammantà
samijjheyyuü, so yàni ca poràõàni iõamålàni tàni ca byantãkareyya, siyà
cassa uttariü avasiññhaü dàrabharaõàya, tassa evamassa: “ahaü kho pubbe
iõaü àdàya kammante payojesiü. [PTS Page 072] [\q 72/] tassa me te
kammantà samijjhiüsu. So’haü yàni ca poràõàni iõamålàni tàni ca byantã
akàsiü. Atthi ca me uttariü avasiññhaü dàrabharaõàyà”ti. So tatonidànaü
labhetha pàmojjaü, adhigaccheyya somanassaü -

55. Seyyathàpi
mahàràja puriso àbàdhiko assa dukkhito bàëhagilàno, bhattaü cassa
nacchàdeyya, na cassa kàye balamattà, so aparena samayena tamhà àbàdhà
mucceyya, bhatta¤cassa chàdeyya, siyà cassa kàye balamattà, tassa
evamassa: “ahaü kho pubbe àbàdhiko ahosiü dukkhito bàëhagilàno. Bhattaü
ca me nacchàdesi. Nacassa me àsi kàye balamattà. So’mhi etarahi tamhà
àbàdhà mutto bhatta¤ca me chàdeti. Atthi ca me kàye balamattà”ti. So
tato nidànaü labhetha pàmojjaü, adhigaccheyya somanassaü -

56. Seyyathàpi
mahàràja puriso bandhanàgàre baddho assa, so aparena samayena tamhà
bandhanàgàrà mucceyya sotthinà abbayena1, na cassa ki¤ci bhogànaü vayo,
tassa evamassa: “ahaü kho pubbe bandhanàgàre baddho ahosiü. So’mhi
etarahi tamhà bandhanàgàrà mutto sotthinà abbayena. Natthi ca me ki¤ci
bhogànaü vayo”ti. So tatonidànaü labhetha pàmojjaü, adhigaccheyya
somanassaü -

57. Seyyathàpi
mahàràja puriso dàso assa anattàdhãno paràdhãno na yenakàmaïgamo, so
aparena samayena tamhà dàsabyà mucceyya attàdhãno aparàdhãno bhujisso
yenakàmaïgamo, tassa evamassa: “ahaü kho pubbe dàso ahosiü anattàdhãno
paràdhãno na yenakàmaïgamo, so’mhi etarahi tamhà dàsabyà mutto attàdhãno
aparàdhãno bhujisso yenakàmaïgamo”ti. So [PTS Page 073] [\q 73/]
tatonidànaü labhetha pàmojjaü, adhigaccheyya somanassaü -

1. Avyayena, [PTS]

[BJT Page 128] [\x 128/]

59. Seyyathàpi
mahàràja puriso sadhano sabhogo kantàraddhànamaggaü pañipajjeyya
dubbhikkhaü sappañibhayaü. So aparena samayena taü kantàraü nitthareyya,
sotthinà gàmantaü anupàpuõeyya khemaü appañibhayaü, tassa evamassa:
“ahaü kho pubbe sadhano sabhogo kantàraddhànamaggaü pañipajjiü
dubbhikkhaü sappañibhayaü. So’mhi etarahi taü kantàraü tiõõo sotthinà
gàmantaü anuppatto khemaü appañibhaya”nti. So tato nidànaü labhetha
pàmojjaü adhigaccheyya somanassaü -

60. Evameva
kho mahàràja bhikkhu yathà guõaü yathà rogaü yathà bandhanàgàraü yathà
dàsabyaü yathà kantàraddhànamaggaü evaü ime pa¤ca nãvaraõe appahãõe
attani samanupassati. Seyyathàpi mahàràja ànaõyaü yathà àrogyaü yathà
bandhanà mokkhaü yathà bhujissaü yathà khemantabhåmiü evameva kho
mahàràja bhikkhu ime pa¤ca nãvaraõe pahãõe attani samanupassati.

61. Tassime
pa¤ca nãvaraõe pahãõe attani samanupassato pàmojjaü jàyati. Pamuditassa
pãti jàyati. Pãtimanassa kàyo passambhati. Passaddhakàyo sukhaü vedeti.
Sukhino cittaü samàdhiyati.

62. So
vivicceva kàmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaü savicàraü
vivekajaü pãtisukhaü pañhamaü jhànaü upasampajja viharati. So imameva
kàyaü vivekajena pãtisukhena abhisanteti1 parisanneti2 paripåreti
parippharati. Nàssa ki¤ci sabbàvato kàyassa vivekajena pãtisukhena
apphuñaü hoti.

63. [PTS Page
074] [\q 74/] seyyathàpi mahàràja dakkho nahàpako và nahàpakantevàsã và
kaüsathàle nahànãyacuõõàni àkiritvà udakena paripphosakaü paripphosakaü
sanneyya3 sàyaü nahànãyapiõói snehànugatà snehaparetà santarabàhirà
phuñà snehena na ca paggharaõã -

Evameva kho
mahàràja bhikkhu imameva kàyaü vivekajena pãtisukhena abhisanneti
parisanneti paripåreti parippharati. Nàssa ki¤ci sabbàvato kàyassa
vivekajena pãtisukhena apphuñaü hoti. Idampi kho mahàràja sandiññhikaü
sàma¤¤aphalaü purimehi sandiññhikehi sàma¤¤aphalehi abhikkantatara¤ca
paõãtatara¤ca.

1. Abhisandeti sãmu, machasaü.

2. Parisandeti. Sãmu, machasaü.

3. Sandeyya. Sãmu, machasaü.

[BJT Page 130] [\x 130/]

64. Puna ca
paraü mahàràja bhikkhu vitakkavicàrànaü våpasamà ajjhattaü sampasàdanaü
cetaso ekodibhàvaü avitakkaü avicàraü samàdhijaü pãtisukhaü dutiyaü
jhànaü upasampajja viharati. So imameva kàyaü samàdhijena pãtisukhena
abhisandeti parisandeti paripåreti parippharati. Nàssa ki¤ci sabbàvato
kàyassa samàdhijena pãtisukhena apphuñaü hoti.

65. Seyyathàpi
mahàràja udakarahado ubbhidodako, tassa nevassa puratthimàya disàya
udakassa àyamukhaü, na dakkhiõàya disàya udakassa àyamukhaü, na
pacchimàya disàya udakassa àyamukhaü, na uttaràya disàya udakassa
àyamukhaü, devo ca na kàlena kàlaü sammà dhàraü anupaveccheyya, atha kho
tamhà ca udakarahadà sãtà vàridhàrà ubbhijjitvà tameva udakarahadaü
sãtena vàrinà abhisandeyya parisandeyya paripåreyya paripphareyya, nàssa
ki¤ci sabbàvato udakarahadassa vàrinà sãtena apphuñaü assa -

Evameva kho
mahàràja bhikkhu imameva kàyaü samàdhijena pãtisukhena abhisandeti
parisandeti [PTS Page 075] [\q 75/] paripåreti parippharati. Nàssa ki¤ci
sabbàvato kàyassa samàdhijena pãtisukhena apphuñaü hoti.

Idampi kho mahàràja sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü purimehi sandiññhikehi sàma¤¤aphalehi abhikkantatara¤ca paõãtatara¤ca.

66. Puna ca
paraü mahàràja bhikkhu pãtiyà ca viràgà upekkhako ca viharati sato
sampajàno sukha¤ca kàyena pañisaüvedeti. Yantaü ariyà àcikkhanti:
upekkhako satimà sukhavihàrãti tatiyaü jhànaü upasampajja viharati.

So imameva
kàyaü nippãtikena sukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripåreti,
parippharati nàssa ki¤ci sabbàvato kàyassa nippãtikena sukhena apphuñaü
hoti.

67. Seyyathàpi
mahàràja uppaliniyaü và paduminiyaü và puõóarãkiniyaü và appekaccàni
uppalàni và padumàni và puõóarãkàni và udake jàtàni udake saüvaddhàni
udakànuggatàni antonimuggaposãni1 tàni yàva caggà yàva ca målà sãtena
vàrinà abhisannàni2 parisannàni3 paripåràni, paripphuñàni nàssà4 ki¤ci
sabbàvataü uppalànaü và padumànaü và puõóarãkànaü và sãtena vàrinà
apphuñaü assa.

1. Anto nimugga posinã, bau. Sa. Sa.

2. Abhisandàni, bau. Sa. Sa.

3. Parisandàni, lau. Sa. Sa.

4. Nàssa, bahusu.

[BJT Page 132] [\x 132/]

Evameva kho
mahàràja bhikkhu imameva kàyaü nippãtikena sukhena abhisandeti
parisandeti paripåreti parippharati. Nàssa ki¤ci sabbàvato kàyassa
nippãtikena sukhena apphuñaü hoti.

Idampi kho mahàràja sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü purimehi sandiññhikehi sàma¤¤aphalehi abhikkantatara¤ca paõãtatara¤ca.

68. Puna ca
paraü mahàràja bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahànà dukkhassa ca pahànà pubbeva
somanassadomanassànaü atthaïgamà adukkhamasukhaü upekkhàsatipàrisuddhiü
catutthaü jhànaü upasampajja viharati. So imameva kàyaü parisuddhena
cetasà pariyodàtena [PTS Page 076] [\q 76/] pharitvà nisinno hoti. Nàssa
ki¤ci sabbàvato kàyassa parisuddhena cetasà pariyodàtena apphuñaü hoti.

Seyyathàpi
mahàràja puriso odàtena vatthena sasãsaü pàrupitvà nisinno assa, nàssa
ki¤ci sabbàvato kàyassa odàtena vatthena apphuñaü assa, evameva kho
mahàràja bhikkhu imameva kàyaü parisuddhena cetasà pariyodàtena pharitvà
nisinno hoti. Nàssa ki¤ci sabbàvato kàyassa parisuddhena cetasà
pariyodàtena apphuñaü hoti.

Idampi kho mahàràja sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü purimehi sandiññhikehi sàma¤¤aphalehi abhikkantatara¤ca paõãtatara¤ca.

69. Puna ca
paraü mahàràja so bhikkhu evaü samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte
anaïgaõe vigatåpakkilese mudubhåte kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte
¤àõadassanàya cittaü abhinãharati abhininnàmeti. So evaü pajànàti: “ayaü
kho me kàyo råpã càtummahàbhåtiko màtàpettikasambhavo
odanakummàsåpacayo aniccucchàdanaparimaddanabhedaviddhaüsanadhammo. Idaü
ca pana me vi¤¤àõaü ettha sitaü ettha pañibaddha’nti.

70. Seyyathàpi
mahàràja maõi veëuriyo subho jàtimà aññhaüso suparikammakato accho
vippasanno anàvilo sabbàkàrasampanno, tatra’ssa suttaü àvutaü nãlaü và
pãtaü và lohitaü và odàtaü và paõóusuttaü và. Tamenaü cakkhumà puriso
hatthe karitvà paccavekkheyya “ayaü kho maõi veëuriyo subho jàtimà
aññhaüso suparikammakato, accho vippasanno anàvilo sabbàkàrasampanno.
Tatiradaü suttaü àvutaü nãlaü và pãtaü và lohitaü và odàtaü và
paõóusuttaü và”ti.

[BJT Page 134] [\x 134/]

Evameva kho
mahàràja bhikkhu evaü samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe
vigatåpakkilese mudubhåte kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte ¤àõadassanàya
cittaü abhinãharati abhininnàmeti. So evaü pajànàti ayaü kho me kàyo
råpã càtummahàbhåtiko màtàpettikasambhavo odanakummàsåpacayo
aniccucchàdanaparimaddanabhedanaviddhaüsanadhammo. [PTS Page 077] [\q
77/] idaü ca pana me vi¤¤àõaü ettha sitaü ettha pañibaddhanti.

Idampi kho mahàràja sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü purimehi sandiññhikehi sàma¤¤aphalehi abhikkantatara¤ca paõãtatara¤ca.
 
 

71. So evaü
samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe vigatåpakkilese mudubhåte
kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte manomayaü kàyaü abhinimminanàya1 cittaü
abhinãharati abhininnàmeti. So imamhà kàyà a¤¤aü kàyaü abhinimminàti
råpiü manomayaü sabbaïgapaccaïgiü ahãnindriyaü,

Seyyathàpi
mahàràja puriso mu¤jamhà isikaü2 pavàheyya3. Tassa evamassa: ayaü mu¤jo
ayaü isikà a¤¤o mu¤jo a¤¤à isikà mu¤jamhàtveva isikà pavàëhàti4.

Seyyathàpi và
pana mahàràja puriso asiü kosiyà pavàheyya. Tassa evamassa: “ayaü asi
ayaü kosi, a¤¤o asi a¤¤à kosi, kosiyàtveva asi pavàëho”ti.

Seyyathàpi và
pana mahàràja puriso ahaü karaõóà uddhareyya. Tassa evamassa: “ayaü ahi
ayaü karaõóo, a¤¤o ahi a¤¤o karaõóo, karaõóàtveva ahi ubbhato”ti5.

Evameva kho
mahàràja bhikkhu evaü samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe
vigatåpakkilese mudrabhåte kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte manomayaü kàyaü
abhinimminanàya cittaü abhinãharati abhininnàmeti. So imamhà kàyà a¤¤aü
kàyaü abhinimminàti råpiü manomayaü sabbaïgapaccaïgiü ahãnindriyaü.
Idampi kho mahàràja sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü purimehi sandiññhikehi
sàma¤¤aphalehi abhikkantatara¤ca paõãtatara¤ca.

1. Abhinimminàya. Bausasa.

2. äsikaü. Bausasa.

3. Pabbàbheyya. Bausasa.

4. Pabbàëahà. Bausasa.

5. Uddharito. Syà.

[BJT Page 136] [\x 136/]

72. So evaü
samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe vigatupakkilese mudubhåte
kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte iddhividhàya cittaü abhinãharati
abhininnàmeti. [PTS Page 078] [\q 78/] so anekavihitaü iddhividhaü
paccanubhoti: eko’pi hutvà bahudhà hoti bahudhàpi hutvà eko hoti,
àvãbhàvaü tirobhàvaü tirokuóóaü tiropàkàraü tiropabbataü asajjamàno
gacchati seyyathàpi àkàse, pañhaviyà’pi ummujjanimujjaü karoti
seyyathàpi udake, udake’pi abhijjamàne gacchati seyyathàpi pañhaviyaü,
àkàse’pi pallaïkena kamati seyyathà’pi pakkhi sakuõo. Ime’pi
candimasuriye evaümahiddhike evaümahànubhàve pàõinà paràmasati
parimajjati. Yàva brahmalokàpi kàyena vasaü vatteti.

73. Seyyathàpi
mahàràja dakkho kumbhakàro và kumbhakàrantevàsã và suparikammakatàya
mattikàya yaü yadeva bhàjanavikatiü àkaïkheyya taü tadeva kareyya
abhinipphàdeyya -

Seyyathàpi và
pana mahàràja dakkho dantakàro và dantakàrantevàsã và
suparikammakatasmiü dantasmiü yaü yadeva dantavikatiü àkaïkheyya taü
tadeva kareyya abhinipphàdeyya -

Seyyathàpi và
pana mahàràja dakkho suvaõõakàro và suvaõõakàrantevàsã và
suparikammakatasmiü suvaõõasmiü yaü yadeva suvaõõavikatiü àkaïkheyya taü
tadeva kareyya abhinipphàdeyya -

Evameva kho
mahàràja bhikkhu evaü samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe
vigatåpakkilese mudubhåte kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte iddhividhàya
cittaü abhinãharati abhininnàmeti. So anekavihitaü iddhividhaü
paccanuhoti: eko’pi hutvà bahudhà hoti. Bahudhà’pi hutvà eko hoti.
âvãbhàvaü tirobhàvaü tirokuóóaü tiropàkàraü tiropabbataü asajjamàno
gacchati seyyathàpi àkàse. Pañhaviyà’pi ummujjanimujjaü karoti
seyyathàpi udake. Udake’pi abhijjamàne gacchati seyyathàpi pañhaviyaü.
âkàse’pi pallaïkena kamati seyyathàpi pakkhi sakuõo. Ime’pi
candimasuriye evaümahiddhike evaümahànubhàve [PTS Page 079] [\q 79/]
pàõinà paràmasati parimajjati. Yàva brahmalokà’pi kàyena vasaü vatteti.

[BJT Page 138] [\x 138/]

Idampi kho mahàràja sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü purimehi sandiññhikehi sàma¤¤aphalehi abhikkantatara¤ca paõãtatara¤ca.

74. So evaü
samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe vigatåpakkilese mudubhåte
kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte dibbàya sotadhàtuyà cittaü abhinãharati
abhininnàmeti. So dibbàya sotadhàtuyà visuddhàya atikkantamànusikàya
ubho sadde suõàti dibbe ca mànuse ca ye dåre santike ca.

75. Seyyathàpi
mahàràja puriso addhànamaggapañipanno so suõeyya bherisaddampi
mudiïgasaddampi saïkhapaõavadeõóimasaddampi, tassa evamassa: bherisaddo
iti’pi mudiïgasaddo iti’pi saïkhapaõavadeõóimasaddo iti’pi. Evameva kho
mahàràja bhikkhu evaü samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe
vigatåpakkilese mudubhåte kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte dibbàya
sotadhàtuyà cittaü abhinãharati abhininnàmeti. So dibbàya sotadhàtuyà
visuddhàya atikkantamànusikàya ubho sadde suõàti dibbe ca mànuse ca ye
dåre santike ca.

Idampi kho mahàràja sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü purimehi sandiññhikehi sàma¤¤aphalehi abhikkantatara¤ca paõãtatara¤ca.

76. So evaü
samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe vigatåpakkilese mudubhåte
kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte cetopariya¤àõàya cittaü abhinãharati
abhininnàmeti. So parasattànaü parapuggalànaü cetasà ceto paricca
pajànàti: “saràgaü và cittaü saràgaü cittanti pajànàti. Vãtaràgaü và
cittaü vãtaràgaü cittanti pajànàti. [PTS Page 080] [\q 80/] sadosaü và
cittaü sadosaü cittatanti pajànàti. Vãtadosaü và cittaü vãtadosaü
cittanti pajànàti. Samohaü và cittaü samohaü cittanti pajànàti.
Vãtamohaü và cittaü vãtamohaü cittanti pajànàti. Saïkhittaü và cittaü
saïkhittaü cittanti pajànàti. Vikkhittaü và cittaü vikkhittaü cittanti
pajànàti. Mahaggataü và cittaü mahaggataü cittanti pajànàti. Amahaggataü
và cittaü amahaggataü cittanti pajànàti. Sauttaraü và cittaü sauttaraü
cittanti pajànàti. Anuttaraü và cittaü anuttaraü cittanti pajànàti.
Samàhitaü và cittaü samàhitaü cittanti pajànàti. Asamàhitaü và cittaü
asamàhitaü cittanti pajànàti. Vimuttaü và cittaü vimuttaü cittanti
pajànàti. Avimuttaü và cittaü avimuttaü cittanti pajànàti.

77. Seyyathàpi
mahàràja itthi và puriso và daharo và yuvà maõóanakajàtiko àdàse và
parisuddhe pariyodàte acche và udakapatte sakaü mukhanimittaü
paccavekkhamàno sakaõikaü và sakaõikanti jàneyya, akaõikaü và akaõikanti
jàneyya -

[BJT Page 140] [\x 140/]

Evameva kho
mahàràja bhikkhu evaü samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe
vigatåpakkilese mudubhåte kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte cetopariya¤àõàya
cittaü abhinãharati abhininnàmeti.

So
parasattànaü parapuggalànaü cetasà ceto paricca pajànàti: saràgaü và
cittaü saràgaü cittanti pajànàti vãtaràgaü và cittaü vãtaràgaü cittanti
pajànàti. Sadosaü và cittaü sadosaü cittanti pajànàti vãtadosaü và
cittaü vãtadosaü cittanti pajànàti. Samohaü và cittaü samohaü cittanti
pajànàti vãtamohaü và cittaü vãtamohaü cittanti pajànàti. Saïkhittaü và
cittaü saïkhittaü cittanti pajànàti. Vikkhittaü và cittaü vikkhittaü
cittanti pajànàti. Mahaggataü và cittaü mahaggataü cittanti pajànàti
amahaggataü và cittaü amahaggataü cittanti pajànàti. Sauttaraü và cittaü
sauttaraü cittanti pajànàti*. [PTS Page 081] [\q 81/] anuttaraü và
cittaü anuttaraü cittanti pajànàti. Samàhitaü và cittaü samàhitaü
cittanti pajànàti asamàhitaü và cittaü asamàhitaü cittanti pajànàti.
Vimuttaü và cittaü vimuttaü cittanti pajànàti avimuttaü và cittaü
avimuttaü cittanti pajànàti.

Idampi kho mahàràja sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü purimehi sandiññhikehi sàma¤¤aphalehi abhikkantatara¤ca paõãtatara¤ca.

78. So evaü
samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe vigatåpakkilese mudubhåte
kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte pubbenivàsànussati¤àõàya cittaü
abhinãharati abhininnàmeti. So anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü anussarati
seyyathãdaü: ekampi jàtiü dve’pi jàtiyo tisso’pi jàtiyo catasso’pi
jàtiyo pa¤ca’pi jàtiyo dasa’pi jàtiyo vãsampi jàtiyo tãsaümpi jàtiyo
cattàrãsampi jàtiyo jàtisatampi jàtisahassampi jàtisatasahassampi
aneke’pi saüvaññakappe aneke’pi vivaññakappe aneke’pi
saüvaññavivaññakappe amutràsiü evaünàmo evaügotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro
evaü sukhadukkhapañisaüvedã evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto amutra
upapàdiü tatràpàsiü evaünàmo evaügotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro
evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedã evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto
idhåpapanno’ti. Iti sàkàraü sauddesaü anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü
anussarati.

79. Seyyathàpi
mahàràja puriso sakamhà gàmà a¤¤aü gàmaü gaccheyya tamhà’pi gàmà a¤¤aü
gàmaü gaccheyya. So tamhà gàmà saka¤¤eva gàmaü paccàgaccheyya. Tassa
evamassa: ‘ahaü kho sakamhà gàmà amuü gàmaü agacchiü tatra evaü aññhàsiü
evaü nisãdiü evaü abhàsiü evaü tuõahã ahosiü. Tamhàpi gàmà agacchiü
tatràpi evaü aññhàsiü evaü nisãdiü evaü abhàsiü evaü tuõhã ahosiü.
So’mpi tamhà [PTS Page 082] [\q 82/] gàmà saka¤¤eva gàmaü paccàgato’ti.

[BJT Page 142] [\x 142/]

Evameva kho
mahàràja bhikkhu evaü samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe
vigatåpakkilese mudubhåte kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte
pubbenivàsànussati¤àõàya cittaü abhinãharati abhininnàmeti. So
anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü anussarati seyyathãdaü: ekampi jàtiü dve’pi
jàtiyo tisso’pi jàtiyo catasso’pi jàtiyo pa¤ca’pi jàtiyo dasa’pi jàtiyo
vãsampi jàtiyo tiüsampi jàtiyo cattàrãsampi jàtiyo pa¤¤àsampi jàtiyo
jàtisatampi jàtisahassampi jàtisatasahassampi aneke’pi saüvaññakappe
aneke’pi vivaññakappe aneke’pi saüvaññavivaññakappe amutràsiü evaünàmo
evaügotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedã
evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto amutra upapàdiü tatràpàsiü evaünàmo
evaügotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedi
evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto idhåpapanno’ti iti sàkàraü sauddesaü
anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü anussarati.

Idampi kho mahàràja sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü purimehi sandiññhikehi sàma¤¤aphalehi abhikkantatara¤ca paõãtatara¤ca.

80. So evaü
samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe vigatåpakkilese mudubhåte
kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte sattànaü cutåpapàta¤àõàya cittaü
abhinãharati abhininnàmeti. So dibbena cakkhunà visuddhena
atikkantamànusakena satte passati cavamàne upapajjamàne hãne paõãte
suvaõõe dubbaõõe sugate duggate yathàkammåpage satte pajànàti: ‘ime vata
bhonto sattà kàyaduccaritena samannàgatà vacãduccaritena samannàgatà
manoduccaritena samannàgatà ariyànaü upavàdakà micchàdiññhikà
micchàdiññhikammasamàdànà. Te kàyassa bhedà parammaraõà apàyaü duggatiü
vinipàtaü nirayaü upapannà. Ime và pana bhonto sattà kàyasucaritena
samannàgatà vacãsucaritena samannàgatà manosucaritena samannàgatà
ariyànaü anupavàdakà sammàdiññhikà sammàdiññhikammasamàdànà. Te kàyassa
bhedà parammaraõà sugatiü saggaü lokaü upapannà’ti. Iti dibbena cakkhunà
visuddhena atikkantamànusakena [PTS Page 083] [\q 83/] satte passati
cavamàne upapajjamàne hãne paõite suvaõõe dubbaõõe sugate duggate
yathàkammåpage satte pajànàti.

[BJT Page 144] [\x 144/]

81. Seyyathàpi
mahàràja majjhe siüghàñake pàsàdo. Tattha cakkhumà puriso ñhito
passeyya manusse gehaü pavisante’pi rathiyà vãtisa¤carante’pi majjhe
siüghàñake nisinne’pi, tassa evamassa: ete manussà gehaü pavisanti. Ete
nikkhamanti. Ete rathiyà vãtisa¤caranti. Ete majjhe siüghàñake
nisinnà’ti.

Evameva kho
mahàràja bhikkhu evaü samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe
vigatåpakkilese mudubhåte kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte sattànaü
cutåpapàta¤àõàya cittaü abhinãharati abhininnàmeti. So dibbena cakkhunà
visuddhena atikkantamànusakena satte passati cavamàne upapajjamàne hãne
paõite suvaõõe dubbaõõe sugate duggate yathàkammåpage satte pajànàti:
‘ime vata bhonto sattà kàyaduccaritena samannàgatà vacãduccaritena
samannàgatà manoduccaritena samannàgatà ariyànaü upavàdakà
micchàdiññhikà micchàdiññhikammasamàdànà. Te kàyassa bhedà parammaraõà
apàyaü duggatiü vinipàtaü nirayaü upapannà. Ime và pana bhonto sattà
kàyasucaritena samannàgatà vacãsucaritena samannàgatà manosucaritena
samannàgatà ariyànaü anupavàdakà sammàdiññhikà sammàdiññhikammasamàdànà.
Te kàyassa bhedà parammaraõà sugatiü saggaü lokaü upapannà’ti. Iti
dibbena cakkhunà visuddhena atikkantamànusakena satte passati cavamàne
upapajjamàne hãne paõãte suvaõõe dubbaõõe sugate duggate yathàkammåpage
satte pajànàti.

Idampi kho mahàràja sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü purimehi sandiññhikehi sàma¤¤aphalehi abhikkantatara¤ca paõãtatara¤ca.

82. So evaü
samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe vigatåpakkilese mudubhåte
kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte àsavànaü khaya¤àõàya cittaü abhinãharati
abhininnàmeti so idaü dukkhanti yathàbhåtaü [PTS Page 084] [\q 84/]
pajànàti. Ayaü dukkhanirodhagàminãpañipadà’ti yathàbhåtaü pajànàti. Ime
àsavà’ti yathàbhåtaü pajànàti. Ayaü àsavasamudayo’ti yathàbhåtaü
pajànàti. Ayaü àsavanirodho’ti yathàbhåtaü

Pajànàti. Ayaü
àsavanirodhagàminãpañipadà’ti yathàbhåtaü pajànàti. Tassa evaü jànato
evaü passato kàmàsavàpi cittaü vimuccati bhavàsavàpi cittaü vimuccati
avijjàsavàpi cittaü vimuccati. Vimuttasmiü vimuttamiti ¤àõaü hoti. Khãõà
jàti vusitaü brahmacariyaü kataü karaõiyaü nàparaü itthattàyàti
pajànàti.

[BJT Page 146] [\x 146/]

83. Seyyathàpi
mahàràja pabbatasaïkhepe udakarahado accho vippasanno anàvilo. Tattha
cakkhumà puriso tãre ñhito passeyya sippisambåkampi sakkharakañhalampi
macchagumbampi carantampi tiññhantampi. Tassa evamassa: ayaü kho
udakarahado accho vippasanno anàvilo. Tatrime sippisambåkà’pi
sakkharakañhalà’pi macchagumbà’pi carantipi tiññhantipãti.

Evameva kho
mahàràja bhikkhu evaü samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe
vigatåpakkilese mudubhåte kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte àsavànaü
khaya¤àõàya cittaü abhinãharati abhininnàmeti. So idaü dukkhanti
yathàbhåtaü pajànàti. Ayaü dukkhasamudayo’ti yathàbhåtaü pajànàti. Ayaü
dukkhanirodho’ti yathàbhåtaü pajànàti. Ayaü
dukkhanirodhagàminãpañipadà’ti yathàbhåtaü pajànàti. Ime àsavà’ti
yathàbhåtaü pajànàti. Ayaü àsavanirodho’ti yathàbhåtaü pajànàti. Ayaü
àsavanirodhagàminãpañipadà’ti yathàbhåtaü pajànàti.

Tassa evaü
jànato evaü passato kàmàsavà’pi cittaü vimuccati, bhavàsavà’pã cittaü
vimuccati, avijjàsavà’pi cittaü vimuccati. Vimuttasmiü vimuttamiti ¤àõaü
hoti. Khãõà jàti, vusitaü brahmacariyaü, kataü karaõãyaü nàparaü
itthattàyàti pajànàti.

[PTS Page 085]
[\q 85/] idaü kho mahàràja sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü purimehi
sandiññhikehi sàma¤¤aphalehi abhikkantatara¤ca paõãtatara¤ca. Imasmà ca
pana mahàràja sandiññhikà sàma¤¤aphalà a¤¤aü sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤aphalaü
uttaritaraü và paõãtataraü và natthãti.

84. Evaü vutte
ràjà màgadho ajàtasattu vedehiputto bhagavantaü etadavoca: ‘abhikkantaü
bhante, abhikkantaü bhante. Seyyathàpi bhante nikujjitaü và ukkujjeyya,
pañicchannaü và vivareyya, måëhassa và maggaü àcikkheyya, andhakàre và
telapajjotaü dhàreyya cakkhumanto råpàni dakkhintãti, evameva bhante
bhagavatà anekapariyàyena dhammo pakàsito. Esàhaü bhante bhagavantaü
saraõaü gacchàmi, dhamma¤ca bhikkhusaïgha¤ca. Upàsakaü maü bhagavà
dhàretu ajjatagge pàõupetaü saraõaü gataü. Accayo maü bhante accagamà
yathàbàlaü yathàmåëhaü yathàakusalaü yo’haü pãtaraü dhammikaü
dhammaràjànaü issariyassa kàraõà jãvità voropesiü. Tassa me bhante
bhagavà accayaü accayato pañiggaõhàtu àyatiü saüvaràyà’ti.

[BJT Page 148] [\x 148/]

85. Taggha
tvaü mahàràja accayo accagamà yathàbàlaü yathàmåëhaü yathàakusalaü yo
tvaü pitaraü dhammikaü dhammaràjànaü jãvità coropesi. Yato ca kho tvaü
mahàràja accayaü accayato disvà yathàdhammaü pañikarosi. Tante mayaü
pañigaõhàma. Vuddhi hesà mahàràja ariyassa vinaye yo accayaü accayato
disvà yathàdhammaü pañikaroti àyatiü saüvaraü àpajjatãti.

86. Evaü vutte
ràjà màgadho ajàtasattu vedehiputto bhagavantaü etadavoca: handa ca
dàni mayaü bhante gacchàmi bahukiccà mayaü bahukaraõãyà’ti.

“Yassa ‘dàni tvaü mahàràja kàlaü ma¤¤asã”ti.

Atha kho ràjà
màgadho ajàtasattu vedehiputto bhagavato bhàsitaü abhinanditvà
anumoditvà uññhàyàsanà bhagavantaü abhivàdetvà padakkhiõaü katvà
pakkàmi.

87. Atha kho
bhagavà acirapakkantassa ra¤¤o màgadhassa [PTS Page 086] [\q 86/]
ajàtasattussa vedehiputtassa bhikkhå àmantesi: khatàyaü bhikkhave ràjà,
upahatàyaü bhikkhave ràjà. Sacàyaü bhikkhave ràjà pitaraü dhammikaü
dhammaràjànaü jãvità na voropessatha imasmiü yeva àsane virajaü
vãtamalaü dhammacakkhuü uppajjissathàti.

Idamavoca bhagavà. Attamanà te bhikkhå bhagavato bhàsitaü abhinandunti.


Sàma¤¤aphalasuttaü niññhitaü dutiyaü.

English 
(2)

1. Dãgha Nikàya
2 Sàma¤¤a-Phàla Sutta

INTRODUCTION [\q 056/]

THE first Dialogue deals with the most fundamental conceptions that
lay at the root of the Buddha’s doctrine, his Dharma, his ethical and
philosophical view of lifeÞthe second puts forth his justification for
the foundation of the Order, for the enunciation of the Vinaya, the
practical rules of canon law by which life in the Order is regulated.
The Rules themselves are not discussed. It is only certain ethical
precepts that are referred to in so many words. The question is a larger
and wider one than the desirability of any particular injunction. It is
as to the advantage, as to the use, of having any Order at all.

King Ajàtasattu of Magadha, after pointing out the advantages derived
from their occupations by a long list of ordinary people in the world,
asks whether the members of the Order, who have given up the world,
derive any corresponding advantage, visible in this life, from theirs.
The answer is a list of such advantages, arranged in an ascending scale
of importance, each one mentioned being said to be better and sweeter
than the one just before described.

The list of ordinary occupations given in the question is interesting
evidence, especially as compared with the later lists of a similar kind
referred to in the notes, of social conditions in the Ganges valley at
the time when this Dialogue was composed. And the introductory story, in
which the king explains how he had put a similar question to the
founders of six other orders, and gives the six replies he received, is
interesting evidence of the views held by the authors of the Dialogue as
to beliefs current at the time.

The replies are no less interesting from the fact, pointed out by the
king, that they are not to the point. Each of the six teachers goes off
into a general statement of his theory instead of answering the
question put. But as the works, if any, of all these teachers save
oneÞNigaõñha Nàta-putta have been irretrievably lost, the summary here
given of their doctrines is of great importance as evidence of the sort
of [\q 57/] speculation they favoured. The six paragraphs are short and
obscure, and this is just what we should expect. As is the case with the
accounts given by early Catholic writers of opinions they held to be
heretical, the versions of these six sets of belief are neither adequate
nor clear. But a number of other references to these six theories are
found, as pointed out in the notes, both in the Buddhist and in the Jain
records. And it would be premature to discuss our six paragraphs until
the whole of the available evidence is made accessible to scholars. It
is noteworthy that in at least two of these answers some of the
expressions used seem to be in a Pràkrit differing in dialect from the
Pàli of the Piñakas. And these are not the only instances of the
preservation in the Piñakas of ancient dialectical varieties.

The answer which the Buddha is represented to have given, in his
turn, to the question raised by the king, takes (as is so often the
case) the form of a counter-question. `The very man whom, under ordinary
circumstances, you would treat as slave or servantÞwhat treatment would
you mete out to him after he had joined an Order?’ The king confesses
that he. would treat him as a person worthy of honour and respect. And
neither in question nor answer is there any reference specially to the
Buddhist Order. It is taken for granted, alike by the Buddha and the
king, that any one who had devoted himself to the religious life,
whatever the views or opinions he held, or the association he had
joined, would, in accordance with the remarkable tolerance of that age
and country, be treated with equal respect and courtesy. And the same
note runs all through the Dialogue. The Buddha shows the advantages of
the `life of a recluse,’ not necessarily of a follower of his own. And
most of what he says would apply as much to his strongest opponents as
to the members of his own Order.

The following, in a constantly ascending order of merit, are the
advantages, visible in this life, which he claims for such a recluse:


1. The honour and respect shown to a member of a religious order.

2. The training in all those lower kinds of mere morality set out in
the very ancient document called `The Sãlas.’ The importance of this
document has been discussed above, in the Introduction to the
Brahmajàla. The details of it may be summarised here as follows:


a. Mercy and kindness to all living things; Section 43 [1]
[\q 58/] b. Honesty.
c. Chastity.
d. Truthfulness, peacefulness, courtesy, and good sense in speech; Section44.
e. Abstinence from luxury of twelve different kinds, and
freedom from trickery and violence;, Section 45.
f. Not injuring plants; Section 46.
g. Not laying up treasure, of seven kinds; Section 47.
h. Not frequenting shows, of twenty-six specified kinds; Section48.
i Not playing games, eighteen being mentioned by name; Section 49.
j Not using luxurious rugs, &c., of twenty different kinds; Section 50.
k. Not using toilet luxuries, of which twenty-two are specified; Section 51.
l. Not talking vain things, of which twenty-seven instances are given; Section 52.
m. Not using sophistical and rude phrases when talking of higher things; Section 53.
n. Not acting as go-between; Section 54.
o. Not practising trickery and mystery under the guise of religion; Section 55
p Not gaining a living by low arts, such as auguries (Section 56);
advising as to the best sorts of various things (Section 57);
prophesying as to war and its results (Section 58); astrology (Section 59);
foretelling famine or plague or the reverse (Section 6o);
arranging marriages, using spells, or worshipping gods (Section 61);
various sorts of medical trickery (Section 62).


3. The confidence of heart, absence of fear, resulting from the consciousness of right doing; Section 63.

4 The habit of keeping guarded the door of his senses; Section 64.

5 The constant self-possession he thus gains; Section 65.

6. The power of being content with little, with simplicity of life; Section 66.

7. The emancipation of heart from the Five Hindrances to
self-masteryÞcovetousness, ill-temper, laziness, worry and flurry, and
perplexity; Section 68-74.

8. The joy and peace that, as a result of the sense of this emancipation, fills his whole being; Section 75.

[\q 59/] 9. The practice of the Four Jhànas; Section 75-82. [2]

10. The Insight arising from knowledge (¤àõa-dassana); Section 83, 84.

11. The power of projecting mental images; Section 85, 86.

12. The five modes of mystic Insight (abhi¤¤à); Section 87-96


a. The practice of iddhi.
b. The Heavenly EarÞhearing heavenly sounds.
c. Knowledge of others’ thoughts.
d. Memory of his own previous births.
e. Knowledge of other people’s previous births (the Heavenly Eye).

13. The realisation of the Four Truths, the destruction of the âsavas, and attainment of Arahatship; Section 97, 98.


Now it is perfectly true that of these thirteen consecutive
propositions, or groups of propositions, it is only the last, No. 13,
which is exclusively Buddhist. But the things omitted, the union of the
whole of those included into one system, the order in which the ideas
are arranged, the way in which they are treated as so many steps of a
ladder whose chief value depends on the fact that it leads up to the
culminating point of Nirvàõa in ArahatshipÞall this is also
distinctively Buddhist. And further, the whole statement, the details of
it, the order of it, must have soaked very thoroughly into the minds of
the early Buddhists. For we find the whole, or nearly the whole, of it
repeated (with direct reference by name to our Sutta as the oldest and
most complete enumeration of it) not only in all the subsequent
dialogues translated in this volume, but also in many others.

In these repetitions the order is always the same, and the details
(so far as they occur) are the same. But one or other of the thirteen
groups is often omitted, and the application of those of them that
remain is always differentÞthat is to say,, they are enumerated in
support, or in illustration, of a different proposition.

A comparison of some of these other applications of the list is full of suggestion as to its real meaning here.

In the Ambaññha the point is as to
caste. The Kshatriya caste is the most honourable, but wisdom and
conduct are higher still. What then is the right conduct, what the right
[\q 60/] wisdom? The conduct (caraõa) is all the above paragraphs from
2-9 inclusive; the wisdom (vijjà) is the rest, 10-13.
[3]

In the Soõadaõóa the question is: What is the
true Brahman?’ After, by his usual Socratic method, leading Soõadaõóa
to acknowledge that the only two essential requisites are goodness and
intelligence, these last are explained as above (2-9 and 10-13).

In the Kåñadanta the question is as to the right sort of sacrifice.
After rejecting animal sacrifice we have generosity (of various kinds,
each better than the last), faith, training in the precepts, and 2-13,
set forth as each of them a better sacrifice than the last.

In the Jàliya the question is whether the soul is the same as, or is
other than, the body. The answer is a counter question. Repeating our
sections 2-13 (omitting 11 and 12) the Buddha asks, at the end of each
subdivision, whether men who do that would be likely to trouble
themselves as to speculations about the soul? And the answer being, of
course, `No,’ rejoins that neither does he.

In the Poññhapàda the question is as to the way in which various
recluses attain to mystic trance. The Buddha’s answer is that it is by
training; and the training should be first in morals (our groups 2 and
3) then in the things mentioned in our groups 4-9, and then in the Four
Aråpa Vimokkhas. The Dialogue then takes up other questions, omitting
our groups 10-13.

In the Kevaóóha the talk is on miracles, mystic powers. And the
Buddha, disparaging all others, calls attention to our groups 2-13.

In the Lohicca the question is as to who is the right sort of
teacher; and the answer is that it is the one whose pupil carries out
our groups 2-13.

In the Tevijja the question is as to the way by which one can attain to union with God (brahmà-sahavyatà). The answer gives our groups 1-8, and then adds the four brahma-vihàras.

In the shorter of the two
Hatthipadopama Suttas [\q 61/] (No. 27 in the Majjhima), the question
discussed between a Brahman and an ascetic is as to the ascendancy of
the Buddha over the other teachers of the time. The Buddha himself
giving afterwards the full reason, repeats our group 2 (omitting however
clauses f to p inclusive
[4] ),
then repeats our groups 6, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9) then omitting groups 10
and 11, quotes two only, the last two (omitting the first three)
[5] of the five Abhi¤¤às in group 12, and concludes with group 13 in full.

In the Mahà Taõhà-saïkhaya Sutta (NO. 38 in the Majjhima), we have
the same sequenceÞour group 2 (omitting f to p), then 6, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8,
and 9. The rest is omitted.

In the next Sutta, the longer of the Assapuras, after a summary in
different words of most of the contents of our group 2, we have our
group 45 then two paragraphs not in our Sutta, then our groups 5, 7, 8,
9, and the last two only out of group 12, and then (as a climax) our
group 13Þall enumerated to show what is the true Brahman, the true
samaõa.

Then again in the Sakuludàyi, NO. 79
of the Majjhima, it is declared to be not for the sake of realising
happiness that recluses take up the celibate life in the Order under the
Buddha, but for the sake of those matters set forth in our groups 2-9
inclusive
[6] , of the two last of the Abhi¤¤às, and above all for the sake of the attainment of Arahatship.

Besides the differences pointed out above between the Suttas
preserved in the Dãgha, and in the Majjhima, respectivelyÞdifferences
due, I think, solely to the difference in the subjects under
discussionÞthere are also a few verbal differences, amounting to
scarcely more than `various readings,’ due, perhaps, to the divergent
traditions of the Dãgha bhàõakà and the Majjhima-bhàõakà (the students
and repeaters of the two collections in which the Dialogues are handed
down to us).

However this may be, it is clear that the sum and the sequence of the
paragraphs in our Sutta is regarded as of [\q 62/] great importance,
not as a statement of Buddhist ethics, or of Buddhist philosophy, or of
the Buddhist religion, but as a statement of the advantages that may be
looked for as the result of life in an Order. And further that the
statement has to be slightly modified and shortened when the question is
the narrower one of life in the particular community which we call the
Buddhist Order.

The difference is interestingÞin the scheme for the Buddhist Order the ¤àõa-dassana,
the power of projecting a mental image (apparently of oneself, which
seems like the earliest germ of the modern Yoga ideas about, the astral
body), the powers of iddhi, the power of hearing heavenly sounds
(something like hearing the music of the spheres), and the power of
knowing the thoughts of others, are all omitted.

In the abstract given above, I have
called these last three, together with the power of calling to mind
one’s own, and other peoples’, previous births, the Five Abhi¤¤às, or
Intuitions. And this is in accord with the passages on which Childers’s
article sub voce is based. But these powers are not so called either in
our text, or in any other Dialogue yet published. The use of the word
abhi¤¤à in this technical sense would seem therefore (to judge from the
published texts) to be a sign of the later date of the book in which it
occurs.
[7] In
the oldest portions of the Piñakas the word is always used in the
general sense of insight, and if any special limitation is hinted at, it
is simply the insight of Arahatship that is emphasised (as in
Dhammapada 423, which is a quotation from Itivuttaka, No. 99, and is
quoted also at Aïguttara I, 165 ).
[8]

The Eightfold
Path is not mentioned in our Sutta. This is not merely because it is not
possible always to mention [\q 63/] everything. The Path does not come
within the special advantages of life in the Order. To enter upon the
Path to Arahatship, to walk along it, is not peculiar to members of the
Order. A bhikshu might reach the goal either along that path, open also
to laymen
[9] ,
or by the process set out in our Sutta. They are two quite distinct
methods of training, of which our Sutta deals only with one

It is essential, in order to understand Buddhist ethics. to bear in
mind that there are (and must be in such a system) several different
lines along which both speculation and edifying teaching run. These are:


1. The course of conduct laid down for
the ordinary Buddhist layman, contained in the Gahapati-vaggas found in
the various nikàyas
[10]

2. The rules as to the outward conduct of the members of the Order, laid down in the Pàñimokkha and in the Khandhakas [11]

3. The system of self-training in higher
things prescribed for members of the Order. Of this our present Sutta is
a striking example.

4. The method of self-training laid down for those who have entered
upon the Path to Arahatship. (The Four Truths, the Eightfold Path, and
the âsavas.)


In the first of these Buddhism goes very little beyond the current
ethics of the day. In the second a very great deal has been simply
incorporated from the rules found expedient by previous recluses, both
Brahman and non-Brahman, though there are numerous differences, both of
the positive regulations included, and also of things deliberately
omitted. Even the third, as we have seen, cannot be considered, except
in a very limited sense, as exclusively Buddhist. It is in the fourth
that the essential doctrines of Buddhism are to be found. All four have,
no doubt, become welded together into a more or less consistent whole.
But to understand the whole, the relation of its various parts has to be
kept constantly in view.

This will explain an apparent contradiction. The last Sutta quoted,
the Sakuludàyi, states that the aim of the religious or celibate life as
led in the Buddha’s Order, is the attainment, in order, of the various
things set out in our Sutta (groups 2-9, 12 and 13).

[\q 64/] Now in other passages other things are stated to be the aim.

Thus in the Saüyutta (IV, 51) the Buddha himself is represented as explaining that the celibate life (the brahmacariyà) [12] is led by his followers for the sake of the complete understanding of pain (dukkha-pari¤¤à).
Further on in the same book (VI, 253 = V, 6, 27) this is three times
repeated, with the suggestive addition that there is one way to this, to
wit, the Noble Eightfold Path.

Again, in the Aïguttara (IV, 7) the higher life is said to be for the
sake of getting rid of, of cutting, through, seven Bonds which prevent
one from attaining Arahatship. The argument on pp. 88, 99 (though the
word brahma-carinyà does not occur) comes to much the same thing.
And further on in the same book (IV, 272) the object is stated to be
for the sake of getting rid of five particular sorts of envy.

Nàgasena is therefore quite right when
he says that the object of renouncing the world to live in the Order is
for the sake of righteousness and peace
[13] ; and in. another place that it is to the end that sorrow may pass away [14] .
All these explanations belong to the Path, not to the rules of the
Order. They are not really inconsistent with the other aim that our
Sutta sets out. And they are only additional proof, if such were needed,
that it is no more possible to sum up in a single phrase (as some
writers have tried to do) the aim of Buddhism, or the object of life in
the Order, than it would be to sum up in a similar way the aim of
Christianity, or the object for which men enter a Christian Order. The
aims are necessarily as various as the character and circumstances of
the various individuals who take them up. And Nàgasena does not hesitate
to addÞand to add in speaking to a kingÞthat some had joined the Order
in terror at the tyranny of kings, some in fear of robbers, some because
they were harassed by debt, and some perhaps merely to gain a
livelihood.

This also would apply to other Orders both in India and elsewhere,
and is quite consistent with our Sutta, which only purports to set forth
the advantages the early Buddhists held to be the likely results of
joining, from whatever motive, such an Order as their own.


[Introduction]



[II] . SâMA¥¥A-PHALA SUTTA [\q 65/]
[THE FRUITS OF THE LIFE OF A RECLUSE]
[15]

[47] I. Thus have I heard. The Blessed One was once dwelling at Ràjagaha in the Mango Grove of Jãvaka the children’s physician [16] ,
with a great company of the brethren, with twelve hundred and fifty of
the brethren. Now at that time the king of Magadha, Ajàtasattu, the son
of the Videha princess
[17] , on the Uposatha day, held on the fifteenth, on Komudi (white [\q 66/] water-lily), the full moon day of the fourth month [18] ,
at night, when the moon was full, was seated on the upper terrace roof
of his palace surrounded by his ministers. And the king, on that sacred
day, gave utterance to a hymn of joy, saying:

`How pleasant, friends, is the moonlight night!

How beautiful, friends, is the moonlight night!

How lovely, friends, is the moonlight night!

How soothing, friends, is the moonlight night!

How grand a sign, friends, is the moonlight night!

`Who is the recluse or Brahman whom we may call upon tonight, who, when we call upon him, shall be able to satisfy our hearts? [19]

2. When he had
thus spoken, a certain minister said to the king: `There is, Sire,
Påraõa Kassapa, the head of an order, of a following, the teacher of a
school, well-known and of repute as a sophist, revered by the people, a
man of experience, who has long been a recluse, old and well stricken in
years. Let your Majesty pay a visit to him. It may well be
[20] that, on calling upon him, your heart, Sire, shall find peace.’ But when he had thus spoken Ajàtasattu the king. kept silence.

3-7. Then other five ministers spake in the same terms of Makkhali of
the cow-pen, [48] of Ajita of the garment of hair, of pakudha
Kaccàyana, of Sa¤jaya of the Belaññha clan, and of the Nigaõñha of the
Nàta clan. And still, to each, Ajàtasattu the king kept silence.

[\q 67/] 8. [49] Now at that time Jãvaka the physician was seated, in
silence, not far from Ajàtasattu the king. And the king said to him:
`But you, friend Jãvaka, why do you say nothing?’

`The Blessed One, Sire, the Arahat, the all-awakened one, is now
lodging in our Mango Grove, with a great company of the brethren, with
twelve hundred and fifty brethren. And this is the good report that has
been noised abroad as to Gotama the Blessed One: ßAn Arahat, fully
awakened, is the exalted One, abounding in wisdom and goodness, happy,
with knowledge of the worlds, unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing
to be led, the teacher of gods and men, a blessed Buddha.û Let your
Majesty pay a visit to him. It may well be that, on calling upon him,
your heart, Sire, shall find peace.’

`Then, friend Jãvaka, have the riding-elephants made ready.’

9. `Very good, Sire!’ said Jãvaka the physician in assent to the
words of the king. And he had five hundred she-elephants made ready, and
the state elephant the king was wont to ride, and had word brought to
the king: `The elephants, Sire, are caparisoned. Do now what seemeth to
you meet.’ Then the king had five hundred of his women mounted on the
she-elephants, one on each; and himself mounted the state elephant; and
he went forth, the attendants bearing torches, in royal pomp, from
Ràjagaha to Jãvaka the physician’s Mango Grove.

10. And the king, when close upon the Mango Grove, was seized with a
sudden fear and consternation, and the hairs on his body stood erect.
And anxious and excited, he said to Jãvaka: [5o] `You are playing me no
tricks, Jãvaka? You are not deceiving me? You are not betraying me to my
foes? How can it be that there should be no sound at all, not a sneeze
nor a cough, in so large an assembly of the brethren, among twelve
hundred and fifty of the brethren

`Fear not, O king I play no trick, neither deceive you; nor would I
betray you to the foe. Go on, O king, [\q 68/] go straight on! There, in
the pavilion hall, the lamps are burning.’

11. Then the king went on, on his elephant as far as the path was
passable for elephants, and then on foot, to the door of the pavilion;
and then said to Jãvaka: `But where, Jãvaka, is the Blessed One?’

`That is he, O king, sitting against the middle pillar, and facing the East, with the brethren around him.

12. Then the king went up, and stood respectfully on one side. And as
he stood there and looked on the assembly, seated in perfect silence,
calm as a clear lake, he broke out: `Would that my son, Udàyi Bhadda,
might have such calm as this assembly of the brethren now has! `

`Do your thoughts then go where love guides them?’

`I love the boy, and wish that he, Udàyi Bhadda, might enjoy such calm as this assembly has.’

13. Then the king bowed to the Blessed One, and stretching forth his
joined palms in salutation to the Order took his seat aside, [51] and
said to the Blessed One: `I would fain question the Blessed One on a
certain matter, if he give me opportunity to set forth the question.’

`Ask, O king, whatsoever you desire.’

14. `There are, Sir, a number of
ordinary crafts mahouts, horsemen, charioteers, archers, standard
bearers, camp marshalls, camp followers, high military officers of royal
birth, military scouts
[21] ,
men brave as elephants, champions, heroes, warriors in buckskin,
home-born slaves, cooks, barbers, bath attendants, confectioners,
garland-makers, washermen, weavers, basket-makers, potters,
arithmeticians, accountants, and whatsoever others of like kind there
may be. All [\q 69/] these enjoy, in this very world, the visible fruits
of their craft. They maintain themselves, and their parents and
children and friends, in happiness and comfort. They keep up gift, the
object of which is gain on high, to recluses and BrahmansÞgifts that
lead to rebirth in heaven, that redound to happiness, and have bliss as
their result. Can you, Sir, declare to me any such immediate fruit,
visible in this very world, of the life of a recluse
[22]?

15. `Do you admit to us, O king, that you have put the same question to other recluses or to Brahmans’

`I do, Lord.’

`Then tell us how they answered it, if you do not mind.’

`I have no objection where the Blessed One, or others like him, are.’

[52] `Then speak, O king.’

16. `Once I went to Påraõa Kassapa [23] .
And after exchanging with him the greetings and compliments of
friendship and courtesy, I seated myself beside him, and put to him the
same question as I have now put, Lord, to you.


17. `Then Påraõa Kassapa said to me:
ßTo him who acts, O king, or causes another to act, to him who mutilates
or causes another to mutilate, to him who punishes or causes another to
punish, to him who causes grief or torment, to him who trembles or
causes others to tremble, to him who kills a living creature, who takes
what is not given, who breaks into houses, who commits dacoity, or
robbery, or highway robbery, or adultery, or who speaks lies, to him
thus acting there is no guilt. If with a discus with an edge sharp as
[\q 70/] a razor he should make all the living creatures on the earth
one heap, one mass, of flesh, there would be no guilt thence resulting,
no increase of guilt would ensue. Were he to go along the south bank of
the Ganges striking and slaying, mutilating and having men mutilated,
oppressing and having men oppressed, there would be no guilt thence
resulting, no increase of guilt would ensue. Were he to go along the
north bank of the Ganges giving alms, and ordering gifts to be given,
offering sacrifices or causing them to be offered, there would be no
merit thence resulting no increase of merit. [53] In generosity, in
self-mastery, in control of the senses, in speaking truth there is
neither merit, nor increase of merit.û Thus, Lord, did Påraõa Kassapa,
when asked what was the immediate advantage in the life of a recluse,
expound his theory of non-action,
[24] just,
Lord, as if a man, when asked what a mango was, should explain what a
bread fruit is, just so did Påraõa Kassapa, when asked what was the
fruit, in this present state of being, of the life of a recluse, expound
his theory of non-action. Then, Lord, it occurred to me: ßHow should
such a one as I think of giving dissatisfaction to any recluse or
Brahman in my realm?û So I neither applauded nor blamed what he said,
and though dissatisfied I gave utterance to no expression of
dissatisfaction, and neither accepting nor rejecting that answer of his,
I arose from my seat, and departed thence.


19. [’In the same manner I went to
five other teachers, and receiving to this same question put an answer
not to the point, I behaved in each case as just set forth. And the
answers of the five were thus:
[25]

[\q 71/] 20. `When one day I had thus asked Makkhali of the cow-pen [26] ,
he said: ßThere is, O king, no cause, either ultimate or remote, for
the depravity of beings; they become. depraved without reason and
without cause. There is no cause, either proximate or remote, for the
rectitude of beings; they become pure without reason and without cause.
The attainment of any given condition, of any character, does not depend
either on one’s own acts, or on the acts of another, or on human
effort. There is no such thing as power or energy, or human strength or
human vigour. All animals, all creatures (with one, two, or more
senses), all beings (produced from eggs or in a womb), all souls (in
plants)
[27] are
without force and power and energy of their own. They are bent this way
and that by their fate, by the necessary conditions of the class to
which they belong, by their individual nature: and it is according to
their position in one or other of the six classes that they experience
ease or pain.

[\q 72/] [54] ß`There are fourteen hundred thousands of the principal
sorts of birth, and again six thousand others, and again six hundred.
There are five hundred sorts of karma, and again five (according to the
five senses), and again three (according to act, word, and thought); and
there is a whole karma and a half karma (the whole being a karma of act
or word, the half a karma of thought).

ß`There are sixty-two paths (or modes of conduct), sixty-two periods, six classes (or distinctions among men) [28] , eight stages of a prophet’s existence [29] , forty-nine hundred sorts of occupation [30] ,
forty-nine hundred sorts of wandering mendicants, forty-nine hundred
regions dwelt in by Nàgas, two thousand faculties, three thousand
purgatories, thirty-six places where dust accumulates, seven sorts of
animate and seven of inanimate production, and seven of production by
grafting, seven sorts of gods, and of men, and of devils, and of great
lakes, and seven principal and again seven hundred minor sorts of
Pacuñas
[31] of precipices, and of dreams.

ß`There are eighty-four hundred thousand periods during which both
fools and wise alike, wandering in transmigration, shall at last make an
end of pain. Though the wise should hope: `By this virtue or this
performance of duty, or this penance, or this righteousness will I make
the karma (I have inherited), that is not yet mature, mature’Þthough the
fool should hope, by the same means, to get gradually rid of karma that
has maturedÞneither of them can do it. The ease and pain, measured out,
as it were, with a measure, cannot be altered in the course of
transmigration. there [\q 73/] can be neither increase nor decrease
thereof, neither excess nor deficiency. Just as when a ball of string is
cast forth it will spread out just as far, and no farther, than it can
unwind, just so both fools and wise alike, wandering in transmigration
exactly for the allotted term, shall then, and only then, make an end of
pain.û

`Thus, Lord, did Makkhali of the cow-pen, when asked what was the
immediate advantage in the life of a recluse, expound his theory of
purification through transmigration.

[55] 23. `When, one day, I had thus asked Ajita of the garment of hair, he said [32] :


ßThere is no such thing, O king, as
alms or sacrifice or offering. There is neither fruit nor result of good
or evil deeds. There is no such thing as this world or the next. There
is neither father nor mother, nor beings springing into life without
them. There are in the world no recluses or Brahmans who have reached
the highest point
[33] ,
who; walk perfectly, and who having understood and realised, by
themselves alone, both this world and the next, make their wisdom known
to others.


`ßA human being is built up of the
four elements. When he dies the earthy in him returns and relapses to
the earth, the fluid to the water, the heat to the fire, the windy to
the air, and his faculties
[34] pass
into space. The four bearers, on the bier as a fifth, take his dead
body away; till they reach the burning-ground men utter forth eulogies,
but there his bones are bleached, [\q 74/] and his offerings
[35] end
in ashes. It is a doctrine of fools, this talk of gifts. It is an empty
lie, mere idle talk, when men say there is profit therein. Fools and
wise alike, on the dissolution of the body, are cut off, annihilated,
and after death they are not.û

`Thus, Lord, did Ajita of the garment of hair, when asked what was
the immediate advantage in the life of a recluse, expound his theory of
annihilation.

[56] 26. `When, one day, I had thus asked Pakudha Kaccàyana, he said,
ßThe following seven things, O king, are neither made nor commanded to
be made, neither created nor caused to be created, they are barren (so
that nothing is produced out of them), stedfast as a mountain peak, as a
pillar firmly fixed. They move not, neither do they vary, they trench
not one upon another, nor avail aught as to ease or pain or both. And
what are the seven? The four elementsÞearth, water, fire, and airÞand
case, and pain, and the soul as a. seventh. So there is neither slayer
nor causer of slaying, hearer or speaker, knower or explainer. When one
with a sharp sword cleaves a head in twain, no one thereby deprives any
one of life, a sword has only penetrated into the interval between seven
elementary substances.û

`Thus, Lord, did Pakudha Kaccàyana, when asked what was the immediate
advantage in the life of a recluse, expound the matter by expounding
something else.

