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06/08/13
945 LESSON 09-06-2013 SUNDAY-FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY தமிழில் திரிபிடக மூன்று தொகுப்புகள் மற்றும் பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள் சுருக்கமான வரலாற்று முன் வரலாறு ஸுத்தபிடக புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள் புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் ஒன்பது மண்டலங்கள் TIPITAKA-ஸுத்தபிடக-போதிசத்தா மேன்மை பொருந்திய நேர்த்தி வாய்ந்த மனிதர் ஸுத்த நீதி வாக்கியம் - விழிப்புணர்வு மேல் ஆஜரா கிருத்தல் - ( மஹா+ ஸதிபத்தான)-Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta- Iமெய்யார்வ தியானம்-IV. சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளின் கூர்ந்த கவனிப்பு-C. புலனுணர்வு கோளங்கள் மீதான பிரிவு (Āyatana Pabba ஆயதன பப்பா)-Section on the Sense Spheres Kassapa Sãhanàda Sutta through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
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Posted by: site admin @ 1:15 am

945 LESSON 09-06-2013 SUNDAY-FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

மிழில் திரிபி  மூன்று தொகுப்புள்
மற்றும்
பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள்
சுருக்கமான வரலாற்று முன் வரலாறு
ஸுத்தபிடக
புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள்
புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் ஒன்பது மண்டலங்கள் 
TIPITAKA-ஸுத்தபிடக-போதிசத்தா மேன்மை பொருந்திய நேர்த்தி வாய்ந்த மனிதர் ஸுத்த நீதி வாக்கியம்
-
விழிப்புணர்வு மேல் ஆஜரா கிருத்தல் -
( மஹா+ ஸதிபத்தான)-
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta-
Iமெய்யார்வ  தியானம்-IV. சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளின் கூர்ந்த கவனிப்பு-C. புலனுணர்வு கோளங்கள் மீதான பிரிவு (Āyatana Pabba ஆயதன பப்பா)-Section on the Sense Spheres
Kassapa
Sãhanàda Sutta

 through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

up a level
animated buddha photo: Animated Buddha BuddhaMed2.gif
Three things cannot be long hidden: the sun, the moon, and the truth. ~ Buddha
buddha.gif - buddha
Golden statue buddha

Buddha Ji

VOICE OF SARVA SAMAJ

Good Morning From An Astronaut In Space

Breathtaking image of the first light of dawn creeping over the horizon is captured by astronaut


By
Steve Nolan and Helen Lawson


PUBLISHED:

19:26 GMT, 4 May 2013


|

UPDATED:

19:26 GMT, 4 May 2013

A breathtaking image of the moon
rising above the United states as dawn breaks have been posted on
Twitter by an astronaut on the International Space Station.

The
stunning shot, which bears striking resemblance to the beginning of the
opening credits of a Universal film, was posted by Canadian Chris
Hadfield who has gained a cult following on Twitter for his images of
the Earth from space.

The
image was shot over southwestern America and will be one of Hadfield’s
last tweets from space after he announced that his return to earth will
commence later this month.


One of Canadian astronaut Chris Hadfield's latest pictures from the International Space Station shows a darkened south-eastern United States just before dawn, with the moon rising above

One of Canadian astronaut Chris Hadfield’s
latest pictures from the International Space Station shows a darkened
south-eastern United States just before dawn, with the moon rising above

Pilot Bertrand Piccard gives a thumbs up before taking off in the Solar Impulse solar electric airplane at Moffett Field

cid:image001.jpg@01CE52DD.4620AE40


c21
c22
c-cook
c-gas 2


Camel…Too Good

Inline image 2













MORAL



http://in-mg61.mail.yahoo.com/neo/launch?.rand=dmqk4c46ifbqe#mail


http://in.screen.yahoo.com/lose-weight-foot-massage-031000077.html

DIABETIC ( FINALLY GOOD NEWS )


TRY THIS OUT

DIABETIC?

FINALLY GOOD NEWS FOR ALL DIABETICS

A woman (65) was diabetic for the last 20+ years and was taking insulin twice a day,

she used the enclosed homemade medicine for a fortnight and now
she is absolutely free of diabetes and taking all her food as normal including sweets ………………………

The doctors have advised her to stop insulin and any other blood sugar controlling drugs.

I request you all please circulate the email below to as many people as you can and
let them take the maximum benefit from it.

AS RECEIVED :

DR. TONY ALMEIDA ( Bombay Kidney Speciality expert ) made the extensive
experiments with perseverance and patience and discovered a successful treatment for diabetes.

Now a days a lot of people, old men & women in particular suffer a lot due to Diabetes.

Ingredients:
1 - Wheat flour 100 gm
2 - Gum(of tree) (gondh) 100 gm
3 - Barley 100 gm
4 - Black Seeds (kalunji) 100 gm

Method of Preparation Put all the above ingredients in 5 cups of water.
Boil it for 10 minutes and put off the fire. Allow it to cool down by itself.
When it has become cold, filter out the seeds and preserve the water in a glass jug or bottle.


How to use it?

Take one small cup of this water every day early morning when your stomach is empty.
Continue this for 7 days. Next week repeat the same but on alternate days. With these 2 weeks of treatment you
will wonder to see that you have become normal and can eat normal food without problem.

Note: A request is to spread this to as many as possible so that others can also take benefit out of it.

SPB MESSAGE
SINCE THESE ARE ALL NATURAL INGREDIENTS, TAKING THEM IS
NOT HARMFUL. SO THOSE WHO ARE SCEPTICAL ABOUT THIS TREATMENT MAY STILL
TRY IT WITHOUT ANY HARM. WORST CASE SCENARIO WILL BE THAT YOU REMAIN
STILL SAME AS YOU WERE BEFORE


BEST WISHES FOR ALL THE FRIENDS

 


தமிழ்

IV. சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளின் கூர்ந்த கவனிப்பு

C. புலனுணர்வு கோளங்கள் மீதான பிரிவு (Āyatana Pabba ஆயதன பப்பா)

மற்றும்
அதற்கு அப்பால், எவ்வாறு பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, dhammas in
dhammas சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளில் சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான
அற முறைகளூடன் ஆறு Āyatana Pabba ஆயதன பப்பா புலனுணர்வு கோளங்களூடன்
கூர்ந்த கவனிப்புடன் வாசம் செய்கிரார்? 


இங்கு, பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, அங்கே cakkhu கண்களை புரிந்து
கொள்கிரார்,rūpa ரூபம்/சடப்பொருளை புரிந்து கொள்கிரார்,  இவ்விரண்டு
காரணைங்களை நோக்கி  எழும் saṃyojana கால்விலங்கு/பற்றாசை
புரிந்து
கொள்கிரார்; எவ்வாறு saṃyojana கால்விலங்கு/பற்றாசை என அவர் புரிந்து
கொள்கிரார்; எவ்வாறு கைவிடப்பட்டsaṃyojana கால்விலங்கு/பற்றாசை
எதிர்காலத்தில் அணுகாது என அவர் புரிந்து கொள்கிரார்.


காதுகளை புரிந்து கொள்கிரார்,sadda  புரிந்து கொள்கிரார்,  இவ்விரண்டு
காரணைங்களை நோக்கி  எழும் saṃyojana கால்விலங்கு/பற்றாசை புரிந்து
கொள்கிரார்; எவ்வாறு saṃyojana கால்விலங்கு/பற்றாசை என அவர் புரிந்து
கொள்கிரார்; எவ்வாறு கைவிடப்பட்டsaṃyojana கால்விலங்கு/பற்றாசை
எதிர்காலத்தில் அணுகாது என அவர் புரிந்து கொள்கிரார்.


மூக்கை புரிந்து கொள்கிரார்,gandha  புரிந்து கொள்கிரார்,  இவ்விரண்டு
காரணைங்களை நோக்கி  எழும் saṃyojana கால்விலங்கு/பற்றாசை புரிந்து
கொள்கிரார்; எவ்வாறு saṃyojana கால்விலங்கு/பற்றாசை என அவர் புரிந்து
கொள்கிரார்; எவ்வாறு கைவிடப்பட்டsaṃyojana கால்விலங்கு/பற்றாசை
எதிர்காலத்தில் அணுகாது என அவர் புரிந்து கொள்கிரார்.


நாக்கை புரிந்து கொள்கிரார், rasa ருசியை புரிந்து கொள்கிரார்,  இவ்விரண்டு
காரணைங்களை நோக்கி  எழும் saṃyojana கால்விலங்கு/பற்றாசை புரிந்து
கொள்கிரார்; எவ்வாறு saṃyojana கால்விலங்கு/பற்றாசை என அவர் புரிந்து
கொள்கிரார்; எவ்வாறு கைவிடப்பட்டsaṃyojana கால்விலங்கு/பற்றாசை
எதிர்காலத்தில் அணுகாது என அவர் புரிந்து கொள்கிரார்.


 உணர்வுகளை புரிந்து கொள்கிரார்,  இவ்விரண்டு காரணைங்களை நோக்கி  எழும்
saṃyojana கால்விலங்கு/பற்றாசை புரிந்து கொள்கிரார்; எவ்வாறு saṃyojana
கால்விலங்கு/பற்றாசை என அவர் புரிந்து கொள்கிரார்; எவ்வாறு
கைவிடப்பட்டsaṃyojana கால்விலங்கு/பற்றாசை எதிர்காலத்தில் அணுகாது என அவர்
புரிந்து கொள்கிரார்.


மனதை புரிந்து கொள்கிரார், dhammas தம்மங்களை புரிந்து கொள்கிரார், 
இவ்விரண்டு காரணைங்களை நோக்கி  எழும் saṃyojana கால்விலங்கு/பற்றாசை
புரிந்து கொள்கிரார்; எவ்வாறு saṃyojana கால்விலங்கு/பற்றாசை என அவர்
புரிந்து கொள்கிரார்; எவ்வாறு கைவிடப்பட்டsaṃyojana கால்விலங்கு/பற்றாசை
எதிர்காலத்தில் அணுகாது என அவர் புரிந்து கொள்கிரார். 


இவ்வாறு அவர்  dhammas சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளில் சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளூடன் 
கூர்ந்து 
கவனித்து  வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற
முறைகளில் சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளூடன்  வெளியே கூர்ந்த
கவனித்து  வாசம் செய்கிரார்;samudaya of phenomena புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க
தோற்றம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து  கவனித்து  வாசம் செய்கிரார்,
புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க கழிதல் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து  கவனித்து  வாசம்
செய்கிரார், samudaya and passing away of phenomena புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க
தோற்றம் மற்றும் கழிதல் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து  கவனித்து  வாசம்
செய்கிரார், இல்லாவிடில் “இது  dhammas சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற
முறைகளில் சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளூடன் ” என உணர்ந்து,  sati
விழிப்பு நிலை அவருக்குள் வந்திருக்கிறது, சும்மா வெறும் ñāṇa  ஓர்அளவு
ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.
மற்றும் உலகத்தில் சிறிதளவாவது பற்றிக்கொள்ளாது,அவ்வாறாக பிக்குக்களுக்களே,
ஒரு பிக்கு, dhammas சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளில் சட்டத்துக்கு
அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளூடன் ஆறு Āyatana Pabba ஆயதன பப்பா புலனுணர்வு
கோளங்களூடன் கூர்ந்த கவனிப்புடன் வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

IV. தம்மானுபஸ்ஸனா

B.கந்த பப்ப
C. ஆயத்தன பப்ப

புன
ச பரங், பிக்காவெ பிக்கு தம்மேஸு தம்மானுபஸ்ஸி விஹாரதி, சஸு
அஜ்ஜத்திக-பாஹிரெஸு ஆயதனேஸு. கதங் ச பன, பிக்காவெ பிக்கு தம்மேஸு
தம்மானுபஸ்ஸி விஹாரதி, சஸு அஜ்ஜத்திக-பாஹிரெஸு ஆயதனேஸு?

இத,
பிக்காவெ பிக்கு சக்குங் ச பஜானதி, ரூபெ சக்குங் ச பஜானதி,  யங் ச
தத்.துபயங் பத்திச்ச உப்பஜ்ஜதி சம்யொஜனங் தங் ச பஜானதி, யத ச
அன்.உப்பன்னஸ்ஸ ஸம்யொஜனஸ்ஸ உப்பாத்தொ ஹோதி தங்  ச பஜானதி, யத ச
உப்பன்னஸ்ஸ ஸம்யொஜனஸ்ஸ உப்பாத்தொ ஹோதி தங்  ச பஜானதி, யத ச பஹினஸ்ஸ
ஸம்யொஜனஸ்ஸ ஆயதிங் அன்.னுபாதொ ஹோதி தங்  ச பஜானதி.

ஸொதங்
ச பஜானதி, ஸத்தெ ச பஜானதி, ச பஜானதி, யங் ச தத்.துபயங் பத்திச்ச உப்பஜ்ஜதி
சம்யொஜனங் தங் ச பஜானதி, யத ச உப்பன்னஸ்ஸ ஸம்யொஜனஸ்ஸ உப்பாத்தொ ஹோதி
தங்  ச பஜானதி, யத ச பஹினஸ்ஸ ஸம்யொஜனஸ்ஸ ஆயதிங் அன்.னுபாதொ ஹோதி தங்  ச
பஜானதி.

கானங் ச பஜானதி, கந்தெ ச பஜானதி, யங் ச தத்.துபயங் பத்திச்ச உப்பஜ்ஜதி சம்யொஜனங் தங் ச
பஜானதி, யத ச உப்பன்னஸ்ஸ ஸம்யொஜனஸ்ஸ உப்பாத்தொ ஹோதி தங்  ச பஜானதி, யத ச
பஹினஸ்ஸ ஸம்யொஜனஸ்ஸ ஆயதிங் அன்.னுபாதொ ஹோதி தங்  ச பஜானதி.

ஜிவ்ஹங் ச பஜானதி, ரஸெ  ச பஜானதி, யங் ச தத்.துபயங் பத்திச்ச உப்பஜ்ஜதி சம்யொஜனங் தங் ச
பஜானதி, யத ச உப்பன்னஸ்ஸ ஸம்யொஜனஸ்ஸ உப்பாத்தொ ஹோதி தங்  ச பஜானதி, யத ச
பஹினஸ்ஸ ஸம்யொஜனஸ்ஸ ஆயதிங் அன்.னுபாதொ ஹோதி தங்  ச பஜானதி.

காயங் ச பஜானதி,  பொத்தப்பெ ச பஜானதி, யங் ச தத்.துபயங் பத்திச்ச உப்பஜ்ஜதி சம்யொஜனங் தங் ச
பஜானதி, யத ச உப்பன்னஸ்ஸ ஸம்யொஜனஸ்ஸ உப்பாத்தொ ஹோதி தங்  ச பஜானதி, யத ச
பஹினஸ்ஸ ஸம்யொஜனஸ்ஸ ஆயதிங் அன்.னுபாதொ ஹோதி தங்  ச பஜானதி.

மனங் ச பஜானதி, தம்மெ  ச பஜானதி, யங் ச தத்.துபயங் பத்திச்ச உப்பஜ்ஜதி சம்யொஜனங் தங் ச
பஜானதி, யத ச உப்பன்னஸ்ஸ ஸம்யொஜனஸ்ஸ உப்பாத்தொ ஹோதி தங்  ச பஜானதி, யத ச
பஹினஸ்ஸ ஸம்யொஜனஸ்ஸ ஆயதிங் அன்.னுபாதொ ஹோதி தங்  ச பஜானதி.

இதி
அஜ்ஜதங் வ தம்மேஸு தம்மானுபஸ்ஸி விஹாரதி, பஹித்தா வ தம்மேஸு தம்மானுபஸ்ஸி
விஹாரதி, அஜ்ஜத-பஹித்தா வ தம்மேஸு தம்மானுபஸ்ஸி விஹாரதி;
ஸமுதய-தம்மானுபஸ்ஸி வ தம்மேஸு விஹாரதி, ‘அதி தம்மா’தி வ பன்’னஸ்ஸ ஸதி
பச்சுபச்சித்தா ஹோதி, யாவ தேவ ஞான.மத்தாய பத்திஸத்தி.மத்தாய. அனிஸிதொ ச
விஹாரதி, ந ச கின்சி லோகெ உபாதியத்தி. ஏவங் பி கொ, பிக்காவெ பிக்கு
தம்மேஸு தம்மானுபஸ்ஸி விஹாரதி, சஸு அஜ்ஜத்திக-பாஹிரெஸு ஆயதனேஸு. 

IV. Dhammānupassanā

B. Khandha Pabba

C. Section on the Sense Spheres

And furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas(Name of the first book of the Abhidhamma piṭaka and (dhammaṃ)Nature/ condition/ quality/ property/
characteristic; function/ practice/ duty; object/ thing/ idea/
phenomenon; doctrine; law; virtue/ piety; justice; the law or Truth of
the Buddha; the Buddhist scriptures; religion in threshold of
Name of the first book of the Abhidhamma piṭaka and (dhammaṃ)Nature/ condition/ quality/ property/
characteristic; function/ practice/ duty; object/ thing/ idea/
phenomenon; doctrine; law; virtue/ piety; justice; the law or Truth of
the Buddha; the Buddhist scriptures; religion
) with reference to the six internal and external āyatanas(Place, dwelling-place, abode, home, seat, rendezvous,
haunt, receptacle, mine; altar, shrine; place of origin, source, fount,
cause, origin)
. And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas(Name of the first book of the Abhidhamma piṭaka and (dhammaṃ)Nature/ condition/ quality/ property/
characteristic; function/ practice/ duty; object/ thing/ idea/
phenomenon; doctrine; law; virtue/ piety; justice; the law or Truth of
the Buddha; the Buddhist scriptures; religion in threshold of
Name of the first book of the Abhidhamma piṭaka and (dhammaṃ)Nature/ condition/ quality/ property/
characteristic; function/ practice/ duty; object/ thing/ idea/
phenomenon; doctrine; law; virtue/ piety; justice; the law or Truth of
the Buddha; the Buddhist scriptures; religion
) with reference to the six internal and external āyatanas(Place, dwelling-place, abode, home, seat, rendezvous,
haunt, receptacle, mine; altar, shrine; place of origin, source, fount,
cause, origin)
?


Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu understands cakkhu( and (cakkhum)The eye; insight, perception; supernatural insight or knowledge), he understands rūpa(Form, figure, shape; image, representation; the body; in gram. a verbal or nominal form; beauty; natural state; characteristic), he understands the saṃyojana(Bond, attachment) which arises owing to these two, he understands how the unarisen saṃyojana(Bond, attachment) comes to arise, he understands how the arisen saṃyojana(Bond, attachment) is abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saṃyojana(Bond, attachment) does not come to arise in the future.


He understands sota(The ear or organ of hearing), he understands sadda(Making a noise), he understands the saṃyojana(Bond, attachment) which arises owing to these two, he understands how the unarisen saṃyojana(Bond, attachment) comes to arise, he understands how the arisen saṃyojana(Bond, attachment) is abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saṃyojana(Bond, attachment) does not come to arise in the future.


He understands ghāna( The nose, the organ of smell), he understands gandha(Perfumed chamber. Any private chamber devoted to the
use of the Buddha was called gandhakuṭī, but especially the room he
always occupied at Sāvatthi.)
, he understands the saṃyojana(Bond, attachment) which arises owing to these two, he understands how the unarisen saṃyojana(Bond, attachment) comes to arise, he understands how the arisen saṃyojana(Bond, attachment) is abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saṃyojana(Bond, attachment) does not come to arise in the future.


He understands jivha(The tongue), he understands rasa(A cook), he understands the saṃyojana(Bond, attachment) which arises owing to these two, he understands how the unarisen saṃyojana(Bond, attachment) comes to arise, he understands how the arisen saṃyojana(Bond, attachment) is abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saṃyojana(Bond, attachment) does not come to arise in the future.


He understands kāya(Referring to the body), he understands phoṭṭhabba( A swelling, boil, tumour), he understands the saṃyojana(Bond, attachment) which arises owing to these two, he understands how the unarisen saṃyojana(Bond, attachment) comes to arise, he understands how the arisen saṃyojana(Bond, attachment) is abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saṃyojana(Bond, attachment) does not come to arise in the future.


He understands mana( and (manaṃ)The mind, the intellect, the thoughts, the heart), he understands dhammas(Name of the first book of the Abhidhamma piṭaka and (dhammaṃ)Nature/ condition/ quality/ property/
characteristic; function/ practice/ duty; object/ thing/ idea/
phenomenon; doctrine; law; virtue/ piety; justice; the law or Truth of
the Buddha; the Buddhist scriptures; religion
) , he understands the saṃyojana(Bond, attachment) which arises owing to these two, he understands how the unarisen saṃyojana(Bond, attachment) comes to arise, he understands how the arisen saṃyojana(Bond, attachment) is abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saṃyojana(Bond, attachment) does not come to arise in the future.


Thus he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas(Name of the first book of the Abhidhamma piṭaka and (dhammaṃ)Nature/ condition/ quality/ property/
characteristic; function/ practice/ duty; object/ thing/ idea/
phenomenon; doctrine; law; virtue/ piety; justice; the law or Truth of
the Buddha; the Buddhist scriptures; religion in threshold of
Name of the first book of the Abhidhamma piṭaka and (dhammaṃ)Nature/ condition/ quality/ property/
characteristic; function/ practice/ duty; object/ thing/ idea/
phenomenon; doctrine; law; virtue/ piety; justice; the law or Truth of
the Buddha; the Buddhist scriptures; religion
) internally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas(Name of the first book of the Abhidhamma piṭaka and (dhammaṃ)Nature/ condition/ quality/ property/
characteristic; function/ practice/ duty; object/ thing/ idea/
phenomenon; doctrine; law; virtue/ piety; justice; the law or Truth of
the Buddha; the Buddhist scriptures; religion in threshold of
Name of the first book of the Abhidhamma piṭaka and (dhammaṃ)Nature/ condition/ quality/ property/
characteristic; function/ practice/ duty; object/ thing/ idea/
phenomenon; doctrine; law; virtue/ piety; justice; the law or Truth of
the Buddha; the Buddhist scriptures; religion
) externally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas(Name of the first book of the Abhidhamma piṭaka and (dhammaṃ)Nature/ condition/ quality/ property/
characteristic; function/ practice/ duty; object/ thing/ idea/
phenomenon; doctrine; law; virtue/ piety; justice; the law or Truth of
the Buddha; the Buddhist scriptures; religion in threshold of
Name of the first book of the Abhidhamma piṭaka and (dhammaṃ)Nature/ condition/ quality/ property/
characteristic; function/ practice/ duty; object/ thing/ idea/
phenomenon; doctrine; law; virtue/ piety; justice; the law or Truth of
the Buddha; the Buddhist scriptures; religion
) internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya(Rise, origin, commencement; origination, cause; multitude) and passing away of phenomena(sapindus detergens) of phenomena(sapindus detergens) in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena(sapindus detergens) in dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya(Rise, origin, commencement; origination, cause; multitude) and passing away of phenomena(sapindus detergens) in dhammas(Name of the first book of the Abhidhamma piṭaka and (dhammaṃ)Nature/ condition/ quality/ property/
characteristic; function/ practice/ duty; object/ thing/ idea/
phenomenon; doctrine; law; virtue/ piety; justice; the law or Truth of
the Buddha; the Buddhist scriptures; religion)
; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas(Name of the first book of the Abhidhamma piṭaka and (dhammaṃ)Nature/ condition/ quality/ property/
characteristic; function/ practice/ duty; object/ thing/ idea/
phenomenon; doctrine; law; virtue/ piety; justice; the law or Truth of
the Buddha; the Buddhist scriptures; religion)
!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas(Name of the first book of the Abhidhamma piṭaka and (dhammaṃ)Nature/ condition/ quality/ property/
characteristic; function/ practice/ duty; object/ thing/ idea/
phenomenon; doctrine; law; virtue/ piety; justice; the law or Truth of
the Buddha; the Buddhist scriptures; religion in threshold of
Name of the first book of the Abhidhamma piṭaka and (dhammaṃ)Nature/ condition/ quality/ property/
characteristic; function/ practice/ duty; object/ thing/ idea/
phenomenon; doctrine; law; virtue/ piety; justice; the law or Truth of
the Buddha; the Buddhist scriptures; religion
), with reference to the six internal and external āyatanas(Place, dwelling-place, abode, home, seat, rendezvous,
haunt, receptacle, mine; altar, shrine; place of origin, source, fount,
cause, origin)
.


http://www.metta.lk/tipitaka/2Sutta-Pitaka/1Digha-Nikaya/

8

Kassapa
Sãhanàda Sutta

Pali

English

Sinhala

Pali


Suttantapiñake
Dãghanikàyo


Sãlakkhandhavaggo

Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammàsambuddhassa.

