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940 LESSON 04-06-2013 TUESDAY-FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY up a level தமிழில் திரிபிடக மூன்று தொகுப்புகள் மற்றும் பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள் சுருக்கமான வரலாற்று முன் வரலாறு ஸுத்தபிடக புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் பன்னிரண்டாகவுள்ள மண்டலங்கள் புத்தசமய நெறி முறைகளின் ஒன்பது மண்டலங்கள் TIPITAKA-ஸுத்தபிடக-போதிசத்தா மேன்மை பொருந்திய நேர்த்தி வாய்ந்த மனிதர் ஸுத்த நீதி வாக்கியம் - விழிப்புணர்வு மேல் ஆஜரா கிருத்தல் - ( மஹா+ ஸதிபத்தான)-Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta- Iமெய்யார்வ தியானம் -E. அடிப்படைத்தத்துவங்கள் பிரிவு -தாடுமனஸிகார பப்ப Dhātumanasikāra Pabba-Section on the Elements தமிழில் திரிபிடக TIPITAKA in PALI, ENGLISH, SINHALA
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TIPITAKA-ஸுத்தபிடக-Section-A

TIPITAKA

TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
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animated buddha photo: Animated Buddha Buddhaan.gif

E. நாற்பெரும் பூதங்கள் மேலான பிரிவு
மேலும்,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை வைத்திருந்த போதும்,
எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை அப்புறப்படுத்த போதும், இந்த உடல்/காயம்  பிரதிபலிக்க 
இந்த :”உடல்/காயத்தில் ,நிலவுலகம் மெய்ம்மூலம், தண்ணீர் மெய்ம்மூலம்,
நெருப்பு மெய்ம்மூலம், காற்று மெய்ம்மூலம் இருக்கிறது.

சம்மதம்போலே,பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பயிற்சி பெற்ற கசாப்புக்காரர் அல்லது ஒரு
கசாப்புக்காரரிடம் தொழில் பழகுநர்,ஒரு பசு கொல்லுஞ் செயல் உடையவராயிரருந்து,
ஒரு
குறுக்கு வீதி உட்கார்ந்து எப்படி வெட்டி எடுக்கப்பட்டதோ;  அதே போன்றே,
பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை வைத்திருந்த போதும்,
எவ்வகையிலேனும் அதை அப்புறப்படுத்த போதும், இந்த உடல்/காயம்  பிரதிபலிக்க 
இந்த :”உடல்/காயத்தில் ,நிலவுலகம் மெய்ம்மூலம், தண்ணீர் மெய்ம்மூலம்,
நெருப்பு மெய்ம்மூலம், காற்று மெய்ம்மூலம் இருக்கிறது.

இவ்வாறு அவர்
kāya in kāya உடல்/காயத்தை காயதுக்குள் கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது
காயத்தை காயதுக்கு வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது காயத்தை
காயதுக்கு உள்ளே மற்றும் வெளியே கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார்;புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்க எழுச்சி கண்காணி வாசம் செய்கிரார், மற்றும் புலன்களால்
உணரத்தக்கதை கடந்துசெல்லுவதை கண்காணித்து வாசம் செய்கிரார்; இல்லாவிடில்
எச்சரிக்கையாயிருக்கிற உணர் உடனிருக்கிறதை,சும்மா வெறும் ஓர்அளவு ஞானம்
மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

E.தாடுமனஸிகார பப்ப Dhātumanasikāra Pabba

Puna ca·paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ yathā·ṭhitaṃ yathā·paṇihitaṃ dhātuso paccavekkhati:Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavī·dhātu āpo·dhātū tejo·dhātū vāyo·dhātūti.

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however
it is placed, however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there is the earth
element, the water element, the fire element and the air element.” 


Seyyathāpi,
bhikkhave, dakkho goghātako vā goghātak·antevāsī vā gāviṃ vadhitvā
catu·mahā·pathe bilaso vibhajitvā nisinno assa; evameva kho, bhikkhave,
bhikkhu imam·eva kāyaṃ yathā·ṭhitaṃ yathā·paṇihitaṃ dhātuso
paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavī·dhātu āpo·dhātū tejo·dhātū
vāyo·dhātū’ ti. 


Iti
ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī
viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati;
samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati;
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva
ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya,{1} a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī
viharati. 




E. Section on the Elements

Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is placed, however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there is the earth element, the water element, the fire element and the air element.”


Just as, bhikkhus, a skillful butcher or a butcher’s
apprentice, having killed a cow, would sit at a crossroads cutting it
into pieces; in the same way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very
kāya, however it is placed, however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there
is the earth element, the water element, the fire element and the air
element.”

 
Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally,
or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya
of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away
of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is
present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he
dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

Digha
Nikàya

3

Ambaññha
Sutta

Pali

English

Sinhala



 Pali


Suttantapiñake
Dãghanikàyo

Sãlakkhandhavaggo

Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammàsambuddhassa.

3 Ambaññhasuttaü


1. Evaü
me1 sutaü ekaü samayaü bhagavà kosalesu càrikaü caramàno mahatà
bhikkhusaïghena saddhiü pa¤camattehi bhikkhusatehi yena icchànaïgalaü2
nàma kosalànaü bràhmaõagàmo tadavasari. Tatra sudaü bhagavà
icchànaïgale3 viharati icchànaïgalavanasaõóe.

2. Tena kho
pana samayena bràhmaõo pokkharasàtã4 ukkaññhaü ajjhàvasati sattussadaü
satiõakaññhodakaü sadha¤¤aü ràjabhoggaü ra¤¤à pasenadinà5 kosalena
dinnaü ràjadàyaü brahmadeyyaü. Assosi kho bràhmaõo pokkharasàti:

“Samaõo khalu
bho gotamo sakyaputto sakyakulà pabbajito kosalesu càrikaü caramàno
mahatà bhikkhusaïghena saddhiü pa¤camattehi bhikkhusatehi icchànaïgalaü
anuppatto icchànaïgale viharati icchànaïgalavanasaõóe. Taü kho pana
bhagavantaü gotamaü evaü kalyàõo kittisaddo abbhuggato: “itipi so
bhagavà arahaü sammàsambuddho vijjàcaraõasampanno sugato lokavidå
anuttaro purisadammasàrathã6 satthà devamanussànaü buddho bhagavà. 7 So
imaü lokaü sadevakaü samàrakaü sabrahmakaü sassamaõabràhmaõiü pajaü
sadevamanussaü sayaü abhi¤¤à sacchikatvà pavedeti. So dhammaü deseti
àdikalyàõaü majjhekalyàõaü pariyosànakalyàõaü sàtthaü sabya¤janaü8
kevalaparipuõõaü parisuddhaü [PTS Page 088] [\q 88/] brahmacariyaü
pakàseti. Sàdhu kho pana tathàråpànaü arahataü dassanaü hotã”ti.

3. Tena kho
pana samayena bràhmaõassa pokkharasàtissa ambaññho nàma màõavo9 antevàsã
hoti ajjhàyako mantadharo tiõõaü vedànaü pàragå sanighaõóukeñubhànaü
sàkkharappabhedànaü itihàsapa¤camànaü padako veyyàkaraõo
lokàyatamahàpurisalakkhaõesu anavayo anu¤¤àtapañi¤¤àto sake àcariyake
tevijjake pàvacane yamahaü jànàmi taü tvaü jànàsi, yaü tvaü jànàsi
tamahaü jànàmãti.

1. Evamema, [PTS]

2. Naïkala, [PTS] Icchànaïkalantipi pàñho, a.

3. Icchànaïkalo, [PTS] Sabbattha.

4. Sàdi, sabbattha. Pokkharasàtã itipi vuccati, a.

5. Pasenadi, [PTS] Passenadinà, sãmu.

6. Sàrathã, sãmu. Syà.

7. Bhagavàti, machasaü. Syà.

8. Savya¤janaü, [PTS]

9. Ambaññho màõavo, [PTS] Mànavo, [PTS - n.]

[BJT Page 152] [\x 152/]

4. Atha kho
bràhmaõo pokkharasàti ambaññhaü màõavaü àmantesi: “ayaü tàta ambaññha
samaõo gotamo sakyaputto sakyakulà pabbajito kosalesu càrikaü caramàno
mahatà bhikkhusaïghena saddhiü pa¤camattehi bhikkhusatehi icchànaïgalaü
anuppatto icchànaïgale viharati icchànaïgalavanasaõóe.

Taü kho pana
bhavantaü gotamaü evaü kalyàõo kittisaddo abbhuggato: “itipi so bhagavà
arahaü sammàsambuddho vijjàcaraõasampanno sugato lokavidå anuttaro
purisadammasàrathã satthà devamanussànaü buddho bhagavà. So imaü lokaü
sadevakaü samàrakaü sabrahmakaü sassamaõabràhmaõiü pajaü sadevamanussaü
sayaü abhi¤¤à sacchikatvà pavedeti. So dhammaü deseti àdikalyàõaü
majjhekalyàõaü pariyosànakalyàõaü sàtthaü sabya¤janaü kevalaparipuõõaü
parisuddhaü brahmacariyaü pakàseti. Sàdhu kho pana tathàråpànaü arahataü
dassanaü hotã”ti.

Ehi tvaü tàta
ambaññha yena samaõo gotamo tenupasaïkama. Upasaïkamitvà samaõaü gotamaü
jànàhi yadi và taü bhavantaü gotamaü tathàsantaüyeva saddo abbhuggato,
yadi và no tathà, yadi và so bhavaü gotamo tàdiso, yadivà na tàdiso,
tathà mayaü taü bhavantaü gotamaü vedissàmàti.

5. “Yathà
kathaü panàhaü bho taü bhavantaü gotamaü jànissàmi yadi và taü bhavantaü
gotamaü tathàsantaüyeva saddo abbhuggato, yadi và no tathà, yadi và so
bhavaü gotamo tàdiso yadi và na tàdiso”ti.

6. “âgatàni
kho tàta ambaññha amhàkaü mantesu dvattiüsamahàpurisalakkhaõàni yehi
samannàgatassa mahàpurisassa dveva gatiyo bhavanti ana¤¤à: sace agàraü
ajjhàvasati ràjà hoti cakkavatti dhammiko dhammaràjà càturanto vijitàvã
janapadatthàvariyappatto sattaratanasamannàgato. [PTS Page 089] [\q 89/]
tassimàni sattaratanàni bhavanti. Seyyathãdaü: cakkaratanaü
hatthiratanaü assaratanaü maõiratanaü itthiratanaü gahapatiratanaü
parinàyakaratanameva sattamaü. Parosahassaü kho panassa puttà bhavanti
sårà vãraïgaråpà parasenappamaddanà. So imaü pañhaviü sàgarapariyantaü
adaõóena asatthena dhammena abhivijiya ajjhàvasati.

Sace kho pana
agàrasmà anagàriyaü pabbajati arahaü hoti sammàsambuddho loke
vivattacchado1. Ahaü kho pana tàta ambaññha mantànaü dàtà tvaü mantànaü
pañiggahetà”ti.

1. Vivittacchaddo. Bau. Sa. Sa. Vivaññacchado. Syà. Vivaññacchado. Machasaü.

[BJT Page 154] [\x 154/]

“Evaü bho’ti
kho ambaññho màõavo bràhmaõassa pokkharasàtissa pañissutvà uññhàyàsanà
bràhmaõaü pokkharasàtiü abhivàdetvà padakkhiõaü katvà vaëavàrathamàruyha
sambahulehi màõavehi1 saddhiü yena icchànaïgalavanasaõóo tena pàyàsi.
Yàvatikà yànassa bhåmi yànena gantvà yànà paccorohitvà pattiko’va àràmaü
pàvisi.

7. Tena kho
pana samayena sambahulà bhikkhå abbhokàse caïkamanti. Atha kho ambaññho
màõavo yena te bhikkhå tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà te bhikkhå
etadavoca: “kahannu kho bho etarahi so bhavaü gotamo viharati? Taü hi
mayaü bhavantaü gotamaü dassanàya idhåpasaïkantà”ti.

8. Atha kho
tesaü bhikkhånaü etadahosi: “ayaü kho ambaññho màõavo abhi¤¤àtakola¤¤o
ceva abhi¤¤àtassa ca bràhmaõassa pokkharasàtissa antevàsã. Agaru kho
pana bhagavato evaråpehi kulaputtehi saddhiü kathàsallàpo hotã”ti. Te
ambaññhaü màõavaü etadavocuü: “eso ambaññha vihàro saüvutadvàro. Tena
appasaddo upasaïkamitvà ataramàno àlindaü pavisitvà ukkàsitvà aggaëaü
àkoñehi. Vivarissati te bhagavà dvàranti. “

9. Atha kho
ambaññho màõavo yena so vihàro saüvutadvàro tena appasaddo upasaïkamitvà
ataramàno àlindaü pavisitvà ukkàsitvà aggaëaü àkoñesi. Vivari bhagavà
dvàraü. Pàvisi ambaññho màõavo. Màõavakà’pi pavisitvà bhagavatà saddhiü
sammodiüsu. Sammodanãyaü kathaü sàràõãyaü vãtisàretvà ekamantaü
nisãdiüsu. Ambaññho pana màõavo caïkamanto’pi nisinnena bhagavatà [PTS
Page 090] [\q 90/] ka¤ci ka¤ci kathaü sàràõãyaü vãtisàreti. òhito’pi
nisinnena bhagavatà ka¤ci ka¤ci kathaü sàràõãyaü vãtisàreti.

10. Atha kho
bhagavà ambaññhaü màõavaü etadavoca: evannu kho te2 ambaññha bràhmaõehi
vuddhehi mahallakehi àcariyapàcariyehi saddhiü kathàsallàpo hoti
yathayidaü caraü tiññhaü nisinnena mayà ka¤ci ka¤ci kathaü sàràõãyaü
vãtisàresã?”Ti.

“Nohidaü bho
gotama. Gacchanto và hi bho gotama gacchantena bràhmaõo bràhmaõena
saddhiü sallapitumarahati. òhito và hi bho gotama ñhitena bràhmaõo
bràhmaõena saddhiü sallapitumarahati. Nisinno và hi bho gotama nisinnena
bràhmaõo buhmaõena saddhiü sallapitumarahati. Sayàno và hi bho gotama
sayànena bràhmaõo bràhmaõena saddhiü sallapitumarahati. Ye ca kho te bho
gotama muõóakà samaõakà ibbhà kaõhà2 bandhupàdàpaccà, tehipi me saddhiü
evaü kathàsallàpo hoti yathariva bhotà gotamenà”ti.

1. Mànavakehi, katthavi.

2. Kiõahà, machasaü.

[BJT Page 156] [\x 156/]

11.
“Atthikavato kho pana te ambaññha idhàgamanaü ahosi. Yàyeva kho
panatthàya àgaccheyyàtho tameva atthaü sàdhukaü manasi kareyyàtho1.
Avusitavà yeva kho pana bho ayaü ambaññho màõavo, vusitamànã2 kima¤¤atra
avusitattà”ti.

12. Atha kho
ambaññho màõavo bhagavatà avusitavàdena vuccamàno kupito anattamano
bhagavantaüyeva khuüsento bhagavantaüyeva vambhento bhagavantaüyeva
upavadamàno samaõo ca me bho gotamo pàpito bhavissatãti bhagavantaü
etadavoca: “caõóà bho gotama sakyajàti, pharusà bho gotama sakyajàti,
lahusà [PTS Page 091] [\q 91/] bho gotama sakyajàti, rabhasà bho gotama
sakyàjàti. Ibbhà santà ibbhà samànà na bràhmaõe sakkaronti na bràhmaõe
garukaronti na bràhmaõe mànenti na bràhmaõe påjenti na bràhmaõe
apacàyanti. Tayidaü bho gotama nacchannaü tayidaü nappañiråpaü yadime
sakyà ibbhà santà ibbhà samànà na bràhmaõe sakkaronti na bràhmaõe garu
karonti na bràhmaõe mànenti na bràhmaõe påjenti na bràhmaõe
apacàyantãti.

Itiha ambaññho màõavo idaü pañhamaü sakkesu ibbhavàdaü nipàtesi.

13. “Kimpana te ambaññha sakyà aparaddhunti?”

“Eka midàhaü
bho gotama samayaü àcariyassa bràhmaõassa pokkharasàtissa kenavideva
karaõãyena kapilavatthuü agamàsiü. Yena sakyànaü santhàgàraü
tenupasaïkamiü. Tena kho pana samayena sambahulà sakyà ceva sakyakumàrà
ca santhàgàre uccesu àsanesu nisinnà honti a¤¤ama¤¤aü aïgulipatodakehi
sa¤jagghantà saükãëantà a¤¤adatthu mama¤¤eva ma¤¤e anujagghantà. Na maü
koci àsanena’pi nimantesi. Tayidaü bho gotama nacchannaü, tayidaü
nappañiråpaü, yadime sakyà ibbhà santà ibbhà samànà na bràhmaõe
sakkaronti na bràhmaõe garukaronti na bràhmaõe mànenti na bràhmaõe
påjenti na bràhmaõe apacàyantã”ti.

1. Kareyyàtha, sãmu. [II]

2. Vàsitavàmànã, sãmu. [II.]

[BJT Page 158] [\x 158/]

Itiha ambaññho màõavo idaü dutiyaü sakkesu ibbhavàdaü nipàtesi.

14.
“Lañukikàpi kho ambaññha sakuõikà sake kulàvake kàmalàpinã hoti. Sakaü
kho panetaü ambaññha sakyànaü yadidaü kapilavatthu. Na arahatàyasmà
ambaññho imàya appamattàya abhisajjituntã. “

15.
“Cattàro’me bho gotama vaõõà: khattiyà bràhmaõà vessà suddà. Imesaü hi
bho gotama catunnaü vaõõànaü tayo vaõõà khattiyà ca vessà ca suddà ca
a¤¤adatthu bràhmaõasseva paricàrikà sampajjanti. Tayidaü bho [PTS Page
092] [\q 92/] gotama nacchannaü tayidaü nappañiråpaü yadi me sakyà ibbhà
santà ibbhà samànà na bràhmaõe sakkaronti na bràhmaõe karukaronti na
bràhmaõe mànenti na bràhmaõe påjenti na bràhmaõe apacàyantã”ti.

Itiha ambaññho màõavo idaü tatiyaü sakkesu ibbhavàdaü nipàtesi.

16. Atha kho
bhagavato etadahosi: atibàëhaü kho ayaü ambaññho màõavo sakkesu
ibbhavàdena nimmàneti1. Yannånàhaü gottaü puccheyyenti.

Atha kho bhagavà ambaññhaü màõavaü etadavoca: ‘kathaü gottosi ambaññhà?Ti’ “kaõhàyano’hamasmi bho gotamà”ti.

17. “Poràõaü
kho pana te ambaññha màtàpettikaü nàmagottaü anussarato ayyaputtà sakyà
bhavanti, dàsiputto tvamasi sakyànaü. Sakyà kho pana ambaññha ràjànaü
okkàkaü pitàmahaü dahanti.

“Bhåtapubbaü
ambaññha ràjà okkàko yà sà mahesã piyà manàpà tassà puttassa rajjaü
pariõàmetukàmo jeññhakumàre raññhasmà pabbàjesi ukkàmukhaü2 karakaõóaü3
hatthinikaü nipuraü4. Te raññhasmà pabbàjità himavantapasse pokkharaõiyà
tãre mahàsàkasaõóo tattha vàsaü kappesuü. Te jàtisambhedabhayà sakàhi
bhaganãhi saddhiü saüvàsaü kappesuü.

1. Nimmàdeti, katthaci.

2. Ekàmukhaü, katthaci.

3. Karakaõóuü, katthaci.

4. Sinipuraü bau. Sa. Sa. Sinupuraü, [PTS]

[BJT Page 160] [\x 160/]

Atha kho ambaññha ràjà okkàko amacce pàrisajje àmantesi: “kahannu kho bho etarahi kumàrà sammantãti”?

“Atthi deva
himavantapasse pokkharaõiyà tãre mahàsàkasaõóo tatthetarahi kumàrà
sammanti. Te jàtisambhedabhayà sakàhi bhaganãhi saddhiü saüvàsaü
kappenti”ti.

Atha kho
ambaññha ràjà okkàko udànaü udànesi: [PTS Page 093] [\q 93/] “sakyà vata
bho kumàrà paramasakyà vata bho kumàrà”ti. Tadagge kho pana ambaññha
sakyà pa¤¤àyanti. So’va1 nesaü pubbapuriso.

Ra¤¤o ca kho
pana ambaññha okkàkassa disà nàma dàsã ahosi. Sà kaõhaü2 nàma janesi.
Jàto kaõho pabyàhàsi: “dhovatha maü amma, nahàpetha maü amma, imasmà maü
amma asucismà parimocetha, atthàya vo bhavissàmã”ti.

Yathà kho pana
ambaññha etarahi manussà pisàce disvà ‘pisàcà’ti sa¤jànanti. Evameva
kho ambaññha tena samayena manussà pisàce ‘kaõhà’ti sa¤jànanti. Te
evamàhaüsu: ayaü jàto pabyàhàsi: ‘kaõho jàto pisàco jàto’ti.

Tadagge kho
pana ambaññha kaõhàyanà pa¤¤àyanti. So ca kaõhàyanànaü pubbapuriso. Iti
kho te ambaññha poràõaü màtàpettikaü nàmagottaü anussarato ayyaputtà
sakyà bhavanti. Dàsiputto tvamasi sakyànanti.

18. Evaü vutte
te màõavakà bhagavantaü etadavocuü: “mà bhavaü gotamo ambaññhaü màõavaü
atibàëhaü dàsiputtavàdena nimmànesi. Sujàto ca bho gotama ambaññho
màõavo kulaputto ca ambaññho màõavo bahussuto ca ambaññho màõavo
kalyàõavàkkaraõo ca ambaññho màõavo paõóito ca ambaññho màõavo. Pahoti
ca ambaññho màõavo bhotà gotamena saddhiü asmiü vacane pañimantetu”nti.

1. Soca. Sãmu. 1.

2. Kaõaü. Sãmu. [II.]

[BJT Page 162] [\x 162/]

19. Atha kho
bhagavà te màõavake etadavoca: “sace kho tumhàkaü màõavakà evaü hoti
‘dujjàto ca ambaññho màõavo, akulaputto ca ambaññho màõavo, appassuto
[PTS Page 094] [\q 94/] ca ambaññho màõavo, akalyàõavàkkaraõo ca
ambaññho màõavo, duppa¤¤o ca ambaññho màõavo, na ca pahoti ambaññho
màõavo samaõena gotamena saddhiü asmiü vacane pañimantetunti, tiññhatu
ambaññho màõavo, tumhe mayà saddiü mantayavho1 asmiü vacane. Sace pana
tumhàkaü màõavakà evaü hoti: sujàto ca ambaññho màõavo, kulaputto ca
ambaññho màõavo, bahussuto ca ambaññho màõavo, kalyàõavàkkaraõo va
ambaññho màõavo, paõóito ca ambaññho màõavo, pahoti ca ambaññho màõavo
samaõena gotamena saddhiü asmiü vacane pañimantetunti, tiññhatha tumhe,
ambaññho màõavo mayà saddhiü pañimantetu”ti.

20. “Sujàto ca
bho gotama ambaññho màõavo, kulaputto ca ambaññho màõavo, bahussuto ca
ambaññho màõavo, kalyàõavàkkaraõo va ambaññho màõavo, paõóito ca
ambaññho màõavo, pahoti ca ambaññho màõavo bhotà gotamena saddhiü asmiü
vacane pañimantetuü. Tuõhã mayaü bhavissàma. Ambaññho màõavo bhotà
gotamena saddhiü asmiü vacane pañimantetå”ti.

21. Atha kho
bhagavà ambaññhaü màõavaü etadavoca: ayaü kho pana te ambaññha
sahadhammiko pa¤ho àgacchati. Akàmàpi vyàkàtabbo. Sace tvaü na
vyàkarissasi a¤¤ena và a¤¤aü pañicarissasi, tuõhã và bhavissasi,
pakkamissasi và, ettheva te sattadhà muddhà phalissati. Taü kiü ma¤¤asi
ambaññha? Kinti te sutaü bràhmaõànaü vuddhànaü mahallakànaü
àcariyapàcariyànaü kutopabhåtikà kaõhàyanà? Ko ca kaõhàyanànaü
pubbapuriso?Ti.

Evaü vutte
ambaññho màõavo tuõhã ahosi. Dutiyampi kho bhagavà ambaññhaü màõavaü
etadavoca: taü kimma¤¤asi ambaññha? Kinti te sutaü bràhmaõànaü vuddhànaü
mahallakànaü àcariyapàcariyànaü kukopabhåtikà kaõhàyanà? Ko ca
kaõhàyanànaü [PTS Page 095] [\q 95/] pubbapuriso?Ti dutiyampi kho
ambaññho màõavo tuõhã ahosi.

Atha kho
bhagavà ambaññhaü màõavaü etadavoca: vyàkarohi ‘dàni ambaññha, na ‘dàni
te tuõhãbhàvassa kàlo. Yo kho ambaññha tathàgatena yàvatatiyakaü
sahadhammikaü pa¤haü puññho na vyàkaroti etthevassa sattadhà muddhà
phalissati.

1. Mantaveha. Machasaü.

[BJT Page 164] [\x 164/]

22. Tena kho
pana samayena vajirapàõi yakkho mahantaü ayokåñaü àdàya àdittaü
sampajjalitaü sajotibhåtaü ambaññhassa màõavassa uparivehàsaü ñhito
hoti: sacàyaü ambaññho màõavo bhagavatà yàvatatiyakaü sahadhammikaü
pa¤haü puññho na vyàkarissati etthevassa sattadhà muddhaü phàlessàmãti.
Taü kho pana vajirapàõiü yakkhaü bhagavà ceva passati ambaññho ca
màõavo.

23. Atha kho
ambaññho màõavo bhãto saüviggo lomahaññhajàto bhagavantaüyeva tàõagavesã
bhagavantaüyeva leõagavesã bhagavantaüyeva saraõagavesi upanisãditvà
bhagavantaü etadavoca: “kiü me taü bhavaü gotamo àha? Puna bhavaü gotamo
bravãtå”ti.

“Taü
kimma¤¤asã ambaññha? Kinti te sutaü bràhmaõànaü vuddhànaü mahallàkànaü
àcariyapàcariyànaü bhàsamànànaü, kutoppabhåtikà kaõhàyanà? Ko ca
kaõhàyanànaü pubbapuriso?Ti. “

“Evameva me bho gotama sutaü, yatheva bhavaü gotamo àha. Tatoppabhåtikà kaõhàyanà. So ca kaõhàyanànaü pubbapuriso”ti.

24. Evaü vutte
te màõavakà unnàdino uccàsaddamahàsaddà ahesuü: “dujjàto kira bho
ambaññho màõavo, akulaputto kira bho ambaññho màõavo, dàsiputto kira bho
ambaññho màõavo sakyànaü, ayyaputtà kira bho ambaññhassa màõavassa
sakyà bhavanti. Dhammavàdiü yeva kira mayaü samaõaü gotamaü
apasàdetabbaü ama¤¤imhà”ti.