[57] 28. `When, one day, I had thus
asked the Nigaõñha of the Nàta clan, he said: ßA Nigaõñha, O king (a man
free from bonds), is restrained with a fourfold self-restraint. He
lives restrained as regards all water; restrained as regards all evil;
all evil has he washed away; and he lives suffused with the sense of
evil held at bay. Such is his fourfold self-restraint. And since he is
thus tied with this fourfold [\q 75/] bond, therefore is he, the
Nigaõñha (free from bonds), called Gatatto (whose heart has gone; that
is, to the summit, to the attainment, of his aim) Yatatto (whose heart
is kept down; that is, is under command), and òhitatto (whose heart is
fixed ).û
[36]

`Thus, Lord, did the Nigaõñha of the Nàta
clan, when asked what was the immediate advantage in the life of a
recluse, expound his theory of the fourfold bond.

[58] 31. `When, one day, I had thus
asked Sa¤jaya of the Belaññha clan, he said: ßIf you ask me whether
there is another worldÞwell, if I thought there were, I would say so.
But I don’t say so. And I don’t think it is thus or thus. And I don’t
think it is otherwise. And I don’t deny it. And I don’t say there
neither is nor is not, another world. And if you ask me about the beings
produced by chance; or whether there is any fruit, any result, of good
or bad actions; or whether a man who has won the truth continues, or
not, after deathÞto each or any of these questions do I give the same
reply.û
[37]

[59] 33.
`Thus, Lord, did Sa¤jaya of the Belaññha clan, when asked what was the
immediate advantage in the life of a recluse, show his manner of
prevarication. And to him, as to all the others, I expressed neither
approval nor dissatisfaction, but neither accepting nor [\q 76/]
rejecting what was said, I arose from my seat, and departed thence.
[38]

34. And now, Lord, I put the same question to
the Blessed One. Can you show me any immediate fruit, in this world, of
the life of a recluse, such as those who follow each of the occupations
I have mentioned are, each of them, able to show?’

`I can, O king. And to that end I would fain put a question to you. Answer it as you may think most fit.

[60] 35. `Now what do you think, O king. Suppose among the people of
your household there were a slave who does work for you, rises up in the
morning before you do and retires earlier to rest, who is keen to carry
out your pleasure, anxious to make himself agreeable in what he does
and says, a man who watches your every look. Suppose he should think,
ßStrange is it and wonderful, this issue of meritorious deeds, this
result of merit! Here is this king of Magadha, Ajàtasattu, the son of
the Videha princessÞhe is a man, and so am I. But the king lives in the
full enjoyment and possession of the five pleasures of senseÞa very god,
methinksÞand here am I a slave, working for him, rising before him and
retiring earlier to rest, keen to carry out his pleasure, anxious to
make myself agreeable in deed and word, watching his very looks. Would
that I were like him, that I too might earn merit. Why should not I have
my hair and beard shaved off, [\q 77/] and don the yellow robes, and
going forth from the household state, renounce the world?û And suppose,
after a time, he should do so. And having been admitted into an Order,
should dwell restrained in act and word and thought. content with mere
food and shelter, delighting in solitude. And suppose your people should
tell you of this, saying: ßIf it please your majesty, do you know that
such a one, formerly your slave, who worked for you, and so on (all as
before) has now donned the yellow robes, and has been admitted into an
Order, and dwells restrained, content with mere food and shelter,
delighting in solitude?û Would you then say, ßLet the man come back; let
him become a slave again, and work for meû?’

36. `Nay, Lord, rather should we greet him with reverence [61] , and
rise up from our seat out of deference towards him, and press him to be
seated. And we should have robes and a bowl, and a lodging place, and
medicine for the sickÞall the requisites of a recluseÞmade ready, and
beg him to accept of them. And we should order watch and ward and guard
to be kept for him according to the law.’

`But what do you think, O king. That being so, is there, or is there
not, some fruit, visible in this world, of the life of a recluse?’

`Certainly, Lord, that is so.’

`This then, O king, is the first kind of the fruit, visible in this
world, which I maintained to arise from the life of a recluse.’

37. `Can you, Lord, show me any other fruit, visible in this world, of the life of a recluse?’

`I can, O king. And to that end I would fain put a question, &c.
[as before, to the end of Section 36, the case now put being that of a
free man who cultivates his land, a householder, who pays taxes and thus
increases the king’s wealth, but gives up his little property and his
position in his clan, and enters an Order.] ‘

[62] 39. `Can you, Lord, show me any other fruit, visible in this
world, of the life of a recluse, a fruit higher and sweeter than these?û

[\q 78/] `I can, O king. Give ear therefore, O king, and give good heed, and I will speak.

40. `Suppose, O king, there appears in
the world one who has won the truth, an Arahat, a fully awakened one,
abounding in wisdom and goodness, happy, who knows all worlds,
unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to be led, a teacher for gods
and men, a Blessed One, a Buddha. He, by himself, thoroughly knows and
sees, as it were, face to face this universeÞincluding the worlds above
of the gods, the Brahmas, and the Màras, and the world below with its
recluses and Brahmans, its princes and peoplesÞand having known it, he
makes his knowledge known to others. The truth, lovely in its origin,
lovely in its progress, lovely in its consummation, doth he proclaim,
both in the spirit and in the letter, the higher life doth he make
known, in all its fullness and in all its purity.
[39]

41. `A householder [40] or
one of his children, or a man of inferior birth in any class listens to
that truth; and on hearing it he has faith in the Tathàgata (the one
who has found the truth); and when he is possessed of that faith, he
considers thus within himself:

Full of hindrances is household life, a path for the dust of passion.
Free as the air is the life of him who has renounced all worldly
things. How difficult is it for the man who dwells at home to live the
higher life in all its fullness, in all its purity, in all its bright
perfection! Let me then cut off my hair and beard, let me clothe myself
in the orange-coloured robes, and let me go forth from the household
life into the homeless state.û

`Then, before long, forsaking his portion of wealth, be it great or
small, forsaking his circle of relatives, be they many or be they few,
he cuts off his hair and beard, he clothes himself in the
orange-coloured robes, [\q 79/] and he goes forth from the household
life into the homeless state.

42. `When he has thus become a recluse he lives self-restrained by that restraint that should be binding on a recluse [41] .
Uprightness is his delight, and he sees danger in the least of those
things he should avoid. He adopts, and trains himself in, the precepts.
He encompasses himself with good deeds in act and word. Pure are his
means of livelihood, good is his conduct, guarded the door of his
senses. Mindful and self-possessed he is altogether happy.

43. `And how, O king, is his conduct good?

`In this, O king, that the Bhikshu, putting away the killing of
living things, holds aloof from the destruction of life. The cudgel and
the sword he has laid aside, and ashamed of roughness, and full of
mercy, he dwells compassionate and kind to all creatures that have life.

`This is part of the goodness that he has.

[Here follow the whole of the Sãlas (the paragraphs on minor
morality), in the words already translated above in the Brahma-jàla
Sutta, Section 8 to 27. Only for `Gotama the recluse’ one should read
`the Bhikshu’; and alter in each case the words of the refrain
accordingly.]

[69] 63. , And then that Bhikshu, O king, being thus master of the
minor moralities, sees no danger from any side, that is, so far as
concerns his self-restraint in conduct. Just, O king, as a sovereign,
duly crowned, whose enemies have been beaten down, sees no danger from
any side; [70] that is, so far as enemies are concerned, so is the
Bhikshu confident. And endowed with this body of morals, so worthy of
honour, he experiences, within himself, a sense of ease without alloy.
Thus is it, O king, that the Bhikshu becomes righteous.

64. `And how, O king, is the Bhikshu guarded as to the doors of his senses [42]?

[\q 80/] `When, O king, he sees an object with his eye he is not entranced in the general appearance or the details of it [43] .
He sets himself to restrain that which might give occasion for evil
states, covetousness and dejection, to flow in over him so long as he
dwells unrestrained as to his sense of sight. He keeps watch upon his
faculty of sight, and he attains to mastery over it. And so, in like
manner, when he hears a sound with his ear, or smells an odour with his
nose, or tastes a flavour with his tongue, or feels a touch with his
body, or when he cognises a phenomenon with his mind he is not entranced
in the general appearance or the details of it. He sets himself to
restrain that which might give occasion for evil states, covetousness
and dejection, to flow in over him so long as he dwells unrestrained as
to his mental (representative) faculty. He keeps watch upon his
representative faculty, and he attains to mastery over it. And endowed
with this self-restraint, so worthy of honour, as regards the senses, he
experiences, within himself, a sense of ease into which no evil state
can enter
[44] . Thus is it, O king, that the Bhikshu becomes guarded as to the doors of his senses.

65. `And how, O king, is the Bhikshu mindful and self-possessed?

`In this matter, O king, the Bhikshu
in going forth or in coming back keeps clearly before his mind’s eye
(all that is wrapt up thereinÞthe immediate object of [\q 81/] the act
itself, its ethical significance, whether or not it is conducive to the
high aim set before him, and the real facts underlying the mere
phenomenon of the outward act). And so also in looking forward, or in
looking round; in stretching forth his arm, or in drawing it in again;
in eating or drinking, in masticating or swallowing, in obeying the
calls of nature, in going or standing or sitting, in sleeping or waking,
in speaking or in being still, he keeps himself aware of all it really
means
[45] . Thus is it, O king, that the Bhikshu becomes mindful and self-possessed.

[71] 66. `And how, O king, is the Bhikshu content?

`In this matter, O king, the Bhikshu
is satisfied with sufficient robes to cherish his body, with sufficient
food to keep his stomach going. Whithersoever he may go forth, these he
takes with him as he goesÞjust as a bird with his wings, O king,,
whithersoever he may fly, carries his wings with him as he flies. Thus
is it, O king, that the Bhikshu becomes content
[46]

[\q 82/] 67. `Then, master of this so
excellent body of moral precepts, gifted with this so excellent
self-restraint as to the senses, endowed with this so excellent
mindfulness and self-possession, filled with this so excellent content,
he chooses some lonely spot to rest at on his wayÞin the woods, at the
foot of a tree, on a hill side, in a mountain glen, in a rocky cave, in a
charnel place, or on a heap of straw in the open field. And returning
thither after his round for alms he seats himself, when his meal is
done, cross-legged, keeping his body erect, and his intelligence alert,
intent.

68. `Putting away the hankering after the world [47] .
he remains with a heart that hankers not, and purifies his mind of
lusts. Putting away the corruption of the wish to injure, he remains
with a heart free from ill temper, and purifies his mind of malevolence.
Putting away torpor of heart and mind
[48] , keeping his ideas alight [49] ,
mindful and self-possessed, he purifies his mind of weakness and of
sloth. Putting away flurry and worry, he remains free from fretfulness,
and with heart serene within, he purifies himself of irritability and
vexation of spirit. Putting away wavering, he remains as one passed
beyond perplexity; and no longer in suspense as to what is good, he
purifies his mind of doubt.


69. `Then just, O king, as when a man, after contracting a loan [50] ,
should set a business on foot, and his [\q 83/] business should
succeed, and he should not only be able to pay off the old debt he had
incurred, but there should be a surplus over to maintain a wife. Then
would he realise [72] : ßI used to have to carry on my business by
getting into debt, but it has gone so well with me that I have paid off
what I owed, and have a surplus over to maintain a wife.û And he would
be of good cheer at that, would be glad of heart at that:

70. `Then just, O king, as if a man were a prey to disease, in pain,
and very ill, and his food would not digest, and there were no strength
left in him; and after a time he were to recover from that disease, and
his food should digest, and his strength come back to him; then, when he
realised his former and his present state, he would be of good cheer at
that, he would be glad of heart at that:

71. `Then just, O king, as if a man were bound in a prison house, and
after a time he should be set free from his bonds, safe and sound, and
without any confiscation of his goods; when he realised his former and
his present state, he would be of good cheer at that, he would be glad
of heart at that:

72. `Then just, O king, as if a man were a slave, not his own master,
subject to another, unable to go whither he would; and after a time he
should be emancipated from that slavery, become his own master, not
subject to others, a free man, free to go whither he would; then, on
realising his former and his present state, he would be of good cheer at
that, he would be glad of heart at that:

[73] 73. `Then just, O king, as if a man, rich and prosperous, were
to find himself on a long, road, in a desert, where no food was, but
much danger; and after a time were to find himself out of the desert,
arrived safe, on the borders of his village, in security and peace;
then, on realising his former and his present state, he would be of good
cheer at that, he would be glad of heart at that

74. `Just so, O king, the Bhikshu, so long as these [\q 84/] five
Hindrances are not put away within him looks upon himself as in debt,
diseased, in prison, in slavery, lost on a desert road. But when these
five Hindrances have been put away within him, he looks upon himself as
freed from debt, rid of disease, out of jail, a free man, and secure;

75. `And gladness springs up within
him on his realising that, and joy arises to him thus gladdened, and so
rejoicing all his frame becomes at ease, and being thus at ease he is
filled with a sense of peace, and in that peace his heart is stayed.
[51]

75A. `Then
estranged from lusts, aloof from evil dispositions. he enters into and
remains in the First RaptureÞa state of joy and ease born of detachment
[52] , reasoning and investigation going on the while.

`His very body does he so pervade, drench, permeate, and suffuse with
the joy and ease born of detachment, that there is no spot in his whole
frame not suffused therewith.

[74] 76. `Just, O king, as a skilful bathman or his apprentice will
scatter perfumed soap powder in a metal basin, and then besprinkling it
with water, drop by drop, will so knead it together that the ball of
lather, taking up the unctuous moisture, is drenched with it, pervaded
by it, permeated by it within and without, and there is no leakage
possible.

[\q 85/] `This, O king, is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse, visible in this world, higher and sweeter than the last.

77. `Then further, O king, the Bhikshu
suppressing all reasoning and investigation enters into and abides in
the Second Jhàna, a state of joy and ease, born of the serenity of
concentration, when no reasoning or investigation goes onÞa state of
elevation
[53] of mind, a tranquillisation of the heart within.

`And his very body does he so pervade, drench, permeate, and suffuse
with the joy and ease born of concentration, that there is no spot in
his whole frame not suffused therewith.

78. `Just, O king, as if there were a deep pool, with water welling
up into it from a spring beneath, and with no inlet from the east or
west, from the north or south, and the god should not from time to time
send down showers of rain upon it. Still the current of cool waters
rising up from that spring would pervade., fill, permeate, and suffuse
the pool with cool waters, and there would be no part or portion of the
pool unsuffused therewith.

[75] `This, O king, is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse, visible in this world, and higher and sweeter than the last.

79. `Then further, O king, the Bhikshu, holding aloof from joy, becomes equable [54] ;
and mindful and self-possessed he experiences in his body that case
which the Arahats talk of when they say: ßThe man serene and
self-possessed is well at ease,û and so he enters into and abides in the
Third Jhàna.

`And his very body does he so pervade, drench, [\q 86/] permeate, and
suffuse with that case that has no joy with it, that there is no spot
in his whole frame not suffused therewith.

80. `Just, O king, as when in a lotus tank the several lotus flowers,
red or white or blue, born in the water, grown up in the water, not
rising up above the surface of the water, drawing up nourishment from
the depths of the water, are so pervaded, drenched, permeated, and
suffused from their very tips down to their roots with the cool moisture
thereof, that there is no spot in the whole plant, whether of the red
lotus, or of the white, or of the blue, not suffused therewith.

`This, O king, is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse, visible in this world, and higher and sweeter than the last.

8. `Then further, O king, the Bhikshu, by the putting away alike of
ease and of pain, by the passing, away alike of any elation,. any
dejection, he had previously felt, enters into and abides in the Fourth
Jhàna, a state of pure self-possession and equanimity, without pain and
without case.

[76] `And he sits there so suffusing even his body with that sense of
purification, of translucence, of heart, that there is no spot in his
whole frame not suffused therewith.

82. `Just, O king, as if a man were sitting so wrapt from head to
foot in a clean white robe, that there were no spot in his whole frame
not in contact with the clean white robeÞjust so, O king, does the
Bhikshu sit there, so suffusing even his body with that sense of
purification, of translucence, of heart, that there is no spot in his
whole frame not suffused therewith.

`This, O king, is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse, and higher and sweeter than the last.

83. `With his heart thus serene, made
pure, translucent, cultured, devoid of evil, supple, ready to act, firm,
and imperturbable, he applies and bends down his mind to that insight
that comes from knowledge. He grasps the fact: ßThis body of mine has
form, it is built up of the four elements, it springs from father [\q
87/] and mother, it is continually renewed by so much boiled rice and
juicy foods, its very nature is impermanence, it is subject to erasion,
abrasion, dissolution, and disintegration;
[55] and therein is this consciousness [56] of mine, too, bound up, on that does it depend.û


84. `Just, O king, as if there were a
Veluriya gem, bright, of the purest water, with eight facets,
excellently cut, clear, translucent, without a flaw, excellent in every
way. And through it a string, blue, or orange-coloured, or red, or
white, or yellow should be threaded. If a man, who had eyes to see, were
to take it into his hand, he would clearly perceive how the one is
bound up with the other.
[57]

[77] `This, O king, is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse, visible in this world, and higher and sweeter than the last.

85. `With his heart thus serene, made
pure, translucent, cultured, devoid of evil, supple, ready to act, firm,
and imperturbable, he applies and bends down his mind to the calling up
of a mental image. He calls up from this body another body, having
form, [\q 88/] made of mind, having all (his own body’s) limbs and
parts, not deprived of any organ;
[58]

86. `Just, O
king, as if a man were to pull out a reed from its sheath. He would
know: ßThis is the reed, this the sheath. The reed is one thing, the
sheath another. It is from the sheath that the reed has been drawn
forth.û
[59] And similarly were he to take a snake out of its slough, or draw a sword from its scabbard.’ [60]

`This, O king, is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse, visible in this life, and higher and sweeter than the last.

87. `With his heart thus serene, made
pure, translucent, cultured, devoid of evil, supple, ready to act, firm
and imperturbable, he applies and bends down his mind to the modes of
the Wondrous Gift
[61] .
[78] He enjoys the Wondrous Gift in its various modesÞbeing one he
becomes many, or having become many becomes one again; he becomes
visible or invisible; he goes, feeling no obstruction, to the further
side of a wall or rampart or hill, as if through air; he penetrates up
and down through solid ground, as if through water; he walks on water
without breaking [\q 89/] through, as if on solid ground; he travels
cross-legged in the sky, like the birds on wing; even the Moon and the
Sun, so potent, so mighty though they be, does he touch and feel with
his hand; he reaches in the body even up to the heaven of Brahmà.

88. `Just, O king, as a clever potter or his apprentice could make,
could succeed in getting out of properly prepared clay any shape of
vessel he wanted to haveÞor an ivory carver out of ivory, or a goldsmith
out of gold.

[79] `This, O king, is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse, and higher and sweeter than the last.

89. `With his heart thus serene, made pure, translucent, cultured,
devoid of evil, supple, ready to act, firm and imperturbable, he applies
and bends down his mind to the Heavenly Ear. With that clear Heavenly
Ear surpassing the ear of men he hears sounds both human and celestial,
whether far or near.

90. `Just, O king, as if a man were on
the high road and were to hear the sound of a kettledrum or a tabor or
the sound of chank horns and small drums he would know: ßThis is the
sound of a kettledrum, this is the sound of a tabor, this of chank
horns, and of drums.û
[62] `This, O king, is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse, visible in this life, and higher and sweeter than the last.

91. `With his heart thus serene (&c. as before), he directs and
bends down his mind to the knowledge which penetrates the heart.
Penetrating with his own heart the hearts of other beings, of other men,
he knows them. He discerns Þ


The passionate mind to be passionate, and the calm mind calm;
[80] The angry mind to be angry, and the peaceful mind peaceful;
The dull mind to be dull, and the alert mind alert;
[\q 90/] The attentive mind to be attentive, and the wandering mind wandering;
The broad mind to be broad, and the narrow mind narrow;
The mean mind to be mean, and the lofty mind lofty
[63] ;
The stedfast mind to be stedfast, and the wavering mind to be wavering;
The free mind to be free, and the enslaved mind enslaved.


92. `Just, O king, as a woman or a man or a lad, young and smart, on
considering attentively the image of his own face in a bright and
brilliant mirror or in a vessel of clear water would, if it had a mole
on it, know that it had, and if not, would know it had not.

[81] `This, O king, is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse, visible in this world, and higher and sweeter than the last.

93. `With his heart thus serene
(&c. as before), he directs and bends down his mind to the knowledge
of the memory of his previous temporary states. He recalls to mind his
various temporary states in days gone byÞone birth, or two or three or
four or five births, or ten or twenty or thirty or forty or fifty or a
hundred or a thousand or a hundred thousand births, through many an aeon
of dissolution, many an aeon of evolution, many an aeon of both
dissolution and evolution
[64] .ß In such a place such was my name, such my family, such my caste [65] ,
such my food, such my experience of discomfort or of ease, and such the
limits of my life. When I passed away from that state, I took form
again in such a place. There I had [\q 91/] such and such a name and
family and caste and food and experience of discomfort or of ease, such
was the limit of my life. When I passed away from that state I took form
again hereûÞthus does he call to mind his temporary state in days gone
by in all their details, and in all their modes.


94. `Just, O king, as if a man were to
go from his own to another village, and from that one to another, and
from that one should return home. Then he would know: ßFrom my own
village I came to that other one. There I stood in such and such a way,
sat thus, spake thus, and held my peace thus. Thence I came to that
other village; and there I stood in such and such a way, sat thus, spake
thus, and held my peace thus. And now, from that other village, I have
returned back again home.û
[66]

[82] `This, O king, is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse. Visible in this world, and higher and sweeter than the last.

95. `With his heart thus
serene (&c. as before), he directs and bends down his mind to the
knowledge of the fall and rise of beings. With the pure Heavenly Eye
[67] ,
surpassing that of men, he sees beings as they pass away from one form
of existence and take shape in another; he recognises the mean and the
noble, the well favoured and the ill favoured, the happy and the
wretched, passing away according to their deeds:


ßSuch and such beings, my brethren, in
act and word and thought, revilers of the noble ones, holding to wrong
views, acquiring for themselves that karma which results from wrong
views, they, on the dissolution of the body, after death, are reborn in
some unhappy state of suffering or woe. But such and such beings, my
brethren, well doers in act and word and thought, not revilers of the
noble ones, holding to right views, [\q 92/] acquiring for themselves
that karma that results from right views, they, on the dissolution of
the body, after death, are reborn in some happy state in heaven.û Thus
with the pure Heavenly Eye, surpassing that of men, [83] he sees beings
as they pass away from one state of existence, and take form in another;
he recognises the mean and the noble, the well favoured and the ill
favoured, the happy and the wretched, passing away according to their
deeds.
[68]

96. Just, O
king, as if there were a house with an upper terrace on it in the midst
of a place where four roads meet, and a man standing thereon, and with
eyes to see, should watch men entering a house, and coming forth out of
it, and walking hither and thither along the street
[69] ,
and seated in the square in the midst. Then he would know: ßThose men
are entering a house, and those are leaving it, and those are walking to
and fro in the street, and those are seated in the square in the
midst.û

`This, O king, is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse, visible in this world, and higher and sweeter than the last.

97. `With his heart thus serene
(&c. as before), he directs and bends down his mind to the knowledge
of the destruction of the Deadly Floods
[70] .
He knows [\q 93/] as it really is: ßThis is pain.û [84] He knows as it
really is: ßThis is the origin of pain.û He knows as it really is: ßThis
is the cessation of pain.û He knows as it really is: ßThis is the Path
that leads to the cessation of pain.û He knows as they really are:
ßThese are the Deadly Floods.û He knows as it really is, “This is the
origin of the Deadly Floods.û He knows as it really is: ßThis is the
cessation of the Deadly Floods.û He knows as it really is: ßThis is the
Path that, leads to the cessation of the Deadly Floods.û To him, thus
knowing, thus seeing, the heart is set free from the Deadly Taint of
Lusts,
[71] is set free from the Deadly Taint of Becomings, [72] is set free from the Deadly Taint of Ignorance. [73] In
him, thus set free, there arises the knowledge of his emancipation, and
he knows: ßRebirth has been destroyed. The higher life has been
fulfilled. What had to be done has been accomplished. After this present
life there will be no beyond!û


98. `Just, O king, as if in a mountain
fastness there were a pool of water, clear, translucent, and Serene;
and a man, standing on the bank, and with eyes to see, should perceive
the oysters and the shells, the gravel and the pebbles and the shoals of
fish, as they move about or lie within it: he would know: ßThis [\q
94/] pool is clear, transparent, and serene, and there within it are the
oysters and the shells, and the sand and gravel, and the shoals of fish
are moving about or lying still.û
[74]

[85] `This, O
king, is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse, visible in this
world, and higher and sweeter than the last. And there is no fruit of
the life of a recluse, visible in this world, that is higher and sweeter
than this.’
[75]

99. And when he had thus spoken, Ajàtasattu
the king said to the Blessed One: `Most excellent, Lord, most excellent!
just as if a man were to set up that which has been thrown down, or
were to reveal that which is hidden away, or were to point out the right
road to him who has gone astray, or were to bring a lamp into the
darkness so that those who have eyes could see external formsÞjust even
so, Lord, has the truth been made known to me, in many a figure, by the
Blessed One. And now I betake myself, Lord, to the Blessed One as my
refuge, to the Truth, and to the Order. May the Blessed One accept me as
a disciple, as one who, from this day forth, as long as life endures,
has taken his refuge in them. Sin has overcome me, Lord, weak and
foolish and wrong that I am, in that, for the sake of sovranty, I put to
death my father, that righteous man, that righteous king! May the
Blessed One accept it of me, Lord, that do so acknowledge it as a sin,
to the end that in future I may restrain myself.’

100. `Verily, O king, it was sin that
overcame you in acting thus. But in as much as you look upon it as sin,
and confess it according to what is right, we accept your confession as
to that. For that, O king, is custom in the discipline of the noble ones
[76] ,
that whosoever [\q 95/] looks upon his fault as a fault, and rightfully
confesses it, shall attain to self-restraint in future.’

101. When he had thus spoken, Ajàtasattu the king said to the Blessed
One: `Now, Lord, we would fain go. We are busy, and there is much to
do.’

`Do, O king, whatever seemeth to thee fit.’

Then Ajàtasattu the king, pleased and delighted with the words of the
Blessed One, arose from his seat, and bowed to the Blessed One, and
keeping him on the right hand as he passed him, departed thence,

102. Now the Blessed One, not long
after Ajàtasattu the king had gone, addressed the brethren, and said:
`This king, brethren, was deeply affected,. he was touched in heart. If,
brethren, the king had not put his father to death, that righteous man,
and righteous king, then would the clear and spotless eye for the truth
have arisen in him, even as he sat there
[77] .’

Thus spake the Blessed One. The brethren were pleased and delighted at his words.

Here ends the Discourse on the Fruits of the Life of a Recluse.

Sàrna¤¤a-phala Sutta is ended.


[1]
Details a-d (though the fact is not referred to here) are the opposites
of’ the three bad acts of the body, and the four bad acts of speech,
kàya-and vacã-duccaritàni, so often referred to in the Suttas, and in
the Abhidhamma. The three others (of the mind), making up the ten given
in my manual, p. 142, are omitted here because they belong to the higher
morality.

[2] Buddhaghosa (p. 219) says that though the four aråpa vimokkhas are not explicitly mentioned they are to be understood (thus making up the eight samàpattis).
This may be so: but it looks like a later writer reading his own
opinion into the older text. They are put into the text at Poññhapàda,
pp. 183, 184, and it is difficult to see why they should not have been
also inserted here, if they were really implied.


[3]
Possibly Nos. 11 and 12 are meant, both here and in all the other
Suttas, to be omitted. The wording is ambiguous. Buddhaghosa, who talks
here (see p. 268) of Nos. 10-13 as the Eightfold pa¤¤à,
apparently means to include them (he could not otherwise get eight). But
the argument of the Mahàli seems to exclude them. The texts always jump
from the last words of 10 to the last words of 13. Now as in the Mahàli
No. 12 is excluded, it is clear that at least there only Nos. 10 and 13
are meant. And there is no difference between the phraseology in the
Mahàli and that used in the other Suttas.


[4] From which we may infer that, as respects those matters, he saw no difference between himself and the other teachers.


[5] So that the power of iddhi,
of hearing heavenly sounds and of knowing other people’s thoughts, are
apparently supposed to be in common ground between the buddhists and the
other sects. they are included in our sutta because they are supposed
to be part of the advantage of life in an OrderÞin any Order, that is,
not only the Buddhist.


[6]
Majjhima II, 37, 38. Perhaps the p e is meant to be supplied from the
twenty-seventh Sutta just quotedÞthe difference, however, as we have
seen, is not of great importance.


[7]
The oldest case of the technical use of the word, so far as I know, is
in the introductory story of the Mahà Vibhaïga on the fourth Pàràjika
(Vin. III, 87). This is later than the Old Commentary on the Pàñimokkha,
from which it incorporates many passages, and this again is later, of
course, than the Pàñimokkha itself.

Neither the five nor the six abhi¤¤às are given as groups among the groups of Fives and Sixes in the Aïguttara. The word abhi¤¤à
is used in the divisions containing the Fives and Sixes exclusively in
its ordinary sense (III, 277, 451; comp. IV, 348). And this is the more
instructive as what were afterwards called the six abhi¤¤às are
actually given in full (IV, 17-19, Section 6-11) in the same words as in
the âkaïkheyya Sutta (No. 6 of the Majjhima, translated in my `Buddhist
Suttas’), and very nearly as in our Sutta, here under discussion. But
they are not called abhi¤¤às.

 

[8] Compare also A. I, 100s; 11, 249; III, 3, 9, 277.


[9] For a list of twenty-one laymen Arahats see A. III, 451; and there are other instances recorded.


[10] A good summary of this is in the Sigàlovàda Sutta, an abstract of which is given in my Manual, pp. 143 foll.


[11] Translated in `Vinaya Texts’ (S. B. E.).


[12] That is, of course, `the best course of life’ with the connotation of celibacy. The German `Wandel’ is a good rendering of cariyà. We have no expression so good. See Saüyutta V, 16, 17.


[13] Milinda I, 31 (Of my translation).


[14] Ibid. I, 51;compare I, 101.


[15]
Gogerly’s translation of the first part of this Sutta, and Burnouf’s
translation of the whole of it, have been reprinted in Grimblot’s `Sept
Suttas Palis.’ These versions, of remarkable merit for the time when
they were made, are full of mistakes which the since published editions
of the Commentary, and of numerous allied texts, enable us now to avoid.
I have not thought it necessary to point out the numerous passages,
occurring indeed in nearly every sentence, in which the present
translation differs from theirs. It should be mentioned here, however,
that Burnouf has missed the whole point of the dialogue by
misunderstanding the constantly repeated phrase sandiññhikaü sàma¤¤a-phalaü.
from which this title is taken. He renders it throughout as meaning
`foreseen and general fruit’ which is grammatically impossible as
regards sandiññhikaü, and rests on a false derivation as regards sàma¤¤a. This last word means, of course, `samaõaship, being a samaõa, living as a samaõa, a recluse, a religieux.’


[16] Jãvakassa komàrabhaccassa.
Buddhaghosa (Sum. I, 133) naturally follows the compilers of the
Khandakas (V. 1, 269) in interpreting the adjective as `brought up by
the Prince.’ But see the note at `Vinaya Texts,’ II, 174; which shows
that the more likely meaning is `the bringer-up of children’
(child-doctor). Several cures, however, wrought by him are recorded; and
the patients are always adults. There is no other reference at all to
his being a child-doctor, and the Khandaka which gives the other
interpretation is a very ancient document.


[17] See the note in my `Buddhist Suttas,’ p. i. Buddhaghosa (P. 139) says she was the daughter of the king of Kosala.


[18] This is interesting, as it shows that the year, for the compilers of our Sutta, began in Sàvana (middle of July to middle of August), that is, with the rainy season. There were three uposatha days in each month, on the 7th, 14th, and 15th day of the month. The full moon night of Kattika (middle of October to middle of November) is called Komudi (from Kumuda, a white water lily), because that flower is supposed to bloom then. Burnouf is wrong in translating Komudi as the name of the month.


[19]
The same lines recur, but in a different order, at Jàt. 1, 105. Dosinà,
the etymology of which puzzled Childers and also Buddhaghosa (p. 141),
is jyotsnà.


[20] Appeva nàma. Both Gogerly and Burnouf take this to mean `to a certainty,’ but compare D. I, 179, 205; V. II, 85, 262.


[21] Pakkhandino,
`rushers forth.’ The exact meaning of some of these military terms is
still uncertain, and was apparently uncertain to Buddhaghosa. They all
recur, with some differences of reading, in the Milinda (P. 331, in a
later and much longer list), and also in the Aïguttara (IV, 07), as the
names of the constituent elements of a standing army.


[22]
Burnouf has made a sad mess of this important and constantly repeated
clause. He has `Is it then possible, Sir, that one should declare to
them (that is, to the craftsmen just mentioned) in this world, such a
result (of their actions) as foreseen and as the general fruit of their
conduct?’ But the king asks the Buddha to tell him (the king himself)
whether the members of the Order derive from their life any benefit
corresponding to that which the craftsmen derive from theirs.


[23] According to Buddhaghosa (p. 142) he was one of the teachers who went about naked.


[24] Akiriyaü vyàkàsi.
Gogerly interprets this `he replied by affirming that there are no
future rewards and punishment.’ Burnouf has simply `m’a donn`e une
r`eponse vaine.’ But the corresponding word in the subsequent sections
summarises the theory of the teacher questioned. On this theory compare
A. 1, 62; V. 1, 235.


[25]
In the text the framework of the interview is repeated each time in the
same words as above. Only the answers differ. The answers all recur in
the Majjhima I, 5 I 3 foll.


[26] There is a good deal in both the Buddhist and the Jain texts about this Makkhali Gosàla, whose followers were called âjãvakas,
and who was regarded, from the Buddhist point of view, as the worst of
the sophists. Some of the Jaina passages, and also Buddhaghosa here, are
referred to by Hoernle, Uvàsaka dasào,’ pp. 108 foll.: and in the
Appendixes. The principal Piñaka passages are M. I, 31, 198, 238, 250,
483, 516, 524. S. I, 66, 68; III, 69, 211;

IV, 398. A. 1, 33, 286; III, 276,384. V. 1, 8,291; II, III, 130, 165,
284; IV, 74. See also Jàt. I, 493 and G. V, 68. As the sect is thrice
mentioned in the Asoka Edicts as receiving royal gifts it is certain
that it retained an important position for several centuries at least.
See Senart, Inscriptions de Piyadasi,’ II, 82, 209.

From the beginning of the answer down to the end of p. 53 recurs at
S. III, 211, and. the rest of it at ibid. 212, and the first part of the
answer is ascribed at ibid. p. 69 to Påraõa Kassapa.

 

[27] Sabbe sattà, sabbe pànà, sabbe bhåtà, sabbe jãvà.
Buddhaghosa gives details of these four classes of living beings,
showing how they are meant to include all that has life, on this earth,
from men down to plants. The explanation is very confused, and makes the
terms by no means mutually exclusive. They are frequently used in the
same order in the Jaina-Såtras, and Professor Jacobi renders them
accordingly `Every sentient being, every insect, every living thing,
whether animal or vegetable.’ `Jaina-Sutras,’ II, xxv. This is much
better; but we have, in our version, to give the sense in which the
Buddhists supposed Gosàla to have taken the words.


[28]
Compare the corresponding theory of the Jains as given in the
Uttaràdhyàyana Såtra in Jacobi’s Jaina-Såtras, vol, ii, P. 213: and that
of Påraõa Kassapa quoted in Aïguttara III, 383.


[29]
Buddhaghosa gives the details `babyhood, playtime, trial time, erect
time, learning time, ascetic time, prophet time, and prostrate time’
with (very necessary) comments on each. One may compare Shakspere’s
`Seven Ages of Man.’


[30] âjãva. The Siamese edition reads àjãvaka.


[31] I think this is the right reading, but don’t know what it means.


[32] This answer recurs S. III, 307, M. 1, 515 (compare Dh. S. 1215, 1362, 1364), as the view of a typical sophist.


[33] Sammag-gato.
Buddhaghosa gives here no explanation of this word, but the Jàtaka
Commentary on Jàt. III, 305 says it means the man who has attained the
highest fruit; that is, Arahatship. Gato is used here in the same sense as it has in Tathàgato, in gatatto (in the Nigaõñha paragraph below), and in vijjà-gato
(S. N. 730, 733, 743), that is, who has not only attempted to go to,
but has actually reached, the aim (common alike to the orthodox
Vedàntist Brahmans and to each of the various schools of independent,
dissenting, thinkers and recluses) of the conquest over ignorance, of
the grasp of truth.


[34] Indriyàni, the five senses, and the mind as a sixth.


[35] Ahutiyo.
See Buddhavaüsa XXVII, 10; Kathà Vatthu 550. The phrase is omitted in
the parallel passage in the Jaina `Såtrakritànga pointed out by Jacobi,
Jaina-Såtras,’ II, xxiv.


[36]
The series of riddles in this difficult passage is probably intended to
be an ironical imitation of the Nigaõñha’s way of talking. Gogerly has
caught the general sense fairly enough, but his version is very free,
and wrong as to two of the words, and it gives no idea of the oracular
form in which the original is couched. Burnouf’s rendering is quite wide
of the mark.

The first of the `Four Restraints’ is the well-known rule of the
Jains not to drink cold water, on the ground that there are `souls’. in
it. See the discussion in the Milinda (11, 91 of my translation).

Professor Jacobi (`Jaina-Såtras,’ II, xxiii) thinks the `Four
Restraints’ are intended to represent the four vows kept by the
followers of Parsva. But this surely cannot be so, for these vows were
quite different.

 

[37] The text repeats the whole paragraph put above (p. 27 of the text) into the mouth of the Eel-wriggler.


[38]
Of these six teachers Påraõa denies the evil karma in a bad act and
vice versa; Ajita, in preaching annihilation at death, shuts out the
possibility of any effect to be worked by karma; and Makkhali rejects
both karma and its effect. The theory of Pakudha seems to exclude
responsibility; the Nigaõñha simply begs the question, by asserting that
a Nigaõñha has attained the end; and Sa¤jaya gives no answer at all.

The only one of these six theories of life on which independent
evidence is at present accessible is that of the Nigaõñha (the Jain
theory). But no attempt has yet been made to summarise it, or set it out
in a manner intelligible to Western readers. It is very much to be
hoped that this want may soon be supplied by one or other of the
excellent scholars familiar, with the texts.

 

[39]
Buddhaghosa applies these last two adjectives to the truth, not to the
life. But it seems more in accord with the next paragraph to refer them
to the life.


[40] Gahapati, which Buddhaghosa takes here in the sense of peasant ryot.


[41] Pàñimokkha-saüvara-saüvuto. Buddhaghosa, I think, takes this to mean `restrained according to the rules of the Pàñimokkha.’


[42]
On the following important and constantly repeated paragraph compare M.
I, 180, 268; K. V. 424-6, 463-4; Mil. 367; Asl. 400, &c.


[43] Na nimittaggàhã hoti nànuvya¤ganaggàhã. The phrase nimittaü gaõhàti
means either to seize upon anything as the object of one’s thought to
the exclusion of everything else (see, for instance, Vin. I, 183, and
Buddhaghosa’s note on it given in the (Vinaya Texts,’ II, 9), or to
seize upon the outward sign of anything so keenly as to recognise what
it is the mark of (Vin. III, 17). And when the object is a person of the
other sex this phrase is the idiom used for our `falling in love with.’
Buddhaghosa gives, as an instance of the nimitta, the general
conclusion that the object seen, heard, &c., is a man or woman; of
the anuvya¤jana, the perception of the detail that he or she is smiling, talking, &c.


[44] Avyàseka, literally `with no besprinkling’ (of evil, says Buddhaghosa).


[45]
A small volume might be written on the various expansions of this text
in the Piñakas. Several whole Dialogues are devoted to it, and various
Suttas in others of the oldest texts. Buddhaghosa has many pages upon it
here, and deals with it also at length in the Visuddhi Magga and
elsewhere. What is above added in brackets explains the principal points
of what is implied, according to the Piñakas, in this famous
passageÞthe Buddhist analogue to St. Paul’s: `Whether therefore ye eat
or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God’ (I Cor. x.
31).

By the real fact underlying any action is meant that, in the Buddhist
theory, behind the action (going, seeing, &c.) there is no ego, no
actor (goer, seer, &c.), that can be called a `soul’ (abbhantare attà nàma àloketà và viloketà và n’ atthi), but that there is a psychological explanation sufficient, of itself, without the soul-theory.

 

[46] `Consider the fowls of the air,’ &c. (Matt. vi. 26).


No man can call me servant, and I wanderÞ
So said the Exalted OneÞ
At will, o’er all the earth, on what I find
I feel no need of wages, or of gain,
So let the rain pour down now, if it likes, tonight.


(Dhaniya Sutta 8.)

and see the context in my `American Lectures,’ p. 168.

 

[47] Abhijjhaü loke pahàya. Gogerly renders `banishes desire from him,’ leaving out loke altogether, and rendering abhijjhà
in defiance both of the derivation and of the traditional explanation
of the word. Even Burnouf (who frequently uses `desire’ for words in the
Pàli meaning `lusts’ or `excitement’) has here `cupidite’


[48] So Buddhaghosa here (p.211). But the Dhamma Sangaõi II 56, II 57 explains it as torpor of mind and body.


[49] âloka-sa¤¤ã,
literally `whose ideas are light.’ Neumann (Reden des Gotamo,’ 1, 434,
&c.) translates `loving the light,’ which may be the right
connotation. Burnouf has `being aware of his visual sensation’ (de son
regard), which is certainly wrong.


[50] Iõaü àdàya.
Neumann has `oppressed by debt,’ but Buddhaghosa (p. 212) says `taking
goods on interest’; and this is confirmed by Jàt. IV, 256, V, 436.


[51]
From the beginning of Section 68 the text, though here split up into
paragraphs for the convenience of the reader, is really one long
sentence or paragraph of much eloquence and force in the Pàli; and the
peroration, leading on to the jhànas, is a favourite passage
recurring M. I, 71; Vin. I, 294; Mil. 84. The five similes are to be
taken, in order, as referring to the Five Hindrances (Nãvaraõà) given in
Section 68. The Dhamma Sangaõi 1152 gives six hindrances, and M. 1,
360-3 gives eight.


[52] Viveka,
`separation `physically of the body, `seclusion’; intellectually, of
the objects of thought, `discrimination’; ethically, of the heart,
`being separate from the world.’ We have no word in English suggesting
these three. all of which are implied. The stress is upon separation
from the world, taking `world’ in the sense of all the hindrances to
spiritual progress, and especially of the five chief hindrances
(Nãvaraõà) just above set out. Buddhaghosa has nothing here, but compare
Asl. 166.


[53] Ekodibhàva. Compare Asl. 169, Senart in Mahàvastu I, 554, and the notes in J. P. T. S., 1884, P. 32 foll.


[54] Upekhako,
literally `looking on,’ that is, looking on rival mental states with
equal mind. Imperturbable, impartial, tolerant, unsusceptible, stoical,
composed, are all possible renderings, and all unsatisfactory. The ten
kinds of upekkhà, `equanimity,’ translated into English from
Sinhalese by Spence Hardy (Manual, p. 505), can now be corrected from
the Pàli at Asl. 172.


[55]
This is a favourite description of the body. (See M. I, 500; II, 17; S.
IV, 83; Jàt. I, 146, &c.) The words for erasion, abrasion, are
cunningly chosen (ucchàdana, parimaddana). They are also familiar
technical terms of the Indian shampooer, and are so used above (P. 7,
Section 16 of the text). The double meaning must have been clearly
present to the Indian hearer, and the words are, therefore, really
untranslatable.


[56] Vi¤¤àõa. `The five senses, sensations arising from objects, and all emotions and intellectual processes,’ says Buddhaghosa (P. 221).


[57]
In spite of this and similar passages the adherents of the soul theory
(having nothing else to fasten on) were apt to fasten on to the Buddhist
vi¤¤àõa as a possible point of reconciliation with their own
theory. Even an admirer of the Buddha (one Sàti, a member of the Order)
went so far as to tell the Buddha himself that he must, as he admitted
transmigration, have meant that the vi¤¤àõa did not really depend upon,
was not really bound, up with, the body, but that it formed the link in
transmigration. In perhaps the most earnest and emphatic of all the
Dialogues (M. I, 256 foll.), the Buddha meets and refutes at length this
erroneous representation of his view. But it still survives. I know two
living writers on Buddhism who (in blissful ignorance of the Dialogue
in question) still fasten upon Buddha the opinion he so expressly
refused to accept.


[58] Buddhaghosa explains that, if the Bhikshu have his ears unpierced, so will the image, and so on.


[59] This old smile occurs already in the Satapatha-Bràhmaõa IV, 3, 3, 16.


[60] The point is the similarity. Buddhaghosa explains that the karaõóa
is not a basket (as Burnouf renders it), but the skin which the snake
sloughs off; and that the scabbard is like the sword, whatever the
sword’s shape. He adds that of course a man could not take a snake out
of its slough with his hand. He is supposed in the simile to do so in
imagination.


[61] iddhi, literally `well-being, prosperity.’ The four iddhis of
a king are personal beauty, length of life, strong health, and
popularity (M. Sud. Sutta in my `Buddhist Suttas,’ pp. 259-261). The iddhis
of Gotama when at home, as a boy, were the possession of a beautiful
garden, soft clothing, comfortable lodging, pleasant music, and good
food (A. 1, 145). Worldly iddhi is distinguished from spiritual at A. 1, 93. Buddhaghosa gives nine sorts of iddhi,
mostly intellectual, at Asl. 91, and compare 237. There are no examples
in the Piñakas of concrete instances of any of these except the last;
but see S. IV, 289, 290; A. III, 340, 341;M. P. S. 43.


[62]
The point of the comparison, says Buddhaghosa (223), is that if he is
in trouble and has lost his way he might be in doubt. But if calm and
secure he can tell the difference.


[63] Sauttara and anuttara.
Unless the interpretation given in the Dhamma Sangaõi 1292,
1293,1596,1597(’occupied with rebirth in heaven, and occupied with
Arahatship’) reveals a change in the use of terms, the evil disposition,
in this case only, is put first.


[64]
This is based on the Indian theory of the periodic destruction and
renovation of the universe, each of which takes countless years to
accomplish.


[65] Vaõõa, `colour.’


[66]
The three villages correspond to the three stages of being, the three
BhåmisÞthe world of lust, the world of form, and the formless worlds
(the Kàma, Råpa, and Aråpa Lokas).


[67] Dibba-cakkhu. See the note below on Section 102 at the end of this Sutta.


[68]
This paragraph forms the subject of the discussion in the Kathà Vatthu
III, 9 (p. 250). The mere knowledge of the general fact of the action of
karma is there distinguished from the dibba-cakkhu, the Heavenly
Eye; and the instance of Sàriputta is quoted, who had that knowledge,
but not the Heavenly Eye. As he was an Arahat it follows that the
possession of the Heavenly Eye was not a necessary consequence of
Arahatship. Buddhaghosa adds (p. 224) that the sphere of vision of the
Heavenly Eye did not extend to the Formless Worlds. On the dhamma-cakkhu, `the Eye for the Truth.,’ see below, p. 110, Section 21 of the text.


[69] Vãtisa¤carante is Buddhaghosa’s reading. The Siamese has Vithiü. Compare M. I, 279.


[70] âsavas,
Deadly Floods, another untranslatable term. Neumann has Illusion
(Wahn); Burnouf has defilement (souillures). They are sometimes the
three here mentioned (M. I, 23, 155; A. I, 167; S. IV, 256, &c.);
but speculation, theorising (diññhi) is added as a fourth in the
M. P. S. and elsewhere. Unfortunately, the word has not been yet found
in its concrete, primary, sense; unless indeed Buddhaghosa’s statement
(at Asl. 48) that well seasoned spirituous liquors were called àsavà
be taken literally. It is therefore impossible to be sure what is the
simile that underlies the use of the word in its secondary, ethical
sense. Perhaps after all it is the idea of overwhelming intoxication,
and not of flood or taint or ooze, that we ought to consider.

Subhåti in quoting the above passage from Buddhaghosa (in the Abhidhàna Padãpikà Såci, P. 43) reads pàrivàs throughout for pàrivàs‘.

 

[71] `Kamàsavà, with special reference to the taint of hankering after a future life in the sensuous plane (kàma loka); that is, in the world.


[72] Bhavàsavà, with special reference to the taint of hankering after a future life in the plane of form and the formless plane (the råpa and aråpa lokas); that is, in heaven.


[73] Avijjàsavà, with special reference to ignorance of the Four Great Truths, just above summarised.


[74]
The simile recurs M. I, 279; A. I, 9. Compare for the words
Sippi-sambuka Jàt. V, 197; A. III, 395; Trenckner, `Pali Miscellany,’ p.
6o.


[75]
Because, as Buddhaghosa points out, this is really Arahatship, Nirvàõa;
and it was to this, to Arahatship, that all the rest led up.


[76] Ariyànaü. That is, either of previous Buddhas, or perhaps of the Arahats.


[77] The dhamma-cakkhu (Eye
for the Truth) is a technical term for conversion, for entering on the
Path that ends in Arahatship. It is higher than the Heavenly Eye (dibba-cakkhu, above, p.82 of the text,
Section 95) which sees other people’s previous births, and below the Eye of Wisdom (pa¤¤à-cakkhu) which is the wisdom of the Arahat (Itivuttaka, p. 52, Section 6i).

Digha Nikaya 2

Samaññaphala Sutta

The Fruits of the Contemplative Life

For free distribution only, as a gift of Dhamma



Translator’s Introduction

This discourse is one of the masterpieces of the Pali Canon. At
heart, it is a comprehensive portrait of the Buddhist path of training,
illustrating each stage of the training with vivid similes. This
portrait is placed in juxtaposition to the Buddhist view of the
teachings of rival philosophical teachers of the time, showing how the
Buddha — in contradistinction to the inflexible, party-line approach of
his contemporaries — presented his teaching in a way that was
pertinent and sensitive to the needs of his listeners. This larger
portrait of the intellectual landscape of early Budhist India is then
presented in a moving narrative frame: the sad story of King Ajàtasattu.

Ajàtasattu was the son of King Bimbisara of Magadha, one of the
Buddha’s earliest followers. Urged on by Devadatta — the Buddha’s
cousin, who wished to use Ajàtasattu’s support in his bid to take over
the Buddha’s position as head of the Sangha — Ajàtasattu arranged for
his father’s death so that he could secure his own position on the
throne. As a result of this evil deed, he was destined not only to be
killed by his own son — Udayibhadda (mentioned in the discourse) — but also to take immediate rebirth in one of the lowest regions of hell.

In this discourse, Ajàtasattu visits the Buddha in hopes that the
latter will bring some peace to his mind. The question he puts to the
Buddha shows the limited level of his own understanding, so the Buddha
patiently describes the steps of the training, beginning at a very basic
level and gradually moving up, as a way of raising the king’s spiritual
horizons. At the end of the talk, Ajàtasattu takes refuge in the Triple
Gem. Although his earlier deeds were so heavy that this expression of
faith could have only limited consequences in the immediate present, the
Commentary assures us that the king’s story would ultimately have a
happy ending. After the Buddha’s death, he sponsored the First Council,
at which a congress of arahant disciples produced the first standardized
account of the Buddha’s teachings. As a result of the merit coming from
this deed, Ajàtasattu is destined — after his release from hell — to
attain Awakening as a Private Buddha.


I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying at Rajagaha, in Jivaka Komarabhacca’s
mango grove, with a large community of monks — 1,250 monks in all. Now
at that time — it being the observance day, the full-moon night of the
water-lily season, the fourth month of the rains — King Ajàtasattu of Magadha, the son of Queen Videha,
was sitting on the roof terrace of his palace surround by his
ministers. Then he felt inspired to exclaim: “How wonderful is this
moonlit night! How beautiful…How lovely…How inspiring…How
auspicious is this moonlit night! What priest or contemplative should we
visit tonight who might enlighten and bring peace to our mind?”

When this was said, one of the ministers said to the king: “Your majesty, there is Purana Kassapa,
the leader of a community, the leader of a group, the teacher of a
group, honored and famous, esteemed as holy by the mass of people. He is
aged, long gone forth, advanced in years, in the last phase of life.
Your majesty should visit him. Perhaps, if you visited him, he would
enlighten and bring peace to your mind.”

When this was said, the king remained silent.

Then another minister said to the king: “Your majesty, there is Makkhali Gosala…” …”Your majesty, there is Ajita Kesakambala…” …”Your majesty, there is Pakudha Kaccayana…” …”Your majesty, there is Sañjaya Belatthaputta…” …”Your majesty, there is Nigantha Nataputta,
the leader of a community, the leader of a group, the teacher of a
group, honored and famous, esteemed as holy by the mass of people. He is
aged, long gone forth, advanced in years, in the last phase of life.
Your majesty should visit him. Perhaps, if you visited him, he would
enlighten and bring peace to your mind.”

When this was said, the king remained silent.

All this time Jivaka Komarabhacca was sitting silently not far from
the king. So the king said to him, “Friend Jivaka, why are you silent?”

“Your majesty, there is the Blessed One, worthy and rightly
self-awakened, staying in my mango grove with a large community of monks
— 1,250 monks in all. Concerning this Blessed One, this admirable
report has been spread: ‘Surely, the Blessed One is worthy and rightly
self-awakened, consummate in clear knowing and conduct, well-gone, an
expert with regard to the cosmos, unexcelled trainer of tamable people,
teacher of beings human and divine, awakened, blessed.’ Your majesty
should visit him. Perhaps, if you visited him, he would enlighten and
bring peace to your mind.”

“Then in that case, friend Jivaka, have the riding elephants prepared.”

Having replied, “As you say, your majesty,” having had five hundred
female elephants prepared as well as the king’s personal tusker, Jivaka
announced to the king: “Your majesty, your riding elephants are
prepared. Do what you think it is now time to do.”

Then the king, having had five hundred of his women mounted on the
five hundred female elephants — one on each — and having mounted his
own personal tusker, set out from the capital in full royal state, with
attendants carrying torches, headed for Jivaka Komarabhacca’s mango
grove. But when the king was not far from the mango grove, he was
gripped with fear, trepidation, his hair standing on end. Fearful,
agitated, his hair standing on end, he said to Jivaka Komarabhacca:
“Friend Jivaka, you aren’t deceiving me, are you? You aren’t betraying
me, are you? You aren’t turning me over to my enemies, are you? How can
there be such a large community of monks — 1,250 in all — with no
sound of sneezing, no sound of coughing, no voices at all?”

“Don’t be afraid, great king. Don’t be afraid. I’m not deceiving you
or betraying you or turning you over to your enemies. Go forward, great
king, go forward! Those are lamps burning in the pavilion hall.”

Then the king, going as far on his tusker as the ground would permit,
dismounted and approached the door of the pavilion on foot. On arrival,
he asked Jivaka: “Where, friend Jivaka, is the Blessed One?”

“That is the Blessed One, great king, sitting against the middle pillar, facing east, surrounded by the community of monks.”

Then the king approached the Blessed One and, on reaching him, stood
to one side. As he was standing there — surveying the community of
monks sitting in absolute silence, as calm as a lake — he felt inspired
to exclaim: “May my son, Prince Udayibhadda, enjoy the same peace that this community of monks now enjoys!”

[The Blessed One said:] “Have you come, great king, together with your affections?”

“Venerable sir, my son, Prince Udayibhadda, is very dear to me. May
he enjoy the same peace that this community of monks now enjoys!”

Then, bowing down to the Blessed One, and saluting the community of
monks with his hands palm-to-palm over his heart, he sat to one side. As
he was sitting there, he said to the Blessed One: “I would like to ask
the Blessed One about a certain issue, if he would give me the
opportunity to explain my question.”

“Ask, great king, whatever you like.”

(The King’s Question)

“Venerable sir, there are these common craftsmen: elephant-trainers,
horse-trainers, charioteers, archers, standard bearers, camp marshals,
supply corps officers, high royal officers, commandos, military heroes,
armor-clad warriors, leather-clad warriors, domestic slaves,
confectioners, barbers, bath attendants, cooks, garland-makers,
laundrymen, weavers, basket-makers, potters, calculators, accountants,
and any other craftsmen of a similar sort. They live off the fruits of
their crafts, visible in the here and now. They give happiness and
pleasure to themselves, to their parents, wives, and children, to their
friends and colleagues. They put in place an excellent presentation of
offerings to priests and contemplatives, leading to heaven, resulting in
happiness, conducive to a heavenly rebirth. Is it possible, venerable
sir, to point out a similar fruit of the contemplative life, visible in
the here and now?”

“Do you remember, great king, ever having asked this question of other priests and contemplatives?”

“Yes, I do.”

“If it isn’t troublesome for you, how did they answer?”

“No, it’s not troublesome for me wherever the Blessed One — or someone like the Blessed One — is sitting.”

“Then speak, great king.”

(Non-action)

“Once, venerable sir, I approached Purana Kassapa
and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an
exchange of friendly greetings and courtesies, I sat down to one side.
As I was sitting there I asked him: ‘Venerable Kassapa, there are these
common craftsmen…They live off the fruits of their crafts, visible in
the here and now…Is it possible, venerable sir, to point out a similar
fruit of the contemplative life, visible in there here and now?’

“When this was said, Purana Kassapa said to me, ‘Great king, in
acting or getting others to act, in mutilating or getting others to
mutilate, in torturing or getting others to torture, in inflicting
sorrow or in getting others to inflict sorrow, in tormenting or getting
others to torment, in intimidating or getting others to intimidate, in
taking life, taking what is not given, breaking into houses, plundering
wealth, committing burglary, ambushing highways, committing adultery,
speaking falsehood — one does no evil. If with a razor-edged disk one
were to turn all the living beings on this earth to a single heap of
flesh, a single pile of flesh, there would be no evil from that cause,
no coming of evil. Even if one were to go along the right bank of the
Ganges, killing and getting others to kill, mutilating and getting
others to mutilate, torturing and getting others to torture, there would
be no evil from that cause, no coming of evil. Even if one were to go
along the left bank of the Ganges, killing and getting others to kill,
mutilating and getting others to mutilate, torturing and getting others
to torture, there would be no evil from that cause, no coming of evil.
Through generosity, self-control, restraint, and truthful speech there
is no merit from that cause, no coming of merit.’

“Thus, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life, visible
here and now, Purana Kassapa answered with non-action. Just as if a
person, when asked about a mango, were to answer with a breadfruit; or,
when asked about a breadfruit, were to answer with a mango: In the same
way, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life, visible here
and now, Purana Kassapa answered with non-action. The thought occurred
to me: ‘How can anyone like me think of disparaging a priest or
contemplative living in his realm?’ Yet I neither delighted in Purana
Kassapa’s words nor did I protest against them. Neither delighting nor
protesting, I was dissatisfied. Without expressing dissatisfaction,
without accepting his teaching, without adopting it, I got up from my
seat and left.

(Purification through Wandering-on)

“Another time I approached Makkhali Gosala
and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an
exchange of friendly greetings and courtesies, I sat down to one side.
As I was sitting there I asked him: ‘Venerable Gosala, there are these
common craftsmen…They live off the fruits of their crafts, visible in
the here and now…Is it possible, venerable sir, to point out a similar
fruit of the contemplative life, visible in there here and now?’

“When this was said, Makkhali Gosala said to me, ‘Great king, there
is no cause, no requisite condition, for the defilement of beings.
Beings are defiled without cause, without requisite condition. There is
no cause, no requisite condition, for the purification of beings. Beings
are purified without cause, without requisite condition. There is
nothing self-caused, nothing other-caused, nothing human-caused. There
is no strength, no effort, no human energy, no human endeavor. All
living beings, all life, all beings, all souls are powerless, devoid of
strength, devoid of effort. Subject to the changes of fate, serendipity,
and nature, they are sensitive to pleasure and pain in the six great
classes of birth.