8. Sãhanàdasuttaü*


1. Evaü
me sutaü: ekaü samayaü bhagavà uju¤¤àyaü1 viharati kaõõakatthale2
migadàye. Atha kho acelo kassapo yena bhagavà tenupasaïkami.
Upasaïkamitvà bhagavatà saddhiü sammodi. Sammodanãyaü3 kathaü sàràõãyaü4
vãtisàretvà ekamantaü aññhàsi.

2. Ekamantaü
ñhito kho acelo kassapo bhagavantaü etadavoca: “sutammetaü5 bho gotama,
’samaõo gotamo sabbaü tapaü garahati. Sabbaü tapassiü lukhàjãviü
ekaüsena upakkosati upavadatã’ti. Ye te bho gotama evamàhaüsu ’samaõo
gotamo sabbaü taü garahati, sabbaü tapassiü lukhàjãviü ekaüsena
upakkosati upavadatã’ti. Kacci te bhoto gotamassa vuttavàdino? Na ca
bhavantaü gotamaü abhåtena abbhàcikkhanti? Dhammassa cànudhammaü
byàkaronti? Na ca koci sahadhammiko vàdànuvàdo gàrayhaü ñhànaü
àgacchati? Anabbhakkhàtukàmà hi mayaü bhavantaü gotama”nti.

3. Ye te
kassapa evamàhaüsu: ’samaõo gotamo sabbaü tapaü garahati. Sabbaü
tapassiü lukhàjãviü ekaüsena upakkosati upavadatã’ti na me te
vuttavàdino. Abbhàcikkhanti ca pana maü te asatà abhåtena.

Idàhaü kassapa
ekaccaü tapassiü lukhàjãviü passàmi dibbena [PTS Page 162] [\q 162/]
cakkhunà visuddhena atikkantamànusakena kàyassa bhedà parammaraõà apàyaü
duggatiü vinipàtaü nirayaü upapannaü. Idha panàhaü kassapa ekaccaü
tapassiü lukhàjãviü passàmi dibbena cakkhunà visuddhena
atikkantamànusakena kàyassa bhedà parammaraõà sugatiü saggaü lokaü
upapannaü.

Idàhaü6
kassapa ekaccaü tapassiü appadukkhavihàriü passàmi dibbena cakkhunà
visuddhena atikkantamànusakena kàyassa bhedà parammaraõà apàyaü duggatiü
vinipàtaü nirayaü upapannaü.

*. Kassapa sãhanàta suttaü, kesuci. Khuddhasãhanàdasuttantipi. Aññhakathà. Mahàsãhanàdasuttaü, machasaü.

1. Uru¤àyaü sãmu.

2. Kaõõathale. Sãmu.

3. Sammodanãyaü. Machasaü.

4. Sàraõãyaü machasaü.

5. Sutametaü. Sãmu.

6. Idhapanàhaü, syà.

[BJT Page 358] [\x 358/]

Idhapanàhaü
kassapa ekaccaü tapassiü appadukkhavihàriü passàmi dibbena cakkhunà
visuddhena atikkantamànusakena kàyassa bhedà parammaraõà sugatiü saggaü
lokaü upapannaü.

Yo’haü kassapa
imesaü tapassãnaü evaü àgati¤ca gati¤ca cuti¤ca upapatti¤ca yathàbhåtaü
pajànàmi. So’haü kiü sabbaü tapaü garahissàmi, sabbaü và tapassiü
lukhàjãviü ekaüsena upakkosissàmi upavadissàmi?

4. Santi
kassapa eke samaõabràhmaõà paõóità nipuõà kataparappavàdà vàëavedhiråpà
vobhindantà1 ma¤¤e caranti pa¤¤àgatena diññhigatàni. Tehi’pi me saddhiü
ekaccesu ñhànesu sameti2 ekaccesu ñhànesu na sameti2. Yante ekaccaü
vadenti sàdhå’ti, mayampi taü ekaccaü vadema sàdhå’ti. Yante ekaccaü
vadenti na sàdhå’ti, mayampi taü ekaccaü vadema na sàdhå’ti. Yante
ekaccaü vadenti sàdhå’ti, mayaü taü ekaccaü vadema na sàdhå’ti. Yante
ekaccaü vadenti na sàdhå’ti, mayaü taü ekaccaü vadema sàdhå’ti. Yaü
mayaü ekaccaü vadema sàdhå’ti, pare’pi taü ekaccaü vadenti na sàdhå’ti.
Yaü mayaü ekaccaü vadema na sàdhå’ti, pare’pi taü ekaccaü vadenti na
sàdhå’ti. [PTS Page 163] [\q 163/] yaü mayaü ekaccaü vadema na sàdhå’ti,
pare’pi taü ekaccaü vadenti sàdhå’ti. Yaü mayaü ekaccaü vadema
sàdhå’ti. Pare’pi taü ekaccaü vadenti na sàdhå’ti.

Tyàhaü
upasaïkamitvà evaü vadàmi: yesu no àvuso ñhànesu na sameti, tiññhantu
tàni ñhànàni. Yesu ñhànesu sameti, tattha vi¤¤å samanuyu¤jantaü
samanugàhantaü samanubhàsantaü satthàrà và satthàraü saïghena và
saïghaü: “ye imesaü bhavataü dhammà akusalà akusalasaïkhàtà sàvajjà
sàvajjasaïkhàtà asevitabbà asevitabbasaïkhàtà na alamariyà na
alamariyasaïkhàtà kaõhà kaõhasaïkhàtà, ko ime dhamme anavasesaü pahàya
vattati, samaõo và gotamo pare và pana bhonto gaõàcariyà?”Ti.

1. Te bhindantà. Machasaü.

2. Samenti. Syà.

[BJT Page 360] [\x 360/]

òhànaü kho
panetaü kassapa vijjati yaü vi¤¤å samanuyu¤jantà samanugàhantà
samanubhàsantà evaü vadeyyuü: “ye imesaü bhavataü dhammà akusalà
akusalasaïkhàtà sàvajjà sàvajjasaïkhàtà asevitabbà asevitabbasaïkhàtà na
alamariyà na alamariyasaïkhàtà kaõhà kaõhasaïkhàtà, samaõo gotamo ime
dhamme anavasesaü pahàya vattati, yaü và pana bhonto pare gaõàcariyà”ti.

Itiha kassapa vi¤¤å samanuyu¤jantà samanugàhantà samanubhàsantà amheva tattha yebhuyyena pasaüseyyuü.

5. Aparampi no
kassapa vi¤¤å samanuyu¤jantaü samanugàhantaü samanubhàsantaü satthàraü
saïghena và saïghaü: “ye imesaü bhavataü dhammà kusalà kusalasaïkhàtà
anavajjà anavajjasaïkhàtà sevitabbà sevitabbasaïkhàtà alamariyà
alamariyasaïkhàtà sukkà sukkasaïkhàtà, ko ime dhamme anavasesaü samàdàya
vattati samaõo và gotamo pare và pana bhonto gaõàcariyà?”Ti.

òhànaü kho
panetaü kassapa vijjati yaü vi¤¤å samanuyu¤jantà samanugàhantà
samanubhàsantà evaü [PTS Page 164] [\q 164/] vadeyyuü: “ye imesaü
bhavataü dhammà kusalà kusalasaïkhàtà anavajjà anavajjasaïkhàtà
sevitabbà sevitabbasaïkhàtà alamariyà alamariyasaïkhàtà sukkà
sukkasaïkhàtà, samaõo gotamo ime dhamme anavasesaü samàdàya vattati yaü
và pana bhonto pare gaõàcariyà”ti.

Itiha kassapa vi¤¤å samanuyu¤jantà samanugàhantà samanubhàsantà amheva tattha yebhuyyena pasaüseyyuü.

6. Aparampi no
kassapa vi¤¤å samanuyu¤jantaü samanugàhantaü samanubhàsantaü satthàrà
và satthàraü saïghena và saïghaü: “ye imesaü bhavataü dhammà akusalà
akusalasaïkhàtà sàvajjà sàvajjasaïkhàtà asevitabbà asevitabbasaïkhàtà na
alamariyà na alamariyasaïkhàtà kaõhà kaõhasaïkhàtà ko ime dhamme
anavasesaü pahàya vattati gotamasàvakasaïgho và pare và pana bhonto
gaõàcariyasàvakasaïghà?”Ti.

[BJT Page 362] [\x 362/]

òhànaü kho
panetaü kassapa vijjati yaü vi¤¤å samanuyu¤jantà samanugàhantà
samanubhàsantà evaü vadeyyuü: “ye imesaü bhavataü dhammà akusalà
akusalasaïkhàtà sàvajjà sàvajjasaïkhàtà asevitabbà asevitabbasaïkhàtà na
alamariyà na alamariyasaïkhàtà kaõhà kaõhasaïkhàtà, gotamasàvakasaïgho
ime dhamme anavasesaü pahàya vattati, yaü và pana bhonto pare
gaõàcariyasàvakasaïghà”ti.

Itiha kassapa vi¤¤å samanuyu¤jantà samanugàhantà samanubhàsantà amheva tattha yebhuyyena pasaüseyyuü.

7. Aparampi no
kassapa vi¤¤å samanuyu¤jantaü samanugàhantaü samanubhàsantaü satthàrà
và satthàraü saïghena và saïghaü: “ye imesaü bhavataü dhammà kusalà
kusalasaïkhàtà anavajjà anavajjasaïkhàtà sevitabbà sevitabbasaïkhàtà
alamariyà alamariyasaïkhàtà sukkà sukkasaïkhàtà, ko ime dhamme
anavasesaü samàdàya vattati? Gotamasàvakasaïgho và, pare và pana bhonto
gaõàcariyasàvakasaïghà?”Ti.

òhànaü kho
panetaü kassapa vijjati yaü vi¤¤å samanuyu¤jantà [PTS Page 165] [\q
165/] samanugàhantà samanubhàsantà evaü vadeyyuü “ye imesaü bhavataü
dhammà kusalà kusalasaïkhàtà anavajjà anavajjasaïkhàtà sevitabbà
sevitabbasaïkhàtà alamariyà alamariyasaïkhàtà sukkà sukkasaïkhàtà,
gotamasàvakasaïgho ime dhamme anavasesaü samàdàya vattati, yaü và pana
bhonto pare gaõàcariyasàvakasaïgho”ti.

Itiha kassapa vi¤¤å samanuyu¤jantà samanugàhantà samanubhàsantà amheva tattha yebhuyyena pasaüseyyuü.

8. Atthi
kassapa maggo atthi pañipadà yathà pañipanno sàma¤¤eva ¤assati sàmaü
dakkhiti “samaõo’va gotamo kàlavàdã bhåtavàdã atthavàdã dhammavàdã
vinayavàdã”ti.

Katamo ca
kassapa maggo katamà pañipadà yathà pañipanno sàma¤¤eva ¤assati sàmaü
dakkhiti “samaõo’va gotamo kàlavàdã bhåtavàdã atthavàdã dhammavàdã
vinayavàdã?”Ti.

[BJT Page 364] [\x 364/]

Ayameva ariyo
aññhaïgiko maggo. Seyyathãdaü: sammàdiññhi sammàsaïkappo sammàvàcà
sammàkammanto sammààjãvo sammàvàyàmo sammàsati sammàsamàdhi.

Ayaü kho
kassapa maggo ayaü pañipadà, yathà pañipanno sàma¤¤eva ¤assati sàmaü
dakkhiti ’samaõo’va gotamo kàlavàdã bhåtavàdã atthavàdã dhammavàdã
vinayavàdã’ti.

9. Evaü vutte acelo kassapo bhagavantaü etadavoca:

“Ime’pi kho
àvuso gotama tapopakkamà ekesaü [PTS Page 166] [\q 166/]
samaõabràhmaõànaü sàma¤¤asaïkhàtà ca brahma¤¤asaïkhàtà ca: acelako hoti
muttàcàro, hatthàpalekhano, na ehibhadantiko, na tiññhabhadantiko,
nàbhihañaü, na uddissakañaü, na nimantanaü sàdiyati. So na kumbhimukhà
pañiggaõhàti, na kaëopimukhà pañiggaõhàti, na eëakamantaraü. Na
daõóamantaraü, na musalamantaraü, na dvinnaü bhu¤jamànànaü, na
gabbhiniyà, na pàyamànàya, na purisantaragatàya, na saükittãsu, na
yattha sà upaññhito hoti, na yattha makkhikà saõóasaõóacàrinã, na
macchaü na maüsaü na suraü na merayaü na thusodakaü pivati. So ekàgàriko
và hoti ekàlopiko, dvàgàriko và hoti dvàlopiko, sattàgàriko và hoti
sattàlopiko, ekissàpi dattiyà yàpeti, dvãhipi dattãpi yàpeti, sattahipi
dattãhi yàpeti, ekàhikampi àhàraü àhàreti, dvàhikampi àhàraü àhàreti,
sattàhikampi àhàraü àhàreti. Iti evaråpaü addhamàsikampi
pariyàyabhattabhojanànuyogamanuyutto viharati.

[BJT Page 366] [\x 366/]

10. Ime’pi kho
àvuso gotama tapopakkamà ekesaü samaõabràhmaõànaü sàma¤¤asaïkhàtà ca
brahma¤¤asaïkhàtà ca: sàkabhakkho và hoti, sàmàkabhakkho và hoti,
nãvàrabhakkho và hoti, daddulabhakkho và hoti, hañabhakkho và hoti,
kaõabhakkho và hoti, àcàmabhakkho và hoti, pi¤¤àkabhakkho và hoti,
tiõabhakkho và hoti, gomayabhakkho và hoti, vanamålaphalàhàro yàpeti
pavattaphalabhojã.

11. Ime’pi kho
àvuso gotama tapopakkamà ekesaü samaõabràhmaõànaü sàma¤¤asaïkhàtà ca
brahma¤¤asaïkhàtà ca: sàõàni pi dhàreti, masàõàni pi dhàreti,
chavadussàni pi dhàreti, paüsukålàni pi dhàreti, tirãñàni pi dhàreti,
[PTS Page 167] [\q 167/] ajinampi dhàreti, ajinakkhipampi dhàreti,
kusacãrampi dhàreti, vàkacãrampi dhàreti, elakacãrampi dhàreti,
kesakambalampi dhàreti, vàlakambalampi dhàreti, ulåkapakkhikampi
dhàreti, kesamassulocako’pi hoti kesamassulocanànuyogamanuyutto,
ubbhaññhako’pi hoti àsanapañikkhitto, ukkuñiko’pi hoti
ukkuñikappadhànamanuyutto, kaõñakàpassayiko’pi hoti, kaõñakàpassaye
seyyaü kappeti, phalakaseyyampi kappeti, thaõóilaseyyampi kappeti,
ekapassasayiko’pi hoti, rajojalladharo abbhokàsiko’pi hoti
yathàsanthatiko, vekañiko’pi hoti vikañabhojanànuyogamanuyutto,
apànako’pi hoti apànakattamanuyutto, sàyatatiyakampi1
udakorohaõànuyogamanuyutto viharatã”ti.

12. “Acelako
ce’pi kassapa hoti muttacàro hatthàpalekhano, na ehibhadantiko, na
tiññhabhadantiko, nàbhihañaü, na uddissakañaü, na nimittanaü sàdiyati.
So na kumbhimukhà pañiggaõhàti, na kaëopimukhà pañiggaõhàti, na
eëakamantaraü. Na daõóamantaraü, na musalamantaraü, na dvinnaü
bhu¤jamànànaü, na gabbhiniyà, na pàyamànàya, na purisantaragatàya, na
saükittãsu, na yattha sà upaññhito hoti, na yattha makkhikà
saõóasaõóacàrinã, na macchaü na maüsaü. Na suraü na merayaü na
thusodakaü pivati. So ekàgàriko và hoti ekàlopiko, dvàgàriko và hoti
dvàlopiko, sattàgàriko và hoti sattàlopiko, ekissàpi dattiyà yàpeti,
dvãhipi dattãpi yàpeti, sattahipi dattãhi yàpeti, ekàhikampi àhàraü
àhàreti, dvàhikampi àhàraü àhàreti, sattàhikampi àhàraü àhàreti. Iti
evaråpaü addhamàsikampi pariyàyabhattabhojanànuyogamanuyutto viharati.
Tassa càyaü sãlasampadà cittasampadà pa¤¤àsampadà abhàvità hoti
asacchikatà. Atha kho so àrakà’va sàma¤¤à, àrakà’va brahma¤¤à.

Yato kho
kassapa bhikkhu averaü abyàpajjaü mettacittaü bhàveti, àsavàna¤ca khayà
anàsavaü cetovimuttiü pa¤¤àvimuttiü diññheva [PTS Page 168] [\q 168/]
dhamme sayaü abhi¤¤à sacchikatvà upasampajja viharati. Ayaü vuccati
kassapa bhikkhu samaõo iti’pi bràhmaõo iti’pi.

1. Sàyaütatiyakanti pi pàñho.

[BJT Page 368] [\x 368/]

13.
Sàkabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti sàmàkabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti
nãvàrabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti daddulabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti
hañabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti kaõabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti
àcàmabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti pi¤¤àkabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti
tiõabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti gomayabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti
vanamålaphalàhàro yàpeti pavattaphalabhojã. Tassa càyaü sãlasampadà
cittasampadà pa¤¤àsampadà abhàvità hoti asacchikatà. Atha kho so
àrakà’va sàma¤¤à àrakà’va brahma¤¤à.

Yato kho
kassapa bhikkhu averaü abyàpajjaü mettacittaü bhàveti, àsavàna¤ca khayà
anàsavaü cetovimuttiü pa¤¤àvimuttiü diññheva dhamme sayaü abhi¤¤à
sacchikatvà upasampajja viharati. Ayaü vuccati kassapa bhikkhu samaõo
iti’pi bràhmaõo itã’pi.

14. Sàõàni
ce’pi kassapa dhàreti, masàõàni ‘pi kassapa dhàreti, chavadussàni ‘pi
kassapa dhàreti, paüsukålàni ‘pi kassapa dhàreti, tirãñàni ‘pi kassapa
dhàreti, ajinampi kassapa dhàreti, ajinakkhipampi kassapa dhàreti,
kusacãrampi kassapa dhàreti, vàkacãrampi kassapa dhàreti, elakacãrampi
kassapa dhàreti, kesakambalampi kassapa dhàreti, vàlakambalampi kassapa
dhàreti, ulåkapakkhikampi kassapa dhàreti, kesamassulocako ‘pi hoti
kesamassulocanànuyogamanuyutto, ubbhaññhako’pi hoti àsanapañikkhitto,
ukkuñiko’pi hoti ukkuñikappadhànamanuyutto, kaõñakàpassayiko’pi hoti,
kaõñakàpassaye seyyaü kappeti, phalakaseyyampi kappeti, thaõóilaseyyampi
kappeti, ekapassasayiko’pi hoti, rajojalladharo abbhokàsiko’pi hoti
yathàsanthatiko, vekañiko’pi hoti vikañabhojanànuyogamanuyutto,
apànako’pi hoti apànakattamanuyutto, sàyatatiyakampi
udakorohaõànuyogamanuyutto viharati, tassa càyaü sãlasampadà
cittasampadà pa¤¤àsampadà abhàvità hoti asacchikatà, atha kho so
àrakà’va sàma¤¤à àrakà’va brahma¤¤à.

Yato kho
kassapa bhikkhu averaü abyàpajjaü mettacittaü bhàveti, àsavàna¤ca khayà
anàsavaü cetovimuttiü pa¤¤àvimuttiü diññheva dhamme sayaü abhi¤¤à
sacchikatvà upasampajja viharati. Ayaü vuccati kassapa bhikkhu samaõo
iti’pi bràhmaõo iti’pi.

15. Evaü vutte acelo kassapo bhagavantaü etadavoca: dukkaraü bho gotama sàma¤¤aü dukkaraü brahma¤¤anti.

“Pakati kho esà kassapa lokasmiü dukkaraü sàma¤¤aü dukkaraü brahma¤¤anti. “

“Acelako ce’pi
kassapa hoti muttàcàro hatthàpalekhano, na ehibhadantiko, na
tiññhabhadantiko, nàbhihañaü, na uddissakañaü, na nimantanaü sàdiyati.
So na kumbhimukhà pañiggaõhàti, na kaëopimukhà pañiggaõhàti, na
eëakamantaraü. Na daõóamantaraü, na musalamantaraü, na dvinnaü
bhu¤jamànànaü, na gabbhiniyà, na pàyamànàya, na purisantaragatàya, na
saükittãsu, na yattha sà upaññhito hoti, na yattha makkhikà
saõóasaõóacàrinã, na macchaü na maüsaü na suraü na merayaü na thusodakaü
pivati. So ekàgàriko và hoti ekàlopiko, dvàgàriko và hoti dvàlopiko,
sattàgàriko và hoti sattàlopiko, ekissàpi dattiyà yàpeti, dvãhipi
dattãpi yàpeti, sattahipi dattãhi yàpeti, ekàhikampi àhàraü àhàreti,
dvàhikampi àhàraü àhàreti, sattàhikampi àhàraü àhàreti. Iti evaråpaü
addhamàsikampi pariyàyabhattabhojanànuyogamanuyutto viharati, imàya ca
kassapa mattàya iminà ca tapopakkamena sàma¤¤aü và abhavissa brahma¤¤aü
dukkaraü sudukkaraü, netaü abhavissa kallaü vacanàya dukkaraü sàma¤¤aü
dukkaraü brahma¤¤a”nti.

16. Sakkà ca
panetaü abhavissa ¤àtuü gahapatinà và gahapatiputtena và antamaso
kumbhadàsiyà’pi: “handàhaü acelako homi muttàcàro hatthàpalekhano, na
ehibhadantiko, na tiññhabhadantiko, nàbhihañaü, na uddissakañaü, na
nimantanaü sàdiyati. So na kumbhimukhà pañiggaõhàti, na kaëopimukhà
pañiggaõhàti, na eëakamantaraü. Na daõóamantaraü, na musalamantaraü, na
dvinnaü bhu¤jamànànaü, na gabbhiniyà, na pàyamànàya, na
purisantaragatàya, na saükittãsu, na yattha sà upaññhito hoti, na yattha
makkhikà saõóasaõóacàrinã, na macchaü na maüsaü na suraü na merayaü na
thusodakaü pivati. So ekàgàriko và hoti ekàlopiko, dvàgàriko và hoti
dvàlopiko, sattàgàriko và hoti sattàlopiko, ekissàpi dattiyà yàpeti,
dvãhipi dattãpi yàpeti, sattahipi dattãhi yàpeti, ekàhikampi àhàraü
àhàreti, dvàhikampi àhàraü àhàreti, sattàhikampi àhàraü àhàreti. Iti
evaråpaü addhamàsikampi pariyàyabhattabhojanànuyogamanuyutto
viharàmã”ti. Yasmà ca kho kassapa a¤¤atreva imàya mattàya a¤¤atra iminà
tapopakkamena sàma¤¤aü và hoti. Brahma¤¤aü và dukkaraü sudukkaraü, tasmà
etaü kallaü vacanàya dukkaraü sàma¤¤aü dukkaraü brahma¤¤anti.

[BJT Page 370] [\x 370/]

Yato kho
kassapa bhikkhu averaü abyàpajjaü mettacittaü bhàveti, àsavàna¤ca khayà
anàsavaü cetovimuttiü pa¤¤àvimuttiü diññheva dhamme sayaü abhi¤¤à
sacchikatvà upasampajja viharati. Ayaü vuccati kassapa bhikkhu samaõo
iti’pi bràhmaõo [PTS Page 169] [\q 169/] iti’pi.

17.
Sàkabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti sàmàkabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti
nãvàrabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti daddulabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti
hañabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti kaõabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti
àcàmabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti pi¤¤àkabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti
tiõabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti gomayabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti
vanamålaphalàhàro yàpeti pavattaphalabhojã. Imàya ca kassapa mattàya
iminà tapopakkamena sàma¤¤aü và abhavissa brahma¤¤aü và dukkaraü
sudukkaraü, netaü abhavissa kallaü vacanàya ‘dukkaraü sàma¤¤aü dukkaraü
brahma¤¤anti’.

Sakkà ca
panetaü abhavissa ¤àtuü gahapatinà và gahapatiputtena và antamaso
kumbhadàsiyàpi: ‘handàhaü sàkabhakkho và homi, sàmàkabhakkho và homi,
nãvàrabhakkho và homi, daddulabhakkho và homi, hañabhakkho và homi,
kaõabhakkho và homi, àcàmabhakkho và homi, pi¤¤àkabhakkho và homi,
tiõabhakkho và homi, gomayabhakkho và homi, vanamålaphalàhàro yàpeti
pavattaphalabhojã’ti. Yasmà ca kho kassapa a¤¤atreva imàya mattàya
a¤¤atra iminà tapopakkamena sàma¤¤aü và hoti brahma¤¤aü và dukkaraü
sudukkaraü, tasmà etaü kallaü vacanàya ‘dukkaraü sàma¤¤aü dukkaraü
brahma¤¤anti’.