25. Atha kho
bhagavato etadahosi: “atibàëhaü kho [PTS Page 096] [\q 96/] ime màõavakà
ambaññhaü màõavaü dàsiputtavàdena nimmànenti. Yannånàhaü
parimoceyyanti. ” Atha kho bhagavà te màõavake etadavoca: “mà kho tumhe
màõavakà ambaññhaü màõavaü atibàëhaü dàsiputtavàdena nimmànetha. Uëàro
so kaõho isi ahosi. So dakkhiõaü janapadaü gantvà brahme mante adhãyitvà
ràjànaü okkànaü upasaïkamitvà maññharåpiü1 dhãtaraü yàci. Tassa ràjà
okkàko ‘ko neva re ayaü mayhaü dàsiputto samàno maññharåpiü dhãtaraü
yàcatã’ti kupito anattamano khurappaü sannayhi. So taü khurappaü neva
asakkhi mu¤cituü, no pañisaüharituü.

1. Maddaråpiü, machasaü.

[BJT Page 166] [\x 166/]

Atha kho
màõavakà amaccà pàrisajjà kaõhaü isiü upasaïkamitvà etadavocuü: “sotthi
bhadante hotu ra¤¤o, sotthi bhadante hotu ra¤¤o”ti.

“Sotthi bhavissati ra¤¤o, api ca ràjà yadi adho khurappaü mu¤cissati yàvatà ra¤¤o vijitaü ettàvatà pañhavã udrãyissatã”ti.

“Sotthi bhadante hotu ra¤¤o, sotthi janapadassà”ti.

“Sotthi
bhavissati ra¤¤o, sotthi janapadassa. Api ca ràjà yadi uddhaü khurappaü
mu¤cissati yàvatà ra¤¤o vijitaü ettàvatà sattavassàni devo na
vassissatã”ti.

“Sotthi bhadante hotu ra¤¤o, sotthi janapadassa, devo ca vassatå”ti.

“Sotthi
bhavissati ra¤¤o, sotthi janapadassa, devo ca vassissati. Api ca ràjà
jeññhakumàre khurappaü patiññhàpetu, sotthi kumàro, pallomo
bhavissatã”ti.

Atha kho
màõavakà, amaccà okkàkassa àrocesuü: “devo jeññhakumàre khurappaü
patiññhàpetu, sotthi kumàro pallomo bhavissatã”ti. Atha kho ràjà okkàko
jeññhakumàre khurappaü patiññhàpesi. Sotthi kumàro pallomo bhavi.

Atha kho tassa
ràjà okkàko bhãto saüviggo lomahaññhajàto brahmadaõóena [PTS Page 097]
[\q 97/] tajjito maññharåpiü dhãtaraü adàsi. Mà kho tumhe màõavakà
ambaññhaü màõavaü atibàëhaü dàsiputtavàdena nimmànetha. Uëàro so kaõho
isi ahosi.

26. Atha kho
bhagavà ambaññhaü màõavaü àmantesi: “taü kimma¤¤asi ambaññha? Idha
khattiyakumàro bràhmaõaka¤¤àya saddhiü saüvàsaü kappeyya, tesaü
saüvàsamanvàya putto jàyetha, yo so khattiyakumàrena bràhmaõaka¤¤àya
putto uppanno, api nu so labhetha bràhmaõesu àsanaü và udakaü và?’Ti,

“Labhetha bho gotama”.

“Api nu naü bràhmaõà bhojeyyuü saddhe và thàlipàke và ya¤¤e và pàhune và?”Ti.

[BJT Page 168] [\x 168/]

“Bhojeyyuü bho gotama. “

“Api nu naü bràhmaõà mante vàceyyuü và no và?”Ti

“Vàceyyuü bho gotama. “

“Apinu’ssa itthisu àvañaü và assa anàvañaü và?”Ti

“Anàvañaü hi’ssa bho gotama”.

“Api nu naü khattiyà khattiyàbhisekena abhisi¤ceyyunti?”

“No hidaü bho gotama. “

“Taü kissa hetu?”

“Màtito hi bho gotama anuppanno”ti.

27. “Taü
kimma¤¤asi ambaññha? Idha bràhmaõakumàro khattiyaka¤¤àya saddhiü
saüvàsaü kappeyya, tesaü saüvàsamanvàya putto jàyetha, yo so
bràhmaõakumàrena khattiyaka¤¤àya putto uppanno, api nu so labhetha
bràhmaõesu àsanaü và udakaü và?”Ti

“Labhetha bho gotama. “

“Api nu naü bràhmaõà bhojeyyuü saddhe và thàlipàke và ya¤¤e và pàhune và?”Ti

“Bhojeyyuü bho gotama. “

“Api nu naü bràhmaõà mante vàceyyuü và no và?”Ti

“Vàceyyuü bho gotama. “

[PTS Page 098] [\q 98/] “apinu’ssa itthisu àvañaü và assa anàvañaü và?”Ti

“Anàvañaü hi’ssa bho gotama. “

“Api nu naü khattiyà khattiyàbhisekena abhisi¤ceyyunti?”

“No hidaü bho gotama. “

“Taü kissa hetu?”

“Pitito hi bho gotama anuppanno”ti.

28. “Iti kho
ambaññha itthiyà và itthiü karitvà purisena và purisaü karitvà khattiyà
‘va seññhà, hãnà bràhmaõà. Taü kimma¤¤asi ambaññha? Idha bràhmaõà
bràhmaõaü kismicideva pakaraõe khuramuõóaü karitvà assapuñena vadhitvà
raññhà và nagarà và pabbàjeyyuü, api nu so labhetha bràhmaõesu àsanaü và
udakaü và?”Ti

[BJT Page 170] [\x 170/]

“No hidaü bho gotama. “

“Api nu naü bràhmaõà bhojeyyuü saddhe và thàlipàke và ya¤¤e và pàhune và?”Ti

“No hidaü bho gotama. “

“Api nu naü bràhmaõà mante vàceyyuü và no và?”Ti.

“No hidaü bho gotama. “

“Api nu’ssa itthãsu àvañaü và assa anàvañaü và?Ti”

“âvañaü hi’ssa bho gotama. “

29. “Taü
kimma¤¤asi ambaññha? Idha khattiyà khattiyaü kismicideva pakaraõe
khuramuõóaü karitvà assapuñena vadhitvà raññhà và nagarà và pabbàjeyyuü,
api nu so labhetha bràhmaõesu àsanaü và udakaü và?Ti”

“Labhetha bho gotama”

“Api nu naü bràhmaõà bhojeyyuü saddhe và thàlipàke và ya¤¤e và pàhune và?Ti”

“Bhojeyyuü bho gotama. “

“Api nu naü bràhmaõà mante vàceyyuü và no và?”Ti

“Vàceyyuü bho gotama. “

“Api nu’ssa ithãsu àvañaü và assa anàvañaü và?”Ti

“Anàvañaü hi’ssa bho gotama. “

“Ettàvatà kho
ambaññha khattiyo paramanihãnataü [PTS Page 099] [\q 99/] patto hoti,
yadeva naü khattiyà khuramuõóaü karitvà assapuñena vadhitvà raññhà và
nagarà và pabbàjenti. Iti kho ambaññha yadà khattiyo paramanihãnataü
patto hoti, tadàpi khattiyà’va seññhà hãnà bràhmaõà.

30. Brahmunà’pi ambaññha sanaïkumàrena gàthà bhàsità:

‘Khattiyo seññho janetasmiü

Ye gottapañisàrino,

Vijjàcaraõasampanno

So seññho devamànuse’ti

Sà kho panesà
ambaññha brahmunà sanaïkumàrena gàthà sugãtà no duggãtà, subhàsità no
dubbhàsità, atthasaühità no anatthasaühità, anumatà mayà. Ahampi1
ambaññha evaü vadàmi:

‘Khattiyo seññho janetasmiü

Ye gottapañisàrino,

Vijjàcaraõasampanno

So seññho devamànuse’ti.

Bhàõàvàro pañhamo.

1. Ahampibhi, machasaü.

[BJT Page 172] [\x 172/]

31. “Katamaü
pana taü bho gotama caraõaü, katamà ca pana sà vijjà?”Ti. “Na kho
ambaññha anuttaràya vijjàcaraõasampadàya jàtivàdo và vuccati gottavàdo
và vuccati mànavàdo và vuccati: ‘arahasi và maü tvaü na và maü tvaü
arahasã’ti. Yattha kho ambaññha àvàho và hoti, vivàho và hoti,
àvàhavivàho và hoti, etthetaü vuccati jàtivàdo và itipi, gottavàdo và
itipi, mànavàdo và itipi:’arahasi và maü tvaü na và maü tvaü arahasã’ti.
Ye hi keci ambaññha jàtivàdavinibaddhà và gottavàdavinibaddhà và
mànavàdavinibaddhà và àvàhavivàhavinibaddhà và, àrakà te anuttaràya
vijjàcaraõasampadàya. Pahàya kho ambaññha jàtivàdavinibaddha¤ca
gottavàdavinibaddha¤ca mànavàdavinibaddha¤ca àvàhavivàhavinibaddha¤ca
[PTS Page 100] [\q 100/] anuttaràya vijjàcaraõasampadàya sacchikiriyà
hotã”ti.

32. “Katamaü
pana taü bho gotama caraõaü? Katamà ca sà vijjà?”Ti “idha ambaññha
tathàgato loke uppajjati arahaü sammàsambuddho vijjàcaraõasampanno
sugato lokavidå anuttaro purisadammasàrathã satthà devamanussànaü buddho
bhagavà. So imaü lokaü sadevakaü samàrakaü sabrahmakaü
sassamaõabràhmaõiü pajaü sadevamanussaü sayaü abhi¤¤à sacchikatvà
pavedeti. So dhammaü deseti àdikalyàõaü majjhekalyàõaü
pariyosànakalyàõaü sàtthaü sabya¤janaü kevalaparipuõõaü parisuddhaü
brahmacariyaü pakàseti.

33. Taü
dhammaü suõàti gahapati và gahapatiputto và a¤¤atarasmiü và kule
paccàjàto. So taü dhammaü sutvà tathàgate saddhaü pañilabhati. So tena
saddhàpañilàbhena samannàgato iti pañisaücikkhati: “sambàdho gharàvàso
rajopatho abbhokàso pabbajjà. Nayidaü sukaraü agàraü ajjhàvasatà
ekantaparipuõõaü ekantaparisuddhaü saükhalikhitaü brahmacariyaü carituü,
yannånàhaü kesamassuü ohàretthà kàsàyàni vatthàni acchàdetvà agàrasmà
anagàriyaü pabbajeyya”nti.

So aparena
samayena appaü và bhogakkhandhaü pahàya mahantaü và bhogakkhandhaü
pahàya appaü và ¤àtiparivaññaü pahàya mahantaü và ¤àtiparivaññaü pahàya
kesamassuü ohàretvà kàsàyàni vatthàni acchàdetvà agàrasmà anagàriyaü
pabbajati. So evaü pabbajito samàno pàtimokkhasaüvarasaüvuto viharati
àcàragocarasampanno aõumattesu vajjesu bhayadassàvã. Samàdàya sikkhati
sikkhàpadesu kàyakammavacãkammena samannàgato kusalena, parisuddhàjãvo
sãlasampanno indriyesu guttadvàro bhojane matta¤¤å satisampaja¤¤ena
samannàgato santuññho.

[BJT Page 174] [\x 174/]

34. Katha¤ca ambaññha bhikkhu sãlasampanno hoti?

Idha ambaññha
bhikkhu pàõàtipàtaü pahàya pàõàtipàtà pañivirato hoti nihitadaõóo
nihitasattho lajjã dayàpanno sabbapàõabhåtahitànukampã viharati.
Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

Adinnàdànaü
pahàya adinnàdànà pañivirato hoti. Dinnàdàyã dinnapàñikaïkhã athenena
sucibhåtena attanà viharati. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

Abrahmacariyaü pahàya brahmacàrã hoti àràcàrã virato methunà gàmadhammà. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

Musàvàdaü pahàya musàvàdà pañivirato hoti saccavàdã saccasandho theto paccayiko avisaüvàdako lokassa. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

Pisuõaü vàcaü
pahàya pisuõàya vàcàya pañivirato hoti, ito sutvà na amutra akkhàtà
imesaü bhedàya. Amutra và sutvà na imesaü akkhàtà amåsaü bhedàya. Iti
bhinnànaü và sandhàtà saühitànaü và anuppadàtà samaggàràmo samaggarato
samagganandã samaggakaraõiü vàcaü bhàsità hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti
sãlasmiü.

Pharusaü vàcaü
pahàya pharusàya vàcàya pañivirato hoti. Yà sà vàcà nelà kaõõasukhà
pemanãyà hadayaïgamà porã bahujanakantà bahujanamanàpà tathàråpiü vàcaü
bhàsità hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

Samphappalàpaü
pahàya samphappalàpà pañivirato hoti kàlavàdã bhåtavàdã atthavàdã
dhammavàdã vinayavàdã nidhànavatiü vàcaü bhàsità hoti kàlena sàpadesaü
pariyantavatiü atthasa¤hitaü idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

35.
Bãjagàmabhåtagàmasamàrambhà pañivirato hoti. Ekabhattiko hoti
rattåparato pañivirato vikàlabhojanà. Naccagãtavàditavisåkadassanà
pañivirato hoti. Màlàgandhavilepanadhàraõamaõóanavibhåsanaññhànà
pañivirato hoti. Uccàsayanamahàsayanà pañivirato hoti.
Jàtaråparajatapañiggahaõà pañivirato hoti. âmakadha¤¤apañiggahaõà
pañivirato hoti. âmakamaüsapañiggahaõà pañivirato hoti.
Itthikumàrikapañiggahaõà pañivirato hoti. Dàsidàsapañiggahaõà pañivirato
hoti. Ajeëakapañiggahaõà pañivirato hoti. Kukkuñasåkarapañiggahaõà
pañivirato hoti. Hatthigavàssavaëavapañiggahaõà pañivirato hoti.
Khettavatthupañiggahaõà pañivirato hoti. Dåteyyapahiõagamanànuyogà
pañivirato hoti. Kayavikkayà pañivirato hoti. Tulàkåñakaüsakåñamànakåñà
pañivirato hoti. Ukkoñanava¤cananikatisàciyogà pañivirato hoti.
Chedanavadhabandhanaviparàmosaàlopasahasàkàrà pañivirato hoti.
Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

[BJT Page 176] [\x 176/]

36. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpà bãjagàmabhåtagàmasamàrambhaü anuyuttà viharanti, seyyathãdaü:
målabãjaü khandhabãjaü phaëubãjaü aggabãjaü bãjabãjameva pa¤camaü. Iti
evaråpà bãjagàmabhåtagàmasamàrambhà pañivirato hoti idampi’ssa hoti
sãlasmiü.

37. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü sannidhikàraparibhogaü anuyuttà viharanti, seyyathãdaü:
annasannidhiü pànasannidhiü vatthasannidhiü yànasannidhiü
sayanasannidhiü gandhasannidhiü àmisasannidhiü. Iti và iti evaråpà
sannidhikàraparibhogà pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

38. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpà visåkadassanaü anuyuttà viharanti seyyathãdaü: naccaü gãtaü
vàditaü pekkhaü akkhànaü pàõissaraü vetàlaü kumbhathånaü sobhanagarakaü
caõóàlaü vaüsaü dhovanaü hatthiyuddhaü assayuddhaü mahisayuddhaü
usabhayuddhaü ajayuddhaü meõóayuddhaü kukkuñayuddhaü vaññakayuddhaü
daõóayuddhaü muññhiyuddhaü nibbuddhaü uyyodhikaü balaggaü senàbyuhaü
aõãkadassanaü. Iti và iti evaråpà visåkadassanà pañivirato hoti.
Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

39. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpà jåtappamàdaññhànànuyogaü anuyuttà viharanti. Seyyathãdaü:
aññhapadaü dasapadaü àkàsaü parihàrapathaü santikaü khalikaü ghañikaü
salàkahatthaü akkhaü païgacãraü vaïkakaü mokkhacikaü ciïgulakaü
pattàëhakaü rathakaü dhanukaü akkharikaü manesikaü yathàvajjaü. Iti và
iti evaråpà jåtappamàdaññhànànuyogà pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti
sãlasmiü.

40. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü uccàsayanamahàsayanaü anuyuttà viharanti, seyyathãdaü: àsandiü
pallaïkaü gonakaü cittakaü pañikaü pañalikaü tulikaü vikatikaü uddalomiü
ekantalomiü kaññhissaü koseyyaü kuttakaü hatthattharaü assattharaü
rathattharaü ajinappaveõiü kàdalimigapavarapaccattharaõaü
sauttaracchadaü ubhatolohitakupadhànaü - iti và iti evaråpà
uccàsayanamahàsayanà pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

[BJT Page 178] [\x 178/]

41. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü maõóanavibhusanaññhànànuyogaü anuyuttà viharanti, seyyathãdaü:
uccàdanaü parimaddanaü nahàpanaü sambàhanaü àdàsaü a¤janaü màlàvilepanaü
mukhacuõõakaü mukhàlepanaü hatthabandhaü sikhàbandhaü daõóakaü nàëikaü
khaggaü chattaü citråpàhanaü uõhãsaü maõiü vàëavãjaniü odàtàni vatthàni
dãghadasàni. Iti và itievaråpà maõóanavibhåsanaññhànànuyogà pañivirato
hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

42. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü tiracchànakathaü anuyuttà viharanti, seyyathãdaü: ràjakathaü
corakathaü mahàmattakathaü senàkathaü bhayakathaü yuddhakathaü
annakathaü pànakathaü vatthakathaü sayanakathaü màlàkathaü gandhakathaü
¤àtikathaü yànakathaü gàmakathaü nigamakathaü nagarakathaü
janapadakathaü itthikathaü purisakathaü kumàrakathaü kumàrãkathaü
sårakathaü visikhàkathaü kumbhaññhànakathaü pubbapetakathaü
nànattakathaü lokakkhàyikaü samuddakkhàyikaü itibhavàbhavakathaü. Iti và
itievaråpàya tiracchànakathàya pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti
sãlasmiü.

43. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü viggàhikakathaü anuyuttà viharanti, seyyathãdaü: na tvaü imaü
dhammavinayaü àjànàsi. Ahaü imaü dhammavinayaü àjànàmi. Kiü tvaü imaü
dhammavinayaü àjànissasi? Micchàpañipanno tvamasi, ahamasmi
sammàpañinno. Sahitamme1 asahitanne. Pure vacanãyaü pacchà avaca,
pacchàvacanãyaü pure avaca. âciõõaü te viparàvattaü. âropito te vàdo
niggahito’si. Cara vàdappamokkhàya. Nibbeñhehi và sace pahosãti. Iti và
itievaråpàya viggàhikakathàya pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

44. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpaü dåteyyapahiõagamanànuyogamanuyuttà viharanti, seyyathãdaü:
ra¤¤aü ràjamahàmattànaü khattiyànaü bràhmaõànaü gahapatikànaü kumàrànaü:
idha gaccha, amutràgaccha, idaü hara, amutra idaü àharàti. Iti và
evaråpà dåteyyapahiõagamanànuyogà pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti
sãlasmiü.

1. Saühitamme asaühitaü te. Kesuci.

[BJT Page 180] [\x 180/]

45. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te kuhakà
ca honti lapakà ca nemittikà ca nippesikà ca làbhena làbhaü
nijigiüsitàro ca. Iti và itievaråpà kuhanalapanà pañivirato hoti.
Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

46. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü kappenti seyyathãdaü:
aïgaü nimittaü uppàdaü supinaü lakkhaõaü måsikacchinnaü aggihomaü
dabbihomaü thusahomaü kaõahomaü taõóulahomaü sappihomaü telahomaü
mukhahomaü lohitahomaü aïgavijjà vatthuvijjà khattavijjà sivavijjà
bhåtavijjà bhårivijjà ahivijjà visavijjà vicchikavijjà måsikavijjà
sakuõavijjà vàyasavijjà pakkajjhànaü saraparittànaü migacakkaü. Iti và
itievaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa
hoti sãlasmiü.

47. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü kappenti seyyathãdaü:
maõilakkhaõaü vatthalakkhaõaü daõóalakkhaõaü asilakkhaõaü usulakkhaõaü
dhanulakkhaõaü àvudhalakkhaõaü itthilakkhaõaü purisalakkhaõaü
kumàralakkhaõaü kumàrilakkhaõaü dàsalakkhaõaü dàsilakkhaõaü
hatthilakkhaõaü assalakkhaõaü mahisalakkhaõaü usabhalakkhaõaü
golakkhaõaü ajalakkhaõaü meõóalakkhaõaü kukkuñalakkhaõaü
vaññakalakkhaõaü godhàlakkhaõaü kaõõikàlakkhaõaü kacchapalakkhaõaü
migalakkhaõaü. Iti và iti evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà
pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

48. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü kappenti seyyathãdaü:
ra¤¤aü niyyànaü bhavissati, ra¤¤aü aniyyànaü bhavissati. Abbhantarànaü
ra¤¤aü upayànaü bhavissati, bàhirànaü ra¤¤aü apayànaü bhavissati.
Bàhirànaü ra¤¤aü upayànaü bhavissati, abbhantarànaü ra¤¤aü apayànaü
bhavissati. Abbhantarànaü ra¤¤aü jayo bhavissati, bàhirànaü ra¤¤aü
paràjayo bhavissati. Bàhirànaü ra¤¤aü jayo bhavissati, abbhantarànaü
ra¤¤aü paràjayo bhavissati. Iti imassa jayo bhavissati, imassa paràjayo
bhavissati. Iti và itievaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà pañivirato
hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

[BJT Page 182] [\x 182/]

49. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü kappenti seyyathãdaü:
candaggàho bhavissati suriyaggàho bhavissati nakkhattaggàho bhavissati.
Candimasuriyànaü pathagamanaü bhavissati candimasuriyànaü uppathagamanaü
bhavissati nakkhattànaü pathagamanaü bhavissati nakkhattànaü
uppathagamanaü bhavissati. Ukkàpàto bhavissati. Disàóàho bhavissati.
Bhåmicàlo bhavissati. Evaü vipàko devadundubhi bhavissati. Evaüvipàko
candimasuriyanakkhattànaü uggamanaü ogamanaü saükilesaü vodànaü
bhavissati. Evaüvipàko candaggàho bhavissati. Evaüvipàko suriyaggàho
bhavissati. Evaüvipàko nakkhattaggàho bhavissati. Evaüvipàkaü
candimasuriyànaü pathagamanaü bhavissati. Evaüvipàkaü candimasuriyànaü
uppathagamanaü bhavissati. Evaüvipàkaü nakkhattànaü pathagamanaü
bhavissati. Evaüvipàko ukkàpàto bhavissati. Evaüvipàko disàóàho
bhavissati. Evaüvipàko bhåmicàlo bhavissati. Evaüvipàko devadundåbhi
bhavissati. Evaüvipàkaü candimasuriyanakkhattànaü uggamanaü ogamanaü
saïkileso vodànaü bhavissati. Iti và itievaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya
micchàjãvà pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

50. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü kappenti seyyathãdaü:
subbuññhikà bhavissati dubbuññhikà bhavissati. Subhikkhaü bhavissati
dubbhikkhaü bhavissati. Khemaü bhavissati bhayaü bhavissati. Rogo
bhavissati àrogyaü bhavissati. Muddà gaõanà saükhànaü kàveyyaü
lokàyataü. Iti và iti evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà pañivirato
hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

51. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü kappenti seyyathãdaü:
àvàhanaü vivàhanaü saüvadanaü vivadanaü saükiraõaü vikiraõaü
subhagakaraõaü dubbhagakaraõaü viruddhagabbhakaraõaü jivhànitthambhanaü
hanusaühananaü hatthàbhijappanaü hanujappanaü kaõõajappanaü àdàsapa¤haü
kumàripa¤haü devapa¤haü àdiccupaññhànaü mahatupaññhànaü abbhujjalanaü
sirivhàyanaü. Iti và itievaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà
pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti sãlasmiü.

[BJT Page 184] [\x 184/]

52. Yathà và
paneke bhonto samaõabràhmaõà saddhàdeyyàni bhojanàni bhu¤jitvà te
evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvena jãvikaü kappenti - seyyathãdaü:
santikammaü paõidhikammaü bhårikammaü vassakammaü vossakammaü
vatthukammaü vatthuparikiraõaü àcamanaü nahàpanaü juhanaü vamanaü
virecanaü uddhavirecanaü adhovirecanaü sãsavirecanaü kaõõatelaü
nettapatappanaü natthukammaü a¤janaü pacca¤janaü sàlàkiyaü sallakattiyaü
dàrakatikicchà målabhesajjànaü anuppadànaü osadhãnaü pañimokkho. Iti và
iti evaråpàya tiracchànavijjàya micchàjãvà pañivirato hoti. Idampi’ssa
hoti sãlasmiü.

53. Atha kho
so ambaññha bhikkhu evaü sãlasampanno na kutoci bhayaü samanupassati
yadidaü sãlasaüvarato. Seyyathàpi ambaññha khattiyo muddhàvasitto
nihatapaccàmitto na kutoci bhayaü samanupassati yadidaü paccatthikato,
evameva kho ambaññha bhikkhu evaü sãlasampanno na kutoci bhayaü
samanupassati yadidaü sãlasaüvarato. So iminà ariyena sãlakkhandhena
samannàgato ajjhattaü anavajjasukhaü pañisaüvedeti. Evaü kho ambaññha
bhikkhu sãlasampanno hoti.

54. Katha¤ca
ambaññha bhikkhu indirayesu gutatadvàro hoti? Idha ambaññha bhikkhu
cakkhunà råpaü disvà na nimittaggàhã hoti nànubya¤janaggàhã.
Yatvàdhikaraõametaü cakkhundriyaü asaüvutaü viharantaü abhijjhàdomanassà
pàpakà akusalà dhammà anvàssaveyyuü tassa saüvaràya pañipajjati
rakkhati cakkhundriyaü, cakkhundriya saüvaraü àpajjati. Sotena saddaü
sutvà na nimittaggàhã hoti nànubya¤janaggàhã. Yatvàdhikaraõametaü
sotendriyaü asaüvutaü viharantaü abhijjhàdomanassà pàpakà akusalà dhammà
anvàssaveyyuü tassa saüvaràya pañipajjati rakkhati sotendriyaü,
sotendriye saüvaraü àpajjati. Ghàõena gandhaü ghàyitvà na nimittaggàhã
hoti nànubya¤janaggàhã. Yatvàdhikaraõametaü ghànindriyaü asaüvutaü
viharantaü abhijjhàdomanassà pàpakà akusalà dhammà anvàssaveyyuü tassa
saüvaràya pañipajjati rakkhati ghàõindriyaü, ghàõindriye saüvaraü
àpajjati. Jivhàya rasaü sàyitvà na nimittaggàhã hoti nànubya¤janaggàhã.
Yatvàdhikaraõametaü jivhindriyaü asaüvutaü viharantaü abhijjhàdomanassà
pàpakà akusalà dhammà anvàssaveyyuü tassa saüvaràya pañipajjati rakkhati
jivhindriyaü, jivhindriye saüvaraü àpajjati. Kàyena phoññhabbaü
phusitvà na nimittaggàhã hoti nànubya¤janaggàhã. Yatvàdhikaraõametaü
kàyindriyaü asaüvutaü viharantaü abhijjhàdomanassà pàpakà akusalà dhammà
anvàssaveyyuü tassa saüvaràya pañipajjati rakkhati kàyindriyaü,
kàyindriye saüvaraü àpajjati. Manasà dhammaü vi¤¤àya na nimittaggàhã
hoti nànubya¤janaggàhã. Yatvàdhikaraõametaü manindriyaü asaüvutaü
viharantaü abhijjhàdomanassà pàpakà akusalà dhammà anvàssaveyyuü tassa
saüvaràya pañipajjati rakkhati manindriyaü, manindriye saüvaraü
àpajjati. So iminà ariyena indriyasaüvarena samannàgato ajjhattaü
abyàsekasukhaü pañisaüvedeti. Evaü kho ambaññha bhikkhu indriyesu
guttadvàro hoti.