“‘There are 1,406,600 principle modes of origin. There are 500 kinds
of kamma, five kinds, and three kinds; full kamma and half kamma. There
are 62 pathways, 62 sub-eons, six great classes of birth, eight classes
of men, 4,900 modes of livelihood, 4,900 kinds of wanderers, 4,900
Naga-abodes, 2,000 faculties, 3,000 hells, 36 dust-realms, seven spheres
of percipient beings, seven spheres of non-percipient beings, seven
kinds of jointed plants, seven kinds of deities, seven kinds of human
beings, seven kinds of demons, seven great lakes, seven major knots,
seven minor knots, 700 major precipices, 700 minor precipices, 700 major
dreams, 700 minor dreams, 84,000 great aeons. Having transmigrated and
wandered on through these, the wise and the foolish alike will put an
end to pain.

“‘Though one might think, “Through this morality, this practice, this
austerity, or this holy life I will ripen unripened kamma and eliminate
ripened kamma whenever touched by it” — that is impossible. Pleasure
and pain are measured out, the wandering-on is fixed in its limits.
There is no shortening or lengthening, no accelerating or decelerating. Just as a ball
of string, when thrown, comes to its end simply by unwinding, in the
same way, having transmigrated and wandered on, the wise and the foolish
alike will put an end to pain.’

“Thus, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life, visible
here and now, Makkhali Gosala answered with purification through
wandering-on. Just as if a person, when asked about a mango, were to
answer with a breadfruit; or, when asked about a breadfruit, were to
answer with a mango. In the same way, when asked about a fruit of the
contemplative life, visible here and now, Makkhali Gosala answered with
purification through wandering-on. The thought occurred to me: ‘How can
anyone like me think of disparaging a priest or contemplative living in
his realm?’ Yet I neither delighted in Makkhali Gosala’s words nor did I
protest against them. Neither delighting nor protesting, I was
dissatisfied. Without expressing dissatisfaction, without accepting his
teaching, without adopting it, I got up from my seat and left.

(Annihilation)

“Another time I approached Ajita Kesakambala
and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an
exchange of friendly greetings and courtesies, I sat down to one side.
As I was sitting there I asked him: ‘Venerable Ajita, there are these
common craftsmen…They live off the fruits of their crafts, visible in
the here and now…Is it possible, venerable sir, to point out a similar
fruit of the contemplative life, visible in there here and now?’

“When this was said, Ajita Kesakambala said to me, ‘Great king, there
is nothing given, nothing offered, nothing sacrificed. There is no
fruit or result of good or bad actions. There is no this world, no next
world, no mother, no father, no spontaneously reborn beings; no priests
or contemplatives who, faring rightly and practicing rightly, proclaim
this world and the next after having directly known and realized it for
themselves. A person is a composite of four primary elements. At death,
the earth (in the body) returns to and merges with the (external)
earth-substance. The fire returns to and merges with the external
fire-substance. The liquid returns to and merges with the external
liquid-substance. The wind returns to and merges with the external
wind-substance. The sense-faculties scatter into space. Four men, with
the bier as the fifth, carry the corpse. Its eulogies are sounded only
as far as the charnel ground. The bones turn pigeon-colored. The
offerings end in ashes. Generosity is taught by idiots. The words of
those who speak of existence after death are false, empty chatter. With
the break-up of the body, the wise and the foolish alike are
annihilated, destroyed. They do not exist after death.’

“Thus, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life, visible
here and now, Ajita Kesakambala answered with annihilation. Just as if a
person, when asked about a mango, were to answer with a breadfruit; or,
when asked about a breadfruit, were to answer with a mango. In the same
way, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life, visible here
and now, Ajita Kesakambala answered with annihilation. The thought
occurred to me: ‘How can anyone like me think of disparaging a priest or
contemplative living in his realm?’ Yet I neither delighted in Ajita
Kesakambala’s words nor did I protest against them. Neither delighting
nor protesting, I was dissatisfied. Without expressing dissatisfaction,
without accepting his teaching, without adopting it, I got up from my
seat and left.

(Non-relatedness)

“Another time I approached Pakudha Kaccayana
and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an
exchange of friendly greetings and courtesies, I sat down to one side.
As I was sitting there I asked him: ‘Venerable Kaccayana, there are
these common craftsmen…They live off the fruits of their crafts,
visible in the here and now…Is it possible, venerable sir, to point
out a similar fruit of the contemplative life, visible in there here and
now?’

“When this was said, Pakudha Kaccayana said to me, ‘Great king, there
are these seven substances — unmade, irreducible, uncreated, without a
creator, barren, stable as a mountain-peak, standing firm like a pillar
— that do not alter, do not change, do not interfere with one another,
are incapable of causing one another pleasure, pain, or both pleasure
and pain. Which seven? The earth-substance, the liquid-substance, the
fire-substance, the wind-substance, pleasure, pain, and the soul as the
seventh. These are the seven substances — unmade, irreducible,
uncreated, without a creator, barren, stable as a mountain-peak,
standing firm like a pillar — that do not alter, do not change, do not
interfere with one another, and are incapable of causing one another
pleasure, pain, or both pleasure and pain.

“‘And among them there is no killer nor one who causes killing, no
hearer nor one who causes hearing, no cognizer nor one who causes
cognition. When one cuts off [another person’s] head, there is no one
taking anyone’s life. It is simply between the seven substances that the
sword passes.’

“Thus, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life, visible
here and now, Pakudha Kaccayana answered with non-relatedness. Just as
if a person, when asked about a mango, were to answer with a breadfruit;
or, when asked about a breadfruit, were to answer with a mango. In the
same way, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life, visible
here and now, Pakudha Kaccayana answered with non-relatedness. The
thought occurred to me: ‘How can anyone like me think of disparaging a
priest or contemplative living in his realm?’ Yet I neither delighted in
Pakudha Kaccayana’s words nor did I protest against them. Neither
delighting nor protesting, I was dissatisfied. Without expressing
dissatisfaction, without accepting his teaching, without adopting it, I
got up from my seat and left.

(Fourfold Restraint)

“Another time I approached Nigantha Nataputta
and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an
exchange of friendly greetings and courtesies, I sat down to one side.
As I was sitting there I asked him: ‘Venerable Aggivessana, there are
these common craftsmen…They live off the fruits of their crafts,
visible in the here and now…Is it possible, venerable sir, to point
out a similar fruit of the contemplative life, visible in there here and
now?’

“When this was said, Nigantha Nataputta said to me, ‘Great king,
there is the case where the Nigantha — the knotless one — is
restrained with the fourfold restraint. And how is the Nigantha
restrained with the fourfold restraint? There is the case where the
Nigantha is obstructed by all waters, conjoined with all waters,
cleansed with all waters, suffused with all waters. This is how the
Nigantha is restrained with the fourfold restraint. When the Nigantha –
a knotless one — is restrained with such a fourfold restraint, he is
said to be a Knotless One (Nigantha), a son of Nata (Nataputta), with his self perfected, his self controlled, his self established.’

“Thus, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life, visible
here and now, Nigantha Nataputta answered with fourfold restraint. Just
as if a person, when asked about a mango, were to answer with a
breadfruit; or, when asked about a breadfruit, were to answer with a
mango: In the same way, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative
life, visible here and now, Nigantha Nataputta answered with fourfold
restraint. The thought occurred to me: ‘How can anyone like me think of
disparaging a priest or contemplative living in his realm?’ Yet I
neither delighted in Nigantha Nataputta’s words nor did I protest
against them. Neither delighting nor protesting, I was dissatisfied.
Without expressing dissatisfaction, without accepting his teaching,
without adopting it, I got up from my seat and left.

(Evasion)

“Another time I approached Sañjaya Belatthaputta
and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an
exchange of friendly greetings and courtesies, I sat down to one side.
As I was sitting there I asked him: ‘Venerable Sañjaya, there are these
common craftsmen…They live off the fruits of their crafts, visible in
the here and now…Is it possible, venerable sir, to point out a similar
fruit of the contemplative life, visible in there here and now?’

“When this was said, Sañjaya Belatthaputta said to me, ‘If you ask me
if there exists another world [after death], if I thought that there
exists another world, would I declare that to you? I don’t think so. I
don’t think in that way. I don’t think otherwise. I don’t think not. I
don’t think not not. If you asked me if there isn’t another world…both
is and isn’t…neither is nor isn’t…if there are beings who
transmigrate…if there aren’t…both are and aren’t…neither are nor
aren’t…if the Tathagata exists after death…doesn’t…both…neither
exists nor exists after death, would I declare that to you? I don’t
think so. I don’t think in that way. I don’t think otherwise. I don’t
think not. I don’t think not not.’

“Thus, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life, visible
here and now, Sañjaya Belatthaputta answered with evasion. Just as if a
person, when asked about a mango, were to answer with a breadfruit; or,
when asked about a breadfruit, were to answer with a mango: In the same
way, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life, visible here
and now, Sañjaya Belatthaputta answered with evasion. The thought
occurred to me: ‘This — among these priests and contemplatives — is
the most foolish and confused of all. How can he, when asked about a
fruit of the contemplative life, visible here and now, answer with
evasion?’ Still the thought occurred to me: ‘How can anyone like me
think of disparaging a priest or contemplative living in his realm?’ Yet
I neither delighted in Sañjaya Belatthaputta’s words nor did I protest
against them. Neither delighting nor protesting, I was dissatisfied.
Without expressing dissatisfaction, without accepting his teaching,
without adopting it, I got up from my seat and left.

(The First Visible Fruit of the Contemplative Life)

“So, venerable sir, I ask the Blessed One as well: There are these
common craftsmen: elephant-trainers, horse-trainers, charioteers,
archers, standard bearers, camp marshals, supply corps officers, high
royal officers, commandos, military heroes, armor-clad warriors,
leather-clad warriors, domestic slaves, confectioners, barbers, bath
attendants, cooks, garland-makers, laundrymen, weavers, basket-makers,
potters, calculators, accountants, and any other craftsmen of a similar
sort. They live off the fruits of their crafts, visible in the here and
now. They give happiness and pleasure to themselves, to their parents,
wives, and children, to their friends and colleagues. They put in place
an excellent presentation of offerings to priests and contemplatives,
leading to heaven, resulting in happiness, conducive to a heavenly
rebirth. Is it possible, venerable sir, to point out a similar fruit of
the contemplative life, visible in the here and now?”

“Yes, it is, great king. But first, with regard to that, I will ask
you a counter-question. Answer however you please. Suppose there were a
man of yours: your slave, your workman, rising in the morning before
you, going to bed in the evening only after you, doing whatever you
order, always acting to please you, speaking politely to you, always
watching for the look on your face. The thought would occur to him:
‘Isn’t it amazing? Isn’t it astounding? — the destination, the results,
of meritorious deeds. For this King Ajàtasattu is a human being, and I,
too, am a human being, yet King Ajàtasattu enjoys himself supplied and
replete with the five strands of sensual pleasure — like a deity, as it
were — while I am his slave, his workman…always watching for the
look on his face. I, too, should do meritorious deeds. What if I were to
shave off my hair and beard, put on the ochre robes, and go forth from
the household life into homelessness?’

“So after some time he shaves off his hair and beard, puts on the
ochre robes, and goes forth from the household life into homelessness.
Having thus gone forth he lives restrained in body, speech, and mind,
content with the simplest food and shelter, delighting in solitude. Then
suppose one of your men were to inform you: ‘You should know, your
majesty, that that man of yours — your slave, your workman…always
watching for the look on your face…has gone forth from the household
life into homelessness…content with the simplest food and shelter,
delighting in solitude.’ Would you, thus informed, say, ‘Bring that man
back to me. Make him again be my slave, my workman…always watching for
the look on my face!’?”

“Not at all, venerable sir. Rather, I am the one who should bow down
to him, rise up out of respect for him, invite him to a seat, invite him
to accept gifts of robes, almsfood, lodgings, and medicinal requisites
for the sick. And I would provide him with righteous safety, defense,
and protection.”

“So what do you think, great king. With that being the case, is there
a visible fruit of the contemplative life, or is there not?”

“Yes, venerable sir. With that being the case, there certainly is a visible fruit of the contemplative life.”

“This, great king, is the first fruit of the contemplative life, visible in the here and now, that I point out to you.”

(The Second Visible Fruit of the Contemplative Life)

“But is it possible, venerable sir, to point out yet another fruit of the contemplative life, visible in the here and now?”

“Yes, it is, great king. But first, with regard to that, I will ask
you a counter-question. Answer however you please. Suppose there were a
man of yours: a farmer, a householder, a taxpayer swelling the royal
treasury. The thought would occur to him: ‘Isn’t it amazing? Isn’t it
astounding? — the destination, the results, of meritorious deeds! For
this King Ajàtasattu is a human being, and I, too, am a human being, yet
King Ajàtasattu enjoys himself supplied and replete with the five
strands of sensual pleasure — like a deity, as it were — while I am a
farmer, a householder, a taxpayer swelling the royal treasury. I, too,
should do meritorious deeds. What if I were to shave off my hair and
beard, put on the ochre robes, and go forth from the household life into
homelessness?’

“So after some time he abandons his mass of wealth, large or small;
leaves his circle of relatives, large or small; shaves off his hair and
beard, puts on the ochre robes, and goes forth from the household life
into homelessness. Having thus gone forth he lives restrained in body,
speech, and mind, content with the simplest food and shelter, delighting
in solitude. Then suppose one of your men were to inform you: ‘You
should know, your majesty, that that man of yours — the farmer, the
householder, the taxpayer swelling the royal treasury…has gone forth
from the household life into homelessness…content with the simplest
food and shelter, delighting in solitude.’ Would you, thus informed,
say, ‘Bring that man back to me. Make him again be a farmer, a
householder, a taxpayer swelling the royal treasury!’?”

“Not at all, venerable sir. Rather, I am the one who should bow down
to him, rise up out of respect for him, invite him to a seat, invite him
to accept gifts of robes, almsfood, lodgings, and medicinal requisites
for the sick. And I would provide him with righteous safety, defense,
and protection.”

“So what do you think, great king. With that being the case, is there
a visible fruit of the contemplative life, or is there not?”

“Yes, venerable sir. With that being the case, there certainly is a visible fruit of the contemplative life.”

“This, great king, is the second fruit of the contemplative life, visible in the here and now, that I point out to you.”

(Higher Fruits of the Contemplative Life)

“But is it possible, venerable sir, to point out yet another fruit of the contemplative life, visible in the here and now?”

“Yes, it is, great king. Listen and pay close attention. I will speak.

“There is the case, great king, where a Tathagata appears in the
world, worthy and rightly self-awakened. He teaches the Dhamma admirable
in its beginning, admirable in its middle, admirable in its end. He
proclaims the holy life both in its particulars and in its essence,
entirely perfect, surpassingly pure.

“A householder or householder’s son, hearing the Dhamma, gains
conviction in the Tathagata and reflects: ‘Household life is confining, a
dusty path. The life gone forth is like the open air. It is not easy
living at home to practice the holy life totally perfect, totally pure, like a polished shell.
What if I were to shave off my hair and beard, put on the ochre robes,
and go forth from the household life into homelessness?’

“So after some time he abandons his mass of wealth, large or small;
leaves his circle of relatives, large or small; shaves off his hair and
beard, puts on the ochre robes, and goes forth from the household life
into homelessness.

“When he has thus gone forth, he lives restrained by the rules of the
monastic code, seeing danger in the slightest faults. Consummate in his
virtue, he guards the doors of his senses, is possessed of mindfulness
and alertness, and is content.

(The Lesser Section on Virtue)

“And how is a monk consummate in virtue? Abandoning the taking of
life, he abstains from the taking of life. He dwells with his rod laid
down, his knife laid down, scrupulous, merciful, compassionate for the
welfare of all living beings. This is part of his virtue.

“Abandoning the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking
what is not given. He takes only what is given, accepts only what is
given, lives not by stealth but by means of a self that has become pure.
This, too, is part of his virtue.

“Abandoning uncelibacy, he lives a celibate life, aloof, refraining
from the sexual act that is the villager’s way. This, too, is part of
his virtue.

“Abandoning false speech, he abstains from false speech. He speaks
the truth, holds to the truth, is firm, reliable, no deceiver of the
world. This, too, is part of his virtue.

“Abandoning divisive speech he abstains from divisive speech. What he
has heard here he does not tell there to break those people apart from
these people here. What he has heard there he does not tell here to
break these people apart from those people there. Thus reconciling those
who have broken apart or cementing those who are united, he loves
concord, delights in concord, enjoys concord, speaks things that create
concord. This, too, is part of his virtue.

“Abandoning abusive speech, he abstains from abusive speech. He
speaks words that are soothing to the ear, that are affectionate, that
go to the heart, that are polite, appealing and pleasing to people at
large. This, too, is part of his virtue.

“Abandoning idle chatter, he abstains from idle chatter. He speaks in
season, speaks what is factual, what is in accordance with the goal,
the Dhamma, and the Vinaya. He speaks words worth treasuring,
seasonable, reasonable, circumscribed, connected with the goal. This,
too, is part of his virtue.

“He abstains from damaging seed and plant life.

“He eats only once a day, refraining from the evening meal and from food at the wrong time of day.

“He abstains from dancing, singing, instrumental music, and from watching shows.

“He abstains from wearing garlands and from beautifying himself with scents and cosmetics.

“He abstains from high and luxurious beds and seats.

“He abstains from accepting gold and money.

“He abstains from accepting uncooked grain…raw meat…women and
girls…male and female slaves…goats and sheep…fowl and
pigs…elephants, cattle, steeds, and mares…fields and property.

“He abstains from running messages…from buying and selling…from
dealing with false scales, false metals, and false measures…from
bribery, deception, and fraud.

“He abstains from mutilating, executing, imprisoning, highway robbery, plunder, and violence.

“This, too, is part of his virtue.

(The Intermediate Section on Virtue)

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in
faith, are addicted to damaging seed and plant life such as these —
plants propagated from roots, stems, joints, buddings, and seeds — he
abstains from damaging seed and plant life such as these. This, too, is
part of his virtue.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in
faith, are addicted to consuming stored-up goods such as these —
stored-up food, stored-up drinks, stored-up clothing, stored-up
vehicles, stored-up bedding, stored-up scents, and stored-up meat — he
abstains from consuming stored-up goods such as these. This, too, is
part of his virtue.

Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living
off food given in faith, are addicted to watching shows such as these –
dancing, singing, instrumental music, plays, ballad recitations,
hand-clapping, cymbals and drums, painted scenes, acrobatic and
conjuring tricks, elephant fights, horse fights, buffalo fights, bull
fights, goat fights, ram fights, cock fights, quail fights; fighting
with staves, boxing, wrestling, war-games, roll calls, battle arrays,
and regimental reviews — he abstains from watching shows such as these.
This, too, is part of his virtue.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in
faith, are addicted to heedless and idle games such as these —
eight-row chess, ten-row chess, chess in the air, hopscotch, spillikins,
dice, stick games, hand-pictures, ball-games, blowing through toy
pipes, playing with toy plows, turning somersaults, playing with toy
windmills, toy measures, toy chariots, toy bows, guessing letters drawn
in the air, guessing thoughts, mimicking deformities — he abstains from
heedless and idle games such as these. This, too, is part of his
virtue.

Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living
off food given in faith, are addicted to high and luxurious furnishings
such as these — over-sized couches, couches adorned with carved
animals, long-haired coverlets, multi-colored patchwork coverlets, white
woolen coverlets, woolen coverlets embroidered with flowers or animal
figures, stuffed quilts, coverlets with fringe, silk coverlets
embroidered with gems; large woolen carpets; elephant, horse, and
chariot rugs, antelope-hide rugs, deer-hide rugs; couches with awnings,
couches with red cushions for the head and feet — he abstains from
using high and luxurious furnishings such as these. This, too, is part
of his virtue.

Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living
off food given in faith, are addicted to scents, cosmetics, and means
of beautification such as these — rubbing powders into the body,
massaging with oils, bathing in perfumed water, kneading the limbs,
using mirrors, ointments, garlands, scents, creams, face-powders,
mascara, bracelets, head-bands, decorated walking sticks, ornamented
water-bottles, swords, fancy sunshades, decorated sandals, turbans,
gems, yak-tail whisks, long-fringed white robes — he abstains from
using scents, cosmetics, and means of beautification such as these.
This, too, is part of his virtue.

Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living
off food given in faith, are addicted to talking about lowly topics
such as these — talking about kings, robbers, ministers of state;
armies, alarms, and battles; food and drink; clothing, furniture,
garlands, and scents; relatives; vehicles; villages, towns, cities, the
countryside; women and heroes; the gossip of the street and the well;
tales of the dead; tales of diversity [philosophical discussions of the
past and future], the creation of the world and of the sea, and talk of
whether things exist or not — he abstains from talking about lowly
topics such as these. This, too, is part of his virtue.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are addicted to debates such as these — ‘You understand this doctrine and discipline? I’m
the one who understands this doctrine and discipline. How could you
understand this doctrine and discipline? You’re practicing wrongly. I’m
practicing rightly. I’m being consistent. You’re not. What should be
said first you said last. What should be said last you said first. What
you took so long to think out has been refuted. Your doctrine has been
overthrown. You’re defeated. Go and try to salvage your doctrine;
extricate yourself if you can!’ — he abstains from debates such as
these. This, too, is part of his virtue.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in
faith, are addicted to running messages and errands for people such as
these — kings, ministers of state, noble warriors, priests,
householders, or youths [who say], ‘Go here, go there, take this there,
fetch that here’ — he abstains from running messages and errands for
people such as these. This, too, is part of his virtue.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in
faith, engage in scheming, persuading, hinting, belittling, and pursuing
gain with gain, he abstains from forms of scheming and persuading
[improper ways of trying to gain material support from donors] such as
these. This, too, is part of his virtue.

(The Great Section on Virtue)

Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as:

reading marks on the limbs [e.g., palmistry];
reading omens and signs;
interpreting celestial events [falling stars, comets];
interpreting dreams;
reading marks on the body [e.g., phrenology];
reading marks on cloth gnawed by mice;
offering fire oblations, oblations from a ladle, oblations of husks, rice powder, rice grains, ghee, and oil;
offering oblations from the mouth;
offering blood-sacrifices;
making predictions based on the fingertips;
geomancy;
laying demons in a cemetery;
placing spells on spirits;
reciting house-protection charms;
snake charming, poison-lore, scorpion-lore, rat-lore, bird-lore, crow-lore;
fortune-telling based on visions;
giving protective charms;
interpreting the calls of birds and animals —

he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in
faith, maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as:
determining lucky and unlucky gems, garments, staffs, swords, spears,
arrows, bows, and other weapons; women, boys, girls, male slaves, female
slaves; elephants, horses, buffaloes, bulls, cows, goats, rams, fowl,
quails, lizards, long-eared rodents, tortoises, and other animals — he
abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in
faith, maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as
forecasting:

the rulers will march forth;
the rulers will march forth and return;
our rulers will attack, and their rulers will retreat;
their rulers will attack, and our rulers will retreat;
there will be triumph for our rulers and defeat for their rulers;
there will be triumph for their rulers and defeat for our rulers;
thus there will be triumph, thus there will be defeat —

he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in
faith, maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as
forecasting:

there will be a lunar eclipse;
there will be a solar eclipse;
there will be an occultation of an asterism;
the sun and moon will go their normal courses;
the sun and moon will go astray;
the asterisms will go their normal courses;
the asterisms will go astray;
there will be a meteor shower;
there will be a darkening of the sky;
there will be an earthquake;
there will be thunder coming from a clear sky;
there will be a rising, a setting, a darkening, a brightening of the sun, moon, and asterisms;
such will be the result of the lunar eclipse…the rising, setting, darkening, brightening of the sun, moon, and asterisms —

he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in
faith, maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as
forecasting:

there will be abundant rain; there will be a drought;
there will be plenty; there will be famine;
there will be rest and security; there will be danger;
there will be disease; there will be freedom from disease;
or they earn their living by counting, accounting, calculation, composing poetry, or teaching hedonistic arts and doctrines —

he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in
faith, maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as:

calculating auspicious dates for marriages, betrothals,
divorces; for collecting debts or making investments and loans; for
being attractive or unattractive; curing women who have undergone
miscarriages or abortions;
reciting spells to bind a man’s tongue, to paralyze his jaws, to make him lose control over his hands, or to bring on deafness;
getting oracular answers to questions addressed to a mirror, to a young girl, or to a spirit medium;
worshipping the sun, worshipping the Great Brahma, bringing forth flames from the mouth, invoking the goddess of luck —

he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in
faith, maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as:

promising gifts to deities in return for favors; fulfilling such promises;
demonology;
teaching house-protection spells;
inducing virility and impotence;
consecrating sites for construction;
giving ceremonial mouthwashes and ceremonial bathing;
offering sacrificial fires;
preparing emetics, purgatives, expectorants, diuretics, headache cures;
preparing ear-oil, eye-drops, oil for treatment through the nose,
collyrium, and counter-medicines; curing cataracts, practicing surgery,
practicing as a children’s doctor, administering medicines and
treatments to cure their after-effects —

he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these. This, too, is part of his virtue.

“A monk thus consummate in virtue sees no danger anywhere from his restraint through virtue. Just as
a head-anointed noble warrior king who has defeated his enemies sees no
danger anywhere from his enemies, in the same way the monk thus
consummate in virtue sees no danger anywhere from his restraint through
virtue. Endowed with this noble aggregate of virtue, he is inwardly
sensitive to the pleasure of being blameless. This is how a monk is
consummate in virtue.

(Sense Restraint)

“And how does a monk guard the doors of his senses? On seeing a form
with the eye, he does not grasp at any theme or details by which — if
he were to dwell without restraint over the faculty of the eye — evil,
unskillful qualities such as greed or distress might assail him. On
hearing a sound with the ear…On smelling an odor with the nose…One
tasting a flavor with the tongue…On touching a tactile sensation with
the body…On cognizing an idea with the intellect, he does not grasp at
any theme or details by which — if he were to dwell without restraint
over the faculty of the intellect — evil, unskillful qualities such as
greed or distress might assail him. Endowed with this noble restraint
over the sense faculties, he is inwardly sensitive to the pleasure of
being blameless. This is how a monk guards the doors of his senses.

(Mindfulness & Alertness)

“And how is a monk possessed of mindfulness and alertness? When going
forward and returning, he acts with alertness. When looking toward and
looking away…when bending and extending his limbs…when carrying his
outer cloak, his upper robe, and his bowl…when eating, drinking,
chewing, and tasting…when urinating and defecating…when walking,
standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking up, talking, and remaining
silent, he acts with alertness. This is how a monk is possessed of
mindfulness and alertness.

(Contentedness)

“And how is a monk content? Just as a bird,
wherever it goes, flies with its wings as its only burden; so too is he
content with a set of robes to provide for his body and almsfood to
provide for his hunger. Wherever he goes, he takes only his barest
necessities along. This is how a monk is content.

(Abandoning the Hindrances)

“Endowed with this noble aggregate of virtue, this noble restraint
over the sense faculties, this noble mindfulness and alertness, and this
noble contentment, he seeks out a secluded dwelling: a forest, the
shade of a tree, a mountain, a glen, a hillside cave, a charnel ground, a
jungle grove, the open air, a heap of straw. After his meal, returning
from his alms round, he sits down, crosses his legs, holds his body
erect, and brings mindfulness to the fore.

“Abandoning covetousness with regard to the world, he dwells with an
awareness devoid of covetousness. He cleanses his mind of covetousness.
Abandoning ill will and anger, he dwells with an awareness devoid of ill
will, sympathetic with the welfare of all living beings. He cleanses
his mind of ill will and anger. Abandoning sloth and torpor, he dwells
with an awareness devoid of sloth and torpor, mindful, alert, percipient
of light. He cleanses his mind of covetousness. Abandoning restlessness
and anxiety, he dwells undisturbed, his mind inwardly stilled. He
cleanses his mind of restlessness and anxiety. Abandoning uncertainty,
he dwells having crossed over uncertainty, with no perplexity with
regard to skillful mental qualities. He cleanses his mind of
uncertainty.

Suppose that a man, taking a loan, invests it in
his business affairs. His business affairs succeed. He repays his old
debts and there is extra left over for maintaining his wife. The thought
would occur to him, ‘Before, taking a loan, I invested it in my
business affairs. Now my business affairs have succeeded. I have repaid
my old debts and there is extra left over for maintaining my wife.’
Because of that he would experience joy and happiness.

Now suppose that a man falls sick — in pain and
seriously ill. He does not enjoy his meals, and there is no strength in
his body. As time passes, he eventually recovers from that sickness. He
enjoys his meals and there is strength in his body. The thought would
occur to him, ‘Before, I was sick…Now I am recovered from that
sickness. I enjoy my meals and there is strength in my body.’ Because of
that he would experience joy and happiness.

Now suppose that a man is bound in prison. As
time passes, he eventually is released from that bondage, safe and
sound, with no loss of property. The thought would occur to him,
‘Before, I was bound in prison. Now I am released from that bondage,
safe and sound, with no loss of my property.’ Because of that he would
experience joy and happiness.

Now suppose that a man is a slave, subject to
others, not subject to himself, unable to go where he likes. As time
passes, he eventually is released from that slavery, subject to himself,
not subject to others, freed, able to go where he likes. The thought
would occur to him, ‘Before, I was a slave…Now I am released from that
slavery, subject to myself, not subject to others, freed, able to go
where I like.’ Because of that he would experience joy and happiness.

Now suppose that a man, carrying money and goods,
is traveling by a road through desolate country. As time passes, he
eventually emerges from that desolate country, safe and sound, with no
loss of property. The thought would occur to him, ‘Before, carrying
money and goods, I was traveling by a road through desolate country. Now
I have emerged from that desolate country, safe and sound, with no loss
of my property.’ Because of that he would experience joy and happiness.

“In the same way, when these five hindrances are not abandoned in
himself, the monk regards it as a debt, a sickness, a prison, slavery, a
road through desolate country. But when these five hindrances are
abandoned in himself, he regards it as unindebtedness, good health,
release from prison, freedom, a place of security. Seeing that they have
been abandoned within him, he becomes glad. Glad, he becomes
enraptured. Enraptured, his body grows tranquil. His body tranquil, he
is sensitive to pleasure. Feeling pleasure, his mind becomes
concentrated.

(The Four Jhanas)

“Quite withdrawn from sensual pleasures, withdrawn from unskillful
mental qualities, he enters and remains in the first jhana: rapture and
pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought and
evaluation. He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body
with the rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal. Just as if a skilled bathman
or bathman’s apprentice would pour bath powder into a brass basin and
knead it together, sprinkling it again and again with water, so that his
ball of bath powder — saturated, moisture-laden, permeated within and
without — would nevertheless not drip; even so, the monk
permeates…this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of
withdrawal. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture
and pleasure born from withdrawal.

“This is a fruit of the contemplative life, visible here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more sublime.

“Furthermore, with the stilling of directed thought and evaluation,
he enters and remains in the second jhana: rapture and pleasure born of
composure, one-pointedness of awareness free from directed thought and
evaluation — internal assurance. He permeates and pervades, suffuses
and fills this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of
composure. Just like a lake with spring-water welling
up from within, having no inflow from the east, west, north, or south,
and with the skies supplying abundant showers time and again, so that
the cool fount of water welling up from within the lake would permeate
and pervade, suffuse and fill it with cool waters, there being no part
of the lake unpervaded by the cool waters; even so, the monk
permeates…this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of
composure. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and
pleasure born of composure.

“This, too, is a fruit of the contemplative life, visible here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more sublime.

“And furthermore, with the fading of rapture, he remains in
equanimity, mindful and fully aware, and physically sensitive of
pleasure. He enters and remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble
Ones declare, ‘Equanimous and mindful, he has a pleasurable abiding.’ He
permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the
pleasure divested of rapture. Just as in a lotus pond,
some of the lotuses, born and growing in the water, stay immersed in
the water and flourish without standing up out of the water, so that
they are permeated and pervaded, suffused and filled with cool water
from their roots to their tips, and nothing of those lotuses would be
unpervaded with cool water; even so, the monk permeates…this very body
with the pleasure divested of rapture. There is nothing of his entire
body unpervaded with pleasure divested of rapture.

“This, too, is a fruit of the contemplative life, visible here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more sublime.

“And furthermore, with the abandoning of pleasure and stress — as
with the earlier disappearance of elation and distress — he enters and
remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity and mindfulness,
neither-pleasure nor stress. He sits, permeating the body with a pure,
bright awareness. Just as if a man were sitting
covered from head to foot with a white cloth so that there would be no
part of his body to which the white cloth did not extend; even so, the
monk sits, permeating the body with a pure, bright awareness. There is
nothing of his entire body unpervaded by pure, bright awareness.

“This, too, great king, is a fruit of the contemplative life, visible
here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more sublime.

(Insight Knowledge)

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished,
free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge and vision. He
discerns: ‘This body of mine is endowed with form, composed of the four
primary elements, born from mother and father, nourished with rice and
porridge, subject to inconstancy, rubbing, pressing, dissolution, and
dispersion. And this consciousness of mine is supported here and bound
up here.’ Just as if there were a beautiful beryl gem
of the purest water — eight faceted, well polished, clear, limpid,
consummate in all its aspects, and going through the middle of it was a
blue, yellow, red, white, or brown thread — and a man with good
eyesight, taking it in his hand, were to reflect on it thus: ‘This is a
beautiful beryl gem of the purest water, eight faceted, well polished,
clear, limpid, consummate in all its aspects. And this, going through
the middle of it, is a blue, yellow, red, white, or brown thread.’ In
the same way — with his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright,
unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained
to imperturbability — the monk directs and inclines it to knowledge and
vision. He discerns: ‘This body of mine is endowed with form, composed
of the four primary elements, born from mother and father, nourished
with rice and porridge, subject to inconstancy, rubbing, pressing,
dissolution, and dispersion. And this consciousness of mine is supported
here and bound up here.’

“This, too, great king, is a fruit of the contemplative life, visible
here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more sublime.

(The Mind-made Body)

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished,
free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to creating a mind-made
body. From this body he creates another body, endowed with form, made of
the mind, complete in all its parts, not inferior in its faculties. Just as if a man
were to draw a reed from its sheath. The thought would occur to him:
‘This is the sheath, this is the reed. The sheath is one thing, the reed
another, but the reed has been drawn out from the sheath.’ Or as if a man
were to draw a sword from its scabbard. The thought would occur to him:
‘This is the sword, this is the scabbard. The sword is one thing, the
scabbard another, but the sword has been drawn out from the scabbard.’ Or as if a man
were to pull a snake out from its slough. The thought would occur to
him: ‘This is the snake, this is the slough. The snake is one thing, the
slough another, but the snake has been pulled out from the slough.’ In
the same way — with his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright,
unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained
to imperturbability, the monk directs and inclines it to creating a
mind-made body. From this body he creates another body, endowed with
form, made of the mind, complete in all its parts, not inferior in its
faculties.

“This, too, great king, is a fruit of the contemplative life, visible
here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more sublime.

(Supranormal Powers)

With his mind thus concentrated, purified,
and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady,
and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to the
modes of supranormal powers. He wields manifold supranormal powers.
Having been one he becomes many; having been many he becomes one. He
appears. He vanishes. He goes unimpeded through walls, ramparts, and
mountains as if through space. He dives in and out of the earth as if it
were water. He walks on water without sinking as if it were dry land.
Sitting cross-legged he flies through the air like a winged bird. With
his hand he touches and strokes even the sun and moon, so mighty and
powerful. He exercises influence with his body even as far as the Brahma
worlds. Just as a skilled potter or his assistant could craft from well-prepared clay whatever kind of pottery vessel he likes, or as a skilled ivory-carver or his assistant could craft from well-prepared ivory any kind of ivory-work he likes, or as a skilled goldsmith
or his assistant could craft from well-prepared gold any kind of gold
article he likes; in the same way — with his mind thus concentrated,
purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable,
steady, and attained to imperturbability — the monk directs and
inclines it to the modes of supranormal powers…He exercises influence
with his body even as far as the Brahma worlds.

“This, too, great king, is a fruit of the contemplative life, visible
here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more sublime.

(Clairaudience)

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished,
free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to the divine ear-element.
He hears — by means of the divine ear-element, purified and surpassing
the human — both kinds of sounds: divine and human, whether near or
far. Just as if a man traveling along a highway were
to hear the sounds of kettledrums, small drums, conchs, cymbals, and
tom-toms. He would know, ‘That is the sound of kettledrums, that is the
sound of small drums, that is the sound of conchs, that is the sound of
cymbals, and that is the sound of tom-toms.’ In the same way — with his
mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from
defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability —
the monk directs and inclines it to the divine ear-element. He hears —
by means of the divine ear-element, purified and surpassing the human –
both kinds of sounds: divine and human, whether near or far.

“This, too, great king, is a fruit of the contemplative life, visible
here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more sublime.

(Mind Reading)

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished,
free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge of the
awareness of other beings. He knows the awareness of other beings, other
individuals, having encompassed it with his own awareness. He discerns a
mind with passion as a mind with passion, and a mind without passion as
a mind without passion. He discerns a mind with aversion as a mind with
aversion, and a mind without aversion as a mind without aversion. He
discerns a mind with delusion as a mind with delusion, and a mind
without delusion as a mind without delusion. He discerns a restricted
mind as a restricted mind, and a scattered mind as a scattered mind. He
discerns an enlarged mind as an enlarged mind, and an unenlarged mind as
an unenlarged mind. He discerns an excelled mind [one that is not at
the most excellent level] as an excelled mind, and an unexcelled mind as
an unexcelled mind. He discerns a concentrated mind as a concentrated
mind, and an unconcentrated mind as an unconcentrated mind. He discerns a
released mind as a released mind, and an unreleased mind as an
unreleased mind. Just as if a young woman — or
man — fond of ornaments, examining the reflection of her own face in a
bright mirror or a bowl of clear water would know ‘blemished’ if it
were blemished, or ‘unblemished’ if it were not. In the same way — with
his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free
from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability — the monk directs and inclines it to knowledge of the
awareness of other beings. He knows the awareness of other beings,
other individuals, having encompassed it with his own awareness. He
discerns a mind with passion as a mind with passion, and a mind without
passion as a mind without passion…a released mind as a released mind,
and an unreleased mind as an unreleased mind.

“This, too, great king, is a fruit of the contemplative life, visible
here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more sublime.

(Recollection of Past Lives)

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished,
free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge of the
recollection of past lives (lit: previous homes). He recollects his
manifold past lives, i.e., one birth, two births, three births, four,
five, ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, one hundred, one thousand, one
hundred thousand, many aeons of cosmic contraction, many aeons of cosmic
expansion, many aeons of cosmic contraction and expansion,
[recollecting], ‘There I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had
such an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and
pain, such the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose
there. There too I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such
an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and
pain, such the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose
here.’ Thus he recollects his manifold past lives in their modes and
details. Just as if a man were to go from his home
village to another village, and then from that village to yet another
village, and then from that village back to his home village. The
thought would occur to him, ‘I went from my home village to that village
over there. There I stood in such a way, sat in such a way, talked in
such a way, and remained silent in such a way. From that village I went
to that village over there, and there I stood in such a way, sat in such
a way, talked in such a way, and remained silent in such a way. From
that village I came back home.’ In the same way — with his mind thus
concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects,
pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability — the monk
directs and inclines it to knowledge of the recollection of past lives.
He recollects his manifold past lives…in their modes and details.

“This, too, great king, is a fruit of the contemplative life, visible
here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more sublime.

(The Passing Away & Re-appearance of Beings)

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished,
free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge of the passing
away and re-appearance of beings. He sees — by means of the divine
eye, purified and surpassing the human — beings passing away and
re-appearing, and he discerns how they are inferior and superior,
beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate in accordance with their
kamma: ‘These beings — who were endowed with bad conduct of body,
speech, and mind, who reviled the noble ones, held wrong views and
undertook actions under the influence of wrong views — with the
break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in the plane of
deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell. But these
beings — who were endowed with good conduct of body, speech, and mind,
who did not revile the noble ones, who held right views and undertook
actions under the influence of right views — with the break-up of the
body, after death, have re-appeared in the good destinations, in the
heavenly world.’ Thus — by means of the divine eye, purified and
surpassing the human — he sees beings passing away and re-appearing,
and he discerns how they are inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly,
fortunate and unfortunate in accordance with their kamma. Just as if there were a tall building
in the central square [of a town], and a man with good eyesight
standing on top of it were to see people entering a house, leaving it,
walking along the street, and sitting in the central square. The thought
would occur to him, ‘These people are entering a house, leaving it,
walking along the streets, and sitting in the central square.’ In the
same way — with his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright,
unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained
to imperturbability — the monk directs and inclines it to knowledge of
the passing away and re-appearance of beings. He sees — by means of the
divine eye, purified and surpassing the human — beings passing away
and re-appearing, and he discerns how they are inferior and superior,
beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate in accordance with their
kamma…

“This, too, great king, is a fruit of the contemplative life, visible
here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more sublime.

(The Ending of Mental Fermentations)

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished,
free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, the monk directs and inclines it to the knowledge of
the ending of the mental fermentations. He discerns, as it is actually
present, that ‘This is stress…This is the origination of stress…This
is the cessation of stress…This is the way leading to the cessation
of stress…These are mental fermentations…This is the origination of
fermentations…This is the cessation of fermentations…This is the way
leading to the cessation of fermentations.’ His heart, thus knowing,
thus seeing, is released from the fermentation of sensuality, the
fermentation of becoming, the fermentation of ignorance. With release,
there is the knowledge, ‘Released.’ He discerns that ‘Birth is ended,
the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for
this world.’ Just as if there were a pool of water in
a mountain glen — clear, limpid, and unsullied — where a man with
good eyesight standing on the bank could see shells, gravel, and
pebbles, and also shoals of fish swimming about and resting, and it
would occur to him, ‘This pool of water is clear, limpid, and unsullied.
Here are these shells, gravel, and pebbles, and also these shoals of
fish swimming about and resting.’ In the same way — with his mind thus
concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects,
pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability — the monk
directs and inclines it to the knowledge of the ending of the mental
fermentations. He discerns, as it is actually present, that ‘This is
stress…This is the origination of stress…This is the cessation of
stress…This is the way leading to the cessation of stress…These are
mental fermentations…This is the origination of fermentations…This
is the cessation of fermentations…This is the way leading to the
cessation of fermentations.’ His heart, thus knowing, thus seeing, is
released from the fermentation of sensuality, the fermentation of
becoming, the fermentation of ignorance. With release, there is the
knowledge, ‘Released.’ He discerns that ‘Birth is ended, the holy life
fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for this world.’

“This, too, great king, is a fruit of the contemplative life, visible
here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more sublime.
And as for another visible fruit of the contemplative life, higher and
more sublime than this, there is none.”

When this was said, King Ajàtasattu said to the Blessed One: “Magnificent,
venerable sir! Magnificent! Just as if he were to place upright what
had been overturned, were to reveal what was hidden, were to show the
way to one who was lost, or were to hold up a lamp in the dark so that
those with eyes could see forms, in the same way the Blessed One has —
through many lines of reasoning — made the Dhamma clear. I go to the
Blessed One for refuge, to the Dhamma, and to the community of monks.
May the Blessed One remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him
for refuge, from this day forward, for life.

“A transgression has overcome me, venerable sir, in that I was so
foolish, so muddle-headed, and so unskilled as to kill my father — a
righteous man, a righteous king — for the sake of sovereign rulership.
May the Blessed One please accept this confession of my transgression as
such, so that I may restrain myself in the future.”

“Yes, great king, a transgression overcame you in that you were so
foolish, so muddle-headed, and so unskilled as to kill your father — a
righteous man, a righteous king — for the sake of sovereign rulership.
But because you see your transgression as such and make amends in
accordance with the Dhamma, we accept your confession. For it is a cause
of growth in the Dhamma and discipline of the noble ones when, seeing a
transgression as such, one makes amends in accordance with the Dhamma
and exercises restraint in the future.”

When this was said, King Ajàtasattu said to the Blessed One: “Well,
then, venerable sir, I am now taking leave. Many are my duties, many my
responsibilities.”

“Then do, great king, what you think it is now time to do.”

So King Ajàtasattu, delighting and rejoicing in the Blessed One’s
words, rose from his seat, bowed down to him, and — after
circumambulating him — left. Not long after King Ajàtasattu had left,
the Blessed One addressed the monks: “The king is wounded, monks. The
king is incapacitated. Had he not killed his father — that righteous
man, that righteous king — the dustless, stainless Dhamma eye would
have arisen to him as he sat in this very seat.”

That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One’s words.


Sinhala


oS> ksldh



kfud ;ii N.jf;d wryf;d iuud iunqoaOii


4″ iduZ[Za[ M, iQ;1h

3′ ud jsiska fufia wik ,os’ tla
ld,hl Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia rc.y kqjr wi, fldaudr Npzp cSjlhkaf.a wU jfkys
uyd NsCIq ix> hdjQ NsCIqka tla oyia foish mkyla iu. jdih lf

))mskaj;aks” msrsisZoq rd;1sh
ienjskau m1S;s f.k fohs’ ,iaik fmkquls’ oelSug m1shh’ is;a i;2gq
lrkakSh’ u;l ;nd .ekSug iqoqiqh’ [\q 35/] 4′
fufia lS l, tla;rd rc weu;sfhla wcdi;a rcqg fufia lSh’ ))foajhka jykai”
fuz mQrAK ldYHmhkag iuQyhd we;af;ah’ msrsi we;af;ah’ msrsig .2rejrfhls’
m1isoaO lSrA;shla orkafkls’ ;srA:l OrAu foaYkd lrkafkls’ fndfyda fokd
jsiska hym;ahehs ms

5′ tla;rd rc weu;sfhla tfiau ulaL,S f.daid,hka wdY1h flfr;ajdhs lSfhah’ wcdi;a rc ksYaYnzo jsh’

6′ tla;rd rc weu;sfhla wcs; flailuzn,hka wdY1h flfr;ajdhs lSfhah’ wcdi;a rc ksYaYnzo jsh’

7′ tla;rd rc weu;sfhla ml2Olpzpdhk wdY1h flfr;ajdhs lSfhah’ wcdi;a rc ksYaYnzo jsh’

8′ tla;rd rc weu;sfhla ixch fn,gzGmq;a; wdY1h flfr;ajdhs lSfhah’ wcdi;a rc ksYaYnzo jsh’

9′ tla;rd rc weu;sfhla ks> KAGkd: mq;a; wdY1h flfr;ajdhs lSfhah’ wcdi;a rc ksYaYnzo jsh’

0′ tl,ays fldaudrNpzp cSjl ksYaYnzoj wcdi;a rc iuSmfhys Wkafka jsh’
tjsg wcdi;a rc” ))hyZM cSjlh” Tn l2ula ksid ksYaYnzoj isgskakdyqoehs))
weiSh’

))foajhka jykai” fuz wry;a iuzud iuznqoq Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia uyd NsCIq
ix> hdjQ tla oyia foish mKyla muK NsCIqka jykafia iu. wmf.a wU jkfhys
jdih flfr;a’ ta f.#;u Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiaf.a funZoq ia;2;s f> daIdj
Wiaj kexf.ah’ flfiao h;a+ ta Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia wry;ah’ iuzud iuznqoq
jsh’ jscAcd prK iuzmkak jsh’ iq.; jsh’ f,daljsoQ jsh’ wkq;a;r jsh’
mqrsiOuzu idr:s jsh’ fojz usksiqkag W.kajk nejska Ydia;D kuz jsh’ nqoaO
kuz jsh’ N.j;a jsh’


[\q 36/] tnejska
foajhka jykai ta Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia wdY1h flfr;ajd’ Wka jykafia wdY1h
lrk Tn jykafiaf.a is; ielhla ke;sj myoskafkauhhs))’

))hyZM cSjlh” tfia kuz we;a hdkdjla irij))’

-’ we;skakshka mkaishhla iy rcqg ke.Sug wef;l2o irijd” ))foajhka
jykai” we;a hdkd ms

tjsg wcdi;a rc mkaishhla we;sks hdkhkays tla tla ia;1sh ne.ska kxjd
;ukag iqoqiq we;2msg ke.S mkaouz oe,ajQ l, uy;ajQ rdcdkqNdjfhka hqla;j
rc.y kqjrska msg;aj fldaudrNpzp cSjlhdf.a wU jkhg .sfhah’

3=’ tl, wcdi;a rcqg wU jkhg kqoqre ;ekloS is;g f,dl2 Nhla we;sjsh’
;s.eiaiSula we;sjsh’ f,duz ke.S isgsfhah’ tjsg wcdi;a rc” ))hyZM cSjlh”
fudlo$ ud jxpd l,d fkdfjzo$ ke;s foa we;ehs lshd ud /jgqjd fkdfjzo$ ud
i;2rkag mdjd fokjd fkdfjzo$ tla oyia foish mKyla muKjQ uyd NsCIq ix>
hdf.a lsjsiquz Ynzohla fyda lEreuz Ynzohla fyda l:d Ynzohla fyda muKj;a
wefikafka keoao$)) weiSh’

))uyrc” nsh fkdjkak” uyrc bosrshg hkak” jl1dldr Yd,dfjys myka oe,afjhs))’

33′ tjsg wcdi;a rc we;2msgska hkag yels;dla oqrg f.dia” we;2msgska
nei mhskau jl1dldr Yd,dfjz fodr ,Z.g meusKsfhah’ tfia meusK” ))hyZM
cSjlh” Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fld;koehs)) cSjlhdf.ka weiqfjzh’

))ta Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia” ueo lKqj iuSmfhys kef.kysr foi n,d NsCIq ix> hd msrsjrd jevyqkafka Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiah))’

34′ tjsg wcdi;a rc Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia jev ysZosk ;ekg meusKsfhah’
meusK tl me;a;lgjS isgsfhah’ yeu me;af;kau ikaiqkajQ ksYaYnzojQ
msrsisZoq js,la fuka i;2gq bkao1ska we;s NsCIq ix> hd kej; kej; n,d”


[\q 37/]

))oeka fuz NsCIq ix> hd huz wdldr
ixisZoSulska hqla;o” udf.a WohNoao l2udrhdo ta bkao1sh uev mj;ajd
.ekSfuka hqla; fjzjd))hs m1S;s jdlHhla wcdi;a rc my< lf

))uyrc” NsCIq ix> hd n,d f;dmf.a is; fm1auh we;s ;ek lrd .shd fjzo$))

))iajduSks” WohNoao l2udrhd ug m1shh” oeka fuz NsCIq ix> hd huz
bkao1s uevmj;ajd .ekSulska hqla;o” WohNoao l2udreo ta bkao1sh uev mj;ajd
.ekSfuka hqla; fjzjd))’

35′ tjsg wcdi;a rc Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ukd fldg jeZo” NsCIq ix> hdg
oE;a tl;2 fldg jeZo tl;amiaj Wkafkah’ tfia WkakdjQ wcdi;a rc ))iajduSks”
Nd.Hj;2ka jykai” oeka m1Yakhla weiSug wjir fokafka kuz” lsishuz
m1Yakhla wius))hs lSfhah’

))uyrc” f;dmg hula leu;s kuz th wij))’

36′ ))iajduSks” ta ta whf.a cSj;ajSug fya;2jQ fndfyda Ys,am fjhs’ ta
Ys,amhka olajd fuz wd;aufhau ;ud jsiska oelal yels Ys,am M,h ksid cSj;a
fj;s’ Tjqyq bka ;u cSjs;h iqjm;a flfr;a’ iajduSks” tfukau fuz Ndjfhys
oelal yelsjQ jsmdl we;s hym;a udrA. M,hla m1ldY lrkakg Tng mqZMjkao$))

37′ ))uyrc” Tn fuz m1Yakh wka uyK nuqKka f.kq;a weiQ nj fkdokafkayso$))

))iajduSks” fuz m1Yakh fjk;a uyK nuqKka f.ka uu weiQ nj oksus))’

))uyrc” Tjqka th flfia jsiZoqjdoehs Tng wmyiq fkdfjz kuz lshj))’

))iajduSks” Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fyda Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia nZoq wkHfhda fyda huz ;ekl fj;ao” t;2uka bosrsfhys lshkakg wmyiq fkdfjz))’


[\q 38/]

))uyrc” tfia kuz lshkq uekj))’

38′ ))iajduSks” uu tla osfkl mQrAK ldYHmhka fj; meusK fuz wd;aufhys
oelal yelsjQ jsmdl we;s hym;a udrA. M,hla m1ldY lrkakg mqZMjkaoehs))
weiqfjus’

39′ ))iajduSks” mQrAK ldYHmhd ug fufia
lSh’ ish w;ska lrkakdygo” wKoS lrjkakdygo” fYdal we;s lrkakdygo” wkqka
,jd fYdal lrjkakdygo” m1dK ysxid” kqoqka foh .kakd” meyer .kakd” mr
wUqjka lrd hkakd” fndre lshkakd” mjla lrkakdygo mjla ke;af;ah’ fouska”
fojuska” hd. lruska” lrjuska ta fya;2fjkao msKla ke;af;ah’ mqKHdf.a
jevSula ke;af;ah’ *oka( oSfukao” bJo1s oukfhka fyda tla jrefjz lEu .kakd
oskfhkao” iS,+yslauSfukao” ienE lSfukao” msKla ke;af;ah’ mqKHdf.a
meusKSula ke;af;ah)) hkqhs’

iajduSks” fufia ud jsiska fydZoska oqgqjdjQ hym;a udrA. M,h wik l,
mQrAK ldYHm fkdlsrSu m1ldY lf

30′ ))iajduSks” uu tla osfkl ulaL,Sf.daid,hka fj;g meusK fuz wd;au
Ndjfhys oelal hq;2 jsmdl we;s hym;a udrA. M,hla m1ldY lrkakg mqZMjkaoehs
weiqfjus))’

3-’ ))iajduSks” ud fufia lS l, ulaL,Sf.daid, ug fuh lSfjzh’ tkuz+
uyrc” i;ajhkaf.a flf,iSug fya;2jla m1;Hhla ke;af;ah’ fya;2 rys;j
i;ajfhda flf,fi;a’ i;ajhkaf.a msrsisZoq jSug fya;2jla m1;Hhla ke;af;ah’
fya;2 rys;j m1;H rys;j i;ajfhda msrsisZoq fj;a’ ;ud l, lrAufhys jsmdl
ke;’ wkqkaf.a wjjdodkqYdikd mrsos l, lrAufhys M,h ke;’ n,hla ke;’
jSrAhhla ke;’ mqreI mrdl1uhla ke;’ ishZM i;ajfhdao” ishZM m1dKSyqo”
ishZM N@;fhdao hk ish,af,dau jiZ. ke;af;da n, ke;af;dah’


[\q 39/]

jSrAhh ke;af;dah’ kshu .;s we;s nejska
ih wdldr Wiia cd;Ska w;2frys ta ta .;sj,g meusKSfukao iajNdjfhkao
fkdfhla wdldrhg meusKshdyq cd;sfhysu iqjoqla jsZos;a’ Njfhka Njfhka
f.dia cSj;a fjuska oqla wjika flfr;a))’

))iajduSks” fufia ud jsiska wd;au Ndjfhys oelalhq;2 jsmdl we;s hym;a
udrA. M,hla weiQ l, ulaL,Sf.daid, Njfhka Njhg hdfuka i;ajhd msrsisZoq jk
nj m1ldY lf

4=’ ))iajduSks” oskla uu flai luzn,OdrSjQ wcs;hka fj; meusK fuz wd;au
Ndjfhys oelal hq;2 jsmdl we;s hym;a udrA. M,hla m1ldY lrkakg yelsoehs
weiqfjus))’

))iajduSks” ud fufia lS l, flailuzn, wcs; ug fuh lSfhah’ + uyrc”
odkhla ke;” hd.hla ke;” .re nqyquka lsrSula ke;” l2Y,dl2Y, lrAuhkaf.a
M,hla ke;” jsmdlhla ke;” fuf,dj ke;” mrf,dj ke;” ufjla ke;” msfhla ke;”
uerS Wmosk i;ajfhda ke;” hfula fuf,dj mrf,dj jsfYaI {dkfhka oek wjfndaO
fldg m1ldY flfr;ao tnZoq wdrAh udrA.hg meusKs fydZoska ms

i;r uyd uQ,sl Od;2 *p;2rA uyd N@;uh( jQ fuz mqrAI f;fuz huz lf,l
uerefKAo tl, ta ta Od;2″ Od;2 /ig meusfKhs” we;2,;a fjhs’ bkao1shfhda yh
wyfiys yeisfr;a’ wkqjK who kqjK we;af;dao urKska miq iyuq,ska ke;sfj;a”
jekfi;a’ urKska u;2 Tjqka fkdfj;a *bmoSula ke;())’

))iajduska jykai” fufia ud jsiska fuz wd;au Ndjfhys oelalhq;2 jsmdl
we;s hym;a udrA. M,hla weiQ l, wcs; f;fuz WpzfPo jdoh mejiSh’ fuz wd;au
Ndjfhys oelalhq;2 jsmdl we;s hym;a udrA. M,hla weiQ l, iajduSks ta
flailuzn, wcs; f;fuz WpzfPo jdoh mejiSh’ Tyq lS foau idrhhs fkdf.k Wka
wdikfhka ke.sg .sfhus))’


[\q 40/]

43′ ))iajduska jykai” uu tla oskla
lpzpdhk f.da;1fhysjQ ml2Ohka fj; .sfhus’ fuz wd;au Ndjfhys oelal hq;2
jsmdl we;s hym;a udrA. M,hla m1ldY lrkakg yelsoehs weiqfjus))’

))iajduSks” ud fufia lS l, ml2O lpzpdhk ug fufia lSh’ + uyrc” fkdlrK
,oaodyqo” fufia lrjhs lsisjl2 ,jd fkdlrjk ,oaodjQo” fkdujk ,oaodjQ mGjs
iuQyh” wdfmda iuQyh” f;afcda iuQyh” jdfhda iuQyh” iemh” oqlh” i;ajeksjQ
m1dKh hk fudyqh fuz iuQy i; lsis fya;2jlska fkdlrK ,oy’ fufia lrjhs
lsisjl2 ,jd fkdlrjk ,oy’ lsisjl2 jsiska fyda lsisjl2 ,jd fkdujk
,oafodah’ lsisjl2 kQmokkafkdah’ hfula ;shqKq wdhqOhlska ysi isZoSo
lsisfjla lsisjl2 cSjs;fhka f;dr fkdlrhs’ mGjs wdoS i;a jeoEreuz iuQyhka
w;2rska tys isoqfrka wdhqOhla we;2ZM fjhs))’

))iajduSks” ud fufia fuz wd;au Ndjfhys oelalhq;2 jsmdl we;s hym;a udrA. M,hla weiQ l, lpzpdhk

f.da;1fhysjQ ml2O f;fuz wksllska wkslla mejiSh’ Tyq lS foau idrhhs fkdf.k isf;ys fkdmsysgqjd Wka wdikfhka ke.sg .sfhus))’

44′ ))iajduska jykai” uu tla lf,l ks.KAGkd: mq;1hka huz ;efklo t;ekg
.sfhus’ fuz wd;au Ndjfhys oelal hq;2 jsmdl we;s hym;a udrA. M,hla
olajkakg yelsoehs weiqfjus))’

))iajduSks” ud fufia lS l, ta w..sfjiaik f;fuz fufia lSh’+ uyrc” fuz
f,dalfha ks.KAG f;fuz i;r fldgiska hq;a ixjrfhka hqla;fjz’ ks.KAG f;fuz
ishZM isys,a c,fhka je

[\q 41/]

))iajduSks” ud jsiska fufia fuz wd;au
Ndjfhys oelal hq;2 jsmdl we;s udrA. M,h weiQ l, ks> KAGkd: mq;1 f;fuz
y;r fldgiska hq;a ixjrh m1ldY flf

45′ ))iajduSka jykai uu tla oskla fn,gzGmq;a;jQ ixch” fj; .sfhus’
u;af;ys M,fok iajrA.hg muqKqjk iem jsmdl we;s iuzm;a;s OrAuhka Wmojk
odkh uyK nuqfKda flfrys msysgqj;a’ ta ukaoehs weiqfjus))’

))iajduSka jykai fufia ud jsiska fuz wd;au Ndjfhys oelal hq;2 jsmdl
we;s udrA. M,h weiQ l, i;aj f;u urKska u;2 jkafkahhs lshdo” i;aj f;u
urKska u;2 fkdjkafkahhs lshdo” i;ajhd urKska u;2 jkafka;a fjhs”
fkdjkafka;a fjhs” wdoS lshd fn,gzGmq;a; ixch m1Yakh bj; ,Eu bosrsm;a
lf