Yato kho
kassapa bhikkhu averaü abyàpajjaü mettacittaü bhàveti, àsavàna¤ca khayà
anàsavaü cetovimuttiü pa¤¤àvimuttiü diññheva dhamme sayaü abhi¤¤à
sacchikatvà upasampajja viharati. Ayaü vuccati kassapa bhikkhu samaõo
iti’pi bràhmaõo iti’pi.

18. Sàõàni
ce’pi kassapa dhàreti, masàõàni ‘pi kassapa dhàreti, chavadussàni ‘pi
kassapa dhàreti, paüsukålàni ‘pi kassapa dhàreti, tirãñàni ce’pi kassapa
dhàreti, ajinampi kassapa dhàreti, ajinakkhipampi kassapa dhàreti,
kusacãrampi kassapa dhàreti, vàkacãrampi kassapa dhàreti, elakacãrampi
ce’pi kassapa dhàreti, kesakambalampi kassapa dhàreti, vàlakambalampi
kassapa dhàreti, ulåkapakkhikampi kassapa dhàreti, kesamassulocako ‘pi
hoti kesamassulocanànuyogamanuyutto, ubbhaññhako’pi hoti
àsanapañikkhitto, ukkuñiko’pi hoti ukkuñikappadhànamanuyutto,
kaõñakàpassayiko’pi hoti, kaõñakàpassaye seyyaü kappeti, phalakaseyyampi
kappeti, thaõóilaseyyampi kappeti, ekapassasayiko’pi hoti,
rajojalladharo abbhokàsiko’pi hoti yathàsanthatiko, vekañiko’pi hoti
vikañabhojanànuyogamanuyutto, apànako’pi hoti apànakattamanuyutto,
sàyatatiyakampi udakorohaõànuyogamanuyutto viharati. Imàya ca kassapa
mattàya iminà tapopakkamena sàma¤¤aü và abhavissa brahma¤¤aü và dukkaraü
sudukkaraü, netaü abhavissa kallaü vacanàya ‘dukkaraü sàma¤¤aü dukkaraü
brahma¤¤anti’.

Sakkà ca
panetaü abhavissa ¤àtuü gahapatinà và gahapatiputtena và antamaso
kumbhadàsiyàpi: ‘handàhaü sàõànipi dhàremi, màsàõànipi kassapa dhàremi,
chavadussàni ‘pi kassapa dhàremi, paüsukålàni ‘pi kassapa dhàremi,
tirãñàni ‘pi kassapa dhàremi, ajinampi kassapa dhàremi, ajinakkhipampi
kassapa dhàremi, kusacãrampi kassapa dhàremi, vàkacãrampi kassapa
dhàremi, elakacãrampi kassapa dhàremi, kesakambalampi kassapa dhàremi,
vàlakambalampi kassapa dhàremi, ulåkapakkhikampi kassapa dhàremi,
kesamassulocako ‘pi hoti kesamassulocanànuyogamanuyutto, ubbhaññhako’pi
hoti àsanapañikkhitto, ukkuñiko’pi hoti ukkuñikappadhànamanuyutto,
kaõñakàpassayiko’pi hoti, kaõñakàpassaye seyyaü kappeti, phalakaseyyampi
kappeti, thaõóilaseyyampi kappeti, ekapassasayiko’pi hoti,
rajojalladharo abbhokàsiko’pi hoti yathàsanthatiko, vekañiko’pi hoti
vikañabhojanànuyogamanuyutto, apànako’pi hoti apànakattamanuyutto,
sàyatatiyakampi udakorohaõànuyogamanuyutto viharàmã’ti. Yasmà ca kho
kassapa a¤¤atreva imàya mattàya a¤¤atra iminà tapopakkamena sàma¤¤aü và
hoti brahma¤¤aü và dukkaraü sudukkaraü, tasmà etaü kallaü vacanàya
‘dukkaraü sàma¤¤aü dukkaraü brahma¤¤anti’.

Yato kho
kassapa bhikkhu averaü abyàpajjaü mettacittaü bhàveti, àsavàna¤ca khayà
anàsavaü cetovimuttiü pa¤¤àvimuttiü diññheva dhamme sayaü abhi¤¤à
sacchikatvà upasampajja viharati. Ayaü vuccati kassapa bhikkhu samaõo
iti’pi bràhmaõo iti’pãti.

[BJT Page 372] [\x 372/]

19. [PTS Page 170] [\q 170/] evaü vutte acelo kassapo bhagavantaü etadavoca: “dujjàno bho gotama samaõo dujjàno bràhmaõo”ti.

“Pakati kho esà kassapa lokasmiü ‘dujjàno samaõo dujjàno bràhmaõo”ti.

20. “Acelako
ce’pi kassapa hoti muttàcàro hatthàpalekhano, na ehibhadantiko, na
tiññhabhadantiko, nàbhihañaü, na uddissakañaü, na nimantanaü sàdiyati.
So na kumbhimukhà pañiggaõhàti, na kaëopimukhà pañiggaõhàti, na
eëakamantaraü, na daõóamantaraü, na musalamantaraü, na dvinnaü
bhu¤jamànànaü, na gabbhiniyà, na pàyamànàya, na purisantaragatàya, na
saükittãsu, na yattha sà upaññhito hoti, na yattha makkhikà
saõóasaõóacàrinã, na macchaü na maüsaü na suraü na merayaü na thusodakaü
pivati. So ekàgàriko và hoti ekàlopiko, dvàgàriko và hoti dvàlopiko,
sattàgàriko và hoti sattàlopiko, ekissàpi dattiyà yàpeti, dvãhipi
dattãpi yàpeti, sattahipi dattãhi yàpeti, ekàhikampi àhàraü àhàreti,
dvàhikampi àhàraü àhàreti, sattàhikampi àhàraü àhàreti. Iti evaråpaü
addhamàsikampi pariyàyabhattabhojanànuyogamanuyutto viharati, imàya
kassapa mattàya iminà tapopakkamena samaõo và abhavissa bràhmaõo và
dujjàno sudujjàno, netaü abhavissa kallaü vacanàya dujjàno samaõo
dujjàno bràhmaõo’ti.

Sakkà ca
paneso abhavissa ¤àtuü gahapatinà và gahapatiputtena và antamaso kumbha
dàsiyà’pi: ayaü acelako hoti muttàcàro hatthàpalekhano, na
ehibhadantiko, na tiññhabhadantiko, nàbhihañaü, na uddissakañaü, na
nimantanaü sàdiyati. So na kumbhimukhà pañiggaõhàti, na kaëopimukhà
pañiggaõhàti, na eëakamantaraü. Na daõóamantaraü, na musalamantaraü, na
dvinnaü bhu¤jamànànaü, na gabbhiniyà, na pàyamànàya, na
purisantaragatàya, na saükittãsu, na yattha sà upaññhito hoti, na yattha
makkhikà saõóasaõóacàrinã, na macchaü na maüsaü na suraü na merayaü na
thusodakaü pivati. So ekàgàriko và hoti ekàlopiko, dvàgàriko và hoti
dvàlopiko, sattàgàriko và hoti sattàlopiko, ekissàpi dattiyà yàpeti,
dvãhipi dattãpi yàpeti, sattahipi dattãhi yàpeti, ekàhikampi àhàraü
àhàreti, dvàhikampi àhàraü àhàreti, sattàhikampi àhàraü àhàreti. Iti
evaråpaü addhamàsikampi pariyàyabhattabhojanànuyogamanuyutto viharatãti.
Yasmà ca kho kassapa a¤¤atreva imàya mattàya a¤¤atra iminà
tapopakkamena samaõo và hoti. Bràhmaõo và dujjàno sudujjàno, tasmà etaü
kallaü vacanàya dujjàno samaõo dujjàno bràhmaõo’ti.

Yato kho
kassapa bhikkhu averaü abyàpajjaü mettacittaü [PTS Page 171] [\q 171/]
bhàveti, àsavàna¤ca khayà anàsavaü cetovimuttiü pa¤¤àvimuttiü diññheva
dhamme sayaü abhi¤¤à sacchikatvà upasampajja viharati. Ayaü vuccati
kassapa bhikkhu samaõo iti’pi bràhmaõo iti’pãti.

21.
Sàkabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti sàmàkabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti
nãvàrabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti daddulabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti
hañabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti kaõabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti
àcàmabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti pi¤¤àkabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti
tiõabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti gomayabhakkho ce’pi kassapa hoti
vanamålaphalàhàro yàpeti pavattaphalabhojã. Imàya ca kassapa

Mattàya iminà
tapopakkamena sàma¤¤aü và abhavissa bràhmaõo và dujjàno sudujjàno, netaü
abhavissa kallaü vacanàya ‘dujjàno samaõo dujjàno bràhmaõo’ti.

Sakkà ca
panetaü abhavissa ¤àtuü gahapatinà và gahapatiputtena và antamaso
kumbhadàsiyàpi: ‘ayaü sàkabhakkho và hoti, sàmàkabhakkho và hoti,
nãvàrabhakkho và hoti, daddulabhakkho và hoti, hañabhakkho và hoti,
kaõabhakkho và hoti, àcàmabhakkho và hoti, pi¤¤àkabhakkho và hoti,
tiõabhakkho và hoti, gomayabhakkho và hoti, vanamålaphalàhàro yàpeti
pavattaphalabhojã’ti. Yasmà ca kho kassapa a¤¤atreva imàya mattàya
a¤¤atra iminà tapopakkamena samaõo và hoti bràhmaõo và dujjàno
sudujjàno, tasmà etaü kallaü vacanàya ‘dujjàno samaõo dujjàno
bràhmaõo’ti.

[BJT Page 374] [\x 374/]

Yato kho
kassapa bhikkhu averaü abyàpajjaü mettacittaü bhàveti, àsavàna¤ca khayà
anàsavaü cetovimuttiü pa¤¤àvimuttiü diññheva dhamme sayaü abhi¤¤à
sacchikatvà upasampajja viharati. Ayaü vuccati kassapa bhikkhu samaõo
iti’pi bràhmaõo iti’pi.

22. Sàõàni
ce’pi kassapa dhàreti, masàõàni ce’pi kassapa dhàreti, chavadussàni
ce’pi kassapa dhàreti, paüsukålàni ce’pi kassapa dhàreti, tirãñàni ce’pi
kassapa dhàreti, ajinampi kassapa dhàreti, ajinakkhipampi kassapa
dhàreti, kusacãrampi kassapa dhàreti, vàkacãrampi kassapa dhàreti,
elakacãrampi ce’pi kassapa dhàreti, kesakambalampi ce’pi kassapa
dhàreti, vàlakambalampi ce’pi kassapa dhàreti, ulåkapakkhikampi kassapa
dhàreti, kesamassulocako ‘pi hoti kesamassulocanànuyogamanuyutto,
ubbhaññhako’pi hoti àsanapañikkhitto, ukkuñiko’pi hoti
ukkuñikappadhànamanuyutto, kaõñakàpassayiko’pi hoti, kaõñakàpassaye
seyyaü kappeti, phalakaseyyampi kappeti, thaõóilaseyyampi kappeti,
ekapassasayiko’pi hoti, rajojalladharo abbhokàsiko’pi hoti
yathàsanthatiko, vekañiko’pi hoti vikañabhojanànuyogamanuyutto,
apànako’pi hoti apànakattamanuyutto, sàyatatiyakampi
udakorohaõànuyogamanuyutto viharati. Imàya ca kassapa mattàya iminà
tapopakkamena samaõo và abhavissa bràhmaõo và dujjàno sudujjàno, netaü
abhavissa kallaü vacanàya ‘dujjàno samaõo dujjàno bràhmaõo’ti.

Yato kho
kassapa bhikkhu averaü abyàpajjaü mettacittaü bhàveti, àsavàna¤ca khayà
anàsavaü cetovimuttiü pa¤¤àvimuttiü diññheva dhamme sayaü abhi¤¤à
sacchikatvà upasampajja viharati. Ayaü vuccati kassapa bhikkhu samaõo
iti’pi bràhmaõo iti’pi.

23. Evaü vutte
acelo kassapo bhagavantaü etadavoca: “katamà pana sà bho gotama
sãlasampadà, katamà cittasampadà, katamà pa¤¤àsampadà?”Ti.

“Idha kassapa
tathàgato loke uppajjati arahaü sammà sambuddho vijjàcaraõasampanno
sugato lokavidå anuttaro purisadammasàrathã satthà devamanussànaü buddho
bhagavà. So imaü lokaü sadevakaü samàrakaü sabrahmakaü
sassamaõabràhmaõiü pajaü sadevamanussaü sayaü abhi¤¤à sacchikatvà
pavedeti. So dhammaü deseti àdikalyàõaü majjhekalyàõaü
pariyosànakalyàõaü sàtthaü sabya¤janaü kevalaparipuõõaü parisuddhaü
brahmacariyaü pakàseti.

23.(29) Taü
dhammaü suõàti gahapati và gahapatiputto và a¤¤atarasmiü và kule
paccàjàto. So taü dhammaü sutvà tathàgate saddhaü pañilabhati. So tena
saddhàpañilàbhena samannàgato iti pañisaücikkhati: ’sambàdho gharàvaso
rajàpatho1. Abbhokàso pabbajjà. Nayidaü sukaraü agàraü ajjhàvasatà
ekantaparipuõõaü ekantaparisuddhaü saükhalikhitaü brahmacariyaü carituü.
Yannånàhaü kesamassuü ohàretvà kàsàyàni vatthàni acchàdetvà agàrasmà
anagàriyaü pabbajeyya’nti.

1. Rajopatho, katthaci.

So aparena
samayena appaü và bhogakkhandhaü pahàya mahantaü và bhogakkhandhaü
pahàya appaü và ¤àtiparivaññaü pahàya mahantaü và ¤àtiparivaññaü pahàya
kesamassuü ohàretvà kàsàyàni vatthàni acchàdetvà agàrasmà anagàriyaü
pabbajati. So evaü pabbajito samàno pàtimokkhasaüvarasaüvuto viharati
àcàragocarasampanno aõumattesu vajjesu bhayadassàvã. Samàdàya sikkhati
sikkhàpadesu kàyakammavacãkammena samannàgato kusalena. Parisuddhàjãvo
sãlasampanno indriyesu guttadvàro bhojane matta¤¤å satisampaja¤¤esu
samannàgato santuññho.

24.(29)
Katha¤ca kassapa bhikkhu sãlasampanno hoti? Idha kassapa bhikkhu
pàõàtipàtaü pahàya pàõàtipàtà pañivirato hoti nihitadaõóo nihitasattho
lajjã dayàpanno. Sabbapàõabhåtahitànukampã viharati. Idampi’ssa hoti
sãlasmiü.

Adinnàdànaü
pahàya adinnàdànà pañivirato hoti dinnàdàyã dinnapàñikaïkhã. Athenena
sucibhåtena attanà viharati. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

Abrahmacariyaü pahàya brahmacàrã hoti àràcàrã1 virato methunà gàmadhammà. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

Musàvàdaü pahàya musàvàdà pañivirato hoti saccavàdã saccasandho theto2 paccayiko avisaüvàdako lokassa. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

Pisuõaü vàcaü3
pahàya pisuõàya vàcàya pañivirato hoti. Ito sutvà na amutra akkhàtà
imesaü bhedàya. Amutra và sutvà na imesaü akkhàtà amåsaü bhedàya. Iti
bhinnànaü và sandhàtà, sahitànaü và anuppadàtà4 samaggàràmo5 samaggarato
samagganandiü samaggakaraõiü vàcaü bhàsità hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti
sãlasmiü.

Pharusaü
vàcaü6 pahàya pharusàya vàcàya pañivirato hoti. Yà sà vàcà neëà
kaõõasukhà pemanãyà7 hadayaïgamà porã bahujanakantà bahujanamanàpà,
tathàråpaü8 vàcaü bhàsità hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

Samphappalàpaü
pahàya samphappalàpà pañivirato hoti kàlavàdã bhåtavàdã atthavàdã
dhammavàdã vinayavàdã. Nidhànavatiü vàcaü bhàsità hoti kàlena sàpadesaü
pariyantavatiü atthasa¤hitaü. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

1. Anàcàri, machasaü.

2. òheto, syà.

3. Pisuõàvàcaü, [PTS]

4. Anuppàdàtà, [PTS]

5. Samaggaràmo, machasaü.

6. Pharusàvàcaü, [PTS] Sitira

7. Pemaniyà, machasaü. 8. Evaråpiü. [PTS] Sitira.

24.(30)
Bãjagàmabhåtagàmasamàrambhà1 pañivirato hoti. Ekabhattiko2 hoti
rattåparato3 pañivirato4 vikàlabhojanà. Naccagãtavàditavisåkadassanà5
pañivirato hoti. Màlàgandhavilepanadhàraõamaõóanavibhusanaññhànà
pañivirato hoti. Uccàsayanamahàsayanà pañivirato hoti.
Jàtaråparajatapañiggahaõà6 pañivirato hoti. âmakadha¤¤apañiggahaõà6
pañivirato hoti. âmakamaüsapañiggahaõà6 pañivirato hoti.
Itthikumàrikapañiggahaõà6 pañivirato hoti. Dàsidàsapañiggahaõà6
pañivirato hoti. Ajeëakapañiggahaõà6 pañivirato hoti.
Kukkuñasåkarapañiggahaõà6 pañivirato hoti. Hatthigavassavaëavà7
pañiggahaõà pañivirato hoti. Khettavatthupañiggahaõà pañivirato hoti.
Dåteyyapaheõa8 gamanànuyogà pañivirato hoti. Kayavikkayà pañivirato
hoti. Tulàkåñakaüsakåñamànakåñà9 pañivirato hoti.
Ukkoñanava¤cananikatisàci10 yogà pañivirato hoti.
Chedanavadhabandhanaviparàmosaàlopasahasàkàrà11 pañivirato hoti.
Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

Cullasãlaü12 niññhitaü

24.(31) Yathà
và paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü bãjagàmabhåtagàmasamàrambhaü13 anuyuttà viharanti, seyyathãdaü:
målabãjaü khandhabãjaü phalubãjaü14 aggabãjaü bijabãjameva15 pa¤camaü.
Iti và itievaråpà16 bãjagàmabhåtagàmasamàrambhà17 pañivirato hoti.
Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

24.(32) Yathà
và paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü sannidhikàraparibhogaü anuyuttà viharanti, seyyathãdaü:
annasannidhiü pànasannidhiü vatthasannidhiü yànasannidhiü
sayanasannidhiü gandhasannidhiü àmisasannidhiü. Iti và iti evaråpà
sannidhikàraparibhogà pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

1. Samàrabbhà, machasaü.

2. Ekaü bhattiko, machasaü.

3. Rattuparato, machasaü.

4. Virato, the. Se.

5. Visåkaü, machasaü.

6. Pariggahaõà, (sabbattha)

7. Gavassaü, se. Vaëavaü, machasaü.

8. Pahiõa, sãmu. Machasa. Syà.

9. Kåñaü, machasaü.

10. Sàvi, machasaü.

11. Sahasaü, machasaü.

12. Cåëa sãlaü, machasaü.

13. Samàrabbhà, machasaü.

14. Phalaü, se. Phaluü, si. The.

15. Bija bãjaü eva. The.

16. Iti evarupà, kesuci.

17. Samàrabbhà, machasaü.

24.(33) Yathà
và paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü visåkadassanaü anuyuttà viharanti, seyyathãdaü: naccaü gãtaü
vàditaü pekkhaü akkhàtaü pàõissaraü vetàlaü kumbhathånaü sobhanakaü1
caõóàlaü vaüsaü dhopanakaü2 hatthiyuddhaü assayuddhaü mahisayuddhaü3
usabhayuddhaü ajayuddhaü meõóayuddhaü4 kukkuñayuddhaü vaññakayuddhaü
daõóayuddhaü muññhiyuddhaü5 nibbuddhaü uyyodhikaü balaggaü senàbyåhaü
aõãkadassanaü6. Iti và iti evaråpà visåkadassanà pañivirato hoti.
Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

24.(34) Yathà
và paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü jåtappamàdaññhànànuyogaü anuyuttà viharanti, seyyathãdaü:
aññhapadaü dasapadaü àkàsaü parihàrapathaü santikaü khalikaü ghañikaü
salàkahatthaü akkhaü païgacãraü vaïkakaü mokkhacikaü ciïgulakaü
pattàëhakaü rathakaü dhanukaü akkharikaü manesikaü yathàvajjaü. Iti và
iti evaråpà jåtappamàdaññhànànuyogà pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti
sãlasmiü.

24.(35) Yathà
và paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü uccàsayanamahàsayanaü anuyuttà viharanti, seyyathãdaü: àsandiü
pallaïkaü gonakaü cittakaü pañikaü pañalikaü tålikaü vikatikaü uddalomiü
ekantalomiü kaññhissaü koseyyaü kuttakaü hatthattharaü assattharaü
rathattharaü ajinappaveõiü kàdalimigapavarapaccattharaõaü
sauttaracchadaü ubhatolohitakåpadhànaü. Iti và iti evaråpà
uccàsayanamahàsayanà pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

1. Sobhanagarakaü, katthaci. Sobhanakarakaü, [PTS] Sobhanagharakaü, machasaü.

2. Dhovanaü, katthaci. Dhopanaü, sitira.

3. Mahiüsaü, machasaü.

4. Meõóakaü, machasaü.

5. Sãhala potthakesu na dissati.

6. Anãka - kesuci.

24.(36) Yathà
và paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü maõóanavibhusanaññhànànuyogaü anuyuttà viharanti, seyyathãdaü:
ucchàdanaü parimaddanaü nahàpanaü sambàhanaü àdàsaü a¤janaü
màlàvilepanaü mukhacuõõakaü1 mukhalepanaü2 hatthabandhaü sikhàbandhaü
daõóakaü nàëikaü khaggaü chattaü citråpàhanaü uõhãsaü maõiü vàlavãjaniü
odàtàni vatthàni dãghadasàni. Iti và iti evaråpà
maõóanavibhusanaññhànànuyogà pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

24.(37) Yathà
và paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü tiracchànakathaü anuyuttà viharanti, seyyathãdaü: ràjakathaü
corakathaü mahàmattakathaü senàkathaü bhayakathaü yuddhakathaü
annakathaü pànakathaü vatthakathaü sayanakathaü màlàkathaü gandhakathaü
¤àtikathaü yànakathaü gàmakathaü nigamakathaü nagarakathaü
janapadakathaü itthikathaü purisakathaü (kumàrakathaü kumàrikathaü)3
sårakathaü visikhàkathaü kumbhaññhànakathaü pubbapetakathaü
nànattakathaü lokakkhàyikaü samuddakkhàyikaü itibhavàbhavakathaü. Iti và
itievaråpàya tiracchànakathàya pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti
sãlasmiü.

24.(38) Yathà
và paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpà viggàhikakathaü anuyuttà viharanti, seyyathãdaü: “na tvaü imaü
dhammavinayaü àjànàsi. Ahaü imaü dhammavinayaü àjànàmi. Kiü tvaü imaü
dhammavinayaü àjànissasi? Micchàpañipanno tvamasi. Ahamasmi
sammàpañipanno. Sahitaü me, asahitaü te. Pure vacanãyaü pacchà avaca.
Pacchà vacanãyaü pure avaca. âciõõaü4 te viparàvattaü. âropito te vàdo.
Niggahãto tvamasi. Cara vàdappamokkhàya. Nibbeñhehi và sace pahosã”ti.
Iti và itievaråpàya viggàhikakathàya pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti
sãlasmiü.

24.(39) Yathà
và paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü dåteyyapahiõagamanànuyogamanuyuttà viharanti, seyyathãdaü:
ra¤¤aü ràjamahàmattànaü khattiyànaü bràhmaõànaü gahapatikànaü kumàrànaü
“idha gaccha. Amutràgaccha. Idaü hara. Amutra idaü àharà”ti. Iti và
itievaråpà dåteyyapahiõagamanànuyogà pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti
sãlasmiü.

1. Mukhacuõõaü, machasaü.

2. Mukhàlepanaü, sãmu.

3. Marammapotthakesuyeva dissate

4. Aviciõõaü, kesuci.

24.(40) Yathà
và paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
kuhakà ca honti lapakà ca nemittikà ca nippesikà ca làbhena ca làbhaü
nijigiüsitàro. Iti và itievaråpà kuhanalapanà pañivirato hoti.
Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

Majjhimasãlaü niññhitaü.