[BJT Page 186] [\x 186/]

55. Katha¤ca
ambaññha bhikkhu satisampaja¤¤ena samannàgato hoti? Idha ambaññha
bhikkhu abhikkante pañikkante sampajànakàrã hoti, àlokite vilokite
sampajànakàrã hoti, sami¤jite pasàrite sampajànakàrã hoti,
saïghàñipattacãvaradhàraõe sampajànakàrã hoti, asite pãte khàyite sàyite
sampajànakàrã hoti, uccàrapassàvakamme sampajànakàrã hoti, gate ñhite
nisinne sutte jàgarite bhàsite tuõhãbhàve sampajànakàrã hoti. Evaü kho
ambaññha bhikkhu satisampaja¤¤ena samannàgato hoti.

56. Katha¤ca ambaññha bhikkhu santuññho hoti?

Idha ambaññha
bhikkhu santuññho hoti kàyaparihàrikena cãvarena kucchiparihàrikena
piõóapàtena. So yena yeneva pakkamati samàdàyeva pakkamati. Seyyathàpã
ambaññha pakkhi sakuõo yena yeneva óeti sapattabhàro’va óeti, evameva
kho ambaññha bhikkhu santuññho hoti kàyaparihàrikena cãvarena
kucchiparihàrikena piõóapàtena. So yena yeneva pakkamati samàdàyeva
pakkamati. Evaü kho ambaññha bhikkhu santuññho hoti.

57. So iminà
ca ariyena sãlakkhandhena samannàgato iminà ca ariyena indriyasaüvarena
samannàgato iminà ca ariyena satisampaja¤¤ena samannàgato imàya ca
ariyàya santuññhiyà samannàgato vivittaü senàsanaü bhajati ara¤¤aü
rukkhamålaü pabbataü kandaraü giriguhaü susànaü vanapatthaü abbhokàsaü
palàlapu¤jaü. So pacchàbhattaü piõóapàtapañikkanto nisãdati pallaïkaü
àbhujitvà ujuü kàyaü paõidhàya parimukhaü satiü upaññhapetvà.

58. So
abhijjhaü loke pahàya vigatàbhijjhena cetasà viharati abhijjhàya cittaü
parisodheti. Byàpàdapadosaü pahàya abyàpannacitto viharati
sabbapàõabhåtahitànukampi, byàpàdapadosà cittaü parisodheti.
Thãnamiddhaü pahàya vigatathãnamiddho viharati àlokasa¤¤ã sato
sampajàno, thãnamiddhà cittaü parisodheti. Uddhaccakukkuccaü pahàya
anuddhato viharati ajjhattaü våpasantacitto, uddhaccakukkuccaü cittaü
parisodheti. Vicikicchaü pahàya tiõõavicikiccho viharati akathaükathã
kusalesu dhammesu, vicikicchàya cittaü parisodheti.

[BJT Page 188] [\x 188/]

59. Seyyathàpi
ambaññha puriso iõaü àdàya kammante payojeyya tassa te kammantà
samijjheyyuü, so yàni ca poràõàni iõamålàni tàni ca byantãkareyya, siyà
cassa uttariü avasiññhaü dàrabharaõàya, tassa evamassa: ‘ahaü kho pubbe
iõaü àdàya kammante payojesiü tassa me te kammantà samijjhiüsu so’haü
yàni ca poràõàni iõamålàni tàni ca byantãakàsiü. Atthi ca me uttariü
avasiññhaü dàrabharaõàyà’ti. So tatonidànaü labhetha pàmojjaü,
adhigaccheyya somanassaü.

60. Seyyathàpi
ambaññha puriso àbàdhiko assa dukkhito bàëhagilàno, bhattaü cassa
nacchàdeyya, na cassa kàye balamattà. So aparena samayena tambhà àbàdhà
mucceyya bhatta¤cassa chàdeyya siyà cassa kàye balamattà. Tassa
evamassa: ‘ahaü bo pubbe àbàdhiko ahosiü dukkhito bàëhagilàno bhattaü me
nacchàdesi na cassa me àsi kàye balamattà. So’mhi etarahi tamhà àbàdhà
mutto bhatta¤ca me chàdeti atthi ca me kàye balamattà’ti, so tatonidànaü
labhetha pàmojjaü adhigaccheyya somanassaü.

61. Seyyathàpi
ambaññha puriso bandhanàgàre baddho assa, so aparena samayena tambhà
bandhanàgàrà mucceyya sotthinà abbayena, na cassa ki¤ci bhogànaü vayo.
Tassa evamassa: ‘ahaü kho pubbe bandhanàgàre baddho ahosiü. So’mhi
etarahi tamhà bandhanàgàrà mutto sotthinà abbayena. Natthi ca me ki¤ci
bhogànaü vayo’ti. So tatonidànaü labhetha pàmojjaü adhigaccheyya
somanassaü.

62. Seyyathàpi
ambaññha puriso dàso assa anattàdhãno paràdhãno na yenakàmaïgamo. So
aparena samayena tamhà dàsabyà mucceyya attàdhãno aparàdhãno bhujisso
yenakàmaïgamo. Tassa evamassa: ‘ahaü kho pubbe dàso ahosiü anattàdhãno
paràdhãno na yenakàmaïgamo. So’mhi etarahi tamhà dàsabyà mutto attàdhãno
aparàdhãno bhujisso yenakàmaïgamo’ti. So tatonidànaü labhetha pàmojjaü,
adhigaccheyya somanassaü.

[BJT Page 190] [\x 190/]

63. Seyyathàpi
ambaññha puriso sadhano sabhogo kantàraddhànamaggaü pañipajjeyya
dubbhikkhaü sappañibhayaü. So aparena samayena taü kantàraü nitthareyya
sotthinà gàmantaü anupàpuõeyya khemaü appañibhayaü. Tassa evamassa:
‘ahaü kho pubbe sadhano sabhogo kantàraddhànamaggaü pañipajjiü
dubbhikkhaü sappañibhayaü. So’mhi etarahi taü kantàraü tiõõo sotthinà
gàmantaü anuppatto khemaü appañibhaya’nti. So tato nidànaü labhetha
pàmojjaü adhigaccheyya somanassaü.

Evameva kho
ambaññha bhikkhu yathà iõaü yathà rogaü yathà bandhanàgàraü yathà
dàsabyaü yathà kantàraddhànamaggaü evaü ime pa¤canãvaraõe appahãne
attani samanupassati. Seyyathàpi ambaññha ànaõyaü yathà àrogyaü yathà
bandhanà mokkhaü yathà bhujissaü yathà khemantabhåmiü evameva kho
ambaññha bhikkhu ime pa¤canãvaraõe pahãne attani samanupassati.

64. Tassime
pa¤canãvaraõe pahãõe attani samanupassato pàmojjaü jàyati, pamuditassa
pãti jàyati, pãtimanassa kàyo passambhati, passaddhakàyo sukhaü vedeti,
sukhino cittaü samàdhiyati.

65. So
vivicceva kàmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaü savicàraü
vivekajaü pãtisukhaü pañhamaü jhànaü upasampajja viharati. So imameva
kàyaü vivekajena pãtisukhena abhisanneti parisanneti paripåreti
parippharati. Nàssa ki¤ci sabbàvato kàyassa vivekajena pãtisukhena
apphuñaü hoti.

66. Seyyathàpi
ambaññha dakkho nahàpako và nahàpakantevàsã và kaüsathàle
nahànãyacuõõàni àkiritvà udakena paripphosakaü paripphosakaü sanneyya,
sàyaü nahànãyapiõóã snehànugatà snehaparetà sàntarabàhirà phuñà snehena,
na ca pagghariõã,

Evameva kho
ambaññha bhikkhu imameva kàyaü vivekajena pãtisukhena abhisanneti
parisanneti paripåreti parippharati. Nàssa ki¤ci sabbàvato kàyassa
vivekajena pãtisukhena apphuñaü hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti caraõasmiü.

67. Puna ca
paraü ambaññha bhikkhu vitakkavicàrànaü våpasamà ajjhattaü sampasàdanaü
cetaso ekodibhàvaü avitakkaü avicàraü samàdhijaü pãtisukhaü dutiyaü
jhànaü upasampajja viharati. So imameva kàyaü samàdhijena pãtisukhena
abhisanneti parisanneti paripåreti parippharati nàssa ki¤ci sabbàvato
kàyassa samàdhijena pãtisukhena apphuñaü hoti.

[BJT Page 192] [\x 192/]

68. Seyyathàpi
ambaññha udakarahado gambhãro ubbhidodako, tassa nevassa puratthimàya
disàya udakassa àyamukhaü, na dakkhiõàya disàya udakassa àyamukhaü, na
pacchimàya disàya udakassa àyamukhaü, na uttaràya disàya udakassa
àyamukhaü, devo ca na kàlena kàlaü sammà dhàraü anuppaveccheyya, atha
kho tamhà ca udakarahadà sãtà vàridhàrà ubbhijjitvà tameva udakarahadaü
sãtena vàrinà abhisanneyya1 parisanneyya2 paripåreyya paripphareyya,
nàssa ki¤ci sabbàvato udakarahadassa sãtena vàrinà apphuñaü assa,

Evameva kho
ambaññha bhikkhu imameva kàyaü samàdhijena pãtisukhena abhisanneti
parisanneti paripåreti parippharati. Nàssa ki¤ci sabbàvato kàyassa
samàdhijena pãtisukhena apphuñaü hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti caraõasmiü.

69. Puna ca
paraü ambaññha bhikkhu pãtiyà ca viràgà upekkhako ca viharati sato
sampajàno, sukha¤ca kàyena pañisaüvedeti, yantaü ariyà àcikkhanti:
upekkhako satimà sukhavihàrãti taü tatiyaü jhànaü upasampajja viharati.

So imameva
kàyaü nippãtikena sukhena abhisanneti parisanneti paripåreti
parippharati, nàssa ki¤ci sabbàvato kàyassa nippãtikena sukhena apphuñaü
hoti.

Seyyathàpi
ambaññha uppaliniyaü và paduminiyaü và puõóarãkiniyaü và appekaccàni
uppalàni và padumàni và puõóarãkàni và udake jàtàni udake saüvaddhàni
udakànuggatàni antonimuggaposãni tàni yàva caggà yàva ca målà sãtena
càrinà abhisannàni parisannàni3 paripåràni paripphuñàni nàssa ki¤ci
sabbàvataü uppalànaü và padumànaü và puõóarãkànaü và sãtena vàrinà
apphuñaü assa,

Evameva kho
ambaññha bhikkhu imameva kàyaü nippãtikena sukhena abhisanneti
parisanneti paripåreti parippharati nàssa ki¤ci sabbàvato kàyassa
nippãtikena sukhena apphuñaü hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti caraõasmiü.

70. Puna ca
paraü ambaññha bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahànà dukkhassa ca pahànà pubbeva
somanassadomanassànaü atthaïgamà adukkhamasukhaü upekkhàsatipàrisuddhiü
catutthaü jhànaü upasampajja viharati. So imameva kàyaü parisuddhena
cetasà pariyodàtena pharitvà nisinno hoti nàssa ki¤ci sabbàvato kàyassa
parisuddhena cetasà pariyodàtena apphuñaü hoti.

Seyyathàpi
ambaññha puriso odàtena vatthena sasãsaü pàrupitvà nisinno assa, nàssa
ki¤ci sabbàvato kàyassa odàtena vatthena apphuñaü assa, evameva kho
ambaññha bhikkhu imameva kàyaü parisuddhena cetasà pariyodàtena pharitvà
nisinno hoti nàssa ki¤ci sabbàvato kàyassa parisuddhena cetasà
pariyodàtena apphuñaü hoti. Idampi’ssa hoti caraõasmiü.

Idaü kho taü ambaññha caraõaü.

1. Abhisandeyya, machasaü.

2. Parisandeyya, machasaü.

3. Abhisandàni parisandàni, machasaü. Abhisaniddhàni parisaniddhàni?

[BJT Page 194] [\x 194/]

71. (Puna ca
paraü ambaññha) so evaü samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe
vigatåpakkilese mudubhåte kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte ¤àõadassanàya
cittaü abhinãharati abhininnàmeti. So evaü pajànàti: ayaü kho me kàyo
råpã càtummahàbhåtiko màtàpettikasambhavo odanakummàsåpacayo
aniccucchàdanaparimaddanabhedanaviddhaüsanadhammo. Idaü ca pana me
vi¤¤àõaü ettha sitaü ettha pañibaddhanti.

Seyyathàpi
ambaññha maõi veëuriyo subho jàtimà aññhaüso suparikammakato accho
vippasanno anàvilo sabbàkàrasampanno, tatrassa suttaü àvutaü nãlaü và
pãtaü và lohitaü và odàtaü và paõóusuttaü và. Tamenaü cakkhumà puriso
hatthe karitvà paccavekkheyya: ayaü kho maõi veëuriyo subho jàtimà
aññhaüso suparikammakato accho vippasanno anàvilo sabbàkàrasampanno.
Tatiradaü suttaü àvutaü nãlaü và pãtaü và lohitaü và odàtaü và
paõóusuttaü và’ti.

Evameva kho
ambaññha bhikkhu evaü samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe
vigatåpakkilese mudubhåte kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte ¤àõadassanàya
cittaü abhinãharati abhininnàmeti. So evaü pajànàti: ayaü kho me kàyo
råpã càtummahàbhåtiko màtàpettikasambhavo odanakummàsåpacayo
aniccucchàdanaparimaddanabhedanaviddhaüsanadhammo. Idaü ca pana me
vi¤¤àõaü ettha sitaü ettha pañibaddhanti. Idampi’ssa hoti vijjàya.

72. So evaü
samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe vigatåpakkilese mudubhåte
kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte manomayaü kàyaü abhinimminanàya cittaü
abhinãharati abhininnàmeti. So imambhà kàyà a¤¤aü kàyaü abhinimminàti
råpiü manomayaü sabbaïgapaccaïgiü ahãnindriyaü.

[BJT Page 196] [\x 196/]

Seyyathàpi
ambaññha puriso mu¤jamhà ãsikaü pabbàheyya. Tassa evamassa: ayaü mu¤jo,
ayaü ãsikà, a¤¤o mu¤jo, a¤¤à ãsikà, mu¤jamhàtveva ãsikà pabbàëhà’ti.
Seyyathà và pana ambaññha puriso asiü kosiyà pabbàheyya, tassa evamassa:
ayaü asi, ayaü kosi, a¤¤o asi, a¤¤à kosi, kosiyà tveva asi pabbàëho’ti.
Seyyathà và pana ambaññha puriso ahiü karaõóà uddhareyya, tassa
evamassa: ayaü ahi, ayaü karaõóo, a¤¤o ahi, a¤¤o karaõóo, karaõóàtveva
ahi ubbhato’ti. Evameva kho ambaññha bhikkhu evaüsamàhite citte
parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe vigatåpakkilese mudubhåte kammaniye ñhite
àne¤jappatte manomayaü kàyaü abhinimminanàya cittaü abhinãharati
abhininnàmeti. So imamhà kàyà a¤¤aü kàyaü abhinimminàti råpiü manomayaü
sabbaïgapaccaïgiü ahãnindriyaü. Idampi’ssa hoti vijjàya.

73. So evaü
samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe vigatåpakkilese mudubhåte
kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte iddhividhàya cittaü abhinãharati,
abhininnàmeti. So anekavihitaü iddhividhaü paccanubhoti: eko’pi hutvà
bahudhà hoti, bahudhàpi hutvà eko hoti, àcãbhàvaü tirobhàvaü tirokuóóaü
tiropàkàraü tiropabbataü asajjamàno gacchati seyyathàpi àkàse. Pathaviyà
pi ummujjanimujjaü karoti seyyathàpi udake. Udake’pi abhijjamàne
gacchati seyyathàpi pathaviyaü. âkàse’pi pallaïkena kamati seyyathàpi
pakkhi sakuõo. Ime’pi candimasuriye evaümahiddhike evaümahànubhàve
pàõinà parimasati parimajjati, yàva brahmalokà’pi kàyena vasaü vatteti.

Seyyathàpi
ambaññha dakkho kumbhakàro và kumbhakàrantevàsã và suparikammakatàya
mattikàya yaü yadeva bhàjanavikatiü àkaïkheyya taü tadeva kareyya
abhinipphàdeyya. Seyyathà và pana ambaññha dakkho dantakàrovà
dantakàrantevàsã và suparikammakatasmiü dantasmiü yaü yadeva
dantavikatiü àkaïkheyya taü tadeva kareyya abhinipphàdeyya. Seyyathà và
pana ambaññha dakkho suvaõõakàro và suvaõõakàrantevàsã và
suparikammakatasmiü suvaõõasmiü yaü yadeva suvaõõavikatiü àkaïkheyya taü
tadeva kareyya abhinipphàdeyya, evameva kho ambaññha bhikkhu evaü
samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe vãgatåpakkilese mudubhåte
kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte iddhividhàya cittaü abhinãharati
abhininnàmeti.

[BJT Page 198] [\x 198/]

So
anekavihitaü iddhividhaü paccanubhoti eko’pi hutvà bahudhà hoti
bahudhàpi hutvà eko hoti. âvãbhàvaü tirobhàvaü tirokuóóaü tiropàkàraü
tiropabbataü asajjamàno gacchati seyyathàpi àkàse. Pathaviyàpi
ummujjanimujjaü karoti seyyathàpi udake. Udake’pi abhijjamàne gacchati
seyyathàpi pañhaviyaü. âkàse’pi pallaïkena kamati seyyathàpi pakkhi
sakuõo. Ime’pi candimasuriye evaümahiddhike evaümahànubhàve pàõinà
parimasati. Parimajjati. Yàva brahmalokà’pi kàyena vasaü vatteti.
Idampi’ssa hoti vijjàya.

74. So evaü
samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe vigatåpakkilese mudubhåte
kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte1 dibbàya sotadhàtuyà cittaü abhinãharati
abhininnàmeti. So dibbàya sotadhàtuyà visuddhàya atikkantamànusikàya
ubho sadde suõàti dibbe ca mànuse ca ye dåre sannike ca.

Seyyathàpi
ambaññha puriso addhànamaggapañipanno so suõeyya bherisaddampi
mudiïgasaddampi saïkhapaõavadeõóimasaddampi. Tassa evamassa: bherisaddo
itipi mudiïgasaddo itipi saïkhapaõavadeõóisaddo itipi. Evameva kho
ambaññha bhikkhu evaü samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe
vigatåpakkilese mudubhåte kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte dibbàya
sotadhàtuyà cittaü abhinãharati abhininnàmeti.

So dibbàya
sotadhàtuyà visuddhàya atikkantamànusikàya ubho sadde suõàti dibbe ca
mànuse ca ye dåre santike ca. Idampi’ssa hoti vijjàya.

75. So evaü
samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte àne¤jappatte cetopariya¤àõàya
cittaü abhininnàmeti. So parasattànaü parapuggalànaü cetasà ceto paricca
pajànàti:

Saràgaü và cittaü saràgaü cittanti pajànàti,

Vãtaràgaü và cittaü vãtaràgaü cittanti pajànàti,

Sadosaü và cittaü sadosaü cittanti pajànàti,

Vãtadosaü và cittaü vãtadosaü cittanti pajànàti,

Samohaü và cittaü samohaü cittanti pajànàti,

Vãtamohaü và cittaü vãtamohaü cittanti pajànàti,

Saïkhittaü và cittaü saïkhittaü cittanti pajànàti,

Vikkhittaü và cittaü vikkhittaü cittanti pajànàti,

Mahaggataü và cittaü mahaggataü cittanti pajànàti,

Amahaggataü và cittaü amahaggataü cittanti pajànàti,

Sauttaraü và cittaü sauttaraü cittanti pajànàti,

Anuttaraü và cittaü anuttaraü cittanti pajànàti,

Samàhitaü và cittaü samàhitaü cittanti pajànàti,

Asamàhitaü và cittaü asamàhitaü cittanti pajànàti,

Vimuttaü và cittaü vimuttaü cittanti pajànàti,

Avimuttaü và cittaü avimuttaü cittanti pajànàti,

1. ânejjappatte (kesuci potthakesu)

[BJT Page 200] [\x 200/]

Seyyathàpi
ambaññha itthi và puriso và daharo và yuvà maõóanajàtiko àdàse và
parisuddhe pariyodàte acche và udakapatte sakaü mukhanimittaü
paccavekkhamàno sakaõikaü và sakaõikanti jàneyya, akaõikaü và akaõikanti
jàneyya, evameva kho ambaññha bhikkhu evaü samàhite citte parisuddhe
pariyodàte anaïgaõe vigatåpakkilese mudubhåte kammaniye ñhite
àne¤jappatte cetopariya¤àõàya cittaü abhinãharati abhininnàmeti.

So parasattànaü parapuggalànaü cetasà ceto paricca pajànàti:

“Saràgaü và cittaü saràgaü cittanti pajànàti,

Vãtaràgaü và cittaü vãtaràgaü cittanti pajànàti,

Sadosaü và cittaü sadosaü cittanti pajànàti,

Vãtadosaü và cittaü vãtadosaü cittanti pajànàti,

Samohaü và cittaü samohaü cittanti pajànàti,

Vãtamohaü và cittaü vãtamohaü cittanti pajànàti,

Saïkhittaü và cittaü saïkhittaü cittanti pajànàti,

Vikkhittaü và cittaü vikkhittaü cittanti pajànàti,

Mahaggataü và cittaü mahaggataü cittanti pajànàti,

Amahaggataü và cittaü amahaggataü cittanti pajànàti,

Sauttaraü và cittaü sauttaraü cittanti pajànàti,

Anuttaraü và cittaü anuttaraü cittanti pajànàti,

Samàhitaü và cittaü samàhitaü cittanti pajànàti,

Asamàhitaü và cittaü asamàhitaü cittanti pajànàti,

Vimuttaü và cittaü vimuttaü cittanti pajànàti,

Avimuttaü và cittaü avimuttaü cittanti pajànàti,

Idampissa hoti vijjàya.

76. So evaü
samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe vigatåpakkilese mudubhåte
kammaniye ñhite àna¤jeppatte pubbenivàsànussati¤àõàya cittaü
abhinãharati abhininnàmeti. So anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü anussarati.
Seyyathãdaü: ekampi jàtiü dve’pi jàtiyo tisso’pi jàtiyo catasso’pi
jàtiyo pa¤ca’pi jàtiyo dasa’pi jàtiyo vãsampi jàtiyo tiüsampi jàtiyo
cattàrãsampi jàtiyo pa¤¤àsampi jàtiyo jàtisatampi jàtisahassampi
jàtisatasahassampi aneke’pi saüvaññakappe aneke’pi vivaññakappe aneke’pi
saüvaññavivaññakappe “amutràsiü evannàmo evaügotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro
evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedã evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto amutra
upapàdiü. Tatràpàsiü evaünàmo evaügotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro
evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedã evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto
idhåpapanno”ti. Iti sàkàraü sauddesaü anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü
anussarati.

[BJT Page 202] [\x 202/]

Seyyathàpi
ambaññha puriso sakambhà gàmà a¤¤aü gàmaü gaccheyya, tamhàpi gàmà a¤¤aü
gàmaü gaccheyya, so tamhà gàmà saka¤¤eva gàmaü paccàgaccheyya, tassa
evamassa: ahaü kho sakamhà gàmà amuü gàmaü agacchiü. Tatra evaü aññhàsiü
evaü nisãdiü evaü abhàsiü evaü tuõhã ahosiü. Tamhàpi gàmà amuü gàmaü
agacchiü. Tatràpi evaü aññhàsiü evaü nisãdiü evaü abhàsiü evaü tuõhã
ahosiü. So’mhi tamhà gàmà saka¤¤eva gàmaü paccàgato’ti,

Evameva kho
ambaññha bhikkhu evaü samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe
vigatåpakkilese mudrabhåte kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte
pubbenivàsànussati¤àõàya cittaü abhinãharati abhininnàmeti. So
anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü anussarati: seyyathãdaü ekampi jàtiü dve’pi
jàtiyo tisso’pi jàtiyo catasso’pi jàtiyo pa¤ca’pi jàtiyo dasapi jàtiyo
vãsampi jàtiyo tiüsampi jàtiyo cattàrãsampi jàtiyo pa¤¤àsampã jàtiyo
jàtisatampi jàtisahassampi jàtisatasahassampi aneke’pi saüvaññakappe
aneke’pi vivaññakappe aneke’pi saüvaññavivaññakappe: amutràsiü evaünàmo
evaügotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedã
evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto amutra upapàdiü. Tatràpàsiü evaünàmo
evaügotto evaüvaõõo evamàhàro evaüsukhadukkhapañisaüvedã
evamàyupariyanto. So tato cuto idhåpapanno’ti. Iti sàkàraü sauddesaü
anekavihitaü pubbenivàsaü anussarati. Idampi’ssa hoti vijjàya.

77. So evaü
samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe vigatåpakkilese mudubhåte
kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte sattànaü cutåpapàta¤àõàya cittaü
abhinãharati abhininnàmeti. So dibbena cakkhunà visuddhena
atikkantamànusakena satte passati cavamàne upapajjamàne hãne paõãte
suvaõõe dubbaõõe sugate duggate yathàkammåpage satte pajànàti: ime vata
bhonto sattà kàyaduccaritena samannàgatà vacãduccaritena samannàgatà
manoduccaritena samannàgatà ariyànaü upavàdakà micchàdiññhikà
micchàdiññhikammasamàdànà. Te kàyassa bhedà parammaraõà apàyaü duggatiü
vinipàtaü nirayaü upapannà. Ime và pana bhonto sattà kàyasucaritena
samannàgatà vacãsucaritena samannàgatà manosucaritena samannàgatà
ariyànaü anupavàdakà sammàdiññhikà sammàdiññhikammasamàdànà. Te kàyassa
bhedà parammaraõà sugatiü saggaü lokaü upapannà’ti. Iti dibbena cakkhunà
vãsuddhena atikkantamànusakena satte passati cavamàne upapajjamàne hãne
paõãte suvaõõe dubbaõõe sugate duggate yathàkammåpage satte pajànàti.

[BJT Page 204] [\x 204/]

Seyyathàpi
ambaññha majjhe siüghàñake pasàdo, tattha cakkhumà puriso ñhito passeyya
manusse gehaü pavisante’pi nikkhamante’pi rathiyà vãtisa¤carante’pi
majjhe siüghàñake nisinne’pi. Tassa evamassa: ete manussà gehaü
pavisanti. Ete nikkhamanti. Ete rathiyà vãtisa¤caranti. Ete majjhe
siüghàñake nisinnà’ti.

Evameva kho
ambaññha bhikkhu evaü samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe
vigatåpakkilese mudubhåte kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte sattànaü
cutåpapàta¤àõàya cittaü abhinãharati abhininnàmeti. So dibbena cakkhunà
visuddhena atikkantamànusakena satte passati cavamàne upapajjamàne hãne
paõãte suvaõõe dubabaõõe sugate duggate yathàkammåpage satte pajànàti:
ime vata bhonto sattà kàyaduccaritena samannàgatà vacãduccaritena
samannàgatà manoduccaritena samannàgatà ariyànaü upavàdakà
micchàdiññhikà micchàdiññhãkammasamàdànà. Te kàyassa bhedà parammaraõà
apàyaü duggatiü vinipàtaü nirayaü upapannà. Ime và pana bhonto sattà
kàyasucaritena samannàgatà vacãsucaritena samannàgatà manosucaritena
samannàgatà ariyànaü anupavàdakà sammàdiññhãkà sammàdiññhikammasamàdànà.
Te kàyassa bhedà parammaraõà sugatiü saggaü lokaü upapannà’ti. Iti
dibbena cakkhunà visuddhena atikkantamànusakena satte passati cavamàne
upapajjamàne hãne paõãte suvaõõe dubbaõõe sugate duggate
yathàkapammåpage satte pajànàti. Idampi’ssa hoti vijjàya.