46′))iajduSks uu Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiao jspdrus’ fuz wd;au Ndjfhys oelal hq;2 jsmdl we;s udrA. M,hla olajkakg yelaflao$))

))tfia yelaflah” uyrc” tfia kuz uyrc fuz lrefKys ,d Tnf.ka wikafkus’ huz f,ilska Tng repsjkafkao tfia m1ldY lrj’))

47′ ))uyrc fulrefKys Tng l2ula yefZ.kafkao$ tkuz + Tng fuys w,i fkdjS
lghq;2 lrk jevlre mqreIfhla flia oe

))ke; iajduSks” tnkaola fkdfjz’ tfia we;s l,ays Tyqg wms jeZoSuo
lrkafkuq’ Tyq oel *wmsu( yqkiafkkao ke.sgskafkuq” wdikhkao mkjkafkuq”
isjqre” msKAvmd;” fikiqka” .s,kami” fnfy;a msrslr hk fuhska hula wjYHjQ
jsg ta nj wmg lsj uekjehso jsfYaIfhka mjrkafkuq’ OdrAusljQ wdrlaIdfjka
wdjrKfhka /lSuo Tyqg i,ikafkuq’))



[\q 42/]


))lsu uyrc$ boska tfia we;s l,ays fuz wd;au Ndjfhka oelalhq;2 jsmdl we;s M,hla fjzo$ fkdfjzo$ ta .ek Tn l2ula is;kafkyso$))

))iajduSka jykai” fufia we;s l, taldka;fhkau fuz wd;au Ndjfhys oelalhq;2 jsmdl M,h fjzuh))’

48 ))iajduSks tmrsoafokau fuz wd;au Ndjfhys ,efnk wkHjQo fuz wd;au Ndjfhys oelalhq;2 jsmdl M,hla m1ldY l< yelaflao$))

))yelaflah uyrc” tfia kuz uyrc fuz l/fKys,d Tnf.kau wikafkus” huz
f,ilska Tng reps jkafkao tfiau m1lY lrj’ uyrc” Tng iSidkakdjQ
.Dym;sfhlajQ mqreIfhla flia oe



))ke; iajduSks tfia fkdlshkafkus’ tfia we;s l,ays wmsu Tyqg kuialdr lrkafkuq’ OdrAusl wdrlaId wdjrKfhka /lSuo i,iajkafkuq))’

))lsu uyrc$ b;ska tfia we;s l,ays fuz wd;au Ndjfhys oelal hq;2 jsmdl M,hla fjzo$ fkdfjzo$ fuz .ek Tn l2ula is;kafkyso$))

))iajduSks” fufia jQl, taldka;fhkau fuz wd;au Ndjfha oelalhq;2 jsmdl M,hla fjzuh’))

49′ ))iajduSka jykai fuz wd;au Ndjfha oelal hq;2 jsmdl M,hkag jvd
w;sYhska is;a mskjk w;sYhska W;2uzjQ fuz wd;au Ndjfhys ,ensh yels wkHjQo
jsmdl M,hla olajkakg yelaflao$))

))yelaflah uyrc” tfia kuz wij uyrc” ukdfldg fufkys lrj lshkafkus))’


[\q 43/]

40′ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fufia jod, fial’
))uyrc” wrAy;ajQ” iuHla iuznqoaOjQ” jsorAYkd {dkh wdoS jsoHd wg” iS,
ixjrh wdoS yiqrejk OrAu myf

4-’ ))ta OrAuh weiQ wh ta oyu wid ;:d.;hka jykafia flfrys Y1oaOdj
we;s flfrhs’ Tyq ta Y1oaOdfjka hqla; jQfha fufi i,lkafkah’ )).Dy jdih
mSvd iys;h’ rd.doS flf,ia iys; udrA.hls’ uyKlu jkdys lsisjla fkdue;s
wjldYh fuka ksoyiah’ .sys f.h jykakyq jsiska ish,q wdldrfhka iuzmQrAKjQ”
ish,q wdldrfhka msrsisZoqjQ ,shjQ yla f.vshla fuka fuu n1yau prshdfjys
yeisfrkakg fkdyelaflah’ uu flia oe,s /jq,q lmd oud isjq/ yeZo .sysf.ka
kslau iiafkys uyK fjkafkuz kuz b;d hym;ehs)) lshdhs’

))Tyq miq ld,hl iuzm;a rdYshla yer” kE msrsia yer flia oe,s /jq,q lmd
oud isjq/ yeZo .sysf.ka kslau iiafkys uyK fjz’ Tyq m1Odk ixjr YS,fhka
hqla;jQfha” hym;a yeisrSfuka yd jro ke;s meje;afuka hqla; jQfha iaj,am
jQ;a wl2i,hkays jsfYaIfhka Nh olakd .;s we;af;la jQfha” hym;ajQ
YrSrfhka” jpkfhka” l1shdfjka hqla;jQfha” YslaIdmo iudokaj tys fudkjg
yslafuhs’ msrsisZoqjQ cSjs; mej;2uz we;af;a fjhs’ YS,fhka hqla; jQfha
fjhs’ bkao1sh jsIfhys jeiQ fodrgq we;af;a fjhs’ wdydrfhys muK okafka
fjhs’ ukd isysfhka yd yrs m1{dfjka hqla; jQfha fjhs’ ikaf;daIfhka hqla;
fjhs))’


[\q 44/]

5=’ ))uyrc” NsCIq kula flfia kuz iS,
iuzmkak fjzo$ uyrc” fuz iiafkysjQ NsCIq kula m1dK jOh yer” bka
iuzmQrAKfhka je

))fkdoqka foh .ekSfuka fjkaj” thska iuzmqrAKfhka je

))wn1yauprAhdj yer W;2uz mej;2uz we;af;a ia;1S mqreI ixirA.h kuzjQ .1du OrAufhka fjka jQfha n1yanpdrS fjhs’))

))fndre lSfuka oqrej” bka iuzmQrAKfhka je

))msisKq nia yer bka iuzmQrAKfhka je

))mreI jpkh” yer iuzmQrAKfhka
je

))ysiajQ m1,dm l:d yer bka iuzmQrAKfhka je

[\q 45/]

));K .ia” je,a isZoSuz” nsZoSuz
wdosfhka iuzmQrAKfhka je

))u,a” .Zo js,jqka me

))Wia wiqka uy wiqka hk fuhska je

))rkarsoS uiqrka ms

))wuqjQ OdkH jrA. ms

))wuquia ms

)).syshkaf.a oQ; fufyjrh” f.ka f.g hk uy;a fufyjrh hk fuhska iuzmQrAKfhka f;dr jQfha je

)).kqfokq lsrSuh” ;rdos wdosfhka jxpd lsrSuh” rka yd fkdrka usY1 jxpd
lsrSuh” jS wdosh uekSfuka jxpd lsrSuh” ysushka wysus lsrSu wdosh iZoyd
w,a,ia .ekSuh” Wmdfhka wkqka /jgSuh” hlv wdoS f,day rka rsoShhs wZ.jd
jxpd lsrSuh” fkdfhla wdldrjQ l2gs, m1fhda.h hk fuhska iuzmQrAKfhka
je

))lemSuh” uerSuh” neZoSuh” ieZ.jS isg jia;2 meyer .ekSuh” .uz
kshuz.uz wdosh meyerSuh” n,y;aldr luska jia;2 meyer .ekSuh hk fuhskao
iuzmQrAKfhka je

*iq,q iS,h ksusfhah(


[\q 46/]

53′ ))iuyr mskaj;a uyK nuqfKda
Y1oaOdfjka fok lEu ld .ia wdosh jejSfuys fhoS jdih lr;a’ funZoqjQ nSc
.du N@; .duhka isZoSuz” nsZoSuz wdosfhka iuzmQrAKfhka je

))tfiau iuyr uyK nuqfKda Y1oaOdfjka fok,o lEu ld wdydr jrA. nSu jrA.
fofjks oskg ;nd m1fhdack .ekauh” whs;shg fkd.;a isjqre wdosh hdk kuz
jyka follska jevs ihk” iq.kaOhka” ;, iy,a wdosh ;ekam;a fldg ;nd
m1fhdack .ekauhhs lshk ,o miqjg ;nd m1fhdack .ekafuys fhoS jdih lr;a’
funZoqjQ ikaksOsldr mrsfNda.hka je

*ueZoquz is,a ksusfhah(

54′ ))iuyr uyK nuqfKda fuka hd. fydau wdoS fya;2fjka iduqo1sld
Ydia;1h” ksus;s Ydia;1h fya;2fjka lrk ,dul cSjsldfjka iuzmQrAKfhka
je

))iuyr uyK nuqfKda fuka ,CIK ne,Sfuka
lrk my;a jsoHdjka ksid lrk jeros cSjsldfjka iuzmQrAKfhka je

))iuyr my;a nuqfKda fuka rcqkaf.a neyer hEu tau ch mrdch wdoS my;a
jsoHd fya;2fjka lrk jeros cSjsldfjka iuzmQrAKfhka je

[\q 47/]

))iuyr uyK nuqfKda fuka pJo1.1yK”
iQhH!.1yK hkdosfha jsmdl lSfuz my;a jsoHdjka fya;2fldg f.k lrk ,dul
cSjsldfjka iuzmQrAKfhka je

55′ ))iuyr uyK nuqfKda ukd jeis oe;s jkafkah” ukd jeis ke;s jkafkah
wdoS f,dalhg isoqjk foa .ek Ydia;1 bf.kSuhhs fufia my;a jsoHdjka lrK
fldg jeros cSjsld flfr;a’ fufiajQ my;a jsoHd fya;2fjka jk jeros
cSjsldfjka iuzmQrAKfhka je

56′ ))iuyr uyK nuqfKda wdjdy lrjSuh” jsjdy lrjSuh” kQ,a neZoSuh”
uka;1 cm lsrSuh” levm;ays foaj;dfrdamKh fldg m1Yak weiSuh” .eyekq
orejkaf.a YrSrfhys foaj;dfrdamKh fldg m1Yak weiSuh” lgska .sksoe,a msg
lsrSuh” Y1S foajsh leZojSu wdoS my;a l1shdfjka jeros cSjsld flfr;a’
funZoqjQ my;a jscAcdjka lrk jeros cSjsldfjka iuzmQrAKfhka je

57′ ))iuyr mskaj;a uyK nuqfKda Ydka;s lsrSu” uka;1 lsrSuh” N@rs
lrAuh” mKAvlhd mqreIfhl2 lsrSuh” mqreIhd mKAvl lsrSuh wdoS funZoq my;a
jsoHd lrK fldg jeros cSj;a jSfuka cSjsld flfr;a’ funZoqjQ jeros
cSjsldfjka iuzmQrAKfhka je

58′ ))uyrc” fufia YS, iuzmkakjQ NsCIqyg Nh ldrKhka w;2frka tlla
muKl2oq Tyqf.a YS, ixjrh fya;2fldg f.k lsis;ekloS fkdWmoskafka l2ula
fukao h;a + uyrc” CI;1shdNsfIlfhka uqoqfkys wNsfIal ,oaodjQ” i;2rka ke;s
l

[\q 48/]

w;2frka tlla muKl2oq YS,ixjrh
fya;2fldg lsis ;ekloS fkdolafkah’ wdhH!jQ fuz YS, rdYsfhka hqla;jq ta
NsCIq f;u” ;uka ;2, msrsisZoqjQ *ldhsl ffp;isl( iemh jsZoshs’ uyrc”
fufia oelajQ YS,fhka hqla;jQ NsCIqj YS,iuzmkak kuz fjz’))

*uy is,a ksusfhah(

59′ ))uyrc” NsCIqj flfia kuz bkao1shhkays jeiQ fodrgq we;af;ao$ uyrc”
fuz iiafkys NsCIq f;fuz” weiska rEmhla oel tys fkdwef,a” tys
fkdfm

50′ ))uyrc” NsCIqj flfia kuz isysfhka yd ukd m1{dfjka hqla;jQfha fjzo$))

))uyrc” fuz iiafkys NsCIq f;u bosrshg hEfuyso” wdmiq hEfuyso” bosrs
ne,Sfuyso” jgmsg ne,Sfuyso” w;a md yels,Sfuyso” os.2 lsrSfuyso” fomg
isjqrh” md;1h” isjqrh hk fuz foa oerSfuysoS wkqNj lsrSuh” mdkh lsrSuh”
je

5-’ ))uyrc” NsCIq f;fuz flfia i;2gq jQfha fjzo$))

))uyrc” NsCIq f;fuz hka;uz lh jeiSug ;ruzjQ isjzfrkao” wdrCIdj
m1udKjQ msKAvmd; wdydrfhkao” i;2gq is;a we;af;a fjz’ Tyq huz huz ;eklg
fha kuz wg msrslr *lh ms

[\q 49/]

6=’ ta NsCIq f;fuz le,ho” .yla uq,o”
fidfydkao b;d oqrjQ le,E jdiia:dko” fndfyda bvlv we;s ;eka iy ;K.2ydo hk
fuz ia:dk wdY1h flfrhs’ Tyq miqn;a ld,fhys msKAvmd; wdydrfhka
je

63′ ))Tyq f,dalfhys f,daNh myfldg f,dN rys; is;ska hqla;j jdih flfrA’
f,dN is; fjka fldg msrsisZoq flfrA’ is; flf,ikakdjQ fl1dOh myfldg
fl1dOfhka oqrejQ is;a we;sj mK we;s ish,q i;2ka flfrys ys;dkqluzmd
we;af;aj jdih lrhs’ fl1dO fodIfhka fjkaj is; msrsisZoq flfrA’ ldh ps;a;
fofokdf.a w,i nj oqre fldg lh is; ms,snZo myjQ w,i nj we;af;a msrsisZoq
yeZ.Suz we;af;a” isys we;af;a hym;a m1{d we;af;laj fjfia’ w,i nj oqre
fldg is; msrsisZoq flfrA’ WvZ.2nj yd l2l2i oqrefldg ixisZoqkq is;a we;sj
jdih flfrA’ we;2,; ixisZoqkq is;a we;af;a” is;WvZ.2 nj yd l2l2fika
msrsisZoq flfrA’ jspslspzcdj ielh oqrefldg myl< jspslspzcd we;af;a
l2Y, OrAu jsIfhys iel ke;sj fjfia’ jspslspzcdfjka is; msrsisZoq flfrA’

64′ ))uyrc” huzfia mqreIfhla Kh f.K lrAudka;hkays fhdokafkao” Tyqf.a
ta lrAudka;fhda oshqKqjkakdyq kuz ta Kh ke;s nj uq,afldg f.K n,j;a
i;2gla ,nkafkah’

65′ ))uyrc” huzfia frda.fhka fmf

[\q 50/]

66′ uyrc” huzfia mqreIfla isrf.hs neZoqfka fjzo” Tyq miq l,l mSvd ke;2j iemfia ta isrf.hska usfokafkah’

Tyq isrf.hska usoSu ksus;s fldg n,j;a i;2gla ,nkafkah’

67′ ))uyrc” huzfia ish leue;af;ka hula lrkakg fkdyels wkqkag hg;ajQ
;ud leu;s .ukla ta jQ mrsos hd fkdyels” jev lrefjla jkafkao” Tyq miq l,l
ta odi Ndjfhka usfokafka” ;udu wOsm;s fldg we;af;a wkqkag hg;a fkdj
;udf.kau hefmkafka” Tyq ta odiNdjfhka usoSu fya;2fldg n,j;a i;2gla
,nkafkah’

68′ ))uyrc” huzfia Okj;ajQ fNd. iuzm;a we;s mqreIfhla wdydr oqrA,NjQ
Nh iys;jQ” oSrA> jQ” ldka;dr udrA.hlg meusfKkafkao Tyq uo l,lska ta
ldka;dr udrA.h blaujd hkafka fidr i;2rkafka mSvd ke;s .uzudkhlg iemfia
l1ufhka meusfKkafkao” ta mqreIhd ta ldka;dr udrA.h t;r lsrSu ksus;sfldg
n,j;a i;2gla ,nkafkah’

69′ ))uyrc” Kh huzfiao” frda.h huzfiao” ysrf.a huzfiao” odiNdjh
huzfiao” oSrA> ldka;dr udrA.h huzfiao tmrsoafoka NsCIq f;fuz my
fkdl< * m[a pkSjrK ( l2i,a j

60′ ))myl

[\q 51/]

6-’ ))ta NsCIq f;fuz jia;2ldu laf,aY
lduhkaf.aka fjkajQfhau” wl2Y, OrAuhka flfrkao fjkajQfhau wruqfKys is;
meusKjSu” wruqfKys kej; kej; fhoS yeisrSu iys;jQ” isf;ys jsfjzlfhka Wmka
m1S;shu iemfldg we;s” m

7=’ ))uyrc” kej;o NsCIq f;fuz woaOHd;aufhys ukd meyeoSu lrkakdjQ” is;
ms

))uyrc fuho fuz wd;au Ndjfhys oelal hq;2 jsmdl M,fhls” fuh jkdys
by;lS fuz wd;au Ndjfhys oelal hq;2 jsmdl M,hkag jvd ufkd{h” fndfydafia
fY1IaGh’

73′ ))kej;o uyrc” ta NsCIq f;fuz m1S;sfhys fkdwe,afuka ueoy;a nejz
we;af;a” isys we;af;a” hym;a kqjK we;af;a lhskao iemhla jsZoshs’ ta
;2kajeks OHdk l2i, ps;a;hg meusK jdih flfrA’ ta NsCIqyqf.a ish,q
YrSrfhys ;2kajeks OHdk iemfhka me;sfrhs’ ))uyrc fuho by;lS M,hkag jvd
fndfydafia ukyr fjhs’ fndfydafia fY1IaGo fjhs’


[\q 52/]

74′ ))kej;o uyrc ta uyK f;fuz iem
oqrelsrSfuka” oqla oqre lsrSfukao m

))uyrc” fuz M,h by;lS M,hkag jvd w;sYhska ukyrhs fndfydafia fY1IaGhs’

75′ ))kej;o” uyrc ta NsCIq f;fuz fufia is; tlZ.jQ l,ays” oSma;su;ajQ
l,ays flf,ia rys;jQ l,ays” laf,aYhka myjQ l,ays” uDoqjQ l,ays lghq;a;g
iqoqiqj isgs l,ays” luzmd fkdjk njg meusKs l,ays jsorAYkd{dkh bmojSu
msKsi is; t,jd ;nhs’ udf.a fuz YrSrh jkdys rEmfhka hqla;h i;r uyd
N@;hkaf.a fya;2fjka yg.;af;ah’ ujzmshka ksid yg.;af;a wdydrfhka jvkd
,oafoah’ wks;H njh weZ.” b,Suh” msrsueoSuh” nsZoSuh” jskdYh” hk fuz foa
iajNdj fldg we;af;ah’ udf.a fuz js[a [dKh YrSrh wdY1h flf,a fjhs’ fuysu
neZoS isgsfhah’

))uyrc” fuz M,ho” oelal hq;2 jsmdl M,hkag jvd fndfydafia ufkd{h” fndfydafia fY1IaGo fjhs’

76′ ))Tyq fufia OHdkfhka is; tlZ.jQ l,ays” msrsisoqjQ l,ays”
oSma;su;ajQ l,ays” flf,ia ke;sjQ l,ays” laf,aY myjQ l,ays” uDoqjQ l,ays”
lghq;a;g iqoqiqj isgs l,ays” fkdief,k njg meusKs l,ays” ufkduhjQ rEmhla
ukd fldg ksmojSu msKsi is; t,jd ;nhs’ fjfiiska kuhs’ Tyq wdldrj;ajQ
ufkduhjQ * OHdk is;ska ksmojk,o ( YrSrh yd w;mh wdoS wjhj we;s jsl,
fkdjQ bZoqrka we;s fuz YrSrfhka wkHjQ YrSrhla fydZo f,i idohs’


[\q 53/]

uyrc” tfiau NsCIqf;fuz fufia is;
iudOs.;jQ l,ays” msrsisoqjQ l,ays” oSma;su;ajQ l,ays” lduys;a rys;jQ
l,ays” laf,aYhka myjQ l,ays” uDoqjQ l,ays” lghq;a;g fhd.HjQ l,ays” ys;
ia:srjQ l,ays” luzmd fkdjk Ndjhg meusKs l,ays” is;ska Wmojk lh uejSu
msKsi is; bosrsm;a flfrhs’ bosrsm;a fldg Bg kuhs’ Tyq fuz lhska rE we;s
is;ska ujk ,o” ish,q YrSrh yd w;mh wdoS wjhj we;s” fkdmsrsyqkq bkaos1h
we;s fjk lhla ujhs’ uyrc” fuho ,ensh hq;2 jsmdl M,hkag jvd W;2uzjQo
fndfydafia usysrsjQo” NsCIqka jsiska ,ensh hq;2 jsmdl M,hla fjhs’

77′ ))Tyq Bg miq iDZvsjsOs msKsi is; bosrsm;a flfrhs’ bosrsm;a fldg
kuhs’ Tyq fkdfhla whqre we;s iDZvsjsOs fjka fjka fldg wkqNj flfrhs’
tfllaj fndfyda fia fjhs’ fndfyda fiaj tflla fjhs’ m1lg njg” uqjy njg”
wyfiys fuka ns;a;sh yryg” mjqr yryg” mrAj;h yryg” fkdyefmuska hhs’
osfhys fuka lsusoSu u;2jSu flfrhs’ fmdf

))uyrc” fuho fuz wd;aufhysjQ” M,hkag jvd W;2uzjQo” fndfydafia usysrsjQo” NsCIqka jsiska ,ensh hq;2 M,fhla fjhs’

78′ Tyq Bg miq osjH lK iuznkaO {dkh msKsi is; bosrsm;a flfrhs’
bosrsm;a fldg kuhs’ ta NsCIqj msrsisoqjQ usksia nj blaujQ osjH lK
iuznkaO {dkfhka osjHuhjQo” ukqIHuhjQo” oqfrysjQo” iuSmfhysjQo” fohdldr
YnzOhka wihs’ Tyq fufia usksia lK blaujQ osjH lK iuznkaO {dkfhka
osjHuhjQo” ukqIHuhjQo” oqfrysjQo” iuSmfhysjQo” fohdldr YnzOhka wihs’
))uyrc” fuho fmr lshk ,o M,hkag jvd W;2uzjQo” usysrsjQo M,fhls’

79′ ))Tyq mr is;a oek.kakd {dkh msKsi
is; bosrsm;a flfrhs’ bosrsm;a fldg kuhs’ Tyq wkH i;ajhkaf.a wkH
mqoa.,hkaf.a is; ;u is;ska msrsisZo okshs’ f,#lsl ys;a w;2rska Wiia jQ
is; wkq;a;r is; hhs okshs’ iudOs.; jQ is; iudOs.; hhs okshs’ iudOs.;
fkdjQ is; iudOs.; fkdjQ is; hhs okshs’ *laf,aIfhka usoqkq is;” usoqkq
is; hhs okshs’ fkdusoqkq is; fkdusoqk is; hhs okshs’


[\q 54/]

))uyrc” fuho fuz wd;aufhys NsCIqka
jsiska ,ensh hq;2 M,fhls’ fya f;fuz fkdfhla jsosfha fmr jsiSuz
isysflfrhs’ tla cd;shlao” focd;shlao wdoS jYfhka fkdfhla jskdY fjuska
mj;sk l,amhkao” fkdfhla yefouska mj;sk l,amhkao” fkdfhla jskdY jk fyda
yefok l,amhkao” fufia wdldr iys;j” oelajSuz iys;j fkdfhla jsosfha fmr
cSjs; isys flfrhs’

))uyrc” fuho fmr lshk ,o M,hkag jvd W;2uzjQo” w;sYhska usysrsjQo” NsCIqka jsiska ,ensh hq;2 M,fhla fjhs’

70′ ))Tyq i;a;ajhkaf.a urKska miq W;am;a;sh oek.kakd kqjK msKsi is;
bosrsm;a flfrhs” bosrsm;a fldg kuhs’ fya msrsisoqjQ usksia wei blaujQ”
osj weiska pq;jk Wmosk i;ajhka olS’ Tjqyq urKska u;2 iemfhka myjQ”
kmqrejQ” oqlajQ” ksrhg meusfk;a” ke;fyd;a hym;a meusKSujQ iajrA. f,dlhg
meusKsfhdah’

))uyrc” fuho fuz wd;aufhysu NsCIqka jsiska ,ensh hq;2 fmr lshk ,o
M,hkag jvd W;2uzjQo” w;sYhska usysrsjQo” fuz wd;aufhys jQ NsCIq Ndjfha
M,fhls’

7-’ ))Tyq isf;a meijk flf,ia mylsrSfuz {dkh msKsi is; bosrsm;a
flfrhs” bosrsm;a fldg kuhs’ Tyq fuz oqlhhs ;;2 f,i oek.KS fuz oqla
bmoSfuz fya;2jhhs ;;2 f,i oek.KS” fuz oqla ke;s lsrSuhhs ;;2 f,i oek.KS”
fuz oqla ke;s lsrSfuz udrA.hhs ;;2 f,i oek.KS” fuz meijk flf,iahhs ;;2
f,i oek.kS’ fuz meijk laf,aYhkaf.a fya;2hhs ;;2 f,i oek.kS”


[\q 55/]

fuz ta flf,ia ke;s lsrSuhhs ;;2 f,i
oek.kS’ fuz ta flf,ia ke;s lsrSfuz udrA.hhs ;;2 f,i oek.KS” fufia okakd
Tyqf.a is; ldu wdYdjka flfrkao usfoa ixidrhg * Njhg ( we;s wdYdjka
flfrkao is; usfoa” oevs fudayh flfrkao is; usfoa” usZoqkq l,ays usoqfkah
hk is; fjhs’ bmoSu ke;sjsh’ W;2uz yeisrSfuys jik ,oS’ lghq;a; lrK ,oS”
fuz wd;au Ndjfhka miq wksla wd;au Ndjhla ke;e))hso oek.kS’

))uyrc” fuz jkdys fuz wd;aufhysjQ NsCIqka jsiska ,ensh hq;2 fmr lshk
M,hkag jvd fndfyda W;2uzjQo” fndfyda usysrsjQo” fuz wd;aufhys NsCIqka
jsiska ,ensh hq;2 M,fhls’ fuz NsCIq Ndjfha M,hg jvd fndfyda W;2uzjQo”
fndfyda usysrsjQo” NsCIqka ,ensh hq;2 fjk M,fhla ke;’

8=’ fufia jod< l,ays wcdi;a rc f;fuz Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fufia lSy
*33( iajduSks” b;du hym;s’ iajduSks” b;du hym;s iajduSks” * hfula (
hgsl2re lrk ,oaola huzfia Wvql2re lrkafko” jeiqula t,sorjz lrkafkao”
uq

*333())iajduSks * ta weiQ ( uu Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiao” OrAuho” ix>
hdo” irKfldg .Ksus’ wo mgka osjsysuz fldg irK .sh Wmdilfhl2 fldg
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ud i,lk fialajd’ *3333( nd,fhl2 fukao” wkqjKfhl2
fukao” woCIhl2 fukao” uu jrog wiqjQfhus’ ta uu OdrAusljQ OrAufhka hq;a
rfcl2jQ udf.a mshd iuzm;a f,dN fya;2fjka cSjs;fhka f;dr flf

[\q 56/]

83′ ))uyrc” taldka;fhka nd,fhl2 fukao”
wkqjKfhl2 fukao” woCIfhl2 fukao jro Tn blaujd .sfhah’ ta jro kuz
OdrAusljQ OrAufhka hq;a rfcl2jQ mshd iuzm;a f,dN fya;2fjka cSjs;fhka
f;dr lf

84′ fufia jod< l,ays wcdi;a rc f;fuz Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fufia
ie< flf

))uyrc” tfia kuz Tng hdug iqoqiq ld,h kuz ta nj okqj’))

tl,ays u.Org rcjQ fjfoys mq;1 wcdi;a rc f;fuz Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiaf.a
foYkdjg i;2gqj” ta .eK m1S;sj wiafkka ke.sg Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia jeZo ol2Kq
me;a; bosrshg ;sfnk f,i f.#rjfhka .sfhah’

85′ tjsg Nd.Hj;a f;fuz” wcdi;a rc neyer .sh fkdfnda fjz,djlska
NsCIqkag wduka;1Kh flf

Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fuzfia jod< fial’ i;2gqjQ is;a we;s ta NsCIqyq Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiaf.a foaYkdj i;2gska ms

*fofjksjQ idu[a[ M, iQ;1h ksus’ (


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937 & 938 LESSONS 01-06-2013 & 02-06-2013 SATURDAY & SUNDAY-FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY தமிழில் திரிபிடக மூன்று தொகுப்புகள் மற்றும் பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள் சுருக்கமான வரலாற்று முன் வரலாறு ஸுத்தபிடக புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள் புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் ஒன்பது மண்டலங்கள் TIPITAKA-ஸுத்தபிடக-போதிசத்தா மேன்மை பொருந்திய நேர்த்தி வாய்ந்த மனிதர் ஸுத்த நீதி வாக்கியம் - விழிப்புணர்வு மேல் ஆஜரா கிருத்தல் - ( மஹா+ ஸதிபத்தான)-Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta- Iமெய்யார்வ தியானம் -B. Section on postures Iமெய்யார்வ தியானம் -C. பதுமம் பிரிவு -ஸம்பஞான-Section on postures
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937 & 938 LESSONS 01-06-2013 & 02-06-2013 SATURDAY & SUNDAY-FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY


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TIPITAKA-ஸுத்தபிடக-Section-A

TIPITAKA

TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
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animated buddha photo: Animated Buddha buddhasan.gifB. பதுமங்களின் பிரிவு

மேலும்,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு பிக்கு, நடந்து செல்லும் பொழுது, ‘நான் நடந்து
செல்கிறேன்’,என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்.அல்லது நின்று கொண்டிருக்கிற
பொழுது, ‘நான் நின்று கொண்டிருக்கிகிறேன்’, என அவர்
அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்:அல்லது உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான்
உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிறேன்’, என அவர் அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்: அல்லது
படுத்திருத்திருக்கிற பொழுது, ‘நான் படுத்திருத்திருக்கிறேன்’,என அவர்
அறிந்துகொள்கிறார்: தவிர அவர் kāya உடல்அமர்வுநிலை எதுவாக தீர்வு
செய்கிறாரோ அதன்படிபுரிந்து கொள்கிறார்.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya
உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு
உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க
எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை
கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

B. இரியாபாத பப்ப

புனசாபரங்,
பிக்கவெ, பிக்கு கச்சந்தொ வா கச்சாமி தி பஜானாதி, தித்தொ வா தித்தொமி
தி பஜானாதி, நிஸின்னொ வ ‘நிஸின்னொமி’ தி பஜானாதி, ஸயானொ வா ஸயானொமி தி
பஜானாதி. யதா யதா வ பணஸ்ஸ காயொ பணிஹிதொ ஹோதி, ததா ததா நங் பஜானதி.

இதி
அஜ்ஜதம் வா காயெ காயானுபஸ்ஸி  விஹாரதி, பஹித்தா வா காயெ காயானுபஸ்ஸி
விஹாரதி,அஜ்ஜத்த-பஹித்தா வா காயெ காயானுபஸ்ஸி விஹாரதி; ஸமுதய-தம்மானுபஸ்ஸி
வா காயஸ்மிங் விஹாரதி, யய-தம்மானுபஸ்ஸி வா காயஸ்மிங் விஹாரதி,
ஸமுதய-யய-தம்மானுபஸ்ஸி வா காயஸ்மிங் விஹாரதி; ‘அதி காயொ’ தி வா பணஸ்ஸ சதி
பச்சுபத்தித ஹோதி, யாவதெவ நணமத்தாய பதிஸ்ஸதிமத்தாய, (1) அனிஸ்ஸிதொ ச
விஹாரதி, ந ச கின்சி லோகெ உபாதியதி.ஏவம்’பி கொ, பிக்கவெ, பிக்கு காயெ
காயானுபஸ்ஸி  விஹாரதி.

Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
gacchanto vā ‘gacchāmī’ ti pajānāti, ṭhito vā ‘ṭhitomhī’ ti pajānāti,
nisinno vā ‘nisinnomhī’ ti pajānāti, sayāno vā ‘sayānomhī’ ti pajānāti.
Yathā yathā vā pan·assa kāyo paṇihito hoti, tathā tathā naṃ pajānāti. 


Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 





B. Section on postures

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while walking, understands: ‘I am
walking’, or while standing he understands: ‘I am standing’, or while
sitting he understands: ‘I am sitting’, or while lying down he
understands: ‘I am lying down’. Or else, in whichever position his kāya (body) is disposed, he understands it accordingly.


Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya (the body in the threshold of the body)internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya (the body in the threshold of the body) externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya (the body in the threshold of the body) internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya (Rise, origin, commencement; origination, cause; multitude) of phenomena (sapindus detergens)in kāya (body), or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena (sapindus detergens) in kāya (body); or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya (the body in the threshold of the body).

தமிழில் திரிபிடக  மூன்று தொகுப்புகள்
மற்றும்
பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள்
சுருக்கமான வரலாற்று முன் வரலாறு
ஸுத்தபிடக
புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள்
புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் ஒன்பது மண்டலங்கள் 
TIPITAKA-ஸுத்தபிடக-
போதிசத்தா மேன்மை பொருந்திய நேர்த்தி வாய்ந்த மனிதர் ஸுத்த நீதி வாக்கியம்
-
விழிப்புணர்வு மேல் ஆஜரா கிருத்தல் -
( மஹா+ ஸதிபத்தான)-
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta-
Iமெய்யார்வ  தியானம் -C. பதுமம் பிரிவு -ஸம்பஞான-Section on postures


Sampajañña

stones


C. பதுமம் பிரிவு

மேலும்,பிக்குக்களுக்களே,ஒரு பிக்கு, அணுகும்
பொழுது மற்றும் விட்டு நீங்கும் பொழுது, sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான
உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், முன் நோக்கி கவனித்துப்
பார்க்கும் பொழுது மற்றும் எல்லாப் பக்கங்களிலும் கவனித்துப் பார்க்கும்
பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு 
செயல் படுகிரார், வளைக்கிற பொழுது  மற்றும் நெட்டிமுறியும்
பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு 
செயல் படுகிரார், பதவிக்குரிய நீண்ட மேலங்கி அணிந்து கொள் பொழுது மற்றும்
தளர்த்தியான மேலங்கி  மற்றும் ஐயக்கடிஞை எடுத்துச் செல்லும்
பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு 
செயல் படுகிரார், உண்ணும் பொழுது, குடிக்கும் பொழுது, மெல்லும் பொழுது,
சுவைக்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் 
நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், வண்டலகற்றும்  மற்றும் சிறுநீர் கழிக்கும்
பணி கவனிக்கும் பொழுது,sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன் 
நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல் படுகிரார், நடந்து செல்கிறே பொழுது நின்று
கொண்டிருக்கிற பொழுது,
உட்கார்ந்திருக்கிற பொழுது, படுத்திருத்திருக்கிற
பொழுது, விழிதிருக்கிற பொழுது, உரையாடுகிற பொழுது, பேசாமலிருக்கிற பொழுது,
sampajañña நிரந்தரமான தீர்க்கமான உணருந்திறனுடன்  நுணுகிக்கண்டு  செயல்
படுகிரார்.

இவ்வாறு அவர் kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள்
கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம்
செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம்
செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
மற்றும் புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம்
செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில் எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா
வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம்
செய்கிரார்.

C- -ஸம்பஞான


புனசாபரங்,
பிக்காவெ, பிக்கு அபிக்கந்தெ பட்டிக்கந்தெ ஸம்பஜானகாரி ஹோதி, ஆலொகித
விலொகிதெ ஸம்பஜானகாரி ஹோதி, ஸமிஞிதெ பஸாரிதெ ஸம்பஜானகாரி ஹோதி,
ஸங்காதி-பட்ட-சிவர-தாரணெ ஸம்பஜானகாரி ஹோதி, அஸிதெ பீதெ காயிதெ ஸாயிதெ
ஸம்பஜானகாரி ஹோதி, உச்சார-பஸ்ஸாவ-கம்மெ ஸம்பஜானகாரி ஹோதி, காதெ தித்தெ
நிஸ்ஸினெ ஸுத்தெ ஜாகரிதெ பாஸிதெ துனிஹீபாவெ ஸம்பஜானகாரி ஹோதி.


இதி
அஜ்ஜஹதங் வா காயெ காயானுபஸ்ஸி விஹாரதி, பஹிதா வா காயெ காயானுபஸ்ஸி
விஹாரதி, அஜ்ஜஹத-பஹிதா வா காயெ காயானுபஸ்ஸி விஹாரதி: ஸமுதய தம்மானுபஸ்ஸி வா
காயாஸ்மிங் விஹாரதி, வாய-தம்மானுபஸ்ஸி வா காயாஸ்மிங் விஹாரதி,
ஸமுதய-வாய-தம்மானுபஸ்ஸி வா காயாஸ்மிங் விஹாரதி; ‘அத்தி காயொ, தி வா
பண்ணஸ்ஸ சதி பச்சுபத்திதா ஹோதி. யாவதேவ ஞானமத்தாய பதிஸ்ஸதிமத்தாய.
அனிஸ்ஸிதொ ச விஹாரதி. ந ச கின்சி லோகெ உபாதியதி. ஏவம்பி கொ,பிக்காவெ,
பிக்கு காயெ காயானுபஸ்ஸி விஹாரதி.


C. Sampajāna Pabba

Puna ca·paraṃ,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti, ālokite
vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī hoti,
saṅghāṭi-patta-cīvara-dhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite pīte khāyite
sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccāra-passāva-kamme sampajānakārī hoti, gate
ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī hoti. 


Iti ajjhattaṃ kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī kāyasmiṃ viharati;atthi kāyoti pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

C. Section on sampajañña (Consciousness, intelligence)

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while approaching and while departing,
acts with sampajañña (

Consciousness, intelligence), while looking ahead and while looking around, he
acts with sampajañña (Consciousness, intelligence), while bending and while stretching, he acts with
sampajañña (Consciousness, intelligence), while wearing the robes and the upper robe and while
carrying the bowl, he acts with sampajañña (Consciousness, intelligence), while eating, while
drinking, while chewing, while tasting, he acts with sampajañña (Consciousness, intelligence),

while
attending to the business of defecating and urinating, he acts with
sampajañña (Consciousness, intelligence), while walking, while standing, while sitting, while
sleeping, while being awake, while talking and while being silent, he
acts with sampajañña (Consciousness, intelligence). Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya (the body in the threshold of the body)internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya (the body in the threshold of the body) externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya (the body in the threshold of the body) internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya (Rise, origin, commencement; origination, cause; multitude) of phenomena (sapindus detergens)in kāya (body), or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena (sapindus detergens) in kāya (body); or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya (the body in the threshold of the body).


stones and lavendar






http://www.metta.lk/tipitaka/2Sutta-Pitaka/1Digha-Nikaya/Digha1/00-D1Introduction-e.html



SACRED BOOKS OF THE
BUDDHISTS




TRANSLATED
BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS
AND EDITED BY
F. MAX MšLLER

PUBLISHED IN 1899
UNDER THE PATRONAGE OF
HIS MAJESTY KING CHULALANKARANA, KING OF SIAM


VOL. II


REPRINTED IN MEMORY OF CHAEM-SRI SANITWONGSE,
BELOVED WIFE OF PHRA SUVABHAND BHIDYAKARN


LUZAC & COMPANY, LTD.

46, GREAT RUSSELL STREET,
LONDON, W. C. 1 1956

 

DIALOGUES OF THE BUDDHA


TRANSLATED FROM THE PALI BY T. W.
RHYS DAVIDS


PART 1



CONTENTS

PREFACE

ix

Note on the probable age of
the Dialogues

ix

Note on this Version

xx

Abbreviations

xxiv

1. BRAHMA-JâLA SUTTANTA. INTRODUCTION

xxv

TEXT 1
(The Sãlas, 3-26. )

 

2. SâMAööA-PHALA SUTTANTA.
INTRODUCTION (Index to the paragraphs repeated in the other
Suttantas, 57-59. )

56

TEXT

 65

3. AMBAòòHA SUTTANTA.
INTRODUCTION.
(Caste) 

96

TEXT 

108

4. SOöADAöôA SUTTANTA. INTRODUCTION
(The Arahat the true Brahaman. )

137

TEXT

144

5. KæòADANTA SUTTANTA. INTRODUCTION
(The irony in this text, 160; Doctrine of sacrifice, 164; Lokàyata,
166. )

160

[\q viii/] TEXT

173

6. MAHâLI SUTTANTA. INTRODUCTION
(The Indeterminates; Buddhist Agnosticism, 186; The Sambodhi, 190;
Names in the texts, 193. )

186

TEXT

197

7. JâLIYA SUTTANTA

205

(Method of the Dialogues, 206
Tàpasa and Bhikshu, ascetic and wandering mendicant, 208 Indian religieux
in the Buddha’s time, 220)

206

TEXT

223

9. POòòHAPâDA SUTTANTA. INTRODUCTION.
(The Soul)

241

TEXT

244

10. SUBHA SUTTANTA. INTRODUCTION

265

TEXT

267

11. KEVADDHA SUTTANTA. INTRODUCTION
(Iddhi, 272; Buddhist Idealism, 274. )

272

TEXT

276

12. LOHICCA SUTTANTA. INTRODUCTION.
(Ethics of Teaching)

285

TEXT

288

13. TEVIJJA SUTTANTA. INTRODUCTION.
(Union with God)

298

TEXT

300


[\q ix/] NOTE ON THE PROBABLE
AGE OF THE DIALOGUES

THE Dialogues of the Buddha, constituting,
in the Pàli text, the Dãgha and Majjhima Nikàyas, contain a full
exposition of what the early Buddhists considered the teaching of the
Buddha to have been. Incidentally they contain a large number of
references to the social, political, and religious condition of India
at the time when they were put together. We do not know for certain
what that time exactly was. But every day is adding to the number of
facts on which an approximate estimate of the date may be based. And
the ascertained facts are already sufficient to give us a fair working
hypothesis. In the first place the numerous details and comparative
tables given in the Introduction to my translation of the Milinda show
without a doubt that practically the whole of the Pàli Piñakas were
known, and regarded as final authority, at the time and place when that
work was composed. The geographical details given on pp. xliii, xliv
tend to show that the work was composed in the extreme North-West of
India. There are two Chinese works, translations of Indian books taken
to China from the North of India, which contain, in different
recessions, the introduction [\q x/] and the opening chapters of the
Milinda [
1] For the reasons adduced (loco citato) it
is evident that the work must have been composed at or about the time
of the Christian era. Whether (as M. Sylvain Levy thinks) it is an
enlarged work built up on the foundation of the Indian original of the
Chinese books; or whether (as I am inclined to think) that original is
derived from our Milinda, there is still one conclusion that must be
drawnÞthe Nikàyas, nearly if not quite as we now have them in the Pàli,
were known at a very early date in the North of India. Then
again, the Kathà Vatthu (according to the views prevalent, at the end
of the fourth century A. D., at Kàõcipura in South India, and at
Anuràdhapura in Ceylon; and recorded, therefore, in their commentaries,
by Dhammapàla and Buddhaghosa) was composed, in the form in which we
now have it, by Tissa, the son of Moggalã, in the middle of the third
century B. C., at the court of Asoka, at Pàñaliputta, the modern Patna,
in the North of India. It is a recognised rule of evidence in the
courts of law that, if an entry be found in the books kept by a man in
the ordinary course of his trade, which entry speaks against himself,
then that entry is especially worthy of credence. Now at the time when
they made this entry about Tissa’s authorship of the Kathà Vatthu the
commentators believed, and it was an accepted tenet of those among whom
they mixedÞjust as it was, mutatis mutandis, among the
theologians in Europe, at the corresponding date in the history of their
faithÞthat the whole of the canon was the word of the Buddha. They
also held that it had been actually recited, at the Council of
Ràjagaha, immediately after his decease. It is, I venture to submit,
absolutely impossible, under these circumstances, that the commentators
can have invented this information [\q xi/] about Tissa and the Kathà
Vatthu. They found it in the records on which their works are based.
They dared not alter it. The best they could do was to try to explain.
it away. And this they did by a story, evidently Legendary, attributing
the first scheming out of the book to the Buddha. But they felt
compelled to hand on, as they found it, the record of Tissa’s
authorship. And this deserves, on the ground that it is evidence
against themselves, to have great weight attached to it. The text of
the Kathà Vatthu now lies before us in a scholarly edition, prepared
for the Pàli Text Society by Mr. Arnold C. Taylor. It purports to be a
refutation by Tissa Of 250 erroneous opinions held by Buddhists
belonging to schools of thought different from his own. We have, from
other sources, a considerable number of data as regards the different
schools of thought among BuddhistsÞoften erroneously called `the
Eighteen Sects’. [
2] We are beginning to know something about the
historical development of Buddhism, and to be familiar with what sort
of questions are likely to have arisen. We are beginning to know
something of the growth of the language, of the different Pàli styles.
In all these respects the Kathà Vatthu fits in with what we should
expect as possible, and probable, in the time of Asoka, and in the
North of India. Now the discussions as carried on in the Kathà Vatthu
are for the most part, and on both sides, an appeal to authority. And
to what authority ? Without any exception as yet discovered, to the
Piñakas, and as we now have them, in Pàli. Thus on p. 339 the appeal is
to the passage translated below, on p. 278, ? 6 ; and it is quite
evident that the quotation is from our Suttanta, and not from any other
passage where [\q xii/] the same words might occur, as the very name of
the Suttanta, the Kevaddha (with a difference of reading found also in
our MSS.), is given. The following are other instances of quotations:

KathàThe Vatthu. Nikàyas. page. 344 =A. II ,
50. 345 =S. I , 33. 345 =A. 1 I, 54. 347 =Kh. P. VI 1, 6, 7. 348 =A.
III, 43. 351 =Kh. P. VIII, 9. 369 =M. 1, 85, 92, &C. 404 =M. 1, 4.
413 =S. IV, 362. 426 =D. I, 70. 440 =S. I, 3 3. 457 =D. (M. P. S. 23).
457 =A. II, 172. 459 =M. I, 94. 2. 481=D. I, 83, 84. 483 =D. I, 84. 484
=A. II, 126, 494 =S.1, 206 J. IV, 496. 505 =M. I, 490. 506 =M. I, 485 =
S. IV, 393 (nearly). 513=A. I, 197, 522 =M. I, 389. 525 =Dhp. 164. 528
=M. I, 447. 549=S. N. 227 = Kh VI, 6. 554=S. 1, 233. 554=Vim. V.
XXXIV, 5-2 7. 565 =D. I, 156. 588, 9 =P. P. pp. 71, 72. 591 =M. I, 169.
597, 8 =A. I, 141, 2. 602=Dh. C. P. Sutta, ?? 9-23.

There are many more quotations from the
older Piñaka books in the Kathà Vatthu, about three or four times as
many as are contained in this list. But this is enough to show that, at
the time when the Kathà Vatthu was composed, all the Five Nikàyas were
extant; and were considered to be final authorities in any question
that was being discussed.
They must themselves, therefore, be
considerably older. Thirdly, Hofrath Bhler and Dr. Hultsch have called
attention [
3] to the fact that in inscriptions of the third
century B. C. we find, as descriptions of donors to the dàgabas,
the expressions dhammakathika, peñakã, suttantika, suttantakinã,
and paõca-nekàyika. [\q xiii/] The Dhamma, the Piñakas, the
Suttantas, and the five Nikàyas must have existed for some time before
the brethren and sisters could be described as preachers of the Dhamma,
as reciters of the Piñaka, and as guardians of the Suttantas or of the
Nikàyas (which were not yet written, and were only kept alive in the
memory of living men and women). Simple as they seem, the exact force
of these technical designations is not, as yet, determined. Dr. K.
Neumann thinks that Peñakã does not mean `knowing the Piñakas,’
but `knowing the Piñaka,’ that is, the NikàyasÞa single Piñaka, in the
sense of the Dhamma, having been known before the expression `the
Piñakas’ came into use. [
4] As he points out, the title of the old work
Peñakopadesa, which is an exposition, not of the three Piñakas, but
only of the Nikàyas, supports his view. So again the Dialogues are the
only parts or passages of the canonical books called, in our MSS.,
suttantas. Was then a suttantika one who knew precisely the Dialogues
by heart ? This was no doubt the earliest use of the term. But it
should be recollected that the Kathà vatthu, of about the same date,
uses the word suttanta also for passages from other parts of the
scriptures. However this may be, the terms are conclusive proof of
the existence, some considerable time before the date of the
inscriptions, of a Buddhist literature called either a Piñaka or the
Piñakas, containing suttantas, and divided into Five Nikàyas.
Fourthly,
on Asoka’s Bhabra Edict he recommends to the communities of the
brethren and sisters of the Order, and to the lay disciples of either
sex, frequently to hear and to meditate upon seven selected passages.
These are as follows:


1. Vinaya-samukkaüsa.
2. Ariya-vàsàni from the Dãgha (Saügãti Suttanta).
3. Anàgata-bhayàni from the Aïguttara III, 105- 108.
4. Muni-gàthà from the Sutta Nipàta 206-220.
5. [\q xiv/] Moneyya Sutta from the Iti Vuttaka 67=A. I, 272.
6. Upatissa-pasina.
7. Ràhulovàda = Ràhulovàda Suttanta (M. I, 414-420).

Of these passages Nos. 1 and 6 have not yet
been satisfactorily identified. The others may be regarded certain, for
the reasons I have set out elsewhere [
5] No. 2 also occurs in the
tenth book of the Aïguttara. It is clear that in Asoka’s time there was
acknowledged to be an authoritative literature, probably a collection
of books, containing what was then believed to be the words of the
Buddha: and that it comprised passages already known by the titles
given in his Edict. Five out of the seven having been found in the
published portions of what we now call the Piñakas, and in the portion
of them called the Five Nikàyas, raises the presumption that when the
now unpublished portions are printed the other two will also, probably,
be identified. We have no evidence that any other Buddhist literature
was in existence at that date. What is perhaps still more important is
the point to which M. Senart [
6] has called attention, and supported by numerous
details: the very clear analogy between the general tone and the
principal points of the moral teaching, on the one hand of the Asoka
edicts as a whole, and on the other of the Dhammapada, an anthology of
edifying verses taken, in great part, from the Five Nikàyas, The
particular verses selected by M. Senart, as being especially
characteristic of Asoka’s ideas, include extracts from each of the
Five. Fifthly, the four great Nikàyas contain a number of stock
passages, which are constantly recurring, and in which some ethical
state is set out or described. Many of these are also found in the
prose passages [\q xv/] of the various books collected together in the
Fifth, the Khuddaka Nikàya. A number of them are found in each of the
thirteen Suttantas translated in this volume. There is great
probability that such passages already existed, as ethical sayings or
teachings, not only before the Nikàyas were put together, but even
before the Suttantas were put together. There are also entire episodes,
containing not only ethical teaching, but names of persons and places
and accounts, of events, which are found, in identical terms, at two or
more places. These should be distinguished from the last. But they are
also probably older than our existing texts. Most of the parallel
passages, found in both Pàli and Sanskrit Buddhist texts, come under
one or other of these two divisions. Sixthly, the Saüyutta Nikàya (III,
13) quotes one Suttanta in the Dialogues by name; and both the Saüyutta
and the Aïguttara Nikàyas quote, by name and chapter, certain poems now
found only in a particular chapter of the Sutta Nipàta. This
Suttanta, and these poems, must therefore be older, and older in their
present arrangement, than the final settlement of, the text of these
two Nikàyas.
Seventhly, several of the Dialogues purport to relate
conversations that took place between people, contemporaries with the
Buddha, but after the Buddha’s death. One Sutta in the
Aïguttara is based on the death of the wife of Muõóa, king of Magadha,
who began to reign about forty years after the death of the Buddha.
There is no reason at all to suspect an interpolation. It follows that,
not only the Sutta itself, but the date of the compilation of the
Aïguttara,
must be subsequent to that event. There is a
story in Peta Vatthu IV, 3, 1 about a King Pingalaka. Dhammapàla, in
his commentary, informs us that this king, of whom nothing is otherwise
known, lived two hundred years after the Buddha. It follows that this
poem, and also the Peta Vatthu in which it is found, and also the
Vimàna Vatthu, with which the Peta Vatthu really forms one whole work,
[\q xvi/] are later than the date of Pingalaka. And there is no reason
to believe that the commentator’s date, although it is evidently only a
round number, is very far wrong. These books are evidently, from their
contents, the very latest compositions in all the Five Nikàyas. There
is also included among the Thera Gàthà, another book in the Fifth
Nikàya, verses said, by Dhammapàla the commentator [
7], to have been composed by a thera
of the time of King Bindusàra, the father of Asoka, and to have
been added to the collection at the time of Asoka’s Council. Eighthly,
several Sanskrit Buddhist texts have now been made accessible to
scholars. We know the real titles, given in the MSS. themselves, of
nearly 200 more. [
8] And the catalogues in which the names occur give
us a considerable amount of detailed information as to their contents.
No one of them is a translation, or even a recession, of any one of the
twenty-seven canonical books. They are independent works; and seem to
bear. to the canonical books a relation similar, in many respects, to
that borne by the works of the Christian Fathers to the Bible. But
though they do not reproduce any complete texts, they contain numerous
verses, some whole poems, numerous sentences in prose, and some
complete episodes, found in the Pàli books. And about half a dozen
instances have been already found in which such passages are stated, or
inferred, to be from older texts, and are quoted as authorities. Most
fortunately we may hope, owing to the enlightened liberality of the
Academy of St. Petersburg, and the zeal and scholarship of Professor
d’Oldenbourg and his co-workers, to have a considerable number of
Buddhist Sanskrit Texts in the near future. And this is just what, in
the present state of our knowledge of the history of Buddhist writings,
is so great a desideratum.

[\q xvii/] It is possible to construct, in
accordance with these facts, a working hypothesis as to the history of
the literature. It is also possible to object that the evidence drawn
from the Milinda may be disregarded on the ground that there is nothing
to show that that work, excepting only the elaborate and stately
introduction and a few of the opening chapters, is not an impudent
forgery, and a late one, concocted by some Buddhist in Ceylon. So the
evidence drawn from the Kathà Vatthu may be disregarded on the ground
that there is nothing to show that that work is not an impudent
forgery, and a late one, concocted by some Buddhist in Ceylon. The
evidence drawn from the inscriptions may be put aside on the ground
that they do not explicitly state that the Suttantas and Nikàyas to
which they refer, and the passages they mention, are the same as those
we now have. And the fact that the commentators point out, as peculiar,
that certain passages are nearly as late, and one whole book quite as
late, as Asoka, is no proof that the rest are older. It may even be
maintained that the Pàli Piñakas are not therefore Indian books at all:
that they are all Ceylon forgeries, and should be rightly called `the
Southern Recension’ or `the Siühalese Canon.’ Each of these
propositions, taken by itself, has the appearance of careful scruple.
And a healthy and reasonable scepticism is a valuable aid to historical
criticism. But can that be said of a scepticism that involves belief in
things far more incredible than those it rejects? In one breath we are
reminded of the scholastic dulness, the sectarian narrowness, the
literary incapacity, even the senile imbecility of the Ceylon
Buddhists. In the next we are asked to accept propositions implying
that they were capable of forging extensive documents so well, with
such historical accuracy, with so delicate a discrimination between
ideas current among themselves and those held centuries before, with so
great a literary skill in expressing the ancient views, that not only
did [\q xviii/] they deceive their contemporaries and opponents but
European scholars have not been able to point out a single discrepancy
in their work [
9] . It is not unreasonable to hesitate in adopting a
scepticism which involves belief in so unique, and therefore so
incredible, a performance. The hesitation will seem the more reasonable
if we consider that to accept this literature for what it purports to
beÞthat is, as North Indian [
10] and for the most part pre-AsokanÞnot only involves
no such absurdity, but is really just what one would apriori expect,
just what the history of similar literatures elsewhere would lead one
to suppose likely. The Buddha, like other Indian teachers of his time,
taught by conversation. A highly educated man (according to the
education current at the time), speaking constantly to men of similar
education, he followed the literary habit of his time by embodying his
doctrines in set phrases, såtras, on which he enlarged on different
occasions in different ways. In the absence of booksÞfor though writing
was widely known, the lack of writing materials made any lengthy
written books impossible [
11] such såtras were the recognised form of preserving
and communicating opinion. These particular ones were not in Sanskrit,
but in the ordinary conversational idiom of the day, that is to say, in
a sort of Pàli.

[\q xix/] When the Buddha died these sayings
were collected together by his disciples into the Four Great Nikàyas.
They cannot have reached their final form till about fifty years
afterwards. Other sayings and verses, most of them ascribed not to the
Buddha himself, but to the disciples, were put into a supplementary
Nikàya. We know of slight additions made to this Nikàya as late as the
time of Asoka. And the developed doctrine found in certain short books
in itÞnotably in the Buddhavaüsa and Cariyà Piñaka, and in the PetaÞ
and Vimàna-VatthusÞshow that these are later than the four old Nikàyas.
For a generation or two the books as originally put together were
handed down by memory. And they were doubtless accompanied from the
first, as they, were being taught, by a running commentary. About 100
years after the Buddha’s death there was a schism in the community.
Each of the two schools kept an arrangement of the canonÞstill in Pàli
(or possibly some allied dialect). Sanskrit was not used for any
Buddhist works till long afterwards, and never used at all, so far as
we know, for the canonical books. Each of these two schools broke up,
in the following centuries, into others; and several of them had their
different arrangements of the canonical books, differing also no doubt
in minor details. Even as late as the first century after the Christian
Era, at the Council of Kanishka, these books, among many others then
extant, remained the only authorities [
12] . But they all, except
only our present Pàli Nikàyas, have been lost in India. Of the stock
passages of ethical statement, and of early episodes, used in the
composition of them, and of the Suttas now extant, numerous fragments
have been preserved in the Hinayàna Sanskrit texts. And some of the
Suttas, and of’ the separate books, as used in other schools, are
represented in Chinese translations of the fourth and [\q xx/] fifth
centuries A. D. A careful and detailed comparison of these remains with
the Pàli Nikàyas, after the method adopted in Windisch’s `Màra und
Buddha,’ cannot fail to throw much light on the history, and on the
method of composition, of the canonical books, which in style and
method, in language and contents and tone, bear all the marks of so
considerable an antiquity. Hofrath Dr. Bhler, in the last work he
published, expressed the opinion that these books, as we have them in
the Pàli, are good evidence, certainty for the fifth, probably for the
sixth, century B. C. Subject to what has been said above, that will
probably become, more and more, the accepted opinion. And it is this
which gives to all they tell us, either directly or by implication, of
the social, political, and religious life of India, so great a value [
13]
.