24.(41) Yathà
và paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü1 kappenti, seyyathãdaü:
aïgaü nimittaü uppàtaü2 supiõaü3 lakkhaõaü måsikacchinnaü aggihomaü
dabbihomaü thusahomaü taõóulahomaü sappihomaü telahomaü mukhahomaü
lohitahomaü aïgavijjà vatthuvijjà khattavijjà4 sivavijjà bhåtavijjà
bhurivijjà ahivijjà visavijjà vicchikavijjà måsikavijjà sakuõavijjà
vàyasavijjà pakkajjhànaü5 saraparittànaü migacakkaü. Iti và itievaråpàya
tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

24.(42) Yathà
và paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü kappenti, seyyathãdaü:
maõilakkhaõaü vatthalakkhaõaü daõóalakkhaõaü6 asilakkhaõaü usulakkhaõaü
dhanulakkhaõaü àvudhalakkhaõaü7 itthilakkhaõaü purisalakkhaõaü
kumàralakkhaõaü kumàrilakkhaõaü dàsalakkhaõaü dàsilakkhaõaü
hatthilakkhaõaü assalakkhaõaü mahisalakkhaõaü8 usabhalakkhaõaü
golakkhaõaü9 ajalakkhaõaü meõóalakkhaõaü10 kukkuñalakkhaõaü
vaññakalakkhaõaü godhàlakkhaõaü kaõõikàlakkhaõaü kacchapalakkhaõaü
migalakkhaõaü. Iti và itievaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà
pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

24.(43) Yathà
và paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü kappenti seyyathãdaü:
ra¤¤aü niyyànaü bhavissati, ra¤¤aü aniyyànaü bhavissati, abbhantarànaü
ra¤¤aü upayànaü bhavissati, bàhirànaü ra¤¤aü apayànaü bhavissati,
bàhirànaü ra¤¤aü upayànaü bhavissati, abbhantarànaü ra¤¤aü apayànaü
bhavissati, abbhantarànaü ra¤¤aü jayo bhavissati, abbhantarànaü ra¤¤aü
paràjayo bhavissati. Iti imassa jayo bhavissati. Imassa paràjayo
bhavissati. Iti và itievaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà pañivirato
hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

1. Jãvitaü, machasaü.

2. Uppàdaü, sãmu.

3. Supinaü, machasaü. Supiõakaü, si.

4. Khettaü, kesuci.

5. Pakkha, kesuci.

6. Daõóalakkhaõaü satthalakkhaõaü, machasaü.

7. âyudha, kesuci.

8. Mahiüsa, machasaü.

9. Goõa, machasaü.

10. Meõóaka, kesuci.

24.(44) Yathà
và paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü kappenti. Seyyathãdaü:
candaggàho bhavissati. Suriyaggàho bhavissati. Nakkhattagàho bhavissati.
Candimasuriyànaü pathagamanaü bhavissati. Candimasuriyànaü
uppathagamanaü bhavissati. Nakkhattànaü pathagamanaü bhavissati.
Nakkhattànaü uppathagamanaü bhavissati. Ukkàpàto bhavissati. Dãsàóàho
bhavissati. Bhåmicàlo bhavissati. Devadundubhi bhavissati.
Candimasuriyanakkhattànaü uggamanaü ogamanaü1 saükilesaü vodànaü
bhavissati. Evaüvipàko candaggàho bhavissati. Evaüvipàko suriyaggàho
bhavissati. Evaüvipàko nakkhattaggàho bhavissati. Evaüvipàkaü
candimasuriyànaü pathagamanaü bhavissati. Evaüvipàkaü candimasuriyànaü
uppathagamanaü bhavissati. Evaüvipàkaü nakkhattànaü pathagamanaü
bhavissati. Evaüvipàkaü nakkhattànaü uppathagamanaü bhavissati.
Evaüvipàko ukkàpàto bhavissati. Evaüvipàko disàóàho bhavissati.
Evaüvipàko bhåmicàlo bhavissati. Evaüvipàko devadundåbhi bhavissati.
Evaüvipàko candimasuriyanakkhattànaü uggamanaü ogamanaü saïkilesaü
vodànaü bhavissati. Iti và itievaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà
pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

24.(45) Yathà
và paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü kappenti. Seyyathãdaü:
subbuññhikà bhavissati. Dubbuññhikà bhavissati. Subhikkhaü bhavissati.
Dubbhikkhaü bhavissati. Khemaü bhavissati. Bhayaü bhavissati. Rogo
bhavissati. ârogyaü bhavissati. Muddà gaõanà saükhànaü kàveyyaü
lokàyataü. Iti và itievaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena pañivirato
hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

24.(46) Yathà
và paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü kappenti. Seyyathãdaü:
àvàhanaü vivàhanaü saüvadanaü vivadanaü saükiraõaü vikiraõaü
subhagakaraõaü dubbhagakaraõaü viruddhagabbhakaraõaü jivhànitthambhanaü2
hanusaühananaü hatthàbhijappanaü hanujappanaü kaõõajappanaü àdàsapa¤haü
kumàripa¤haü devapa¤haü àdiccupaññhànaü mahatupaññhànaü abbhujjalanaü
sirivhàyanaü. Iti và itievaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà
pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

1. Oggamanaü, kesuci.

2. Jivhànitthaddhanaü. Bahusu.

24.(47) Yathà
và paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü kappenti. Seyyathãdaü:
santikammaü paõidhikammaü bhåtakammaü bhurikammaü vassakammaü
vossakammaü vatthukammaü vatthuparikiraõaü àcamanaü nahàpanaü juhanaü
vamanaü virecanaü uddhavirecanaü adhovirecanaü sãsavirecanaü kaõõatelaü
nettatappanaü natthukammaü a¤janaü pacca¤janaü sàlàkiyaü sallakattiyaü
dàrakatikicchà målabhesajjànaü anuppadànaü osadhãnaü pañimokkho. Iti và
itievaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà pañivirato hoti. Idamassa hoti
sãlasampadàya.

24.(48) Sa
kho1 so kassapa bhikkhu evaü sãlasampanno na kutoci bhayaü samanupassati
yadidaü sãlasaüvarato. Seyyathàpi kassapa ràjà khattiyo muddhàvasitto2
nihatapaccàmitto na kutoci bhayaü samanupassati yadidaü paccatthikato,
evameva kho kassapa bhikkhu evaü sãlasampanno na kutoci bhayaü
samanupassati yadidaü sãlasaüvarato. So iminà ariyena sãlakkhandhena
samannàgato ajjhattaü anavajjasukhaü pañisaüvedeti. Evaü kho kassapa
bhikkhu sãlasampanno hoti.

25.(49)
Katha¤ca kassapa bhikkhu indriyesu guttadvàro hoti? Idha kassapa bhikkhu
cakkhunà råpaü disvà na nimittaggàhã hoti nànubya¤janaggàhã.
Yatvàdhikaraõamenaü cakkhundriyaü asaüvutaü viharantaü abhijjhà
domanassà pàpakà akusalà dhammà anvassaveyyuü3 tassa saüvaràya
pañipajjati. Rakkhati cakkhundriyaü. Cakkhundriye saüvaraü àpajjati.
Sotena saddaü sutvà na nimittaggàhã hoti nànubya¤janaggàhã.
Yatvàdhikaraõamenaü sotindriyaü asaüvutaü viharantaü abhijjhà domanassà
pàpakà akusalà dhammà anvassaveyyuü tassa saüvaràya pañipajjati.
Rakkhati sotindriyaü. Sotindriye saüvaraü àpajjati. Ghàõena gandhaü
ghàyitvà na nimittaggàhã hoti nànubya¤janaggàhã. Yatvàdhikaraõamenaü
ghàõindriyaü asaüvutaü viharantaü abhijjhà domanassà pàpakà akusalà
dhammà anvassaveyyuü tassa saüvaràya pañipajjati. Rakkhati ghàõindriyaü.
Ghàõindriye saüvaraü àpajjati. Jivhàya rasaü sàyitvà na nimittaggàhã
hoti nànubya¤janaggàhã. Yatvàdhikaraõamenaü jivhindriyaü asaüvutaü
viharantaü abhijjhà domanassà pàpakà akusalà dhammà anvassaveyyuü3 tassa
saüvaràya pañipajjati. Rakkhati jivhindriyaü. Jivhindriye saüvaraü
àpajjati. Kàyena phoññhabbaü phusitvà na nimittaggàhã hoti
nànubya¤janaggàhã. Yatvàdhikaraõamenaü kàyindriyaü asaüvutaü viharantaü
abhijjhà domanassà pàpakà akusalà dhammà anvassaveyyuü3 tassa saüvaràya
pañipajjati. Rakkhati kàyindriyaü. Kàyindriye saüvaraü àpajjati. Manasà
dhammaü vi¤¤àya na nimittaggàhã hoti nànubya¤janaggàhã.
Yatvàdhikaraõamenaü manindriyaü asaüvutaü viharantaü abhijjhà domanassà
pàpakà akusalà dhammà anvassaveyyuü3 tassa saüvaràya pañipajjati.
Rakkhati manindriyaü. Manindriye saüvaraü àpajjati. So iminà ariyena
indriyasaüvarena samannàgato ajjhattaü abyàsekasukhaü pañisaüvedeti.
Evaü kho kassapa bhikkhu indriyesu guttadvàro hoti.

1. Atha kho, kesuci.

2. Muddhàbhisinto, kesuci.

3. Anvàsaveyyuü, anvàssaveyyu, kesuci.

26.(50)
Katha¤ca kassapa bhikkhu satisampaja¤¤ena samannàgato hoti? Idhàvuso
bhikkhu abhikkante pañikkante sampajànakàrã hoti. âlokite vilokite
sampajànakàrã hoti. Sami¤jite1 pasàrite sampajànakàrã hoti.
Saïghàñipattacãvaradhàraõe sampajànakàrã hoti. Asite pãte khàyite sàyite
sampajànakàrã hoti. Uccàrapassàvakamme sampajànakàrã hoti. Gate ñhite
nisinne sutte jàgarite bhàsite tuõhãbhàve sampajànakàrã hoti. Evaü kho
kassapa bhikkhu satisampaja¤¤ena samannàgato hoti.

[BJT Page 378] [\x 378/]

27.(51)
Katha¤ca àvuso bhikkhu santuññho hoti? Idhàvuso bhikkhu santuññho hoti
kàyaparihàriyena cãvarena kucchiparihàriyena2 piõóapàtena. So yena
yeneva pakkamati samàdàyeva pakkamati. Seyyathàpi kassapa pakkhi sakuõo
yena yeneva óeti sapattabhàro’va óeti, evameva kho àvuso bhikkhu
santuññho hoti kàyaparihàriyena cãvarena kucchiparihàriyena piõóapàtena.
So yena yeneva pakkamati samàdàyeva pakkamati. Evaü kho àvuso bhikkhu
santuññho hoti.

28.(52) So
iminà ca ariyena sãlakkhandhena3 samannàgato iminà ca ariyena
indriyasaüvarena samannàgato iminà ca ariyena satisampaja¤¤ena
samannàgato imàya ca ariyàya santuññhiyà samannàgato vivittaü senàsanaü
bhajati ara¤¤aü rukkhamålaü pabbataü kandaraü giriguhaü susànaü
vanapatthaü abbhokàsaü palàlapu¤jaü. So pacchàbhattaü
piõóapàtapañikkanto nisãdati pallaïkaü àbhujitvà ujuü kàyaü paõidhàya
parimukhaü satiü upaññhapetvà.

29.(53) So
loke abhijjhaü pahàya vigatàbhijjhena cetasà viharati. Abhijjhàya cittaü
parisodheti. Byàpàdapadosaü pahàya abyàpannacitto viharati
sabbapàõabhåtahitànukampã. Byàpàdapadosà cittaü parisodheti.
Thãnamiddhaü pahàya vigatathãnamiddho viharati àlokasa¤¤ã sato
sampajàno. Thãnamiddhà cittaü parisodheti. Uddhaccakukkuccaü pahàya
anuddhato viharati ajjhattaü våpasantacitto. Uddhaccakukkuccà cittaü
parisodheti. Vicikicchaü pahàya tiõõavicikiccho viharati akathaükathã
kusalesu dhammesu. Vicikicchàya cittaü parisodheti.

1. Sammi¤jite, kesuci.

2. Paribhàrikena, sãmu.

3. Iminà sãlakkhandhena, sabbattha.

29.(54)
Seyyathàpi àvuso puriso iõaü àdàya kammante payojeyya, tassa te kammantà
samijjheyyuü, so yàni ca poràõàni iõamålàni tàni ca byantãkareyya, siyà
cassa uttariü avasiññhaü dàrabharaõàya, tassa evamassa: “ahaü kho pubbe
iõaü àdàya kammante payojesiü. Tassa me te kammantà samijjhiüsu. So’haü
yàni ca poràõàni iõamålàni tàni ca byantã akàsiü. Atthi ca me uttariü
avasiññhaü dàrabharaõàyà”ti. So tatonidànaü labhetha pàmojjaü,
adhigaccheyya somanassaü -

29.(55)
Seyyathàpi àvuso puriso àbàdhiko assa dukkhito bàëhagilàno, bhattaü
cassa nacchàdeyya, na cassa kàye balamattà, so aparena samayena tamhà
àbàdhà mucceyya, bhatta¤cassa chàdeyya, siyà cassa kàye balamattà, tassa
evamassa: “ahaü kho pubbe àbàdhiko ahosiü dukkhito bàëhagilàno. Bhattaü
ca me nacchàdesi. Nacassa me àsi kàye balamattà. So’mhi etarahi tamhà
àbàdhà mutto bhatta¤ca me chàdeti. Atthi ca me kàye balamattà”ti. So
tato nidànaü labhetha pàmojjaü, adhigaccheyya somanassaü -

29.(56)
Seyyathàpi àvuso puriso bandhanàgàre baddho assa, so aparena samayena
tamhà bandhanàgàrà mucceyya sotthinà abbayena1, na cassa ki¤ci bhogànaü
vayo, tassa evamassa: “ahaü kho pubbe bandhanàgàre baddho ahosiü. So’mhi
etarahi tamhà bandhanàgàrà mutto sotthinà abbayena. Natthi ca me ki¤ci
bhogànaü vayo”ti. So tatonidànaü labhetha pàmojjaü, adhigaccheyya
somanassaü -

29.(57)
Seyyathàpi àvuso puriso dàso assa anattàdhãno paràdhãno na
yenakàmaïgamo, so aparena samayena tamhà dàsabyà mucceyya attàdhãno
aparàdhãno bhujisso yenakàmaïgamo, tassa evamassa: “ahaü kho pubbe dàso
ahosiü anattàdhãno paràdhãno na yenakàmaïgamo, so’mhi etarahi tamhà
dàsabyà mutto attàdhãno aparàdhãno bhujisso yenakàmaïgamo”ti. So
tatonidànaü labhetha pàmojjaü, adhigaccheyya somanassaü -

1. Avyayena, [PTS]

29.(59)
Seyyathàpi àvuso puriso sadhano sabhogo kantàraddhànamaggaü pañipajjeyya
dubbhikkhaü sappañibhayaü. So aparena samayena taü kantàraü
nitthareyya, sotthinà gàmantaü anupàpuõeyya khemaü appañibhayaü, tassa
evamassa: “ahaü kho pubbe sadhano sabhogo kantàraddhànamaggaü pañipajjiü
dubbhikkhaü sappañibhayaü. So’mhi etarahi taü kantàraü tiõõo sotthinà
gàmantaü anuppatto khemaü appañibhaya”nti. So tato nidànaü labhetha
pàmojjaü adhigaccheyya somanassaü -

29.(60)
Evameva kho àvuso bhikkhu yathà iõaü yathà rogaü yathà bandhanàgàraü
yathà dàsabyaü yathà kantàraddhànamaggaü evaü ime pa¤ca nãvaraõe
appahãõe attani samanupassati. Seyyathàpi àvuso ànaõyaü yathà àrogyaü
yathà bandhanà mokkhaü yathà bhujissaü yathà khemantabhåmiü evameva kho
àvuso bhikkhu ime pa¤ca nãvaraõe pahãõe attani samanupassati.

[BJT Page 380] [\x 380/]

30(61) Tassime
pa¤ca nãvaraõe pahãõe attani samanupassato pàmojjaü jàyati. Pamuditassa
pãti jàyati. Pãtimanassa kàyo passambhati. Passaddhakàyo sukhaü vedeti.
Sukhino cittaü samàdhiyati.

So vivicceva
kàmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi [PTS Page 173] [\q 173/] savitakkaü
savicàraü vivekajaü pãtisukhaü pañhamaü jhànaü upasampajja viharati. So
imameva kàyaü vivekajena pãtisukhena abhisanneti parisanneti paripåreti
parippharati. Nàssa ki¤ci sabbàvato kàyassa vivekajena pãtisukhena
apphuñaü hoti.

Seyyathàpi
àvuso dakkho nahàpako và nahàpakantevàsã và kaüsathàle nahànãyavuõõàni
àkiritvà udakena paripphosakaü paripphosakaü sanneyya3 sàyaü
nahànãyapiõói snehànugatà snehaparetà santarabàhirà phuñà snehena na ca
paggharaõi -

Evameva kho
àvuso bhikkhu imameva kàyaü vivekajena pãtisukhena abhisanneti
parisenneti paripåreti parippharati. Nàssa ki¤ci sabbàvato kàyassa
vivekajena pãtisukhena apphuñaü hoti.

Puna ca paraü
àvuso bhikkhu vitakkavicàrànaü våpasamà ajjhattaü sampasàdanaü cetaso
ekodibhàvaü avitakkaü avicàraü samàdhijaü pãtisukhaü dutiyaü jhànaü
upasampajja viharati. So imameva kàyaü samàdhijena pãtisukhena
abhisandeti parisandeti paripåreti parippharati. Nàssa ki¤ci sabbàvato
kàyassa samàdhijena pãtisukhena apphuñaü hoti.

Seyyathàpi
àvuso udakarabhado ubbhidodako, tassa nevassa puratthimàya disàya
udakassa àyamukhaü, na dakkhiõàya disàya udakassa àyamukhaü, na
pacchimàya disàya udakassa àyamukhaü, na uttaràya disàya udakassa
àyamukhaü, devo ca na kàlena kàlaü sammà dhàraü anupaveccheyya, atha kho
tamhà ca udakarahadà sãtà vàridhàrà ubbhijjitvà tameva udakarahadaü
sãtena vàrinà abhisandeyya parisandeyya paripåreyya paripphareyya, nàssa
ki¤ci sabbàvato udakarahadassa vàrinà sãtena apphuñaü assa -

Evameva kho
àvuso bhikkhu imameva kàyaü samàdhijena pãtisukhena abhisandeti
parisandeti paripåreti parippharati. Nàssa ki¤ci sabbàvato kàyassa
samàdhijena pãtisukhena apphuñaü hoti.

Puna ca paraü
àvuso bhikkhu pãtiyà ca viràgà upekkhako ca viharati sato sampajàno
sukha¤ca kàyena pañisaüvedeti. Yantaü ariyà àcikkhanti: upekkhako satimà
sukhavihàrãti tatiyaü jhànaü upasampajja viharati.

So imameva
kàyaü nippãtikena sukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripåreti,
parippharati nàssa ki¤ci sabbàvato kàyassa nippãtikena sukhena apphuñaü
hoti.

Seyyathàpi
àvuso uppaliniyaü và paduminiyaü và puõóarãkiniyaü và appekaccàni
uppalàni và padumàni và puõóarãkàni và udake jàtàni udake saüvaddhàni
udakànuggatàni antonimuggaposãni tàni yàva caggà yàva ca målà sãtena
vàrinà abhisannàni parisannàni paripåràni, paripphuñàni nàssà ki¤ci
sabbàvataü uppalànaü và padumànaü và puõóarãkànaü và sãtena vàrinà
apphuñaü assa.

Evameva kho
àvuso bhikkhu imameva kàyaü nippãtikena sukhena abhisandeti parisandeti
paripåreti parippharati. Nàssa ki¤ci sabbàvato kàyassa nippãtikena
sukhena apphuñaü hoti.

Puna ca paraü
àvuso bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahànà dukkhassa ca pahànà pubbeva
somanassadomanassànaü atthaïgamà adukkhamasukhaü upekkhàsatipàrisuddhiü
catutthaü jhànaü upasampajja viharati. Idampi’ssa hoti cittasampadàya.
Ayaü kho sà kassapa cittasampadà.

31. So evaü samàhite citte - pe -

[BJT Page 380] [\x 380/]

32. [PTS Page
174] [\q 174/] imàya ca kassapa sãlasampadàya imàya ca cittasampadàya
imàya ca pa¤¤àsampadàya a¤¤à sãlasampadà cittasampadà pa¤¤àsampadà
uttarãtarà và paõãtatarà và natthi.

33. Santi
kassapa eke samaõabràhmaõà sãlavàdà. Te anekapariyàyena sãlassa vaõõaü
bhàsanti. Yàvatà kassapa ariyaü paramaü sãlaü, nàhaü tattha attano
samasamaü samanupassàmi. Kuto bhiyyo? Atha kho ahameva tattha bhiyyo
yadidaü adhisãlaü.

34. Santi
kassapa eke samaõabràhmaõà tapojigucchàvàdà. Te anekapariyàyena
tapojigucchàya vaõõaü bhàsanti. Yàvatà kassapa ariyà paramà
tapojigucchà, nàhaü tattha attano samasamaü samanupassàmi. Kuto bhiyyo?
Atha kho ahameva tattha bhiyyo yadidaü adhijegucchaü.

35. Santi
kassapa eke samaõabràhmaõà pa¤¤àvàdà. Te anekapariyàyena pa¤¤àya vaõaõaü
bhàsanti. Yàvatà kassapa ariyà paramà pa¤¤à, nàhaü tattha attano
samasamaü samanupassàmi. Kuto bhiyyo? Atha kho ahameva tattha bhiyyo
yadidaü adhipa¤¤à.

36. Santi
kassapa eke samaõabràhmaõà vimuttivàdà. Te anekapariyàyena vimuttiyà
vaõaõaü bhàsanti. Yàvatà kassapa ariyà paramà vimutti, nàhaü tattha
attano samasamaü samanupassàmi. Kuto bhiyyo? Atha kho ahameva tattha
bhiyyo yadidaü adhimutti.

[BJT Page 382] [\x 382/]

37. [PTS Page
175] [\q 175/] ñhànaü kho panetaü kassapa vijjati yaü a¤¤atitthiyà
paribbàjakà evaü vadeyyuü: “sãhanàdaü kho samaõo gotamo nadati. Ta¤ca
kho su¤¤àgàre nadati no parisàså”ti. Te ‘mà hevanti’ssu vacanãyà.
“Sãhanàda¤ca samaõo gotamo nadati, parisàsu ca nadatã’ti. Evamassu
kassapa vacanãyà.

38. òhànaü kho
panetaü kassapa vijjati yaü a¤¤atitthiyà paribbàjakà evaü vadeyyuü:
“sãhanàda¤ca samaõo gotamo nadati, parisàsu ca nadati. No ca kho
visàrado nadatã”ti. Te ‘mà hevanti’ssu vacanãyà. “Sãhanàda¤ca samaõo
gotamo nadati, parisàsu ca nadati, visàrado ca nadatã”ti. Evamassu
kassapa vacanãyà.

39. òhànaü kho
panetaü kassapa vijjati yaü a¤¤atitthiyà paribbàjakà evaü vadeyyuü:
“sãhanàda¤ca samaõo gotamo nadati, parisàsu ca nadati, visàrado ca
nadati, no ca kho naü pa¤haü pucchantã”ti. Te ‘mà hevanti’ssu vacanãyà
“sãhanàdaü ca samaõo gotamo nadati. Parisàsu ca nadati, visàrado ca
nadati, pa¤ha¤ca naü pucchantã”ti. Evamassu kassapa vacanãyà.

40. òhànaü kho
panetaü kassapa vijjati yaü a¤¤atitthiyà paribbàjakà evaü vadeyyuü:
“sãhanàdaü ca samaõo gotamo nadati, parisàsu ca nadati, visàrado ca
nadati, pa¤haü ca naü pucchanti, no ca kho nesaü pa¤haü puññho
byàkarotã”ti. Te ‘mà hevanti’ssu vacanãyà. “Sãhanàda¤ca samaõo gotamo
nadati, parisàsu ca nadati, visàrado ca nadati, pa¤haü ca naü pucchanti.
Pa¤ha¤ca nesaü puññho byàkarotã”ti. Evamassu kassapa vacanãyà.

41. òhànaü kho
panetaü kassapa vijjati yaü a¤¤atitthiyà paribbàjakà evaü vadeyyuü:
“sãhanàda¤ca samaõo gotamo nadati, parisàsu ca nadati. Visàrado ca
nadati, pa¤haü ca naü pucchanti, no ca kho pa¤ha¤ca nesaü puññho
byàkaroti, no ca kho pa¤hassa veyyàkaraõena cittaü àràdhetã”ti. Te ‘mà
hevanti’ssu vacanãyà “sãhanàdaü ca samaõo gotamo nadati, parisàsu ca
nadati, visàrado ca nadati, pa¤haü ca naü pucchanti, no ca kho nesaü
pa¤hassa ca veyyàkaraõena cittaü àràdhetã”ti evamassu kassapa vacanãyà.

42. òhànaü kho
panetaü kassapa vijjati yaü a¤¤atitthiyà paribbàjakà evaü vadeyyuü:
“sãhanàda¤ca samaõo gotamo nadati. Parisàsu ca nadati, visàrado ca
nadati, pa¤hassa ca veyyàkaraõena cittaü àràdheti, no ca kho sotabbaü
ma¤¤antã”ti. Te ‘mà hevanti’ssu vacanãyà: “sãhanàda¤ca samaõo gotamo
nadati, parisàsu ca nadati, visàrado ca nadati, pa¤hassa ca
veyyàkaraõena cittaü àràdheti. Sotabba¤cassa ma¤¤antã”ti. Evamassu
kassapa vacanãyà.