78. So evaü
samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe vigatåpakkilese mudubhåte
kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte àsavànaü khaya¤àõàya cittaü abhinãharati
abhininnàmeti.

So idaü dukkhanti yathàbhåtaü pajànàti.

Ayaü dukkhasamudayo’ti yathàbhåtaü pajànàti.

Ayaü dukkhanirodho’ti yathàbhåtaü pajànàti.

Ayaü dukkhanirodhagàminipañipadà’ti yathàbhåtaü pajànàti.

Ime àsavà’ti yathàbhåtaü pajànàti.

Ayaü àsavasamudayo’ti yathàbhåtaü pajànàti.

Ayaü àsavanirodho’ti yathàbhåtaü pajànàti.

Ayaü àsavanirodhagàminã pañipadà’ti yathàbhåtaü pajànàti.

Tassa evaü
jànato evaü passato kàmàsavà’pi cittaü vimuccati, bhavàsavà’pi cittaü
vimuccati, avijjàsavà’pi cittaü vimuccati. Vimuttasmiü vimuttamiti ¤àõaü
hoti.

‘Khãõà jàti, vusitaü brahmacariyaü, kataü karaõãyaü, nàparaü itthattàyà’ti pajànàti.

[BJT Page 206] [\x 206/]

Seyyathàpi
ambaññha pabbatasaïkhepe udakarahado accho vippasanno anàvilo, tattha
cakkhumà puriso tãre ñhito passeyya sippisambukampi sakkharakañhalampi
macchagumbampi carantampi tiññhantampi. Tassa evamassa: ayaü kho
udakarahado accho vippasanno anàvilo. Tatirame sippisambukà’pi
sakkharakañhalà’pi macchagumbà’pi caranti’pi tiññhanti’pãti. Evameva kho
ambaññha bhikkhu samàhite citte parisuddhe pariyodàte anaïgaõe
vigatåpakkilese mudubhåte kammaniye ñhite àne¤jappatte àsavànaü
khaya¤àõàya cittaü abhinãharati abhininnàmeti.

So ‘idaü dukkhanti’ yathàbhåtaü pajànàti. ‘Ayaü dukkhasamudayo’ti yathàbhåtaü pajànàti.

‘Ayaü dukkhanirodho’ti yathàbhåtaü pajànàti. ‘Ayaü dukkhanirodhagàminã pañipadà’ti yathàbhåtaü pajànàti.

‘Ime àsavà’ti yathàbhåtaü pajànàti. ‘Ayaü àsavasamudayo’ti yathàbhåtaü pajànàti.

‘Ayaü àsavanirodho’ti yathàbhåtaü pajànàti. ‘Ayaü àsavanirodhagàminãpañipadà’ti yathàbhåtaü pajànàti.

Tassa evaü
jànato evaü passato kàmàsavà’pi cittaü vimuccati, bhavàsavà’pi cittaü
vimuccati, avijjàsavà’pi cittaü vimuccati. Vimuttasmiü vimuttamiti ¤àõaü
hoti.

‘Khãõà jàti, vusitaü brahmacariyaü, kataü karaõãyaü, nàparaü itthattàyà’ti pajànàti. Ayaü kho sà ambaññha vijjà.

79. Ayaü
vuccati ambaññha bhikkhu vijjàsampanno itipi, caraõa sampanno itipi,
vijjàcaraõasampanno itipi. Imàya ca ambaññha vijjàcaraõasampadàya
caraõasampadàya ca a¤¤à vijjàsampadà ca caraõasampadà ca uttaritarà và
paõãtatarà và natthi.

80. Imàya kho
ambaññha anuttaràya vijjàcaraõasampadàya [PTS Page 101] [\q 101/]
cattàri apàyamukhàni bhavanti. Katamàni cattàri? Idha ambaññha ekacco
samaõo và bràhmaõo và ima¤ceva anuttaraü vijjàcaraõasampadaü
anabhisambhuõamàno khàrivivadhamàdàya ara¤¤àyatanaü ajjhogàhati
pavattaphalabhojano bhavissàmãti. So a¤¤adatthu vijjàcaraõasampannasseva
paricàrako sampajjati. Imàya kho ambaññha anuttaràya
vijjàcaraõasampadàya idaü pañhamaü apàyamukhaü bhavati.

81. Puna ca
paraü ambaññha idhekacco samaõo và bràhmaõo và ima¤ceva anuttaraü
vijjàcaraõasampadaü anabhisambhuõamàno pavattaphalabhojanata¤ca
anabhisambhuõamàno kuddàlapiñakaü àdàya ara¤¤àyatanamajjhogàhati
kandamålaphalabhojano bhavissàmãti. So a¤¤adatthu
vijjàcaraõasampannasseva paricàrako sampajjati. Imàya ca kho ambaññha
anuttaràya vijjàcaraõasampadàya idaü dutiyaü apàyamukhaü bhavati.

[BJT Page 208] [\x 208/]

82. Puna ca
paraü ambaññha idhekacco samaõo và bràhmaõo và ima¤ceva anuttaraü
vijjàcaraõasampadaü anabhisambhuõamàno pavattaphalabhojanata¤ca
anabhisambhuõamàno kandamålaphalabhojanata¤ca anabhisambhuõamàno
gàmasàmantaü và nigamasàmantaü và agyàgàraü karitvà aggiü paricaranto
acchati. So a¤¤adatthu vijjàcaraõasampannasseva paricàriko sampajjati.
Imàya kho ambaññha anuttaràya vijjàcaraõasampadàya idaü tatiyaü
apàyamukhaü bhavati.

83. Puna ca
paraü ambaññha idhekacco samaõo và bràhmaõo và ima¤ceva anuttaraü
vijjàcaraõasampadaü anabhisambhuõamàno pavattaphalabhojana¤ca
anabhisambhuõamàno kandamålaphalabhojanana¤ca anabhisambhuõamàno
aggiparicariya¤ca anabhisambhuõamàno [PTS Page 102] [\q 102/]
càtummahàpathe catudvàraü agàraü karitvà acchati: yo imàhi catåhi disàhi
àgamissati samaõo và bràhmaõo và tamahaü yathàsatti yathàbalaü
pañipåjessàmãti. So a¤¤adatthu vijjàcaraõasampannasseva paricàrako
sampajjati. Imàya kho ambaññha anuttaràya vijjàcaraõasampadàya idaü
catutthaü apàyamukhaü bhavati.

Imàya kho ambaññha anuttaràya vijjàcaraõasampadàya imàni cattàri apàyamukhàni bhavanti.

84. Taü kimma¤¤asi ambaññha? Api nu tvaü imàya anuttaràya vijjàcaraõasampadàya sandissasi sàcariyako?”Ti.

“No hidaü bho
gotama. Ko càhaü bho gotama sàcariyako? Kà ca anuttarà
vijjàcaraõasampadà? ârakà’haü bho gotama anuttaràya vijjàcaraõasampadàya
sàcariyako”ti.

“Taü
kimma¤¤asi ambaññha? Api nu tvaü ima¤ceva anuttaraü vijjàcaraõasampadaü
anabhisambhuõamàno khàrivivadhamàdàya ara¤¤avanamajjhogàhasi sàcariyako
pavattaphalabhojano bhavissàmiti?”

“No hidaü bho gotama. “

“Taü
kimma¤¤asi ambaññha? Api nu tvaü ima¤ceva anuttaraü vijjàcaraõasampadaü
anabhisambhuõamàno pavattaphalabhojanata¤ca anabhisambhuõamàno
kuddàlapiñakaü àdàya ara¤¤avanamajjhogàhasi sàcariyako
kandamålaphalabhojano bhavissàmãti?”

“No hidaü bho gotama. “

“Taü
kimma¤¤asi ambaññha? Api nu tvaü ima¤ceva anuttaraü vijjàcaraõasampadaü
anabhisambhuõamàno pavattaphalabhojanana¤ca anabhisambhuõamàno
kandamålaphalabhojanata¤ca anabhisambhuõamàno gàmasàmantaü và
nigamasàmantaü và agyàgàraü karitvà aggiü paricaranto acchasi
sàcariyako? “Ti

[PTS Page 103] [\q 103/] “no hidaü bho gotama. “

[BJT Page 210] [\x 210/]

“Taü
kimma¤¤asi ambaññha api nu tvaü ima¤ceva anuttaraü vijjàcaraõasampadaü
anabhisambhuõamàno pavattaphalabhojanata¤ca anabhisambhuõamàno
kandamålaphalabhojanata¤ca anabhisambhuõamàno aggiparicariya¤ca
anabhisambhuõamàno càtummahàpathe catudvàraü agàraü karitvà acchasi
sàcariyako, yo imàhi catåhi disàhi àgamissati samaõo và bràhmaõo và taü
mayaü yathàsatti yathàbalaü pañipåjessàmàti?”

“No hidaü bho gotama. “

85. Iti kho
ambaññha imàya ceva tvaü anuttaràya vijjàcaraõasampadàya parihãno
sàcariyako. Ye cime anuttaràya vijjàcaraõasampadàya cattàri apàyamukhàni
bhavanti, tato ca tvaü parihãno sàcariyako. Bhàsità kho pana te esà
ambaññha àcariyena bràhmaõena pokkharasàdinà vàcà “ke ca muõóakà
samaõakà ibbhà kaõhà bandhupàdapaccà, kà ca tevijjànaü bràhmaõànaü
sàkacchà”ti, attanà àpàyiko’pi aparipårayamàno. Passa ambaññha yàva
aparaddha¤ca te idaü àcariyassa bràhmaõassa pokkharasàdissa.

86. Bràhmaõo
kho pana ambaññha pokkharasàdã ra¤¤o pasenadissa kosalassa dattikaü
bhu¤jati. Tassa ràjà pasenadi kosalo sammukhãbhàvampi na dadàti. Yadàpi
tena manteti tirodussena manteti. Yassa kho pana ambaññha dhammikaü
payataü bhikkhaü patigaõheyya, kathaü tassa ràjà pasenadã kosalo
sammukhãbhàvampi na dadeyya? Passa ambaññha yàvaaparaddha¤ca te idaü
àcariyassa bràhmaõassa pokkharasàdissa.

Taü kimma¤¤asi
ambaññha? Ràjà pasenadi kosalo hatthigãvàya và nisinno assapiññhe và
nisinno rathåpatthare và ñhito uggehi và ràja¤¤ehi và ki¤cideva [PTS
Page 104] [\q 104/] mantaõaü manteyya, so tamhà padesà apakkamma
ekamantaü tiññheyya. Atha àgaccheyya suddo và suddadàso và, so tasmiü
padese ñhito tadeva mantaõaü manteyya: evampi ràjà pasenadi kosalo àha
evampi ràjà pasenadã kosalo àhàti. Api nu so ràjabhaõitaü và bhaõati
ràjamantaü và manteti, ettàvatà so assa ràjà và ràjamahàmatto vàti?”

“No hidaü bho gotama. “

87. Evameva
kho tvaü ambaññha, ye te ahesuü bràhmaõànaü pubbakà isayo mantànaü
kattàro mantànaü pavattàro, yesamidaü etarahi bràhmaõà poràõaü
mantapadaü gãtaü pavuttaü samåhitaü tadanuggàyanti tadanubhàsanti
bhàsitamanubhàsanti vàcitamanuvàcenti, seyyathãdaü: aññako vàmako
vàmadevo vessàmitto yamataggã aïgiraso bhàradvàjo vàseññho kassapo
bhagu, tyàhaü mante adhiyàmi sàcariyako’ti tàvatà tvaü bhavissasi isi và
isittàya và pañinno’ti netaü ñhànaü vijjati.

[BJT Page 212] [\x 212/]

88. Taü
kimma¤¤asi ambaññha kinti te sutaü bràhmaõànaü vuddhànaü mahallakànaü
àcariyapàcariyànaü bhàsamànànaü: “ye te ahesuü bràhmaõànaü pubbakà isayo
mantànaü kattàro mantànaü pavattàro, yesamidaü etarahi bràhmaõà poràõaü
mantapadaü gãtaü pavuttaü samåhitaü tadanugàyanti tadanubhàsanti
bhàsitamanubhàsanti vàcitamanuvàcenti seyyathãdaü: aññako, vàmako,
vàmadevo, vessàmitto, yamataggi, aïgiraso, bhàradvàjo, vàseññho,
kassapo, bhagu - evaü su te sunhàtà suvilittà kappitakesamasså
àmuttamaõikuõóalàbharaõà odàtavatthavasanà pa¤cahi kàmaguõehi samappità
samaïgibhåtà paricàrenti, seyyathàpi tvaü etarahi sàcariyako?”Ti.

[PTS Page 105] [\q 105/] “no hidaü bho gotama. “

89. “Evaü su
te sàlãnaü odanaü sucimaüsåpasecanaü vicitakàlakaü anekasåpaü
anekabya¤janaü paribhu¤janti, seyyathàpi tvaü etarahi sàcariyako?”Ti.

“No hidaü bho gotama. “

“Evaü su te veñhanakapassàhi nàrãhi paricàrenti seyyathàpi tvaü etarahi sàcariyako?”Ti.

“No hidaü bho gotama. “

“Evaü su te
kuttavàlehi vaëavàrathehi dãghàhi patodalaññhihi vàhane vitudentà
vipariyàyanti seyyathàpi tvaü etarahi sàcariyako?”Ti.

” No hidaü bho gotama. “

“Evaü su te
ukkiõõaparikhàsu okkhittapalighàsu nagaråpakàrikàsu dãghàsibaddhehi
purisehi rakkhàpeti seyyathàpi tvaü etarahi sàcariyako?”Ti.

” No hidaü bho gotama. “

Iti kho
ambaññha neva tvaü isi, na isittàya pañipanno sàcariyako. Yassa kho pana
ambaññha mayi kaïkhà và vimati và, so maü pa¤hena, ahaü veyyakaraõena
sodhissàmã”ti.

90. Atha kho
bhagavà vihàrà nikkhamma caïkamaü abbhuññhàsi. Ambaññho’pi màõavo vihàrà
nikkhamma caïkamaü abbhuññhàsi. Atha kho ambaññho màõavo bhagavantaü
caïkamantaü anucaïkamamàno kàye dvattiüsamahàpurisalakkhaõàni samannesi.
Addasa kho ambaññho màõavo bhagavato kàye dvattiüsamahàpurisalakkhaõàni
yebhuyyena ñhapetvà [PTS Page 106] [\q 106/] dve. Dvãsu
mahàpurisalakkhaõesu kaïkhati vicikicchati nàdhimuccati na sampasãdati
kosohite ca vatthaguyhe1 pahåtajivhatàya ca.

1. Ko÷àvahita vasatuguhya. (Mahàyànikàdãnaü ganthesu)

[BJT Page 214] [\x 214/]

91. Atha kho
bhagavato etadahosi: passati kho me ayaü ambaññho màõavo
dvattiüsamahàpurisalakkhaõàni yebhuyyena ñhapetvà dve. Dvãsu
mahàpurisalakkhaõesu kaïkhati vicikicchati nàdhimuccati na sampasãdati
kosohite ca vatthaguyhe pahåtajivhatàya càti.

Atha kho
bhagavà tathàråpaü iddhàbhisaïkhàraü abhisaïkàsi yathà addasa ambaññho
màõavo bhagavato kosohitaü vatthaguyhaü. Atha kho bhagavà jivhaü
ninnàmetvà ubho’pi kaõõasotàni anumasi parimasi. Ubho’pi nàsikàsotàni
anumasi parimasi. Kevalampi naëàñamaõóalaü jivhàya chàdesi.

Atha kho
ambaññhassa màõavassa etadahosi: samannàgato kho samaõo gotavo
dvattiüsamahàpurisalakkhaõehi paripuõõehi no aparipuõõehãti bhagavantaü
etadavoca: “handa ca’dàni mayaü bho gotama gacchàma. Bahukiccà mayaü
bahukaraõãyà”ti.

“Yassa’dàni tvaü ambaññha kàlaü ma¤¤asãti”.

Atha kho ambaññho màõavo vaëavàrathamàruyha pakkàmi.

92. Tena kho
pana samayena brahmaõo pokkharasàdi ukkaññhàya nikkhamitvà mahatà
bràhmaõagaõena saddhiü sake àràme nisinno hoti ambaññhaü yeva màõavaü
patimànento. Atha kho ambaññho màõavo yena sako àràmo tena pàyàsi.
Yàvatikà yànassa bhåmi yànena gantvà yànà paccorohitvà pattiko’va yena
bràhmaõo pokkharasàdã tenupasaïkami, upasaïkamitvà bràhmaõaü
pokkharasàdiü abhivàdetvà ekamantaü nisãdi.

93. Ekamantaü
nisinnaü kho ambaññhaü màõavaü bràhmaõo pokkharasàdã etadavoca: kacci
tàta ambaññha addasa taü bhavantaü gotamanti?.

“Addasàma kho bho taü bhavantaü gotamanti. “

“Kacci tàta
ambaññha taü bhavantaü gotamaü tathà [PTS Page 107] [\q 107/] santo yeva
saddo abbhuggato no a¤¤athà? Kacci pana bho so bhavaü gotamo tàdiso no
a¤¤àdiso?”Ti.

“Tathà santo
yeva bho taü bhavantaü gotamaü saddo abbhuggato no a¤¤athà. Tàdiso’va
bho so bhavaü gotamo no a¤¤àdiso. Samannàgato ca bho so bhavaü gotamo
dvattiüsamahàpurisalakkhaõehi paripuõõehi no aparipuõõehã”ti.

[BJT Page 216] [\x 216/]

“Ahu pana te tàta ambaññha samaõena gotamena saddhiü kocideva kathàsallàpo?”Ti.

“Ahu kho yeva bho samaõena gotamena saddhiü kocideva kathàsallàpo?”Ti.

“Yathàkathaü pana te tàta ambaññha ahu samaõena gotamena saddhiü kocideva kathàsallàpo?”Ti.

Atha kho ambaññho màõavo yàvatako ahosi bhagavatà saddhiü kathàsallàpo taü sabbaü bràhmaõassa pokkharasàdissa àrocesi.

94. Evaü vutte
bràhmaõo pokkharasàdã ambaññhaü màõavaü etadavoca: “aho vata re,
amhàkaü paõóitaka! Aho vata re amhàkaü bahussutaka! Aho vata re, amhàkaü
tevijjaka! Evaråpena kira bho puriso atthacarakena kàyassa bhedà
parammaraõà apàyaü duggatiü vinipàtaü nirayaü upapajjeyya. Yadeva kho
tvaü ambaññha taü bhavantaü gotamaü evaü àsajja àsajja avacàsi. Atha kho
bhavaü gotamo amhe’pi evaü upaneyya upaneyya avaca. Abho vata re,
amhàkaü paõóitaka! Aho vata re, amhàkaü bahussutaka! Aho vata re,
amhàkaü tevijjaka! Evaråpena kira bho puriso atthacarakena kàyassa bhedà
parammaraõà apàyaü duggatiü vinipàtaü nirayaü upapajjeyyà”ti kupito
anattamano ambaññhaü màõavaü padasà yeva pavattesi. Icchati ca tàvadeva
bhagavantaü dassanàya upasaïkamituü.

95. [PTS Page
108] [\q 108/] atha kho te bràhmaõà bràhmaõaü pokkharasàdiü etadavocuü:
ativikàlo kho bho ajja samaõaü gotamaü dassanàya upasaïkamituü. Svedàni
bhavaü pokkharasàtã samaõaü gotamaü dassanàya upasaïkamissatã”ti.

Atha kho
bràhmaõo sake nivesane paõãtaü khàdanãyaü bhojanãyaü pañiyàdàpetvà
yànesu àropetvà ukkàsu dhàriyamànàsu ukkaññhàya niyyàsi. Yena
icchànaïgalavanasaõóo tena pàyàsi. Yàvatikà yànassa bhåmi yànena gantvà
yànà paccorohitvà pattiko’va yena bhagavà tenupasaïkami. Upasaïkamitvà
bhagavatà saddhiü sammodanãyaü kathaü sàràõãyaü vãtisàretvà ekamantaü
nisãdi. Ekamantaü nisinno kho bràhmaõo pokkharasàdã bhagavantaü
etadavoca: “àgamànukhavidha bho gotama amhàkaü antevàsã ambaññho
màõavo?”Ti.

[BJT Page 218] [\x 218/]

“âgamà kho te antevàsã ambaññho màõavo”ti.

“Ahu pana te bho gotama ambaññhena màõavena saddhiü kocideva kathàsallàpo?”Ti.

“Ahu kho me bràhmaõa ambaññhena màõavena saddhiü kocideva kathàsallàpo”ti.

“Yathàkathaü pana te bho gotama ahu ambaññhena màõavena saddhiü kocideva kathàsallàpo?”Ti.

Atha kho bhagavà yàvatiko ahosi ambaññhena màõavena saddhiü kathàsallàpo, taü sabbaü bràhmaõassa pokkharasàdissa àrocesi.

“Evaü vutte
bràhmaõo pokkharasàdi bhagavantaü etadavoca: bàlo bho gotama ambaññho
màõavo. Khamatu bhavaü gotamo ambaññhassa màõavassà”ti.

“Sukhã hotu bràhmaõa ambaññho màõavo”ti.

96. [PTS Page
109] [\q 109/] atha kho bràhmaõo pokkharasàdi bhagavato kàye
dvattiüsamahàpurisalakkhaõàni samannesi. Addasà kho bràhmaõo
pokkharasàdã bhagavato kàye dvattiüsamahàpurisalakkhaõàni yebhuyyena
ñhapetvà dve. Dvãsu mahàpurisalakkhaõesu kaïkhati vicikicchati
nàdhimuccati na sampasãdati kosohite ca vatthaguyhe pahåtajivhatàya ca.

97. Atha kho
bhagavato etadahosi: passati kho me ayaü bràhmaõo pokkharasàdã
dvattiüsamahàpurisalakkhaõàni yebhuyyena ñhapetvà dve. Dvãsu
mahàpurisalakkhaõesu kaïkhati vicikicchati nàdhimuccati na sampasãdati
kosohite ca vatthaguyhe pahåtajivhatàya càti.

Atha kho
bhagavà tathàråpaü iddhàbhisaïkhàraü abhisaïkhàsã yathà addasa bràhmaõo
pokkharasàdã bhagavato kosohitaü vatthaguyhaü. Atha kho bhagavà jivhaü
ninnàmetvà ubho’pi kaõõasotàni anumasi, pañimasi, ubho’pi nàsikàsotàni
anumasi, pañimasi. Kevalampi naëàñamaõóalaü jivhàya chàdesi.

98. Atha kho
bràhmaõassa pokkharasàdissa etadahosi: “samannàgato kho samaõo gotamo
dvattiüsamahàpurisalakkhaõehi paripuõõehi no aparipuõõehã”ti bhagavantaü
etadavoca: adhivàsetu me bhavaü gotamo ajjatanàya bhattaü saddhiü
bhikkhusaïghenà”ti. Adhivàsesi bhagavà tuõhãbhàvena.

99. Atha kho
bràhmaõo pokkharasàdã bhagavato, adhivàsanaü viditvà bhagavato kàlaü
àrocesi: kàlo bho gotama, niññhitaü bhattanti. ‘

[BJT Page 220] [\x 220/]

Atha kho
bhagavà pubbanhasamayaü nivàsetvà pattacãvaramàdàya saddhiü
bhikkhusaïghena yena buhmaõassa pokkharasàdissa parivesanà
tenupasaïkhami. Upasaïkamitvà pa¤¤atte àsane nisãdi. Atha kho bràhmaõo
pokkharasàtã bhagavantaü paõãtena khàdanãyena bhojanãyena sahatthà
santappesi sampavàresi. Màõavakà’pi bhikkhusaïghaü. Atha kho bràhmaõo
pokkharasàtã bhagavantaü bhuttàviü onãtapattapàõiü a¤¤ataraü nãcaü
àsanaü gahetvà ekamantaü nisãdi.

100. Ekamantaü
nisinnassa kho bràhmaõassa pokkharasàdissa [PTS Page 110] [\q 110/]
bhagavà ànupubbãkathaü kathesi, seyyathãdaü: dànakathaü sãlakathaü
saggakathaü kàmànaü àdãnavaü okàraü saükilesaü nekkhamme ca ànisaüsaü
pakàsesi. Yadà bhagavà a¤¤àsi bràhmaõaü pokkharasàtiü kallacittaü
muducittaü vinãvaraõacittaü udaggacittaü pasannacittaü, atha yà
buddhànaü sàmukkaüsikà dhammadesanà taü pakàsesi: dukkhaü samudayaü
nirodhaü maggaü.

Seyyathàpi
nàma suddhaü vatthaü apagatakàëakaü sammadeva rajanaü pañiggaõheyya,
evameva bràhmaõassa pokkharasàdissa tasmiü yeva àsane virajaü vãtamalaü
dhammacakkhuü udapàdi yaü ki¤ci samudayadhammaü sabbaü taü
nirodhadhammanti.

101. Atha kho
bràhmaõo pokkharasàdã diññhadhammo pattadhammo viditadhammo
pariyogàëhadhammo tiõõavicikiccho vigatakathaükatho vesàrajjappatto
aparappaccayo satthusàsane bhagavantaü etadavoca: “abhikkantaü bho
gotama abhikkantaü bho gotama. Seyyathàpi bho gotama nikkujjitaü và
ukkujjeyya pañicchannaü và vivareyya måëhassa và maggaü àcikkheyya
andhakàre và telapajjotaü dhàreyya cakkhumanto råpàni dakkhintãti,
evameva bhotà gotamena anekapariyàyena dhammo pakàsito. Esàhaü bho
gotama saputto sabhariyo sapariso sàmacco bhavantaü gotamaü saraõaü
gacchàmi dhamma¤ca bhikkhusaïgha¤ca. Upàsakaü maü bhavaü gotamo dhàretu
ajjatagge pàõupetaü saraõaü gataü. Yathà ca bhavaü gotamo ukkaññhàya
a¤¤àni upàsakakulàni upasaïkamati evameva bhavaü gotamo
pokkharasàdikulaü upasaïkamatu. Tattha ye te màõavakà và màõavikà và
bhavantaü gotamaü abhivàdessanti và paccuññhissanti và àsanaü và udakaü
và dassanti cittaü và pasàdessanti, tesaü taü bhavissanti dãgharattaü
hitàya sukhàyà”ti. “Kalyàõaü vuccati bràhmaõà”ti.


Ambaññhasuttaü tatiyaü.

INTRODUCTION
TO THE
AMBAòòHA SUTTA


THIS is one of several Suttas
(mentioned in the notes to the celebrated verse quoted at the end of
Chapter I) which deal with the subject of caste.

It is sufficiently evident from the comparative frequency of the
discussions on the matter of Brahman pretensions that this was a burning
question at the time when the Dialogues were composed. No other social
problem is referred to so often; and Brahman would not be so often
represented as expressing astonishment or indignation at the position
taken up regarding it by the early Buddhists unless there had really
been a serious difference on the subject between the two schools. But
the difference, though real, has been gravely misunderstood.