It is necessary, in spite of the limitations
of our space, to add a few words on the method followed in this
version. We talk of Pàli books. They are not books in the
modern sense. They are memorial sentences intended to be learnt by
heart ; and the whole style, and method of arrangement, is entirely
subordinated to this primary necessity. The leading ideas in any one of
our Suttantas, for instance, are expressed in short phrases not
intended to convey to a European reader the argument underlying them.
These are often repeated with slight variations. But neither the
repetitions nor the variationsÞintroduced, and necessarily introduced,
as aids to memoryÞhelp the modern reader very much. That of course was
not their object. For the object they were intended [\q xxi/] to serve
they are singularly well chosen, and aptly introduced. Other expedients
were adopted with a similar aim. Ideas were formulated, not in
logically co-ordinated sentences, but in numbered groups; and lists
were drawn up such as those found in the tract called the Sãlas, and in
the passer on the rejected forms of asceticism, both translated below.
These groups and lists, again, must have been accompanied from the
first by a running verbal commentary, given, in his own words, by the
teacher to his pupils. Without such a comment they are often quite
unintelligible, and always difficult. The inclusion of such memoria
technica
makes the Four Nikàyas strikingly different from modern
treatises on ethics or psychology. As they stand they were never
intended to be read. And a version in English, repeating all the
repetitions, rendering each item in the lists and groups as they stand,
by a single English word, without commentary, would quite fail to
convey the meaning, often intrinsically interesting, always
historically valuable, of these curious old documents. It is no doubt
partly the result of the burden of such memoria technica, but
partly also owing to the methods of exposition then current in North
India, that the leading theses of each Suttanta are not worked
out in the way in which we should expect to find similar theses worked
out now in Europe. A proposition or two or three, are put forward,
restated with slight additions or variations, and placed as it were in
contrast with the contrary proposition (often at first put forward by
the interlocutor). There the matter is usually left. There is no
elaborate logical argument. The choice is offered to the hearer; and,
of course, he usually accepts the proposition as maintained by the
Buddha. The statement of this is often so curt, enigmatic, and even
Þowing not seldom simply to our ignorance, as yet, of the exact force
of the technical terms usedÞso [\q xxii/] ambiguous, that a knowledge
of the state of opinion on the particular point, in North India, at the
time, or a comparison of other Nikàya passages on the subject, is
necessary to remove the uncertainty. It would seem therefore most
desirable that a scholar attempting to render these Suttantas into a
European languageÞevolved in the process of expressing a very
different, and often contradictory, set of conceptionsÞshould give the
reasons of the faith that is in him. He should state why he
holds such and such an expression to be the least inappropriate
rendering: and quote parallel passages from other Nikàya texts in
support of his reasons. He should explain the real significance of the
thesis put forward by a statement of what, in his opinion, was the
point of view from which it was put forward, the stage of opinion into
which it fits, the current views it supports or controverts. In regard
to technical terms, for which there can be no exact equivalent, he
should give the Pàli. And in regard to the mnemonic lists and groups,
each word in which is usually a crux, he should give
cross-references, and wherever he ventures to differ from the Buddhist
explanations, as handed down in the schools, should state the fact, and
give his reasons. It is only by such discussions that we can hope to
make. progress in the interpretation of the history of Buddhist and
Indian thought. Bare versions are of no use to scholars, and even to
the general reader they can only convey loose, inadequate, and
inaccurate ideas. These considerations will, I trust, meet with the
approval of my fellow workers. Each scholar would of course, in
considering the limitations of his space, make a different choice as to
the points he regarded most pressing to dwell upon in his commentary,
as to the points he would leave to explain themselves. It may, I am
afraid, be considered that my choice in these respects has not been
happy, and especially that too many words or phrases have been left
without comment, where reasons were necessary. But I have, [\q xxiii/]
endeavoured, in the notes and introductions, to emphasise those points
on which further elucidation is desirable; and to raise some of the
most important of those historical questions which will have to be
settled before these Suttantas can finally be considered as having been
rightly understood.




T. W. Rhys Davids
`Nàlandà,’ April, 1899.



ABBREVIATIONS

Buddhist Canonical Books


A. 

Aïguttara Nikàya

 

B.V.

Buddha Vaüsa

 

D.

Dãgha Nikàya

 

Dhp.

Dhammapada

 

Jàt.

Jàtaka

 

Kh.P.

Khuddaka Pàñha

 

M.

Majjhima Nikàya

 

M. P. S.

Mahàparinibbàna Sutta

 

S.

Samyutta Nikàya

 

S. N.

Sutta Nipàta

 

Ud.

Udàna

 

Vim.V. 

Vimàna Vatthu

 

V. (or Vin.)

Vinaya

 

2. OTHER BOOKS

 

Abh. Pad.

Abhidàna Padãpikà

 

Asl.

Attha Salinã

 

Ath. V.

Atharva Veda

 

Brihad.

Brihadàraõyaka Upanishad

 

Dhp. Cy. 

Dhammapada commentary

 

Divy.

Divyàvadàna

 

Ep. Ind. 

Epigraphia Indica

 

J. P. T. S.

Journal of the Pàli Text Society

 

J. R. A. S.

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society

 

Chànd. Up.

Chàndogya Upanishad

 

M. B. V.

Mahà Bodhi Vaüsa

 

Mil.

Milinda Paõha. Par.
Dãp. Paramattha Dãpanã

 

S. B. E

.Sacred Books of the East

 

Sum.

Sumangala Vilàsinã

 

Sat. Br. 

Satapatha-Brahmaõa

 

Tait.

Taittirãya Upanishad

 

Z.D.M.G.

Zeitschrift der deutschen
morgenlandischen Gesellschaft.

 


[1] See the authors quoted in the Introduction to vol.
II of my translation. Professor Takakusu, in an article in the J. R. A.
S. for 1896, has added important details.

[2] They are not `sects’ at
all, in the modern European sense of the word. Some of the more
important of these data are collected in two articles by the present
writer in the `Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society’ for 1891 and 1892.

[3] `Epigr. Ind.,’ II, 93, and Z. D. M. G.,’ xi, p. 58.

[4] `Reden des Gotamo,’ pp. x, xi

[5] `Journal of the Pàli Text Society,’ 1896; journal
of the Royal Asiatic Society,’ 1898, p. 639. Compare, `Milinda’ (S. B.
E., vol. xxxv), pp xxxvii foll.

[6] `Inscriptions de Piyadasi,’ II, 314-322.

[7] Quoted by Prof. Oldenberg at p. 46 of his edition.

[8] Miss C. Hughes is preparing a complete
alphabetical list of all these works for the journal of the Royal
Asiatic Society,’ 1899.

[9] As is well-known, the single instance of such a
discrepancy, which Prof. Minayeff made so much of, is a mare’s nest.
The blunder is on the part of the European professor, not of the Ceylon
paõóits. No critical scholar will accept the proposition that because the
commentary on
the Kathà Vatthu mentions the Vetulyakà, therefore the
Kathà Vatthu itself must
be later than the rise of that school.

[10] North Indian that is, from the modern European
point of view. In the books themselves the reference is to the Middle
Country
(Majjhima Desa). To them the country to the south of
theVindhyas simply did not come into the calculation. How suggestive
this is as to the real place of origin of these documents!

 [11] Very probably memoranda
were used. But the earliest records of any extent were the Asoka
Edicts, and they had to be written on stone.

[12] On the often repeated error that a Sanskrit canon
was established at Kanishka’s Council, see my `Milinda,’ vol. ii, pp.
xv, xvi.

[13] No reference has been made, in these slight and
imperfect remarks, to the history of the Vinaya. There is nothing to
add, on that point, to the able and lucid exposition of Prof Oldenberg
in the Introduction to his edition of the text.

http://www.metta.lk/tipitaka/2Sutta-Pitaka/1Digha-Nikaya/

PALI

Suttantapiñake
Dãghanikàyo


Sãlakkhandhavaggo


Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammàsambuddhassa.


1.Brahmajàlasuttaü


1. Evaü
me sutaü ekaü samayaü bhagavà antarà ca ràjagahaü antarà ca nàlandaü
addhànamaggapañipanno hoti mahatà bhikkhusaïghena saddhiü pa¤camattehi
bhikkhusatehi. Suppiyo’pi kho paribbàjako antarà ca ràjagahaü antarà ca
nàlandaü addhànamaggapañipanno hoti saddhiü antevàsinà brahmadattena
màõavena.

Tatra sudaü
suppiyo paribbàjako anekapariyàyena buddhassa avaõõaü bhàsati, dhammassa
avaõõaü bhàsati, saïghassa avaõõaü bhàsati. Suppiyassa pana
paribbàjakassa antevàsã brahmadatto màõavo anekapariyàyena buddhassa
vaõõaü bhàsati, dhammassa vaõõaü bhàsati, saïghassa vaõõaü bhàsati.
Itiha te ubho àcariyantevàsã a¤¤ama¤¤assa ujuvipaccanãkavàdà bhagavantaü
piññhito piññhito anubaddhà1 honti bhikkhusaïghaü ca.

2. Atha kho
bhagavà ambalaññhikàyaü ràjàgàrake ekarattivàsaü upagaüchi saddhiü
bhikkhusaïghena. Suppiyo’pi kho paribbàjako ambalaññhikàyaü ràjàgàrake
ekarattivàsaü upagaüchi saddhiü antevàsinà brahmadattena màõavena.
Tatra’pi sudaü suppiyo paribbàjako anekapariyàyena buddhassa avaõõaü
bhàsati, dhammassa avaõõaü bhàsati, saïghassa avaõõaü bhàsati.
Suppiyassa [PTS Page 002] [\q 2/] pana paribbàjakassa antevàsã
brahmadatto màõavo buddhassa vaõõaü bhàsati, dhammassa vaõõaü bhàsati,
saïghassa vaõõaü bhàsati. Itiha te ubho àcariyantevàsã a¤¤ama¤¤assa
ujuvipaccanãkavàdà viharanti.

[BJT Page 004] [\x 4/]

3. Atha kho
sambahulànaü bhikkhånaü rattiyà paccåsasamayaü paccuññhitànaü
maõóalamàëe sannisinnànaü sannipatitànaü ayaü saïkhiyàdhammo udapàdi:
“acchariyaü àvuso, abbhutaü àvuso, yàva¤cidaü tena bhagavatà jànatà
passatà arahatà sammàsambuddhena sattànaü nànàdhimuttikatà
suppañividità. Ayaü hi suppiyo paribbàjako anekapariyàyena buddhassa
avaõõaü bhàsati, dhammassa avaõõaü bhàsati, saïghassa avaõõaü bhàsati.
Suppiyassa pana paribbàjakassa antevàsã brahmadatto màõavo buddhassa
vaõõaü bhàsati, dhammassa vaõõaü bhàsati, saïghassa vaõõaü bhàsati.
Itiha’me ubho àcariyantevàsã a¤¤ama¤¤assa ujuvipaccanãkavàdà bhagavantaü
piññhito piññhito anubaddhà honti bhikkhusaïghaü cà”ti.

4. Atha kho
bhagavà tesaü bhikkhånaü imaü saïkhiyàdhammaü viditvà yena maõóalamàëo
tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà pa¤¤atte àsane nisãdi. Nisajja kho bhagavà
bhikkhå àmantesi: “kàya nu’ttha bhikkhave etarahi kathàya sannisinnà
sannipatità? Kà ca pana vo antarà kathà vippakatà?”Ti.

Evaü vutte te
bhikkhå bhagavantaü etadavocuü: “idha bhante amhàkaü rattiyà
paccåsasamayaü paccuññhitànaü maõóalamàëe sannisinnànaü sannipatitànaü
ayaü saïkhiyàdhammo udapàdi “acchariyaü àvuso, abbhutaü àvuso yàva¤cidaü
tena bhagavatà arahatà sammàsambuddhena sattànaü nànàdhimuttikatà
suppañividità. Ayaü hi suppiyo paribbàjako anekapariyàyena buddhassa
avaõõaü bhàsati, dhammassa avaõõaü bhàsati, saïghassa avaõõaü bhàsati.
Suppiyassa pana paribbàjakassa antevàsã brahmadatto màõavo buddhassa
vaõõaü bhàsati, dhammassa vaõõaü bhàsati, saïghassa vaõõaü bhàsati.
Itiha’me ubho àcariyantevàsã a¤¤ama¤¤assa ujuvipaccanãkavàdà bhagavantaü
piññhito piññhito anubaddhà honti bhikkhusaïgha¤cà’ti. Ayaü kho no
bhante antaràkathà vippakatà. Atha bhagavà anuppatto”ti.

5. “Mamaü và
bhikkhave pare avaõõaü bhàseyyuü, dhammassa và avaõõaü bhàseyyuü,
saïghassa và [PTS Page 003] [\q 3/] avaõõaü bhàseyyuü, tatra tumhehi na
àghàto na appaccayo na cetaso anabhiraddhi karaõãyà. Mamaü và bhikkhave
pare avaõõaü bhàseyyuü, dhammassa và avaõõaü bhàseyyuü, saïghassa và
avaõõaü bhàseyyuü, tatra ce tumhe assatha kupità và anattamanà và,
tumhaü yevassa tena antaràyo. Mamaü và bhikkhave pare avaõõaü bhàseyyuü,
dhammassa và avaõõaü bhàseyyuü, saïghassa và avaõõaü bhàseyyuü, tatra
tumhe assatha kupità và anattamanà và, api nu paresaü subhàsitaü
dubbhàsitaü tumhe àjàneyyàthà?”Ti.

“No hetaü bhante. “

“Mamaü và
bhikkhave pare avaõõaü bhàseyyuü, dhammassa và avaõõaü bhàseyyuü,
saïghassa và avaõõaü bhàseyyuü, tatra tumhehi abhåtaü abhåtato
nibbeñhetabbaü: ‘iti’petaü abhåtaü. Iti’petaü atacchaü. Natthi cetaü
amhesu. Na ca panetaü amhesu saüvijjatã’ti. “

[BJT Page 006] [\x 6/]

6. “Mamaü và
bhikkhave pare vaõõaü bhàseyyuü, dhammassa và vaõõaü bhàseyyuü,
saïghassa và vaõõaü bhàseyyuü, tatra tumhehi na ànando na somanassaü na
cetaso ubbilàvitattaü1 karaõãyaü. Mamaü và bhikkhave pare vaõõaü
bhàseyyuü, dhammassa và vaõõaü bhàseyyuü, saïghassa và vaõõaü bhàseyyuü,
tatra ce tumhe assatha ànandino sumanà ubbilàvino2, tumhaü yevassa tena
antaràyo. Mamaü và bhikkhave pare vaõõaü bhàseyyuü, dhammassa và vaõõaü
bhàseyyuü, saïghassa và vaõõaü bhàseyyuü, tatra và tumhehi bhåtaü
bhåtato pañijànitabbaü: “iti’petaü bhåtaü, iti’petaü tacchaü. Atthi
cetaü amhesu. Saüvijjati ca panetaü amheså’ti. “

7.
“Appamattakaü kho panetaü bhikkhave oramattakaü sãlamattakaü, yena
puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya. Katama¤ca taü bhikkhave
appamattakaü oramattakaü sãlamattakaü, yena puthujjano tathàgatassa
vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya. ?

[PTS Page 004] [\q 4/]

8.
“Pàõàtipàtaü pahàya pàõàtipàtà pañivirato samaõo gotamo nihitadaõóo
nihitasattho lajjã dayàpanno sabbapàõabhåtahitànukampã viharatã”ti. Iti
và hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

9.
“Adinnàdànaü pahàya adinnàdànà pañivirato samaõo gotamo dinnàdàyã
dinnapàñikaïkhã athenena sucibhåtena attanà viharatã”ti. Iti và hi
bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

10.
“Abrahmacariyaü pahàya brahmacàrã samaõo gotamo àràcàrã virato methunà
gàmadhammà”ti. Iti và hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü
vadamàno vadeyya.

11. “Musàvàdaü
pahàya musàvàdà pañivirato samaõo gotamo saccavàdã saccasandho theto
paccayiko avisaüvàdako lokassà”ti. Iti và hi bhikkhave puthujjano
tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

1. Ubbillàvitattaü, ma cha saü.

2. Ubbillàvino, ma cha saü.

[BJT Page 008] [\x 8/]

12. “Pisuõaü
vàcaü pahàya pisuõàya vàcàya pañivirato samaõo gotamo. Ito sutvà na
amutra akkhàtà imesambhedàya. Amutra và sutvà na imesaü akkhàtà
amåsambhedàya. Iti bhinnànaü và sandhàtà saühitànaü và anuppadàtà.
Samaggàràmo samaggarato samagganandã samaggakaraõiü vàcaü bhàsità”ti.
Iti và hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

13. “Pharusaü
vàcaü pahàya pharusàya vàcàya pañivirato samaõo gotamo. Yà sà vàcà neëà
kaõõasukhà pemanãyà hadayaïgamà porã bahujanakantà bahujanamanàpà,
tathàråpiü vàcaü bhàsità”ti. Iti và hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa
vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

14.
“Samphappalàpaü pahàya samphappalàpà pañivirato samaõo gotamo, kàlavàdã
bhåtavàdã atthavàdã dhammavàdã vinayavàdã, nidhànavatiü vàcaü bhàsità
kàlena [PTS Page 005] [\q 5/] sàpadesaü pariyantavatiü atthasaühitanti”
iti và hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

15.
“Bãjagàmabhåtagàmasamàrambhà pañivirato samaõo gotamo. Ekabhattiko
samaõo gotamo rattåparato virato vikàlabhojanà.
Naccagãtavàditavisåkadassanà pañivirato samaõo gotamo.
Màlàgandhavilepanadhàraõamaõóanavibhåsanaññhànà pañivirato samaõo
gotamo. Uccàsayanamahàsayanà pañivirato samaõo gotamo.
Jàtaråparajatapañiggahaõà pañivirato samaõo gotamo.
âmakadha¤¤apañiggahaõà pañivirato samaõo gotamo. âmakamaüsapañiggahaõà
pañivirato samaõo gotamo. Itthikumàrikapañiggahaõà pañivirato samaõo
gotamo. Dàsidàsapañiggahaõà pañivirato samaõo gotamo. Ajeëakapañiggahaõà
pañivirato samaõo gotamo. Kukkuñasåkarapañiggahaõà pañivirato samaõo
gotamo. Hatthigavàssavaëavapañiggahaõà pañivirato samaõo gotamo.
Khettavatthupañiggahaõà pañivirato samaõo gotamo. Dåteyya
pahiõagamanànuyogà pañivirato samaõo gotamo. Kayavikkayà pañivirato
samaõo gotamo. Tulàkåña - kaüsakåña - mànakåñà pañivirato samaõo gotamo.
Ukkoñana - va¤cananikati - sàciyogà pañivirato samaõo gotamo. Chedana -
vadhabandhana - viparàmosa - àlopasahasàkàrà pañivirato samaõo gotamo
“ti. Iti và hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno
vadeyya.

Cullasãlaü niññhitaü.

[BJT Page 010] [\x 10/]

16. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü bãjagàmabhåtagàmasamàrambhaü anuyuttà viharanti seyyathãdaü:
målabãjaü khandhabãjaü phalubãjaü aggabãjaü bãjabãjameva pa¤camaü. Iti
và itievaråpà bãjagàmabhåtagàmasamàrambhà pañivirato samaõo gotamo”ti.
Iti và hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

17. [PTS Page
006] [\q 6/] “yathà và paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni
bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te evaråpaü sannidhikàraparibhogaü anuyuttà
viharanti. Seyyathãdaü: annasannidhiü pànasannidhiü vatthasannidhiü
yànasannidhiü sayanasannidhiü gandhasannidhiü àmisasannidhiü. Iti và iti
evaråpà sannidhikàraparibhogà pañivirato samaõo gotamo”ti. Iti và hi
bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

18. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü visåkadassanaü anuyuttà viharanti. Seyyathãdaü: naccaü gãtaü
vàditaü pekkhaü akkhànaü pàõissaraü vetàlaü1 kumbhathånaü sobhanakaü2
caõóàlaü vaüsaü dhovanaü3 hatthiyuddhaü assayuddhaü daõóayuddhaü
muññhiyuddhaü nibbuddhaü uyyodhikaü balaggaü senàbyuhaü anãkadassanaü.
Iti và itievaråpà visåkadassanà pañivirato samaõo gotamo”ti. Iti và hi
bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

1. Vetàlaü, [P T S.]

2. Sobhaõa garakaü, [P T S.]

3. Dhopanaü, [P T S.]

4. Meõóakayuddhaü, katthaci.

[BJT Page 012] [\x 12/]

19. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü jåtappamàdaññhànànuyogaü anuyuttà viharanti - seyyathãdaü:
aññhapadaü dasapadaü àkàsaü parihàrapathaü santikaü khalikaü ghañikaü
salàkahatthaü akkhaü païgacãraü vaïkakaü mokkhacikaü ciïgulakaü
pattàëhakaü rathakaü [PTS Page 007] [\q 7/] dhanukaü akkharikaü
manesikaü yathàvajjaü. Iti và itievaråpà jåtappamàdaññhànànuyogà
pañivirato samaõo gotamo”ti. Iti và hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa
vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

20. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü uccàsayanamahàsayanaü anuyuttà viharanti. Seyyathãdaü: àsandiü
pallaïkaü gonakaü1 cittakaü pañikaü pañalikaü tulikaü vikatikaü
uddalomiü ekantalomiü kaññhissaü koseyyaü kuttakaü hatthattharaü
assattharaü rathattharaü ajinappaveõiü kàdalimigapavarapaccattharaõaü
sauttaracchadaü ubhatolohitakåpadhànaü. Iti và itievaråpà
uccàsayanamahàsayanà pañivirato samaõo gotamo”ti. Iti và hi bhikkhave
puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

21. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü maõóanavibhusanaññhànànuyogaü anuyuttà viharanti - seyyathãdaü:
ucchàdanaü parimaddanaü nahàpanaü sambàhanaü àdàsaü a¤janaü
màlàvilepanaü mukhacuõõakaü mukhalepanaü hatthabandhaü sikhàbandhaü
daõóakaü nàëikaü asiü chattaü citråpàhanaü uõhãsaü maõiü vàlavãjaniü
odàtàni vatthàni dãghadasàni. Iti và itievaråpà
maõóanavibhusanaññhànànuyogà pañivirato samaõo gotamo”ti. Iti và hi
bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

1. Goõakaü, katthaci.

[BJT Page 014] [\x 14/]

22. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü tiracchànakathaü anuyuttà viharanti. Seyyathãdaü: ràjakathaü
corakathaü mahàmattakathaü senàkathaü bhayakathaü yuddhakathaü
annakathaü pànakathaü vatthakathaü sayanakathaü màlàkathaü gandhakathaü
¤àtikathaü yànakathaü gàmakathaü nigamakathaü nagarakathaü
janapadakathaü itthikathaü1 [PTS Page 008] [\q 8/] sårakathaü
visikhàkathaü kumbhaññhànakathaü pubbapetakathaü nànattakathaü
lokakkhàyikaü samuddakkhàyikaü itibhavàbhavakathaü. Iti và itievaråpàya
tiracchànakathàya pañivirato samaõo gotamo”ti. Iti và hi bhikkhave
puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

23. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü viggàhikakathaü anuyuttà viharanti. Seyyathãdaü: na tvaü imaü
dhammavinayaü àjànàsi. Ahaü imaü dhammavinayaü àjànàmi. Kiü tvaü imaü
dhammavinayaü àjànissasi? Micchàpañipanno tvamasi, ahamasmi sammà
pañipanno. Sahitaü me, asahitaü te. Pure vacanãyaü pacchà avaca. Pacchà
vacanãyaü pure avaca. âciõõaü2 te viparàvattaü. âropito te vàdo.
Niggahito tvamasi. Cara vàdappamokkhàya. Nibbeñhehi và sace pahosã’ti.
Iti và itievaråpàya viggàhikakathàya pañivirato samaõo gotamo”ti. Iti và
hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

24. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü dåteyyapahiõagamanànuyogaü anuyuttà viharanti. Seyyathãdaü:
ra¤¤aü ràjamahàmattànaü khattiyànaü bràhmaõànaü gahapatikànaü kumàrànaü
‘idha gaccha. Amutràgaccha. Idaü hara. Amutra idaü àharà’ti. Iti và
itievaråpà dåteyyapahiõagamanànuyogà pañivirato samaõo gotamo’ti. Iti và
hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

25. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te kuhakà
ca honti lapakà ca nemittikà ca nippesikà ca làbhena làbhaü
nijigiüsitàro. Iti và itievaråpà kuhanalapanà pañivirato samaõo
gotamo”ti. Iti và hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno
vadeyya.

Majjhimasãlaü niññhitaü.

1. Itthi kathaü purisa kathaü, machasaü.

2. Adhiciõõaü, machasaü.

[BJT Page 016] [\x 16/]

26. [PTS Page
009] [\q 9/] “yathà và paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni
bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü
kappenti - seyyathãdaü: aïgaü nimittaü uppàtaü supinaü lakkhaõaü
måsikacchinnaü aggihomaü dabbihomaü thusahomaü kaõahomaü taõóulahomaü
sappihomaü telahomaü homaü lohitahomaü aïgavijjà vatthuvijjà khattavijjà
sivavijjà bhåtavijjà bhurivijjà ahivijjà visavijjà vicchikavijjà
måsikavijjà sakuõavijjà vàyasavijjà pakkajjhànaü1 saraparittàõaü
migapakkhaü. Iti và itievaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà pañivirato
samaõo gotamo”ti. Iti và hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü
vadamàno vadeyya.

27. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü kappenti - seyyathãdaü:
maõilakkhaõaü daõóalakkhaõaü vatthalakkhaõaü asilakkhaõaü usulakkhaõaü
dhanulakkhaõaü àvudhalakkhaõaü itthilakkhaõaü purisalakkhaõaü
kumàralakkhaõaü kumàrãlakkhaõaü dàsalakkhaõaü dàsãlakkhaõaü
hatthilakkhaõaü assalakkhaõaü mahisalakkhaõaü usabhalakkhaõaü
golakkhaõaü ajalakkhaõaü meõóalakkhaõaü kukkuñalakkhaõaü vaññalakkhaõaü
godhàlakkhaõaü kaõõikàlakkhaõaü kacchapalakkhaõaü migalakkhaõaü. Iti và
itievaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà pañivirato samaõo gotamo’ti.
Iti và hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

28. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü kappenti - seyyathãdaü:
‘ra¤¤aü niyyànaü bhavissati. Ra¤¤aü atiyànaü bhavissati. Abbhantarànaü
ra¤¤aü upayànaü bhavissati. Bàhirànaü [PTS Page 010] [\q 10/] ra¤¤aü
apayànaü bhavissati. Bàhirànaü ra¤¤aü upayànaü bhavissati. Abbhantarànaü
ra¤¤aü apayànaü bhavissati. Abbhantarànaü ra¤¤aü jayo bhavissati.
Bàhirànaü ra¤¤aü paràjayo bhavissati. Bàhirànaü ra¤¤aü jayo bhavissati.
Abbhantarànaü ra¤¤aü paràjayo bhavissati’. Iti imassa jayo bhavissati.
Imassa paràjayo bhavissati. Iti và itievaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya
micchàjãvà pañivirato samaõo gotamo’ti. Iti và bhikkhave puthujjano
tathàgatassa vaõaõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

1. Pakkhajjhànaü, katthaci

[BJT Page 018] [\x 18/]

29. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü kappenti - seyyathãdaü:
candaggàho bhavissati, suriyaggàho bhavissati, nakkhattaggàho
bhavissati, candimasuriyànaü pathagamanaü bhavissati, candimasuriyànaü
uppathagamanaü bhavissati, nakkhattànaü pathagamanaü bhavissati,
nakkhattànaü uppathagamanaü bhavissati, ukkàpàto bhavissati, disàóàho
bhavissati, bhåmicàlo bhavissati, devadundubhi bhavissati,
candimasuriyanakkhattànaü uggamanaü ogamanaü saükilesaü vodànaü
bhavissati. Evaüvipàko candaggàho bhavissati, evaüvipàko suriyaggàho
bhavissati, evaüvipàko nakkhattaggàho bhavissati, evaüvipàkaü
candimasuriyànaü pathagamanaü bhavissati, evaüvipàkaü candimasuriyànaü
uppathagamanaü bhavissati, evaü vipàkaü nakkhattànaü pathagamanaü
bhavissati, evaüvipàkaü nakkhattànaü uppathagamanaü bhavissati,
evaüvipàko ukkàpàto bhavissati, evaüvipàko disàóàho bhavissati,
evaüvipàko bhåmicàlo bhavissati. Evaüvipàko devadundåbhi bhavissati,
evaüvipàkaü candimasuriyanakkhattànaü uggamanaü ogamanaü saïkilesaü
vodànaü bhavissati. Iti và [PTS Page 011] [\q 11/] itievaråpàya
tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà pañivirato samaõo gotamo’ti. ” Iti và hi
bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

30. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü kappenti - seyyathãdaü:
subbuññhikà bhavissati, dubbuññhikà bhavissati, subhikkhaü bhavissati,
dubbhikkhaü bhavissati, khemaü bhavissati, bhayaü bhavissati, rogo
bhavissati, àrogyaü bhavissati. Muddà gaõanà saïkhànaü kàveyyaü
lokàyataü. Iti và itievaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà pañivirato
samaõo gotamo’ti. ” Iti và hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü
vadamàno vadeyya.

31. “Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü kappenti - seyyathãdaü:
àvàhanaü vivàhanaü saüvadanaü vivadanaü saïkiraõaü vikiraõaü
subhagakaraõaü dubbhagakaraõaü viruddhagabbhakaraõaü jivhànitthambhanaü1
hanusaühananaü hatthàbhijappanaü hanujappanaü kaõõajappanaü àdàsapa¤haü
kumàrikapa¤haü devapa¤haü àdiccupaññhànaü mahatupaññhànaü abbhujjalanaü
sirivhànaü. Iti và itievaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà pañivirato
samaõo gotamo’ti. ” Iti và hi bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü
vadamàno vadeyya.

1. Nitthaddhanaü. Bahåsu.

[BJT Page 020] [\x 20/]

32. [PTS Page
012] [\q 12/] “yathà và paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni
bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü
kappenti - seyyathãdaü: santikammaü paõidhikammaü bhårikammaü1
vassakammaü vossakammaü vatthukammaü vatthuparikammaü vatthuparikiraõaü
àcamanaü nahàpanaü juhanaü vamanaü virecanaü uddhavirecanaü
adhovirecanaü sãsavirecanaü kaõõatelaü nettatappanaü natthukammaü
a¤janaü pacca¤janaü sàlàkiyaü sallakattiyaü dàrakatikicchà
målabhesajjànaü anuppadànaü osadhãnaü pañimokkho. Iti và itievaråpàya
tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà pañivirato samaõo gotamo’ti. ” Iti và hi
bhikkhave puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

33. Idaü kho taü bhikkhave appamattakaü oramattakaü sãlamattakaü yena puthujjano tathàgatassa vaõõaü vadamàno vadeyya.

Mahàsãlaü niññhitaü.

34. Atthi
bhikkhave a¤¤eva dhammà gambhãrà duddasà duranubodhà santà paõãtà
atakkàvacarà nipuõà paõóitavedanãyà, ye tathàgato sayaü abhi¤¤à
sacchikatvà pavedeti, yehi tathàgatassa yathàbhuccaü vaõõaü sammà
vadamànà vadeyyuü. Katame ca te bhikkhave dhammà gambhãrà duddasà
duranubodhà santà paõãtà atakkàvacarà nipuõà paõóitavedanãyà ye
tathàgato sayaü abhi¤¤à sacchikatvà pavedeti, yehi tathàgatassa
yathàbhuccaü vaõõaü sammà vadamànà vadeyyuü?

35. Santi
bhikkhave eke samaõabràhmaõà pubbantakappikà pubbantànudiññhino
pubbantaü àrabbha anekavihitàni [PTS Page 013] [\q 13/] adhivuttipadàni
abhivadanti aññhàdasahi vatthåhi. Te ca bhonto samaõabràhmaõà kimàgamma
kimàrabbha pubbantakappikà pubbantànudiññhino pubbantaü àrabbha
anekavihitàni adhivuttipadàni abhivadanti aññhàrasahi vatthåhi?

1. Bhåtakammaü. Kesåci.

[BJT Page 022] [\x 22/]

36. Santi
bhikkhave eke samaõabràhmaõà sassatavàdà sassataü attàna¤ca loka¤ca
pa¤¤àpenti catåhi vatthåhi. Te ca bhonto samaõabràhmaõà kimàgamma
kimàrabbha sassatavàdà sassataü attàna¤ca loka¤ca pa¤¤àpenti catåhi
vatthåhi?

37. Idha
bhikkhave ekacco samaõo và bràhmaõo và àtappamanvàya padhànamanvàya
anuyogamanvàya appamàdamanvàya sammàmanasikàramanvàya tathàråpaü
cetosamàdhiü phusati yathà samàhite citte anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü
anussarati. Seyyathãdaü: “ekampi jàtiü dve’pi jàtiyo tisso’pi jàtiyo
catasso’pi jàtiyo pa¤ca’pi jàtiyo dasa’pi jàtiyo vãsatimpi jàtiyo
tiüsampi jàtiyo cattàrãsampi jàtiyo pa¤¤àsampi jàtiyo jàtisatampi
jàtisahassampi jàtisatasahassampi anekàni’pi jàtisatàni anekàni’pi
jàtisahassàni anekàni’pi jàtisatasahassàni amutràsiü evannàmo evaïgotto
evaüvaõõo evamàhàro evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedi evamàyupariyanto. So tato
cuto amutra upapàdiü1 tatràpàsiü evannàmo evaïgotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro
evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedã evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto
idhåpapanno’ti. “

Iti sàkàraü
sauddesaü anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü [PTS Page 014] [\q 14/] anussarati.
So evamàha: ’sassato attà ca loko ca va¤jho kåñaññho esikaññhàyiññhito.
Teva sattà sandhàvanti saüsaranti cavanti upapajjanti, atthitveva
sassatisamaü. Taü kissa hetu? Ahaü hi àtappamanvàya anuyogamanvàya
appamàdamanvàya sammàmanasikàramanvàya tathàråpaü cetosamàdhiü phusàmi
yathàsamàhite citte anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü anussaràmi. Seyyathãdaü:
“ekampi jàtiü dve’pi jàtiyo tisso’pi jàtiyo catasso’pi jàtiyo pa¤ca’pi
jàtiyo dasa’pi jàtiyo vãsatimpi jàtiyo tiüsampi jàtiyo cattàrãsampi
jàtiyo pa¤¤àsampi jàtiyo jàtisatampi jàtisahassampi jàtisatasahassampi
anekàni’pi jàtisatàni anekàni’pi jàtisahassàni anekàni’pi
jàtisatasahassàni amutràsiü evannàmo evaïgotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro
evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedi evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto amutra
upapàdiü tatràpàsiü evannàmo evaïgotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro
evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedã evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto
idhåpapanno’ti. Iti sàkàraü sauddesaü anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü
anussaràmi. Iminàmahaü etaü jànàmi: yathà sassato attà ca loko ca va¤jho
kåñaññho esikaññhàyiññhito. Teva sattà sandhàvanti saüsaranti cavanti
upapajjanti atthitveva sassatisama”nti.

Idaü bhikkhave pañhamaü ñhànaü yaü àgamma yaü àrabbha eke samaõabràhmaõà sassatavàdà ssasataü attàna¤ca loka¤ca pa¤¤àpenti.

1. Udapàdiü sã mu.

[BJT Page 24] [\x 24/]

38. Dutiye ca bhonto samaõabràhmaõà kimàgamma kimàrabbha sassatavàdà sassataü attàna¤ca loka¤ca pa¤¤àpenti?

Idha bhikkhave
ekacco samaõo và bràhmaõo và àtappamanvàya padhànamanvàya
anuyogamanvàya appamàdamanvàya sammàmanasikàramanvàya tathàrupaü
cetosamàdhiü phusati yathà samàhite citte anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü
anussarati - seyyathãdaü: ekampi saüvaññavivaññaü dve’pi
saüvaññavivaññàni tãõi’pi saüvaññavivaññàni cattàri’pi saüvaññavivaññàni
pa¤ca’pi saüvaññavivaññàni’ dasa’pi saüvaññavivaññàni ‘amutràsiü
evannàmo evaïgotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedã [PTS
Page 015] [\q 15/] evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto amutra upapàdiü.
Tatràpàsiü evannàmo evaïgotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro
evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedã evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto
idhåpapanno’ti. ” Iti sàkàraü sauddesaü anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü
anussarati.

So evamàha:
’sassato attà ca loko ca va¤jho kuñaññho esikaññhàyiññhito. Teva sattà
sandhàvanti saüsaranti cavanti upapajjanti atthitveva sassatisamaü. Taü
kissa hetu? Ahaü hi àtappamanvàya padhànamanvàya anuyogamanvàya
appamàdamanvàya sammàmanasikàramanvàya tathàrupaü cetosamàdhiü phusàmi
yathà samàhite citte anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü anussaràmi - seyyathãdaü:
ekampi saüvaññavivaññaü dve’pi saüvaññavivaññàni tãõi’pi
saüvaññavivaññàni cattàri’pi saüvaññavivaññàni pa¤ca’pi
saüvaññavivaññàni’ dasa’pi saüvaññavivaññàni ‘amutràsiü evannàmo
evaïgotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedã
evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto amutra upapàdiü. Tatràpàsiü evannàmo
evaïgotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedã
evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto idhåpapanno’ti. ” Iti sàkàraü sauddesaü
aneka vihitaü pubbenivàsaü anussaràmi. Iminà’pàhaü etaü jànàmi yathà
sassato attà ca loko ca va¤jho kuñaññho esikaññhàyiññhito. Teva sattà
sandhàvanti saüsaranti cavanti upapajjanti. Atthitveva sassatisamaü’ti. “

Idaü bhikkhave dutiyaü ñhànaü yaü àgamma yaü àrabbha eke samaõabràhmaõà sassatavàdà sassatà attàna¤ca loka¤ca pa¤¤àpenti.

39. Tatiye ca bhonto samaõabràhmaõà kimàgamma kimàrabbha sassatavàdà sassataü attàna¤ca loka¤ca pa¤¤àpenti?

[BJT Page 26] [\x 26/]

Idha bhikkhave
ekacco samaõo và bràhmaõo và àtappamanvàya padhànamanvàya
anuyogamanvàya appamàdamanvàya sammàmanasikàramanvàya tathàråpaü
cetosamàdhiü phusati yathà samàhite citte anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü
anussarati - seyyathãdaü: dasa’pi saüvaññavivaññaü vãsatimpi
saüvaññavivaññàni tiüsampi saüvaññavivaññàni cattàrãsampi
saüvaññavivaññàni “amutràsiü evannàmo evaügotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro
evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedã evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto amutra
upapàdiü. 1 Tatràpàsiü evannàmo evaïgotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro
evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedã evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto
idhåpapanno’ti. ” Iti sàkàraü sauddesaü aneka vihitaü pubbenivàsaü
anussarati.

So evamàha:
“sassato attà ca 016 loko ca va¤jho kåñaññho esikaññhàyiññhito. Teva
sattà sandhàvanti saüsaranti cavanti upapajjanti atthitveva
sassatisamaü. Taü kissa hetu? Ahaü hi àtappamanvàya padhànamanvàya
anuyogamanvàya appamàdamanvàya sammàmanasikàramanvàya tathàråpaü
cetosamàdhiü phusàmi yathà samàhite citte anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü
anussaràmi - seyyathãdaü: dasa’pi saüvaññavivaññàni vãsatimpi
saüvaññavivaññàni tiüsampi saüvaññavivaññàni cattàrãsampi
saüvaññavivaññàni “amutràsiü evannàmo evaügotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro
evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedã evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto amutra
upapàdiü. Tatràpàsiü evannàmo evaïgotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro
evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedã evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto
idhåpapanno’ti. Iti sàkàraü sauddesaü anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü
anussaràmi. Iminà mahaü etaü jànàmi. Yathà sassato attà ca loko ca
va¤jho kåñaññho esikaññhàyiññhito teva sattà sandhàvanti saüsaranti
cavanti upapajjanti atthitveva sassatisamaü’ti. “

Idaü bhikkhave tatiyaü ñhànaü yaü àgamma yaü àrabbha eke samaõabràhmaõà sassatavàdà sassataü attànaü ca lokaü ca pa¤¤àpenti.

40. Catutthe ca bhonto samaõabràhmaõà kimàgamma kimàrabbha sassatavàdà sassataü attàna¤ca loka¤ca pa¤¤àpenti. ?

Idha bhikkhave
ekacco samaõo và bràhmaõo và takkã hoti vãmaüsã. So takkapariyàhataü
vãmaüsànucaritaü sayampañibhànaü evamàha: ’sassato attà ca loko ca
va¤jho kåñaññho esikaññhàyiññhito. Teva sattà sandhàvanti saüsaranti
cavanti upapajjanti atthitveva sassatisamanti.

1. Udapàdiü, sã mu.

[BJT Page 28] [\x 28/]

Idaü bhikkhave catutthaü ñhànaü yaü àgamma yaü àrabbha eke samaõabràhmaõà sassatavàdà sassataü attànaü ca lokaü ca pa¤¤àpenti.

41. Imehi kho
te bhikkhave samaõabràhmaõà sassatavàdà sassataü attàna¤ca loka¤ca
pa¤¤àpenti catåhi vatthåhi. Ye hi keci bhikkhave samaõà và bràhmaõà và
sassatavàdà sassataü attàna¤ca loka¤ca pa¤¤àpenti, sabbe te imeheva
catåhi etesaü và a¤¤atarena natthi ito bahiddhà

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ENGLISH

http://www.metta.lk/tipitaka/2Sutta-Pitaka/1Digha-Nikaya/Digha1/01-brahmajala-e.html#q-001



INTRODUCTION
TO THE
BRAHMA-JâLA SUTTA

THE phase of beliefs
which this Suttanta is intended to meet, into which its argument fits,
has been set out in some setail in the opening chapter of my `American
Lectures.’ As there pointed out [
1],
the discussion which thus opens this series of dialogues forms also the
first question in the Kathà Vatthu, and the first question in the
Milinda. We cannot be far wrong if, in our endeavours to understand the
real meaning of the original Buddhism, we attach as much weight to this
question as did the author or authors of these ancient and authoritative
Buddhist books.


The Suttanta sets out in sixty-two divisions [2]
various speculations or theories in which the theorisers, going out
always from various forms of the ancient view of a `soul’-a sort of
subtle manikin inside the body but separate from it, and continuing,
after it leaves the body, as a separate entity-attempt to reconstruct
the past, or to arrange the future. All such speculation is condemned.
And necessarily so, since the Buddhist philosophy is put together
without this ancient idea of `soul.’


The Buddhist scheme endeavours, in
other words, to include all the truth which previous thinkers had
grafted on to the old savage theories of a semi-material, subtle,
permanent entity inside the body, while rejecting those theories
themselves; it endeavours to retain all the philosophic truth which
previous thinkers had grafted on to the theosophies-the corollaries of
the soul theories-while rejecting those theosophies themselves. The
reasons given for this position are threefold firstly, that such
speculators about ultimate things, [\q xxvi/] either in the past or the
future, have insufficient evidence. see only one side of the shield; [
3] secondly, that such speculations do not lead to emancipation, to Arahatship; [4]
and thirdly, that such theories are really derived from the hopes, the
feelings, and the sensations arising from evanescent phenomena [
5]-they
belong, in other words, to the realm of hastily formed, empirical
opinion (diññhi), not to that of’ the higher wisdom (pa¤¤à). So that
Buddhism, in the first place, holds a position somewhat similar to the
modern Agnostic position. Secondly, while acknowledging the importance
of feeling and of intellect, it lays special stress upon the regulation,
the cultivation, of the Will [
6]. And thirdly, it distinguishes between a lower and a higher wisdom, [7].

Several scholars, and especiallyÞwith more knowledge and detailÞDr.
Karl Neumann, have maintained that the position of Buddhism in the
history of Indian philosophy is analogous to that of Schopenhauer in
European philosophy. On the other hand, it is maintained by Professor
Deussen that Schopenhauer’s position is analogous to that of the
Upanishads. The reconciliation will probably be found to be that what
Buddhism took over, with more or less of modification, from the
Upanishads, is about the same as that part of the Upanishad doctrine
which is found, in European phraseology, in Schopenhauer; and what
Buddhism rejected alto-ether is not to be found in Schopenhauer. He
himself, who however knew both systems only from second-hand and
inaccurate authorities, says, `If I am to take the results of my own
Philosophy as the standard of truth, I should be obliged to concede to
Buddhism the pre-eminence over other (systems of philosophy).’

However this question may be
decided-and its discussion, at the necessary length, by a competent
student of philosophy, is a very pressing want-it is certain from the
details given in our Suttanta that there were then current in Northern
India many other philosophic and theosophic speculations besides those
the priests found it expedient to adopt, and have preserved for us in
the Upanishads. And who can doubt but that some, if not all of them, may
also have had their influence on the new doctrine? There was always
much philosophising in India outside the narrow and inexact limits [\q
xxvii/] of the so-called six Darsanas; and we have to thank Buddhist
scholars for preserving, in their Pàli and Sanskrit works, the evidences
of such philosophy as the priests wished to exclude from notice [
8].


[\q 001/]
(
Introduction)

DIALOGUES OF THE BUDDHA

DäGHA NIKâYA.
[COLLECTION OF LONG DIALOGUES.]


I. BRAHMA-JâLA SUTTA [9]
The Perfect Net


1. Thus have I heard. The Blessed One was once going along the high road between Ràjagaha and Nàlandà [10] with a great company of the brethren, with about five hundred brethren. And Suppiya the mendicant [11]
too was going along the high road between Ràjagaha and Nàlandà with his
disciple the youth Brahmadatta. Now just then Suppiya the mendicant was
speaking in many ways in dispraise of the Buddha, in dispraise of the
Doctrine, in dispraise of the Order. But young Brahmadatta, his pupil,
gave utterance, in many ways, to praise of the Buddha, to praise of the
Doctrine, to praise of the Order. Thus. they two, teacher and pupil,
holding opinions in direct contradiction one to the other, were
following, step by [\q 002/] step, after the Blessed One and the company
of the brethren.


2. Now the Blessed One put up at the royal rest-house in the Ambalaññhikà. pleasance [12]
to pass the night, and with him the company of the brethren. And so
also did Suppiya the mendicant, and with him his young disciple
Brahmadatta. And there, at the rest-house, these two carried on the same
discussion as before.

[2] 3. And in the early dawn a number of the brethren assembled, as
they rose up, in the pavilion; and this was the trend of the talk that
sprang up among them, as they were seated there. `How wonderful a thing
is it, brethren, and how strange that the Blessed One, he who knows and
sees, the Arahat, the Buddha Supreme, should so clearly have perceived
how various are the inclinations of men! For see how while Suppiya the
mendicant speaks in many ways in dispraise of the Buddha, the Doctrine,
and the Order, his own disciple young Brahmadatta, speaks, in as many
ways, in praise of them. So do these two, teacher and pupil, follow step
by step after the Blessed One and the company of the brethren, giving
utterance to views in direct contradiction one to the other.’

4. Now the Blessed One, on realising what was the drift of their
talk, went to the pavilion, and took his seat on the mat spread out for
him. And when he had sat down he said: `What is the talk on which you
are engaged sitting here, and what is the subject of the conversation
between you?’ And they told him all. And he said:

[\q 003/] Minor Details Of Mere Morality

5. `Brethren, if outsiders should speak against me, or against
the Doctrine, or against the Order, you should not on that account
either bear malice, or suffer heart-burning, or feel ill will. If you,
on that account, should be angry and hurt, that would stand in the way
of your, own self-conquest. If, when others speak against us, you feel
angry at that, and displeased, would you then be able to judge how far
that speech of theirs is well said or ill?’

`That would not be so, Sir.’

`But when outsiders speak in dispraise of me, or of the Doctrine, or
of the Order, you should unravel what is false and point it out as
wrong, saying: ßFor this or that reason this is not the fact, that is
not so, such a thing is not found among us, is not in us.û

6. `But also, brethren, if outsiders should speak in praise of me, in
praise of the Doctrine, in praise of the Order, you should not, on that
account, be filled with pleasure or gladness, or be lifted up in heart.
Were you to be so that also would stand in the way of your
self-conquest. When outsiders speak in praise of me, or of the Doctrine,
or of the Order, you should acknowledge what is right to be the fact,
saying: ßFor this or that reason this is the fact, that is so, such a
thing is found among us, is in us.û

7. `It is in respect only of trifling things, of matters of little
value, of mere morality, that an unconverted man, when praising the
Tathàgata, would speak. And what are such trifling, minor details of
mere morality that he would praise.

[4] [THE MORALITIES [13]. PART I.]


8. ßPutting away the killing of
living things, Gotama the recluse holds aloof from the destruction [\q
004/] of life. He has laid the cudgel and the sword aside, and ashamed
of roughness, and full of mercy, he dwells compassionate and kind to all
creatures that have lifeû It is thus that the unconverted man,
when-speaking in praise of the Tathàgata, might speak [
14].


`Or he might say: ßPutting away the
taking of what has not been given, Gotama the recluse lived aloof from
grasping what is not his own. He takes only what is given, and expecting
that gifts will come [
15], he passes his life in honesty and purity of heart.û


Or he might say: ßPutting away
unchastity, Gotama the recluse is chaste. He holds himself aloof, far
off, from the vulgar practice, from the sexual act [
16].û

9. `Or he might say: ßPutting away lying words, Gotama the recluse
holds himself aloof from falsehood. He speaks truth, from the truth he
never swerves; faithful and trustworthy, he breaks not his word to the
world.û

`Or he might say: ßPutting away slander, Gotama the recluse holds
himself aloof from calumny. What he hears here he repeats not elsewhere
to raise a quarrel [\q 005/] against the people here; what he hears
elsewhere he repeats not here to raise a quarrel against the people
there. Thus does he live as a binder together of those who are divided,
an encourager of those who are friends, a peacemaker, a lover of peace,
impassioned for peace, a speaker of words that make for peace.û

`Or he might say: ßPutting- away
rudeness of speech, Gotama the recluse holds himself aloof from harsh
language. Whatsoever word is blameless, pleasant to the car, lovely,
reaching to the heart, urbane [
17], pleasing to the people, beloved of the people-such are words he speaks.û


`Or he might say: ßPutting away frivolous talk [18],Gotama
the recluse holds himself aloof from vain conversation. In season he
speaks, in accordance with the facts, words full of meaning, on
religion, on the discipline of the Order. He speaks, and at the right
time, words worthy to be laid up in one’s heart, [5] fitly illustrated,
clearly divided, to the point.û

10. `Or he might say:


ßGotama the recluse holds himself aloof from causing injury to seeds or plants [19].
He takes but one meal a day, not eating at night, refraining from food after hours (after midday).
He refrains from being a spectator at shows at fairs, with nautch dances, singing, and music.
He abstains from wearing, adorning, or ornamenting himself with garlands, scents, and unguents.
He abstains from the use of large and lofty beds.
He abstains from accepting silver or gold.
He abstains from accepting uncooked grain.
He abstains from accepting raw meat.
He abstains from accepting women or girls.
He abstains from accepting bondmen or bondwomen.
[\q 006/] He abstains from accepting sheep or goats.
He abstains from accepting fowls or swine.
He abstains from accepting elephants, cattle. horses, and mares.
He abstains from accepting cultivated fields or waste.
He abstains from the acting as a, go-between or messenger.
He abstains from buying and selling.
He abstains from cheating with scales or bronzes [
20] or measures.
He abstains from the crooked ways of bribery, cheating, and fraud.
He abstains from maiming, murder, putting in bonds, highway robbery, dacoity, and violence.û
`Such are the things, brethren, which an unconverted man, when speaking in praise of the Tathàgata, might say.’


Here ends the Cåla Sãla [the Short Paragraphs on Conduct]

11. `Or he might say: ßWhereas
some recluses and Brahmans, while living on food provided by the
faithful, continue addicted to the injury of seedlings and growing
plants whether propagated from roots or cuttings or joints or buddings
or seeds [
21]-Gotama the [\q 007/] recluse holds aloof from such injury to seedlings and growing plants.û


12. [6] `Or he might say: ßWhereas
some recluses and Brahmans, while living on food provided by the
faithful, continue addicted to the use of things stored up; stores, to
wit, of foods, drinks, clothing, equipages, bedding, perfumes, and
curry-stuffs [
22]- Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such use of things stored up.û


13. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some
recluses and Brahmans while living on food provided by the faithful,
continue addicted to visiting shows [
23]; that is to say,


(1) Nautch dances (naccaü) [24].
(2) Singing of songs (gãtaü).
(3) Instrumental music (vàditaü).
(4) Shows at fairs (pekkhaü) [
25].
[\q 008/] (5) Ballad recitations (akkhànaü) [
26].
(6) Hand music (pàõissaraü) [
27].
(7) The chanting of bards (vetàlaü) [
28].
(8) Tam - tam playing (kumbhathånaü) [
29]. [\q 009/]
(9) Fairy scenes (sobhanagarakaü) [
30].
(10) Acrobatic feats by Caõóàlas (caõóàla-vaüsa-dhopanaü) [
31].
(11) Combats of elephants, horses, buffaloes, bulls, goats, rams, cocks, and quails.
(12) Bouts at quarter- staff [
32], boxing, wrestling [33].
(13-16) Sham-fights, roll-calls, manoeuvres, reviews [
34].û


`Gotama the recluse holds aloof from visiting such shows.’

14. `Or. he might say: ßWhereas some
recluses and Brahmans, while living on food provided by the faithful,
continue addicted to games and recreations [
35]; that is to say,


(1) Games on boards with eight, or with ten, rows of squares [36].
(2) The same games [\q 010/] played by imagining such boards in the air [
37].
(3) Keeping going over diagrams drawn on the ground so that one steps only where one ought to go [
38].
(4) Either removing the pieces or men from a heap with one’s nail, or
putting them into a heap, in each case without shaking it. He who shakes
the heap, loses [
39]
(5) Throwing dice [
40]
(6) Hitting a short stick with a long one [
41].
(7) Dipping the hand with the fingers stretched out in lac, or red dye,
or flower-water, and striking the wet hand on the ground or on a wall,
`calling out `What shell it be?’ and showing the form required
-elephants, horses, &c. [
42]
(8) Games with balls [
43]
(9) Blowing through toy pipes made of leaves [
44]
(10) Ploughing with. toy ploughs [
45]
(11) Turning summersaults [
46].
(12) Playing with toy windmills made of palm-leaves [
47].
[\q 011/] (13) Playing with toy measures made of palm-leaves.
(14, 15) Playing with toy carts or toy bows [
48]
(16) Guessing at letters traced in the air, or on a. playfellow’s back [
49]
(17) Guessing the play fellow’s thoughts.,
(18) Mimicry of deformities.û


[7] Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such games and recreations.û

15. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some
recluses and Brahmans, while living on food provided by the faithful,
continue addicted to the use of high and large couches; that is to say [
50],


(1) `Moveable settees, high, and six feet long (àsandi) [51]
(2) Divans with animal figures carved on the sup-ports (pallanko) [
52].
[\q 012/] 1. BRAHMA-JâLA SUTTA.
(3) Goats’ hair coverlets with very long fleece (gonako) [
53].
(4) Patchwork counterpanes of many colours (cittakà).
(5) White blankets (Pañikà).
(6) Woollen coverlets embroidered with flowers (pañalikà).
(7) Quilts stuffed with cotton wool (tålikà).
(8) Coverlets embroidered with figures of lions, tigers, &c. (vikatikà).
(9) Rugs with fur on both sides (uddalomã).
(10) Rugs with fur on one side (ekantalomã).
(11) Coverlets embroidered with gems(kaññhissaü).
(12) Silk coverlets (koseyyaü).
(13) Carpets large enough for sixteen dancers (kuttakaü).
(14-16) Elephant, horse, and chariot rugs.
(17) Rugs of antelope skins sewn together (ajina-paveõi).
(18) Rugs of skins of the plantain antelope.
(19) Carpets with awnings [\q 013/] above them (sauttara-cchadaü).
(20) Sofas with red pillows for the head and feet.û


16. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some recluses and Brahmans, while
living on food provided by the faithful, continue addicted to the use of
means for adorning and beautifying themselves; that is to say,


Rubbing in scented powders on one’s body, shampooing it, and bathing it,
patting the limbs with clubs after the manner of wrestlers [
54].
The use of mirrors, eye-ointments, garlands,
rouge, cosmetics, bracelets, necklaces,
walking-sticks, reed cases for drugs, rapiers,
sunshades, embroidered slippers, turbans, diadems,
whisks of the yak’s tail, and long-fringed white robes,û


`Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such means of adorning and beautifying the person [55].û

17. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some recluses and Brahmans, while
living on food provided by the faithful, continue addicted to such low
conversation as these:

Tales of kings, of robbers, of
ministers of state, tales of war, of terrors, of battles; talk about
foods and drinks, clothes, beds, garlands, perfumes; talks about
relationships, equipages, villages, town, cities, and countries; tales
about women [8], and about heroes; gossip at street corners [
56], or places whence [\q 014/] water is fetched; ghost stories [57]; desultory talk [58]; speculations about the creation of the land or sea [59], or about existence and non-existence [60].û

`Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such low conversation.’

18. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some
recluses and Brahmans, while living on food provided by the faithful,
continue addicted to the use of wrangling phrases [
61] such as


ßYou don’t understand this doctrine and discipline, I do.
How should you know about this doctrine and discipline?
ßYou have fallen into wrong views. It is I who am in the right.û
ßI am speaking to the point, you are not [
62
ßYou are putting last what ought to come first, first what ought to come last [
63].û
ßWhat you’ve excogitated so long, that’s all quite upset.û
[\q 015/] ßYour challenge has been taken up [
64]
ßYou are proved to be wrong [
65].û
ßSet to work to clear your views [
66].û
ßDisentangle yourself if you can [
67].û


`Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such wrangling phrases.’

19. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some recluses and Brahmans, while
living on food provided by the faithful, continue addicted to taking
messages, going on errands, and acting as go-betweens; to wit, on kings,
ministers of state, Kshatriyas, Brahmans, or young men, saying: `Go
there, come hither, take this with you, bring that from thence.û

`Gotama the recluse abstains from such servile duties.’

20. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some recluses and Brahmans, while living on food provided by the faithful, are tricksters [68], droners out (of holy words for pay) [69], [\q 016/] diviners [70], and exorcists [71], ever hungering to add gain to gain [72] - Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such deception and patter.û’


Here ends the Majjhima Sãla [the Longer Paragraphs on Conduct].

[9] 2 I. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful, earn their living by
wrong means of livelihood, by low arts, such as these:


(1) PalmistryÞprophesying long life, prosperity, &c from marks on child’s hands, feet. &c. [73].
(2) Divining by means of omens and signs [
74].
(3) Auguries drawn from thunderbolts and other celestial portents [
75].
[\q 017/] (4) Prognostication by interpreting dreams [
76].
(5) Fortune-telling from marks on the body [
77].
(6) Auguries from the marks on cloth gnawed by mice [
78].
(7) Sacrificing to Agni [
79].
(8) Offering oblations from a spoon [
80].
(9-13) Making offerings to gods of husks, of the red powder between the
grain and the husk, of husked grain ready for boiling, of ghee, and of
oil [
81].
(14) Sacrificing by spewing mustard seeds, &c., into the fire out of one’s mouth [
82].
(15) Drawing blood from one’s right knee as a sacrifice to the gods [
83].
[\q 018/] (16) Looking at the knuckles, &c., and, after muttering a
charm, divining whether a man is well born or lucky or not [
84].
(17) Determining whether the site, for a proposed house or pleasance, is lucky or not [
85].
(18) Advising on customary law [
86].
(19) Laying demons in a cemetery [
87].
(20) Laying ghosts [
88].
(21) Knowledge of the charms to be used when lodging in an earth house [
89].
(22) Snake charming [
90].
[\q 019/] (23) The poison craft [
91].
(24) The scorpion craft [
92].
(25) The mouse craft [
93].
(26) The bird craft [
94].
(27) The crow craft [
95].
(28) Foretelling the number of years that a man has yet to live.
(29) Giving charms to ward off arrows [
96].
(30) The animal wheel [
97].û


`Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such low arts.’

22. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some recluses and Brahmans, while
living on food provided by the faithful, earn their living by wrong
means of livelihood, by low arts, such as these:

Knowledge of the signs of good and bad
qualities in the following things and of the marks in them denoting the
health or luck of their owners: to wit, gems [
98], staves, garments, swords, arrows, bows, other weapons, women [99], men [100], boys [101], girls [102], slaves, slave-girls, elephants, horses, buffaloes, bulls, oxen, goats [103], sheep [104], fowls [105], quails [106], iguanas [107], earrings [108], tortoises, and other animals.û

`Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such low arts.’

23. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some recluses [\q 020/] and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful, earn their living by
wrong means of livelihood, by low arts, such as soothsaying, to the
effect that:


[10] The chiefs will march out.
The chiefs will march back.
The home chiefs will attack, and the enemies’ retreat.
The enemies’ chiefs will attack, and ours will retreat.
The home chiefs will gain the victory, and the foreign chiefs suffer defeat.
The foreign chiefs will gain the victory, and ours will suffer defeat [
109]
Thus will there be victory on this side, defeat on that.û


`Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such low arts.’