[BJT Page 384] [\x 384/]

43. òhànaü kho
panetaü vijjati yaü a¤¤atitthiyà paribbàjakà evaü vadeyyuü:
“sãhanàda¤ca samaõo gotamo nadati. Parisàsu ca nadati, visàrado ca
nadati, pa¤hassa ca veyyàkaraõena cittaü àràdheti, no ca kho sotabbaü
ma¤¤antã”ti. Te ‘mà hevanti’ssu vacanãyà: “sãhanàda¤ca samaõo gotamo
nadati, parisàsu ca nadati, visàrado ca nadati, pa¤hassa ca
veyyàkaraõena cittaü àràdheti. Sotabba¤cassa ma¤¤anti. No ca kho sutvà
cassa pasãdanatã”ti. Te ‘mà hevanti’ssu vacanãyà: “sãhanàda¤ca samaõo
gotamo nadati, parisàsu ca nadati, visàrado ca nadati, pa¤hassa ca
veyyàkaraõena cittaü àràdheti. Sotabba¤cassa ma¤¤anti. Sutvà cassa
pasãdantã”ti. Evamassu kassapa vacanãyà.

44. òhànaü kho
panetaü kassapa vijjati yaü a¤¤atitthiyà paribbàjakà evaü vadeyyuü:
“sãhanàda¤ca samaõo gotamo nadati. Parisàsu ca nadati, visàrado ca
nadati, pa¤hassa ca veyyàkaraõena cittaü àràdheti, no ca kho sotabbaü
ma¤¤antã”ti. Te ‘mà hevanti’ssu vacanãyà: “sãhanàda¤ca samaõo gotamo
nadati, parisàsu ca nadati, visàrado ca nadati, pa¤hassa ca
veyyàkaraõena cittaü àràdheti. Sutvà cassa pasãdanti, no ca kho pasannà
pasannàkàraü karontã”ti. Te mà’ hevanti’ssu vacanãyà. “Sãhanàda¤ca
samaõo gotamo nadati. Parisàsu ca nadati, visàrado ca nadati, pa¤hassa
ca veyyàkaraõena cittaü àràdheti, no ca kho sotabbaü ma¤¤antã”ti. Te ‘mà
hevanti’ssu vacanãyà: “sãhanàda¤ca samaõo gotamo nadati, parisàsu ca
nadati, visàrado ca nadati, pa¤hassa ca veyyàkaraõena cittaü àràdheti.
Sutvà cassa pasãdati, pasannà ca pasannàkàraü karontã”ti evamassu
kassapa vacanãyà.

45. òhànaü kho
panetaü kassapa vijjati yaü a¤¤atitthiyà paribbàjakà evaü vadeyyuü:
“sãhanàdaü ca samaõo gotamo nadati. Parisàsu ca nadati, visàrado ca
nadati, pa¤hassa ca veyyàkaraõena cittaü àràdheti, no ca kho sotabbaü
ma¤¤antã”ti. Te ‘mà hevanti’ssu vacanãyà: “sãhanàda¤ca samaõo gotamo
nadati, parisàsu ca nadati, visàrado ca nadati, pa¤hassa ca
veyyàkaraõena cittaü àràdheti. Pasannà ca pasannàkàraü karoti. No ca kho
tathattàya pañipajjantã”ti. Te ‘mà hevanti”ssu vacanãyà “sãhanàdaü ca
samaõo gotamo nadati. Parisàsu ca nadati, visàrado ca nadati, pa¤hassa
ca veyyàkaraõena cittaü àràdheti, no ca kho sotabbaü ma¤¤antã”ti. Te ‘mà
hevanti’ssu vacanãyà: “sãhanàda¤ca samaõo gotamo nadati, parisàsu ca
nadati, visàrado ca nadati, pa¤hassa ca veyyàkaraõena cittaü àràdheti.
Pasannà ca pasannàkàraü karonti. Tathattàya ca pañipajjantã”ti evamassu
kassapa vacanãyà.

46. òhànaü kho
panetaü kassapa vijjati yaü a¤¤atitthiyà paribbàjakà evaü vadeyyuü:
“sãhanàdaü ca samaõo gotamo nadati. Parisàsu ca nadati, visàrado ca
nadati, pa¤hassa ca veyyàkaraõena cittaü àràdheti, sotabbaü ca ma¤¤anti,
tathattàya ca pañipajjanti, no ca kho pañipannà àràdhentã”ti. Te ‘mà
hevanti’ssu vacanãyà. “Sãhanàda¤ca samaõo gotamo nadati. Parisàsu ca
nadati, visàrado ca nadati, pa¤ha¤ca taü pucchanti, pa¤ha¤ca nesaü
puññho byàkaroti, pa¤hassa ca veyyàkaraõena cittaü àràdheti,
sotabba¤cassa ma¤¤anti, sutvà cassa pasãdanti, pasannà ca pasannàkàraü
karonti, tathattàya ca pañipajjanti pañipannà ca àràdhentã”ti. Evamassu
kassapa vacanãyà.

47. Ekamidàhaü
kassapa samayaü ràjagahe viharàmi gijjhakåñe pabbate. Tatra maü
a¤¤ataro tapabrahmacàrã [PTS Page 176] [\q 176/] nigrodho nàma
adhijegucche pa¤haü pucchi. Tassàhaü adhijegucche pa¤haü puññho
byàkàsiü. Byàkato ca pana me attamano ahosi. Paraü viya mattàyàti.

[BJT Page 386] [\x 386/]

48. “Ko hi
bhante bhagavato dhammaü sutvà na attamano assa paraü viya mattàya?
Bhante bhagavato dhammaü sutvà attamano paraü viya mattàya, abhikkantaü
bhante, abhikkantaü bhante. Seyyathàpi bhante nikkujjitaü và ukkujjeyya,
pañicchannaü và vivareyya, måëhassa và maggaü àcikkheyya, andhakàre và
telapajjotaü dhàreyya cakkhumanto råpàni dakkhintãti, evameva bhagavatà
anekapariyàyena dhammo pakàsito. Esàhaü bhante bhagavantaü saraõaü
gacchàmi dhamma¤ca bhikkhusaïgha¤ca. Labheyyàhaü bhante bhagavato
santike pabbajjaü, labheyyaü upasampadanti”.

49. “Yo kho
kassapa a¤¤atitthiyapubbo imasmiü dhammavinaye àkaïkhati pabbajjaü,
àkaïkhati upasampadaü, so cattàro màse parivasati. Catunnaü màsànaü
accayena àraddhacittà bhikkhå taü pabbàjenti, upasampàdenti
bhikkhubhàvàya. Api ca mettha puggalavemattatà vidità”ti.

50. “Sace
bhante a¤¤atitthiyapubbà imasmiü dhammavinaye àkaïkhantà pabbajjaü
àkaïkhantà upasampadaü cattàro màse parivasanti, catunnaü màsànaü
accayena àraddhacittà bhikkhå taü pabbàjenti, upasampàdenti
bhikkhubhàvàya. Ahaü cattàri vassàni parivasissàmi. Catunnaü vassànaü
accayena àraddhacittà bhikkhå maü pabbàjentu, upasampàdentu
bhikkhubhàvàyà’ti.

51. Alattha
kho acelo kassapo bhagavato santike pabbajjaü [PTS Page 177] [\q 177/]
alatthupasampadaü. Aciråpasampanno kho panàyasmà kassapo eko våpakaññho
appamatto àtàpã pahitatto viharanto, na cirasseva yassatthàya kulaputtà
sammadeva agàrasmà anagàriyaü pabbajanti, tadanuttaraü
brahmacariyapariyosànaü diññheva dhamme sayaü abhi¤¤à sacchikatvà
upasampajja vihàsi. “Khãõà jàti. Vusitaü brahmacariyaü. Kataü karaõãyaü.
Nàparaü itthattàyà”ti abbha¤¤àsi.

A¤¤ataro ca kho panàyasmà kassapo arahataü ahosãti.

English


Sãhanàdasuttaü niññhitaü aññhamaü.


INTRODUCTION
TO THE
KASSAPA-SäHANâDA SUTTA.

IN this Sutta the Buddha, in conversation with a naked ascetic,
explains his position as regards asceticismÞso far, that is, as is
compatible with his invariable method (as represented in the Dialogues)
when discussing a point on which he differs from his interlocutor.

When speaking on sacrifice to a sacrificial priest, on union with God
to an adherent of the current theology, on Brahman claims to superior
social rank to a proud Brahman, on mystic insight to a man who trusts in
it, on the soul to one who believes in the soul theory, the method
followed is always the same. Gotama puts himself as far as possible in
the mental position of the questioner. He attacks none of his cherished
convictions. He accepts as the starting-point of his own exposition the
desirability of the act or condition prized by his opponentÞof the union
with God (as in the Tevijja), or of sacrifice (as in the Kåñadanta), or
of social rank (as in the Ambaññha), or of seeing heavenly sights,
&c. (as in the Mahàli), or of the soul theory (as in the
Poññhapàda). He even adopts the very phraseology of his questioner. And
then, partly by putting a new and (from the Buddhist point of view) a
higher meaning into the words; partly by an appeal to such ethical
conceptions as are common ground between them; he gradually leads his
opponent up to his conclusion. This is, of course, always
ArahatshipÞthat is the sweetest fruit of the life of a recluse, that is
the best sacrifice, that the highest social rank, that the best means of
seeing heavenly sights, and a more worthy object; and so on. In our
Sutta it is the path to Arahatship which is the best asceticism.

There is both courtesy and dignity in the method employed. But no
little dialectic skill, and an easy mastery of the ethical points
involved, are required to bring about the result. On the hypothesis that
the Buddha is a sun myth, and his principal disciples personifications
of the stars, [\q 207/] the facts seem difficult to explain. One would
expect, then, something quite different. How is it that the other
disciples who must, in that case, have concocted these Dialogues,
refrain so entirely from astrological and mythological details? How is
it they attribute to their hero qualities of courtesy and sympathy, and a
grasp of ethical problems, all quite foreign, even antagonistic, to
those usually ascribed to sun-heroesÞmostly somewhat truculent and very
unethical personages?

On the hypothesis, that he was an historical person, of that training
and character he is represented in the Piñakas to have had, the method
is precisely that which it is most probable he would have actually
followed.

Whoever put the Dialogues together may have had a sufficiently clear
memory of the way he conversed, may well have even remembered particular
occasions and persons. To the mental vision of the compiler, the
doctrine taught loomed so much larger than anything else, that he was
necessarily more concerned with that, than with any historical accuracy
in the details of the story. He was, in this respect, in much the same
position as Plato when recording the dialogues of Socrates. But he was
not, like Plato, giving his own opinions. We ought, no doubt, to think
of compilers, rather than of a compiler. The memory of co-disciples had
to be respected, and kept in mind. And so far as the actual doctrine is
concerned our Dialogues are probably a more exact reproduction of the
thoughts of the teacher than the dialogues of Plato.

However this may be, the method followed in all these Dialogues has
one disadvantage. In accepting the position of the adversary, and
adopting his language, the authors compel us, in order to follow what
they give us as Gotama’s view, to read a good deal between the lines.
The argumentum ad hominem can never be the same as a statement of
opinion given without reference to any particular person. That is
strikingly the case with our present Sutta.

When addressing his five hearersÞthe Pa¤cavaggiyà,
the first five converts, and the first ArahatsÞin the Deer-park at
Benares, on the occasion of his first discourse, the Buddha is
represented to have spoken of asceticism in a very different way. He
there calls it one of `two extremes which are to be avoided’; and
describes it as `painful, unworthy, and unprofitable.’ [
1]
So in the Puggala Pa¤¤atti (IV, 24) the very practices set out in our
Sutta, by Kassapa the ascetic, [\q 208/] as desirable and praiseworthy,
are set out as the actions by which a man injures himself. There is
nothing of this sort in our Sutta. To judge from it alone one might
fairly conclude that the Buddha approved of asceticism, only insisting
that the self-mastery and self-control of the Path were the highest and
best forms of it. There is really no inconsistency in these three
Suttas. But while the first discourse and the Puggala passage were both
addressed to disciples, our Sutta is addressed to an ascetic, and the
language used is modified accordingly. The conclusion in all is exactly
the same.

It is clear that at the time when our Sutta was put together the
practice of self-mortification had already been carried out to a
considerable extent in India. And further details, in some of which the
self-imposed penances are even more extreme, are given in other
Dialogues of the same date, notably in the twelfth Sutta of the
Majjhima. This is oddly enough also called a Sãhanàda Sutta, and the
reason is not far to seek.

The carrying out of such practices, in all countries, wins for the
ascetic a very high reputation. Those who despise earthly comforts, and
even submit themselves to voluntary torture, are looked upon, with a
kind of fearsome wonder, as more holy than other men. And no doubt, in
most cases, the ascetics laid claim to special virtue. In the Suttas
dealing with the practices of the ascetics, Gotama, in laying stress on
the more moderate view, takes occasion also to dispute this claim. He
maintains, as in our Sutta, that the insight and self-control and
self-mastery of the Path, or of the system of intellectual and moral
self-training laid down for the Bhikkhu, are really harder than
the merely physical practices so much more evident to the eye of the
vulgar. It was a point that had to be made. And the Suttas in which it
is made are designated as Sãhanàdas, literally `the lion’s roars’Þthe
proud claim by the Arahat to a dignity and veneration greater than that
allowed by the people to the self-torturer or even to the man who


`Bescorched, befrozen, lone in fearsome woods,
Naked, without a fire, afire within,
Struggled, in awful silence, towards the goal [
2]!’


And the boast goes really even
further. Not only were the ascetics no better than the Arahats, they
were even not so practical. The self-mortification was an actual
hindrance. It turned men’s minds from more essential matters. Diogenes
was not only not superior to other men, no nearer to the [\q 209/] truth
than they, by reason of his tub and of his physical. renunciation; he
was their ethical inferior, and was intellectually wrong. So hard, so
very hard, was the struggle [
3]
that the Arahat, or, the man striving towards Arahatship, should be
always sufficiently clothed, and take regular baths, regular exercise,
regular food. The line was to be drawn at another point. He was to
avoid, not what was necessary to maintain himself in full bodily vigour
and power, but all undue luxury, and all worry about personal comfort.
It was his duty to keep himself in health.

It is open to question whether the earnest and unworldly would now
draw the line at the precise point at which Gotama drew it; either as
regards what they would think proper for themselves now, or what they
would have thought most proper for those living in India then. Probably
they would think rather that he erred on the side of austerity. His
contemporaries the Nigaõñhas thought the other way. And the most serious
schism in the Buddhist Order, that raised by Devadatta, was especially
defended on the ground that Gotama would not, as regards various points,
adopt ascetic practices which Devadatta held to be then necessary.

It is probable that Gotama was largely
guided by the opinions and practice of previous recluses. For we have
already seen that in other matters, important it is true but not
essential, Gotama adopted and extended, so far as it agreed with the
rest of his system, what had already been put forward by others. But we
cannot, as yet, speak on this point with as much certainty as we could
in the other cases of the ethical view of sacrifice, of the ethical
connotation attached to the word Brahman, [
4]
and of the reasonable view as to social distinctions and questions of
impurity. Our available texts are only sufficient, at present, to
suggest the probability.

The technical term tapas is already found in the Rig-veda,
though only in the latest hymns included in the collection. It is
literally `glow, burning,’ and very early acquired the secondary sense
of retirement into solitude, and of the attempted conquest of one’s
lower nature by the burning heat of bodily austerity. And this must have
been a common practice, for the time of the year most favourable to
such [\q 210/] tapas came to be known as the month tapas.
There was no association with the word of what we call `penance,’ a
conception arising out of an entirely different order of religious
ideas. There was no idea of atonement for, punishment of, making amends
for sin. But just as the sacrificer was supposed, by a sort of charm
that he worked by his sacrifice, to attain ends desirable for himself,
so there was supposed to be a sort of charm in tapas producing
mystic and marvellous results. The distinction seems to have been that
it was rather power, worldly success, wealth, children, and heaven that
were attained by sacrifice; and mystic, extraordinary, superhuman
faculties that were attained by tapas.

By a natural anthropomorphism the gods too were supposed, for like ends, to offer sacrifice and to perform tapas. Thus it is sometimes by sacrifice, but more often by tapas, that in the different cosmological legends one god or the other is supposed to bring forth creation. [5] In the latter case an expression often used on such occasions is tapas
atapasyata, literally `he glowed a glow,’ and the exact meaning of this
enigmatic phrase is by no means certain. It may have been meant to
convey that he glowed with fierce resolve, or that he glowed with deep
thought, or that he glowed with strong desire, or that he carried out
each or some or all of the practices given in Kassapa’s three lists of
self-mortifications in our Sutta. All these various ideas may possibly
be meant to be inferred together, and before they were ascribed to gods
similar actions must have been well-known among men.


There were some, as one would expect,
who therefore placed austerity above sacrice, or, held that it could
take the place of sacrifice. [
6]
The more conservative view of the learned BrahmanÞthat it is repeating
by heart to oneself, and teaching others, the Vedic verses, that is the
chief thing (with which twelve other qualities or practices should
always be associated)Þis only given with the interesting note that one
teacher thinks `the true’ only, another thinks austerity only to be
necessary, and yet a third thinks that learning and teaching the Veda is
enough by itself, `for that is tapas, that is tapas[
7]. There are several passages making similar comparisons. Thus one text says: `There are three branches of dutyÞsacrifice study of the Veda and charity are the first, austerity (tapas)
is the second, to dwell as a learner one’s life [\q 211/] long in the
house of one’s teacher is the third. All these have as reward heavenly
worlds. But he who stands firm in Brahman obtains deathlessness.’ [
8]


So in the passages which explain (by
no means consistently) where the soul goes to after it leaves the body,
we have a somewhat corresponding division. [
9]
According to the Chàndogya, those who know a certain mystical doctrine
about five fires, and those who in the forest follow faith and austerity
(tapas), go along the path of the gods to the Brahma worlds. On
the other hand, they who sacrifice, and give alms go to the moon, and
thence return to earth, and are reborn in high or low positions
according to their deeds. But the bad become insects.

According to the Brihadàraõyaka Upanishad, those who know the mystic
doctrine of the five fires, and those who in the woods practise faith
and truth (not tapas) go to the Brahma worlds. On the other hand, those who practise sacrifice, charity, and austerity (tapas) go to the moon, and are thence reborn on earth. But those who follow neither of these two paths become insects.

Here austerity is put into a lower grade than it occupies in the last
extract. Other later passages are Muõóaka II, 7; III, 2, 4, 6; Praùna
I, 9; V, 4. Though the details differ there is a general concensus that
above both sacrifice and austerity, which are themselves meritorious,
there is a something higher, a certain kind of truth or faith or wisdom.

This is the exact analogue, from the Upanishad point of view, to the
doctrine of the Buddhists that Arahatship is better than austerity. And
though the Upanishad belief is not worked out with the same consistency,
nor carried so far to its logical conclusion, as the Buddhist, that is
simply to be explained by the facts that it is not only earlier,
belonging to a time when thought was less matured, but is also not the
work of one mind, but of several. There can be but little doubt that
Gotama, during his years of study and austerity before he attained
Nirvàõa under the Tree of Wisdom, had come into contact with the very
beliefs, or at least with beliefs similar to those, now preserved in the
Upanishads; and that his general conclusion was based upon them. That
he practically condemns physical tapas (austerity) altogether is
no argument against his indebtedness, so far as the superiority of
wisdom to austerity is concerned, to the older theory.

In the passages in which that older
theory is set forth we [\q 212/] have the germsÞindistinct statements,
no doubt, and inconsistent, but still the first sourceÞof the well-known
theory of the âùramas; the Efforts (or perhaps Trainings), four stages
into which the life of each member of the ranks of the twice-born (the
Dvijas) should be divided. In later times these are (1) the student, (2)
the householder,. (3) the hermit, and (4) the wandering ascetic; that
is, the Brahmacàrin, the G”ihastha, the Vànaprastha, and the Yati. [
10]
And stress was laid on the order in which the stages of effort were
taken up, it being held improper for a man to enter the latter without
having passed through the former.


The Upanishad passages know nothing of
the curious technical term of Effort (âsrama) applied to these stages.
And they have really only two divisions (and these not regarded as
consecutive stages), that of the sacrificer and of the hermit (not the
Bhikshu). Of course studentship is understood as preliminary to both.
But we are here at a standpoint really quite apart from the âsrama
theory, and Saïkara and other commentators are obliged to resort to
curious and irreconcilable shifts when they try to read back into these
old texts the later and more developed doctrine. [
11]


Even the names of the several âsramas
do not occur, as such, in the older Upanishads. Brahmacàrin is
frequently used for pupil, Yati in two or three passages means ascetic;
but G”ihastha, Vànaprastha, and Bhikshu do not even occur. [
12]
The earliest mention of the Four Efforts is in the old law books.
Gautama (III, 2) gives them as Brahmacàrin, G”ihastha, Bhikshu, and
Vaikhànasa (student, householder, wandering beggar, and hermit).
âpastamba (II, 9, 21, 1) has a different order, and different names for
the four stagesÞGàrhasthyaü, âcàryakulaü, Maunaü, and Vànaprasthyaü. [
13]


Hofrath Bhler dated these works (very
hypothetically) in the fifth and third, or possibly in the sixth and
fourth centuries B. C. [
14]
The theory of the Four Efforts was then [\q 213/] already current, but
by no means settled as to detail. It must evidently have taken shape
between the date of the Upanishads just quoted and that of the law
books; that is to say, either just before or, some time after the rise
of Buddhism. We can, I, think, go safely further, and say that it must
have been, in all probability, after Buddha, and even after the time
when the Piñakas were put together. For neither the technical term
âsrama, nor any of the four stages of it, are mentioned in the Piñakas.


The theory has become finally
formulated, in the order as to detail which has permanently survived, in
the later law books from Vasishñha onwards. He gives the Four Efforts
or stages in the life of an orthodox person, as (1) Student, (2)
Householder, (3) Hermit, (4) Wandering MendicantÞBrahmacàrin, Gçihastha, Vànaprastha, and Parivràjaka. [
15]

It will be noticed that this final arrangement differs in two
respectsÞand both of them of importanceÞfrom the earliest. In the first
place the wandering beggar is put in the last, that is in the highest,
place. He is not subordinated, as he was at first, to the hermit. In the
second place the expression Bhikshu, applied in Gautama to the
wandering mendicant, is dropped in the later books.

The commentators are at great pains to harmonise the divergent order.
And they do so by suggesting that the earlier arrangement (which, of
course, is, in their eyes, the strange one) is meant to infer exactly
the same as does the contrary later arrangement so familiar to them. To
them the wandering mendicant had become the last, in order of time and
importance, of the Four Efforts; and they try to put back their own view
into the words of the ancient writer they are dealing with. But if the
order they were familiar with implies one thing, the older order, which
is exactly the reverse, can scarcely imply the same. Or if it does, then
the question arises, why should it? In either case the explanation may
be sought for in the history of the two ideas.

Now the distinction between the two is
quite clear, though the ambiguity of the English word `ascetic,’ often
applied to both, may tend to hide it from View. [
16] Gautama starts his [\q 214/] description of the hermit by saying that he is to feed on roots and fruits, and practise tapas. And all the later books lay stress on the same point; often giving, as instances of the tapas, one or other of the very practices detailed by Kassapa the tàpasa, in his three lists, in our Sutta. [17]
On the other hand, the wandering mendicant does not practise these
severe physical self-mortifications. He is never called tàpasa, and
though he has abandoned the world, and wanders without a home, simply
clad, and begging his food, his self-restraint is mental rather than
physical. Of the fifteen rules laid down for him by Gautama, who calls
him the Bhikshu (in X, 11-25), four or five are precisely equivalent to
rules the Buddhist Bhikshu has to observe. There is one significant rule
in Baudhàyana, however, which is quite contrary to the corresponding
Buddhist rule. According to it the twice-born mendicant of the priestly
books is, in begging for food, to observe the rules of ceremonial
purity, what we call now the rules of caste. [
18]

Now while the belief in the special efficacy and holiness of austerity, self-torture, tapas;
is a world-wide phenomenon, and the practice of it was, no doubt, very
early in India too, the idea of the wandering mendicant is peculiar to
India. And though the origin and early history of this institution are
at present obscure, we have no reason to believe that it was of ancient
date.