Some writers on Buddhism do not hesitate to ascribe to Gotama the
role of a successful political reformer, by representing him as having
fought for the poor and despised against the rich and privileged
classes, and as having gone far to abolish caste. Other writers gird at
the Buddha because most of the leaders of this Order were drawn from the
ranks of the respectable and the well-to-do, with an education in
keeping with their social position; and disparage him for neglecting the
humble and the wretched, for not using his influence to abolish, or to
mitigate, the harshness of caste rules.

Both views are equally unhistorical. It is well-known that the
population of India is now divided into a number of sections (we call
them `castes’), the members of which are debarred from the right of
intermarriage (from the connubium) with those outside their caste, and
also, but in constantly varying degrees, from the right of eating
together (of commensality) with the members of other sections. Each such
`caste’ has also a council or committee by which it is governed, and
which settles all disputes regarding the caste.

The disastrous effects, from the ethical, social, and political
points of view, of these restrictions, and of caste as a whole, have
been often grossly exaggerated, and the benefits of the [\q 97/] system
ignored. And we are entirely unwarranted in supposing the system, as it
now exists, to have been in existence also at the time when Buddhism
arose in the valley of the Ganges. Our knowledge of the actual facts of
caste, even as it now exists, is still confused and inaccurate. The
theories put forward to explain the facts are loose and irreconcilable.
And an accurate statement of the corresponding facts, if any, at the
time of Gotama, has yet to be drawn up.

We have long known that the connubium was the cause of a long and
determined struggle between the patricians and the plebeians in Rome.
Evidence has been yearly accumulating on the existence of restrictions
as to intermarriage, and as to the right of eating together, among other
Aryan tribes Þ Greeks, Germans, Russians, and so on. Even without the
fact of the existence, now, of such restrictions among the modern
successors of the ancient Aryans in India, it would have been almost
certain that they also were addicted to similar customs. It is certain
that the notion of such usages was familiar enough to some at least of
the tribes that preceded the Aryans in India. It is quite a mistake to
look upon all these tribes as far below the Aryans in culture. Both the
Kolarians and the Dravidians were probably quite the equals of the
Aryans in social organisation. And the Aryans probably adopted much from
them, especially in matters relating to land tenure, village community,
government, taxation, and so on. Their custom of endogamy and exogamy,
their ideas as to purity and the reverse, may have differed from those
of the Aryans, but were similar in kind. Rules of endogamy and exogamy;
privileges, restricted to certain classes, of eating together, are not
only Indian or Aryan, but worldwide phenomena. Both the spirit, and to a
large degree the actual details, of modern Indian caste usages, are
identical with these ancient, and no doubt universal, customs. It is in
them that we have òhe key to the origin of caste.

At any moment in the history of a nation such customs seem, to a
superficial observer, to be fixed and immutable. As a matter of fact
they are never quite the same in successive centuries, or even
generations. A man’s visible frame, though no change is at any moment
perceptible, is really never the same for two consecutive moments, and
the result of constant minute variations becomes clear after the lapse
of time. The numerous and complicated details which we sum up under the
convenient (but often misleading) single name of caste are solely
dependent for their sanction on public opinion. That opinion seems
stable. But it is always tending to vary as to the degree of importance
attached to some particular one of [\q 98/] the details, as to the size
and complexity of the particular groups in which each detail ought to be
observed.

This last statement may be illustrated by the case of the Chaliyas.
When the Dutch started cinnamon cultivation in Ceylon on a large scale,
they wanted labourers. `The peasantry, who belonged almost exclusively
to one caste, the Goigamas, regarded it as unworthy of a free man to
work for hire. Some of them, however, in the struggle of motives, found
the pressure of poverty too strong for them, and accepted service as
coolies. The others, thinking this bad form, became averse to giving
their daughters in marriage to such coolies. These feelings were
naturally stronger at first among the Goigamas of good social position,
and it became a mark of superiority not to have a relative married to a
worker in the cinnamon gardens. And such workers were called Chaliyas.
By the time that the families of Chaliyas were numerous enough to afford
mates for the male or female coolies, the Chaliyas found it impossible
to find wives elsewhere. And thus, under the very eyes of Europeans, the
size of one group had been diminished by the very considerable number
of persons engaged in a new and despised trade. In other words, what we
call a new caste had arisen, the caste of the Chaliyas. When the English
took Ceylon they gave up the government cultivation of cinnamon. The
gardens were carried on, in ever lessening numbers, by private
individuals. The number of the Chaliyas consequently declined. Numbers
of them, as they gradually returned to ordinary peasant work, became
reabsorbed among the Goigamas. This was an instance of a change
precisely contrary to that which happened when the caste gradually
arose. But all did not succeed in returning; and there are, therefore,
still some Chaliyas left. And the caste survives though the members of
it are now no longer exclusively, or even largely, employed in cinnamon
gardens; and many of them have become wealthy and honoured.

What had happened in this case was, not two separate and striking
revolutions, but a long series of slight changes in public opinion, no
doubt quite imperceptible at the time to the very people among whom the
changes were taking place. And after all the changes were not so very
slow. Three or four generations were enough to cover the whole series
with the consequent results. Who can doubt but that the history of
ancient India, if we had only access to the necessary evidence, would be
found to cover, in its two thousand five hundred years, and through its
wide territory, a constant succession of similar variations; and that
similar variations are recurring still today.

[\q 99/] Owing to the fact that the particular set of people who
worked their way to the top based its claims on religious grounds, not
on political power or wealth, the system has, no doubt, lasted longer in
India than in Europe. But public opinion still insists in considerable
circles, even in Europe, on restrictions of a more or less defined kind,
both as to marriage and as to eating together. And in India the problem
still remains to trace in the literature the gradual growth of the
system Þ the gradual formation of new sections among the people, the
gradual extension of the institution to the families of people engaged.
in certain trades, belonging to the same sect or tribe’, tracing their
ancestry (whether rightly or wrongly) to the same source. All these
factors, and others besides, are real factors. But they are phases of
the extension and growth, not explanations of the origin, of the system.

There is no evidence to show that at the time when the conversations
recorded in the Dialogues took place (that is to say, in the sixth
century B. C.) there was any substantial difference, as regards the
barriers in question, between the peoples dwelling in the valley of the
Ganges and their contemporaries dwelling on the shores of the
Mediterranean. The point of greatest weight in the establishment of the
great difference in the subsequent development Þ the supremacy, in
India, of the priests Þ was still being hotly debated. And all our
evidence tends to show that at least in the wide extent of territory
covered by the Piñakas Þ countries close upon a hundred thousand square
miles in area Þ the struggle was being decided rather against the
Brahman than for them. There were distinctions as to marriage;
endogamous and exogamous groups. In a few instances, all among the lower
classes of the people, these amounted, probably, to what would now be
called caste-divisions. But of castes, in the modern sense, among the
preponderating majority there is little or no conclusive evidence.

There was a common phrase current among the people, which divided all
the world into four vaõõà (colours or complexions)-the nobles, the
priests, the other Aryan people, and the non-Aryan Sådras (Khattiyà, Bràhmaõà, Vessà, and Suddà).
The priests put themselves first, and had a theological legend in
support of their contention. But it is clear from the Piñakas that this
was not admitted by the nobles. And it is also clear that no one of
these divisions was a caste. There was neither connubium nor
commensality between all the members of one vaõõa, nor was there a
governing council for each. The fourth was distinguished from the others
by race. The remaining three were distinguished from each other by
[\q 100/] social position. And though in a general rough way the
classification corresponded to the actual facts of life, there were
insensible gradations within the four classes, and the boundary between
them was both variable and undefined.

And this enumeration of the populace
was. not complete. Outside these classes there were others, resembling
in many points the modern low castes, and always when mentioned in the
Piñakas following after the above four. Thus in Aïguttara I, 162
 [1]
the argument is that just as there is no real difference in oxen, in
spite of the fact that they can be arranged in classes by difference of
colour (vaõõa), and the strong, active, well-trained ox is selected by preference, without regard to his colour (vaõõa)
; so also, when presenting gifts, the man of strong, active,
well-trained mind should be selected as donee Þ without reference to the
fact of his belonging to any one of the four classes of society (vaõõà), or of his being a Kaõóàla or a Pukkusa. It is plain that this passage distinguishes the last two from the four vaõõà and therefore from the Sådras


Other old texts [2] insert between these two three further names Þ the Veõas, the Nesàdas, and the Rathakàras, that is to say, the workers in rushes, [3]
bird-catchers, and cartmakers. By these are meant aboriginal tribesmen
who were hereditary craftsmen in these three crafts; for they are called
hãna-jàtiyo, low tribes. They no doubt formed castes in the
modern sense, though we have no information as to their marriage
customs. They are represented in the Jàtaka book as living in villages
of their own, outside the towns in which ordinary people dwelt, and
formed evidently a numerically insignificant portion of the populace.


In the last passage quoted in the previous note there are mentioned, as distinct from these low tribes (the hãna-jàtiyo), certain low occupations (hãna-sippàni)
mat-makers, potters, weavers, leather-workers, and barbers. As they are
excluded from the list of those distinguished by birth (jàti),
it is implied that there was no hard and fast line, determined by birth,
for those who gained their living by these trades. There would be a
natural tendency for the son to follow the father’s craft
 [4]; [\q 101/] centuries afterwards they had become castes, and they were then on the borderline. But they were not castes as yet.


Besides the above, who were all
freemen, there were also slaves. We only hear of them quite
occasionally, as domestic servants, in the houses of the very rich.
Individuals had been captured in predatory raids, and reduced to slavery
(Jàt. IV, 220); or had been deprived of their freedom as a judicial
punishment (Jàt. I, 200); or had submitted to slavery of their own
accord (`Vinaya Texts,’ I,191; Sum. I, 168). Children born to such
slaves were also slaves, and the emancipation of slaves is often
referred to. But we hear nothing of such later developments of slavery
as rendered the Roman latifundia, or the plantations of some Christian
slave-owners, scenes of misery and oppression. For the most part the
slaves were household servants, and not badly treated, and their numbers
seem to have been insignificant
 [5]

What we find then, in the Buddha’s time, is
caste in the making. The great mass of the people were distinguished
quite roughly into four classes-social strata-of which the boundary
lines were vague and uncertain. At the one end of the scale certain
outlying tribes, and certain hereditary crafts of a dirty or despised
kind, were already, probably, castes. At the other end of the scale
Brahman by birth were putting forward caste claims that were not yet
universally admitted. There were social customs about the details of
which we know very little (and dependent probably, more exactly upon the
gotta rather than upon the jàti), which raised barriers, not
seldom broken through, as to intermarriage of people admittedly
belonging to the same vaõõa, and a fortiori of others. And there was a
social code, based on the idea of impurity, which prevented familiar
intercourse (such as commensality) between people of different rank; and
rendered disgraceful the use of certain foods. We find, however, no
usages which cannot be amply paralleled in the history of other peoples
throughout the world in similar stages of social evolution. The
key-stone of the arch of the peculiarly Indian caste organisation-the
absolute supremacy of the Brahmans Þ had not yet been put in position,
had not, in fact, been yet made ready. The caste-system, in any proper
or exact use of the term, did not exist.

In the face of this set of circumstances Gotama took up [\q 102/] a
distinct position. It meets us, it is true, in two phases; but it forms
one consistent and logical whole.

In the first place, as regards his own Order, over which alone he had
complete control, he ignores completely and absolutely all advantages
or disadvantages arising from birth, occupation, and social status, and
sweeps away all barriers and disabilities arising from the arbitrary
rules of mere Ceremonial or social impurity.

One of the most distinguished members of his Order the very one of
them who was referred to as the chief authority, after Gotama himself,
on the rules of the Order, was Upàli, who had formerly been a barber,
one of the despised occupations. So Sunãta, one of the brethren whose
verses are chosen for insertion in the Thera Jàthà, was a Pukkusa, one
of the low tribes. Sàti, the propounder of a deadly heresy, was of the
sons of the fisherfolk, afterwards a low caste, and even then an
occupation, on account of its cruelty, particularly abhorred. Nanda was a
cowherd. The two Paõñhakas were born out of wedlock, to a girl of good
family through intercourse with a slave (so that by the rule laid down
in Manu 31, they were actually outcasts). Kàpà was the daughter of a
deer-stalker, Puõõà and Puõõikà had been slave girls. Sumangalamàtà was
daughter and wife to workers in rushes, and Subhà was the daughter of a
smith. More instances could doubtless be quoted already, and others will
become known when more texts are published.

It does not show much historical insight to sneer at the numbers as
small, and to suggest that the supposed enlightenment or liberality was
mere pretence. The facts speak for themselves; and the percentage of
low-born members of the Order was probably in fair proportion to the
percentage of persons belonging to the despised jàtis and sippas as
compared with the rest of the population. Thus of the Therãs mentioned
in the Therã Gàthà we know the social position of sixty, of whom five
are mentioned above-that is 8 1/2 per cent. of the whole number were
base-born. It is most likely that this is just about the proportion
which persons in similar social rank bore to the rest of the population.

Whether the Buddhist Order differed in
this respect from the other similar communities which are mentioned in
the Buddhist books as having already existed when the Buddhist Order was
founded, is still matter of controversy. The Buddhist books are mostly
silent on the matter. But that very silence is valuable evidence. It is
scarcely likely that, if there had been much difference, there should be
no allusion to it in the Piñakas. And the few passages in print confirm
this. We [\q 103/] have seen how in the Sàma¤¤a-phala Sutta (above, P.
77) it is taken for granted that a slave would join an Order (that is
any order, not the Buddhist). And in the Agga¤¤a Sutta of the Dãgha, and
the Madhura Sutta of the Majjhima, there is express mention of Sådras
becoming Samaõas, as if it were a recognised and common occurrence, long
before the time of the rise of Buddhism. So in the Jàtaka (III, 381) we
hear of a potter, and at IV, 392 of a Kaõóàla, who become Samaõas (not Buddhist Samaõas). 
[6]

On the other hand, it is just possible that
in these passages the custom afterwards followed in the Buddhist Order
is simply put back to earlier times, and is an anachronism. The
low-born, however earnest in their search after truth, were no doubt
excluded from any community of hermits or religious recluses in which
Brahmans had the upper hand. But all the twice-born (the Dvijas, that is the Khattiyas, Bràhmaõas, and Vessas)
were certainly justified, by public opinion, in becoming Samaõas. To
what extent the Sådras, and the tribes below the Sådras, were accorded,
in communities other than the Buddhist, a similar privilege, is at
present doubtful. But the Buddha certainly adopted, and probably
extended, the most rational view current at the time.

There is one point, however, in which
he seems to have restricted (and for a valid reason) the existing
custom. It is impossible to avoid the inference from the passage just
referred to (in the Sàma¤¤a-phala, above, P. 77), that the existing
orders, or most of them, admitted slaves to their ranks. Now among a
number of rules laid down to regulate admission to the Buddhist Order,
in such wise that the existing rights of third parties should not be
encroached upon, there is a rule (translated in `Vinaya Texts,’ S. B.
E., I, 199) that no runaway slave, shall be admitted. And in the form of
words to be used at the chapter held for admitting new members, one of
the questions asked of the candidate is: `Are you a freeman?’
 [7]
Whenever slaves were admitted to the Order, they must have previously
obtained the consent of their masters, and also, I think, have been
emancipated.


Secondly, as regards all such matters
as we may now fairly call `questions of caste’ outside the Order, the
Buddha adopted the only course then open to any man of sense; that is to
say, he strove to influence that public opinion, on which the
observances depend, by a constant inculcation of reasonable views. Thus
in the âmagandha Sutta
 [8]
of the Sutta [\q 104/] Nipàta (certainly one of the very oldest of our
documents) it is laid down, in eloquent words, that defilement does not
come from eating this or that, prepared or given by this or that person,
but from evil deeds and words and thoughts.

This is a particularly interesting passage, being one of the few in
which sayings of previous Buddhas are recorded. In other words the
Buddhists put forward this view as having been enunciated long ago-with
the intended implication that it was a self-evident proposition which
was common ground to the wise. No originality, no special insight, is
claimed on account of a view that would have put an end to so many
foolish prejudices based on superstition. The Buddha’s position is again
to adopt, in this matter, the sensible position already put forward by
others.

As to other details also, which it would take too long to set out
here, Gotama followed the same plan. On the general question, however,
he had opinions, presumably his own. For they are not found elsewhere.
And in the early Buddhist texts (always ready to give credit to others,
and even anxious wherever possible to support their views by showing
that others, especially in ancient times, had held them) these views are
not referred to as part of the doctrine of either earlier or
contemporary teachers.

We may class the utterances on this point under three heads-biological, ethical, and historical.

In the Vàseññha Sutta of the Sutta
Nipàta (several verses of which have been inserted also in the
Dhammapada) the question, as in the Soõadaõóa Sutta, translated below,
is as to what makes a man a Brahman. As his answer the Buddha reminds
his questioners of the fact that whereas, in the case of plants (large
or small), insects, quadrupeds, serpents, fish, and birds, there are
many species and marks (due to the species) by which they can be
distinguished-in the case of man there are no such species, and no such
marks. `Herein,’ as pointed out by Mr. Chalmers,
 [9]
`Gotama was in accord with the conclusion of modern biologists, that
ßthe Anthropidae are represented by the single genus and species, ManûÞa
conclusion the more remarkable as the accident of colour did not
mislead Gotama’ as it did so many of his contemporaries then; and even,
within living memory, so many in the West. He goes on to draw the
conclusion that distinctions made between different men are mere matters
of prejudice and custom; that it is wisdom and goodness that make the
only valid distinction, that make a man a Brahman; that the [\q 105/]
Arahat is therefore the true Brahman; and that it is only the ignorant
who had, for so long, maintained that it was birth that made a man a
Brahman.


Similar arguments frequently recur. In
the Madhura Sutta, a dialogue, shortly after the Buddha’s death,
between the king of Madhura and Kaccàna, the point raised is whether the
Brahmans are right in their exclusive claims. `The Brahmans say thus,
Kaccàna: ßThe Brahmans are the most distinguished of the four divisions
into which the people is classified
]; [10]
every other division is inferior. The Brahmans are the white division;
all the rest are black. The Brahmans alone are accounted pure, not those
who are not Brahmans. The Brahmans are the legitimate sons of God (of
Brahmà), born from His mouth, specially made by Him, heirs of Brahmà!
What do you, Sir, say to this?û’


The Buddhist answer is first to remind
the king of the actual facts of life-how a prosperous member of any one
of the four vaõõas would find members of each of the other three to
wait upon him and serve him. There was no difference between them in
this respect. Then, secondly, he points out how a wicked man (whatever
his vaõõa), in accordance with the doctrine of Karma acknowledged
by all good men (not only by Buddhists), will be reborn in some state
of woe; and a good man in some state of bliss. Thirdly, a criminal,
whatever his vaõõa, would be equally subject to punishment for his
crime. And lastly, a man, whatever his vaõõa, would, on joining an
order, on becoming a religieux, receive equal respect and honour from
the people
]. [11]

A Brahman
might object that all this ignores the important point that the Brahman
were, originally, born of Brahma, and are his legitimate heirs. It was
this claim to especial connection with the mysterious powers of a
supernatural kind, so widely believed in, that formed their chief weapon
in the struggle. We find the Buddhist reply to that in the Agga¤¤a
Sutta of the Dãgha, in many respects one. of the most interesting and
instructive of all the Dialogues
]. [12]
It is a kind [\q 106/] of Buddhist book of Genesis. In it the
pretensions of the Brahman are put forward in the same terms as those
just quoted above from the Madhura Sutta.


Gotama replies that they make these claims in forgetfulness of the past. The claims have no basis in fact. It is righteousness (dhamma) and not class distinction (vaõõa) that makes the real difference between man and man]. [13]
Do we not daily see Brahman women with child and bearing sons just like
other folk? How can they then say that they are born of God? And as to
their origin, when the evolution of the world began, beings were at
first immaterial, feeding on joy, giving light from themselves, passing
through the air. There was thick darkness round about them, and neither
sun nor moon, nor stars, nor sex, nor measures of time. Then the earth
rose in the midst of the waters, beautiful as honey in taste and colour
and smell, and the beings, eating thereof, lost their brightness, and
then sun and moon and stars appeared, and time began to run. And then
also their bodies became more coarse and material, and differences of
complexion (vaõõa) became manifest among them. Then some prided
themselves, and despised others, on the ground of their finer
complexion. And thereupon the fine-tasting earth ceased to be so.

Then successively fine moss, and sweet creepers, and delicate rice
appeared, and each time the beings ate thereof with a similar result.
Then differences of sex appeared; and households were formed; and the
lazy stored up the rice, instead of gathering it each evening and
morning; and the rights of property arose, and were infringed. And when
lusts were felt, and thefts committed, the beings, now become men, met
together, and chose certain men, differing from the others in no wise
except in virtue (dhamma), to restrain the evil doers by blame or
fines or banishment. These were the first Kshatriyas. And others they
chose to restrain the evil dispositions which led to the evil doing. And
these were the first Brahman, differing from the others in no wise,
except only in virtue (dhamma).

Then certain others, to keep their households going, and maintain
their wives, started occupations of various kinds. And these were the
first vessas. And some abandoned their homes and became the first
recluses (samaõas). But all were alike in origin, and the only
distinction between them was in virtue. And the highest of them all was
acknowledged [\q 107/] to be the Arahat, who had made himself so by the
destruction of the Four Mental Intoxications (the àsavas) and by
breaking the bonds that tied him to rebirths; the man who had laid aside
every burden, who had lived the life, had accomplished a11 that had to
be done, had gained his end, and by the highest knowledge was set free!

We may not accept the historical accuracy of this legend. Indeed a
continual note of good-humoured irony runs through the whole story, with
its fanciful etymologies of the names of the four vaõõà; and the aroma
of it would be lost on the hearer who took it au grand szeezrieux. But
it reveals a sound and healthy insight, and is much nearer to the actual
facts than the Brahman legend it was intended to replace.

Had the Buddha’s views on the whole
question won the day-and widely shared, as they were, by others, they
very nearly prevailed-the evolution of social grades and distinctions
would have gone on in India on lines similar to those it followed in the
West, and the caste system of India would never have been built up
]. [14]

[\q 108/]
(
Introduction)

III. AMBAòòHA SUTTA
[A YOUNG BRAHMAN’S RUDENESS AND AN OLD ONE’S FAITH]

Chapter I.

1. Thus have I heard. The Blessed One, when once on a tour through
the Kosala country with a great company of the brethren, with about five
hundred brethren, arrived at a Brahman village in Kosala named
Icchànankala; and while there he stayed in the Icchànankala Wood.

Now at that time the Brahman
Pokkharasàdi was dwelling at Ukkaññha, a spot teeming with life, with
much grassland and woodland and corn, on a royal domain, granted him by
King Pasenadi of Kosala as a royal gift, with power over it as if he
were the king.
 [15]

2. Now the Brahman Pokkharasàdi [16] heard the news:

[\q 109/] `They say that the Samaõa Gotama, of the Sàkya clan, who
went out from a Sàkya family to adopt the religious life, has now
arrived, with a great company of the brethren of his Order, at
Icchànankala, and is staying there in the Icchànankala Wood. Now
regarding that venerable Gotama, such is the high reputation that has
been noised abroad:¤That Blessed One is an Arahat, a fully awakened one,
abounding in wisdom and goodness, happy, with knowledge of the worlds,
unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to be led, a teacher for gods
and men, a Blessed One, a Buddha. He, by himself, thoroughly knows and
sees, as it were, face to face this universe,¤including the worlds above
of the gods, the Brahmas, and the Màras, and the world below with its
recluses and Brahman, its princes and peoples,¤and having known it, he
makes his knowledge known to others. The truth, lovely in its origin,
lovely in its progress, lovely in its consummation, doth he proclaim,
both in the spirit and in the letter, the higher life doth he make
known, in all its fullness and in all its purity.

[88] `And good is it to pay visits to Arahats like that.’

3. Now at that time a young Brahman, an Ambaññha, [17]
was a pupil under Pokkharasàdi the Brahman. And he was a repeater (of
the sacred words) knowing the mystic verses by heart, one who had
mastered the Three Vedas, with the indices, the ritual, the phonology,
and the exegesis (as a fourth),
 [18]
and the legends [\q 110/] as a fifth, learned in the idioms and the
grammar, versed in Lokàyata sophistry, and in the theory of the signs on
the body of a great man,
 [19]¤so
recognised an authority in the system of the threefold Vedic knowledge
as expounded by his master, that he could say of him: `What I know that
you know, and what you know that I know.’

4. And Pokkharasàdi told Ambaññha the news, and said: `Come now, dear
Ambaññha, go to the Samaõa Gotama, and find out whether the reputations
so noised abroad regarding him is in accord with the facts or not,
whether the Samaõa Gotama is such as they say or not.’

5. `But how, Sir, shall I know whether that is so or not?’

`There have been handed down,
Ambaññha, in our mystic verses thirty-two bodily signs of a great man,¤
signs which, if a man has, he will become one of two things, and no
other.
 [20]
If he dwells at home he will become a sovran of the world, a righteous
king, bearing rule even to the shores of the four great oceans, a
conqueror, the protector of his people, possessor of the seven royal
treasures. [89] And these are the seven treasures that he has¤the Wheel,
the Elephant, the Horse, the Gem, the Woman, the Treasurer, and the
[\q 111/] Adviser as a seventh.
 [21]
And he has more than a thousand sons, heroes, mighty in frame, beating
down the armies of the foe. And he dwells in complete ascendancy over
the wide earth from sea to sea, ruling it in righteousness without the
need of baton or of sword. But if he go forth from the household life
into the houseless state, then he will become a Buddha who removes the
veil from the eyes of the world. Now I, Ambaññha, am a giver of the
mystic verses; you have received them from me.’

6. `Very good, Sir,’ said Ambaññha in reply; and rising from his seat
and paying reverence to Pokkharasàdi, he mounted a chariot drawn by
mares, and proceeded, with a retinue of young Brahman, to the
Icchànankala Wood. And when he had gone on in the chariot as far as the
road was practicable for vehicles, he got down, and went on, into the
park, on foot.

7. Now at that time a number of the brethren were walking up and down
in the open air. And Ambaññha went up to them, and said: `Where may the
venerable Gotama be lodging now? We have come hither to call upon him.’

8. Then the brethren thought: `This
young Brahman Ambaññha is of distinguished family, and a pupil of the
distinguished Brahman Pokkharasàdi. The Blessed One will not find it
difficult to hold conversation with such.’ And they said to Ambaññha:
`There, Ambaññha, is his lodging,
 [22]
where the door is shut, go quietly up and enter the porch gently, and
give a cough, and knock on the cross-bar. The Blessed One will open the
door for you.’

9. Then Ambaññha did so. And the Blessed One opened the door, and
Ambaññha entered in. And the other young Brahman also went in; and they
exchanged with the Blessed One the greetings and [\q 112/] compliments
of politeness and courtesy, and took their seats. But Ambaññha, walking
about, said something or other of a civil kind in an off-hand way,
fidgeting about the while, or standing up, to the Blessed One sitting
there.

[90] 10. And the Blessed One said to him: `Is that the way, Ambaññha,
that you would hold converse with aged teachers, and teachers of your
teachers well stricken in years, as you now do, moving about the while
or standing, with me thus seated?’