2 4. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some recluses and Brahmans, while
living on food provided by the faithful, earn their living by wrong
means of livelihood, by such low arts as foretelling


( 1) There will be an eclipse of the moon.
(2) There will be en eclipse of the sun.
(3) There will be en eclipse of a star (nakshatra) [
110].
(4) There will be aberration of the sun or the moon.
(5) The sun or the moon will return to its usual path.
(6) There will be aberrations of the stars.
(7) The stars will return to their usual course [
111].
[\q 021/] (8) There will be a fall of meteors [
112]
(9) There will be a jungle fire [
113].
(10) The-re will be an earthquake.
(11) The god will thunder.
(12-15) There will be rising and setting, clearness and dimness, of the sun or the moon or the stars [
114], or foretelling of each of these fifteen phenomena that they will betoken such and such a result.û [11]


25. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some recluses and Brahmans, while
living on food provided by the faithful, earn their living by wrong
means of livelihood, by low arts, such as these:


Foretelling an abundant rainfall.
Foretelling a deficient rainfall.
Foretelling a good harvest
Foretelling scarcity of food.
Foretelling tranquillity.
Foretelling disturbances.
Foretelling a pestilence.
Foretelling a healthy season.
Counting on the fingers [
115].
[\q 022/] Counting without using the fingers [
116].
Summing up large totals [
117].
Composing ballads, poetising [
118].
Casuistry, sophistry [
119].û


`Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such low arts.’

26. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some recluses and Brahmans, while
living on food provided by the faithful, earn their living by wrong
means of livelihood, by low arts, such as


[\q 023/] (1) Arranging a lucky day for marriages in which the bride or bridegroom is brought home [120].
(2) Arranging a lucky day for marriages in which the bride or bridegroom is sent
forth [
121].
(3) Fixing a lucky time for the conclusion of treaties of peace [or using charms to procure harmony] [
122].
(4) Fixing a lucky time for the outbreak of hostilities [or using charms to make discord] [
123].
(5) Fixing-a lucky time for the calling in of debts [or charms for success in throwing dice] [
124].
(6) Fixing a lucky time for the expenditure of money [or charms to bring ill luck to an opponent throwing dice] [
125].
(7) Using charms to make people lucky [
126].
(8) Using charms to make people unlucky.
(9) Using charms to procure abortion.
(10) Incantations to bring on dumbness.
(11) Incantations to keep a man’s jaws fixed.
(12) Incantations to make a man throw up his hands.
(13) Incantations to bring on deafness, [
127].
[\q 024/] (14) Obtaining oracular answers by means of the magic mirror [
128].
(15) Obtaining oracular answers through a girl possessed [
129].
(16) Obtaining oracular answers from a god [
130].
(17) The worship of the Sun [
131].
(18) The worship of the Great One [
132].
(19) Bringing forth flames from one’s mouth.
(20) Invoking Siri, the goddess of Luck [
133].û


`Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such low arts.’

[\q 025/] [12] 27. `Or he might say: ßWhereas some recluses and
Brahmans, while living on food provided by, the faithful, earn their
living by wrong means of livelihood, by low arts, such as these:


(1) Vowing gifts to a god if a certain benefit be granted.
(2) Paying such vows.
(3) Repeating charms while lodging in an earth house [
134].
(4) Causing virility [
135].
(S) Making a man impotent [
136].
(6) Fixing on lucky sites for dwelling [
137].
(7) Consecrating sites [
138].
(8) Ceremonial rinsings of the month.
(9) Ceremonial bathings [
139].
(10) Offering sacrifices.
(11-14) Administering emetics and purgatives.
(15) Purging people to relieve the head (that is by giving drugs to make people sneeze).
(16) Oiling people’s ears (either to make them grow or to heal sores on them).
(17) Satisfying people’s eyes (soothing them by dropping medicinal oils into them).
(18) Administering drugs through the nose, [
140].
(19) Applying collyrium to the eyes.
(20) Giving medical ointment for the eyes.
(21) Practising as an oculist.
(22) Practising as a surgeon.
(23) Practising as a doctor for children.
[\q 026/] I. BRAHMA-JâLA SUTTA.
(24) Administering roots and drugs.
(25) Administering medicines in rotation [
141


`Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such low arts.’

`These, brethren, are the trifling matters, the minor details, of
mere morality, of which the unconverted man when praising the Tathàgata,
might speak.’

Here end the Long Paragraphs on Conduct.

28. `There are, brethren, other
things profound, difficult to realise, hard to understand,
tranquillising, sweet, not to be grasped by mere logic, subtle,
comprehensible only by the wise [
142]
These things the Tathàgata, having himself realised them and seen them
face to face, hath set forth; and it is of them that they, who would
rightly praise the Tathàgata in accordance with the truth, should speak.

`And what are they?

29. `There are recluses and Brahmans,
brethren, who reconstruct the ultimate beginnings of things, whose
speculations are concerned with the ultimate past [
143],
and who on eighteen grounds put forward various [\q 027/] assertions
regarding it. [13] And about what, with reference to what, do those
venerable ones do so?


30. `There are, brethren, some recluses and Brahmans who are Eternalists [144],
and who, on four grounds, proclaim that both the soul and the world are
eternal. And about what, with reference to what, do those venerable
ones do so?


31. `In the first place, brethren,
some recluse or Brahman by means of ardour, of exertion, of application,
of earnestness, of careful thought, reaches up to such rapture of heart
that, rapt in heart, he calls to mind his various dwelling-places in
times gone by-in one birth, or in two, or three, or four, or five, or
ten, or twenty, or thirty, or forty, or fifty, or a hundred, or a
thousand, or in several hundreds or thousands or laks of births-to the
effect that ” There I had such and such a name, was of such and such a
lineage [
145] and caste [146],
lived on such and such food, experienced such and such pains and
pleasures, had such and such a span of years. And when I fell from
thence I was reborn in such and such a place tinder such and such a
name, in such and such a lineage and caste, living on such and such
food, experiencing such and such pains and pleasures, with such and such
a span of years. And when I fell from thence I was reborn here.û Thus
does he recollect, in full detail both of condition and of custom, his
various dwelling [\q 028/] places in times zone by. [14] And he says to
himself: ßEternal is the soul; and the world, giving birth to nothing
new, is stedfast as a mountain peak, as a pillar firmly fixed. and
though these living creatures transmigrate and pass away, fall from one
state of existence and spring up in another, yet they ale forever and
ever. And why must that be so? Because I, by means of ardour of exertion
of application of earnestness of careful thought, can reach up to such
rapture of heart that, rapt in heart, I can call to mind, and in full
detail both of condition and of custom, my various dwelling-places in
times gone by-by that is it that I know this-that the soul is eternal;
and that the world, giving birth to nothing new, is stedfast as a
mountain peak, as a pillar firmly fixed; and that though these living
creatures transmigrate and pass away, fall from one state of existence
and spring up in another, yet they are forever and ever.û

`This, brethren, is the first state of things on account of which,
starting from which, some recluses and Brahmans are Eternalists, and
maintain that both the soul and the world are eternal.

32. [The second case put is in all
respects the same save that the previous births thus called to mind
extend over a still longer period up to ten world aeons [
147].]

33. [15] [The third case put is in all respects the same save that
the previous births thus called to mind extend over a still longer
period up to forty world aeons.]

34. [16] `And in the fourth place, brethren, on what ground is it,
starting from what, that those venerable ones are Eternalists, and
maintain that the soul and the world are eternal.

`In this case, brethren, some recluse
or Brahman [\q 029/] is addicted to logic and reasoning. He gives
utterance to the following conclusion of his own, beaten out by his
argumentations and based on his sophistry [
148];
“Eternal is the soul; and the world, giving birth to nothing new is
steadfast as a mountain peak, as a pillar firmly fixed; and these living
creatures, though they transmigrate and pass away, fall from one state
of existence and spring up in another, yet they are forever and ever.

ß’This, brethren, is the fourth state of things on the ground of
which, starting from which, some recluses and Brahmans are Eternalists,
and maintain that the soul and the world are eternal.

35. `These, brethren, are those recluses and Brahmans who are
Eternalists, and in four ways maintain that both the soul and the world
are eternal. For whosoever of the recluses and Brahmans are such and
maintain this, they do so in these four ways, or in one or other of the
same, and outside these there is no way in which this opinion is arrived
at.

36. `Now of these, brethren, the
Tathàgata knows that these speculations thus arrived at, thus insisted
on, will have such and such a result, such and such an effect on the
future condition of those who trust in them. [17] That does he know, and
he knows also other things far beyond (far better than those
speculations) [
149]; and having that knowledge he is not puffed up, and thus untarnished he has, in his own heart [150], realised the way of escape from them [151],
has understood, as they really are, the rising up and passing away of
sensations. their sweet taste, their danger, how they cannot be relied
on; and not grasping after any (of [\q 030/] those things men are eager
for) he, the Tathàgata, is quite set free [
152].


37. `These [153],
brethren, are those other things, profound, difficult to realise, hard
to understand, tranquillising, sweet, not to be grasped by mere logic,.
subtle, comprehensible only by the wise, which the Tathàgata, having
himself realised and seen face to face, hath set forth; and it is
concerning these that they who would rightly praise the Tathàgata in
accordance with the truth, should speak.’


Here ends the First Portion for Recitation.


Chapter II

The Eternalists

1. `There are, brethren, some recluses and Brahmans who are
Eternalists with regard to some things, and in regard to others
Non-Eternalists; who on four grounds maintain that the soul and the
world are partly eternal and partly not.

`And what is it that these venerable ones depend upon, what is it that they start from, in arriving at this conclusion?

2. `Now there comes a time, brethren, when, sooner or later, after
the lapse of a long long period, this world-system passes away. And when
this happens beings have mostly been reborn in the World of Radiance,
and there they dwell made of mind, feeding on joy, radiating light from
themselves, traversing the air, continuing in glory; and thus they
remain for a long long period of time.

3. Now there comes also a time, brethren, when,[\q 031/] sooner or
later, this world-system begins to re-evolve. When this happens the
Palace of Brahmà appears, but it is empty. And some being or other,
either because his span of years has passed or his merit is exhausted,
falls from that World -of Radiance, and comes to life in the Palace of
Brahmà. And there also he lives made of mind, feeding on joy, radiating
light from himself, traversing the air, continuing in glory; and thus
does he remain for a long long period of time.

4. `Now there arises in him, from his dwelling there so long alone, a
dissatisfaction and a longing: ßO! would that other beings might come
to join me in this place! ” And just then, either because their span of
years had passed or their merit was exhausted, other beings fall from
the World of Radiance, and appear in the Palace of Brahma as companions
to him, and in all respects like him. [18]

5. `On this, brethren, the one who was
first reborn thinks thus to himself: ßI am Brahmà, the Great Brahmà,
the Supreme One, the Mighty, the All-seeing, the Ruler, the Lord of all,
the Maker, the Creator, the Chief of all, appointing to each his place,
the Ancient of days the Father of all that are and are to be [
154].
`These other beings are of my creation. And why is that so? A while ago
I thought, `Would that they might come!’ And on my mental aspiration,
behold the beings came.û

`And those beings themselves, too, think thus: ßThis must be Brahmà,,
the Great Brahmà, the Supreme, the Mighty, the All-seeing, the Ruler,
the Lord of all, the Maker, the Creator, the Chief of all, appointing to
each his place, the Ancient of days, the Father of all that are [\q
032/] and are to be. And we must have been created by him. And why?
Because, as we see, it was he who was here first, and we came after
that.û

6. `On this, brethren, the one who first came into existence there is
of longer life, and more glorious, and more powerful than those who
appeared after him. And it might well be, brethren, that some being on
his falling from that state, should come hither. And having come hither
he might go forth from the household life into the homeless state. And
having thus become a recluse he, by reason of ardour of exertion of
application of earnestness of careful thought, reaches up to such
rapture of heart that, rapt in heart, he calls to mind his last
dwelling-place, but not the previous ones. He says to himself: ßThat
illustrious Brahmà, the Great Brahmà, the Supreme One, the Mighty, the
All-seeing, the Ruler, the Lord of all, the Maker, the Creator, the
Chief of all, appointing to each his place, the Ancient of days, the
Father of all that are and are to be, he by whom we were created, he is
stedfast immutable eternal, of a nature that knows no change, and he
will remain so forever and ever. But we who were created by him have
come hither as being impermanent mutable limited in duration of life.

[19] `This, brethren, is the first state of things on account of
which, starting out from which, some recluses and Brahmans, being
Eternalists as to some things, and Non-eternalists as to others,
maintain that the soul and the world are partly eternal and partly not.

7. `And what is the second?

`There are, brethren, certain gods called the ßDebauched by Pleasureû [155].
`For ages they pass their time in the pursuit of the laughter and sport
of sensual lusts. In consequence thereof their self-possession is
corrupted, and through the loss of their self-control they fall from
that state [
156].

[\q 033/] 8. `Now it might well be, brethren, that some being, on his
falling from that state, should come hither. And having come hither he
should, as in the last case, become a recluse, and acquire the power of
recollecting his last birth, but only his last one.

9. `And he would say to himself: ßThose gods who are not debauched by
pleasure are stedfast, immutable, eternal, of a nature that knows no
change, and they will remain so forever and ever. [20] But we-who fell
from that state, having lost our self-control through being debauched by
pleasure-we have come hither as being impermanent, mutable, limited in
duration of life.û

10. `And what is the third?

`There are, brethren, certain gods called “the Debauched in Mind [157].û They burn continually with envy [158]
one against another, and being thus irritated, their hearts become
ill-disposed towards each other, and being thus debauched, their bodies
become feeble, and their minds imbecile. And those gods fall from that
state.

11. `Now it might well be, brethren, that some [\q 034/] being, on
his falling from that state, should come hither; and having become a
recluse should `as in the other cases, acquire the power of recollecting
his last birth, but only his last one.

12. `And lie would say to himself: ßThose gods who are not debauched
in mind do not continually burn with envy against each other, so their
hearts do not become evil disposed one towards another, nor their bodies
feeble and their minds imbecile. Therefore they fall not from that
state; they are stedfast, immutable, eternal, of a nature that knows no
change, and they will remain so forever and ever. [21] But we were
corrupted in mind, being constantly excited by envy against one another.
And being thus envious and corrupt our bodies became feeble, and our
minds imbecile, and we fell from that state, and have come hither as
Being impermanent, mutable, limited in duration of life.û

`This, brethren, is the third case.

13. `And what is the fourth?

In this case, brethren, some recluse
or Brahman is addicted to logic and reasoning. He gives utterance to the
following conclusion of his own, beaten out by his argumentations and
based on his sophistry: ßThis which is called eye and ear and nose and
tongue and body is a self which is impermanent, unstable, not eternal,
subject to change. But this which is called heart, or mind, or
consciousness is a self which is permanent, stedfast, eternal, and knows
no change, and it will remain forever and ever [
159].

This, brethren, is the fourth state of things, on the ground of
which, starting from which, some recluses [\q 035/] and Brahmans are
Semi-eternalists, and in four ways maintain that the soul and the world
are in some respects eternal, and in some not.

14. `These, brethren, are those recluses and Brahmans who are
Semi-eternalists, and in four ways maintain that the soul and the world
are eternal in some cases and not in others. For whosoever of the
recluses and Brahmans are such and maintain this, they do so in these
four ways or in one or other of the same; and outside these there is no
way in which this opinion is arrived at.

[22] 15. `Now of these, brethren, the Tathàgata knows that these
speculations, thus arrived at, thus insisted on, will have such and such
a result, such and such an effect on the future condition of those who
trust in them. That does he know, and he knows also other things far
beyond (far better than those speculations); and having that knowledge,
he is not puffed up, and thus untarnished he has, in his own heart,
realised the way of escape from them, has understood, as they really
are, the rising up and passing away of sensations, their sweet taste,
their danger, how they cannot be relied on, and not grasping after any
(of those things men are eager for) he, the Tathàgata, is quite set
free.

`These, brethren, are those other things, profound, difficult to
realise, hard to understand, tranquillising, sweet, not to be grasped by
mere logic, subtle, comprehensible only by the wise, which the
Tathàgata, having himself realised and seen face to face, hath set
forth; and it is concerning these that they who would rightly praise the
Tathàgata in accordance with the truth, should speak.’

The Extensionists

16. `There are, brethren, certain recluses and Brahmans who are Extensionists [160],
and who in four ways set forth the infinity or finiteness of the world.
And [\q 036/] on what ground, starting out from what, do these
venerable ones maintain this?


17. `In the first case, brethren, some
recluse or Brahman, by means of ardour of exertion of application of
earnestness of careful thought, reaches up to such rapture of heart that
he, rapt in heart., dwells in the world imagining it finite. And he
says thus to himself: ßFinite is the world, so that a path could be
traced round it [
161].
And why is this so? Since I, by means of ardour of exertion of
application of earnestness of careful thought, can reach up to such
rapture of heart that, rapt in heart, I dwell in the world perceiving it
to be finite-by that I know this.û

`This, brethren, is the first case.

18. `The second case is similar, only
that the conclusion is: [23] `Infinite is the world without a limit.
Those recluses and Brahmans who say it is finite, so that a path could
be traced round it, are wrong [
162].û

19. `The third case is similar, only that the conclusion is that he
imagines the world limited in the upward and downward directions, but
infinite across; he declares both the former conclusions to be wrong.

20. `In the fourth case, brethren, some recluse or Brahman is
addicted to logic and reasoning. He gives utterance to the following
conclusion of his own, beaten out by his argumentations and based on his
sophistry: ßThis world is neither finite nor yet infinite. Those
recluses and Brahmans who maintain either the first, or the second, or
the third conclusion, are wrong. [24] Neither is the world finite, nor
is it infinite.û

`This, brethren, is the fourth case.

[\q 037/] 21. `These, brethren, are those recluses and Brahmans who
are Extensionists, and in four ways maintain that the world is finite or
infinite. For whosoever of the recluses and Brahmans are such, and
maintain this, they do so in these four ways or in one or other of the
same; and outside these there is no way in which this opinion is arrived
at.

22. `Now of these, brethren, the Tathàgata knows that these
speculations thus arrived at, thus insisted on, will have such and such a
result, such and such an effect on the future condition of those who
trust in them. That does he know, and he knows also other things far
beyond (far better than those speculations); and having that knowledge
he is not puffed up, and thus untarnished he has, in his own heart,
realised the way of escape from them, has understood, as they really
are, the rising up and passing away of sensations, their sweet taste,
their danger, how they cannot be relied on, and not grasping after any
(of those things men are eager for) he, the Tathàgata, is quite set
free.

`These, brethren, are those other things, profound, difficult to
realise, hard to understand, tranquillising, sweet, not to be grasped by
mere logic, subtle, comprehensible only by the wise, which the
Tathàgata, having himself realised and seen face to face, hath set
forth; and it is concerning these that they who would rightly praise the
Tathàgata in accordance with the truth, should speak.’

The Eel-Wrigglers

23. `There are, brethren, some recluses and Brahmans who wriggle
like eels; and when a question is put to them on this or that they
resort to equivocation, to eel-wriggling, and this in four ways.

`Now on what ground starting out from what, do those venerable ones do so?

24. `In the first place, brethren,
some recluse or Brahman does not understand the good in its real nature,
nor the evil. And he thinks: -”I neither know [\q 038/] the good, as it
really is, nor the evil. [25] That being so, were I to pronounce this
to be good or that to be evil, I might be influenced therein by my
feelings or desires, by ill will or resentment. And under these
circumstances I might be wrong; and my having been wrong might cause me
the pain of remorse; and the sense of remorse might become a hindrance
to me [
163].û
Thus fearing and abhorring the being wrong in an expressed opinion, he
will neither declare anything to be good, nor to be bad; but on a
question being put to him on this or that, he resorts to eel-wriggling.
to equivocation, and says: ßI don’t take it thus. I don’t take it the
other way. But I advance no different opinion. And I don’t deny your
position. And I don’t say it is neither the one, nor the other [
164].

`This is the first case.

`And what is the second?

25. [The same, reading] Under these
circumstances I might fall into that grasping condition of heart which
causes rebirth; and my so falling might cause me the pain of remorse;
and the sense of remorse might become a hindrance to me.û [26] Thus
fearing and abhorring the falling into that state [
165], he will neither declare (&c., as in Section 24).

`This is the second case.

`And what is the third?

26. [The same, reading] `And he
thinks: ßI neither know the good, as it really is, nor the evil. Now
there are recluses and Brahmans who are clever, subtle, experienced in
controversy, hair-splitters, who ,go about, methinks, breaking to pieces
by their wisdom [\q 039/] the speculations of others. Were I to
pronounce this to be good, or that to be evil, these men might join
issue with me, call upon me for my reasons, point out my errors. And on
their doing so, I might be unable to explain [
166].
And that might cause me the pain of remorse; and the sense of remorse
might become a hindrance to me.û Thus fearing and abhorring the joinder
of issue, he will neither declare (&c., as in Section 24).

`This is the third case. [27]

`And what is the fourth?

27. `In this case, brethren, some
recluse or Brahman is dull, stupid. And it is by reason of his dullness,
his stupidity, that when a question on this or that is put to him, he
resorts to equivocation, to wriggling, like an eel: ßIf you ask me
whether there is another world,Þwell, if I thought there were, I would
say so. But I don’t say so. And I don’t think it is thus or thus. And I
don’t think it is otherwise. And I don’t deny it. And I don’t say there
neither is, nor is not, another world.û Thus does he equivocate, and in
like manner about each of such propositions as the following [
167]:


a.


(2) There is not another world.
(3) There both is, and is not, another world.
(4) There neither is, nor is not, another world.


b.


(1) There are Chance Beings (so called because they spring into
existence, either here or in another world, without the intervention of
parents, and seem therefore to come without a cause).
(2) There are no such beings.
(3) There both are, and are not, such beings.
(4) There neither are, nor are not, such beings.

c


(1) There is fruit, result, of good and bad actions. [\q 040/] (2) There is not.
(3) There both is, and is not.
(4) There neither is, nor is not.

d.


(1) A man who has penetrated to the truth [168] continues to exist after death.
(2) He does not.
(3) H e both does, and does not.
(4) He neither does, nor does not.




`This, brethren, is the fourth case [169].

[28] 28. `These, brethren, are those recluses and Brahmans who
wriggle like eels; and who, when a question is put to them on this or
that, resort to equivocation, to eel-wriggling; and that in four ways.
For whosoever do so, they do so in these four ways, or in one or other
of the same; there is no other way in which they do so.

29. `Now of these, brethren, the Tathàgata knows that these
speculations thus arrived at, thus insisted on, will have such and such a
result, such and such an effect on the future condition of those who
trust in them. That does he know, and he knows also other things far
beyond (far better than those speculations); and having that knowledge
he is not puffed up, and thus untarnished he has, in his own heart,
realised the way of escape from them, has understood, as they really
are, the rising up and passing away of sensations, their sweet taste,
their danger, how they cannot be relied on, and not grasping after any
(of those things men are eager for) he, the Tathàgata, is quite set
free.

`These brethren, are those other things, profound, difficult to
realise, hard to understand, tranquillising, [\q 041/] sweet, not to be
grasped by mere logic, subtle, comprehensible only by the wise, which
the Tathàgata, having himself realised and seen face to face, hath set
forth; and it is concerning these that they who would rightly praise the
Tathàgata in accordance with the truth, should speak.’

The Fortuitous-Originists

30. `There are, brethren, some recluses and Brahmans who are Fortuitous-Originists [170],
and who in two ways maintain that the soul and the world arise without a
cause. And on what ground, starting out from what, do they do so?


31. `There are, brethren, certain gods called Unconscious Beings [171].
As soon as an idea occurs to them they fall from that state. Now it may
well be, brethren, that a being, on falling from that state, should
come hither; and having come hither he might go forth from the household
life into the homeless state. And having thus become a recluse he, by
reason of ardour and so on (as in the other cases) reaches up to such
rapture of heart that, rapt in heart, he calls to mind how that idea
occurred to him, but not more than that. He says to himself: ßFortuitous
[\q 042/] in origin are the soul and the world. And why so? Because
formerly I was not, but now am. Having not been, I have come to be.û
[29]

`This, brethren, is the first state of things on account of which,
starting out from which some recluses and Brahmans become
Fortuitous-Originists, and maintain that the soul and the world arise
without a cause.

32,33 `And what is the second?

In this case, brethren, some recluse or Brahman is addicted to logic
and reasoning. He gives utterance to the following conclusion of his
own, beaten out by his argumentations, and based on his sophistry: ßThe
soul and the world arose without a cause.û

`This, brethren, is the second case.

34. `Now of these, brethren, the Tathàgata knows that these
speculations thus arrived at, thus insisted on, will have such and such a
result, such and such an effect on the future condition of those who
trust in them. That does he know, and he knows also other things far
beyond (far better than those speculations); and having that knowledge
he is not puffed up, and thus untarnished he has, in his own heart,
realised the way of escape from them, has understood, as they really
are, the rising up and passing away of sensations, their sweet taste,
their danger, how they cannot be relied on, and not grasping after any
(of those things men are eager for) he, the Tathàgata, is quite set
free.

`These, brethren, are those other things, profound, difficult to
realise, hard to understand, tranquillising, sweet, not to be grasped by
mere logic, subtle, comprehensible only by the wise, which the
Tathàgata, having himself realised and seen face to face, hath set
forth; and it is concerning these that they who would rightly praise the
Tathàgata in accordance with the truth, should speak.’

[30] 35. `These, brethren, are the
recluses and Brahmans who reconstruct the ultimate beginnings of things,
whose speculations are concerned with the [\q 043/] ultimate past, and
who on eighteen grounds put forward various assertions regarding the
past [
172]. And those who do so, all of them, do so in one or other of these eighteen ways. There is none beside.

36. `Now of these, brethren, the Tathàgata knows that these
speculations thus arrived at, thus insisted on, will have such and such a
result, such and such an effect on the future condition of those who
trust in them. That does he know, and he knows also other things far
beyond (far better than those speculations); and having that knowledge
he is not puffed up, and thus untarnished he has, in his own heart,
realised the way of escape from them, has understood, as they really
are, the rising up and passing away of sensations, their sweet taste,
their danger, how they cannot be relied on, and not grasping after any
(of those things men are eager for) he, the Tathàgata, is quite set
free.

`These, brethren, are those other things, profound, difficult to
realise, hard to understand, tranquillising, sweet, not to be grasped by
mere logic, subtle, comprehensible only by the wise, which the
Tathàgata, having himself realised and seen face to face, hath set
forth; and it is concerning these that they who would rightly praise the
Tathàgata in accordance with the truth, should speak.’

The Believers in Future Life

37. `There are, brethren, recluses and Brahmans who arrange the
future, whose speculations are concerned with the future, and who on
forty-four grounds put forward various assertions regarding the future.
And on account of what, starting out from what, do they do so?

38. `There are, brethren, recluses and Brahmans who [31] hold the doctrine of a conscious existence after death [173], and who maintain in sixteen ways that [\q 044/] the soul after death is conscious. And how do they do so?

`They say of the soul: ßThe soul after death, not subject to decay, and conscious,


(1) has form [174],
(2 is formless [
175],
(3) has, and has not, form,
(4) neither has, nor has not, form,
(5) is finite,
(6) is infinite,
(7) is both,
(8) is neither,
(9) has one mode of consciousness,
(10) has various modes of consciousness
(11) has limited consciousness
(12) has infinite consciousness
(13) is altogether happy
(14) is altogether miserable
(15) is both
(16) is neither.û


39. `These, brethren, are those recluses and Brahmans who hold the
doctrine of a conscious existence after death, and who maintain in
sixteen ways that the soul after death is conscious. And those who do
so, all of them, do so in one or other of these sixteen ways. There is
none beside.

40. `Now of these, brethren, the Tathàgata knows that these
speculations thus arrived at, thus insisted on, will have such and such a
result, such and such an effect on the future condition of those who
trust in them. That does he know, and he knows also other things far
beyond (far better than those speculations) and having that knowledge he
is not puffed up, and thus untarnished he has, in his own heart,
realised the way of escape from them, has understood, as they really
are, the rising up and passing away of sensations, their sweet taste,
their danger, how they cannot be relied on, and not grasping after any
(of those things men are eager for) he, the Tathàgata, is quite set
free.

`These, brethren, are those other things, profound, difficult to
realise, hard to understand, tranquillising, sweet, not to be grasped by
mere logic, subtle, comprehensible. only by the wise, which the
Tathàgata, having himself realised and seen face to face, hath set
forth; and it is concerning these that they who would rightly raise the
Tathàgata in accordance with the truth, should speak.’

Here ends the Second Portion for Recitation. [32]

Chapter III

1. `There are, brethren, recluses and Brahmans who hold the
doctrine of an unconscious existence after death, and who maintain in
eight ways that the soul after death is unconscious. And how do they do
so?

2. `They say of the soul: ßThe soul after death, not subject to decay, and unconscious,


(1) has form,
(2) is formless,
(3) has, and has not, form,
(4) neither has, nor has not form
(5) is finite,
(6) is infinite,
(7) is both,
(8) is neither.

3. `These, brethren, are those recluses and Brahmans who hold the
doctrine of an unconscious existence after death, and who maintain in
eight ways that the soul after death is unconscious. And those who do
so, all of them, do so in one or other of those eight ways. There is
none beside.

4. `Now of these, brethren, the Tathàgata knows that these
speculations thus arrived at, thus insisted on, will have such and such a
result, such and such an effect on the future condition of those who
trust in them. That does he know, and he knows also other things far
beyond (far better than those speculations); and having that knowledge
he is not puffed up, and thus untarnished he has, in his own heart,
realised the [\q 046/] way of escape from them, has understood, as they
really are, the rising up and passing, away of sensations, their sweet
taste, their dancer, how they cannot be relied on, and not grasping
after any (of those things men are eager for) he, the Tathàgata is quite
set free.

`These, brethren, are those other things, profound, difficult to
realise, hard to understand, tranquillising, sweet, not to be grasped by
mere logic, subtle, comprehensible only by the wise, which the
Tathàgata, having himself realised and seen face to face, hath set forth
and it is concerning these that they who would rightly praise the
Tathàgata in, accordance with the truth, should speak.

5-8. [33] [Similar sections for those who maintain in eight ways that
the soul after death is neither conscious nor unconscious.]

The Annihilationists

[176]
9. [34] `There are, brethren, recluses and Brahmans who are
Annihilationists, who in seven ways maintain the cutting off, the
destruction, the annihilation of a living being [
177]. And on account of what, starting out from what, do they do so?

10. `In the first place, brethren, some recluse or Brahman puts forth
the following opinion, the following view: ßSince, Sir, this soul has
form, is built up of the four elements, and is the offspring of father
and mother, it is cut off, destroyed, on the dissolution of the body;
and does not continue after death; and then, Sir, the soul is completely
annihilated.û Thus is it that some maintain the cutting off, the
destruction, the annihilation of a living, being,

11. `To him another says: `There is, Sir, such a soul as you
describe. That I do not deny. But the whole soul, Sir, is not then
completely annihilated. For there is a further soul - divine, having
form, belonging to the sensuous plane, feeding on solid food. That you
neither know of nor perceive. But I know [\q 047/] and have experienced
it. And since this soul, on the dissolution of the body, is cut off and
destroyed, does not continue after death, then is it, Sir, that the soul
is completely annihilated.û Thus is it that some maintain the cutting
off, the destruction, the annihilation of a living being.

12. `To him another says: ßThere is, Sir, such a soul as you
describe. That I do not deny. But the whole soul, Sir, is not then
completely annihilated. For there is a further soul-divine, having form,
made of mind, with all its major and minor parts complete, not
deficient in any organ. This you neither know of nor perceive. But I
know and have experienced it. And since this soul, on the dissolution of
the body, is cut off and destroyed, does not continue after death, then
is it, Sir, that the soul is completely annihilated.û Thus is it that
some maintain the cutting off, the destruction, the annihilation of a
living being.

13. `To him another says: ßThere is,
Sir, such a soul as you describe. That I do not deny. But the whole
soul, Sir, is not then completely annihilated. For there is a further
soul, which by passing beyond ideas of form, by the dying out of ideas
of resistance, by paying no heed to ideas of difference, conscious that
space is infinite, reaches up to the plane of the infinity of space [
178].
This you neither know of nor perceive. [35] But I know and have
experienced it. And since this soul, on the dissolution of the body, is
cut off and destroyed, does not continue after death, then is it, Sir,
that the soul is completely annihilated.û Thus is it that some maintain
the cutting off, the destruction, the annihilation of a living being.

14. `To him another says: ßThere is, Sir, such ,a soul as you
describe. That I do not deny. But the whole soul, Sir, is not then
completely annihilated.

[\q 048/] For there is a further soul,
which having passed beyond the plane of the infinity of space, knowing
that consciousness is infinite, reaches up to the plane of the infinity
of consciousness [
179].
This you neither know of nor perceive. But I know and have experienced
it. And since this soul, on the dissolution of the body, is cut off and
destroyed, does not continue after death, then is it, Sir, that the soul
is completely annihilated.û Thus is it that some maintain the cutting
off, the destruction, the annihilation of a living being.


15. `To him another says: ßThere is,
Sir, such a soul as you describe. That I do not deny. But the whole
soul, Sir, is not then completely annihilated. For there is a further
soul, which by passing quite beyond the plane of the infinity of
consciousness, knowing that there is nothing, reaches up to the plane of
no obstruction [
180].
This you neither know of nor perceive. But I know and have experienced
it. And since this soul, on the dissolution of the body, is cut off and
destroyed, does not continue after death, then is it, Sir, that the soul
is completely annihilated.û Thus is it that some maintain the cutting
off, the destruction, the annihilation of a living, being.


16. `To him another says: ßThere is,
Sir, such a soul as you describe. That I do not deny. But the whole
soul, Sir, is not then completely annihilated. For there is a further
soul, which by passing quite beyond the plane of no obstruction,
realises `This is good, this is excellent,’ and reaches up to the plane
of neither ideas nor the absence of ideas [
181]
This you [\q 049/] neither know of, nor perceive. But I know and have
experienced it. And since this soul, on the dissolution of the body, is
cut off, destroyed, does not continue after death, then is it, Sir, that
the soul is completely annihilated.û Thus is it that some maintain the
cutting off, the destruction, !the annihilation of a living being.

17. `These, brethren, are the recluses and Brahmans who are
Annihilationists and in seven ways maintain the cutting off, the
destruction, the annihilation of a living being. [36] And whosoever do
so they, all of them, do so in one or other of these seven ways. There
is none beside.

18. [Repetition of Section 40, above p. 44, setting forth that other,
higher, knowledge of a Tathàgata, for which alone he can be rightly
praised.]

19. `There are, brethren, recluses and Brahmans who hold the doctrine
of happiness in this life, who in five ways maintain the complete
salvation, in this visible world, of a living being. And relying on
what, starting out from what, do they do so?

20. `Hereon, brethren, some recluse or
Brahman may have the following opinion, the following view: ßWhensoever
the soul, in full enjoyment and possession [\q 050/] of the five
pleasures of sense, indulges all its functions, then, Sir, the soul has
attained, in this visible world, to the highest Nirvàõa [
182]. ” Thus do some maintain the complete happiness, in the visible world, of a living being.

21. `To him another says: ßThere is, Sir, such a soul as you
describe. That I do not deny. But the soul does not by that alone attain
to the highest Nirvàõa. And why not? Sensuous delights, Sir, are
transitory, they involve pain, their very nature is to fluctuate. And
grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and loathing arise out of their
inconstancy and change. [37] But whensoever the soul, putting away
sensuous delights and evil dispositions, enters into and abides in the
First Jhàna, the state of joy and ease, born of seclusion, accompanied
by reflection, accompanied by investigation, then, Sir, has the soul
attained, in this visible world, to the highest Nirvàõa.û Thus do some
maintain the complete happiness, in the visible world, of a living
being.

22. `To him another says: ßThere is, Sir, such a soul as you
describe. That I do not deny. But the soul does not by that alone attain
to the highest Nirvàõa. And why not? Because inasmuch as that state
involves reasoning and investigation it is stamped as being gross. But
whensoever, Sir, the soul, suppressing both reasoning and investigation,
enters into and abides in the Second Jhàna, the state of joy and case,
born of serenity,, without reflection or investigation, a state of
elevation of mind, internal calm of heart, then, Sir, has the soul
attained, in this visible world, to the highest Nirvàõa.û Thus do some
maintain the complete happiness, in the visible world, of a living
being.

[\q 051/] 23. `To him another says: ßThere is, Sir, such a soul as
you describe. That I do not deny. But the soul does not by that alone
attain to the highest Nirvàõa. And why not? Because inasmuch as that
state involves the sense of joy, of exhilaration of heart, it is stamped
as being gross. But whensoever, Sir, the soul, by absence of the
longing after joy remains in equanimity, mindful and self-possessed, and
experiences in the body that ease of which the Arahats speak (when they
say) `the man serene and thoughtful dwells at case,’ and so enters into
and abides in the Third Jhàna-then, Sir, has the soul attained, in this
visible world, to the highest Nirvàõa.û Thus do some maintain the
complete happiness, in the visible world, of a living being.

24. `To him another says: ßThere is.
Sir, such a soul as you describe. That I do not deny. But the soul does
not by that alone attain to the highest Nirvàõa. And why not? Because
inasmuch as that state involves a constant dwelling of the mind on the
case it has enjoyed it is stamped as gross. [38] But whensoever, Sir,
the soul, by putting away ease, by putting away pain, by the previous
dying away both of joys and griefs has entered into and abides in the
Fourth Jhàna [
183]
Þ a state made pure by self-possession and equanimity, without pain and
without ease-then, Sir, has the soul attained, in this visible world,
to the highest Nirvàõa.û Thus do some maintain the complete happiness,
in the visible world, of a living, being.

25. `These, brethren, are the recluses and Brahmans who hold the
doctrine of happiness in this life, who in five ways maintain the
complete salvation, in this visible world, of a living being. And those
who do [\q 052/] so, all of them, do so in one or other of these five
ways. There is none beside.

26. [Repetition of Section 40, above p. 44, setting forth that other,
higher, knowledge of a Tathàgata, for which alone he can be rightly
praised.]

27. `These, brethren, are the recluses and Brahmans who arrange the
future, whose speculations are concerned with the future, and who on
forty-four grounds put forward various assertions regarding the future.
And those who do so, all of them, do so in one or other of these
.forty-four ways. There is none beside.

28. [Repetition of Section 40, above p. 44, setting forth that other,
higher, knowledge of a Tathàgata, for which alone he can be rightly
praised.]

[39] 29. `These, brethren, are the recluses and Brahmans who
reconstruct the past, and arrange the future, or who do both, whose
speculations are concerned with both, and who in sixty-two ways put
forward propositions with regard to the past and to the future, and
those who do so, all of them, do so in one or other of these sixty-two
ways. There is none beside.

30. [Repetition Of Section 40, above p. 44, setting forth that other,
higher, knowledge of a `Tathàgata, for which alone he can be rightly
praised.]

[40] 32. `Of these, brethren, those recluses and Brahmans who are
Eternalists, who in four ways maintain that the soul and the world are
eternal:


(2) those who are Semi-eternalists, who in four ways maintain that the soul and the world are partly eternal and partly not:

(3) those who are Extensionists, who in four ways maintain the infinity or the finiteness of the world:

(4) those who are Eel-wrigglers, who when a question is put to them
on this or that resort, in four ways, to equivocation, to wriggling like
eels:

(5) those who are Fortuitous-Originists, who in two ways maintain that the soul and the world arose without, a cause:

(6) those who in any of these eighteen ways reconstruct the past:

(7) those who hold the doctrine of a conscious existence after death,
who maintain in sixteen ways that the soul after death is conscious:

(8) those who hold the doctrine of an unconscious existence after
death, who maintain in eight ways that the soul after death is
unconscious:

(9) those who maintain in eight ways that the soul after death is neither conscious nor unconscious:

(10) those who are Annihilationists, who maintain ill seven ways the
cutting off, the destruction, the annihilation of a living being:

(11) those who hold the doctrine of happiness in this life, who in
five ways maintain the complete salvation, in this visible world, of a
living being

That opinion of theirs is based only on the personal sensations, on the worry and writhing consequent thereon [184], of those venerable recluses and Brahmans, who know not, neither perceive, and are subject to all kinds of craving:

45 foll. [41,42] `Those opinions of theirs are therefore based upon contact (through the senses).

58 foll. [43] That they should experience those sensations without such contact, such a condition of things could not be.

71. [44] `They all of them, receive
those sensations through continual contact in the spheres of touch. To
them on account of the sensations arises craving, on account of the
craving arises the fuel (that is, the necessary condition, the food, the
basis, of future lives), from the fuel results becoming, from the
tendency to become arises rebirth, and from rebirth comes death, and
grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair. It is, brethren, when a
brother understands, [\q 054/] as they really are, the origin and the
end, the attraction, the danger, and the way of escape from the six
realms of contact, that he gets to know what is above, beyond, them all [
185].

72. [45] `For whosoever, brethren, whether recluses or Brahmans, are
thus reconstructors of the past or arrangers of the future, or who are
both, whose speculations are concerned with both, who put forward
various propositions with regard to the past and to the future, they,
all of them, are entrapped in the net of these sixty-two modes; this way
and that they plunge about, but they are in it; this way and that they
may flounder, but they are included in it, caught in it.

`Just, brethren, as when a skilful fisherman or fisherlad should drag
a tiny pool of water with a fine-meshed net he might fairly think:
ßWhatever fish of size may be in this pond, every one will be in this
net; flounder about as they may, they will be included in it, and
caught”-just so is it with these speculators about the past and the
future, in this net, flounder. as they may, they are included and
caught. [46]

73. `The outward form, brethren, of him who has won the truth [186],
stands before you, but that which binds it to rebirth is cut in twain.
So long as his body shall last, so long do gods and men behold him. On
the dissolution of the body, beyond the end of his life, neither gods
nor men shall see him.

`Just, brethren, as when the stalk of a bunch of mangoes has been
cut, all the mangoes that were hanging on that stalk go with it; just
so, brethren, though the outward form of him who has won the truth
stands before you, that which binds it to rebirth has been cut in twain.
So long as his body shall last, so long do gods and men behold him. On
the dissolution of the body, beyond the end of his life, neither gods
nor men shall see him.’

[\q 055/] 74. When he had thus spoken, the venerable ânanda said to
the Blessed One: `Strange, Lord, is this, and wonderful! And what name
has this exposition of the truth?’

`ânanda, you may remember this exposition as the Net of Advantage,
and as the Net of Truth, and as the Supreme Net, and as the Net of
Theories; remember it even as the Glorious Victory in the day of
battle!’

Thus spake the Blessed One, and glad at heart the brethren exalted
his word. And on the delivery of this discourse the thousandfold
world-system shook.

Here ends the Brahma-Jàla Sutta.


[1] `American Lectures on Buddhism.’ London, 1896, pp. 38~43.


[2] Summed up below, pp. 52, 53; and set out more fully in the list in the `American Lectures,’ pp. 31-33.


[3] See the fable quoted below, pp. 187, 188.


[4] See below, pp. 44, 188.


[5] See for instance below, pp. 53, 54.


[6] See the paper on `The Will in Buddhism,’ J R. A. S., 1898.


[7] See below, p. 42, &c., of this Suttanta.


[8]
Professor Cowell has been good enough to inform me that, in his
opinion, the attempted restriction of all philosophy to the six
Darsanas, and the very use of the term, is late mediaeval. The six are
of course not mutually exclusive; and this, and the omissions in the
classification of philosophy under these six heads, render it rather
like a classification of animals into men, horses, birds, ghosts,
beetles, and sparrows.


[9]
The whole of this Sutta was translated into English by the Rev. Daniel
Gogerly, Wesleyan missionary in Ceylon, in the journal of the Ceylon
Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society for 1846 (reprinted by P. Grimblot
in his `Sept Suttas Palis,’ Paris, 1876).


[10]
Nàlandà, afterwards the seat of the famous Buddhist university, was
about seven miles north of Ràjagaha, the capital of Magadha, the modern
Raj-gir (Sum. p. 35).


[11] Suppiya was a follower of the celebrated teacher Sa¤jaya, whose views are set out and controverted in the next Sutta.


[12]
Ambalaññhikà, `the mango sapling.’ It was, says Buddhaghosa (pp. 41,
42), a well-watered and shady park so called from a mango sapling by the
gateway. It was surrounded with a rampart, and had in it a rest-house
adorned with paintings for the king’s amusement.

There was another garden so named at Anuràdhapura in Ceylon, to the
east of the Brazen Palace (Sum. 1, 13 1). This was so named, no doubt,
after the other which was famous as the scene of the `Exhortation to
Ràhula starting with falsehood,’ mentioned in Asoka’s Bhabra Edict (see
my `Buddhism,’ pp. 224, 225).

[13]
These titles occur, in the MSS., at the end of the sections of the
tract that now follows. It forms a part of each of the Suttas in the
first division, the first third, of this collection of Suttas. The
division is called therefore the Sãla Vagga or Section containing the
Sãlas. The tract itself must almost certainly have existed as a separate
work before the time when the discourses, in each of which it recurs,
were first put together.

Certain paragraphs from this tract occur also elsewhere. So in
Majjhima I, 179 we have the whole of the short paragraphs; in Majjhima,
Nos. 76 and 77, and in Mahàvagga V, 8, 3, we have Section 17; in
Majjhima II, 3 we have most of Section 18; and so on. The whole of this
tract has been translated into English by Gogerly (in Grimblot, see page
1, note), into French by Burnouf (also in Grimblot, pp. 212 foll.), and
into German by Dr. Neumann (in his Buddhistische Anthologie, pp. 67
foll.).

[14]
This refrain is repeated at the end of each clause. When the Sãlas
recur below, in each Sutta, the only difference is in the refrain. See,
for instance, the translation of p. 100 in the text.


[15]
Neumann has `waiting for a gift’ which is a possible rendering: but
pàtikankhati has not yet been found elsewhere in the sense of `waiting
for.’ The usual meaning of the word expresses just such a trifling
matter as we have been led, from the context, to expect.


[16]
Gàma-dhammà, `from the village habit, the practice of country folk the
“pagan”‘ way.’ One might render the phrase by `pagan’ if that word had
not acquired, in English, a slightly different connotation. It is the
opposite of porã, urbane (applied to speech, below, Section9)ôr. Neumann
misses the point here, but has `h”flich’ below.


[17] Porã. See note above on Section 8.


[18] Sampha-ppalàpa. Sampha occurs alone in the Hemavata Sutta, and at Jàt. VI, 295; A. 11, 23.


[19] Samàrambhà cannot mean `planting’ as Dr. Neumann renders it.


[20]
Kaüsa-kåña. The context suggests that kaüsa (bronze) may here refer to
coins, just as we say in English `a copper,’ and the word is actually so
used in the 11th and 12th Bhikkhunã Nissaggiya Rules -the oldest
reference in Indian books to coins. The most ancient coins, which were
of private (not state) coinage, were either of bronze or gold.
Buddhaghosa (p.79) explains the expression here used as meaning the
passing off of bronze vessels as gold. Gogerly translates `weights,’
Childers sub voce has `counterfeit metal,’ and Neumann has `Màss.’
Buddhaghosa is obliged to take kaüsa in the meaning of `gold pot,’ which
seems very forced; and there is no authority for kaüsa meaning either
weight or mass. On the whole the coin explanation seems to me to be the
simplest.


[21]
Buddhaghosa gives examples of each of these five classes of the
vegetable. kingdom without explaining the terms. But it is only the
fourth which is doubtful. It may mean `graftings,’ if the art of
grafting was then known in the Ganges valley.


[22]
âmisa. Buddhaghosa (p. 83) gives a long list of curry-stuffs included
under this term. If he is right then Gogerly’s `raw grain’ is too
limited a translation, and Neumann’s `all sorts of articles to use’ too
extensive. In its secondary meaning the word means something. nice, a
relish, a dainty.’


[23]
Visåka-dassanaü. This word has only been found elsewhere in the phrase
diññhi-visåkaü, `the puppet shows of heresy’ (Majjhima I, pp. 8, 486;
and Serissaka Vimàna LXXXIV, 26). The Sinhalese renders it
wiparãta-darsaõa.


[24] Dancing. cannot mean here a dancing in which the persons referred to took part. It must be ballet or nautch dancing.


[25]
Literally `shows.’ This word, only found here, has always been rendered
`theatrical representations.’ Clough first translated it so in his
Sinhalese Dictionary, p. 665, and he was followed by Gogerly, Burnouf,
myself (in `Buddhist Suttas,’ p. 192), and Dr. Neumann (p. 69),-and
Weber (Indian Literature, pp. 199, 319) seems to approve this. But it is
most unlikely that the theatre was already known in the fifth century
B. C. And Buddhaghosa (p. 84) explains it, quite simply, as
naña-samajjà. Now samajjo is a very interesting old word (at least in
its Pàli form). The Sanskrit, according to the Petersburg Dictionary,
has only been found in modern dictionaries. The Pàli occurs in other old
texts such as Vinaya 11, 107; IV, 267 (both times in the very same
context as it does here); ibid. II, 150; 1V, 85; Sigàlovàda Sutta,
p.300; and it is undoubtedly the same word as samàja in the first of the
fourteen Edicts of Asoka. In the Sigàlovàda there are said to be six
dangers at such a samajjo; to wit, dancing, singing, music, recitations,
conjuring tricks, and acrobatic shows. And in the Vinaya passages we
learn that at a samajjo not only amusements but also food was provided;
that high officials were invited, and had special seats; and that it
took place at the top of a bill. This last detail of `high places’ (that
is sacred places) points to a religious motive as underlying the whole
procedure. The root aj (??greak??agw??, ago, whence our `act’) belongs
to the stock of common Aryan roots, and means carrying on. What was the
meaning of this `carrying on together’? Who were the people who took
part? Were they confined to one village? or have we here a survival from
old exogamic communistic dancings together? Later the word means simply
fair,’ as at Jàtaka III, 541:

`Many the bout 1 have played with quarterstaves at the fair,’ with
which Jàtaka I, 394 may be compared. And it is no doubt this side of the
festival which is here in the mind of the author; but `fair’ is
nevertheless a very inadequate rendering. The Sinhalese has rapid
movement in dance-figures’ (ranga-maõóalu).

[26]
These ballad recitations in prose and verse combined were the source
from which epic poetry was afterwards gradually developed. Buddhaghosa
has no explanation of the word, but gives as examples the Bhàrata and
the Ràmàyaõa. The negative anakkhànaü occurs Majjhima I, 503.


[27]
Buddhaghosa explains this as `playing on cymbals’; and adds that it is
also called pàõitàëaü. The word is only found here and at Jàtaka V, 5o6,
and means literally `hand-sounds.’


[28]
Buddhaghosa says `deep music, but some say raising dead bodies to life
by spells.’ His own explanation is, I think, meant to be etymological;
and to show that he derives the word from vi + tàëa. This would bring
the word into connection with the Sanskrit vaitàëika, `royal bard.’ The
other explanation connects the word with Vetàla, `a demon,’ supposed to
play pranks (as in the stories of the Vetàla-pa¤ca-viüsati) by
reanimating corpses. Dr. Neumann adopts it. But it does not agree so
well with the context; and it seems scarcely justifiable to see, in this
ancient list, a reference to beliefs which can only be traced in
literature more than a thousand years later. Gogerly’s rendering funeral
ceremonies,’ which I previously followed, seems to me now quite out of
the question.


[29]
It is clear from Jàtaka V, 5o6 that this word means a sort of music.
And at Vinaya IV, 285 kumbhathånikà are mentioned in connection with
dancers, acrobats, and hired mourners. Buddhaghosa is here obscure and
probably corrupt, and the derivation is quite uncertain. Gogerly’s guess
seems better than Burnouf’s or Neumann’s. The Sinhalese has `striking a
drum big enough to hold sixteen gallons.’


[30]
Buddhaghosa seems to understand by this term (literally `of Sobha
city’) the adornments or scenery used for a ballet-dance.
(Pañibhàõa-cittam at Vinaya 11, 151; IV, 61, 298, 358; Sum. 1, 42 is the
nude in art.) Weber has pointed out (Indische Studien, II, 38; III,
153) that Sobha is a city of the, fairies much given to music and
love-making. It is quite likely that the name of a frequently used scene
for a ballet because a proverbial phrase for all such scenery. But the
Sinhalese has `pouring water over the heads of dancers, or nude
paintings.’


[31]
Buddhaghosa takes these three words separately, and so do all the MSS.
of the text, and the Sinhalese version. But 1 now think that the passage
at Jàtaka IV, 390 is really decisive, and that we have here one of the
rare cases where we can correct our MSS. against the authority of the
old commentator. But 1 follow him in the general meaning he assigns to
the strange expression `Caõóàla-bamboo washings.’


[32] See Jàtaka III, 541.


[33]
Nibbuddhaü. The verbal form nibbujjhati occurs in the list at Vinaya
III, 180 (repeated at 11, 10); and our word at Milinda 232.


[34]
All these recur in the introductory story to the 50th Pàcittiya (Vinaya
IV, 107). On the last compare Buddhaghosa on Mahàvagga V, I, 2 9.


[35] All these terms recur at Vinaya III, 180 (repeated at II, 10).


[36]
Chess played originally on a board of eight times ten squares was
afterwards played on one of eight times eight squares. Our text cannot
be taken as evidence of real chess in the fifth century B. C., but it
certainly refers to games from which it and draughts must have been
developed. The Sinhalese Sanna says that each of these games was played
with dice and pieces such as kings and so on. The word for pieces is
poru (from purisa)-just our men.’


[37] âkàsaü. How very like blindfold chess !


[38] Parihàra-pathaü. A kind of primitive `hop-scotch.’ The Sinhalese says the steps must be made hopping-.


[39] Santikà. Spellicans, pure and simple.


[40]
Khalikà. Unfortunately the method of playing is not stated. Compare
Eggeling’s note as in his Satapatha-Bràhmaõa 11I, 106, 7. In the
gambling-scene on the Bharhut `Tope (Cunningham, PI. XLV, No. 9) there
is a board marked out on the stone of six times five squares (not six by
six), and six little cubes with marks on the sides visible lie on the
stone outside the board.


[41] Jhañikaü Something like `tip-cat.’ Siü - kelãmaya in Sinhalese.


[42] Sa1àka-hatthaü. On flour-water as colouring matter, see Jàtaka I, 220.


[43] Akkhaü. The usual meaning is `a die.’ But the Sinhalese translator agrees with Buddhaghosa. Neither gives any details.


[44] Pangacãram. The Sinhalese for this toy is pat-kulal. Morris in J. P. T. S., 1889, p. 205, compares the Marathãpungi.


[45] Vankakaü. From Sanskrit vrika. See journal of the Pàli Text Society, 1889, p. 206.


[46]
Mokkhacikà,. So the Sinhalese. Buddhaghosa has an alternative
explanation of turning over on a trapeze, but gives this also. See
Vinaya I, 275, and J. P. T. S., 1885, p. 49.


[47] Cingulikaü. See Morris in the J. P. T. S., 1885, p. 5o, who compares cingulàyitvà at Aïguttara III, 15, 2.


[48] All these six, from No. 10 inclusive, are mentioned in the Majjhima, vol. 1, p. 266, as children’s games.


[49]
Akkharikà. it is important evidence for the date at which writing was
known in India that such a game should be known in the fifth century B.
C.


[50] The following list recurs Vinaya I, 192 = 11, 163 = Aïguttara 1, 181, &c.


[51]
âsandã. Buddhaghosa merely says `a seat beyond the allowed measure,’
but that must refer to height, as the only rule as to measure in seats
is the 87th Pàcittiya in which the height of beds or chairs is limited
to eight `great’ inches (probably about eighteen inches). The Sinhalese
Sanna adds `a long chair for supporting the whole body.’ At Jàt. I, 208 a
man lies down on an àsandã so as to be able to-look up and watch the
stars. At Dãgha I, 55 = Majjhima 1,515 = Saüyutta 111, (where the
reading must be corrected), the âsandã is used as a bier. The âsandã is
selected as the right sort of seat for the king in both the Vàjapeya and
Inauguration ceremonies because of its height (Eggeling, Sat.-Bràh.
III, 35, 105). It is there said to be made of common sorts of wood, and
perforated; which probably means that the frame was of wood and the seat
was of interlaced cane or wickerwork. The diminutive àsandiko, with
short legs and made square (for sitting, not lying on), is allowed in
the Buddhist Order by Vinaya 11, 149. And even the àsandã is allowed, if
the tall legs be cut down, by Vinaya II, 169, 170 (where the reading
chinditvà seems preferable, and is read in the quotation at Sum. 1, 88).
The renderings `large cushion’ at `Vinaya Texts,’ II, 27 and `stuffed
couch’ at 111, 209 must be accordingly corrected. Gogerly translates
`large couch,’ Burnouf une chaise longue,’ and Neumann bequeme
Lehnstuhl.’


[52]
Pallanko. It is noteworthy that, in spite of the use of a divan with
animals carved on its supports being here objected to, it is precisely
the sort of seat on which the Buddha himself, or Buddhist personages of
distinction, are often, in later sculptures, represented as sitting
(Grunwedel, `Buddhistische kunst,’ pp. III, 124, 137; Mitra, `Budh
Gayà,’ Plates XI, XX, &c. &c.). At Mahàvaüsa 25 sãhàsana and
pallanko are used of the same seat (Asoka’s throne), and sãhàsana is
used of Duññha Gamini’s throne, ibid. 157. But the Lion throne of
Nissanka Malla, found at Pollonnaruwa, is not a pallanko, but an actual
stone lion, larger than life size (’Indian Antiquary,’ vol. 1, p. 135.
Compare the similar seat in Grunwedel, p. 95).

By Vinaya 11, 170 the possession of a pallanka was allowed to the
Order if the animal figures were broken off (the translation in `Vinaya
Texts,’ III, 209, must be altered accordingly, reading vàle for vale, as
at Vinaya IV, 312). By Vinaya II, 163 it is laid down that members of
the Order were not to use a complete pallanko even in laymen’s houses,
so that Nigrodha’s action in the passage just quoted (Mahàvaüsa 25) was
really a breach of the regulations.

[53]
The words from gonako down to kaññhissaü inclusive, and also kuttakaü,
are found only in this list, and Buddhaghosa seems to be uncertain as to
the exact meaning of some of them. All except No. 7 might be used in
laymen’s houses (’Vinaya Texts,’ III, 197), and all might be possessed
by the Order i used only as floor coverings (ibid. 111, 209); except
again No. 7, the cotton wool of which might be utilised for pillows. As
there is a doubt about the spelling it may be noticed that the Sanna
reads goõakaü and uddalomiü: and the MS. in the R. A. S. (which repeats
each sentence) has -gonakaü and uddalomiü both times.


[54] Sambàhanaü. Perhaps rubbing the limbs with flat pieces of wood. See Buddhaghosa here and at `Vinaya Texts,’ III, 60.


[55]
This is not quite accurate. Out of the twenty items here objected to,
three (shampooing, bathing, and the use of sunshades) were allowed in
the Order, and practised by Gotama himself. Bathrooms, and halls
attached to them, are permitted by `Vinaya Texts,’ III, 189; shampooing
by ibid. III, 68, 297. There are elaborate regulations for the provision
of hot steam baths and the etiquette to be observed in them; and
instances of the use of the ordinary bath in streams or rivers are
frequent. The use of sunshades is permitted by `Vinaya Texts,’ 111, 13
2-3, and is referred to ibid. 111, 88, 274.


[56]
Visikhà-kathà. Buddhaghosa (p.90) takes this word (literally
street-talk’) in the sense of talk about streets, whether ill or well
situate, and whether the inhabitants are bold or poor, &c.


[57] Pubba-peta-kathà. The commentator confines this to boasting talk about deceased relatives or ancestors.


[58]
Nànatta-kathaü, literally `difference-talk.’ The expression seems
somewhat forced, if taken as meaning `desultory’; but I see no better
explanation.


[59]
Lokakkhàyikà. Buddhaghosa refers this specially to such speculations as
are put forth according to the Lokàtyata system by the Vitaõóas (also
called Lokàyatikas). These are materialistic theorisers, of whose system
very little is, so far, known. See the note at `Vinaya Texts, vol. iii,
p. 151. 1 have collected other references to them in my `Milinda,’ vol.
i, p.7; and to these Dãgha I, 11 114,120, and Attha Sàlinã, p.3, may
now be added. They are probably referred to below in chap. iii of this
Sutta, SectionSection 10, 20.


[60] `This list of foolish talks recurs in Suttas 76-78 in the Majjhima, and at Vinaya I,188.


[61] These expressions all recur at Majjhima II, 3.


[62]
Sahitaü me, literally `the put together is to me,’ &c. The idiom is
only found here, and may mean either as rendered above, or `the context
is on my side,’ or `the text (of the Scriptures) is on my side,’ or
merely `that which is of use is on my side.’ This last, given by the
Sanna, amounts to the same as the version adopted above.


[63] Putting the cart before the horse.


[64]
âropito te vàdo. On the use of this idiom compare the Commentary on the
Therã Gàthà, p. 101. There is a misprint here in the text, aropito for
àropito. `Issue has been joined against you would be a possible
rendering. It is the phrase used, when some one has offered to hold
debate (maintain a thesis) against all corners, by an opponent who takes
up the challenge.