It was older than the Buddha’s time.
Both Buddhist and Jain records agree on this point. And they are
confirmed by an isolated passage in an Upanishad which, as a whole, is
pre-Buddhistic. [
19]
There it is said that he who desires to see [\q 215/] the god Brahman
cannot attain his end by speculation; he must put away learning and
become childlike, put away childishness and become a muni (a silent
one), [
20]
put away silence and become a Bràhmaõa (that is, of course, not a
Brahmaõa by birth, but one in a sense nearly the same as Gotama attaches
to the word in the Soõadaõóa Sutta). This is to explain why it is that
`Bràhmaõas’ (in the ethical sense) give up cravings for children and
wealth and the world and adopt begging as a regular habit (bhikshàcaryaü
caranti). Another recession of the same passage, also preserved in the
same Upanishad [
21] , but in a connection which Deussen thinks is a later interpolation, [22]
ascribes this habit to `men of old.’ The statement is no doubt
ambiguous. It might be taken to apply to the hermit (the tàpasa) who
also begged. But I think on the whole that the wandering mendicant is
more probably referred to, and referred to as belonging to a higher
sphere than the muni, the ascetic. If that be so, this is the earliest
passage in which any one of these three ideas (the wandering mendicant,
his superiority to the ascetic, and the special ethical sense of the
word Bràhmaõa [
23]) have, as yet, been found.

The oldest reference in the priestly literature to unorthodox
Bhikshus (not necessarily Buddhists) is probably the Maitri Upanishad
VIII, 8, which is much later. There is a custom, often referred to in
the law books, of students begging their food. This was doubtless of
long standing. But it is a conception altogether different from that of
the wandering mendicant. The word Bhikshu does not occur in any of these
passages. And indeed of all the Upanishads indexed in Colonel Jacob’s
`Concordance’ the word only occurs in oneÞin the little tract called the
Parama-haüsa Upanishad.

Whenever it may have arisen, the peculiar institution of the Bhikshu
is quite as likely, if not more likely, to have originated in Kshatriya
circles than among the learned Brahmans. All our authoritiesÞBrahman
Upanishads, Buddhist Piñakas, Jain AïgasÞagree in ascribing to
Kshatriyas a most important, not to say predominant, part in such
religious activity as lay apart from sacrifice. To take for granted that
[\q 216/] the Brahmans must have originated the idea, or the practice,
is to ignore all these authorities. And it is only in the Kshatriya
booksÞthose of the Buddhists and JainsÞthat the details of the practice
receive much weight, or are dealt with in full detail.

The oldest law book has barely a page on the rules for Bhikshus,
whereas the regulations, of about the same age, preserved in the
Buddhist texts, fill the three volumes translated, under the title
`Vinaya Texts,’ in the `sacred Books of the East.’ And as time goes on
the priestly literature continues to treat the life of a Bhikshu as
entirely subordinate, and in the curtest manner. Even Manu has only
three or four pages on the subject. The inconsistency, brevity, and
incompleteness of the regulations in the priestly books lead one to
suppose that, at the time when they were written, there were not enough
Bhikshus, belonging to those circles, to make the regulations intended
for them alone a matter of much practical importance. In other words,
the development also of the Bhikshu idea was due rather to the
Kshatriyas than to the sacrificing priests.

The latter were naturally half-hearted
in the matter. Even after they had invented the âsrama theory, they did
not seem to be very keen about it. On the contrary, there are several
passages the other way. âpastamba closes his exposition of them with a
remark that upsets the whole theory: `There is no reason to place one
âsrama before another.’ [
24]
And just before that he quotes a saying of Prajàpati from which it
follows that those who become Bhikshus do not gain salvation at all,
`they become dust and perish.’

This was no doubt the real inmost opinion of the more narrow-minded
of the priests. But the first maker of the phrase did not quite like to
put this forward in his own nameÞthe idea of the Bhikshu as a man worthy
of special esteem had already become too strong for that. So he makes
the god his stalking-horse; and tries, by using his name, to gain
respectability and acceptance for his view. And it survives accordingly
as late as the earlier portion of Manu (II, 230), where mention is made
of `the Three âsramas,’ omitting the Bhikshu. We ought not to be
surprised to find that, though the whole passage is reproduced, in other
respects, in the Institutes of Vishõu (XXXI, 7), this very curious and
interesting phrase is replaced by another which avoids the difficulty.

[\q 217/] Baudhàyana also actually
quotes with approval another old saying: `There was forsooth an Asura,
Kapila by name, the son of Prahlàda. Striving against the gods he made
these divisions (the âùramas). A wise man should not take heed of them. [
25]


If the priests, when the custom of
`going forth’ as a Bhikshu was becoming prevalent, had wished to
counteract it, to put obstacles in the way, and especially to prevent
any one doing so without first having become thoroughly saturated with
the priestly view of things, they could scarcely have taken a more
efficacious step than the establishment of this theory. And so far as it
served this purpose, and so far only, do they seem to have cared much
for it. We have no evidence that the theory had, at any time, become a
practical realityÞthat is, that any considerable number of the
twice-born, or even of the Brahmans, did actually carry out all the four
âùramas. Among the circles led by the opinion of learned and orthodox
priests it was, no doubt, really held improper for any man to become a
religieux until he was getting old, or without having first gone through
a regular course of Vedic study. And whenever he did renounce the world
he was expected to follow such of the ancient customs (now preserved in
the priestly books under the three heads of Vànaprastha, Parivràjaka,
and Vedasaünyàsin) as he chose to follow. But even then he need not
observe a clear distinction between these various heads. The percentage
of elderly Brahmans who followed any of the three at all must always
have been very small indeed, and of these a good many probably became
Veda-saünyàsins, a group which lies outside of the âùramas. The rules
are admitted to be obsolete now. Saïkara says. they were not observed in
his time. [
26]
And the theory seems to be little more than a priestly protest against
the doctrine, acted upon by Buddhists, Jains, and others, and laid down
in the Madhura Sutta, that even youths might `go forth’ without any
previous Vedic stud y. [
27]

There were, in other words, in the Indian community of that time, a
number of peopleÞvery small, no doubt, compared with the total
population, but still amounting to some thousandsÞwho estimated the
mystic power of t a p a s above that of sacrifice; who gave up the
latter, and devoted themselves, in the woods, to those kinds of bodily
austerity and [\q 218/] self-torture of which our Sutta gives the
earliest detailed account. There were others who rejected both, and
preferred the life of the wandering mendicant. In both classes there
were unworthy men who used their religious professions for the `low
aims’ set out in the tract on the Sãlas incorporated in our Sutta, whose
very words, in not a few instances, recur in the old law books.

But there was also no little
earnestness, no little `plain living and high thinking’ among these
`irregular friars.’ And there was a great deal of sympathy, both with
their aims and with their practice (provided always they keep to the
priestly view of things), among the official class, the regular
sacrificing priests. Instead of condemning them, the priests tried,
therefore, rather to regulate them. One. Vikhanas compiled a special
book on Tapas, called either after the author the Vaikhànasa
Såtra, or after the subject the Sràmaõaka Såtra, which is several times
referred to as an authority in the law books whose precepts are
doubtless, in part, taken from it. [
28] Tapas
was then, in accordance with the general view in the circles in which
the law books were composed, regarded as the higher, of the two, and put
therefore at the end in the list of âùramas.

But there was also another view which had already made itself felt in
the Upanishads, which is the basis of our Sutta, and which no doubt
became more widely spread in consequence of its having been the view
taken up by the progressive party we now call Buddhists. According to
this view the life of the Bhikshu, of the wandering mendicant, was the
higher. This view, disliked by the more narrowminded, but regarded with
favour by the more spirituallyminded of the Brahmans, gradually attained
so unquestionably the upper hand, that the order of the last two of the
âùramas had to be changed. T a p a s became then a preliminary stage
to, instead of the final crown of, the religious life.

But the other view continued to be
held by a large and influential minority. The strong leaning of the
human heart to impute a singular efficacy to physical
self-mortifications [\q 219/] ooooooof all kinds could not be
eradicated. Many of the laity still looked on those who carried out such
practices with peculiar favour. The tendency made itself felt even in
Buddhism, in spite of our present Sutta, and of many other passages to a
similar effect. There is a special name for the `extra vows,’ the
dhutangas, carried out by such of the brethren as were inclined that
way. And these receive special glorification in a whole book at the end
of the Milinda. [
29] It is true that, even in these `extra vows,’ all the extreme forms of tapas
are omitted. But this is only a matter of degree. In the priestly law
books, also, though they go somewhat further than the dhutangas, the
most extreme forms are omitted, especially in the rules for hermits and
mendicants contained in the earlier books. This is another point in
which the early Buddhists and the more advanced of the learned Brahmans
of their time are found to be acting in sympathy. But the discussion of
the details would take us too far from our subject.


The Nigaõñhas, âjãvakas, and others
went to the other extreme, and like the Buddhists, they never admitted
any theory like that of the distinction in time between the Four
âùramas. [
30]
It is even doubtful how far that distinction became a really valid and
practical reality among the learned priests. They alone, as we have
seen, always laid stress on the importance of not `going forth,’ either
as ascetic or as wandering mendicant (tàpasa or bhikshu unless first the
years of studentship, and then the life as a sacrificing householder,
had been fulfilled. They spoke occasionally of Three Efforts only. And
as we have seen the lawyers differed in the order in which they mention
the two classes of religieux. [
31]

[\q 220/] By the time that the later order was settled the word
Bhikshu had come to mean so specially a Buddhist mendicant that the
learned Brahmans no longer thought it fitting to apply the term to their
own mendicants. This at least may be to the explanation of the fact
that it is used in Gautama’s law book, and not afterwards.

The history of the word is somewhat
doubtful. It is not found as yet, as we have seen above, in any
pre-Buddhistic text. Perhaps the Jains or the Buddhists first used it.
But it was more probably a term common before their time, though not
long before, to all mendicants. The form is sufficiently curious for
Pàõini to take special notice of it in the rule for the formation from
desideratives of nouns in u. [
32] In another rule [33]
he mentions two Bhikshu SåtrasÞmanuals for mendicants, as the
Vaikhànasa Såtra was for the hermits (tàpasas). These are used by the
Pàràùàriõas and the Karmandinas, two groups or corporations, doubtless,
of Brahmanical mendicants. Professor Weber refers to this in his History
of Indian Literature, P. 305, and Professor Kielhorn has been kind
enough to inform me that nothing more has been since discovered on the
matter. These Såtras are not mentioned elsewhere. And they can never
have acquired so much importance as the Vaikhànasa Såtra, or they would
almost certainly have been referred to in the sections in the later law
books on mendicants, just as the Vaikhànasa is in the sections on the
tàpasas.

It is also very curious to find Bràhmaõa Bhikshus with special class
names as if they belonged to an Order like those of the Buddhists and
the Jains. No such Brahmanical Orders of recluses (pabbajità) are
mentioned in the Piñakas. When Bràhmaõa Bhikshus are referred to, it is
either as isolated recluses, or by a generic name not implying any
separate Order. Thus in an important passage of the Aïguttara we have
the following list of religieux, contemporaries of the Buddha:

`1. âjivikà.

2. Nigaõñhà.

3. Muõóa-sàvakà.

4. Jañilakà.

5. Paribbàjakà.

6. Magaõóikà.

7. Tedaõóikà.

8. Aviruddhakà.

9. Gotamakà.

10. Devadhammikà

No. I. The men of the livelihood, among whom Makkhali Gosàla was a recognised leader, were especially addicted to [\q 221/] tapas
of all kinds, and went always quite naked. The name probably means:
`Those who claimed to be especially strict in their rules as to means of
livelihood.’ The Buddhists also laid special stress on this. The fifth
of the eight divisions of the Eightfold Path is sammà àjãvo. [
34]

No. 2. The Unfettered are the sect we now call Jains, then under the
leadership of the Nàtaputta. They were also addicted, but to a somewhat
less degree, to tapas; and Buddhaghosa here adds that they wore a loin cloth.

No. 3. The disciples of the Shaveling are stated by Buddhaghosa to be
the same as No. 2. The reading is doubtful, and his explanation
requires explanation. Perhaps some special subdivision of the Jains is
intended.

No. 4. Those who wear their hair in braids. To do so was the rule for
the orthodox hermits (the Vànaprasthas or Tàpasas, Gautama III, 34).
The Bràhmaõa Bhikshu, on the other hand, was either to be bald, or to
have only a forelock (ibid. 22).

No. 5. The Wanderers. This is a generic term for wandering mendicants. They went, according to Buddhaghosa, fully clad.

Nos. 6-10 are said by Buddhaghosa to be followers of the Titthiyà,
that is the leaders of all schools that were non-Buddhist. It is
precisely here that the list becomes most interesting, the first five
names being otherwise known. And it is much to be regretted that the
tradition had not preserved any better explanation of the terms than the
vague phrase repeated by Buddhaghosa.

No. 6. is quite unintelligible at present.

No. 7. The Bearers of the triple staff
have not been found elsewhere, as yet, earlier than the latest part of
Manu (XII, 10),. It is very possibly the name given in the Buddhist
community to the Bràhmaõa Bhikshus (not Tàpasas). They carried three
staves bound up as one, as a sign, it is supposed, of their
self-restraint in thought, word, and deed. This explanation may possibly
hold good for so early a date. But it may also be nothing more than an
edifying gloss on an old word whose original meaning had been forgotten.
In that case the gloss would be founded on such passages as Gaut. III,
17, [
35]
where the idea of this threefold division of conduct recurs in the law
books. But the technical term tridaõóin is not mentioned in them.

[\q 222/] No. 8. The not opposing ones, the Friends, are not mentioned elsewhere.

No. 9. The followers of Gotama means, almost certainly, the followers
of some other member of the Sàkya clan, distinct from our Gotama. who
also founded an Order. We only know of one who did so, Devadatta. The
only alternative is that some Bràhmaõa, belonging to the Gotama gotra,
is here referred to as having had a community of Bhikshus named after
him. But we know nothing of any such person.

No. 10. Those who follow the religion of the God are not mentioned
elsewhere. Who is `the God’? Is it Sakka (Indra) or Siva? The Deva of
the names Devadatta, Devaseññhi, Devadaha, &c., is probably the
same.

We find in this suggestive list
several names, used technically as the designation of particular sects,
but in meaning applicable quite as much to most of the others. They all
claimed to be pure as regards means of livelihood, to be unfettered, to
be friends; they all wandered from place to place, they were all
mendicants. And the names can only gradually have come to have the
special meaning of the member of one school, or order, only. We should
not, therefore, be surprised if the name Bhikshu,. also, has had a
similar history. [
36]




[\q 223/]
[
Introduction]

VIII. KASSAPA-SäHANâDA SUTTA.
[THE NAKED ASCETIC.]

[161] 1. Thus have I heard. The Blessed One was once dwelling at Uju¤¤à, in the Kaõõakatthala deerpark. [37]
Now Kassapa, a naked ascetic, came to where the Exalted One was, and
exchanged with him the greetings and compliments of civility and
courtesy, and stood respectfully aside. And, so standing, he said to the
Exalted One:


2. `I have heard it said, O Gotama,
thus: ßThe Samaõa Gotama disparages all penance; verily he reviles and
finds fault with every ascetic, with every one who lives a hard life.û
Now those, O Gotama, who said this, were they therein repeating Gotama’s
words, and not reporting him falsely? Are they announcing, as a minor
tenet of his, a matter really following from his Dhamma (his system)? Is
there nothing in this opinion of his, so put forward as wrapt up with
his system, or as a corollary from it, that could meet with objection? [
38] For we would fain bring no false accusation against the venerable Gotama.’

3. `No, Kassapa. Those who said so were not [\q 224/] following my
words. On the contrary, they were reporting me falsely, and at variance
with the fact.

[162] `Herein, O Kassapa, I am wont to be aware, with vision bright
and purified, seeing beyond what men can see, how some men given to
asceticism, living a hard life, are reborn, on the dissolution of the
body, after death, into some unhappy, fallen state of misery and woe;
while others, living just so, are reborn into some happy state, or into a
heavenly worldÞhow some men given to asceticism, but living a life less
hard, are equally reborn, on the dissolution of the body, after death
into some unhappy, fallen state of misery and woe; while others, living
just so, are reborn in some happy state, or into a heavenly world. How
then could I, O Kassapa, who am thus aware, as they really are, of the
states whence men have come, and whither they will go, as they pass away
from one form of existence, and take shape in anotherÞhow could I
disparage all penance; or bluntly revile and find fault with every
ascetic, with every one who lives a life that is hard?

4. `Now there are, O Kassapa, certain recluses and Brahmans who are
clever, subtle, experienced in controversy, hair splitters, who go
about, one would think, breaking into pieces by their wisdom the
speculations of their adversaries. And as between them and me there is,
as to some points, agreement, and as to some points, not. As to some of
those things they approve, we also approve thereof. As to some of those
things they disapprove, we also disapprove thereof. As to some of the
things they approve, we disapprove thereof. As to some of the things
they disapprove, we approve thereof. And some things we approve of, so
do they. And some things we disapprove of, so do they. [163] And some
things we approve, they do not. And some things we disapprove of, they
approve thereof

5. `And I went to them, and said: ßAs for those things, my friends,
on which we do not agree, let us leave them alone. As to those things on
which we [\q 225/] agree, let the wise put questions about them, ask
for reasons as to them, talk them over, with or to their teacher, with
or to their fellow disciples, saying: `Those conditions of heart, Sirs,
which are evil or accounted as evil among you which are blameworthy or
accounted as such among you, which are insufficient for the attainment
of Arahatship, or accounted as such among you, depraved or accounted as
such among youÞwho is it who conducts himself as one who has more
absolutely put them away from him, the Samaõa Gotama, or, the other
venerable ones, the teachers of schools? ‘ û

6. `Then it may well be, O Kassapa, that the wise, so putting
questions one to the other, asking for reasons, talking the matter over,
should say: ßThe Samaõa Gotama conducts himself as one who has
absolutely put those conditions away from him; whereas the venerable
ones, the other teachers of schools, have done so only partially.û Thus
is it, O Kassapa, that the wise, so putting questions one to the other,
asking for reasons, talking the matter over, would, for the most part,
speak in praise of us therein.

7. `And again, O Kassapa, let the wise put questions one to another,
ask for reasons, talk the matter over, with or to their teacher, with or
to their fellow disciples, saying: ßThose conditions of heart, Sirs,
which are good or accounted as such among you, which are blameless or
accounted as such among you, which suffice to lead a man to Arahatship
or are accounted as sufficient among you, which are pure or accounted as
such among youÞwho is it who conducts himself as one who has more
completely taken them upon him, the Samaõa Gotama, or the other
venerable ones, the teachers of schools? û

8. `Then it may well be, O Kassapa, that the wise, so putting
questions one to the other, asking for reasons, talking the matter over,
should say: ßThe Samaõa Gotama conducts himself as one who has
completely taken these conditions upon him, whereas the venerable [\q
226/] ones, the other teachers of schools, have done so only partially.û
Thus it is, O Kassapa, that the wise, so putting questions one to the
other, asking for reasons, talking the matter over, would, for the most
part, speak in praise of us therein.

[164] 9-12. ` [And further, also, O
Kassapa, the wise would, for the most part, acknowledge that the body of
my disciples were more addicted to that which is generally acknowledged
to be good, refrain themselves more completely from that which is
generally acknowledged to be evil, than the venerable ones, the
disciples of other teachers.] [
39]

[165] 13. `Now there is, O Kassapa, a way, there is a method which if
a man follow he will of himself, both see and know that: ßThe Samaõa
Gotama is one who speaks in due season, speaks that which is, that which
redounds to advantage, that which is the Norm (the Dhamma), that which
is the law of self-restraint (the Vinaya).û

`And what, Kassapa, is that way, what that method, which if a man
follow, he will, of himself, know that, and see that. Verily it is this
Noble Eightfold Path, that is to say: Right Views, Right Aspirations,
Right Speech, Right Action, Right Mode of Livelihood, Right Effort,
Right Mindfulness, and Right Rapture.

`This, Kassapa, is that way, this that method, which if a man follow,
he will of himself, both know and see that: ßThe Samaõa Gotama is one
who speaks in due season, speaks that which is, that which redounds to
profit, that which is the Norm, that which is the law of
self-restraint.û

14. And when he had spoken thus, Kassapa, the naked ascetic, said to the Exalted One:

And so also, Gotama, are the following
ascetic practices accounted, in the opinion of some Samaõas [\q 227/]
and Bràhmaõas, as Samaõaship and Bràhmaõaship. [
40]

[166] `ß`He goes naked:

`He is of loose habits (performing his
bodily functions, and eating food, in a standing posture, not crouching
down or sitting down, as well-bred people do):ßHe licks his hands clean
(after eating, instead of washing them, as others do) [
41]:

“(When on his rounds for alms, if politely requested to step nearer,
or to wait a moment, in order that food may be put into his bowl), he
passes stolidly on (lest he should incur the guilt of following another
person’s word)

`He refuses to accept food brought (to him, before he has started on his daily round for alms):

“He refuses to accept (food, if told that it has been prepared) especially for him:

“He refuses to accept any invitation (to call on his rounds at any
particular house, or to pass along any particular street, or to go to
any particular place):

“He will not accept (food taken direct) from the mouth of the pot or pans [42] (in which it is cooked; lest [ [\q 228/] those vessels should be struck or scraped, on his account, with the spoon):

` ß(He will) not (accept food placed) within the threshold (lest it should have been placed there specially for him):

` ß(He will) not (accept food placed) among the sticks [43] (lest it should have been placed there specially for him):

`ß(He will) not (accept food placed) among the pestles (lest it should have been placed there specially for him):

`ßWhen two persons are eating together he will not accept (food,
taken from what they are eating, if offered to him by only one of the
two):

“He will not accept food from a woman with child (lest the child should suffer want):

“He will not accept food from a woman giving suck (lest the milk should grow less): `He will not accept food from a woman in intercourse with a man [44] (lest their intercourse be hindered):


[\q 229/] “He will not accept food collected (by the faithful in time of drought) [45]:

“He will not accept. food where a dog is standing by (lest the dog should lose a meal):

“He will not accept food where flies are swarming round (lest the flies should suffer)

` He will not accept fish, nor meat, nor strong drink, nor intoxicants, nor gruel [46]

`He is a ßOne-houserû (turning back from his round as soon as he has received an alms at any one house), a ßOne-mouthful-man “:

“Or he is a ßTwo-houser,û a ßTwo-mouthful-man “:

“Or he is a ßSeven-houser,û a ßSeven-mouthful-man

`He keeps himself going on only one alms, [47] or only two, or so on up to only seven:

“He takes food only once a day, or once every two days, or so on up
to once every seven days. Thus does he dwell addicted to the practice of
taking food according to rule, at regular intervals, up to even half a
month.

`And so also, Gotama, are the following ascetic practices accounted,
in the opinion of some Samaõas and Bràhmaõas, as Samaõaship and
Bràhmaõaship:

[\q 230/] “He feeds on potherbs, on wild rice, [48] on Nivàra seeds, on leather parings, [49] on the water-plant called Haña,
on the fine powder which adheres to the grains of rice beneath the
husk, on the discarded scum of boiling rice, on the flour of oil-seeds, [
50] on grasses, on cow-dung, on fruits and roots from the woods, on fruits that have fallen of themselves.

`And so also, Gotama, are the following ascetic practices accounted,
in the opinion of some Samaõas and Bràhmaõas, as Samaõaship and
Bràhmaõaship:

“He wears coarse hempen cloth:

“He wears coarse cloth of interwoven hemp and other materials:

“He wears cloths taken from corpses and thrown away [51]:

“He wears clothing made of rags picked up from a dust heap:

“He wears clothing made of the bark of the Tirãtaka tree [52]:

` [167] `He wears the natural hide of a black antelope:

“He wears a dress made of a network of strips of a black antelope’s hide [53]:

“He wears a dress made of Kusa grass fibre:

“He wears a garment of bark:

[\q 231/] “`He wears a garment made of small slips or slabs of wood (shingle) pieced together [54]


‘He wears, as a garment, a blanket of human hair [55]:


`’He wears, as a garment, a blanket made of horses’ tails [56]:

`’He wears, as a garment, a blanket made of the feathers of owls:

`’He is a “plucker-out-of-hair-and-beard,û addicted to the practice of plucking out both hair and beard:

`’He is a ßstander-up,û rejecting the use of a seat:

“He is a ßcroucher-down-on-the-heels,û addicted to exerting himself when crouching down on his heels. [57]


‘He is a ßbed-of-thorns-man,û putting iron spikes or natural thorns under the skin on which he sleeps [58]:

“He uses a plank bed:

“He sleeps on the bare ground [59]:

“`He sleeps always on one side:

“He is a “dust-and-dirt-wearer,û (smearing his body with oil he
stands where dust clouds blow, and lets the dust adhere to his body):

“He lives and sleeps in the open air [60]:

“Whatsoever seat is offered to him, that he accepts [\q 232/] (without being offended at its being not dignified enough):

“He is a ßfilth-eater,û addicted to
the practice of feeding on the four kinds of filth (cow-dung, cow’s
urine, ashes, and clay) [
61]:


“He is a ßnon-drinker,û addicted to the practice of never drinking cold water (lest he should injure the souls in it) [62]:

`He is an ßevening-third-man,û addicted to the practice of going down into water thrice a day (to wash away his sins).