11. `Certainly not, Gotama. It is
proper to speak with a Brahman as one goes along only when the Brahman
himself is walking, and standing to a Brahman who stands, and seated to a
Brahman who has taken his seat, or reclining to a Brahman who reclines.
But with shavelings, sham friars, menial black fellows, the offscouring
of our kinsman’s heels
 [23]¤with them I would talk as I now do to you!’


`But you must have been wanting
something, Ambaññha, when you came here. Turn your thoughts rather to
the object you had in view when you came. This young Brahman Ambaññha is
ill bred, though he prides himself on his culture; what can this come
from except from want of training?’
 [24]

12. Then Ambaññha was displeased and angry
with the Blessed One at being called rude; and at the thought that the
Blessed One was vexed with him, he said, scoffing, jeering, and sneering
at the Blessed One: `Rough is this Sàkya breed of yours, Gotama, and
rude; touchy is this Sàkya breed of yours and [\q 113/] violent.

[91] Menials, mere menials, [25]
they neither venerate, nor value, nor esteem, nor give gifts to, nor
pay honour to Brahman. That, Gotama, is neither fitting, nor is it
seemly!’

Thus did the young Brahman Ambaññha for the first time charge the Sàkyas with being menials.

13. `But in what then, Ambaññha, have the Sàkyas given you offence?’

`Once, Gotama, I had to go to Kapilavatthu on some business or other of Pokkharasàdi’s, and went into the Sàkyas’ Congress Hall. [26]
Now at that time there were a number of Sàkyas, old and young, seated
in the hall on grand seats, making merry and joking together, nudging
one another with their fingers;
 [27]
and for a truth, methinks, it was I myself that was the subject of
their jokes; and not one of them even offered me a seat. That, Gotama,
is neither fitting, nor is it seemly, that the Sàkyas, menials as they
are, mere menials, should neither venerate, nor value, nor esteem, nor
give gifts to, nor pay honour to Brahman.’

Thus did the young Brahman Ambaññha for the second time charge the Sàkyas with being menials.

[\q 114/] 14. `Why a quail, Ambaññha, little hen bird though she be,
can say what she likes in her own nest. And there the Sàkyas are at
their own home, in Kapilavatthu. It is not fitting for you to take
offence at so trifling a thing.’

15. `There are these four grades [28]
Gotama,¤the nobles, the Brahman, the tradesfolk, and the workpeople.
And of these four, three¤the nobles, the tradesfolk, and the
work-people¤are, verily, but attendants on the Brahman. [92] So, Gotama,
that is neither fitting, nor is it seemly, that the, Sàkyas, menials as
they are, mere menials, should neither venerate, nor value, nor esteem,
nor give gifts to, nor pay honour to the Brahman.’

Thus did the young Brahman Ambaññha for the third time charge the Sàkyas with being menials.

16. Then the Blessed One thought thus: `This Ambaññha is very set on
humbling the Sàkyas with his charge of servile origin in. What if I were
to ask him as to his own lineage?’ And he said to him:

`And what family do you then, Ambaññha, belong to?’

`I am a Kaõhàyana.’

`Yes, but if one were to follow up
your ancient name and lineage, Ambaññha, on the father’s and the
mother’s side, it would appear that the Sàkyas were once your masters,
and that you are the offspring of one of their slave girls. But the
Sàkyas trace their line back to Okkàka the king.
 [29]

`Long ago, Ambaññha, King Okkàka, wanting to
divert the succession in favour of the son of his favourite queen,
banished his elder children¤Okkàmukha, Karaõóa Hatthinika, and
Sinipura¤from the land. And being thus banished they took up their
dwelling on the slopes of the Himàlaya, on the borders of a lake where a
mighty oak tree grew.

[\q 115/] And through fear of injuring the purity of their line they intermarried with their sisters.

`Now Okkàka the king asked the ministers at his court: ßWhere, Sirs, are the children now?û [30]

`There is a spot, Sire, on the slopes of the Himàlaya, on the, borders of a lake, where there grows a mighty oak (sako). There do they dwell. And lest they should injure the purity of their line they have married their own (sakàhi) sisters.’

`Then did Okkàka the king burst forth in admiration [93]: ßHearts of oak (sakyà) are those young fellows! Right well they hold their own (paramasakyà)!û [31]

`That is the reason, Ambaññha, why they are
known as Sàkyas. Now Okkàka had a slave girl called Disà. She gave birth
to a black baby. And no sooner was it born than the little black thing
said, ßWash me, mother. Bathe me, mother. Set me free, mother, of this
dirt. So shall I be of use to you.û

`Now just as now, Ambaññha, people- call devils ßdevils,û so then they called devils ßblack fellowsû (kaõhe). And they said: ßThis fellow spoke as soon as he was born. `Tis a black thing (kaõha) that is born, a devil has been born!û And that is the origin, Ambaññha, of the Kaõhàyanas. [32] He was the ancestor of the Kaõhàyanas. [33]
And thus is it, Ambaññha, that if one were to follow up your ancient
name and lineage, on the father’s and on the mother’s side, it would
appear that the Sàkyas were once your masters, and that you are the
offspring of one of their slave girls.’

17. When he had thus spoken the young Brahman said to the Blessed
One: `Let not the venerable [\q 116/] Gotama humble Ambaññha too sternly
with this reproach of being descended from a slave girl. He is well
born, Gotama, and of good family; he is versed in the sacred hymns, an
able reciter, a learned man. And he is able to give answer to the
venerable Gotama in these matters.’

18. Then the Blessed One said to them:
`Quite so. If 194] you thought otherwise, then it would be for you to
carry on our discussion further. But as you think so, let Ambaññha
himself speak.’
 [34]

19. ` We do think so; and we will hold our peace. Ambaññha is able to give answer to the venerable Gotama in these matters.’

20. Then the Blessed One said to
Ambaññha the Brahman: `Then this further question arises, Ambaññha, a
very reasonable one which, even though unwillingly, you should answer.
If you do not give a clear reply, or go off upon another issue,
 [35] or remain silent, or go away, then your head will split in pieces on the spot. [36]
What have you heard, when Brahman old and well stricken in years,
teachers of yours or their teachers, were talking together, as to whence
the Kaõhàyanas draw their origin, and who the ancestor was to whom they
trace themselves back?’

And when he had thus spoken Ambaññha remained silent. And the Blessed
One asked the same question again. [95] And still Ambaññha remained
silent. Then the Blessed One said to him: `You [\q 117/] had better
answer, now, Ambaññha. This is no time for you to hold your peace. For
whosoever, Ambaññha, does not, even up to the third time of asking,
answer a reasonable question put by a Tathàgata (by one who has won the
truth), his head splits into pieces `on the spot.’

21. Now at that time the spirit who bears the thunderbolt [37]
stood over above Ambaññha in the sky with a mighty mass of iron, all
fiery, dazzling, and aglow, with the intention, if he did not answer,
there and then to split his head in pieces. And the Blessed One
perceived the spirit bearing the thunderbolt, and so did Ambaññha the
Brahman. And Ambaññha on becoming aware of it, terrified, startled, and
agitated, seeking safety and protection and help from the Blessed One,
crouched down beside him in awe,
 [38] and said: `What was it the Blessed One said? Say it once again!’

`What do you think, Ambaññha? What have you heard, when Brahman old
and well stricken in years, teachers of yours or their teachers, were
talking together, as to whence the Kaõhàyanas draw their origin, and who
the ancestor was to whom they trace themselves back?’

`Just so, Gotama, did I hear, even as the venerable Gotama hath said.
That is the origin of the Kaõhàyanas, and that the ancestor to whom
they trace themselves back.’

22. And when he had thus spoken the. young Brahman fell into tumult,
and uproar, and turmoil; and said: `Low born, they say, is Ambaññha the
Brahman; his family, they say, is not of good standing; they say he is
descended from a slave girl; and the Sàkyas were his masters. We did not
suppose that the Samaõa Gotama, whose words are righteousness itself,
was not a man to be trusted!’

23. And the Blessed One thought: [96]
`They [\q 118/] go too far, these Brahman, in their depreciation of
Ambaññha as the offspring of a slave girl. Let me set him free from
their reproach.’ And he said to them: `Be not too severe in disparaging
Ambaññha the Brahman on the ground of his descent. That Kaõha became a
mighty seer.
 [39]
He went into the Dekkan, there he learnt mystic verses, and returning
to Okkàka the king, he demanded his daughter. Madda-råpã in marriage. To
him the king in answer said: ßWho forsooth is this fellow, who Þ son of
my slave girl as he is Þ asks for my daughter in marriage;û and, angry
and displeased, he fitted an arrow to his bow. But neither could he let
the arrow fly, nor could he take it off the string again.
 [40]

`Then the ministers and courtiers went to Kaõha the seer, and said ßLet the king go safe, Sir; let the king go safe.” [41]

ßThe king
shall suffer no harm. But should he shoot the arrow downwards, then
would the earth dry up as far as his realm extends.û
 [42]

ßLet the king, Sir, go safe, and the country too.û

ßThe king shall suffer no harm, nor his land. But should he shoot the
arrow upwards, the god would not rain for seven years as far as his
realm extends.û

ßLet the king, Sir, go safe, and the country too; and let the god rain.û

ßThe king shall suffer no harm, nor the land either, and the god
shall rain. But let the king aim the arrow at his eldest son. The prince
shall suffer no harm, not a hair of him shall be touched.”

Then, O Brahmans, the ministers told this to Okkàka, [\q 119/] and said: ßLet the king aim at his eldest son. [43]
He will suffer neither harm nor terror.û And the king did so, and no
harm was done. But the king, terrified at the lesson given him, [97]
gave the man his daughter Madda-råpã to wife. You should not, O
Brahmans, be too severe to disparage Ambaññha in the matter of his
slave-girl ancestress. That Kaõha was a mighty seer.’

24. Then the Blessed One said to Ambaññha: `What think you, Ambaññha?
Suppose a young Kshatriya should have connection with a Brahman maiden,
and from their intercourse a son should be born. Now would the son thus
come to the Brahman maiden through the Kshatriya youth receive a seat
and water (as tokens of respect) from the Brahmans?”

`Yes, he would, Gotama.’

`But would the Brahman allow him to partake of the feast offered to the dead, or of the food boiled in milk, [44] or of the offerings to the gods, or of food sent as a present?’

`Yes, they would, Gotama.’

`But would the Brahman teach him their verses or not?’

`They would, Gotama.’

`But would he be shut off, or not, from their women?’

`He would not be shut off.’

`But would the Kshatriyas allow him to receive the consecration ceremony of a Kshatriya?’

`Certainly not, Gotama.’

`Why not that?’

`Because he is not of pure descent on the mother’s side.’

25. `Then what think you, Ambaññha? Suppose a Brahman youth should
have connection with a Kshatriya maiden, and from their intercourse a
son should be born. Now would the son thus come to the Kshatriya maiden
through the Brahman youth receive [\q 120/] a seat and water (as tokens
of respect) from the Brahmans?’

`Yes, he would, Gotama.’

`But would the Brahman allow him to partake of the feast offered to
the dead, or of food boiled in milk, or of an offering to the gods, or
of food sent as a present?’

`Yes, they would, Gotama.’

`But would the Brahman teach him their verses or not?’

`They would, Gotama.’

[98] `But would he be shut off, or not, from their women?’

`He would not, Gotama.’

`But would the Kshatriyas allow him to receive the consecration ceremony of a Kshatriya?’

`Certainly not, Gotama.’

`Why not that?’

`Because he is not of pure descent on the father’s side.’

26. `Then, Ambaññha, whether one compares women with women, or men
with men, the Kshatriyas are higher and the Brahmans inferior.

`And what think you, Ambaññha? Suppose the Brahman, for some offence [45] or other, were to outlaw a Brahman by shaving him and pouring ashes over his head, [46] were to banish him from the land or from the township. Would he be offered a seat or water among the Brahmans?’

`Certainly not, Gotama.’

`Or would the Brahman allow him to partake of the food. offered to
the dead, or of the food boiled in milk, or of the offerings to the
gods, or of food sent as a present?’

`Certainly not, Gotama.’

[\q 121/] `Or would the Brahmans teach him their verses or not? `

`Certainly not, Gotama.’

`And would he be shut off, or not, from their women?’

`He would be `shut off.’

27. But what think you, Ambaññha? If the Kshatriyas had in the same
way outlawed a Kshatriya, and banished him from the land or the
township, would he, among the Brahmans, be offered water and a seat?’

`Yes, he would, Gotama.’

`And would he be allowed to partake of the food offered to the dead,
or of the food boiled in milk, or of the offerings to the gods, or of
food sent as a present?’

He would, Gotama.’

`And would the Brahman teach him their verses?’

They would, Gotama?’

`And would he be shut off, or not, from their women?’

`He would not, Gotama.’

[99] `But thereby, Ambaññha, the Kshatriya would have fallen into the
deepest degradation, shaven as to his head, cut dead with the
ash-basket, banished from land and township. So that, even when a
Kshatriya has fallen into the deepest degradation, still it holds good
that the Kshatriyas are higher, and the Brahman inferior.

28. `Moreover it was one of the Brahmà gods, Sanaü-kumàra, [47] who uttered this stanza [48]:


[\q 122/] ßThe Kshatriya is the best of those among this folk
who put their trust in lineage.
But he who is perfect in wisdom and righteousness,
he is the best among gods and men.û


`Now this stanza, Ambaññha, was well sung and not ill sung by the
Brahmà Sanaü-kumàra, well said and not ill said, full of meaning and not
void thereof And I too approve it; I also, Ambaññha, say:

“The Kshatriya is the best of those among this folk who put their trust in lineage. [49]

But he who is perfect in wisdom and righteousness, he is the best among gods and men.”‘

Here ends the First Portion for Recitation [50]


 

Chapter II [\q 123/]

1. `But what, Gotama, is the righteousness, and what the wisdom spoken of in that verse?’

`In the supreme perfection in wisdom and righteousness, Ambaññha,
there is no reference to the question either of birth, or of lineage, or
of the pride which says: ßYou are held as worthy as I,û or ßYou are
not. held as worthy as I.û It is where the talk is of marrying, or of
giving in marriage, that reference is made to such things as that. For
whosoever, Ambaññha, are in bondage to the notions of birth or of
lineage, or to the pride of social position, or of connection by
marriage, they are far from the best wisdom and righteousness. It is
only by having got rid of all such bondage that one can realise for
himself [100] that supreme perfection in wisdom and in conduct.’

2.’ But what, Gotama, is that conduct, and what that wisdom?’

[Here follow, under Morality (Sãla) [51]

The introductory paragraphs (Section 40-42 of
the Sàma¤¤a-phala, pp. 62, 63 of the text) on the appearance of a
Buddha, his preaching, the conversion of a hearer, and his renunciation
of the world: then come

1. The Sãlas, above, pp. 4-12 (Section 8-27) of the text. Only the
refrain differs. It runs here, art the end of each clause, through the
whole of this repeated passage: `This is reckoned in him as morality.’

[\q 124/] Then under Conduct (Caraõa)

2. The paragraph on Confidence, above, p. 69 of he text, Section 63.
The refrain from here onwards is: `This is reckoned to him as conduct.

3. The paragraph on `Guarded is the door of his senses,’ above, p.70 of the text, Section 64.

4. The paragraph on `Mindful and self-possessed,’ above p. 70 of the text, Section 65.

5. The paragraph on Content, above, p.71 of the text, Section 66.

6. The paragraph on Solitude, above, p.71 of the text Section 67.

7. The paragraphs on the Five Hindrances, above, pp. 71-72 of the text, Section 68-74.

8. The paragraphs on the Four Rapt Contemplations, [52]
above , pp. 73-76, Section 75-82. The refrain at the end of each of
them (`higher and better than the last’) is here, of course to be read
not as higher fruit of the life of a recluse, but as higher conduct.

Under Wisdom (Vijjà)

9. The paragraphs on Insight arising from Knowledge (¥àõa-dassanaü),above,
p.76 of the text, Section 83,84. The refrain from here onwards is:
`This is reckoned in him as wisdom, and it is higher and sweeter than
the last.’

10. The paragraphs on the Mental Image, above, p.77 of the text, Section 85, 86.

11. The paragraphs on Mystic Gifts (Iddhi), above, p. 77 of the text, Section87, 88.

12. The paragraphs on the Heavenly Ear (Dibbasota) above , p.79 of the text, Section 89, 90.

13. The paragraphs on the Knowledge of the hearts of others (Ceto-pariya-¤àõaü), above, p.79 of the text, Section 91, 92.

14. The paragraphs on Memory of one’s own previous [\q 125/] births (Pubbe-nivàsa-anussati-¤àõa), above, p. 81 of the text, Section 93, 94.

15. The paragraph on the Divine Eye (Dibbacakkhu), above, p. 82 of the text, Section 95, 96.

16. He paragraphs on the Destruction of the Deadly Floods (âsavànaü khaya-¤àõaü), above, p. 83 of the text, Section 97, 98.] [53]

`Such a man, Ambaññha, is said to be perfect
in wisdom, perfect in conduct, perfect in wisdom and conduct. And there
is no other perfection in wisdom and conduct higher and sweeter than
this.’


3. `Now, Ambaññha, to this supreme perfection in wisdom and goodness [101] there are Four Leakages. [54] And what are the four?’

`In case, Ambaññha, any recluse or Brahman, without having thoroughly
attained unto this supreme perfection in wisdom and conduct, with his
yoke on his shoulder (to carry fire-sticks, a water-pot, needles, and
the rest of a mendicant friar’s outfit), should plunge into the depths
of the forest, vowing to himself: ßI will henceforth be one of those who
live only on fruits that have fallen of themselvesû Þthen, verily, he
turns out worthy only to be a servant unto him that hath attained to
wisdom and righteousness.

`And again, Ambaññha, in case any recluse or Brahman, without having
thoroughly attained unto this supreme perfection in wisdom and conduct,
and without having attained to living only on fruits fallen of
themselves, taking a hoe and a basket with him, should plunge into the
depths of the forest, vowing to himself: ßI will henceforth be one of
those who live only on bulbs and roots and fruitsû Þthen, verily, he
turns out worthy only to be a servant unto him who hath attained to
wisdom and righteousness.

[\q 126/] `And again, Ambaññha, in
case any recluse or Brahman, without having thoroughly attained unto
this supreme perfection in wisdom and conduct, and without having,
attained to living only on fruits fallen of them-selves, and without
having attained to living only on bulbs and roots and fruits, should
build himself a fire-shrine near the boundaries of some village or some
town, and there dwell serving the fire-god
 [55] Þ then, verily, he turns out worthy only to be a servant unto him that hath attained to wisdom and righteousness.

`And again, Ambaññha, in case any recluse or Brahman, without having
thoroughly attained unto this supreme perfection in wisdom and conduct,
and without having attained to living only on fruits fallen of
themselves, and without having attained to living only on bulbs and
roots and fruits, and without having attained to serving the fire-god,
[102] should build himself a four-doored almshouse at a crossing where
four high roads meet, and dwell there, saying to himself: ßWhosoever,
whether recluse or Brahman, shall pass here, from either of these four
directions, him will I entertain according to my ability and according
to my powerû Þ then, verily, he turns out worthy only to be a servant
unto him who hath attained to wisdom and righteousness.

`These are the Four Leakages, Ambaññha, to supreme perfection in righteousness and conduct. [56]

4. `Now what
think you, Ambaññha? Have you, as one of a class of pupils under the
same teacher, been instructed in this supreme perfection of wisdom and
conduct?’ 
[57]

`Not that, Gotama. How little is it that I
can profess [\q 127/] to have learnt! How supreme this Perfection of
wisdom and conduct! Far is it from me to have been trained therein?’

`Then what think you, Ambaññha? Although you have not thoroughly
attained unto this supreme perfection of wisdom and goodness, have you
been trained to take the yoke upon your shoulders, and plunge into the
depths of the forest as one who would fain observe the vow of living
only on fruits fallen of themselves?

`Not even that, Gotama.’

`Then what think you, Ambaññha? Although you have not attained unto
this supreme perfection of wisdom and goodness, nor have attained to
living on fruits fallen of themselves, have you been trained to take hoe
and basket, and plunge into the depths of the forest as one who would
fain observe the vow of living only on bulbs and roots and fruits?’

`Not even that, Gotama.’

`Then what think you, Ambaññha? Although you have not attained unto
this supreme perfection of wisdom and goodness, and have not attained to
living on fruits fallen of themselves, and have not attained to living
on bulbs and roots and fruits, have you been taught to build yourself a
fire-shrine on the borders of some village or some town, and dwell there
as one who would fain serve the fire-god?’

[103] `Not even that, Gotama.’

`Then what think you, Ambaññha? Although you have not attained unto
this supreme perfection of wisdom and goodness, and have not attained to
living on fruits fallen of themselves, and have not attained to living
on bulbs and roots and fruits, and have not attained to serving the
fire-god, have you been taught to build yourself a four-doored almshouse
at a spot where four high roads cross, and dwell there as one who would
fain observe the vow to entertain whosoever might pass that way, from
any of the four directions, according to your ability and according to
your power?’

`Not even that, Gotama.’

[\q 128/] 5. `So then you, Ambaññha, as a pupil, have fallen short [58]
of due training, not only in the supreme wisdom and conduct, but even
in any one of the Four Leakages by which the complete attainment thereof
is debarred. And your teacher too, the Brahman Pokkharasàdi, has told
you this saying: ßWho are these shavelings, sham friars, menial black
fellows, the offscouring of our kinsman’s heels, that they should claim
converse with Brahmans versed in the threefold Vedic lore!û Þhe himself
not having even fulfilled any one even of these lesser duties (which
lead men to neglect the higher ones). See, Ambaññha, how deeply your
teacher, the Brahman Pokkharasàdi, has herein done you wrong.’
 [59]

6. `And the Brahman Pokkharasàdi, Ambaññha,
is in the enjoyment of a grant from Pasenadi, the king of Kosala. But
the king, does not allow him to come into his presence. When he consults
with him he speaks to him only from behind a curtain. How is it,
Ambaññha, that the very king, from whom he accepts this pure and lawful
maintenance, King Pasenadi of Kosala, does not admit him to his
presence? See, Ambaññha, how deeply your teacher, the Brahman
Pokkharasàdi, has herein done you wrong.’

7. `Now what think you, Ambaññha? Suppose a king, either seated on
the neck of his elephant or on the back of his horse, or standing on the
footrug of his chariot, [104] should discuss some resolution of state
with his chiefs or princes. And suppose as he left the spot and stepped
on one side, a workman (Sådra) or the slave of a workman should
come up and, standing there, should discuss [\q 129/] the matter,
saying: ßThus and thus said Pasenadi the king.û Although he should speak
as the king might have spoken, or discuss as the king might have done,
would he thereby be the king, or even as one of his officers?’

`Certainly not, Gotama.’

8. `But just so, Ambaññha, those ancient poets (Rishis)
of the Brahmans, the authors of the verses, the utterers of the verses,
whose ancient form of words so chanted, uttered, or composed, the
Brahmans of today chant over again and rehearse, intoning or reciting
exactly as has been intoned or recited -to wit, Aññhaka, Vàmaka,
Vàmadeva, Vessàmitta, Yamataggi. Angirasa, Bhàradvaja, Vàseññha,
Kassapa, and Bhagu
 [60]
Þ though you can say: ßI, as a pupil, know by heart their verses,û that
you should on that account be a Rishi, or have attained to the state of
a Rishi Þ such a condition of things has no existence!’

9. `Now what think you, Ambaññha? What have you heard when Brahmans,
old and well stricken in years, teachers of yours or their teachers,
were talking together -did those ancient Rishis, whose verses you so
chant over and repeat, parade about well groomed, perfumed, trimmed as
to their hair and beard, adorned with garlands and gems, clad in white
garments, in the full possession and enjoyment of the five pleasures of
sense, as you, and your teacher too, do now?’

[105] `Not that, Gotama.’

`Or did they live, as their food, on boiled rice of the best sorts,
from which all the black specks had been sought out and removed, and
flavoured with sauces and curries of various kinds, as you, and your
teacher too, do now.

`Not that, Gotama.’

`Or were they waited upon by women with fringes [\q 130/] and furbelows, [61] round their loins, as you, and your teacher too, do now?’


`Or did they go about driving chariots, drawn, by mares with plaited manes and tails, [62] using long wands and goads the while, as you, and your teacher too, do now?’

`Not that, Gotama.’

`Or did they have themselves guarded in fortified towns, with moats dug out round them [63] and crossbars let down before the gates, [64] by men girt with long swords, as you, and your teacher too, do now?’

`Not that, Gotama.’

10. `So then, Ambaññha, neither are you a Rishi, nor your teacher,
nor do you live under the conditions under which the Rishis lived. But
whatever it may be, Ambaññha, concerning which you are in doubt or
perplexity about me, ask me as to that. I will make it clear by
explanation.’

11. Then the Blessed One went, forth
from his chamber, and began to walk up and down. And Ambaññha did the
same. And as he thus walked [\q 131/] up and down, following the Blessed
One, he took stock of the thirty-two signs of a great man, whether they
appeared on the body of the Blessed One or not. And he perceived them
all save only two. [106] With respect to those two Þ the concealed
member and the extent of tongue
 [65] Þ he was in doubt and perplexity, not satisfied, not sure.


12. And the Blessed One knew that he
was so in doubt. And he so arranged matters by his Wondrous Gift that
Ambaññha the Brahman saw how that part of the Blessed One that ought to
be hidden by clothes was enclosed in a sheath. And the Blessed One so
bent round his tongue that he touched and stroked both his ears, touched
and stroked both his nostrils, and the whole circumference of his
forehead he covered with his tongue.
 [66]

[\q 132/] And Ambaññha, the young Brahman,
thought: `The Samaõa Gotama is endowed with the thirty two signs of a
great man, with them all, not only with some of them.’ And he said to
the Blessed One: `And now, Gotama, we would `fain depart. We are busy,
and have much to do.’

`Do, Ambaññha, what seemeth to you fit.’

And Ambaññha mounted his chariot drawn by mares, and departed thence.

13. Now at that time the Brahman Pokkharasàdi had gone forth from
Ukkaññha with a great retinue of Brahmans, and was seated in his own
pleasaunce waiting there for Ambaññha. And Ambaññha came on to the
pleasaunce. And when he had come in his chariot as far as the path was
practicable for chariots, he descended from it, and came on foot to
where Pokkharasàdi was, and saluted him, and took his seat respectfully
on one side. And when he was so seated, Pokkharasàdi said to him:

14. `Well, Ambaññha! Did you see the Blessed One?’

`Yes, Sir, we saw him.’

`Well! is the venerable Gotama so as the reputation [107] about him I
told you of declares; and not otherwise. Is he such a one, or is he
not?’

`He is so, Sir, as his reputation declares, and not otherwise. Such
is he, not different. And he is endowed with the thirty-two signs of a
great man, with all of them, not only with some.’

`And did you have any talk, Ambaññha, with the Samaõa Gotama?’

`Yes, Sir, I had.’

`And how did the talk go?’

Then Ambaññha told the Brahman Pokkharasàdi all the talk that he had had with the Blessed One.

15. When he had thus spoken,
Pokkharasàdi said to him: `Oh! you wiseacre! Oh! you dullard! Oh! you
[\q 133/] expert, forsooth, in our threefold Vedic lore! A man, they
say, who should carry out his business thus, must, on the dissolution of
the body, after death, be reborn into some dismal state of misery and
woe. What could the very points you pressed in your insolent words lead
up to, if not to the very disclosures the venerable Gotama made
? [67]
What a wiseacre; what a dullard; what an expert, forsooth, in our
threefold Vedic lore.’ And angry and displeased, he struck out with his
foot, and rolled Ambaññha over. And he wanted, there and then, himself,
to go and call on the Blessed One.