[65]
Niggahãto si. On this idiom compare the opening paragraphs of the Kathà
Vatthu and the Commentary on them (especially pp. 9,10). It is
literally `you are censured.’


[66]
3 Cara vàda-pamokkhàya. So Buddhaghosa. But Gogerly renders, `Depart,
that you may be freed from this disputation and the only parallel
passage seems to support this view. It is Majjhima 1, 133, where it is
said to be wrong to learn the Scriptures for the sake of the advantage
of being freed from discussion or debate where texts are quoted against
one. Pamokkha occurs besides at Saüyutta I, 2, Jàtaka V, 30, 31, and
Mahàvaüsa 158, but not in this connection.


[67]
So the author of Milinda in making his hero Nàgasena use just such a
phrase (Mil. P. 27) is making him commit a breach of propriety.


[68]
Kuhakà. `Astonish the world with the three sorts of trickery,’ says
Buddhaghosa. These are also referred to without explanation at Jàtaka
IV, 297 (where we should, 1 think, read kuhana).


[69] Lapakà. Compare Itivuttaka, No. 99 = Aïguttara I, 165, 168; and also Milinda 228, Jàtaka III, 349.


[70]
Nemittakà, `interpreters of signs and omens.’ See the note on nimittaü
in the next paragraph. Compare Milinda 299; Jàt. IV, 124.


[71]
Nippesikà, `scarers away’ (? of ghosts, or bad omens). But the
Commentary and Sanna give no help, and the word has only been found in
this list.


[72]
All the five words in this list recur at A. III, iii but the context
there is as undecisive as it is here, and the Commentary (fol. di of the
`Turnour MS. at the India Office), though slightly different, gives no
better help.


[73]
Aïgaü, literally `limbs.’ Buddhaghosa distinguishes this from lakkhaõaü
(No. 5 in this list), and from anga-vijjà (No. 16). It is not found, in
this sense, anywhere in the texts.


[74]
Nimittaü, literally `marks,’ or ,signs.’ Buddhaghosa tells a story in
illustration. King Paõóu, they say (Pàõói in the Sanna), took three
pearls in his closed hand, and asked a diviner what he had in it. The
latter looked this way and that for a sign; and seeing a fly which had
been caught by a house-lizard (the Sanna says `by a dog,’ perhaps the
meaning is simply `in sugar’) getting free (üuttà), said at once
`pearls’ (also muttà in Pàli). `How many.û says the king. The diviner,
hearing a dog bark thrice, answered `three.’ Compare Mil. 178, and the
note to the last section on nemittikà, and the story at Mahàvaüsa 82.


[75]
Uppàdo, `the portents of the great ones, thunderbolts falling, and so
on,’ says Buddhaghosa. The Great Ones here mean, 1 think, the spirits or
gods presiding over the sun, moon, and planets (see the note on Section
26). The word corresponds to the Sanskrit Utpàta, though the d is
vouched for by overwhelming authority. But this is only another instance
of a change not infrequent (as Ed. Mller has shown, Pàli Grammar, p.
37); and the one or two cases where Burmese scribes have (wrongly)
corrected to uppàta is another instance to be added to those referred to
in the Introduction to Sum. 1 of their habit of putting an easier
reading where the more difficult one is really right. Childers should
therefore have kept this word separate from the other uppàdo. Comp. Jàt.
1, 374.


[76]
Supinaü. On the theory of dreams compare Mil., pp. 297-301. At Jàt. I,
374 the word is masculine. Perhaps charms to avert bad dreams (Ath.-veda
VI, 46; XVI, 5 and 6) are included in this low art.’ Jàt. No. 77 mocks
at the dream interpreters.


[77]
Lakkhaõaü. The commentator on this word as used in the very same
connection at Jàt. I, 374 adds that it means also the knowledge of good
and bad marks on such persons and things as are mentioned here in our
next paragraph. Buddhaghosa confines its meaning to that given above.
This contradiction is another confirmation of the opinion expressed by
me in 1880 in `Buddhist Birth Stories,’ pp. lxiii foll., that Childers
was wrong in ascribing the Jàtaka Commentary to Buddhaghosa. The word
occurs in Buddhaghosa’s sense at D. I, 114, 120= A. 1, 163, &c.;
Jàt. I, 56.


[78]
Musikàcchinnaü. The allied superstition of thinking it unlucky to wear
clothes gnawed by mice is laughed out of court in the Mangala Jàtaka,
No. 87.


[79] Aggi-homaü. Telling people that a sacrifice, if offered in a fire of such and such a wood, will have such and such a result.


[80]
Dabbi-homaü. Telling people that an oblation of such and such grains,
butter, or so on, poured into the fire from such and such a sort of
spoon, will have such and such a result.


[81]
See Hillebrandt, `Neu und Vollmondsopfer,’ pp. 31, 171, and
Ritual-literatur’ in Bhler’s `Grundriss,’ pp. 71, 72, 114, 176. The
nine homas here objected to may also be compared with the seven at
Ath.-veda VIII, 9, 18.


[82] No instance of this can be traced in the books of the Brahmans.


[83]
Compare the passage in Hillebrandt, in Bhler’s Grundriss,’ p. 176, on
the use of blood for sorcery. In one passage, Rig-vidh. III, 18, 3, it
is one’s own blood that is to be used. But the specific interpretation
given here by Buddhaghosa cannot be paralleled from the Brahmanical
books.


[84]
Anga-vijja. Buddhaghosa thus separates this from the aïgaü of No. 1. In
both the passages Jàt. 11, 200, 250 the knowledge is simply that of
judging from a man’s appearance that he is rough or bad. and it is the
good man in the story (in the second case the Bodisat himself) who is
the anga-vijjà-pàñhako. So at Jàt. V, 458 it is by anga-vijjà that the
Bodisat prophesies that a man will be cruel.


[85]
Vatthu-vijjà. Childers (Dict., p. 559) has `pool’ instead of `house,’
having misread sara for ghara (s and gh are nearly alike in Sinhalese).
The craft is further explained by Buddhaghosa in his comment on the
Mahà-parinibbàna Sutta I, 26. Its success depended on the belief that
the sites were haunted by spirits. See further below, Section 27.


[86]
Khatta-vijjà,. The Burmese MSS. correct the rare khatta into the
familiar khetta. Khetta-vijjà indeed occurs at Ud. III, 9, and may just
possibly there (in connection with writing, arithmetic, tables, &c.)
be correct in the meaning- of `land-surveying, mensuration.’
Buddhaghosa, though his explanation is corrupt, evidently understands
the phrase in a sense similar to that of khatta-dhamma at Jàt. V, 489,
490; Mil. 164 (see also 178); and his gloss nãtisatthaü is probably
nearer the mark than Saïkara’s (on Chànd. Up. VII, 1, 2), which is
dhanur-veda. It is the craft of government, then lying in great part in
adhering- to custom.

The Sutta only follows the Upanishad in looking at all these crafts
as minor matters, but it goes beyond it in looking upon them as a `low’
way, for a Brahman, of gaining a livelihood.

[87]
Siva-vijjà. It is clear that siva is used euphemistically, and we may
here have an early reference to what afterwards developed into the cult
of the god Siva. Buddhaghosa gives an alternative explanation as
knowledge of the cries of jackals.


[88] Bhåta-vijjà. Also in the Chàndogya list (lac. cit.)


[89] Bhåri-vijjà. It is the same as bhåri-kammaü, explained in the same way by Buddhaghosa on Section 27 below.


[90]
Ahi-vijjà. One method is described at Jàt. IV, 457, 8, Perhaps such
charms against snake-bite as Ath.-v. V,13; VI, 12, 56; VII, 88, are
included.


[91] Buddhaghosa says curing or giving poison, or poison spells (compare Ath.-v. VI, 90, 93, 100).


[92] These are explained to mean simply curing the bites of these creatures.


[93] These are explained to mean simply curing the bites of these creatures.


[94] Understanding their language.


[95] Divining- by the appearance and the cawings of crows.


[96] Compare the Ambaññha-vijjà at Sum. 255 and below, p. 96 of the text, Section 23.


[97] Miga-cakkaü. Understanding the language of all creatures.


[98]
The whole of this `low art’ as applied to gems has been collected in a
series of manuals now edited by L. Finot in his `Lapiddires Indiens,’
Paris, 1896.


[99]
The art in these four cases is to determine whether the marks on them
show they will bring good (or bad) luck to the houses in which they
dwell.


[100]
The art in these four cases is to determine whether the marks on them
show they will bring good (or bad) luck to the houses in which they
dwell.


[101]
The art in these four cases is to determine whether the marks on them
show they will bring good (or bad) luck to the houses in which they
dwell.


[102]
The art in these four cases is to determine whether the marks on them
show they will bring good (or bad) luck to the houses in which they
dwell.


[103]
The art in these four cases is to determine whether the marks on them
show they will bring good (or bad) luck to the houses in which they
dwell.


[104] The art in these five cases is to determine whether it is unclean or not to eat them.


[105] The art in these five cases is to determine whether it is unclean or not to eat them.


[106] The art in these five cases is to determine whether it is unclean or not to eat them.


[107] The art in these five cases is to determine whether it is unclean or not to eat them.


[108]
`This comes in here very oddly. But the old commentator had the same
reading, and takes the word in its ordinary senses, not even as amulet.


[109]
Throughout these paragraphs the plural is used. This cannot be
honorific, as the few great kings of that time are always spoken of in
the singular. Yet all the previous translators, except Burnouf,
translate by the singular-’the king will march out,’ &c. It is
evident that we have to understand `chiefs,’ and not the `king `: and
that not absolute monarchies, but republican institutions of a more or
less aristocratic type, were in the mind of the composer of the
paragraph.


[110]
Nakkhatta, translated by Gogerly and Neumann a `planet.’ Buddhaghosa
explains it by `Mars and so on.’ This may apply to planets, but also to
stars in general, and I know no other passage where the meaning of the
word is confined to planets. Burnouf has (constellation,’ but what can
the eclipse of a constellation mean?


[111]
Patha-gamana and uppatha-gamana. Prof. Kielhorn says (in a note he has
been kind enough to send me on this section): What the author means by
these words 1 do not know. But uppatha-gamana would be literally
“aberration, the going away from one’s proper path”; and patha-gamana
therefore should be “following one’s proper course.û 1 am sure the two
words could not mean conjunction and opposition; nor, 1 think, ascension
and declension. It is curious that Buddhaghosa has not explained them.’


[112] Ukkà-pàto. See Jàt. 1, 374; Mil. 178.


[113]
Disà-dàho. Thunder and lightning,’ according to Neumann; fiery
corruscations in the atmosphere,’ according to Gogerly, whom Burnouf
follows. But Buddhaghosa’s words are only explicable of a jungle fire.
Compare Jàt. 1, 212, 213, 374.


[114]
Burnouf takes these four words to refer to four occurrences. Gogerly
and Neumann take them as only two. Buddhaghosa seems to imply four.


[115]
Muddà. There has been great diversity in the various guesses made at
the meaning in this connection of muddà, which usually means `seal’ or
`seal-ring.’ Gogerly has 1 conveyancing,’ and so also Childers; Burnouf
takes this word and the next as one compound in the sense of foretelling
the future by calculating diagrams’; and Neumann has
`Verwaltungsdienste, `administrative services. Buddhaghosa is very curt.
He says only hattha-muddàgaõanà Hatthamuddà is found elsewhere only at
Jàt. III, 528, where hattha- muddaü karoti means `to beckon,’ and at
Vin. V, 163, where it is said of the polite member of the Order that he
makes, no sign with his hand, nor beckons. (On hattha-vikàra compare
Mil. 1, 207, 547 = Vin. I,157 = Vin. II, 216.) Both these passages are
much later than our text, and the sense of beckoning is here impossible.
But muddà is mentioned as a craft at Vin. IV, 7 (where it is called
honourable), at M. I, 85, and several times in the Milinda (pp. 3, 59,
78, 178 of the Pàli text), and muddiko as the person who practises that
craft at D. I, 51 and Vin. IV, 8. The Sinhalese comment on this (quoted
in my translation of the Milinda, 1, 91) shows that the art there was
simply arithmetic, using the joints or knuckles of the fingers as an aid
to memory. And this is no doubt the meaning in our paragraph.


[116]
Gaõanà. Buddhaghosa’s comment on this is acchiddakà-gaõanà, in
contradistinction to the last. It is evidently calculation not broken up
by using, the fingers, mental arithmetic pure and simple. The
accountant who uses this method is called gaõako (D. I, 51; Vin. IV, 8) .
Buddhaghosa’s comment on the latter passage is given by Minayeff at
Pat. 84, but with a wrong reading, akkhiüñaka.


[117]
Saükhànaü, literally `counting up.’ He who has the faculty of doing
this can, on looking at a tree, say how many leaves it has, says
Buddhaghosa. But the first words of his comment are doubtful. He may
perhaps mean calculating masses by means of the rosary. Burnouf skips
this word, and Neumann has simply `counting.’


[118]
Kàveyyaü. The word recurs, in a bad sense, at A. 1, 72= III, 107, and
also at S. I, 110 in the phrase kàveyya-matto, `drunk with prophecy,
inspired.’ Buddhaghosa enumerates, in the words of A. II, 230, four
kinds of poetry, and explains them in nearly the same words as found in
the Manoratha Påranã on that passage. None of the four refer to
sacrificial hymns. Impromptu rhyming, ballad singing, and the
composition of poems are meant.


[119]
Lokàhyataü. Usually rendered `materialism.’ But it is quite clear that
this meaning is impossible in this connection. See Milinda 174.


[120] Compare the Sinhalese bãna (binna) marriage in which the bridegroom is brought into the house of the bride’s family.


[121]
Compare the Sinhalese dãga marriage in which the bride is sent out to
live in the bridegroom’s family. We have no words now in English to
express this difference between marrying and giving in marriage.


[122]
Saüvadanaü. Childers calls this a magic art, following Burnouf who
calls it sorcery. Buddhaghosa explains it as astrology. The fact is all
these expressions are technical terms for acts of astrology or sorcery,
they none of them occur elsewhere either in Pàli or Sanskrit, and the
tradition preserved by Buddhaghosa may be at fault in those cases in
which the use of the word had not survived to later times. The general
sense may be sufficiently clear, but for absolute certainty of
interpretation we must wait till examples are found in Indian books of
the actual use of the words, not in mere lists, but in a connection
which shows the meaning. Ath-v III, 30 is a charm to secure concord in a
family, compare VII, 52; and there are several charms in the
Athara-veda for success in gambling.


[123]
Saüvadanaü. Childers calls this a magic art, following Burnouf who
calls it sorcery. Buddhaghosa explains it as astrology. The fact is all
these expressions are technical terms for acts of astrology or sorcery,
they none of them occur elsewhere either in Pàli or Sanskrit, and the
tradition preserved by Buddhaghosa may be at fault in those cases in
which the use of the word had not survived to later times. The general
sense may be sufficiently clear, but for absolute certainty of
interpretation we must wait till examples are found in Indian books of
the actual use of the words, not in mere lists, but in a connection
which shows the meaning. Ath-v III, 30 is a charm to secure concord in a
family, compare VII, 52; and there are several charms in the
Athara-veda for success in gambling.


[124]
Saüvadanaü. Childers calls this a magic art, following Burnouf who
calls it sorcery. Buddhaghosa explains it as astrology. The fact is all
these expressions are technical terms for acts of astrology or sorcery,
they none of them occur elsewhere either in Pàli or Sanskrit, and the
tradition preserved by Buddhaghosa may be at fault in those cases in
which the use of the word had not survived to later times. The general
sense may be sufficiently clear, but for absolute certainty of
interpretation we must wait till examples are found in Indian books of
the actual use of the words, not in mere lists, but in a connection
which shows the meaning. Ath-v III, 30 is a charm to secure concord in a
family, compare VII, 52; and there are several charms in the
Athara-veda for success in gambling.


[125]
Saüvadanaü. Childers calls this a magic art, following Burnouf who
calls it sorcery. Buddhaghosa explains it as astrology. The fact is all
these expressions are technical terms for acts of astrology or sorcery,
they none of them occur elsewhere either in Pàli or Sanskrit, and the
tradition preserved by Buddhaghosa may be at fault in those cases in
which the use of the word had not survived to later times. The general
sense may be sufficiently clear, but for absolute certainty of
interpretation we must wait till examples are found in Indian books of
the actual use of the words, not in mere lists, but in a connection
which shows the meaning. Ath-v III, 30 is a charm to secure concord in a
family, compare VII, 52; and there are several charms in the
Athara-veda for success in gambling.


[126] Subhaga-karanaü. Many such charms are preserved in the Atharva-veda (for instance, X, 3:; 5; XVI, 4; 9)


[127]
It would be useless to seek in the Atharva-veda, which (with the one
exception mentioned in the notes to the next section) gives only the
charms which are supposed to bring benefits, for instances of these
malevolent practices. But we have here direct evidence that black magic,
as was indeed inevitable was as fully trusted in the sixth century B.
C. in the valley of the Ganges as white. We need not be surprised that
the malevolent charms are not recorded.


[128]
Adàsa-pa¤ho. Buddhaghosa says they made a god appear in the mirror and
answer questions put. It is a later conception to discard the god, and
make the mirror itself give pictures of the hidden events. The mirror is
of metal (Par. Dip. 235).


[129] Kumàri-pa¤ho. Through a girl of good family and repute.


[130]
Deva-pa¤ho. Also obtained through a girl, but this time a deva-dàsã or
temple prostitute. It is instructive to find, even under the patriarchal
regime of the sixth century B. C., that men thought they could best
have communications from the gods through the medium of a woman.


[131] âdiccupaññhànam. Such sun-worship is ridiculed in the Jàtaka of the same name, No. 173.


[132]
Buddhaghosa explains the Great One as Mahà Brahma. This seems to me
very doubtful. It is at least odd to find Brahma introduced in this
connection. We may grant that the Buddhists might have put sun-worship
into a list of sorceries, but there was no ceremonial cult of Brahma and
little or none of Brahmà. And however much the new gospel might hold
the speculations of the dominant theosophy in contempt, that would
scarcely explain their being ranked as privates in this regiment.
Burnouf avoids this by rendering the phrase generally `serving the
great,’ and Neumann has `practising sorcery.’ Neither of these guesses
seems happy. Mahat in composition is elsewhere always mahà in Pàli, and
we possibly have here a sandhi for mahatã-upaññhànam, in the sense of
worship of the Great Mother, the Earth, with covert allusion to Mahã.
This would give excellent sense, as the worship of the Mother Earth was
closely associated in the popular mind with witchcraft. A god or goddess
is certainly meant, and one so associated would be best in place here.
It is perhaps worthy of note that in the oldest portion of the
Taittirãya Upanishad, Sun, Moon, Earth, and Srã occur together in a set
of mystic groups, and Sun, Moon, Brahma, and food are all identified by a
word-play with Mahas (Sãkrà-vallã” 4-7).


[133] See Milinda 191, and Jàt. II, 410.


[134]
Bhåri-kammaü. Is this a place sacred to Mother Earth? The ceremony
referred to is the carrying out of the vijjà or craft mentioned in the
list at Section 2 I.


[135]
Vassa- and vossa-kammaü. Morris discusses the etymology of these words,
only found in this list, in the J. P. T. S., 1889, p. 208. The idea of
the second is not, of course, castration, but making a man’s desire to
fail by a spell. Several such are preserved in the Atharva (IV, 4; VI, 1
0 1 to give virility; VI, I 3 8; VII, 1 I 3 to cause impotence).


[136]
Vassa- and vossa-kammaü. Morris discusses the etymology of these words,
only found in this list, in the J. P. T. S., 1889, p. 208. The idea of
the second is not, of course, castration, but making a man’s desire to
fail by a spell. Several such are preserved in the Atharva (IV, 4; VI, 1
0 1 to give virility; VI, I 3 8; VII, 1 I 3 to cause impotence).


[137] Vatthu-kammaü and -parikiraõaü. These constitute the vatthu-vijjà of Section 21.


[138] Vatthu-kammaü and -parikiraõaü. These constitute the vatthu-vijjà of Section 21.


[139] Bathings, that is, of other people.


[140] See Mil. I, 511 and the rules laid down in `Vinaya Texts, II 53-55.


[141]
The Buddhist view of Nos. 11-25 must not be mistaken. It is
sufficiently clear from the numerous examples in the Vinaya (see
especially `Vinaya Texts,’ II, pp. 4I-I44), and from the high praise
accorded to Jãvaka and other physicians, that the objection was to
recluses and Brahmans practising medicine as a means of livelihood. They
might do so gratis for themselves or for their coreligionists, and
laymen might do so for gain.

The use of pañimokkha in No. 25 is curious. It is when, for instance,
a purgative is first given and then a tonic to counteract the other, to
set free from its effect. Compare Jàt. V, 25.

[142] The corresponding Sanskrit terms occur at Divyàvadàna, p. 492. No doubt the reading there ought to be nipuõo.


[143]
These phrases recur S. III, 45. On anuddiññhi see also Gogerly in the,
Ceylon Friend, 1875, p. 133, and Morris in the J. P. T. S., 1886, p.
113; and compare , attànuddiññhi at Mil. 146, 160, 352 S. N. 1119. As in
our colloquial expression a `viewy man,’ diññhi almost always, and
anudiññhi in all the seven passages where it occurs, have a connotation
of contempt-a mere view, an offhand ill-considered opinion, a delusion.
The Greek greak.Øæøa has had a similar history, and dogma or speculation
is a better rendering than view or belief.


[144] Sassata-vàdà.


[145]
Gotra, literally `cow-stall.’ The history of this word has yet to be
written. It probably meant at the time this Sutta was written a family
or lineage traced through the father. On the meaning of gotraja (the
gentiles of Roman Law) in the later law-books see West and Bhler,
`Hindu Law of Inheritance,’ p.17 I.


[146]
Vaõõa, literally colour.’ Gogerly renders it `appearance,’ and Neumann
`Beruf.’ I have chosen caste (though it is not caste in its strictest
sense) because it no doubt refers to the cattàro vaõõà mentioned so
often in the Suttas. it is true that these-Khattiyas, Brahmans, Vessas,
and Suddas-were not castes, but four divisions of the people, each
consisting of many subdivisions (by customs as to connubium and
commensality) which afterwards hardened into castes. ,,See J. R. A. S.,
1897, PP. SO-,90.


[147]
Saüvañña - vivaññaü (rolling up and evolution, from vaññ, to turn). It
is the period of the gradual disintegration and conformation of a world.
Needless to add that the length of this period cannot be expressed in
figures.

Neither the idea nor the word occurs in books known to be before the
Buddha. But both are Indian rather than Buddhist. Saüvarta is found in
the Mahà Bhàrata and the Ràmàyaõa; and the later Sàïkhya notion of
pralaya is closely allied.

[148] This phrase recurs below, chap. iii SectionSection 14, 20.


[149] Sãla, for instance, and samàdhi, and all the other things known to a Buddha, says Buddhaghosa, p. 108.


[150]
Paccattaü. See the common phrases A. II, 198=S. I, 9, 10, 117; M. I,
188=422; M. I, 251, 252 = S. III, 54, &c.; and S. N. 611,906; Mil.
96, 347; Sum. 182. `Without depending on anyone else, himself by
himself,’ says Buddhaghosa.


[151] Nirvana, says Buddhaghosa.


[152]
Gogerly (PP. 77, 78 in Grimblot) has made a sad mess of this paragraph
misunderstanding the grammatical construction of the first clause, and
misinterpreting- paràmasati in the second, and nissaranaü in the third.


[153] Not of course the four speculations, but the higher knowledge which has led him to reject them.


[154]
This string of epithets recurs at M. I, 327 in the course of the story
of the Brahmà, named Baka, who is represented as coming to the very
conclusion set out in our section. The story was a favourite one, and
three recessions of it have been preserved (M. I, 326-331; S. I,
142-144, and Jàt. No. 405). Mr. Crow evidently considered himself the
Mahà Brahmà of the period.

The omission in the Dialogue of all reference to the Kesava Birth
Story may be a sign of greater age or it may be due simply to the fact
that it is not required for the argument there.

[155] Khióóa-padosikà. They are not mentioned elsewhere except in the list of gods in the Mahà Samaya (p. 287).


[156]
Buddhaghosa on this has a curious note. The gods, though of great
glory, are delicate in body. A man, having- gone without food - for
seven days even, may restore his strength by the use of clear broth and
so on. But the gods can’t play tricks with themselves; and if they lose
their heads and forget their meal-times, they die-pass away from that
state. The poor gods! Whether this be really implied in the text or not,
it is at least in harmony with the irony of the Buddha’s talk.


[157]
Mano-padosikà. Only found here and in the list in the Samaya Sutta.
Even there it is almost certainly merely taken from this passage, so
that it looks very much as if both these classes or titles of gods were
simply invented, in irony, for the sake of the argument. Buddhaghosa
identifies this class with the retinue of the four Great Kings-that is
the regents of the four quarters.


[158]
Upanijjhàyanti, from jhàyati, to burn. Elsewhere found only at Vin. 1,
193; II, 269; 111, 118, in all which passages it has the connotation of
`covet, lust after.’ Buddhaghosa takes it here in the sense of envy, and
tells a tale, too long to quote, to show the quarrelsome nature of
these gods. In the sense of `consider’ (from jhàyati, to think) the word
has only been found at S. N., p. 143. There may have been confusion
between the two homonyms, so that ours got to mean to consider in such a
way as to be excited, to burn.’


[159]
Buddhaghosa explains that these speculators perceive how the organs of
sense break up (and sense impressions pass away); but they fail to see
that the same thing holds even more strongly in the case of thoughts,
since no sooner has each mental impression given rise to the succeeding
one than it passes away. Not perceiving that, and depending on the
analogy of birds, who fly away from one tree only to alight on another,
they conclude that the mind, when this individuality is broken up, goes
(as a unity) elsewhere.


[160] Antànantikà.


[161] Parivañumo. Only found here. Buddhaghosa says nothing.


[162]
According to Buddhaghosa (Ats. 160) there are four things that are
infinite-space, the number of world-systems, the number of living
creatures, and the wisdom of a Buddha. Had this doctrine formed part of
the original Buddhism we should expect to find these cattàri - anantàni
in the chapter on the `Fours’ in the Aïguttara, but I do not find them
there.


[163] Either in self-training or in the attainment of bliss in heaven’ says Buddhaghosa (p.115).


[164] Buddhaghosa gives examples of these five equivocations.


[165]
Buddhaghosa explains that if, in his ignorance, he should, by chance,
declare the good to be good, he will be puffed up by the approval of the
wise. But if he should blunder, he will be filled with vexation and ill
will when his error is pointed out. Either of these states of mind will
be the fuel to keep the fire burning, the state technically called
Upàdàna, `grasping.’


[166] Sampàyati. See the note at `Vinaya Texts,’ III, 317, and compare M. I, 85, 96, 472.


[167] Such questions are called elsewhere the common basis of discussions among Brahmans.


[168]
The word here used is Tathàgata, `he who has gone, or perhaps come, to
the truth.’ See Chalmers in the J. R. A. S.’ Jan., 1898, and compare S.
III, 111, 116-118; M. I, I40, 171, 486; S. N. 467. The use of sammaggato
(D. I, 55, &c.) and of gatatto (D. I, 57, &c.) shows that gata
was used elliptically in the sense of gone to the furthest point aimed
at’ among the followers of the other sects that arose at the same time
as Buddhism. The exact derivation and history of the word Tathàgata may
be doubtful, but its meaning is, on the whole, clear enough.


[169] This is the identical answer put below (p. 57 of the text) into the mouth of Sa¤jaya Belaññhaputta.


[170]
Adhicca-samuppannikà. This adhicca (which must be distinguished from
the other adhicca, derived from adhãyati, occurring at Jàt. III, 218 =
IV, 301) recurs at M. 1, 443, where it is opposed in the sense of
`occasional’ to abhiõha at M. I, 442 in the sense of `habitual.’ Udàna
VI, 5 throws light on its use here. It is there associated with words
meaning neither self-originated, nor created by others.’ It is explained
by Buddhaghosa on our passage (Sum. I, 118) as `springing up without a
cause.’ The derivation is doubtful.


[171]
Asa¤¤a-sattà. They spring into being in this wise. Some one of the
Brahman ascetics having practised continual meditation and arrived at
the Fourth Jhàna, sees the disadvantage attached to thinking, and says
to himself: `It is by dwelling on it in thought that physical pain and
all sorts of mental terrors arise. Have done with this thinking. An
existence without it were better.’ And dying in this belief he is reborn
among the Unconscious Ones, who have form only, and neither sensations
nor ideas nor predispositions nor consciousness. So long as the power of
the Jhàna lasts, so long do they last. Then an idea occurs to them-the
idea of rebirth in this world-and they straightway die.


[172] See 1, 1, 29 (p. 12 of the text).


[173]
Literally `who are After-deathers, Conscious-maintainers.’ These
summary epithets are meant to be contemptuous, and the word chosen for
death adds to the force of the phrase. It is not the usual word, but
àghàtana (so read in the text), meaning literally `shambles, place of
execution.’ The ordinary phrase would have been parammaraõikà.


[174] So the Ajãvakas, says Buddhaghosa.


[175] So the Nigaõñhas, says Buddhaghosa.


[176] SectionSection 9-18 are discussed by James D’Alwis in `Buddhist Nirvana,’ p. 47. Comp. Jacobi, `Jaina Såtras,’ II, 236, 339.


[177]
Sato sattassa. Insert the word sato in the text (as in SectionSection
17,19, 41, 42). The Kañha Upanishad I, 20 alludes to such belief.


[178]
Compare the 4th Vimokha. See Rh. D. `Buddhist Suttas,’ pp. 5 2, 213.
The idea of resistance, pañigha, is here not ethical, but refers to the
senses. Having no sense of reaction to touch, of opposition to muscular
effort. it appears from M. I, 164 that this was pretty much the view put
forth by Gotama’s first teacher âlàra Kàlàma.


[179]
Compare the 5th Vimokha. This seems from M. I 165 to have been much the
same as the view held by Ràma, whose son and pupil, Uddaka, was
Gotama’s second teacher.


[180] Compare the 6th Vimokha.


[181]
Though it is not explicitly so stated, this last of these seven
theorisers is no doubt to be considered as believing in all the sorts of
soul held by the others, so that he believes in seven. One may compare
the five souls each more subtle than the last, made respectively of
anna, pràõa, manas, vij¤àõa, and ànanda (food. breadth mind,
consciousness, and joy), described in the Taittirãya Upanishad II, 1-5.
The Buddhist modification of these `theories omits the souls, and treats
instead of various states of mind (produced by stages of meditation),
the attainment of which, during this life, leads to rebirth in
corresponding worlds, or planes of existence, named after those stages.
of meditations. But the oldest Piñaka texts say very little about it,
and the history of Buddhist speculation on the matter has yet to be
formulated.

Centuries afterwards we find a somewhat analogous conception in the
gradually ascending series of seven, each more subtle than the last
(Sthåla-sarãra, änga-sarãra, indriya, manas, ahaïkara, buddhi, and
àtman), set out in the Sàïkhya texts, and the later Vedanta has a
similar series. There is sufficient truth in the idea of the series of
seven set out in our text to explain the persistence of the general idea
in all the Indian systems, but the details and the application are
strikingly different.

The text shows that the four Aråpa Vimokhas of the Buddhist theory
were regarded by the early Buddhists as derived from closely allied
speculations, older than Buddhism, and expressed in almost identical
phraseology.

[182]
Buddhaghosa here (Sum. 1, 121) explains Nirvàõa as the suppression of
pain; pain, dukkha, being bodily, as opposed to domanassa, mental. `In
this visible world’ means in whatever world the particular soul happens
to be at the time. On parikàreti compare V. II, 290 ràjà uyyàne
paricàresi, `the king indulged himself, enjoyed himself, in the garden.’
All its functions’ is added from the Commentary.


[183]
The text shows that the four Jhànas were regarded by the early
Buddhists as older than Buddhism. The very words used are identical; the
only modification introduced in Buddhism being the omission of the
`souls.’ These four, Together. with the four Aråpa Vimokhas (see note on
Section 19), make up the Eight Attainments (Samàpattiyo), often
mentioned in the Jàtaka commentary as practised by pre Buddhistic
recluses.


[184]
On paritasita compare M. 1, 36 na asati paritassati, `is not worried at
what is not `: paritasita, `fidgetiness `or `worry,’ at M. 1, 136; S.
III, 15-19; and Mil. 253, 400. On vipphandita, M. I, 8, 486; Dh. S. 381
(Asl. 253); Jàt. IV, 495.


[185]
In the text the first three of these four propositions are repeated of
each of the eleven classes of theorisers. `The fourth is put in the form
which, to avoid repetition, I have adopted for all the four.


[186] Tathàgata, that is the speaker himself, the Buddha.

SINHALA

http://www.metta.lk/tipitaka/2Sutta-Pitaka/1Digha-Nikaya/Digha1/01-brahmajala-s.html

oS> ksldh


kfud ;ii N.jf;d wryf;d iuud iunqoaOii


3′ n1yaucd, iQ;1h

3′
ud jsiska fufia wik ,os’ tla ld,hloS Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia rc.y kqjrg yd
kd,kaod kqjrg;a w;r uy mdrg mkaishhla muK jQ fndfyda NsCIq ix>hd yd
iu. jevsfhdah’ iqmamsh kuz msrsjecshdo nUo;a kuz ;reK w;jeishdo iu. rc.y
kqjrg yd kd,kaod kqjrg;a w;r uy mdrg meusKsfhah’ tysoS iqmamsh
msrsjecshd fkdfhla whqrska nqoqka flfrys OrAuh flfrys ix>hd flfrys
w.2K lshhs’ iqmamsh kuz msrsjecshdf.a w;jeishdjQ nUo;a kuz udKjlhd
fkdfhla whqrska nqoqkaf.a OrAufha ix>hdf.a .2K lshhs’ fufia fuz
lrefKys ta weZoqre+w;jeis fofok Tjqfkdjqka w;r iuzmQrAKfhka jsreZX l:d
we;a;dyq Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiaf.ao NsCIq ix>hdf.ao miqmiafiau
,qyqnekafodah’

4′
tjsg Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia wuzn,gzGsld Whfkys rcqkaf.a jsvd yerSudoshg
ms<sfh< jQ rdcd.drl kuz Yd,dfjys tla rd;1shla jsiSug NsCIq
ix>hd iu. meusKsfhdah’ iqmamsh kuz msrsjecshdo tu Yd,dfjys tla
rd;1shla jsiSug nUo;a kuz ;reK w;jeis udKjlhd iu. meusKsfhah’ tysoSo
iqmamsh msrsjecs fkdfhla wdldrfhka nqoqka flfrys OrAuh flfrys ix>hd
flfrys w.2K lshhs’ nUo;a kuz udKjlhd fkdfhla wdldrfhka nqoq.2K oyuz .2K
iZ..2K lshhs’

5′
tl, ? mdkaorska uKAv,ud, kuz reiajSuz Yd,dfjys tlaj reiaj jevisgs
fndfyda NsCIqka w;frys fuz l:d Ou!h my< jsh’ ))weje;aks” ish,a, okakd
N.j;a kuzjQ


[\q 2/]

ish,a,
okakd wry;a kuzjQ iuHla iuznqoqka jykafia jsiska iJjhkaf.a fkdfhla
woyia we;snj huz muK fydZoska wjfndaO lrk ,oafoao *wjfndaOh( mqoquh’ fuz
iqmamsh msrsjecshd fkdfhla wdldrfhka nqoqkayg OrAuhg ix>hdyg fodia
lshhs’ msrsjecshdf.a w;jeisjQ nUo;a kuz udKjlhd fkdfhla wdldrfhka
nqoq.2K oyuz .2K iZ..2K lshhs’ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiaf.ao NsCIq ix>hdf.ao
miqmiafia ,qyqnekafoda fj;a))’

6′
tl,ays Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia NsCIqkaf.a fuz l:dj oek reiajS jevysZos Yd,dj
huz ;efklo t;ekg meusKsfhdah’ meusK meKjQ wdikfhys jev yqkafkdah’
jevysZo ))uyfkks” oeka fudkhuz l:djlska hqla;j isgshdyqo$ f;dmf.a
fudkhuz l:djla mgka f.k isgshdyqoe)) hs weiQy’ ta NsCIQyq ))iajduSks”
wmg fuz l:d OrAuh my< jsh’ ish,a, okakd ish,a, olakd ta wrAy;a iuzud
iuznqoq jQ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia jsiska iJjhkaf.a fkdfhla fkdfhla l,amkd
woyia we;snj huz muK hym;a fia wjfndaO lrK ,oafoao” fuz jegySu mqoquh’
fmr kqjQ fohla jkafkah’ fuz iqmamsh msrsjecshd fkdfhla wdldrfhka
nqoqroqkag OrAuhg ix>hdg fodia mjrhs’ Tyqf.a w;jeisjQ nUo;a kuz
udKjlhd fkdfhla wdldrfhka nqoq.2K oyuz .2K iZ..2K lshhs’ jsreX u;
we;af;da Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiao NsCIq ix>hdo miqmiafia ,qyqnekafoda fj;a’
iajduSka jykai” wmf.a fuz w;2re l:dj mgka .;a;dh’ tl,ays Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafia meusKsfhdah)) hs lSy’

7′
))uyfKks” wkqka udf.a fyda kq.2K lshoao” OrAuh .ek fyda kq.2K lshoao”
ix>hdf.a fyda kq.2K lshoao” ta kq.2Kfhys f;dm jsiska fldam fkdfldg
hq;af;ah” wukdm fkdbmojsh hq;af;ah” is;a wi;2gq fkdlghq;af;ah’ ta kq.2K
lshkakka flfrys boska f;ms lsfmkakdyq kuz fyda fkdi;2gq jkakdyq kuz
thska f;dmgu wka;rdh jkafkah’ lsfulao f;ms wkqkaf.a iqN isoaOsh wiqN
isoaOsh okakyqo$))


[\q 3/]

8′ ))iajduSks ta oekSu ke;))

))uyfKks”
wkqka udf.a fyda OrAufha fyda ix>hdf.a fyda kq.2K lshoao” tjsg f;dm
jsiska fuh” fuz fyhska fjkag kqmqZMjk’ fuh fuz ksid wi;Hh’ fuh wm flfrys
ke;’ fuh wm flfrys olskag ke;’ fndrej fndrej fuka t<sorjq l<
hq;2h))’

))uyfKks”
wkqka udf.a fyda OrAufha fyda ix>hdf.a fyda .2K lshoao” ta .2K
lSfuys f;dm jsiska mS1;s fkdfldg hq;af;ah’ is;a wi;2gq fkdlg hq;af;ah’
is;ays WvZ.2 nj fkdlg hq;af;ah’ uyfKks” wkqka udf.a fyda OrAufha fyda
ix>hdf.a fyda .2K lshoao” f;ms ta .2K lshkakjqka flfrys boska i;2gq
jkakdyq kuz is;a wi;2gq jkafkdajQ kuz WX.2 jkafkdajQ kuz f;dmg thska
wjev jkafkah))’

9′
))uyfKks” wkqka udf.a fyda OrAufha fyda ix>hdf.a fyda .2K lshoao”
tjsg f;dm ta lreK ms<snZoj fuh fuz fyhska meyeos,sh” i;Hh” fuz *.2Kh(
wm flfrys we;af;ah’ fuh wm flfrys olskag ,efnzhhs we;a; we;a; fuka myod
oshhq;af;ah))’

))uyfKks”
;:d.;hkaf.a .2K lshkakdjQ flf,ia iys; ckhd huz lreKlska th lshdkuz th
iqZM fohls’ iqZM iajNdj .;sfhls’ wvq fohls’ tfia .2K lshk mD:.ackfhla
huz lreKlska ;:d.;hkaf.a .2K lshd kuz l2ula lshdo$))

0′
))Y1uK Nj;a f.#;ufhda m1dK>d;h w;ayer oud m1dKhlg ysxid lsrSfuka
iuzmQrAKfhka je<l2Kdy’ oZvq uq.2re fkdue;af;la fjz’ mdmhg ,cAcd
we;af;ls’ ohdjka; njg meusKsfhls’ ish,q i;ajhka flfrys wkqluzmdfjka jdih
flfrhs’ Y1uK Nj;a f.#;ufhda kqoqkafoa .ekSu w;ayer oud kqoqkafoa
.ekSfuka je<l2Kdy’ oqka fohu .kakd iajNdj we;a;dy’ oqka foh .eku
leu;s jkafkdah’ jxpd rys;j msrsisZoq is;ska jdih lrkakdy)) hs’


[\q 4/]

-’
))Y1uK Nj;a f.#;ufhda ldu iuzm;a oqre fldg ldu iemfhka je<l2fkdah’
ldu iuzmf;ka b;du wE;a jQfjls’ ia;1Ska mdjd .ekSuz wdoS fkdfydnskd
isrsf;ka fjka jQfjdah)) hs’

3=’
))Y1uK f.#;ufhda fndre lSfuka je<l2fKdah’ i;Hu lsh;s’ i;Hu .<md
lsh;s’ ia:sr jQ weoysh hq;2 l:d we;af;dah’ f,dalhd uq<d lrk jsIu jdo
fkdlrkafkdah))’

))Y1uK
f.#;ufhda msiqkq nia keue;s fla,duz lSu w;yer fla,duz lSfuka
je<l2fKdah’ fufia NskakjQjka iuznkaOj .<mk iajNdj we;af;dah’
iu.sjQjkayg wkqn, fokafkdah’ iu.sjQjka flfrys we,qkdy’ iu.sjQjka flfrys
i;2gq fj;s’ iu.s lrK jpk lsh;s))

))Y1uK
f.#;ufhda mreI jpkh i;ayer mreI jpkfhka je<elafldah’ huz jpkhla
ksfodiao” lKg iemo” fmuz jvdo” is;a i;2gq lrhso” usysrso” fndfyda fokdg
m1sh fjzo” fndfydafokdf.a is;a m1sh lrkafkao” tjeks jpk lshkafkah))’

))Y1uK
Nj;a f.#;ufhda iuzMm1,dmh w;ayer ksire ysia nia nsKSfuka
je<flkafKdah’ lshhq;2 ld,h i,ld lshkafkdah’ i;Hu lshkafkdah’ oshqKqj
i,ld lshkafkdah’ OrAuh lshkafkdah’ *jskh( ukd yslauSu .ek lshkafkdah’
iqoqiq l,ays Wmud lreKq iys;jQ fhda.H f,i iSudiys;jQ wrA:fhka hqla;jQ
isf;a ;nd.; hq;2jQ jpk lshkafkdah’

33′
))Y1uK f.#;ufhda ;K” .ia” je,a wdoSkaf.a levSuz” isZoSuzj,ska
je<l2fKdah’ Y1uK f.#;ufhda rd;1S lEfuka je<lS jsld, fNdackhhs lshk
,o kqiqoqiq ld,fha lEfuka fjkaj tlafjzf,a j<Zokafkdah))’

))Y1uK
f.#;ufhda kegSuz” .S lSuz” jehSuz” flda<uz ne,Suz wdosfhka
je<l2fKdah’ Y1uK f.#;ufhda u,aud,d” iqjZo oerSu jeks ieriSuz j,ska
je<l2fKdah))’


[\q 5/]

))Y1uK f.#;ufhda kqiqoqiq Wia wdik” uyd wdikhka f.ka je<l2fKdah))’

))Y1uK
f.#;ufhda rka rsoS” us< uqo,a” wuq udxY” ia;1Ska fyda .Ekq *.eyekq(
orejka” odihska fyda odiSka” tZMjka” negZMjka” l2l2<ka” W#rka”
we;2ka” .jhska” wYajhska” fj<Uqka” l2Uqre” j;2 ms<s.ekafuka
je<l2fKdah))’

))Y1uK
f.#;ufhda oQ; .uka iy f.ka f.g hk fufyjrska .Kqfokq lsrSuz wdoS
fj<fy<Zodfuka” fydrlsrefuka yd uekqfukao r;arka jxpd lsrSudosfhkao
w,a,ia .ekSuz” jxpd” udhuz lemSuz” jooSuz” neZoSuz” jia;2 n,fhka
.ekSuz” .uz wdosh meyerSuz” n,d;aldr *n,y;aldr( l1shd j,skao
je<l2fKdah))’

))uyfKks fufia fyda ;:d.;hkaf.a .2K lshkakdjQ flf,ia iys; wh lshkafkdah)) hs jod< fial’

pQ, YS,h ksus’

34′ ))iuyr mskaj;a uyK
nuqfKda Y1oaOdfjka fok lEu ld fufia fyda ;K .ia je,a wdosh jskdY
lsrSfuys fhoS jdih lr;s’ fuhdldr ;K .ia je,a wdosh jskdY lsrSfuka
iuzmQK!fhka je<l2fKa *je<l2fKda( Y1uK f.#;ufhdah))’

))iuyr
mskaj;a uyK nuqfKda Y1oaOdfjka fok lEu ld fuhdldrj foa reiafldg ;nd
m1fhdack .ekSfuys fhoS jdih lr;s’ tjeks foa kuz wdydr jrA. mdj jrA.
frosms<s wdoS weZoSuz r: jdyk weZo mqgq wdosh iqjZo jrA. ;ndf.k
m1fhdack jsZoSuh’ fufia funZoq foa reia fldg ;nd m1fhdack jsZoSfuka
iuzmQK!fhka je<l2fKda Y1uK f.#;ufhdah))’

35′
))iuyr mskaj;a uyK nuqfKda Y1oaOdfjka fok lEu ld fujeks jsys,q foa
oelafuys fhoS jdih lr;s’ tjeks foa kuz + kegSuh” .S lsuh” jSKd wdosh
jehSuh” rZ. uZvq,q ne,Suh” f.d;d ri lr lshk ,o fndre l:d weiSuh”
lxi;d,uz fyda w;a;d,uzh” u<usKS kexjSu keue;s jscAcd lsrSu” fnr
.eyquzh” kD;HfhaoS is;a we,quz lrk YrSr pxp,h” iKfoyquz fl<sh” WK.ia
Tijd kegqu” usKS weg


[\q 6/]

fidaod
;enSuzh” we;a fmdrh” wYaj fmdrh” uSjqka fmdrh” .j fmdrh” tZM fmdrh”
negZM fmdrh” l2l2ZM fmdrh” jgqjka fmdrh” fmd,q yrUh” usgska usg .eiSfuz
fmdrh” *u,a,j kuz fmdr we,a,Su( hqoaO lsrSu” hqofika msrslaiSuh”
lZojqreh” isjqrZ.fiakdj oelSuh wdoshhs’ fufia fuhdldr jsiqZM oelSfuka
iuzmQrAKfhka je<l2fKda Y1uK f.#;ufhdah))’

36′
))iuyr mskaj;a uyK nuqfKda Y1oaOdfjka fok lEu ld m1udohg ldrK jQ
fuhdldr iQoq fl<sfhys fhoS jdih lr;s’ tjeks foa kuz+ wg uZvq,q*fldgq(
fl<sh” oi uZvq,q*fldgq( fl<sh” wyia fl<sh *fldgq mekSu( *lgzgs
mekSu(” tla fldg ;nk foa fkdfid,ajd .ekSufuz ,u fl<sh” isxy fl<sh
*tkuz ie,quz fl<sh l@re .eiSfuka mska;@r iEoSfuz fi,a,u nsu fyda
ns;a;sj, ,S l@re .id we;a wia wdoS rEm olajd lS1vd lsrSu” mkaoq
fl<sh” m;a l2,,a*jiaoZvq( msUSuh” kZ.2,a fl<sh” lrkuz .eiSu”
lkakka.2re fl<sh *tkuz ;,am;a wdosh fmkakd uq<dfldg lrK jxpksl
l1svdjls(” je,s wdosh uekSfuz fi,a,u r: jdyk fhdod lrk fi,a,u” oqkq
fl<sh” wl2re fi,a,u” is;@foa lSfuz fi,a,u” fodaI rEm olajd lrk fi,a,u
hkqh’ fufia m1udohg lreKqjQ iQoq fi,a,fuka iuzmQrAKfhka je<l2fKda
Y1uK f.#;ufhdah))’

37′
))iuyr mskaj;a uyK nuqfKda Y1oaOdfjka fok lEu ld fuhdldrjQ Wia wdik uy
wdikhkays jdvsjSfuka hqla;j jdih lr;s’ funZoqjQ Wia wdik uy wdikhkaf.ka
iuzmQrAKfhka je<l2fKda Y1uK f.#;ufhdah))’

38′
))iuyr mskaj;a uyK nuqfKda Y1oaOdfjka fok lEu ld fuhdldrjQ *YrSrhg
iunkaOjQ( ieriSuh” wvq ;eka msrjSuh hk lrefKys fhoS jdih lrhs’funZoqjQ
ieriSuz yd w,xldr lsrSuz wdosfhys fhoSfuka iuzmQrAKfhka je<l2fKda
Y1uK f.#;ufhdah))’

39′
))iuyr mskaj;a uyK nuqfKda Y1oaOdfjka fok lEu ld fuhdldrjQ jev ke;s
l:dfjys fhoS jdih lr;s’ tkuz rcqka .ek l:dh” fidreka .ek l:dh”


[\q 7/]

uyd
weu;shka .ek l:dh” fiakd .ek l:dh” Nh .ek l:dh” hqX .ek l:dh” lEu .ek
l:dh” nSu .ek l:dh” weZoquz me<Zoquz .ek l:dh” ksod.ekSuz .ek l:dh”
ud,d .ek l:dh” iqjZo o1jH .ek l:dh” kEhka .ek l:dh” hdk*r:( .ek l:dh”
.uz .ek l:dh” .uz wi, kshuz.uz .ek l:dh” kqjr .ek l:dh” ckhd .ejiS.;a
m<d;a .ek l:dh” ia;S1ka .ek l:dh” mqreIhka .ek l:dh” j;2r .kakd ;eka
j,g fyda f;dgqm< j,g reiajQ wh lrk l:dh” keiS.sh kEhska .ek l:dh”
fkdfhla *m1fhdack ke;s foa( .ek l:dh” f,dalfha uejquzldrhd wdoS jsksYaph
ke;s foa .ek l:dh” uyuqyqo .ek l:dh” we;sjSu ke;sjSu .ek *iSudrys;(
l:dh’ funZoqjQ l:dfjys fhoSfuka iuzmQrAKfhka je<l2fKda Y1uK
f.#;ufhdah))’

30′
))iuyr mskaj;a uyK nuqfKda Y1oaOdfjka fok lEu ld fujeks oQ;luz iy
mKsjsv f.k hEfuys fhoS jdih lr;s’ l2ylfhdao fj;s’ isjqmih ,nd .ekSu
msKsi jpk lshkafkdao” ksus;s olajkafkdao” wkqkaf.a .2K ke;s lsrSug l:d
lsrSfuka ,dN ,nkafkdao ,dNfhka ,dNhla fidhkafkdao fj;s’ fujeks oQ;luz
lrkafkdao l2yl *,dNfhka( iuzmQrAKfhka je<l2fKda Y1uK f.#;ufhdah’
uyfKks” ;:d.;hkaf.a .2K lshkakdjQ flf,ia iys; ckhd fufia fyda .2K
lshkafkah))’

3-’ ))iuyr mskaj;a uyK nuqfKda Y1oaOdfjka fok lEu ld fujeks my;a ,dul jsoHdfjka us:HdcSjsldfjka cSjsldj flfr;a’ tkuz+

*I(iduqos1ld
Ydia;1h ksus;af;ka Y2N wY2N lSu W;amd;h lSu” iajmaK Ydia;1h” ,CIK
Ydia;1h” uQisl Ydia;1h” .sksmsoSu” hd. lsrSu” wx. jsoHdh jdia;2 jsoHdh”
kS;s Ydia;1h” fidfydfkys Ydka;s lrk N@; jsoHdh” uka;1 jsoHdh” jsI
jsoHdh” f.dakqiq jsoHdh” uShka lE l, ms<shuz lsrSfuz jsoHdh” l2re,q
jsoHdh” lmqgq Ydia;1h” wdhqI fumuK hehs lSu” B myrska j<lk jsoHdh”
uD. mCISkaf.a Ynzo oekSfuz Ydia;1h”


[\q 8/]

*II(
udKslHhkaf.a Y2N wY2N lshk uKs ,CIKh” oZvq kekSfuys Y2N wY2N lshk oKAv
,CIKh” jia;1 ,CIKh” lvq oqkq B wdhqO ,l2Kqh” ia;1S mqreI msrsus
<uhskaf.a .Ekq *.eyekq( <uhskaf.a odihskaf.a odiSkaf.a we;2kaf.a
wYaj uSyrla f.dka fokqkaf.a tZM negZM l2l2ZM jgq lnrf.dhska wdoSkaf.a
,CIKh” ysia lka wdoS wdNrK ,CIKh” leiqnquD. ,CIKh hkqhs’

*III(
*wij,a osk( rcqf.a neyEr hdu fyda wdmiq tau fjhs’ we;2ZM kqjr Wka
rcqf.a iuSmhg hdu fjhs’ msg rcqkaf.a bj; hEu fjhs’ we;2ZM kqjr rcqkag ch
fjhs’ msg rcqkag mrdch fjhs’ fufia fudyqh ch jkafkah’ fudyqg mrdch
jkafkah’

*IV(
pJo1.1yKh iQhH!.1yKh jkafkah’ *.1y( ;drldjkaf.a .1yKh jkafkah” pJo1
iQhH!hkaf.a .uka *iajlSh( udrA.fhys fyda wudrA.fhys jkafkah’ *.1y(
;drldjkaf.a .uka *iajlSh( udrA.fhys fyda wudrA.fhys jkafkah’ W,aldmd;
*;drld jegSu( osidjka oejSu” N@usluzmd” wyi .s.@reuz jkafkah’ pJo1 iQhH!
*.1y( ;drldjkaf.a WodjSu” neiSu” flf,iSu” msrsisZoqjSu jkafkah’ funZoq
jsmdl we;s pJo1.1yKhla iQhH!.1yKhla *.1y( ;drld .1yKhla jkafkah’ pJo1
iQhH hkaf.a funZoq jsmdl we;s udrA. .uk fyda wudrA. .uk fyda *.1y(
;drldjkaf.a udrA. .uk jkafkah’ funZoq jsmdl we;s wudrA. .uk W,aldmd;fhla
*osidjka( oejSfula” N@us luzmdjla” wyi .s.@reula jkafkah’ funZoq jsmdl
we;s pJo1 iQhH! *.1y( ;drldjkaf.a funZoq jsmdl we;s WodjSu” neySu
*neiSu(” flf,iSu” msrsisZZoq jSu jkafkah hkq olajk jsoHdhs’

*V(
fydZoska jeys fyda kshZ. fyda kmqre jeys we;s jkafkah’ wdydr wdosh iq,N
jkafkah fyda ysZ. jkafkah’ Nh fyda f,v we;s jkafkah fyda ke;s jkafkahhs
lSuo yia;1 uqo1d wdoS ,l2Kqj,ska huzfoa m1ldY lsrSfuz Ydia;1h” .Ks;
Ydia;1h” >K m1udk oek .ekSfuz .Ks;h” ldjH Ydia;1h” f,daldh; js;KAv
Ydia;1h” f,daliajNd Ydia;1h hk fuz jsoHdhs’


[\q 9/]

*VII(
jsjdy levjSu” jsjdy lrjSu” ys;a *is;a( oskd.ekSu msKsi jpk lSu” jsfhda.
lrjSu” jia;2 /ia lrjSu” jshouz lrjSu” hym;a Y1shdj we;s lrjSu fyda ke;s
lrjSu” .ema *.rANh( fkdkiakd fia /lSu” osj neZoSu” ylal neZoSu” w;a
fmr<jk msKsi uka;1 lsrSu” lka fkdweiSug uka;1 lsrSu” uQK n,k
lkakdvshl foaj;djka msysgjd m1Yak weiSu” wdfjzi jQ .Ekq *.eyekq(
orejkaf.ka m1Yak weiSu” fojsjrekaf.ka m1Yak weiSu” iQhH!hdg fyda
n1yauhdg kuialdr lsrSu” lgska .sksoe,a msg lsrSuh” Y1S foajsh leZojSu
hkqhs’

*VII(
ndrydrjSu” ndrydr TmamQ lsrSu” nsuzf.hs isg W.;a uka;1 fhdod l1sd
lsrSu” kmqxilhd mqreIfhl2 lsrSu” mqreIhd kmqxil lsrSu” f.j,a ;ekSu”
f.j,a iEoSug iqoqiq ;ek n,shd. meje;ajSu” *wkqyia we;ehs lshk( j;2frka
lg YqX lrjSu” wkqka keyejSu” wkqka iZoyd .sks msoSu” jukh lrjSu” jsfrApk
lrjSu” lfKA f;,a oeuSu” wefZ.a fnfy;a oeuSu” kiH lsrSu” weig wZoqka
.Eu” wZoqka wdoS isys,a fnfy;a .Eu” *ie;a( lgq wdhqO lgq wdosh fhdod lrk
fjolu” Y,HlrAuh” ore fjolu” fnfy;a u.ska lrk fjolu” *;o( fnfyf;ys jsI
uerSu hkqhs’

tjeks ,dul my;a jsoHdfjka lrk us:H cSjsldfjka iuzmQrAKfhka je<l2fKda Y1uK f.#;ufhdah’

uyfKks”
;:d.;hkaf.a .2K lshkakdjQ flf,ia iys; ckhd fufia fyda .2K
lshkafkah’uyfKks” boska flf,ia iys; ckhd ;:d.;hkaf.a .2K jYfhka funkaola
lshdo th iqZM fohls’ wvq fohls’ iqZM iajNdj .;sfhls))’

4=’
))uyfKks” wkH OrAuho we;a;dy’ .eUqrejQ” oqlfia oelaldjQ” oqlfia jgyd
.;a;djQ” usysrsjQ” ;rAlfhka oek.; fkdyelsjQ” ishquzjQ” mKAvs;hska jsiska
.rel< hq;2jQ huz OrAu we;af;ao th ;:d.;fhda ;ukaf.a Wiia {dkfhka oek
msZvqfldg foaYkd lf<dao ta OrAufhka ;:d.;hkaf.a .2K fydZoska
m1ldYfjz’ meyeos,sj fmfka’ ta OrAu ljryqo$


[\q 10/]

43′
))uyfKks” iuyr mskaj;a uyK nuqfKda fmr ialkaO fldgia .ek l,amkd lr;s’
weoySu we;af;da fj;s’ fkdfhla wdldr weoySuz oy wg wdldrhlska m1ldY lr;s’
ljr lreKla ms<sf.k l2uk fohla Wfoid fmr ialkaO fldgia .ek l,amkd
lr;ao$))’

44′ ))iuyr ta mskaj;a uyK nuqfKda iodld,sl nj jsYajdi lr wd;auho f,dalho iodld,slhhs i;r wdldrhlska olaj;s))’

45′
))uyfKks” huz uyfKla fyda nuqfKla fyda jShH!fhka jShH!h ks;r fhoSfuka
jvd jShH!h kej; kej; fhoSfuka” fkdmud jSfuka” hym;a fufkys lsrSfuka huz
mrsoafolska is; tlZ.jQ l, fkdfhla wdldrjQ fmr isgs ;eka isys lr;ao$
tkuz” tla cd;shlao” cd;s ish oyilao” wij,a ;ek bmoqfkus’ funZoq kduhla”
f.da;1hla” rEmhla” wdydrhla” iqjoqla” wdhqI we;af;lajSus’ bka pq;jS
f.dia wij,a ;ek bmoqfkus’ thska pq;jS fuys bmoqfkus’ fufia hym;a wdldrjQ
mqreoq lsrSuz iys;jQ fkdfhla wdldr fmr cSj;ajQ ms<sfj< isys lr;s’

fmr
Wmam;a;sh olskakd fufia lshhs’ ))wd;auho f,dalho iodld,slh’ lsis;a
kQmojhs’ mrAj;hla fuka isgsfhah’ ukaodr mrAj;h fuka isgsfhah’ tfyhska ta
wd;auh wdY1h l, i;ajfhda Njfhka Njhg h;s’ cSj;a fj;s’ thska usoS h;s’
Wmos;a” iodl,a isgs;a’ Bg lreKq ljfrAo$ uu flf,ia ySk lrk jShH!fhka
jShH!h ks;r fhoSfuka” jShH!h kej; kej; fhoSfuka” fkdmud jSfuka” hym;a
fufkys lsrSfuka huz mrsoafolska is; tlZ.jQ l, fkdfhla wdldrjQ fmr isgs
;eka isys lf,uzo tf,iska fmr Wmam;a;s isyslsrSfuz {dkh ,enQfjus’ thska
pq;j fuys bmoqfkus’ fufia hym;a wdldrjQ WfoiSuz iys;jQ fkdfhla wdldr fmr
cSj;ajQ ms<sfj< isys lrus’

wd;auho
f,dalho iodld,slh’ lsis;a kQmojhs’ mrAj;hla fuka isgsfhah’ ukaodr
mrAj;h fuka isgsfhah’ ta wd;auh wdY1h l, i;ajfhda Njfhka Njhg h;s’ cSj;a
fj;s’