15. `If a man, O Kassapa, should go
naked, and be of loose habits, and lick his hands clean with his tongue,
and do and be all those other things you gave in detail, down to his
being addicted to the practice of taking food, according to rule, at
regular intervals up to even half a monthÞif he does all this, and the
state of blissful attainment in conduct, in heart, in intellect, have
not been practised by him, realised by him, then is he far from
Samaõaship, far from Bràhmaõaship. But from the time, O Kassapa, when a Bhikkhu
has cultivated the heart of love that knows no anger, that knows no ill
willÞfrom the time when, by the destruction of the deadly intoxications
(the lusts of the flesh, the lust after future life, and the
defilements of delusion and ignorance), he dwells in that emancipation
of heart, that emancipation of mind, that is free from those
intoxications, and that he, while yet in this visible world, has come to
realise and knowÞfrom that time, O Kassapa, is it that the Bhikkhu is called a Samaõa, is called a Bràhmaõa [
63]!

[\q 233/] `And if a man, O Kassapa, feed on potherbs, on wild rice,
on Nivàra seeds, or on any of those other things you gave in detail down
to fruits that have fallen of themselves, and the state of blissful
attainment in conduct, in heart, in intellect, have not been practised
by him, realised by him, then is he far from Samaõaship, far from
Bràhmaõaship. But from the time, O Kassapa, when a Bhikkhu has
cultivated the heart of love that knows no anger, that knows no ill
willÞfrom the time when, by the destruction of the deadly intoxications
(the lusts of the flesh, the lust after future life, and the defilements
of delusion and ignorance), he dwells in that emancipation of heart,
that emancipation of mind, that is free from those intoxications, and
that he, while yet. in this visible world, has come to realise and
knowÞfrom that time, O Kassapa, is it that the Bhikkhu is called a Samaõa, is called a Bràhmaõa!

[168] `And if a man, O Kassapa, wear coarse hempen cloth,, or carry
out all or any of those other practices you gave in detail down to
bathing in water three times a day, and the state of blissful attainment
in conduct, in heart, in intellect, have not been practised by him,
realised by him, then is he far from Samaõaship, far from Bràhmaõaship.
But from the time, O Kassapa when a Bhikkhu has cultivated the
heart of love that knows no anger, that knows no ill willÞfrom the time
when, by the destruction of the deadly intoxications (the lusts of the
flesh, the lust after future life, and the defilements of delusion and
ignorance), he dwells in that emancipation of heart, that emancipation
of mind, that is free from those intoxications, and that he, while yet
in this visible world, has come to realise and knowÞfrom that time, O
Kassapa, is it that the Bhikkhu is called a Samaõa, is called a Bràhmaõa!’

[\q 234/] [169] 16. And when he had thus spoken, Kassapa, the naked
ascetic, said to the Blessed One: `How hard then, Gotama, must
Samaõaship be to gain, how hard must Bràhmaõaship be!’

`That, Kassapa, is a common saying in
the world that the life of a Samaõa and of a Bràhmaõa is hard to lead.
But if the hardness, the very great hardness, of that life depended
merely on this ascetism, on the carrying out of any or all of those
practices you have detailed, then it would not be fitting to say that
the life of the Samaõa, of the Bràhmaõa, was hard to lead. It would be
quite possible for a householder, or for the son of a householder, or
for any one, down to the slave girl who carries the water-jar, to say:
ßLet me now go naked, let me become of low habits,û and so on through
all the items of those three lists of yours. But since, Kassapa, quite
apart from these matters, quite apart from all kinds of penance, the
life is hard, very hard to lead; therefore is it that it is fitting to
say: ßHow hard must Samaõaship be to gain, how hard must Bràhmaõaship
be! ßFor from the time, O Kassapa, when a Bhikkhu has cultivated
the heart of love that knows no anger, that knows no ill willÞfrom the
time when, by the destruction of the deadly intoxications (the lusts of
the flesh, the lust after future life, and the defilements of delusion
and ignorance), he dwells in that emancipation of heart, in that
emancipation of mind, that is free from those intoxications, and that
he, while yet in this visible world, has come to realise and knowÞfrom
that time, O Kassapa, is it that the Bhikkhu is called a Samaõa, is called a Bràhmaõa [
64] !

[170] 17. And when he had thus spoken, Kassapa, the naked ascetic,
said to the Blessed One: ` Hard is it, Gotama, to know when a man is a
Samaõa, hard to know when a man is a Bràhmaõa!’

`That, Kassapa, is a common saying in the world [\q 235/] that it is
hard to know a Samaõa, hard to know a Bràhmaõa. But if being a Samaõa,
if being a Bràhmaõa, depended merely on this asceticism, on the carrying
out of any or each of those practices you have detailed, then it would
not be fitting to say that a Samaõa is hard to recognise, a Bràhmaõa is
hard to recognise. It would be quite possible for a householder, or for
the son of a householder, or for any one down to the slave girl who
carries the water-jar, to know: ßThis man goes naked, or is of loose
habits, or licks his fingers with his tongue,û and so on through all the
items of those three lists of yours. But since, Kassapa, quite apart
from these matters, quite apart from all kinds of penance, it is hard to
recognise a Samaõa, hard to recognise a Bràhmaõa, therefore is it
fitting to say: ßHard is it to know when a man is a Samaõa, to know when
a man is a Bràhmaõa!û For from the time, O Kassapa, when a Bhikkhu
has cultivated the heart of love that knows no anger, that knows no ill
willÞfrom the time when, by the destruction of the deadly intoxications
(the lusts of the flesh, the lust after future life, and the
defilements of delusion and ignorance), he dwells in that emancipation
of heart, in that emancipation of mind, that is free from those
intoxications, and that he, while yet in this visible world, has come to
realise and know-from that time, O Kassapa, is it that the Bhikkhu is called a Samaõa, is called a Bràhmaõa !’

[171] 18. And when he had thus spoken, Kassapa, the naked ascetic,. said to the Blessed One: `What then, Gotama, is that blissful attainment in conduct, in heart, and in mind

[The answer [171-173] is all the paragraphs in the Sàma¤¤a-phala translated above, and here divided as follows:

Under Conduct (Sãla).


1. The paragraphs on the appearance of a Buddha, the conversion of a
layman, his entry into the Order ( Sections 40-42 above, pp. 78-79).

[\q 236/] 2. The Sãlas, as in the Brahma-jàla, Sections 8-27. See above, pp. 57, 58.

3. The paragraph on Confidence ( Section 63 above, p. 79).

Under the heart (Citta).


4. The paragraph on `Guarded is the door of his senses’ ( Section 64 above, pp. 79, 80).

5. The paragraph on `Mindful and Selfpossessed’ ( Section 65 above, pp. 80, 81).

6. The paragraph on Simplicity of Life, being content with little ( Section 66 above, p. 81).

7. The paragraphs on Emancipation from the Five
HindrancesÞcovetousness, ill-temper, laziness, worry, and perplexity (
Section 67-74 above, pp. 82-84)

8. The paragraph on the joy and Peace, that, as a result of this emancipation, fills his whole being ( Section 75 above, p. 84).

9. The paragraphs on the Four Ecstasies (jhànas, Sections 75-82 above, pp. 84-86).

Under Intelligence (Pa¤¤à).


10. The paragraphs on the Insight arising from Knowledge (¥àõa-dassana, 83,84 above, pp. 86, 87.)

11. The paragraphs on the power of projecting mental images (Sections 85, 86 above, p. 87).

12. The paragraphs on the five modes of special intuition (abhi¤¤à):


a. The practice of iddhi.

b. Hearing heavenly sounds.

c. Knowledge of other people’s thoughts.

d. Knowledge of one’s own previous births.

e. Knowledge of other people’s previous births.

13. The realisation of the Four Noble Truths, the destruction of the Intoxications, and the attainment of Arahatship.]

`ßAnd there is no other state of
blissful attainment [\q 237/] in conduct and heart and mind which is,
Kassapa, higher and sweeter than this. [
65]

[174] 21. `Now there are some recluses and Brahmans, Kassapa, who lay
emphasis on conduct. They speak, in various ways, in praise of
morality. But so far as regards the really noble, the highest conduct, I
am aware of no one who is equal to myself, much less superior. And it
is I who have gone the furthest therein; that is, in the highest conduct
(of the Path).

`There are some recluses and Brahmans,
Kassapa, who lay emphasis on self-mortification, and scrupulous care of
others. They speak in various ways in praise of self-torture and of
austere scrupulousness. But so far as regards the really noblest, the
highest sort of self-mortification and scrupulous regard for others, I
am aware of no one else who is equal to myself, much less superior. And
it is I who have gone the furthest therein; that is, in the highest sort
of scrupulous regard for others. [
66]


`There are some recluses and Brahmans,
Kassapa, who lay emphasis on intelligence. They speak, in various ways,
in praise of intelligence. But so far as regards the really noblest,
the highest intelligence, I am aware of no one else who is equal to
myself, much less superior. And it is I who have gone the furthest
therein; that is, in the highest Wisdom [
67] (of the Path).

[\q 238/] `There are some recluses and Brahmans, Kassapa, who lay
emphasis on emancipation. They speak, in various ways, in praise of
emancipation. But so far as regards the really noblest, the highest
emancipation, I am aware of no one else who is equal to myself, much
less superior. And it is I who have gone the furthest therein; that is,
in the most complete emancipation (of the Path).

[175] 22. `Now it may well be, Kassapa, that the recluses of adverse
schools may say: ßThe Samaõa Gotama utters forth a lion’s roar; but it
is in solitude that he roars, not where men are assembled.û Then should
they be answered: ßSay not so. The Samaõa Gotama utters his lion’s roar,
and that too in the assemblies where men congregate.û

`And it may well be, Kassapa, that the recluses of adverse schools
should thus, in succession, raise each of the following objections

û But it is not in full confidence that he roars:

`û But men put no questions to him:

`û But even when questioned, he cannot answer:û But even when he
answers. he gives no satisfaction by his exposition of the problem put:

`”But men do not hold his opinion worthy to be listened to:

`”But even when men listen to his word, they experience no conviction therefrom:

`”But even when convinced, men give no outward sign of their faith:

`û But even when they give such outward sign, they arrive not at the truth:

`û But even when they arrive at the truth they cannot carry it out:
ß`Then in each such case, Kassapa, they should be answered as before,
until the answer runs: ßSay not so. For the Samaõa Gotama both utters
forth his [\q 239/] lion’s roar, and that too in assemblies where men
congregate, and in full confidence in the justice of his claim, and men
put their questions to him on that, and on being questioned he expounds
the problem put, and by his exposition thereof satisfaction arises in
their hearts, and they hold it worthy to listen to his word, and in
listening to it they experience conviction, and being convinced they
give outward signs thereof, and they penetrate even to the truth, and
having grasped it they are able also to carry the truth out!

23.`I was staying once, Kassapa, at
Ràjagaha, on the hill called the Vulture’s Peak. And there a follower of
the same mode of life as yours, by name [176] Nigrodha, asked me a
question about the higher forms of austere scrupulousness of life. And
having been thus questioned I expounded the problem put. And when I had
thus answered what he asked, he was well pleased, as if with a ` great
joy [
68] .’

`And who, Sir, on hearing the doctrine of the Exalted One, would not
be well pleased, as if with a great joy. I also, who have now heard the
doctrine of the Exalted One, am thus well pleased, even as if with a
great joy. Most excellent, Lord, are the words of thy mouth, most
excellent, just as if a man were to set up what has been thrown down, or
were to reveal that which has been hidden away, or were to point out
the right road to him who has gone astray, or were to bring a lamp into
the darkness, so that those who have eyes could see external formsÞjust
even so, Lord, has the truth been made known to me, in many a figure, by
the Exalted One. And I, even I, betake myself as my guide to the
Exalted One, and to the Doctrine and to the Brotherhood. I would fain,
Lord, renounce the world under the Exalted One; I would fain be admitted
to his Order.’

24. `Whosoever, Kassapa, having
formerly been a member of another school, wishes to renounce the world
and receive initiation in this doctrine and [\q 240/] discipline, he
remains in probation for four months [
69]
And at the end of the four months the brethren, exalted in spirit, give
him initiation, and receive him into the Order, raising him up into the
state of a Bhikkhu. But nevertheless I recognise, in such cases, the distinction there may be between individuals.’

`Since, Lord, the four months’ probation is the regular custom, I
too, then, will remain on probation for that time. . Then let the
brethren, exalted in spirit, give me initiation and raise me up into
the. state of a Bhikkhu.’ [177]

So Kassapa, the naked ascetic,
received initiation, and was admitted to membership of the Order under
the Exalted One. And from immediately after his initiation the venerable
Kassapa remained alone and separate, earnest, zealous, and master of
himself. And e’er long he attained to that supreme goal [
70]
for the sake of which clansmen go forth from the household life into
the homeless state: yea, that supreme goal did he, by himself, and while
yet in this visible world, bring himself to the knowledge of, and
continue to realise, and to see face to face. And he became sure that
rebirth was at an end for him, that the higher life had been fulfilled,
that everything that should be done had been accomplished, and that
after this present life there would be no beyond!

And so the venerable Kassapa became yet another among the Arahats.

Here ends the Kassapa-Sãhanàda Suttanta. [71]



[1] `Buddhist Suttas’ (S. B. E.), p. 147.


[2] M. I, 79 = Jàt. I, 390.


[3] So also Kàñhaka Upanishad II, 7-13.


[4] See B”ihad. III, 5, 1; 8, 10; IV, 4, 2 1-23; Chànd. IV, 1, 7.

Compare âpastamba I, 8, 23, 6; Vas. VI, 3, 23, 2 5; XXVI, 11 = Manu
III 87 = Vishõu LV, 21; the passages quoted from the Mahàbhàrata by
Muir, `Metrical Translations,’ pp. 263-4, and Deussen, `Vedànta-system,’
p. 155.

[5] Satapatha-Br. VI, 1, 1, 13, and several times in the early Upanishads.


[6] So Chànd. Up. III, 17, 2 and 4.


[7] Tait. I, 9. Compare, on the ethics, Manu VI, 92 and the Ten Pàramitàs. The idea that Veda-learning is tapas is a common one.


[8] Chànd. Up. II, 23, 1.


[9] Chànd. Up. V, 10; B”ihad. VI, 2 ¤ Praùna I, 9; V, 4, 5.


[10] So Manu V, 137; VI, 87. Compare VIII, 390, and VI, 97


[11] See Max Mller’s interesting note in his translation of the Upanishads (Part I, pp. 82-84).


[12] See Jacob’s Concordance under the words.


[13] Comp. Baudhàyana II, 10, 17, 6, and âpastamba II, 4, 9, 13.


[14]
He ventures on a conjecture as to possible date in the case of
âpastamba only. Him he places on linguistic grounds not later than the
third century B. C.; and, if the argument resting on the mention of
Svetaketu hold good, then a century or two older. Burnell, whom Bhler
(Baudh. p. xxx) calls `the first authority on the literature of the
Schools of the Taittirãya Veda,’ to which âpastamba belonged, was not
convinced by the arguments leading up to the above conclusion. He only
ventured, after reading them, to put âpastamba `at least B. C.’.(Manu,
p. xxvii). Baudhàyana was some generations older than âpastamba (see
Bhler, âp. pp. xxi-xxii). And Gautama was older still.


[15] Vas. VII, 2.


[16] Thus Bhler uses the one term `ascetic’ to render a number of Sanskrit words-for saünyàsin at Baudh. II, 10, 17; for bhikshu at Gaut. III, 2, 11; for parivràjaka at Vàs. X, 1; for yati at Manu VI, 54, 56, 69, 86; for tàpasa at Manu VI, 27; for muni
at Manu VI, 11. Of these the last two refer to the hermit in the woods
(the tàpasa), the others to the wandering mendicant (the bhikshu). Even for the old Brahman who remains at home under the protection of his son (the Veda-saünyàsin), he has `become an asectic’ (saünyased in the Sanskrit, Manu VI, 94).

This rendering can, in each case, be easily justified. Each of the
Sanskrit words means one or other form, one or other degree, of what may
be called asceticism. But the differences might be made clear by
variety of rendering.

[17] Gautama has altogether ten rules for the hermit, none of which were applicable to the Buddhist Bhikshu (Gaut. III, 26-35).


[18]
Baudhàyana II, 10, 18, 4, 5. Manu VI, 27 (of the hermit). So also Vas.
X, 31, according to the commentator. But Bhler thinks otherwise; and
Manu VI, 94 confirms Bhler’s view.


[19] Brihadàraõyaka Upanishad III, 5, 1.


[20] Afterwards an epithet often used, in the priestly literature of the hermit (the tàpasa), in the Buddhist books of the Arahat.


[21] Brihadàraõyaka Upanishad IV, 4, 22.


[22] `Sechzig Upanishads,’ p. 465


[23]
Perhaps, on this third notion, Chànd. IV, 1, 7 is another passage of
about the same date. A wise Sådra is apparently there called a Bràhmaõa.
But the application is by no means certain.


[24] âp. II, 9, 24, 15.


[25] Baudh. II, 6, 11, 28.


[26] See the passage quoted by Deussen, `Vedànta-system,’ p.40.


[27] See the full text in Chalmers’s paper in the J. R. A. S. for 1894


[28]
See Bhler’s `Manu,’ XXVII, and the commentators referred to in
Bhler’s notes, pp. 202 and 203. Also Vas. IX, 10; Gaut. III, 27 Baudh.
II, 6, 11, I 4, I 5 (which proves the identity of the two); III, 3,
15-18. Haradatta on âpastamba II, 9, 21, 21 (where he also says they are
the same). Dr. Burnell had in his possession fragments of this work, or
what, in his opinion, seemed to be so. He says it was used by followers
of the Black Yajur-veda. Bhler also (âp. p. 154, note) says the Såtra
is in existence, and procurable in Gujaràt.


[29] My `Milinda,’ II, 244 - 274.


[30] The Buddhists admitted a distinction in class as between tàpasas and bhikkhus. They often distinguish between the simple pabbajjà of the latter and the tàpasa-pabbajjà of the former. See for instance Jàt. III, 119 (of non-Buddhists).


[31]
When the warrior hero of’ the Ràmàyaõa brutally murders a peaceful
hermit, it is not necessary to call in the âsrama rules to justify the
foul deed. The offence (in the view of the poet on the part of the
hermit, in the view of most Westerns on the part of the hero) is simply
social insolence. Would public opinion, in Kosala, have sanctioned such
an act, or enjoyed such a story, in the time of the Piñakas? The
original Ràmàyaõa probably arose, as Professor Jacobi has shown, in
Kosala; but this episode (VII, 76) is not in the oldest part. The
doctrine for which the poet claims the approval of the gods (and which,
therefore, was not unquestioned among men, or he need not have done so)
is that a Sådra may not become a tàpasa.


[32] II, 3, 54.


[33] IV, 3, 110.


[34] See on this Order the passages quoted above in the note at p.71; and Leumann in the `Vienna Oriental Journal,’ III, 128.


[35] Comp. Baudhàyana XI, 6, 11, 23; Manu V, 165; IX, 29.


[36]
There is a similar list, also full of interesting puzzles, but
applicable of course to a date later by some centuries than the above,
in the Milinda p.191. Worshippers of Siva are there expressly mentioned.


[37] Miga-dàye. That is, a place set apart for deer to roam in, in safety, a public park in which no hunting was allowed.


[38]
It would, perhaps, be more agreeable to the context if one could render
this idiomatic phrase: `Is there anything in this opinion of theirs as
to his system, or as to this corollary they have drawn from it, which
amounts to being a matter he would object to?’ But I do not see how this
could be reconciled with the syntax of the Pàli sentence. And
Buddhaghosa takes it as rendered above, summarising it in the words: `Is
your opinion herein altogether free from blame?’


[39]
The four paragraphs 5, 6, 7 and 8 are here repeated in full in the text
with the change only of reading `the body of the disciples of the
Samaõa Gotama’ instead of the Samaõa Gotama’ and similarly for the other
teachers.


[40]
The following description of the naked ascetic recurs in the Majjhima
I, 77, 238, 342, II, 161, and in the Puggala Pa¤¤atti IV, 24. It
consists of a string of enigmatic phrases which are interpreted in my
translation, according to Buddhaghosa here, and the unknown commentator
on the Puggala. These two are very nearly word for word the same. The
differences are just such as would arise when two authors are drawing
upon one uniform tradition.

It would seem from M. I, 238, if compared with I, 524, that it was
the âjãvakas (see note above on p. 71) who were more especially known
for the practice of these forms of asceticism: and from M. I, 77 that it
was these forms that had been followed by Gotama himself before his
eyes were opened, before he attained to Nirvàõa. (M. I, 167.)


[41] Hatthàpalekhano.
The tradition was in doubt about this word. Both commentators give an
alternative rendering: `He scratched himself clean with his hand after
stooling.’ And the Puggala Pa¤¤atti commentator adds a very curious
piece of old folklore as his reason for this explanation.



[42] Kaëopi;
not in Childers. It no doubt means some cooking vessel of a particular
shape, but the exact signification, and the derivation of it are both
unknown. It may possibly be a Kolarian or Dravidian word. Many centuries
afterwards karoña and karoñi were included in the Vyutpatti, and the
Amara Kosa, as meaning `vessel.’ It is of course out of the question
that a word of the fifth century B. C. can be derived from either of
them; but they are evidently the descendants of allied forms. Childers
gives another form khalopã on the authority of the Abhidhàna Padãpikà
(twelfth century), verse 456, where it occurs in a list of names of
pots. AnotherÞkhaëopiÞis put in his text by Trenckner at Milinda,
p.107, from one MS., but the other two differ. Both commentators
paraphrase it here by ukkhali pacchi và.


[43] Na Daõóa-m-antaraü.
That is, perhaps, among the firewood; but the expression is not clear.
The Commentaries only give the reason. Dr. Neumann (on Majjhima I, 77)
has, `he does not spy beyond the lattice’ or perhaps ` beyond the bars
of the grate’ (spahte nicht uber das Gitter), but this seems putting a
great deal of meaning into the sticks, and not sufficiently reproducing
the force of antaraü. And how can pañigaõhàti mean `spy’? We have, no
doubt, to fill out an elliptical phrase. But it is just such cases as
those in this paragraph where we are more likely to go right if we
follow the ancient tradition.


[44] Na purisantara-gatàya. The commentators only give the reason. On the meaning of the word compare Jàt. I, 290.


[45] Na saükhittisu. Both meaning and derivation are uncertain. Dr. Neumann has ïot from the dirty.’


[46] Thusodaka. It is not fermented. The traditional interpretation here is: `a drink called suvãrakaü (after the country Suvãra) made of the constituents, especially the husk, of all cereals.’ The use of salt sovãraka
as a cure for wind in the stomach is mentioned at Mahà Vagga VI, 16. 3;
and it was allowed, as a beverage, if mixed with water, to the Buddhist
Bhikkhus. In Vimàna Vatthu XIX, 8 it is mentioned in a list of
drinks given to them. Childers calls it `sour gruel’ following Subhåti
in the first edition (1865) of the Abhidhàna Padãpikà (verse 460), but
in the Abh. Pad. Såci (published in 1893) Subhåti renders it `kongey’;
something of the same sort as barley water. Buddhaghosa adds: `Every one
agrees that it is wrong to drink intoxicants. These ascetics see sin
even in this.’ The corresponding Sanskrit word, tusodaka, is found only in Suùruta.


[47] Datti. A small pot,’ says Buddhaghosa, ` in which special titbits are put aside, and kept.’


[48] Sàmàka, not in Childers. See M. I, 156. Jàt. II, 365, III, 144.


[49] Daddula, not in Childers. See M. I, 78, 156, 188.


[50] Pi¤¤aka, not in Childers. See Vin. IV, 341. The commentators here merely say: ` This is plain.’


[51] Chava-dussàni pi dhàreti.
The commentators give an alternative explanation: ` Clothing made of
Eraka grass tied together.’ Was such clothing then used to wrap dead
bodies in?


[52] Tirãtàni pi dhàreti.
This custom is referred to at Mahà Vagga VIII, 29, as having been there
followed by ascetics. The use of such garments is there forbidden to
the Bhikkhus.


[53] Ajinakkhipam pi dhàreti.
Buddhaghosa gives here an explanation different from that given by him
on Vin. III, 34 (quoted `Vinaya Texts,’ II, 247), where the word also
occurs. The Puggala Pa¤¤atti gives both explanations as possible. Khipa
at A. I, 33 means some sort of net. Ajinakkhipa is referred to at S. I,
117 as the characteristic dress of an old Brahman.


[54] Phalaka-cãram pi dhàreti. See Mahà Vagga VIII, 28. 2; Culla Vagga V, 29. 3.


[55] So of Ajita of the garment of hair, above, p. 73. Both commentators say the hair is human hair.


[56] Vàla-kambalam pi dhàreti.
So the commentators here. The alternative rendering given by us at
Vinaya Texts,’ II, 247, `skin of a wild beast,’ should be corrected
accordingly. That would be vàëa, and all the passages where our word
occurs read vàla. Comp. A. I, 240.


[57] Ukkuñikappadhàna.
Compare Dhp. 141, 2 = Divy. 339. The commentator says he progressed in
this posture by a series of hops. The posture is impossible to
Europeans, who, if they crouch down on their heels, cannot keep their
balance when the heels touch the ground. But natives of India will sit
so for hours without fatigue.