[l08] 16. But the Brahman there spake thus to Pokkharasàdi: `It is
much too late, Sir, today to go to call on the Samaõa Gotama. The
venerable Pokkharasàdi can do so tomorrow.’

So Pokkharasàdi had sweet food, both hard and soft, made ready at his
own house, and taken on wagons, by the light of blazing torches, out to
Ukkaññha. And he himself went on to the Icchànankala Wood, driving in
his chariot as far as the road was practicable for vehicles, and then
going on, on foot, to where the Blessed One was. And when he had
exchanged with the Blessed One the greetings and compliments of
politeness and courtesy, he took his seat on one side, and said to the
Blessed One:

17. `Has our pupil, Gotama, the young Brahman Ambaññha, been here?’

`Yes, Brahman, he has.’

`And did you, Gotama, have any talk with him?’

`Yes, Brahman, I had.’

`And on what wise was the talk that you had with him.’

18. Then the Blessed One told the Brahman Pokkharasàdi all the talk
that had taken place. And when [\q 134/] he had thus spoken Pokkharasàdi
said to the Blessed One:

`He is young and foolish, Gotama, that young Brahman Ambaññha. Forgive him, Gotama.’

`Let him be quite happy, Brahman, `that young Brahman Ambaññha.’

[109] 19. And the Brahman Pokkharasàdi
took stock, on the body of the Blessed One, of the thirty-two marks of a
Great Being. And he saw them all plainly, save only two. As to two of
them Þ the sheath-concealed member and the extensive tongue Þ he was
still in doubt and undecided. But the Blessed One showed them to
Pokkharasàdi, even as he had shown them to Ambaññha.
 [68]
And Pokkharasàdi perceived that the Blessed One was endowed with the
thirty-two marks of a Great Being, with all of them, not only with some.
And he said to the Blessed One: `May the venerable Gotama grant me the
favour of taking his tomorrow’s meal with me, and also the members of
the Order with him.’ And the Blessed One accepted, by silence, his
request.


20. Then the Brahman Pokkharasàdi,
seeing that the Blessed One had accepted, had (on the morrow) the time
announced to him: `It is time, oh Gotama, the meal is ready.’ And the
Blessed One, who had dressed in the early morning, put on his outer
robe, and taking his bowl with him, went, with the brethren, to
Pokkharasàdi’s house, and sat down on the seat prepared for him. And
Pokkharasàdi, the Brahman, satisfied the Blessed One, with his own hand,
with sweet food, both hard and soft, until he refused any more, and the
young Brahmans the members of the Order. And when the Blessed One had
finished his meal, and cleansed the bowl and his
 [69] hands, Pokkharasàdi took a low seat, and sat down beside him.

21. Then to him thus seated [110] the Blessed One [\q 135/]
discoursed in due order; that is to say, he spake to him of generosity,
of right conduct, of heaven, of the danger. the vanity, and the
defilement of lusts, of the advantages of renunciation. And when the
Blessed, One saw that Pokkharasàdi, the Brahman, had become prepared,
softened, unprejudiced, upraised, and believing in heart, then he
proclaimed the doctrine the Buddhas alone have won; that is to say, the
doctrine of sorrow, of its origin, of its cessation, and of the Path.
And just as a clean cloth from which all stain has been washed away will
readily take the dye, just even so did Pokkharasàdi, the Brahman,
obtain, even while sitting there, the pure and spotless Eye for the
Truth, and he knew: `Whatsoever has a beginning in that is inherent also
the necessity of dissolution.’

22. And then the Brahman Pokkharasàdi, as one who had seen the Truth,
had mastered it, understood it, dived deep down into it, who had passed
beyond doubt and put away perplexity and gained full confidence, who
had become dependent on no other man for his knowledge of the teaching
of the Master, addressed the Blessed One, and said:

`Most excellent, oh Gotama (are the words of thy mouth), most
excellent! just as if a man were to set up that which has been thrown
down, or were to reveal that which has been hidden away, or were to
point out the right road to him who has gone. astray, or were to bring a
light into the darkness so that those who had eyes could see external
forms, Þ just even so, Lord, has the truth been made known to me, in
many a figure, by the venerable Gotama. And I, oh Gotama, with my sons,
and my wife, and my people, and my companions, betake myself to the
venerable Gotama as my guide, to the truth, and to the Order. May the
venerable Gotama accept me as a disciple, as one who, from this day
forth, as long as life endures, has taken him as his guide. And just as
the venerable Gotama visits the families of others, his disciples, at
Ukkaññha, so let him visit [\q 136/] mine. Whosoever there may be there,
of Brahman or their wives, who shall pay reverence to the venerable
Gotama, or stand up in his presence, or offer him a seat or water, or
take delight in him, to him that will be, for long, a cause of weal and
bliss.’

`It is well, Brahman, what you say.’

Here ends the Ambaññha Sutta.



Notes

[1] Compare Petavatthu II, 6, 12.


[2] Assalàyana (No. 93 in the Majjhima); Aïguttara II, 85 = P.P. IV, 19 ; Saüyutta I, 93; Vinaya IV, 6-10, &c.


[3] Sometimes explained as carpenters, sometimes as basket-makers, sometimes as makers of sunshades.


[4] Further exemplified by the number of people described as kevañña-putto, assàroha-putto, naña-putto, såda-putto, &c.


[5] See also A. I, 145, 206; II, 67; III, 36, 132, 217; Vin. IV, 224; D. I, 5, 60, 72, 93, 141 (translated above); G


[6] See Fick, `Sociale Gliederung im nord”stlichen Indien,’ pp. 50, 51.


[7] `Vinaya Texts,’ I, 230.


[8] Translated by Fausb”ll, S. B. E., pp. 40-42


[9] J. R. A. S., 1894, p. 396


[10] Literally `are the best colour’ (vaõõa, with reference to the well-known classification into four vaõõas, neither of which was a caste, referred to above).


[11]
This Madhura Sutta has now been edited and translated, with valuable
introduction and notes, by Mr. Robert Chalmers, in the Journal of the
Royal Asiatic Society, 1894.


[12]
The larger portion of this Sutta (from the beginning of the genesis
part down to the election of the first king) is also preserved in the
Mahàvastu. See Senart’s edition, vol. i, pp. 338-348. The reading
agninyaü (p. 340, 17, &c.) represents the Pàli agga¤¤aü


[13] The words here are quoted in the Milinda, vol. I, p. 229 of my translation.


[14]
There is an admirable little book by M. Senart on the origin of caste,
on the Brahman views about it, and on the present actual facts of caste
in India, entitled `Les Castes dans l’Inde.’ Dr. Fick also in his
`Sociale Gliedrung im nord”stlichen Indien zu Buddha’s Zeit’ has
collected the evidence found in the Jàtaka book, and analysed it with
great skill. Similar monographs on the Piñakas, and on the Epics, are
much to be desired.


[15]So
Buddhaghosa; but he gives no further details as to the terms of the
grant, or of the tenancy. The whole string of adjectives recurs below,
pp. 111, 114, 127, 131 of the text, and ràja-bhoggaü at Vin. III, 222.
Compare Divyàvadàna, p. 620.

The land revenue payable, of course in kind, would be a tithe. If the
king had full proprietary (zemindary) rights as well, which is the
probable meaning of ràja-bhoggaü, his share would be, either with or
without the land tax, on half. The grant would be of his own rights
only. The rights of the peasants to the other half, and the use of the
common and waste and woods, would remain to them. If Buddhaghosa’s
interpretation of brahmadeyyaü is correct, then the grantee would also
be the king’s representative for all purposes judicial and executive.
Elsewhere the word has only been found as applied to marriage; and the
first part of the compound (brahma) has always been interpreted by
Brahmans as referring to themselves. But brahma as the first part of a
compound never has that meaning in Pàli; and the word in our passage
means literally `a full gift.’

[16]His
full name was Pokkharasàdi Opama¤¤o Subhagavaniko (M. II, 200); where
the second is the gotta (gens) name and the third a local name. See the
introduction to the Mahàli Sutta.


[17] According to Jàt. IV, 363 (compare Jàt. IV, 366) there were also Ambaññhas who were not Brahmans by birth but farmers.


[18]
The fourth is not expressly mentioned. Buddhaghosa (p. 247) say we have
to supply the fourth Veda, the Atharva. But the older Pàli texts do not
accept the Atharva as a Veda. It only occurs , as the Athabbaõa Veda,
in the Aññhakathàs and òãkàs. And it is quite unnecessary to suppose a
silent reference to it here. The fourth place is quite sufficiently
filled as suggested in the translation. The âthabbaõa, given (in S. IV,
927) as the name of a mystic art (together with astrology, the
interpretation of dreams and of lucky signs, and so forth), is probably
not the Veda, but witchcraft or sorcery. The Piñakas always take three
Vedas, and three only, for granted. And the whole point of the tevijja
Sutta (translated in full in my `Buddhist Suttas’) is this three-, not
four-, fold division. Four Vedas are referred to in the Milinda, at p.
3, and the Atharva-veda, at p. 117.


[19]
This is the standing description of the Suttas of a learned Brahman.
See below, pp. 114,120 (of the text); A. I, 163; Mil. 10; Divyàvadàna
620, &c. One or two of the details are not quite certain, as yet.


[20] The knowledge of these thirty-two marks of a Great Being (Mahà-purusha)
is one of the details in the often-recurring paragraph giving the
points of Brahman wisdom, which we have just had a, Section 3. No such
list has been found, so far as I know, in those portions of the
pre-Buddhistic priestly literature that have survived. And the inference
from both our passages is that the knowledge is scattered through the
Brahman texts. Many of the details of the Buddhist list (see the note
below on p. 106 of the text) are very obscure; and a collection of the
older Brahman passages would probably throw light upon them, and upon a
curious chapter in mythological superstition. Who will write us a
monograph (historical of course) on the Mahà-purusha theory. as held in
early times among the Aryans in India?


[21] For the details of these seven see further my `Buddhist Suttas,’ PP. 251-259.


[22] Vihàra; often rendered `monastery,’ a meaning the word never has in the older texts.


[23]
Bandhupàdàpakkà. Neumann, loc. cit. p. 521, says `treading on one
another’s heels.’ Buddhaghosa refers the expression to the Brahman
theory that the Sådras were born from Brahmà’s heels. And this may well
have been the meaning. For though Gotama and the majority of his order
were well born, still others, of low caste, were admitted to it, and
Ambaññha is certainly represented as giving vent to caste prejudice when
he calls the brethren `black fellows.’ Compare M. I, 334; S. IV, 117,
and below, D. I, 103.


[24]
And is therefore, after all, not so much his fault as that of his
teacher. That this is the implication is clear from the text, pp. 90, 91
(Section 10-13) below.


[25]
Ibbhà. Chalmers (J. R. A. S., 1894, p. 343) renders this ïought but men
of substance,’ and he has been followed by Frazer, `Literature of
India,’ p. 118. But Buddhaghosa’s interpretation is confirmed both by
the context and by the derivation.


[26]
Santhàgàra. Childers is quite wrong about this word. It is the hall
where a clan mote was held, and is used exclusively of places for the
assemblies of the householders in the free republics of Northern Kosala.
It never means a royal rest house, which is ràjàgàraka, as we had above
(p. 1, Section 2 of the Pàli text). Thus at M. I, 353, 4 and Jàt. IV,
147 we have this identical hall of the Sàkyas at Kapilavatthu, and at M.
I, 457 a similar one of the Sàkyas at Càtumàya; at M. P. V, 56 (VI, 23
of the translation) in my `Buddhist Suttas’ we have the congress hall of
the Mullas of Kusinàrà, and at M. 1, 228 and Vin. I, 233 that of the
Licchavis of Vesàlã-all of them called Santhàgàra, and all referred to
in connection with a public meeting of the clan.


[27]
Anguli-patodakena. The Introductory Story to the 52nd Pàcittiya (Vin.
IV, 110 = III, 84) tells how a Bhikshu was inadvertently done to death
by being made to laugh immoderately in this way. It must there mean
`tickling.’ Here, and at A. IV, 343, it seems to have the meaning given
above.


[28] Vaõõà


[29] On this famous old king see the legends preserved in the M. B. V, 13; Mahàvastu I, 348; Jàt. II, 311; Sum. I, 258.


[30] Sammanti, `dwell,’ not in Childers in this sense. But see S. I, 226 = Sum. I, 125 and Jàt. V, 396.


[31]
The oak (which doesn’t grow in the text, and could not grow in the
Terai) has been introduced to enable the word play to be adequately
rendered. The Pàli Saka means a herb.


[32] Kaõhàyana is the regular form of patronymic from Kaõha.


[33] Buddhaghosa gives further details as to his subsequent life.


[34]
Buddhaghosa (p. 263) says that Gotama’s object was to confine the
discussion to a single opponent, since if all spoke at once, it could
not well be brought to a conclusion. In the text Gotama repeats the
whole speech of the Brahmans.


[35]
A¤¤ena a¤¤aü pañikarasi. For this idiom, not in Childers, see M. 1,
250; Vin. I, 85 ; A. I, 187, 198 ; Mil. 94 ; Sum. I, 264. It is
answering one thing by alleging another.


[36]
This curious threat-which never comes to anything, among the Buddhists,
and is apparently never meant to Þ is a frequent form of expression in
Indian books, and is pre-Buddhistic. Comp. Brihad âr. Up. III, 6. 2 and
9. 26. Buddhist passages are M. I, 231; Dhp. 72 Dhp. A. 87, 140; Jàt. I,
54; V, 21, 33, 87, 92, 493, &c.


[37] Vajira-pàõã: to wit, Indra, says Buddhaghosa.


[38] Upanisãdati; whence Upanishad, a mystery, secret, listened to in awe.


[39] Rishi, mystic sage, magician being no doubt implied, as in B. V. II, 81 = Jàt. 1, 17 (verse 90). Compare Merlin.


[40] The effect of course of the charm which, Buddhaghosa tells us (p.265), was known as the Ambaññha charm.


[41] Sotthi hotu. This is the old mystic word swasti. We have lost the use of such expressions Fausium fac regem.


[42]
All this, says Buddhaghosa, was brutum fulmen. The Ambaññha charm had
only power to stop the arrow going off; not to work such results as
these.


[43] Literally `place the arrow (which had a barb shaped like a horseshoe) on his son.’


[44] Thàlipàka. See Jàt. I, 186; Mil. 249. It is used in sacrifices. and also on special occasions.


[45] Pakarane. Perhaps `in consequence of some regulation or other.’ Buddhaghosa (p. 267) says `offence,’ but compare Mil. 189.


[46]
Assa-puñena vadhitvà, literally `killing him with (the proceeding
called) the Ash-basket.’ Compare the idiom `cut him dead.’ It is also
mentioned at A. II, 242.


[47]
Sanaü-kumàra means `ever virgin.’ According to the legend common ground
to Brahmans and Buddhists Þ there were five `mind born’ sons of Brahma,
who remained always pure and innocent, and this Brahmà was one of the
five. See the passages quoted by Chalmers in the J. R. A. S., 1894, P.
344.

Hofrath Bhler has pointed out that in the Mahàbhàrata III, 185
(Bombay edition) there is an interesting passage where Sanat-kumàra (the
Sanskrit form of the name Sanaü Þ kumàra) is actually represented by
the Brahmans themselves as having uttered, as referee in a dispute on a
point similar to the one here discussed, not indeed the actual words
here imputed to him, but others of a very similar import. See the whole
article in the J. R. A. S., 1897, pp. 585-588. We either have in our
text a quotation from an older recession of the same legend, or one of
the two Þ either the Brahman editors of the Mahàbhàrata, or the
composers of our Sutta Þ have twisted the legend a little in their own
favour.

[48] The verse is a favourite one. it occurs also at M. I, 358; S. I, 153; II, 284; and below in the Agga¤¤a Sutta.


[49]
Gotta-patisàrino. Either `tracing back their gotras’ or `referring back
to their gotras’ according as we derive the word with Childers from
-??root??sar, or with Bhler from??root??smar. It occurs also in the
description (Mahà Sudassana Sutta) of the ideal woman as
kiükàra-pañisàrinã. Bhler, log. cit., renders it `record their gotras.’

The next line might also be rendered `when perfect,’ &c., referring to the Kshatriya.

[50]
`This question of caste, besides being often referred to in isolated
passages, is described at length also in the Assalàyana, Kaõõakathàla,
and Madhura Suttas, all in the Majjhima. The first has been translated
into German by Professor Pischel and the last into English by Mr.
Chalmers, J. R. A. S., 1894, p. 341 and foll. On the facts of caste as
disclosed in the Jàtaka book see Fick’s `Sociale Gliederung in Indien zu
Buddha’s Zeit,’ Kiel, 1897 ; and on the general history of caste in
India see Senart’s `Les Castes dans l’Inde,’ Paris, 1896.


[51]
Buddhaghosa, p. 268, seems to have had a different reading idam p’assa,
hoti sãlasmiü Þ from that preserved in our text. It comes to much the
same result, but is better, as omitting the word bhikkhu.


[52] It is important to notice that these are put, not under wisdom, but under conduct.


[53] There are therefore eight divisions of conduct, and eight of the higher wisdom.


[54]
Apàya-mukhàni, outlets, leakages, so that it cannot fill up.’ The word
aya-mukhaü, inlet, is used in its concrete sense at D. I, 74, and both
words at A. II, 166; and `outlet’ occurs figuratively, in a secondary
sense, as in this passage, in the Sigàlovàda Sutta, p. 299.


[55]
For instances of this see Jàt I, 285, 494; II, 43. Such service paid to
a god has already been condemned in the tract on the Sãlas, the minor
details of mere morality (above, pp. 24, 25).


[56]
Buddhaghosa here (p. 270) says that all sorts of Brahman ascetics are
here intended to be included, and he gives further details of eight
different sorts (discussed in the journal of the P. T. S. for 1891, pp;
34 foll.).


[57] Sandissasi sàcariyako. Compare M. P. S. 6, 7, 8, 9, 24, 25.’


[58] Parihãnako sàcariyako. `Have been done out of, neglected in the matter of, defrauded of, this wisdom,’ &c.


[59]
By concealing this suggestive fact, and thereby leaving you ignorant
that the king, a Kshatriya, looked down on a Brahman, even one whom he
considered, as a Brahman, of great merit. So at Jàt. V, 257 a king calls
a Brahman `low born’ (hãna-gacco) compared with himself.


[60] On these names see Tevijja Sutta I, 13 (p. 172 of my `Buddhist Stuttas’) and Vinaya Texts,’ II, 130.


[61]
Veñhaka-nata-passàhi. We have here probably the ancient name of the
very elaborate girdles which all the fashionable women and goddesses
wear on the old bas reliefs. Cunningham, `Ståpa of Bharhut,’ Pl. LI,
gives figures and details of them. To judge from the has reliefs-and I
cannot call to mind any Piñaka passage contradicting them Þ the women
(lay women of course, the Sisterhood wore robes from the shoulders
downwards) have only very elaborate headdresses and necklaces, a skirt
from the waist to the ankles, and a very broad and handsome girdle worn
over the top of the skirt. They were unclothed from the neck to the
waist.


[62]
Kutta-vàlehi. The chariot of the time, as represented on the bas
reliefs, had standing room for four passengers, the steeds wore plumes
on their heads, and had their manes and tails elaborately plaited. 1
Ståpa of Bharhut,’ PI. XII, shows us the chariot of Pasenadi, king of
Kosala (see ibid. pp. 124, 125). Kutta is not in Childers. But it occurs
frequently. See Jàt I, 296, 433; II, 127, 128; IV, 219; Asl. 321.


[63] Compare Jàt IV, 106; Mil. 330.


[64]
Okkhitta-palighàsu. Childers says (following the Sanskrit dictionaries)
bars `of iron.’ But where does the iron come in? This is surely a
modern improvement. Unfortunately the word is found elsewhere (M. I,
139; A. III, 84; Dhp. 398) only in an ethical sense.


[65]
Neither text nor commentary make it clear what these two marks really
quite meant. The first, says Buddhaghosa, is `like an elephant’s,’ and
the second seems, from what follows, to be the power of extending the
tongue, like a snake’s, to a great length. This last is possibly derived
from poetical descriptions of the tongues of flame or light playing
round the disk of the sun.

As to the means by which the Buddha made the first visible to
Ambaññha, Buddhaghosa simply quotes Nàgasena (at Mil. 169) to show that
he made a visible image of himself fully dressed in his robes. And the
difficulty is to see how that would have helped matters. Only an
historical explanation of the meaning of the marks can here guide us to
what is inferred.

[66] These are two of the thirty-two bodily marks of a Great Being (Mahà-purisa),
as handed down among the Brahmans (see note above, p. 88 of the text,
Section 5) and adopted by the Buddhists. They are in part adaptations to
a man of poetical epithets applied to the sun, or to the
personification of the mystic human sacrifice; partly characteristics of
personal beauty such as any man might have; and one or two of them Þ
the little wart, for instance, between the eyes with white hair on it,
and the protuberance at the top of the head Þ may possibly be added in
reminiscence of personal bodily peculiarities which Gotama actually had.

One of the Dialogues in the Dãgha. the Lakhaõa Sutta, is devoted to
these thirty-two marks. They are also enumerated, with slight
differences, in the Mahàpadhàna Sutta; and later books give other lists
differing from each other, and from the old lists, in many small points.

The story told here in Section 11, 12 recurs in identical words in
the Sela Sutta (S. N. NO. 33 = M. No. 92) and forms the subject of one
of the dilemmas put by King Milinda to Nàgasena (Mil. 167).

[67]
âsagga àsagga . upanãyya upanãyya. Buddhaghosa is somewhat ambiguous in
his interpretation of this idiomatic phrase, on which compare M. I,
250, 251; A. I, 172


[68] Above, p. 106 of the text, Section I 2 repeated.


[69] Onãta-patta-pàõiü. See the note at Vinaya Texts,’ I, 83.



oS> ksldh


fud ;ii N.jf;d wryf;d iuud iunqoaOii


[\q 57/]


5′wuzngzG iQ;1h’

3′ ud jsiska fufia wik
,oS’ tla ld,fhlays Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia mkaishhla muKjQ uyd NsCIq ix>hd
jykafia iu. fldfid,a rfgys wejsoSfuka yeisfrk fial’ fldfid,a rg
jeiaikaf.a bpzcdkX., kuz nuqKq.u huz ;efklayso tys jevsfhah’ Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafia tys bpzcdkX., jkfhys jdih flf

4′ tl,ays fmdlaLrid;s nuqKq f;fuz * fuz mqj; ( weiS” YdlH mq;1jQ”
YdlHl2,fhka kslau mejsosjQ” Y1uKNj;a f.#;uhka jykafia jQl,S mkaishhla
muKjQ uyd NsCIq iuQygla iu. fldfid,a okjzfjys pdrsldfjz yeisfrk fiala
bpzcdkX.,hg meusK bpzcdkX., jkfhys jdih lrhs’ ta Nj;a f.#;uhka
jykafiaf.a funZoqjQ ufkd{jQ ia;2;s f>daIdjla Wiaj kexf.ah’ ta
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fuz fuz ldrKfhkao wry;ah” iuHla iuznqoaOhy’
jsorAYkd{dkh wdoS {dk wfgkao iS, ixjrh wdoS * prK ( yiqrejk OrAu
myf

5′ tl, fmdlaLrid;s nuqKqyg isgs wuzngzG kuz ;reK YsIHhd * ;ud fj;ska (
uka;1 lg mdvfuz lshkakdjQ” fjzouka;1 okakdjQ” kduks>KAgq hd. wdoS
lghq;2 ms

[\q 58/]


b;sydih miajeks fldg
we;s fjzo;1hfha fl

6′ blans;s fmdlaLrid;s nuqKq f;fuz wuzngzG ;reKhd leZojd fufia lSh’
))orej wuzngzGh” hj YdlH mq;1jQYdlH l2,fhka kslau mejsosjQ” Y1uK
f.#;uhka jykafia mkaishhla muKjQ uyd NsCIq iuQyhla iu. fldi, ckmofhys
wejsosuska yeisfrk fiala’ bpzcdkX.,hg meusKs bpzcdkX., jkdka;rfhys jdih
lrhs’ ta Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiaf.a hym;a lSrA;s rdjhla Wiaj kexf.ah’ fuz fuz
ldrKfhkqoq ta Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia wry;ay” iuHla iuznqoaOh” irAj iuzmQrAKjQ
msrsisoqjQ n1yauphH!j m1ldY lrhs’ tnZoqjQ ry;2kaf.a oelSula fjzkuz
hym;auehs)) lshdhs’ ))orej wuzngzGh” tj kqU uyK f.dhquzyq huz ;efklays
kuz tys hj f.dia boska ta Nj;a f.#;uhkaf.a we;s iegshla ksidu lSrA;s
YnzOhla me;sr .sfhao fkdfjz kuz tfia kqjQjla ms,snZojo Wkajykafia tnZoqo
ke;akuz tnZoq fkdfjzoehs” tmrsoafoka Y1uK f.#;uhka okqj wms ta Nj;a
f.#;uhka jykafia oek .kquzy’))

7′ ))mskaj; boska ta Nj;a f.#;uhka jykafia tnZoqo” boska tfia fkdfjzoehs uu flfia kuz oek.kafkuzo$))

8′ ))orej wuzngzGh” wmf.a fjzo uka;1hkays fo;sia uymqrsia ,l2Kq
iZoykafjzuh’ ta ,CIKhkaf.ka hqla;jQ uyd mqreIyg .;s fofllau fj;s’
wksflla ke;’ boska .sysf.hs jihs kuz OdrAusljQ OrAurfclajQ y;r oSmhg
wOsm;sjQ” ilajs;s rcfjhs’ fyf;fuz ihqr fl

[\q 59/]


))boska fyf;u .sysf.ka
kslauS wk.drshjq Ydikfha mejsos fjhs kuz f,dalfha flf,ia j,ska hq;a
>k wkaOldr jeiau oqre l

))tfiah iajdusks))hs wuzngzG udKjlhd W;a;roS” f.dia fj

9′ tl, fndfyda NsCIqyq t,suyfka ilauka lr;s’ wuzngzG kuz ;reKhd ta NsCIqka fj;

))mskaj;aks” N.joa f.#;u f;fuz oeka fld;ekays kuz jdih lrhso$ wms ta N.j;a f.#;uhka oelSu msKsi fuys meusKsfhda fjuq))

0′ tl, ta NsCIqkag funZoq is;la my< jsh’ ))fuz wuzngzG udKjl f;fuz
m1isoaO l2,fhaWmkafkau m1lgjQ fmdlaLrid;s nuqKqyg w;jeiso fjhs’ funZoq
l2, mq;1hk iuZ. lrk l:d ni Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag nrla fkdfjzuh)) hkqhs’ ta
NsCIqyq wuzngzG udkjlhd yg fufia lSy + ))wuzngGh” t;ek .kOl2gsh jik,o
fodr we;af;ah’ Ynzo fkdfldg tys f.dia fiuska ms,g we;2ZMj ldrd w.2<
ksh msgska ;gzgq lrj” kqUg Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia fodr yrskjd we;’))

-’ tjsg wuzngzG udKjl f;fuz tys Ynzo fkdlr meusKsfha fiuska ms,g
we;2ZMj” ldrd w.2< ksh msgska ;gzgq flf