[\q 11/]

thska usoS h;s’ Wmos;a” iodl,sl jia;2 fuka ks;r fkdfjkiaj wd;amh we;snj ta ldrKfhka uu oksus)) hs lshdh’

))uyfKks” fuz ta m1:u ldrKhhs))’

46′
))fofjks ldrKfhyso by; fuka isgs;eka isys flfrAo” tf,iska fmr Wmam;a;s
isys;srSfuz {dkh ,nhs’ tkuz+ ))ixjgzg jsjgzg)) kuz l,amhlao” ))ixjgzg
jsjgzg)) kuz l,am oyhlao” wij,a ;ek bmoqfkus’ funZoq kduhla” f.da;1hla”
rEmhla” wdydrhla” iqjoqla” wdhqI we;af;lajSus’ ta uu bka pq;jS fuys
bmoqfkus’ fuhdldr f;areuz lroSuz iys; fkdfhla fmr cd;sj, Wmka ;eka isys
lrhs’

Tyq fufia lshhs’

))wd;auho
f,dalho iodld,slh’ thska hula kQmoS’ mrAj;hl fuka isgsfhah’ ukaodr
mrAj;h fuka isgsfhah’ ta i;ajfhdao Njfhka Njhg h;s’ cd;sfhka cd;shg .uka
lr;s’ pq;fj;a’ Wmos;a’ iodl,sl jia;2 fuka fkdkeiS isgs;a’ Bg lreKq
ljfrAo$ uu huz mrsoafolska is; tlZ.jQ l, fkdfhla wdldrjQ fmr *cd;sj,(
isgs ;eka isys lf,us’ thska pq;j fuys bmoqfkus’ fuhdldr f;areuz lroSuz
iys; fkdfhla fmr cd;sj, Wmka ;eka isys lrus’ wd;auho f,dalho ks;Hh’
uyfur wdosh fuka fkdkeiS we;af;ahhs fuz lreKskao ks;H Ndjh oksus))hs
lshhs’

47′
));2kajeks ldrKfhyso huz uyfKla fyda nuqfKla by; lSfia fmr isgs;eka
isys flfrAo” tf,iska fmr Wmam;a;s isys;srSfuz {dkh ,nhs’ tkuz+ ))ixjgzg
jsjgzg)) kuz l,am y;,sylao” wij,a ;ek bmoqfkus’ ta uu bka pq;jS f.dia
wij,a ;ek bmoqfkus’ ta uu bka pq;j f.dia fuys Wmksus))hs lshd lshhs’

Tyq
fufia lshhs’))wd;auho f,dalho iodld,slh’ ta Njfhka hq;a i;ajfhdao
Njfhka Njhg h;s’ yeisfr;s’ pq;fj;a’ Wmos;a’ iodl,sl jia;2 fuka mj;s;a))’

))uyfKks” fuz ta ;2kajeks ldrKhhs))


[\q 12/]

48′
))y;rjeks ldrKfhyso uyfKks” huz uyfKla fyda nuqfKla ;rAl {dkfhka
jsuihs’ Tyq ;rAlfhka iuzmQrAKfhka jsuiSfuka ,nk ,o ;ukaf.a jegySu ,en
fufia lshhs’ ))wd;auho f,dalho iodld,slh’ thska hula kQmoS’ ta wd;aufhka
hq;a i;ajfhdao Njfhka Njhg h;s’ cd;sfhka cd;shg .uka lr;s’ pq;fj;a’
Wmos;a’ iodl,sl jia;2 fuka fkdkeiS isgs;a))hkqhs’

))fuz ta y;rjeks ldrKhhs))’

49′
))uyfKks” huz uyKyq fyda nuqfKda fyda iodld,sl nj woyd wd;auho f,dalho
iodld,slhhs m1ldY lr;ao ta ish,af,da fulS y;r ldrKfhkau fyda thska
tllska fyda m1ldY lr;s’

40′
))uyfKks” fuz ta lreKq y;r ;:d.;fhda fydZoska oks;s’ fuz jeros u;fhka
hq;a lreKq fufia .;a we;af;da fj;a’ fuz kej; kej; .ekSuz jYfhka
*;rAlfhka( ;SrK lr.;a we;af;da fj;a’ fuz funZoq .;s we;af;da fj;a’
funZoq mrf,dj we;af;da fj;a hkqhs’ ;:d.;fhda th fydZoska oks;s’ bka
u;af;ysjQ foao fydZoska oks;s’ ta fydZo oekqu *;rAlfhka( ;SrKh lr
fkd.ks;s’ flf,ia ke;slsrSu ;:d.;hka jsiska olakd ,oafoa ,enQ ;SrKfhka
fkdfjz’ uyfKks” *oql fyda iem( wdoS fjzokd we;sjSfuz fya;2jo” th
oqrejSfuz fya;2jo” ri jsZoSuo” m1;sM,o” yslauSuo” we;s iegsfhka oek
;:d.;fhda ldudosfhka f;drj flf,iqka f.ka usoqfkdah’

4-’ huz Ou!hka lrKfldgf.k ;:d.;hkaf.a .2Kh we;siegs fydZodldr lshkq leue;af;da lsh;s’

m<uqjeks nK jrhs’

&&3′
))uyfKks” tla fldgila iodld,slh’ tla fldgila iodld,sl fkdfjz hhs
woykakdjQ iuyr uyK nuqfKda wd;auh yd f,dalh tla fldgila iodld,slh’ tla
fldgila iodld,sl fkdfjz hhs lreKQ y;rlska m1ldY lr;s))’

4′
))uyfKks” huzlsis l,l oSrA> ld,hla miqjSfuka fuz f,dalh jekfik
ld,hla tkafkah’ f,dj jekfik l, fndfyda fihska iJjfhda wdNiair nUf,dj
Wmos;s’ Tjqyq tys is;ska OHdk n,fhka bmso” m1S;sh wdydr fldgf.k


[\q 13/]

;udu nn<kafka” wyfia yeisfruska” is;a m1sh lrk weZoquz me<Zoquz we;sj isgskafkda fj;a’ Tjqyq tys fndfyda ld,hla isgs;s’

5′
))uyfKks” huzlsis jsfgl oSrA> ld,hla miqjSfuka fuf,dj kej; yg .kSo
f,dj yg.;a l, tys ysiajQ nU jsudkhla my<fjz’ tjsg tla;rd iJjfhla
wdhqI f.jSfuka fyda mska f.jSfuka” wdNiair kuz nUf,djska pq;jS ysia nU
jsufkys WmoShs’ Tyq tys is;ska OHdkfhka bmsoS” m1S;sh wdydr fldg
;ukaf.au wdf,dalhla we;sj wyfia yeisfruska Y2N jsudk we;af;la fjz’ Tyq
tys oSrA> ld,hla isgS’

6′
Tyq l,la tys ;ksj jsiQ nejska” miq;ejSula ld l,lsrSula we;sfjhs’
))fjk;a iJjfhdao fuz Njhg t;a kuz b;d fydZoh))hs me;Sfuka” isf;ys pxp,
njlao we;sfjhs’ bkamiq wdhqI f.jSfuka fyda mska f.jSfuka” wdNiair
nUf,djska pq;j nU jsufkys Wmos;a’ ta i;ajhdf.a iydh njg meusfK;a’ Tjqyqo
tys is;ska ygf.k” m1S;sh wdydr fldgf.k” ;ukaf.au wdf,dal we;sj Y2N
jsudfka isg wyfia yeisrS oSrA> ld,hla isgs;s’

7′
))uyfKks” tjsg huz ta i;ajfhla uq,ska Wmkafkao Tyqg fufia isf;hs’ ))uu”
n1yau fjus’ uyd n1yau fjus’ wksla wh hg;a lr isgskafkus’ wkqka jsiska
hg;a l< fkdyels jkafkus’ taldka;fhka ish,a, olsus’ wkqka ud hg;g
.ksus’ f,dalhg m1Odk fjus’ f,dal l;!D fjus’ f,dalh uejquzldrhd fjus’
f,djg W;2uz fjus’ f,dj fnokafkla fjus’ jiZ. lr.kafkla fjus’ WmkakdjQo
WmoskakdjQo f,dalhdf.a mshd fjus’ fuz iJjfhda ujsiska ujk ,oafodah’
l2ula fyhskao h;a” ))wfyda ;j i;ajfhda;a fuz Njhg tkafkda kuz hym;e))hs
mQrAjfhys ug fufia is;la we;sjsh’ tnejska udf.a isf;a m1drA:kdfjka fuz
iJjfhda fuz Njhg meusKsfhdah)) hkqhs’ ta huz i;ajfhla miqj Wmka jsg
Tyqgo fufia isf;la fjhs’ ))fuz mskaj;a wh n1yauh” uyd n1yauh’ fiiaika
uev mj;ajkafkls”


[\q 14/]

wkqka
jsiska uev fkdmj;ajkafkls’ taldka;fhka ish,a, olskafkls” jijrA;sfhls”
m1Odkfhls” f,dal l;!Dh’ f,dalh uejquzldrhdh’ W;a;ufhls’ f,dj fnokafkls”
jiZ. lr.kafkls’ Wmka f,dalhdf.a msfhls’ fuz msKAj;a nUyq jsiska wms ujk
,oafouq’ thg fya;2j l2ulao$ wm fuys meusK m<uq WmkakdjQ fudyq
oqgqfjuq’ wms miqj bmoqfkuq)) hkqhs’

8′))uyfKks”
ta huz m<uqj Wmka i;ajfhla fjzo Tyq b;d oSrA> wdhqI we;af;lao”
b;d W;2uz rej we;af;lao” uyd msrsjr we;af;lao fjhs’ ta huz i;ajfhla miqj
Wmkafkao” Tyq b;d wvq wdhqIo” refjka b;d wvqjQo msrsjr we;af;laofjz’
uyfKks” ta ldrKh isoaOfjz’ tkuz tala;rd i;ajfhla ta n1yau Njfhka pq;j
fuz usksia njg meusfKA))’

fuz
Njhg wdjdjQ Tyq .sys f.hska kslau Ydikfhys mejsos fjhs’ .sys f.hska
kslau Ydikfhys mejsosj flf,ia ySk lsrSfuz jShH! fldg tu jShH! mqyqKq lr
tu jShH! kej; kej; fhoSug meusK wm1udohg meusK fydZoska Ndjk lsrSuh
meusK” huz fia is; tlZ. lr.;a jsg ;ukaf.a fmr cd;sh isys flfrAo” ta fmr
cd;sfhka u;2 isys fkdflfrAo” Tyq fufia lshhs’

))huz
n1yaufhla fjzo” Tyq uyd n1yauhdh’ uev mj;ajkafkls” uev meje;ajsh
fkdyelaflah’ wkqudkhla ke;sj hula okafkls” hg;a lrkafkls” m1Odkfhls”
idokafkls’ ujkafkls” b;d Wiiah” fnokafkls” jiZ. lr.kafkls” i;ajhskag
msfhls” ta huz hym;a nUl2 jsiska wms ujk ,oaodyq fjuqo” Tyq ks;Hh”
taldka;h iodld,slh” fjkia fkdjk .;sfhka hqla;h” iodld,sl jia;@ka iu.
iuznkaOjQ l, tfiau isgskafkah’ ta hym;a nUq jsiska wms ujk ,oaodyq fjuq”
ta wms wks;Hh” i:sr ke;’ wdhqI wvqh” isgs Njfhka pq;j fuz wd;au Ndjhg
wdfuuq))hs’ fuz ta m1:u lreKhs’


[\q 15/]

9′
fojeksj uyfKks” l1Svdfjka kefikakd kuz fojsfhla we;af;ah’ Tyq fndfyda
fjz,djla iskdfjys;a” l1Svdfjys;a we,S jdih lrhs’ Tyqf.a is; uq<dfjz’
isys uq<dj ksid ta fojshd osjH YrSrhfhka pq;fjz’

0′
))uyfKks” fuz ldrKh olskakg ,efnz’ tkuz+ tla;rd i;ajfhla ta osjH
f,dalfhka pq;j fuz usksia njg ths’ fuz wd;au Ndjhg wd Tyq .sysf.h w;yer
f.dia Ydikfhys mejsos fjhs’ .sysf.hska f.dia Ydikhg meusKs Tyq flf,ia
ySk lsrSfuz jShH! fldg” tu jShH! mqyqKQlr” tu jShH! kej; kej; fhoSug
meusK” wm1udohg meusK” fydZoska Ndjkd lsrSfuka huzfia is; tlZ. lr.;a jsg
;ukaf.a fmr cd;sh isys flfrAo” bka u;2 isys fkdflfrAo” tfiajQ isf;a
;;a;ajhla ,nhs’

-’
Tyq fufia lshhs+))huz ta mskaj;a fojs flfkla l1Svdfjka fkdjekiqfkao”
Tyq b;d fndfyda ld,hla iskdiSuz l1Svd wdoshg fkdmeusK jdih lrhs’ fndfyda
fjz,djla iskdiSuz l1Svd wdosfhys fkdfhoS jdih lrk Tjqkaf.a isysh
uq<d fkdfjz’ isys fkduq<djSfuka ta fojsfhda ta wd;auNdjfhka pq;
fkdfjz’ Tyq ks;HjQfjda taldka;jQfjda” iodld,sl jQfjda” fkdfjkiajk .;s
we;af;daj” iodld,sljQ jia;2fuka tfiau isgs;a’ huz tnZoqjQ wms b;d jevsjQ
l1Svdfjka la,dka;jSuqo” ta wms wOsl fjz,djla iskd fl<sfhys we,S
iemehka hqla;j jdih lruq’ jevs fjz,djla iskdiSuz l1Svd wdosfhys fhoS
jdih l<djQ wfma isys uQ<djsh’ uq<djSfukau wms ta osjH Ndjfhka
pq;jS wks;HjSuq’ ia:sr ke;sjSuq’ iqZM wdhqI we;af;da jQuzy’ uefrk iajNdj
we;sjSfuz usksia njg wdfjuq))hs lshdh’

3=’
;2kajeksjo” uyfKks” ))ufkdmfodisl)) *is; ls,qgqjSu( kuz fojsfhla we;’
Tyq fndfyda fjz,d fl1daO is;ska Tjqfkdjqka foi n,hs’ is; ls,qgq lr.kS’
ta fojshd ta osjHNdjfhka pq;fjz’

33′ ))uyfKks” fujeks fohla isoqfjz’ tla;rd i;ajfhla ta osjH Ndjfhka pq;j fuf,djg ths’


[\q 16/]

flf,iqka
ySk lrk hym;a l,amkdjg meusK fujeksjQ isf;ys iudOsh ,nhs’ ta iudOshg
.sh is;ska fmr jsiQ ta cd;sh isys flfrA” bka wE;g isys fkdflfrA’

34′
Tyq fufia lshhs+ ))huz ta mskaj;a fojsfhda is; ls,qgq lrkafkda fkdfj;a
kuz Tjqyq oSrA> ld,hla Tjqfkdjqka foi fldam is;ska fkdn,;a kuz tjsg
Tjqyq jevs l,la Tjqfkdjqka fldam is;ska fkdn,d Tjqfkdjqka flfrys is;a
oqIag fkdflfr;a’ Tjqfkdjqka flfrys oqIag is;a ke;s Tjqyq fjfyi kqjQ YrSr
we;af;dao” fjfyi kqjQ is;a we;af;dao fj;a’ ta fojsfhda osjH wd;au
Ndjfhka pq; fkdfj;a’ Tjqyq ks;Hh” i:srh” iodld,slh” fkdfmrf,k iajNdj
we;shy’ iodld,sl *foa( fuka tfiau isgs;s’ kuq;a wms huz lreKlska is;a
ls,qgq lr .ksuqo” tjsg wms ta fojq Njfhka pq;j fufia wks;Hh” wi:srh”
wdhqI wvq” pq;jk iajNdj we;s fuz usksi;a njg meusKsfhuq))hs’ fuz ta
;2kajk lreKhs’

35′*mrsjrA;k fodaIhla we;(


[\q 17/]

36′
))uyfKks” fl<jrla we; fl<jrla ke;hhs woyk iuyr uyK nuqfKda
f,ddalh fl<jrla we; fl<jrla ke;hhs lreKq i;rlska m1ldY lr;s’

37′
))uyfKks” fuz f,dalfhys huz uyfKla fyda nuqfKla fyda huz fia is; tlZ.lr
.;a l, *ilaj, fl<jr fldg( is;Sfuka f,dalfha fl<jrla we;ehs is;
tlZ. lsrSula we;sj jdih lrhs’ Tyq fufia lshhs’ ))yd;ami jgjQ fuz
f,dalfha fl<jrla we;af;ah’ tfia lSug fya;2 l2ulao$ uu flf,ia ke;s lrk
jShH! fldg” ta jShH! kej; kej; mqyqKq fldg wm1udoj hym;a l,amkdj
we;sfldg huz fia is; tlZ. lr.;a l, fl<jrla we;s f,dalfha jdih
flfruzo” tnZoq is;a tlZ. jSula ,nd .;af;us’ fuz fya;2fjka uu f,dalh
fl<jrla we;sj yd;amiska jgjQ nj oksus))’ fuz m<uqjeks lreK fuka
m1ldY lr;s’

38′
))fojeksjo uyfKks” huz uyfKla fyda nuqfKla fyda *ilaj, fl<jr fldg(
is;Sfuka f,dalfha fl<jrla we;ehs is; tlZ. lsrSula we;sj jdih lrhs’
Tyq fufia lshhs’ ))fuz f,dalh wkka;h’ fl<jrla ke;af;ah’ tfia lSug
fya;2 l2ulao$ uu flf,ia ke;s lrk jShH! fldg huz fia is; tlZ. lr.;a l,
huz fia f,dj fl<jrla ke;ehs oekSula we;sj f,dalfha jdih flfruzo”
tnZoq is;a tlZ. jSula ,nd .;af;us’ fuhska f,dalh wkka;h’ fl<jrla
ke;af;ahhs oksus))’

fuz fojeks lreK fuka m1ldY lr;s’

39′ ));2kajeksjo uyfKks” fuz f,dalfhys huz uyfKla fyda nuqfKla fyda huz fia is; tlZ.lr .;a l, iudOs.; is; Wvska hgska fkdjvd


[\q 18/]

yryg
jevQ nejska f,dalfha Wvska hgska fl<jrla we;ehs yryg fl<jrla
ke;ehs hk ps;a; iudOshla ,nd jdih lrhs’ Tyq fufia lshhs’ ))fuz f,dalh
fl<jrla we;af;ao fl<jrla ke;af;ao fjhs’ ))fuz f,dalh fl<jrla
we;’ fl<jrla yd;amiskau we;e))hs fufia huz uyK nuqfKda lsh;ao
Tjqkaf.a ta lSu fndrefjz’ ))fuz f,dalh fl<jrla we; *ke;( yd;amiska
jgjS we; *ke;e())hs fufia uyK nuqfKda lsh;ao Tjqkaf.a ta lSuo fndrefjz’

fuz
f,dalh fl<jrla we;af;ao” fl<jrla ke;af;ao fjhs’ tfia lSug fya;2
l2ulao$ uu flf,ia ke;s lrk jShH! fldg huz fia is; tlZ. lr.;a l, f,dj Wv
hg fl<jrla we;s njg ,l2Kq we;af;a hhso yryg fl<jrla ke;s njg ,l2Kq
we;af;a hhso tnZoq OHdkhla ,en jdih lrus’ fuhska uu f,dalh fl<jrla
we;ehso ke;ehso oksus))’ fuz ;2kajeks lreK fuka m1ldY lr;s’

30′
))i;rjeksjo uyfKks” fuys ;rAlfhka jsuiSu lr n,kakdjQ huz uyfKla fyda
nuqfKla we;ao Tyq ;rAl udrA.fhka jsuid ne,Sfuka ;ukaf.a jegySu wkqj
fufia lshhs’ ))fuz f,dalh fl<jrla we;af;a ke;” fl<jrla ke;af;a
ke;’ huz ta uyK nuqfKda fuz f,dalh fl<jrla we;ehso” yd;amiskau jgjS
;sfnzhhso lsh;a kuz Tjqkaf.a ta lSu fndreh”

huz
ta uyK nuqfKda fuz f,dalh fl<jrla ke;ehso” yd;amiskau jgjS ke;ehso
lsh;a kuz ta lSu;a fndreh’ huz ta uyK nuqfKda fuz f,dalh fl<jrla
we;ehso” fl<jrla ke;ehso lsh;ao Tjqkaf.a lSu fndreh’ fuf,dj
fl<jrla we;af;a ke;’ fuf,dj fl<jrla ke;af;a ke;))’ fuz ta i;rjeks
lreKhs’

3-’
))uyfKks huz uyK nuqfKda fl<jrla we;” fl<jrla ke; hhs woyd
fl<jrla we; fl<jrla ke; hk fuz lreKq i;rska m1ldY lr;s’ fuz
ish,af,da fuz lreKq i;rska fyda uska tla lreKlska fyda tfia m1ldY lr;a’
fuz m1ldYhg uska msg;a wksla lreKla ke;))’


[\q 19/]

4=’
))uyfKks ta fuz lreKq ;:d.;fhda oks;s’ fuz jeros u; fufia .;a wh fufia
;SrKh lr.;a wh funZoq .;s we;af;da fj;a” funZoq mrf,djla we;af;da fj;a
hkqhs’ ;:d.;fhda tho oks;s’ ta oekqu *f,daN” oafjzY” fudayfhka we;sjQ(
;SrKhla fkdfjz’ *;rAl wdosfhka( ;SrKhla fkdlrk ;:d.;hkaf.a flf,ia ksjSu
;uka jsiskau wjfndaO lrk ,os’

uyfKks”
fjzokdjkaf.a ke.Suo” neiSuo” N2la;s jsZoSuo” m1;sM,o” yslauSuo we;syegs
oek ;:d.;fhda we,aula fkdfldg flf,iqkaf.ka usoqfkdah’ th ;:d.;fhda Wiia
{dKfhka ;ukau oek jodr;s’ thska *ta OrAufhka( ;:d.;hkaf.a .2K we;syegs
lshkafkda fydZoska lsh;a))’

43′
))uyfKks iuyr uyK nuqfKda )wurd jsfCIm) *w;g wiqfkdjk wdZoqka( kuz
weoySula we;af;da fj;a’ ta ta ;ekoS m1Yak weiQ l, lreKq i;rlska )wurd
jsfCIm) jQfjda jpk oud .eiSfuka )wurd jsfCImhg) meusfK;a))’

44′
))uyfKks” fuz f,dalfhys huz uyfKla fyda nuqfKla fyda fuz l2i,ahhs we;s
yegs fkdokshs’ fufia Tyq fndre lSug Nhska fndre lSug ,cAcdfjka fuz
l2i,ahhs fkdmji;s’ fuz wl2i,ehso fkdmji;s’ ta ta ;ek m1Yak weiQ l, )wurd
jsfCIm) kuz jpk oud .eiSug meusfKA’ fuz m1:u lreKhs))’

45′ ))fojeksjo uyfKks” fuz f,dalfhys huz uyfKla fyda nuqfKla fyda fuz l2i,ahhs yrsyegs fkdokshs’ fuz wl2i,ahhs yrsyegs fkdokshs’

fufia
Tyq ;o we,aug Nhska” ;o we,aug ,cAcdfjka fuz l2i,ahhs fkdmji;s’ fuz
wl2i,ahehs fkdmji;s’ ta ta ;ek m1Yak weiQ l, )wurd jsfCIm) kuz jpk oud
.eiSug meusfKA))’


[\q 20/]

46′ ));2kajeksjo uyfKks” fuys huz uyfKla fyda nuqfKla fyda fuz l2i,ahhs yrs wdldr fkdokshs’ fuz wl2i,ahhs yrs wdldr fkdokshs’

uyfKks
wurd jsfCImljQ iuyr nuqfKda huz lreKlg meusK hula fya;2fldg f.k ta ta
;ekoS m1Yak weiQ l, jpk oud .eiSu kuz jQ wurd jsfCImhg meusfK;ao” fuz ta
;2kajeks lreKhs))’

47′
))i;rjeksjo uyfKks” fuys huz uyfKla fyda nuqfKla kqjK ke;sj f,dl2
fudavfhla fjz’ Tyq wkqjK nejska fndfyda fudav nejska ta ta ;ekoS m1Yak
l< l, )wurd jsfCIm) kuzjQ jpk oud .eiSug meusfKA))’

uyfKks
wurd jsfCImljQ iuyr nuqfKda huz lreKlg meusK hula fya;2fldg f.k ta ta
;ekoS m1Yak l< l, jpk oud .eiSu kuz jQ wurd jsfCImhg meusfK;ao” fuz
ta i;rjeks lreKhs))’

48′ ))fuz i;rska fyda thska tllska fyda tfia meusfK;a’ fuhska msg;a lsis lreKlska fkdfjz))’

49′ ))uyfKks ta fuz lreKq ;:d.;fhda oks;s’))

))uyfKks”
iuyr uyK nuqfKda wfya;2l *bfnz( Wmam;a;s we;ehs jsYajdi lr;s’ Tjqyq
lreKq follska wd;auho f,dalho *bfnz( wfya;2lj Wmkafka hhs m1ldY lr;s’

40′
))uyfKks” ))rEmh muKla we;a;d)) kuz fojs flfkla fjz’ Tyq cSjs;h;a
B<Z. cSjs;h;a tl;2 lrK is; *m1;sikaOs ps;a;h( my<jSfuka ta foaj
Ndjfhka pq; fj;a’ Tyq fufia lshhs’+ ))wd;auho f,dalho fya;2jla ke;sj
*bfnz( Wmkafkah’ tfia lshkafka ukao$ uu mQrAjfhys fkdjSus’ ta uu fmr
fkdjS *fkdisg( oeka i;aj Ndjhg meusKsfhus))’


[\q 21/]

4-’
))fojeksjo uyfKks” fuz f,dalfhys huzlsis uyfKla fyda nuqfKla fyda ;rAl
lrkafklaj” jsuikafklaj fufia lshhs))’ ))wd;auho f,dalho wfya;2lj *bfnzu(
Wmkafkah))’

5=’
))uyfKks” ta uyK nuqfKda fya;2jla ke;s Wmam;a;sh we;ehs jsYajdi lr fuz
lreKq folska wd;auho f,dalho *bfnz( fya;2jla ke;sj Wmkafka hhs m1ldY
lr;s’ ta ish,af,dau fuz lreKq folska fyda thska tllska fyda tfia m1ldY
lr;s’ fuhska msg lreKlska fkdfjz))’

53′
))uyfKks” ta fuz uyK nuqfKda w;S;h .ek l,amkd lrkafkdaj” w;S;h .ek
weoySuz we;af;daj” w;S;h .ek lreKq oy wglska fkdfhla u; olajk jpk lsh;s’
ta ish,af,dau fuz lreKq oy wfgka fyda fudjqka w;rska tllska fyda lsh;s’
fuhska msg; jQjla fkdlsh;s))’

54′
))uyfKks” wkd.;h l,amkd lrkakdjQ” wkd.;h .ek jsYajdi we;s” wkd.;h .ek
lreKq y;,sia y;rlska fkdfhla u; olajk jpk lshkakdjQ uyK nuqfKda
we;a;dyqh))’

55′
))uyfKks” urKska u;2 wd;aufhys ,l2Kq *ix{d( we;af;ahhs u; we;s iuyr uyK
nuqfKda we;a;dyqh’ urKska u;af;ys ix{d we;s wd;auho oyih wdldrhlska
Tjqyq m1ldY lr;a’

wd;auh
rEm iys;h” ks;Hh” urKska u;2 ,l2Kq we;af;ahhs m1ldY lr;s’ wd;auh
wremSh” ks;Hh” urKska u;2 ,l2Kq we;af;ahhs m1ldY lr;s’ wd;auh rEm
we;af;ao rEm ke;af;ao fjhs” ks;Hh” urKska u;2 ,l2Kq we;af;ahhs m1ldY
lr;s’ wd;auh rEmhla ke;af;auo wrEm ke;af;a fkdfjhso fjhs’


[\q 22/]

wd;auh
fl<jrla *wka;hla( we;af;a fjhs’ wd;auh fl<jrla ke;af;a fjhs’
wd;auh fl<jrla we;af;ao ke;af;ao fjhs’ wd;auh fl<jrla ke;af;ao
fkdu ke;af;ao fjhs’ wd;auh tlu ,l2Kq j,ska hq;2 fjhs’ wd;auh fkdfhla
,l2Kq j,ska hq;2 fjhs’ wd;auh b;d l2vd ,l2Kq j,ska hq;2 fjhs’ wd;auh
iSudjla ke;s ,l2fKka hq;2 fjhs’ wd;auh fkdwkqudk iemfhka hq;2 fjhs’
wd;auh fkdwkqudk oqlska hq;2 fjhs’ wd;auh oqliem foflka hq;2 fjhs’
wd;auh fkdoqlska hq;2 fkdiefmka hq;2 fjhs’ ta wd;auh ks;Hh” urKska u;2
,l2Kq we;af;ahhs m1ldY lr;s’ ta ish,af,da fuz fidf<dia jia;2fjka tfia
m1ldY lr;a’ ke;fyd;a fuhska tllska m1ldY lr;a’ fuhska msg;jQ tllska
m1ldY fkdlr;a))’

56′
))uyfKks” iuyr uyK nuqfKda urKska u;2 ,l2Kq ke;ehs woykafkdaj lreKq
wglska urKska u;2 wd;auh urKska u;2 ,l2Kq ke;a;la fldg m1ldY lr;a))’

57′
))urKska miq rEm we;s ks;H wd;auhla fjhs’ th ,l2Kq ke;af;ahhs m1ldY
lr;a’ rEmh ke;s wd;auhla fjhs’ th ,l2Kq ke;af;ahhs m1ldY lr;a’ rEmh
we;a;djQo rEmh ke;a;djQo wd;auhla fjhs’ rEmh ke;a;djQo wrEmh ke;a;djQo
wd;auhla fjhs’ wkka;hla we;a;djQo wd;auhla fjhs’ wkka;hla ke;a;djQo
wd;auhla fjhs’ wkka;hla we;a;djQo” wkka;hla ke;a;djQo wd;auhla fjhs’
wkka;hla fkdu we;a;djQo” wkka;hla fkdu ke;a;djQo wd;auhla fjhs’ th
urKska u;2 ks;HjQ nejska ,l2Kq ke;af;ahhs m1ldY lr;a))’

58′
))uyfKks” iuyr uyK nuqfKda u;2 fkdu ix{d *,l2Kq( we;s” fkdu wix{d
*,l2Kla kqjQfoa( we;s u; we;af;da fj;a’ Tyq lreKq wglska urKska u;2
wd;auh fkdu ix{d fkdu wix{d fldg mKj;a))’


[\q 23/]

59′
))urKska u;2 wd;auh ks;Hh” rEm we;a;lah” fkdu ix{d we;s fkdu wix{d
we;shhs m1ldY lr;a’ urKska u;2 wrEmSjQ wd;auh ks;Hh” fkdu ix{d we;sjQ
fkdu wix{d we;sjQhhs m1ldY lr;a’ rEmSjQo wrEmSjQo wd;auh ks;Hh” fkdu
ix{d we;sjQ fkdu wix{d we;sjQhhs m1ldY lr;a’ fkdu rEm we;s fkdu wrEm
we;s wd;auh ks;Hh” fkdu ix{d we;sjQ fkdu wix{d we;sjQhhs m1ldY lr;a’
fl<jrla we;s wd;auhla fjhs’ th ks;Hh” urKska u;2 fkdu ix{d we;s fkdu
wix{d we;shhs m1ldY lr;a’ fl<jrla ke;s wd;auhla fjhs’ th ks;Hh”
urKska u;2 fkdu ix{d we;s fkdu wix{d we;shhs m1ldY lr;a’ fl<jrla
we;a;djQo ke;a;djQo wd;auhla fjhs’ th ks;Hh” urKska u;2 fkdu ix{d we;s
fkdu wix{d we;shhs m1ldY lr;a’ fl<jrla ke;a;djQo fl<jrla fkdu
we;a;djQo wd;auhla fjhs’ th ks;Hh” urKska u;2 fkdu ix{d we;s fkdu wix{d
we;shhs m1ldY lr;a))’

50′
))uyfKks” iuyr uyK nuqfKda ixidrhla ke;ehs jsYajdi lr i;ajhdf.a
ke;sjSu” jskdYh iy Njh ke;sjS hEu lreKq y;lska m1ldY lr;a))’ ))mskaj;”
i;r uyd N2;hkaf.ka yg.;a ujqmshkaf.a iuznkaOfhka Wmka rAEmhla we;s fuz
wd;auh YrSrfhka ;ajka jSfuka ke;s jkafkah” jskdY jkafkah” urKska u;2
fkdjkafkah’ mskaj;” fumuKlska fuz wd;auh fydZoska ke;sjS .sfhah))’

5-’
fjk wfhla Tyqg fufia lshhs’+ ))mskaj;” Tn lshk ta wd;auh we;af;ah” th
we;af;a ke;ehs fkdlshus’ mskaj;” fuf;lska ta wd;auh fydZodldr ke;sjS
.sfha ke;’ mskaj;” rEmhla we;s” ldu f,dalfha yeisfrk lEu lk wkH osjH
wd;auhla we;af;ah’ th Tn fkdokshs” fkdolshs’ uu th oksus” olsus’ mskaj;”
ta wd;auh YrSrfhka fjkajQ miq ke;sjS hkafkah’ urKska u;2 fkdjkafkah’
mskaj;” tmuKlska fuz wd;auh ke;sjS .sfha fjhs))’


[\q 24/]

6=’
fjk wfhla Tyqg fufia lshhs’+ ))mskaj;” Tn lshk ta wd;auh we;” th ke;ehs
fkdlshus’ mskaj;” fumuKlska ta wd;auh fydZodldr ke;sjS fkd.sfhah’
mskaj;” rEmhla we;s” is;a Wmojk ,o” ish,q wjhj we;s” oekSug Wmldr jk
fkdmsrsyqk wjhjhka we;s wkH osjH wd;auhla we;af;ah’ th Tn fkdokshs”
fkdolshs’ uu th oksus” olsus’ mskaj;” hulska ta wd;auh YrSrfhka
fjkajSfuka isfZokafkah’ urKska u;2 fkdjkafkah’ mskaj;” tmuKlska fuz
wd;auh ukdfldg ke;sjS .sfha fjhs))’

63′
fjk wfhla Tyqg fufia lshhs’+ ))mskaj;” Tn lshk ta wd;auh we;” th ke;ehs
fkdlshus’ mskaj;” fumuKlska ta wd;auh fydZodldr ke;sjS fkd.sfhah’
mskaj;” wkH yeu ldrKhlska rEm ,l2Kq msglsrSfuka kefk ,l2Kq neiSfuka
fkdfhla wd;au ,l2Kq wu;l jSfuka wdldYh ksula ke;ehs ))wdldYdk[apdh;k))
kuz m<uqjeks wrEm n1yau f,dalhg meusKs wd;auhla we;’ th Tn fkdokshs”
fkdolshs’ uu th oksus” olsus’ mskaj;” huz lf,l ta wd;auh YrSrfhka fjkaj
ke;sjS hkafkao” jskdYjS hkafkao” urKska u;2 fkdjkafkao” mskaj;”
fumuKlska fuz wd;auh fydZodldr ke;sjS .sfha fjhs))’

64′
fjk wfhla Tyqg fufia lshhs’+ ))mskaj;” Tn lshk ta wd;auh we;” th ke;ehs
fkdlshus’ mskaj;” fuf;lska ta wd;auh fydZodldr ke;sjS fkd.sfhah’
mskaj;” yeu wdldrfhka ))wdldYdk[apdh;k)) kuz m<uqjeks wrEm n1yau
f,dalfhka blaujS is; fl<jrla ke;ehs ))js[[dK[apdh;kh)) kuz n1yau
f,dalhg meusKs wd;auhla we;’ th Tn fkdokshs” fkdolshs’ uu th oksus”
olsus’ mskaj;” huz ld,hloS wd;auh YrSrfhka fjkaj ke;sjS hkafkao” jskdYjS
hkafkao” urKska u;2 fkdjkafkao” mskaj;” fumuKlska fuz wd;auh fydZodldr
ke;sjS .sfha fjhs))’


[\q 25/]

65′
fjk wfhla Tyqg fufia lshhs’+ ))mskaj;” Tn lshk ta wd;auh we;” th ke;ehs
fkdlshus’ mskaj;” fuf;lska ta wd;auh fydZodldr ke;sjS fkd.sfhah’

mskaj;”
yeu wdldrfhka ))js[[dK[apdh;kh)) kuz n1yau f,dalfhka blaujS lsisjla
ke;ehs ))wdls[apd[a[dh;kh)) kuz n1yau f,dalhg meusKs wd;auhla we;’ th Tn
fkdokshs” fkdolshs’ uu th oksus” olsus’ mskaj;” huz ld,hloS ta wd;auh
YrSrfhka fjkajS ke;sjS hkafkao” urKska u;2 fkdjkafkao” mskaj;” fumuKlska
fuz wd;auh fydZodldr ke;sjS .sfha hhs)) fufia huz flfkla i;ajhdf.a
ke;sjS hdu” jskdYh” Njh ke;sjS hdu m1ldY lrhs))’

66′
fjk wfhla Tyqg fufia lshhs’+ ))mskaj;” Tn lshk ta wd;auh we;” th ke;ehs
fkdlshus’ mskaj;” fuf;lska ta wd;auh fydZodldr ke;sjS fkd.sfhah’
mskaj;” yeu wdldrfhka ))js[[dK[apdh;kh)) kuz n1yau f,dalfhka blaujS
lsisjla ke;ehs ))wdls[apd[a[dh;kh)) kuz n1yau f,dalh blau fldg fuh
Ydka;h” fuh usysrshhs ))fkaji[a[dkdi[a[dh;kh)) kuz n1yau f,dalhg meusKs
wd;auhla we;’ th Tn fkdokshs” fkdolshs’ uu th oksus” olsus’ mskaj;” huz
ld,hloS ta wd;auh YrSrfhka fjkajS ke;sjS hkafkao” jskdY jkafkao” urKska
u;2 fkdjkafkao” mskaj;” fumuKlska ta wd;auh fydZodldr ke;sjS .sfha hhs))
fufia huz flfkla i;ajhdf.a ke;sjS hdu” jskdYh” Njh ke;sjS hdu m1ldY
lrhs))’

67′ ))uyfKks” iuyr uyK nuqfKda *osgzGOuzu ksnzndkjdo( fuz wd;au NdjfhaoSu ksrAjdKh w;afjzhhs woykafkda fj;s))’

68′
))uyfKks” fuz f,dalfhys huz uyfKla fyda nuqfKla fyda funZoq u; we;af;la
funZoq weoySuz we;af;la fjhs’ ))mskaj;” huz osfkl fuz wd;auh mxpldu


[\q 26/]

.2Kfhka hq;2jQfha” w;ajQfha bkaos1hhka mskjdo” fumuKlska” fuz wd;auh fuz wd;au NdjfhaoSu ksrAjdKhg meusKsfha fjhs)) lshdh))’

69′
fjk wfhla Tyqg fufia lshhs’+ ))Tn lshk ta wd;auh we;” th ke;ehs
fkdlshus’ mskaj;” fuz wd;auh fumuKlska fuz wd;aufhau ksjKg fkdmeusKsfha
fjhs’ Bg fya;2 l2ulao$ luziem wks;Hh” oqlh’ fmrf<k wdldrh’ *ldu
iemfha( fmr<Su” fjkiajSu ksid fYdal” je<mSuz” oqla” lK.dgq iy ;o
fYdalh Wmoskafkdah’ mskaj;” huz ld,hloS ta wd;auh ldufhka fjkaj wl2Y,
OrAuhkaf.ka fjkaj” is; wruqKg k.d wruqfKys is; yiqrejd jSfjzlfhka yg.;a
m1S;s iys; iem we;s m<uqjeks OHdkhg meusK jdih flfrAo” mskaj;
tumKlska fuz wd;auh fuz wd;aufhaoSu ksjKg meusKsfha fjhs))’

60′
fjk wfhla Tyqg fufia lshhs’+ ))Tn lshk ta wd;auh we;” th ke;ehs
fkdlshus’ mskaj;” ta wd;auh fumuKlska fuz wd;aufhaoS ksjKg meusKsfha
ke;’ Bg fya;2 l2ulao$ tys huz jsiZod n,k jspdrfhda fj;ao” Tjqka ksid ta
OHdkh ,dul fia fmfkhs’ mskaj;” huz ld,hloS fuz wd;auh jsiZod n,k
jspdrhskaf.a i;2gqjSfuka isf;a jsfYaI i;2gq .;sh iy tlZ.luska hqla;jQ”
jsiZod ne,Sfuka f;drjQ” jspdr rys;jQ” iudOsfhka we;sjQ m1S;sh iy iem
we;s fojeks OHdkhg meusK jdih flfrAo” mskaj; fumKlska fuz wd;auh fuz
wd;aufhaoSu ksjKg meusKsfha fjhs))’

6-’
fjk wfhla Tyqg fufia lshhs’+ ))Tn lshk ta wd;auh we;” th ke;ehs
fkdlshus’ mskaj;” ta wd;auh fumuKlska fuz wd;aufhaoS ksjKg meusKsfha
ke;’ Bg fya;2 l2ulao$ tys m1S;sho” isf;a WvZ.2 njo fya;2fldg f.k ta
OHdkh ,dulhhs fmfka’


[\q 27/]

mskaj;”
huz ld,hloS fuz wd;auh m1S;sfha fkdwe,Sfuka isys we;sj kqjK we;sj
Wkkaoqjla we;sj jdih lrhso” YrSrfhka iem jsZoSo” W;a;ufhda h OHdkhlg
WkkaoQ ke;snj we;af;dah” isys we;af;dah” iem jsfjzlh we;af;dahhs lsh;ao”
ta ;2kajeks OHdkhg meusK jdih flfrAo” mskaj; fumKlska fuz wd;auh fuz
wd;aufhaoSu ksjKg meusKsfha fjhs))’

7=’
fjk wfhla Tyqg fufia lshhs’+ ))Tn lshk ta wd;auh we;” th ke;ehs
fkdlshus’ mskaj;” ta wd;auh fumuKlska fuz wd;aufhaoS ksjKg meusKsfha
ke;’ Bg fya;2 l2ulao$ tys iemhhs isf;ys OHdkfhka ke.sg ke.sg iemh kej;
isys lsrSu fjzo” thska th ,dulhhs yefZ.a’ mskaj;” huz lf,l fuz wd;auh
iem ke;s lsrSfukao” oql ke;s lsrSfukao” m<uqfjkau i;2g wi;2g ke;sj
hEfuka oql ke;s iem ke;s WfmaCIdj ksid isysfha mrsYqOsh we;s y;rjeks
OHdkhg meusK jdih flfrAo” mskaj; fumKlska fuz wd;auh fuz wd;aufhaoSu
ksjKg meusKsfha fjhs))’

73′
))uyfKks” ta uyK nuqfKda *f,dal( wjidkh .ek l,amkd lr *f,dal( wjidkh
.ek u; we;slr f.k lreKq y;,sia i;rlska *f,dal( wjidkh .ek fkdfhla u;
olajk jpk lsh;s))’

74′
))uyfKks” huzlsis uyK nuqfKda *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau l,amkd lr;ao”
*f,dal( wjidkh .ek l,amkd lr;ao” *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh l,amkd
lr;ao” *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh .ek u; we;sf;da fj;ao” *f,dalfha(
mgka .ekau wjidkh .ek lreKq yeg follska fkdfhla wdldr u; olajk jpk
lsh;s))’

75′
))uyfKks” fuz ldrKfhys u; yeg fol w;2frka hulska ta uyK nuqfKda
iodld,sl njl woykafkda wd;auho f,dalho iodld,sl fldg m1ldY lr;ao”


[\q 28/]

huz
uyK nuqfKda fldgila iodld,slh” fldgila iodld,sl fkdfjzh hk u; we;af;daj
wd;auho f,dalho fldgila iodld,slhhso” fldgila iodld,sl fkdfjzhhso m1ldY
lr;a))’

76′ ))huz ta uyK nuqfKda ksula we; ksula ke; hk u;h we;af;daj f,dalfha ksula we;s njo ke;s njo m1ldY lr;a))’

huz
ta uyK nuqfKda *wdZoka fuka( wiqfkdjk .;s we;af;daj ta ta ldrKfhys
m1Yak jspdrk ,oaodyq jpkhkaf.a jshjq,a .;shg fl,jrla ke;s jshjq,a .;shg
meusfKkao”

77′ huz ta uyK nuqfKda wfya;2lj Wmkafkah hk hk u;h we;af;daj wd;auho” f,dalho wfya;2lj Wmka nj m1ldY lr;ao”

78′ huz ta uyK nuqfKda wjidkh l,amkd lrkafkdaj wjidkh .ek u; we;af;daj wjidkh .ek u; m1ldY lr;ao”

urKska u;2 wd;auh ,l2Kq we;a;lahhs u; we;af;daj urKska u;2 wd;auh ,l2Kq we;a;la fldg m1ldY lr;ao”

urKska u;2 wd;auh ,l2Kq ke;a;lahhs u; we;af;daj urKska u;2 wd;auh ,l2Kq ke;a;la fldg m1ldY lr;ao”

urKska
u;2 wd;auh .ek ))m1lg ix{djla ke;af;ah)) *fkjix{d kdix{( hk u;
we;af;daj urKska u;2 wd;auh m1lg ix{djla ke;s fohla fldg m1ldY lr;ao”

ixidrhla ke;ehs u; we;af;daj lreKq i;lska i;ajhdf.a *cSjs;fhka( isZoSu” jskdYh” Njh ke;sjSu m1ldY lr;ao”

fuz cd;sfhau ksjka w;afjzhhs u; we;af;daj i;ajhdf.a fuz cd;sfhau ksjka w;ajSu m1ldY lr;ao”


[\q 29/]

*f,dal( wjidkh l,amkd lrkafkdaj *f,dal( wjidkh .ek u; we;af;daj *f,dal( wjidkh .ek fkdfhla u; m1ldY lr;ao”

*f,dalfha(
mgka .ekau l,amkd lr;ao” *f,dal( wjidkh .ek l,amkd lr;ao” *f,dalfha(
mgka .ekau wjidkh l,amkd lr;ao” *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh .ek u;
we;sf;daj *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh .ek fkdfhla wdldr u; m1ldY lr;ao”

iodld,sl njl woykafkda wd;auho f,dalho iodld,sl fldg m1ldY lr;ao”

fldgila
iodld,slh” fldgila iodld,sl fkdfjzh hk u; we;af;daj wd;auho f,dalho
fldgila iodld,sl fldg” fldgila iodld,sl fkdfldg m1ldY lr;ao”

th bkaos1hhkaf.a iamrAYh ksidfjz’

79′
))ksula we; ksula ke;)) hk u;h we;af;daj lreKq i;rlska f,dalfha ksula
we;s njo ke;s njo m1ldY lr;ao” tho bkaos1hhkaf.a iamrAYh ksidfjz’

*wdZoka
fuka( wiqfkdjk .;s we;af;daj ta ta ldrKfhys m1Yak jspdrk ,oaodyq
jpkhkaf.a jshjq,a .;shg fl,jrla ke;s jshjq,a .;shg meusfKoao tho
bkaos1hhkaf.a iamrAYh ksidfjz’

70′
*wd;auho f,dalho( wfya;2lj Wmkafkah hk u;h we;af;daj wd;auho” f,dalho
wfya;2lj Wmkakla fldg m1ldY lr;ao” tho bkaos1hhkaf.a iamrAYh ksidfjz’

f,dal
wjidkh l,amkd lr *f,dal( wjidkh .ek u; we;af;daj *f,dal( wjidkh .ek
fkdfhla wdldr u; m1ldY lr;ao” tho bkaos1hhkaf.a iamrAYh ksidfjz’

urKska
u;2 wd;auh ,l2Kq we;a;lahhs u; we;af;daj urKska u;2 wd;auh ,l2Kq
we;a;la fldg m1ldY lr;ao” tho bkaos1hhkaf.a iamrAYh ksidfjz’

7-’
))uyfKks” huz uyK nuqfKda urKska u;2 wd;auh ,l2Kq ke;a;lahhs u;
we;af;daj lreKq wglska wd;auh ,l2Kq ke;a;la fldg m1ldY lr;ao” tho
bkaos1hhkaf.a iamrAYh ksidfjz’


[\q 30/]

*wd;auh
ms<snZo( urKska u;2 ))m1lg ix{djla ke;af;ah)) *fkjix{d kdix{( hk u;
we;af;daj urKska u;2 wd;auh m1lg ix{djla ke;s fohla fldg m1ldY lr;ao”
tho bkaos1hhkaf.a iamrAYh ksidfjz’

*wd;auh
.ek( ixidrhla ke;ehs u; we;af;daj i;ajhdf.a *cSjs;fhka( isZoSu” jskdYh”
Njh ke;sjSu m1ldY lr;ao” tho bkaos1hhkaf.a iamrAYh ksidfjz’

fuz cd;sfhau ksjka w;afjzhhs u; we;af;daj i;ajhdf.a fuz cd;sfhau ksjka w;ajSu m1ldY lr;ao” tho bkaos1hhkaf.a iamrAYh ksidfjz’

*f,dal(
wjidkh l,amkd lrkafkdaj *f,dal( wjidkh .ek u; we;af;daj *f,dal( wjidkh
.ek fkdfhla u; m1ldY lr;ao” tho bkaos1hhkaf.a iamrAYh ksidfjz’

*f,dalfha(
mgka .ekau l,amkd lr;ao” *f,dal( wjidkh .ek l,amkd lr;ao” *f,dalfha(
mgka .ekau wjidkh l,amkd lr;ao” *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh .ek u;
we;sf;daj *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh .ek fkdfhla wdldr u; m1ldY lr;ao”
tho bkaos1hhkaf.a iamrAYh ksidfjz’

iodld,sl njla woykafkdaj wd;auho f,dalho iodld,sl fldg m1ldY lr;ao” tho bkaos1hhkaf.a iamrAYh ksidfjz’

fldgila
iodld,slh” fldgila iodld,sl fkdfjzh hk u; we;af;daj wd;auho f,dalho
fldgila iodld,sl fldg” fldgila iodld,sl fkdfldg m1ldY lr;ao” Tjqkaf.a ta
yeZ.Su iamrAYfhka f;drjQjlehs hk fuz ldrKh ienE nj fkdfmfka’

ksula we; ksula ke; hk u;h we;af;daj f,dalfha ksula we;s njo ke;s njo m1ldY lr;ao”


[\q 31/]

Tjqkaf.a ta yeZ.Su iamrAYfhka f;drjQjlehs hk fuz ldrKh ienE nj fkdfmfka’

*wdZoka
fuka( wiqfkdjk .;s we;af;daj ta ta ldrKfhys m1Yak jspdrk ,oaodyq
jpkhkaf.a jshjq,a .;shg fl,jrla ke;s jshjq,a .;shg meusfK;ao” Tjqkaf.a
ta yeZ.Su iamrAYfhka f;drjQjlehs hk fuz ldrKh ienE nj fkdfmfka’

wfya;2lj
Wmkafkah hk u; we;af;daj wd;auho” f,dalho wfya;2lj Wmka nj m1ldY lr;ao”
Tjqkaf.a ta yeZ.Su iamrAYfhka f;drjQjlehs hk fuz ldrKh ienE nj
fkdfmfka’

8=’
*f,dal( wjidkh l,amkd lrkafkdaj wjidkh .ek u; we;af;daj *f,dal( wjidkh
.ek fkdfhla wdldr u; m1ldY lr;ao” Tjqkaf.a ta yeZ.Su iamrAYfhka
f;drjQjlehs hk fuz ldrKh ienE nj fkdfmfka’

urKska
u;2 wd;auh ,l2Kq we;a;lahhs u; we;af;daj urKska u;2 wd;auh ,l2Kq
we;a;la fldg m1ldY lr;ao” Tjqkaf.a ta yeZ.Su iamrAYfhka f;drjQjlehs hk
fuz ldrKh ienE nj fkdfmfka’

urKska
u;2 wd;auh ,l2Kq ke;a;lahhs u; we;af;daj urKska u;2 wd;auh ,l2Kq
ke;a;la fldg m1ldY lr;ao” Tjqkaf.a ta yeZ.Su iamrAYfhka f;drjQjlehs hk
fuz ldrKh ienE nj fkdfmfka’

83′
))uyfKks” huz ta uyK nuqfKda urKska u;2 wd;auh .ek ))m1lg ix{djla
ke;af;ah)) *fkjix{dkdix{( hk u; we;af;daj urKska u;2 wd;auh m1lg ix{djla
ke;s fohla fldg m1ldY lr;ao” Tjqkaf.a ta yeZ.Su iamrAYfhka f;drjQjlehs
hk fuz ldrKh ienE nj fkdfmfka’

ixidrhla
ke;ehs u; we;af;daj i;ajhdf.a *cSjs;fhka( isZoSu” jskdYh” Njh ke;sjSu
m1ldY lr;ao” Tjqkaf.a ta yeZ.Su iamrAYfhka f;drjQjlehs hk fuz ldrKh ienE
nj fkdfmfka’


[\q 32/]

fuz
cd;sfhau ksjka w;afjzhhs u; we;af;daj i;ajhdf.a fuz cd;sfhau ksjka
w;ajSu m1ldY lr;ao” Tjqkaf.a ta yeZ.Su iamrAYfhka f;drjQjlehs hk fuz
ldrKh ienE nj fkdfmfka’

*f,dal(
wjidkh l,amkd lrkafkdaj *f,dal( wjidkh .ek u; we;af;daj *f,dal( wjidkh
.ek fkdfhla u; m1ldY lr;ao” Tjqkaf.a ta yeZ.Su iamrAYfhka f;drjQjlehs hk
fuz ldrKh ienE nj fkdfmfka’

*f,dalfha(
mgka .ekau l,amkd lr;ao” *f,dal( wjidkh .ek l,amkd lr;ao” *f,dalfha(
mgka .ekau wjidkh l,amkd lr;ao” *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh .ek u;
we;sf;daj *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh .ek fkdfhla wdldr u; m1ldY lr;ao”
Tjqkaf.a ta yeZ.Su iamrAYfhka f;drjQjlehs hk fuz ldrKh ienE nj
fkdfmfka’

84′
))uyfKks” huz ta uyK nuqfKda iodld,sl njla woykafkdaj wd;auho f,dalho
iodld,sl fldg m1ldY lr;ao” fldgila iodld,slh” fldgila iodld,sl fkdfjzh
hk u; we;af;da fj;ao” ksula we; ksula ke; hk u; we;af;da fj;ao” *wdZoka
fuka( wiqfkdjk .;s we;af;da fj;ao” *wd;auho f,dalho( wfya;2lj Wmkafkah
hk u; we;af;da fj;ao” *f,dal( wjidkh l,amkd lrkafkda fj;ao” urKska u;2
wd;auh ,l2Kq we;a;lahhs u; we;af;da fj;ao” urKska u;2 wd;auh ,l2Kq
ke;a;lahhs u; we;af;da fj;ao” urKska u;2 wd;auh .ek ))m1lg ix{djla
ke;af;ah)) *fkjix{d kdix{( hk u; we;af;da fj;ao” ixidrhla ke;ehs u;
we;af;da fj;ao” fuz cd;sfhau ksjka w;afjzhhs u; we;af;da fj;ao” *f,dal(
wjidkh l,amkd lrkafkda fj;ao” *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau l,amkd lrkafkda
fj;ao” wjidkh .ek l,amkd lr;ao” *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh l,amkd
lr;ao” *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh .ek u; we;sf;daj *f,dalfha( mgka
.ekau wjidkh .ek fkdfhla wdldr u; m1ldY lr;ao” ta ish,af,dau yh wdldr
iamrAYhkaf.a


[\q 33/]

jEhfuka
iamrAY fldg yeZ.Suz we;slr .kakdyqh’ Tjqkag ))fjzokdfjka ;kaydj fjhs”
;kaydj fya;2fjka ;o we,au fjhs” ;o we,au fya;2fjka Njh fjhs” Njh
fya;2fjka *cd;sh( bmoSu fjhs” bmoSu fya;2fjka osrSu” urK” fYdal”
je<mSuz” oql” lK.dgq” ;o fjfyi yg.ks;a’

uyfKks”
huz lf,l uyfKla yh wdldr iamrAY *iamrAYdh;khkaf.a( Wmam;a;sho” neiSuo”
N2la;s jsZoSuo” m1;sM, jsZoSuo ;;2 f,i okSo Tyq fuz ish,a,gu jvd b;d
Wiia OrAuhka okS))’

85′
))uyfKks” huzlsis uyfKla fyda nuqfKla fyda *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau l,amkd
lrkafkda fyda *f,dal( wjidkh l,amkd lrkafkda fyda” *f,dalfha( mgka
.ekau wjidkh l,amkd lrkafkda fyda” *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh .ek u;
we;sf;daj *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh .ek fkdfhla wdldr u; m1ldY lr;ao”
ta ish,af,da *us:Hd( oef,ys we;2<;a lrk wh tysu u;2fjkakdyqh’
mdfjkakdyqh’ + tys we;2<;a jQjdyQ *c,h hgg .shdyq( u;2fjkakdyq
mdfkkakdyqh’

uyfKks” huz oCI uiqka urkafkla js,lg nei tys uiqka ish,af,da oe, we;2,g lrk ,oaodyq tys neZoqkdyq” lsusfokakyqh” mdfjkakdyqh’

uyfKks”
tf,iskau huz lsis uyfKla fyda nuqfKla fyda *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau l,amkd
lrkafklaj fyda *f,dal( wjidkh l,amkd lrkafklaj fyda” mgka .ekau wjidkh
l,amkd lrkafklaj fyda” *f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh .ek u; we;sf;laj
*f,dalfha( mgka .ekau wjidkh .ek fkdfhla wdldr u; m1ldY lr;ao” ta
ish,af,dau *us:Hd( oef,ys we;2<;a lrk ,oaodyq tysu u;2fjkakdyqh’
lsusfokakyq mdfjkakdyqh’ tys we;2<;a jQjdyQh” oe, we;2<;
neZoqkdyq” u;2fjkakdyq mdfkkakdyqh’

uyfKks” huz fia wU j,af,a kgqj lemqk l, kgqfjz neZoqk ishZM wU f.vs kgqj wkqj hkafkao” uyfKks” tf,iu Njhg we;s wdYdj isZosk,o


[\q 34/]

;:d.;hkaf.a
YrSrh mj;S’ huz;dla YrSrh mj;So” ta ;dla fojz usksiaiq ta YrSrh ols;s’
YrSrh nsZoS fjkajSfuka miq cSjs;h *m1;sikaOs rys;j( msrsyqKq nejska fojs
usksiaiq ;:d.;hka fkdols;s’

86′
fufia jZod< l, wdhqIau;a wdkkao iajduSka jykafia Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag
fufia lshd isgs fial’ ))iajduSks” mqoquhs’ iajduSks” fndfyda mqoquhs’
iajduSks” fuz OrAu l1uhg fudkhuz kula jsh hq;2o$))

))wdkkaoh”
tfia jSkuz” fuz OrAu l1uh ))wrA: cd,))hhs *ku( orj” ))OrAu cd,))hhso th
orj” ))oDIags cd,))hhso th orj” ))ksre;a;r ix.1du jsch))hhso th
orjehs)) Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fufia jod, fial’ i;2gq is;a we;s ta NsCIqyq
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia foiQ OrAuhg meiiQy’ fuz .d:d ke;s iQ;1h *fjhHdlrK
OrAuh( foaYkd lrk l, oi oyila f,dal Od;2j luzmd jsh’


m<uqjk n1yaucd, iQ;1h ksus


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