[58] Both commentators add: `or stands, or walks up and down.’


[59] Thaõóila-seyyam pi kappeti. The Burmese MSS. and Buddhaghosa, but not the Siamese edition, read taõóila. So does my MS. at Dhp. 141. The Puggala omits the word. S. IV, 118, and Mil. 351 have the ñh.


[60] Abbhokàsiko ca hoti. There is no comment on this. But compare Jàt. IV, 8; Mil. 342


[61] Vekañiko.
So of an âjãvaka at Jàt. I, 390, and compare `Vinaya Texts,’ II, 59. My
rendering of the word at Mil. 259 ought, I think, to be corrected
accordingly. But why was not this entered among the foods above, where
one of them was already mentioned? It looks like an afterthought, or a
gloss.


[62] Apànako. Compare my Milinda II, 85 foll. on this curious belief.


[63]
That is, of course, a true recluse, an actual Arahat. Throughout these
sections Gotama is purposely at cross purposes with his questioner.
Kassapa uses the word Bràhmaõa in his own sense; that is, not in the
ordinary sense, but of the ideal religieux. Gotama, in his answer, keeps
the word; but he means something quite different, he means an Arahat.
On the persistent way in which the Piñaka texts try to put this new
meaning into the word, see above, in the Introduction to the Kåñadanta.


[64]
This paragraph, like the last and like the next, is, in the Pàli,
broken up into three sections, one for each of the three lists of
penances.


[65] `And by this,’ says Buddhaghosa, `he means Arahatship. For the doctrine of the Exalted One has Arahatship as its end.’


[66] At Aïguttara II, 200 (compare M. I, 240-242) it is said that those addicted to tapo-jigucchà
are incapable of Arahatship. Gotama must either, therefore, be here
referring to his years of penance before he attained Nirvàõa under the
Tree of Wisdom; or he must be putting a new meaning into the expression,
and taking `the higher scrupulousness’ in the sense of the self-control
of the Path. Probably both are implied.

Jigucchà is translated by Childers as `disgust,
loathing,’ following the Sanskrit dictionaries. The example of it given
at M. I, 78 is `being so mindful, in going out or coming in, that pity
is stirred up in one even towards a drop of water, to the effect that:
ßmay I not bring injury on the minute creatures therein.û It comes
therefore to very nearly the same thing as ahiüsà.


[67] Adhipa¤¤à.
From Aïguttara II, 93 it is clear that this is the wisdom of the higher
stages only of the Path, not of Arahatship. For the man who has
adhipa¤¤à has then to strive on till he attains to Arahatship. Puggala
Pa¤¤atti IV, 26 is not really inconsistent with this.


[68]
The whole conversation will be translated below. It forms the subject
of the Udumbarãka Sãhanàda Suttanta, No. 25 in the Dãgha.


[69] According to the rule laid down in Vinaya I, 69.


[70] That is, Arahatship, Nirvàõa.


[71]
The Burmese MSS. call it the Mahà Sãhanàda Sutta, which is also the
name given in the MSS. to the Twelfth Sutta in the MajjhimaÞcalled there
in the text (p. 83) and in the Milinda (P.396), the Lomahaüsana
Pariyàya. We have had an instance above (p.55) of several different
names being given, in the text itself, to the same Sutta. And I had
already, in 1880, called attention in my `Buddhist Birth Stories’ (pp.
lx, lxi) to the numerous instances in the Jàtaka Book of the same Jàtaka
being known, in the collection itself, by different names. It is
evident that the titles were considered a very secondary matter.


Sinhala

oS> ksldh



kfud ;ii N.jf;d wryf;d iuud iunqoaOii



[\q 115/]



0′ liaim iSykdo iQ;1h’


3′ ud jsiska fufia wik
,oS’ tla lf,l Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia Wcq[a[d kuz kqjr iuSmfhysjQ lKAK;a:,
us.odh kusjQ ;ekl jdih l< fial’ tl, ldYHm kuzjQ ksrAjia;1 uyfKla
meusK Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia iuZ. i;2gq jQfhah’ i;2gqjsh hq;2jQ isyslghq;2
l:dj wjidk lr tl me;a;lgjS isgsfhah’ ksrAjia;1 mrsn1dcl f;fuz Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafiag fufia lSfjzh’

4′ ))mskaj;a f.#;uh” Y1uK f.#;u f;fuz ish,q ;mialuz j,g .ryhs”
krAjia;1j ysZoSu” lEu ld w; f,jlEu wdoSjQ lgql cSjs; we;s ish,q ;miqkag
taldka;fhka wjuka lrhs” fpdaokd lrhs”hk fuz ldrKh ud jsiska wik ,oS’ huz
ta flfkla fufia lsh;ao” lsfulao Tjqyq mskaj;a f.#;uhka jsiska lshk
,oaola lshkafkdao$ ke;fyd;a ke;s kQmka fndre f.d;d lshd kskaod jYfhka
lshkafkdao” mskaj;a f.#;uhka jsiska lshk ,o ldrKhg wkqj lreKq lsh;ao”
ke;fyd;a lreKq iys;j lshk wkHhkaf.a lSulska Tnf.a lSu” .erysh hq;2
lreKlg iq,q jYfhkaj;a fkdmeusfKAo” wms mskaj;a f.#;uhkag fndrefjka
fpdaokd lsrSug fkdleue;af;da fjuq’))

5′ ldYHmh” Y1uK f.#;u f;fuz ish,q ;mialuz j,g .ryhs” lgql cSjs; .;
lrK ish,q ;miqkag taldka;fhka wjuka flfrAhhs huz ta flfkla lsh;ao” Tjqyq
ud lSjdla lshkafkda fkdfj;a’ Tjqyq ug ke;s kQmka fndrefjka kskaod fldg
lshkafkda fj;a’ ldYHmh” uu fuz f,dalfhys lgql cSjs;hla fyda wvqjQ oqla
we;sj .;lrK we;euz ;mfil2 urKska u;2 krlfhys Wmkakd fyda iem we;s
iq.;sfhys Wmkakd fyda


[\q 116/]

usksia weia blau
mj;akdjQ msrsisoq osjH weiska olsus’ ldYHmh” huz nZoqjQ uu fufia fuz
;miqkaf.a u;2 c;sfhka fuz cd;shg meusKSuo” oeka fuhska hdhq;2 ;eko thska
pq; jSuo” thska pq; jQjkaf.a kej; bmoSuo ;;ajQ mrsoafoka oksuzo” ta uu
l2ug ;mialuzj,g .rykafkuzo” lgql cSjs;hla .;lrK ish,q ;miqkag ta
ldka;fhka l2ug wjuka lrkafkuzo$

6′ ))ldYHmh” mKAvs;jQ” oCIjQ” wkHhka iu. lrK,o jdo we;a;djQ ;shQKq
kqjK we;a;djQ ;ukaf.a kqjKska wkqkaf.a jeros weoySuz nsZoskafkdahhs is;d
isgsk iuyr uyK nuqfKda we;a;dy’ iuyr lreKq j,ska udf.a OrAuh Tjqkaf.a
OrAuhg iufjhs’ iuyr lreKq j,ska iu fkdfjhs’

7′ ))uu Tjqka fj; meusK fufia lshus’ ldYHmh” wfma fuz ldrKhkays hula
iu fkdfjzo” ta lreKq ;sfn;ajd fuz ldrKhkays hula iufjzo” ldYHmh” fuz
ldrKhka ms

[\q 117/]


8′ ))ldYHmh” ta lreKq
jsuid iiZod n,kakdjQ kqjK we;af;da Nj;2kaf.a fuz huz OrAu wl2i,ao
wl2i,ahhs jro iys;hhs ksjeros whg kqiqoqiqo ksjeros whg kqiqoqiqhhs
wmsrsisoq OrAuh wmsrsisoq OrAuhhsfjkafldg ;nk ,oaodyqo” ta OrAu f.#;u
Y1uK f;fuz oqrefldg mj;S’ mskaj;a wkH .2rejrfhda iaj,am jYfhka oqrefldg
mj;s;ahhs fufia lshkakdyqh” hk huz ldrKhla weoao fuz ldrKh we;af;auh’
ldYHmh” fufia lreKq jsuikakdjQ kqjKe;af;da wmgu ta ldrKfhys fndfyda fia
m1Yxid lrkafkdah’

))fuz Nj;2kaf.a huz OrAu l2i,ao l2i,ahhs fodia ke;af;ao fodia
ke;af;ahhs” fiajkh lghq;af;ao fiajkh lghq;af;ahhs ksjro whg iqoqiqhhs”
msrsisoq OrAuh msrsisoq OrAuhhs fjkafldg ;nk ,oaodyqo$))

9′ Y1uK f.#;u f;fuz fuz OrAu iuzmQrAKfhka iudokaj mj;S’ mskaj;ajQ wkH
.2rejrfhda iaj,am fldgila iudokaj mj;Shhs fufia lshkakdyqh hk fuz
ldrKhla we;ao” fuz ldrKh we;af;auh’ ldYHmh” fufia fuz ldrKfhys lreKq
jsuik kqjKe;af;da wmgu fndfyda fia m1Yxid lrkafkdah’

0′ ))ldYHmh” wksla lreKlao we;’ kqjKe;af;da fuz Nj;2kaf.a OrAuhla
wl2i,ao” wl2i,ahhs fiajkh lghq;af;ao fiajkh fkdfldghq;af;ao ksjro whg
kqiqoqiqhhs” wmsrsisoqh wmsrsisoqhhs fjkafldg ;nk ,oaodyqo ljfrla fuz
OrAuhka iuzmQrAKfhka oqrefldg mj;afkao Y1uK f.#;uhkaf.a Y1djlfhda fyda
fjoao wkH .2rejrhkaf.a Y1djlfhda fyda fj;aoehs .2rejreka .2rejreka yd
iuZ.o Y1djlhka Y1djlhka yd iu.o iiZod lreKq jsuid n,;ajd’

Y1uK f.#;uhkaf.a Y1djlfhda fuz OrAuhka iuzmQrAKfhka oqrefldg mj;S’ mskaj;a jQ wkH .2rejrhkaf.a


[\q 118/]

Y1djlfhda
iaj,amfldgila oqrefldg mj;Sh hk ldrKh we;af;auh’ ldYHmh” fufia fuz
ldrKfhys lreKq jsuik kqjKe;af;da wmgu fndfyda fia m1Yxid lrkafkdah’

-’ ))ldYHmh” wksla lreKlao we;’ fuz Nj;2kaf.a huz OrAuhla l2i,ao
l2i,ahhs fodia ke;af;ao fodia ke;af;ahhs fiajkh lghq;af;ah” fiajkh
lghq;af;ahhs ksfodia whg iqoqiqh ksfoia whg iqoqiqhhs)) msrsisoq
OrAufhdah’ msrsisoq OrAufhdahhs fjkafldg ;nk ,oaodyqo Y1uK f.#;uhkaf.a
Y1djlfhda fuz OrAuhka iuzmQrAKfhka iudokaj mj;s;a’ mskaj;a jQ wkH
.2rejrhkaf.a Y1djlfhda iaj,amfldgila iudokaj mj;s;ahhs fufia lshkakdyqh
hk fuz ldrKhla weoao fuz ldrKh ienEfjzuh’ ldYHmh” fufia fuz ldrKfhys
lreKq jsuik kqjKe;af;da wmgu fndfyda fia m1Yxid lrkafkdah’

3=’ ))ldYHmh” huz ms

))ldYHmh” huz ms

))fuz ta udrA.h fjz’ fuz *mQrAjNd. m1;smodj( l,ska mqreoq l

[\q 119/]


))wdhqIau;a f.#;uh”
iuyr uyK nuqKkaf.a uyK OrAu wkqj fjkalrK ,oaodjQo” n1dyauK OrAu wkqj
fjka lrk ,oaodjQo ;dmi lrAufhda fj;a’ tkuz ksrAjia;1 jQfha fjhs’ mykalrk
,o fydZo isrs;awe;af;a fjhs” lEu ld w; f,jskafka fjhs’ lEug leZojQ l,
fkdtkafka fjhs” isgskakg lS l, fkdisgskafka fjhs” ld,hg m

34′ ))fuz l1shdfjdao ;dmi lrAufhda fj;a’ fkdmsiQ m,d lkafka fyda
fjhs’ nvyuq kuz ;K OdkH lkafka fyda fjhs’ bfnz yg.;a OdkH lkafka fyda
fjhs’ *iuz jev lrkakka lmdoeuQ ( iuz len,s lkafka fyda fjhs’ l2vq lkafka
fyda fjhs’ oUqn;a lkafka fyda fjhs’ *uQrejg( mqklal2


[\q 120/]

lkafka fyda fjhs’ f.u lkafka fyda fjhs’ le,E uq,a f.vs lEu we;af;a bfnz jegqk f.vs lEfuka fyda hefmhs’

35′ ))fuz l1shdfjdao ;dmi lrAufhda fj;a’ yK m;2re froso” tre;K
wdosfhka l< froso nsu,q fros ud,qo” *rsgsiqUq,q( .ia m;2reo wZoqka
osjsiuzo” ueo me,Q wZoqka osjsiuzo” l2ijeyerso” kshZo *yK( jeyerso” ,E,s
jeyerso” bifliska l< luzns,so” wiaf,duska l< luzns,so” nluQKq
msydgqj,ska l< YrSrfha hg fldgfia weZoquzo orhs’biflia /jq,a
bosrSfuys fhoqfka biflia /jq,a Woqrkafkao fjhs” wdik bj;a fldg ke.sg
isgskafkao fjhs” Wlal2gslj ysZoSfuz *wek ;shdf.k ysZoSu( jSrAHfhys
fhoqfka fjhs’ lgq Wv ksod.kafka lgq Wv yeisrSu lrkafka fjhs’ *fmdare(
,E,s Wv l2vd ;dmamh Wv tl me;a;lg lerS ksod.kafkao fjhs’oQjs,s oe,s
orkafkao fjhs” t,sfha jikafkao fjhs” m

36′ ))ldYHmh” bZoska ksrAjia;1 jQfha fyda fjzo” mykalrK ,o fydZo
isrs;awe;af;a fjzo” lEu ld w; f,jskafka wdoS l1shd flfrAo” Tyq jsiska
fuz YS, iuzm;a;sho fuz iudOs *isf;a tlZ. lu(iuzm;a;sho”

fuz {dk iuzm;a;sho fkdjvk ,oaoS wjfNdao fkdlrK ,oaoS fjhs’ Tyq jsiska
fuz YS, iuzm;a;sho” fuz ps;a; iuzm;a;sho” fuz m1{d iuzm;a;sho fkdjvk
,oaoS wjfNdao fkdlrK ,oaoS fjhs’ l2ula fjzo$ Tyq uyK


[\q 121/]

lghq;2 j,ska oqre
jQfhau fjhs’ n1dyauK lghq;2 j,ska oqrejQfhau fjhs’ ldYHmh” huz fyhlska
NsCIq f;u ffjr ke;sjQ foduzkia ke;sjQ ffu;1S is;a jvdo” *wdY1j(
laf,aIhka my lsrSfuka flf,ia ke;sjQ wrAy;aM, iudOsho” wrAy;aM, m1{djo
fuz wd;au Ndjfhysu ;ukau jsfYaI {dkfhka oek wjfndao fldg Bg meusK jdih
flfrAo” ldYHmh” fuz NsCIqf;u fuz ldrKfhka uyKhhso” fuz ldrKfhka n1dyauK
hhso lshkq ,efnz’))

37′ fufia lS l,ays wfp, ldYHm ))mskaj;a f.#;uh” uyK meje;au wmyiq
fjhs’ n1dyauK meje;au oqIalr fjhs)) fufia Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag lSfhah’

))ldYHmh” uyK meje;au oqIalrh” n1dyauK meje;au oqIalrh” hk fuz l:dj
f,dalfhys iajNdj fjhs’ ldYHmh bZoska ksrAjia;1 jSuo” lEu ld w; f,djSu
wdoS by; iZoyka l< ;dmi l1shdjkays jdih flfrAo” ldYHmh” fuz wvq
mej;2uz l1ufhkao” fuz omia mej;2fukao” fuz uyK mej;2fukao” fuz n1dyauK
mej;2fukao” oqIalr jQfha” b;d oqIalr jkafkao tmuKlska” uyK
mej;2uzoqIalrh” n1dyauK meje;2uz oqIalrh) hk fuz jpk lSug iqoqiq fkdfjz’

)).Dym;sfhl2 fyda .Dym;s mq;1fhl2 jsiska fyda hg;a msrsfihska osh
wosk odishla jsiska by; iZoyka uyK mej;2uz fyda n1dyauK mej;2uz fyda
lrkq yels jkafkah’ ldYHmh” huz fyhlska fuz wvqjQ mej;2uz l1ufhka f;drju
fuz ;mia mej;2uz j,ska f;drj uyK mej;2uz fyda n1dyauK mej;2uz oqIalr
jQfha b;d oqIalr jQfha fjzkuz ” tfyhska )uyK mej;2uzoqIalrh” n1dyauK
meje;2uz oqIalrh)hs fuz jpk lSug iqoqiq fjhs’ ldYHmh” huz fyhlska
NsCIqf;u oafjzI *ffjr( ke;sjQ foduzkia ke;sjQ ffu;1S is;a jvdo” flf,iamy
lsrSfuka


[\q 122/]

flf,ia ke;s iudOsho”
m1{djo” fuz wd;au Ndjfhysu Tyq Wiia {dkfhka oek” wjfndao fldg Bg meusK
jdih flfrAo” ldYHmh fuz NsCIq f;u fuz ldrKfhka ))uyK))hhso
))n1dyauK))hhso lshkq ,efnz’))

38′ fufia lS l, wfp, ldYHm” ))mskaj;a f.#;uh” uyK f;u oqlfia
oek.;hq;2 fjhs” n1dyauKf;uoqlfia oek.;hq;2 fjzh))hs Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag
fuz jpk lSfhah’

))ldYHmh” uyK f;u oqlfia oek.;hq;2 fjhs” n1dyauKf;uoqlfia oek.;
hq;2hhs fuz l:d f,dlfhys jHjydr l:dfjhs’ bZoska ksrAjia;1 fjzo w;ayrsk
,o isrs;a we;af;a lEu ld w; f,jskafkao” fuz wdoS l1shdjkays fhoS
tmuKlskau uyK f;u oqlfia oek.; hq;af;ah” n1dyauKf;uoqlfia oek.;
hq;af;ahhs” hk fuz jpk lSug iqoqiq fkdfjhs’

))ldYHmh” huz lreKlska fuz wvq jQ mej;2fuka f;drju fuz uyK fyda
n1dyauK fyda oqlfia oek.; hq;af;ao b;d oqlfia oek.; hq;af;ao fjz kuz
tfyhska ))uyK f;u oqlfia oek.;hq;2h” n1dyauK f;uoqlfia oek.; hq;2 hhs))
fuz jpk lSu iqoqiqhs’

))ldYHmh” huz lreKlska” NsCIq f;u oafjzI *ffjr( ke;2j foduzkia ke;sj
ffu;1S is;a jvdo” flf,iamy lsrSfuka flf,ia ke;sjQ iudOsho” m1{djo” fuz
cSjs;fhysu ;uka Wiia Z.Zodkfhka oek” wjfndao fldg Bg meuzK jdih flfrAo”
ldYHmh fuz NsCIq f;u ))uyK))hhso ))n1dyauK))hhso lshkq ,efnz’))

39′ fufia lS l,ays wfp, ldYHm” mskaj;a f.#;uh” ta iS, iuzmodj
l2ulao$ps;a; iuzmodj l2ulao$ m1{d iuzmodj l2ulao$hs Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafiaf.ka weiqfjzh’


[\q 123/]

*fuys 64 msfgz idu[a[ M, iQ;1fha 49 fPAofha isg 7- fPAoh fhoSfuzoS ))uyrc)) fjkqjg ))ldYHmh)) fhdokak’(

30′ ))ldYHmh” uu tla ld,fhlays fuys rc.y kqjr iuSmfhys jQ .scql2Z:
mjzfjz jdih lf

))iajduSks” Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiaf.a OrAuh wid ljfrla b;d jevshla i;2gq
is;a we;af;a fkdjkafkao$iajduSks” uuo Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiaf.a OrAuh wid b;d
jevshla i;2gq is;a we;af;a jSus’ iajduSks” ta uu Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiao
OrAuho” NsCIqix>hdo irKfldg hus’ iajduSks” ta uu Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiaf.a
iuSmfhys uyKlu ,nkafkus” Wmiuzmodj ,nkafkushs)) lshd isgsfhah’

3-’ ))ldYHmh” wkH ;SrA:ljQ hfula fuz Ydikfhys uyKjSug leu;sfjzo
Wmiuzmodj ,enSug leu;sfjzo” Tyq udi y;rla mqreoqjSu *msrsfjia( flfrA’
ydr uila .;jQ l, i;2gq lrKq ,enQ NsCIqyq Tyq uyK flfr;a” NsCIqNdjh msKsi
Wmiuzmod flfr;a” tfia kuq;a ujsiska fuys mqoa., fjki olakd ,oafoahhs lS
fial’

4=’ ))ldYHmh” YS,jdoSjQ iuyr uyK nuKq flfkla fj;ao Tyq fkdfhla
wdldrfhka YS,fha .2K lsh;a’ ldYHmh” huz muK b;d msrsisoqjQ W;2uz YS,hla
fjzo” uu ta YS,fhys ;udf.a YS,fhys ;udf.a YS,h jeks YS,hlska iu jQfjl2
fkdoelaflaus’ Bg jevs flfkla fldhskao$ tfiajQ l, huz fuz W;a;u YS,fhla
fjzo ta YS,fhys uuo Wouz fjus’ flf,ia ;ejSuz .erySuz jdo we;a;djQo
m1{djdoSjQ o flf,iqkaf.ka usoSu .ek jdo we;sjQo nuqfKda we;a;dy’ Tyq
YS,jdoS jQfjla lsh;a’


[\q 124/]

43′ ))ldYHmh” Y1uK
f.#;u f;u isxy kdo flfrhs’ ta kdoh ckhd ke;s ia:dkhl ;ksj ysZo flfrhs’
msrsia ueo fkdflfrhs’ wkH ;srA:l mrsn1dclfhda fufia lshkakdyqh’ huz
ldrKhla weoao tfia jQ kuq;a Tjqyq fufia lshkq yelaflda fkdjkakdyquh’
Y1uK f.#;u f;u isxy kdo flfrhs’ msrsia ueo kdo flfrhs)) fufia lshhq;2
jkakdyqh’ Y1uK f.#;u f;u isxy kdo flfrhs’ msrsia ueo flfrhs’ tfy;a
ksrANhj kdo fkdflfrhs)) fufiao lshkakdyqh’

))Y1uK f.#;u f;u isxy kdo flfrhs’ msrsia ueo flfrhs” ksrANhj kdo flfrhs’))

))ta Y1uK f.#;uhka w;ska mKAvs; osjH ukqIHfhdao m1Yak fkdwi;a” Tjqka
jsiska m1Yak wik ,oafoa fkdjsiZohs’m1Yak jsiZoSfuka is;a fkd.kS ‘m1Yak
jsiZoSfuka is;a fkdyZ.ss;aØ fudyqf.a jpk weish hq;2hhs yZ.s;a wid
fkdmyos;a” wid myos;a’ meyeoqkq wdldrhla fkdflfr;a” meyeoqkq wdldrhla
flfr;a’ foiQ OrAuh wkqj fkdms

))wrAy;ajQ Y1uK f.#;u
f;u isxykdo flfrhs’ msrsia ueo kdo flfrhs’ jsYdroj kdo flfrhs’ ta Y1uK
f.#;uhka w;ska mKAvs; osjH ukqIHfhda m1Yak wi;a’ Tjqka jsiska m1Yak
jspdrK ,oafoa jsiZoSu flfrhs’m1Yak jsiZoSfuka is;a .ekSu flfrhs ‘Tyqf.a
jpk weish hq;2hhs yZ.s;a” wido myos;a” meyeoqkq wdldrhla fkdflfr;a”
meyeoqkq wdldrhla flfr;a’ foiQ OrAuh fia ms



[\q 125/]

wfp, ldYHm f;u Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiaf.a iuSmfhys uyKlu ,enqfhauh’ wdhqIau;a ldYHm f;u ry;ka jykafia,dg we;2,;a flfklau jQfhah’

wgfjksjQ liaim iSykdo iQ;1h ksusfhah’


Please watch videos:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dLMZNmxFUZU


Buddha - A Documentary About Buddhism

56.33 Mins

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ihp9u9xEIkI

The Last Words of the Buddha

8.10 Mins


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GBL1PGYDXII

Seven Wonders of the Buddhist World (full documentary)

1.14.02 Mins

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1v_aIK_sXNs

The Legend of Buddha (Buddhist Film) HQ

1.27.25 Mins

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YsEksMEE2Eg


The Life of Buddha (BBC Documentary) + Eng Sub (HQ)


49.48 mins

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