[\q 60/]


kej;S isgsuskq;a
jevyqkakdjQ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia iu. huz huz iqZM l:djka lrhs’ tjsg
Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia wuzngzG ;reKhdg fufia lSfhah” ))wuzngzGh)) Tn huz
ilauka lruskq;a kej;S isgsuskq;a yqkakdjQ ud iu. huz huz fkdjeo.;a lreKq
l:dj lrhso” jhiska jevsjQ uy,qjQ n1dyauKhka yd .2rejreka” .2rejrekaf.a
.2rejreka iu. Tnf.a l:djfunZoq fjzo$

))ke;” Nj;a f.#;uh” hkakdjQ nuqKq f;fuz hkakdjQ nuqKl2 iu. l:d lrkag
iqoqiqh’ Nj;a f.#;uh” isgskakdjQ nuqKq f;fuz isgskakdjQ nuqKl2 iu. l:d
lrkakg iqoqiqh’ Nj;a f.#;uh” ysZoskakdjQ nuqKq f;fuz ysZoskakdjQ nuqKl2
iu. l:d lrkakg iqoqiqh’ Nj;a f.#;uh” ksokakdjQ nuqKq f;fuz ksokakdjQ
nuqKl2 iu. l:d lrkakg iqoqiqh’ tfy;a” Nj;a f.#;uh” ms

33′ ))wuzngzGh” jevla we;sju Tnf.a fuys meusKSu jsh’ huz m1fhdackhla msKsi wdfha kuz ta ldrKhu fydZoska l,amkd lrj’

))mskaj;aks” fuz wuzngzG ;reKhd .2re wdY1hl fkdjsiQfjls” fkdjevqfkls’
kuq;a tfia jsiQfhah” jevqfkahhs WvZ.2 we;af;ls’ fuz .2re wdY1hl
fkdjevqkq fkdyslauqKq ksid usi fjk ljrla ksido$

34′ tl, Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia jsiska fkdjevqfkl fkdyslauqfkl hk l:dfjka
yZoqkajk ,o wuzngzG ;reKhd lsmqfKA fkdi;2gq is;a we;af;a Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafiagu .gd nkskafka my;a fldg l:d lrkafka kskaod lrkafka” ))ug kuz
Y1uK Nj;a f.#;uhdu mdmsfhla jkafkah))hs fufia lSh’ ))Nj;a f.#;uh” YdlH
cd;sh pKAvh” MreIh” fkd.reh jdpd,h” odishf.a orefjda odi ckhdjQ nejska
Tjzyq n1dyauKhkag i;aldr fkdflfr;a” .re fkdlfr;a” kuznq fkdflfr;a”


[\q 61/]

mQcd fkdflfr;a”
fkdjZos;a’ Nj;a f.#;uh” bZoska fuz YdlHfhda odijQjdyq odi nejzys isg
nuqKkag i;aldr fkdlr;ao .re fkdlr;ao” nqyquka fkdlr;ao” nuqKka
fkdmqooao” fkdjZosoao” ta fuz ldrKh ug reps ke; ta fuz ldrKh
kqiqoqiqh”)) fufia wuzngzG ;reKhd YdlHhka flfrys fuz m1:u odi jdoh
fy,qfhah’

35′ ))lsfulao$ wuzngzGh” kqUg YdlHfhda wmrdOhla l

))Nj;a f.#;uh” uu tla lf,l udf.a .2rejQ fmdlaLrid;s nuqKdf.a huz
lghq;a;la fya;2fldg lms, jia;2 kqjrg .sfhus’ huz ;efkl YdlHhkaf.a /iajS
jsfjzl .kakd Yd,dj fjzo tys .sfhus’ tl, fndfydajQ YdlHfhda;a YdlH
l2udrjre;a ta reiajS jsfjzl .kakd Yd,dfjys uyd wdikhkays Tjqfkdjqka
weZ.s,af,ka ls;slejSfuka uy;afia iskdfikakdyq” taldka;fhka ugu fy,d
olakdfia yX kZ.d iskdfikakdyq lsisfjla ug wdikhlaj;a kqoqkafkah’ Nj;a
f.#;uh” boska fuz YdlHfhda odihkaj isgsuska n1dyauKhkag i;aldr fkdlroao
n1dyauKhkag .re fkdlroao” n1dyauKhkag kuznq fkdlroao” nuqKka fkdmqo;ao”
jeZoquz fkdlroao ta fuz ldrKh ug reps ke;” kqiqoqiqh’))

fufia wuzngzG ;reKhd YdlHhka flfrys fuz fojeks odijdoh fy,Qfhah’

36′ ))wuzngzGh” leglsrs,a,;a ;udf.a l@vqfjys leu;s hula lshkakSh’
wuzngzGh” huz fuz lms,jia;2 mqrhla fjhs kuz th YdlHhkaf.a iajlSh kqjr
fjz’ wdhqI we;s wuzngzGh” fujeks iqZM lreKlska lsfmkakg kqiqoqiqh’))

37′ ))Nj;a f.#;uh” fuz cd;s i;frls” CI;1shh n1dyauKh” ffjYHh” Yqo1h
lshdhs’ fuz cd;s i;rska CI;1sh” ffjYH” Yqo1 hk cd;s ;2k taldka;fhkau
n1dyauKhdyg fiajlfhda fj;a” fuz YdlHfhda odihkaj isgsuska n1dyauKhkag
i;aldr .reldr fkdlr;s’ kuznq lsrSu” msoSu” jeZoSu fkdlr;s’ Nj;a f.#;uh”
ta fuz ldrKh ug reps fkdfjz’ ta ldrKh kqiqoqiqh’))


[\q 62/]

fufia wuzngzG ;reKhd YdlHhka flfrys fuz ;2kajeks odijdoh;a fy,qfhah’

38′ tjsg Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag funZoq is;la jsh’ )) fuz wuzngzG ;reKhd
b;d oevsfiau YdlHhka flfrys odi jdofhka kskaod lrhs’ uu * Tyqf.a (
f.d;1h jspdrkafkuz kuz b;d fhfyl)) Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia wuzngzG ;reKhdg
fufia lSfhah’ ))wuzngzGh” kqU ljr f.d;1hl jQfhyso$))

))Nj;a f.#;uh” uu lKAydhk fjus))

))wuzngzGh” mqrdKjQ ujzmshkag whs;s kdu f.d;1h isys lrkakdjQ kqUf.a
iajdus mq;1fhda YdlHfhda fj;s’ kqU YdlHhkaf.a odishf.a mq;1fhla jQfhysh’
wuzngzGh” YdlHfhda Tlaldl rcq Tjqkaf.a uq,a mqreIhd fldg olaj;s’

))wuzngzGh” mQrAjfha Tlaldl rcq ;udg huz ta nsijla m1sh ukdm jQjdo”
wef.a mq;1 l2udrhdg rch mjrd fokq leue;af;ka Tlald uqLh” lrlKAvqh”
y;a:Skslh” isksiqrh hk jevsuy,q l2udrjreka rgska msgflf

))wuzngzGh tl,ays” Tlaldl rc f;fuz wud;H uKAv,fhka * fufia ( weiSh’ )) mskaj;aks” oeka l2udrjre fldys fjfi;ao$))

))fojhsks” ysud,h lZoq m1foaYfha fmdl2Kq ;Srfha uyd jkdka;rhla we;’ oeka l2udrjre tys fjfi;s’

wuzngzGh” tjsg Tlaldl rcq m1S;sfhka lshk fuz jpk lSfhah’ ))Nj;aks”
l2udrjre taldka;fhka*YdlHfhdahs( iurA:fhdahs’ mskaj;aks” l2udrjre
taldka;fhkau W;a;u YdlHfhdahs *iurA:fhdahs(’ wuzngzGh” t;eka mgka Tjqyq
YdlH kdufhka yZoqkajkq ,efn;a’ ta Tlaldl rcq YdlHhkaf.a uq,a mqreIhdhs’


[\q 63/]

))wuzngzGh” Tlaldl
rcqg osid kuz odishla jQjdh’ Tz f;dfuda lDIaK jrAKjQ *lZMmdgjQ( mq;1hl2
m1iQ; l


))wuzngzGh” huzfia oeka
usksiaiq msYdphka oel msYdp kuska yZoqk;ao” tfiau wuzngzGh” ta ld,fhys
jkdys usksiaiq msYdphka lDIaKhka kuska yZoqk;s’ Tjzyq fuf;u ))Wmka js.i
l:d flf

))wuzngzGh” t;ekamgka lKAydhkfhda *lDIaK cd;slfhda( iZoyka fj;a’ Tyq
lKAydhkhkaf.a uq,amqreIhdhs’ wuzngzGh” fufia mqrdK ujzmshkag whs;s kdu
f.d;1h isys lrkakdjQ kqUf.a iajduSyq YdlHfhda fj;s kqU YdlHhkaf.a
odishf.a mq;d fjys’))

39′ fufia lS l,ays ta udKjlfhda Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fufia lSjdyqh’ ))
Nj;a f.#;u f;fuz b;d oevsfia wuzngzG udKjlhd odis mq;1 jdofhka ks.1y
fkdflfrAjd wuzngzG udKjl f;fuz jxij;ah’ W;2uz .;s we;s mqf;ls’ fndfyda
Ys,am Ydia;1 okafkls’ hym;a jpk we;af;ls’ mKAvs;h” wuzngzG ;reK f;fuz
Nj;a f.#;uhka iu. fuz jpkfhys * odimq;1 fpdokdfhys ( ms

30′ tl,ays Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ta udKjlhkag fufia lSy’ ));reKfhks”
boska kqU,dg wuzngzG ;reKhd jxYj;a fkdfjzh” my;a .;s we;s mqf;ls” iqZM
jYfhka Ys,am Ydia;1 o;af;ls” kmqre jpk we;af;ah” wmKAvs;h” wuzngzG f;fuz
Y1uK f.#;uhka iu. fuz jpkfha,d ms

[\q 64/]


3-’ ))Nj;a f.#;uhsks”
wuzngzG ;reKhd W;a;r fokakg iurA:h’ wms ksYaYnzojuq’ wuzngzG ;reKhd Nj;a
f.#;uhka iu. fuz jpkhg ms

4=’ tjsg Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiawuzngzG ;reKhdg fufia lSfhah’ ))wuzngzGh”
kqU bosrsfhys lreKq iys;jQ m1Yakhla u;2jsh’ fkdleue;af;ka kuqoq ta
jsiZosh hq;2h’ boska kqU fkdjsiZokafkys kuz fjk lreKlska fyda ta hgm;a
lrkafkys kuz” ksYaYnzo fyda jkafkys kuz ke.sg fyda hkafkyskuz fuysu
kqUf.a ysi i;a lvj mef

fufia lS l, wuzngzG ;reKhd ksYaYnzo jsh’ fojkqj;a tfia weiQ l,
wuzngzG ;reKhd ksYaYnzo jsh’ tjsg Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia wuzngzG ;reKhdg
fufia lSfhah’

))wuzngzGh” oeka m1ldY lrj’ kqUg fuz ksYaYnzo jkakg ld,h fkdfjz’
wuzngzGh” hfula jkdys ;:d.;hka jykafia ;2ka jeks jr f;la ifya;2l
m1Yakhla wik ,oqj W;a;r fkdfoao” fuysoSu Tyqf.a ysi i;a lvlaj
mef

43′ tl, jcAcqmdKS hCI f;fuz *ilafojz rcf;fuz( .sksmdgjQ” os,sfikakdjQ
tlu .sksf.dvla fukajQ uy;ajQ hyq,la f.K” wuzngzG ;reKhdg fl,ska
wdldYfhys isgsfhah’ ))fuz wuzngzG ;reKhd Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia jsiska
;2kajeks jr olajd m1Yakhla wik ,oqj W;a;r fkdfokafka kuz fuysoSu Tyqf.a
ysi i;alv fldg m

[\q 65/]


blans;s wuzngzG ;reKhd
NhjS ixfjz.hg meusKsfha uhs,a fl,skajS Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiaf.au wdrCIdj
fidhkafka” msysg fidhkafka” irK fidhkafka”

))wuzngzG” f;da ta l2ulehs ys;kafkyso$ lsu$ jDoaOjQ” uyZMjQ” wdpdhH!”
m1dpdhH!jQ” n1dyauKhka jsiska lKAydhk f.da;1slfhda fld;eka isg
mej;af;dao” lKAydhkhkaf.a uq,a mqreIhd ljfrlaoehs lshkq ,nkakla ;d
jsiska wik ,oo$))

))Nj;a f.#;uhsks” lxydhkfhda fu;eka mgka mejf;kafkdah” wij,d
lKAydhkhkaf.a uq,a mqreIhdhs” Nj;a f.#;uhka jykafia huzf,i lSfjzo”
tf,iskau ud jsiska wik ,os’))


44′ fufia lS l,ays ta
;reKfhda ))mskaj;aks” wuzngzG ;reKhd jxYj;a fkdfjz’ my;a .;s we;s
mq;1fhls’ YdlHhkaf.a odishf.a mq;1hdh’ YdlHfhda wuzngzG ;reKhdf.a iajdus
orefjdah’ OrAujd;SjQ *we;a; lshkakdjQ( Y1uK f.#;uhka jykafia wms
jsYajdi fkdfldg hq;af;la fia is;Suq))hs Wia yZvska Ynzo k.d lSy’

45′ tl,ays Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag funZoq is;la my

[\q 66/]


));reKhsks” tl,
weu;sfhda;a msrsfiysjQ fiiafida;a lDIaK RDIsjrdhd fj; t

))iajduSks” rcqg;a ckmohg;a hym;la fjzjd))

))b;ska crf;fuz ySh Wvg yrskafka kuz rcqg hym;la jkafkah’ huz;dla oqr
rcqf.a rdcHho ta f;la ;eka i;a wjqreoaola jeis fkdjiskafkah’))

))iajduSks” rcqg;a ckmohg;a hym;la fjzjd” jeiso jiSjd))

))rcqg;a ckmohg;a hym;la jkafkah’ jeiso jiskafkah’ ;jo” *;udf.a(
jevsuy,q l2udrhd flfrys ke.@ ySh jsoSjd’ Tyqg uhs,a fl,ska isgSu muKl2;a
fkdjS l2udr f;fuz iqjm;a jkafkah))

));reKhsks” tl, wud;Hfhda Tlaldr rcqg fumj;a oekajQy’ blans;s Tlaldr
rcq jevsuy,q l2udrhd flfrys ta ySh fhoqfjzh’ l2udr f;fuz iqjm;a jsh’
uhs,a .ilg mjd ysxidjla fkdjSh’))

))blans;s Tlaldr rcq Tyqg NhjS” ;e;a .ekaug meusK” uhs,a fl,ska isgSu
we;sjS idmfhka Nhg m;ajQfha uoaorEmS kuz oQ l2ursh ta lDIaK RDIs yg
oqkafkah’ ;reKhsks” f;ms b;d oreKq f,i wuzngzG udKjlhdg odis mq;1
jdofhka ks.1y fkdlrjz’ ta lKAy f;fuz fY1aIaGjQ RDIsjrfhla jsh))’


[\q 67/]

46′ tjsg Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia wuzngzG ;reKhdg fufia lSfhah’

))wuzngzG” fuz f,dalfhys CI;1sh l2udrfhla n1dyauK ia;1shla iu. iyjdih
lrkafkah’ Tjqkag mq;1fhla Wmoskafkah’ CI;1sh l2udrfhl2 lrKfldg n1dyauK
lkHdjf.ka Wmka h ta mq;1fhla fjz kuz Tyq n1dyauKhka w;2frka w.1dikh fyda
wf.1dolh fyda ,nhso$ n1dyauKfhda u;l” ux.,” hd.” mZvqre wdoS n;a Tyq
j

))Nj;a f.#;uhks” Tyqg ,efnkafkah” Tyq j

))CI;1sfhda Tyq CI;1shdNsfIalfhka wNsfIal lr;ao$))

))ke; Nj;a f.#;ufhks))

))thg fya;2 lsu$))

))Nj;a f.#;uhsks” ujqmsiska wiuzmQrAK fyhsks’))

47′ ))wuzngzGh” fuz f,dalfhys n1dyauK l2udrfhla CI;1sh lkHdjl yd
iyjdih lrkafkah’ Tjqkag mq;1fhla Wmoskafkah’ ta mq;1hdgo by; iZoyka
l< fuka isoaO jkafkao$))

))Nj;a f.#;uhks” tfiah’))

))CI;1sfhda Tyq CI;1shdNsfIalfhka wNsfIal lr;ao$))

))ke; Nj;a f.#;ufhks))

))thg fya;2 lsu$))

))Nj;a f.#;uhsks” mshmsiska wiuzmQrAK fyhsks’))

48′ ))fufia wuzngzGh” *n1dyauK( ia;1shla *CI;1sh( mqreIfhla yd
iyjdijQjdo” *n1dyauK( mqreIfhla *CI;1sh( ia;1shla yd iyjdi jQfhao”
CI;1sfhdau Wiia fj;a” n1dyauKfhda ySkhy))

))wuzngzGh” fuz ldrKh .ek l2ula is;kafkyso$ fuys n1dyauKfhda huz
jrola ksid nuqKl2 ysi uqvqfldg wuqvhla .iajd myroS rgska fyda k.gfhka
fyda msg lrkakdyqh’ Tyq n1dyauKhka w;r w.1dikh fyda wf.1dolh fyda
,nkafkao$))

))n1dyauKfhda u;l” ux.,” hd.” mZvqre wdoS n;a Tyq j

))ke;” Nj;a f.#;ufhks))


[\q 68/]

49′ ))wuzngzGh” fuz
ldrKh .ek l2ula is;kafkyso$ fuys CI;1sfhda huz jrola ksid CI;1sfhl2 ysw
uqvqfldg ysfia wZM j;afldg rgska fyda kqjrska fyda msg lrkakdyqh’
fyf;fuz n1dyauKhka w;r w.1dikh fyda wf.1dolh fyda ,nhso$ n1dyauKfhda
u;l” ux.,” hd.” mZvqre wdoS n;a Tyq j

))Nj;a f.#;ufhks” Tyqg ta ish,a, ,efnkafkah’))

))wuzngzGh” CI;1shfhda huz CI;1shl2 ysi uqvqfldg ysfia wZM j;afldg
rgska fyda k.rfhka fyda msg lr;ao” fumuKlskau ta CI;1sh f;fuz b;d my;a
njg meusKsfha fjhs’ tl,ays;a CI;1sfhda W;2uzy’ n1dyuKfhda my;ah’))

40′ ))wuzngzGh” ikxl2udr kuz n1yauhd jsiskao .d:djla lshk ,os’))

))f,dalfha f.da;1hka w;2frka CI;1sfhda W;2uz fj;a’ fojshka usksiqka
w;2frka *jsoHdfjka ( kqjKska yd prKfhka iS,fhka iuzmQrAKjQ ;eke;a;d
m1Odkhs’))

))wuzngzGh” uu;a tfiau lshus’))

4-’ Nj;a f.#;uhka jykai” ta *prK( iS, OrAu ljfrAo$ ta *jsoHd( kqjK ljfrAo$))

))wuzngzGh” wkq;a;rjQ jsoHdprK iuzm;a;shg cd;sjdoh lshd fyda
f.da;1jdoh lshd fyda udkakjdoh lshd fyda fkdlshkq ,efnz’ kqU ug
iqoqiqfjhs lshd fyda kqU ug iqoqiq fkdfjhs lshd fyda hula tys ke;’
wuzngGh” ia;1shla irK mdjd .ekSu fyda irK mdjd oSu fyda mdjd .ekSuz oSuz
folu fyda fjhso”tys cd;sjdoh fyda lshdo” f.da;1jdoh fyda lshdo
udkakjdoh fyda lshdo we;af;ah’ kqU ug iqoqiqfjhs hkakla fyda kqU ug
iqoqiq fkdfjhs hkakla fyda tys we;’ wuzngzGh” huz flfkla cd;sjdofhys
f.da;1jdofhys udkakjdofhys uy;a fia neZoqfkda fj;ao” Tjqyq wkq;a;rjQ
jsoHdprK iuzm;a;sfhka oqrejQjdyqh’ wuzngGh” cd;sjdofhys f.da;1jdofhys
udkakjdofhys ;rj neZoSu;a” wdjdy jsjdyfhys ;rj neZoSu;a myfldg wkq;a;rjQ
jsoHdprK iuzm;a;sh wjfndaO lsrSu fjhs’))


[\q 69/]

5=’ ))Nj;a f.#;uhka jykai” ta *prK( iS, OrAuh ljfrAo$ ta *jsoHdj( kqjK ljfrAo$))

*fuys 64 msfgz idu[a[M, iQ;1fha 40 fjks fPAofha isg 7- fPAoh olajd
fhoSfuzoS ))uyrc)) fjkqjg ))wuzngGh)) hkako ))fuho fuz W;2uz wd;aufhysu
M,hkag jvd W;2uz M,hla fjhs)) fjkqjg ))fuz Tyqf.a iS,hls fyda jsoHdjls))
hkak fhdokak(

))wuzngzGh” fuz NsCIq f;fuz
jsoHdfjka *kqjKska( iuzmQrAKhhs lshkq ,efnz’ tfiau prKfhka *iS,dosfhka(
iuzmQrAKhhso tfiau jsoHdfjka yd prKfhka iuzmQrAKhhso lshkq ,efnz’
wuzngzGh” fuz jsoHd iuzm;a;shg yd prK iuzm;a;shg jvd W;2uz fyda usysrs
fyda wka jsoHd iuzm;a;shlafyda prK iuzm;a;shlao ke;af;ah’))

53′ ))wuzngzGh” b;d W;2uzjQ fuz jsoHdprK iuzm;a;shg jskdY fodrgq
i;rla fjhs’ ljr i;rlao$ wuzngGh” fuys we;euz uyfKla fyda n1dyuKfhla fuz
b;d W;2uz jsoHdprK iuzmodjg fkdmeusfKkqfha” );mia msrslr wdosh f.k
.iaj,ska jegqKq f.vsu lkafkla jkafkus)hs wdrKHfhys jkhlg meusfKhs’ fyf;u
taldka;fhka jsoHdprK OrAufhka hqla;jQjyqf.a fiajh *j;dj;a( lrkafkla njg
meusfKA’ fuz m

54′ ))wuzngzGh” kej;;a fuys we;euz uyfKla fyda n1dyuKfhla b;d W;2uz
jsoHdprK iuzmodjg fkdmeusfKkqfha” Woe,a,la yd l@vhla f.k )w, uq,a f.vs
lEu lkafkla jkafkus)hs wdrKHfhys *jkueog( meusfKhs’ fyf;u taldka;fhka
jsoHdprK OrAufhka hqla;jQjyqf.a j;dj;a lrkafkla njg meusfKA’ fuz
fojeksjQ jskdY fodrgqjhs’))


[\q 70/]

))we;euz uyfKla fyda
n1dyuKfhla .ula wi, fyda kshuz .ula wi< .sksfojshd mqok f.hla fldg
.sks fojshd mqouska isgS’ fyf;u taldka;fhka jsoHdprK OrAufhka
hqla;jQjyqf.a j;dj;a lrkafkla njg meusfKA’ fuz ;2kafjksjQ jskdY
fodrgqjhs’))

55′ ))wuzngzGh” kej;o fuys we;euz uyfKla fyda n1dyauKfhla b;d W;2uzjQ
fuz jsoHdprK iuzmodjg fkdmeusfKkqfha y;rux yxosfhys fodrgq y;rlska hq;a
f.hla fldg ))fuz isjqos.ska huz Y1uKfhla fyda nuqfKla fyda tkafka kuz
uu Tyq Yla;s mrsoafoka Wmia:dk lrus))hs fjfihso fyf;fuz taldka;fhka
jsoHdprK OrAu we;a;yqf.a fiajh lrkafklau fjz’ wuzngzGh” fuz jkdys b;d
W;2uz jsoHdprK iuzmodfhys y;rjeks jskdY fodrgqjhs’))

56′ ))wuzngzGh” fuz ldrKh .ek l2ula is;kafkyso$ fuz W;2uz jsoHdprK
iuzmodfhys .2reka iys;jQ kqU mefkyso$ *Tjqk jsiska kqU( yslaujk
,oafoyso$ ))

))Nj;a f.#;uhka jykai” tnkaola kuz ke;’ Nj;a f.#;uhka jykai”
.2rejrfhla iys;jQ uu b;d W;2uz jsoHdprK iuzmodfjys fndfyda wE;ajQfhus’))

))wuzngzGh” fuz ldrKd .ek l2ula is;kafkyso$ kqU fuz wkq;a;rjQ
jsoHdprK iuzmodjg fkdmeusfKkqfha ;mia msrslr wdosh f.k )).2reka iys;j”
.iaj,ska jegqkq f.vs N2la;s jsZoskafkla jkafkus))hs lshd wrKHfhys
*jkhlg( meusfKkafkyso$))

))Woe,a,la yd l@vhla f.k kqU .2reka iys;j ))w, uq,a f.vs lEu lkafkla
jkafkus))hs wdrKHfhys *jkueog( meusfKkafkyso$ .2reka iuZ.jQ kqU .uz wi,
kshuz .uz wi, .sksfojshd mqokd f.hla fldg .sks fojshd mqokafklaj
isgskafkyso$))


[\q 71/]

))kqU y;rux yxosfhys
fodrgq y;rlska hq;a f.hla fldg ))fuz isjqos.ska huz Y1uKfhla fyda
nuqfKla fyda tkafka kuz uu Tyq Yla;s mrsoafoka Wmia:dk lrus))hs
isgskafkyso$))

))tfia;a ke;” Nj;a f.#;uhka jykai’))

))wuzngzGh” fufia .2reka iys;jQ kqU fuz b;d W;2uz jsoHdprK iuzmodfjka
msrsyqfKysh’ b;d W;2uz jsoHdprK iuzmodjkaf.a huz fuz jskdY fodrgq i;rla
fj;ao” thskao .2reka iys;jQ kqU msrsyqfKysh’ wuzngzGh” kqfUz .2rejr
fmdlaLrid;s nuqKd jsiska ;uka jsoHdprK iuzmodj wvq ;ruska j;a iuzmQrAK
fkdlrkqfha ))fuz ms

57′ ))wuzngzGh” fmdlaLrid;s nuqKq f;fuz mfiakos fldfid,a rcq jsiska
oqka foh wkqNj lrhs’ tfy;a fldfid,a rcq Tyqg yuqjSula mjd fkdfohs’ rcq
huz lf,l Tyq yd huz lreKq .ek l:d lrhso” uqjy;a fros mg w;2rska l:d
lrhs’))

))wuzngzGh” mfiakos fldfid,a
rc OdrAusljQ ish leue;af;ka mjrd fokq ,nk oka hful2g ms,s.kajdo” tfiajQ
fmdlaLrid;S nuqKdyg flfia kuz ;ud yuqjSug wjir mjd fkdfoao$ wuzngzGh”
n,j’ kqUf.a wdpdrAhjQ fmdlaLrid;S nuqKqyg fuz ;ruz fkdie,lSulao$))


[\q 72/]

))wuzngzGh” fuz ldrKh
.ek l2ula is;kafkyso$ fu mfiakos fldfid,a rc wef;l2 msg fyda wil2 msg
fyda r:dikfhys fyda yqkafka Wiia wud;Hhka jsuiQ fyda rdcl2udrhka iu.
fyda lsishuz idlpzPdjla lrkafkah’ ta nuqKq f;fuz ta m1foaYfhka msg f.dia
tla fmfoil isgskafkah’ blans;s Y2o1fhla fyda Yqo1odifhla fyda tkafkah’
ta nuqKq f;fuz tys isgsfha tjeksujQ uka;1Khla lrkafkah’ flfiao$
))mfiakos fldfid,a rc f;fuz fufia lSfhah’ fufia;a lSfhah))hs lshdh’))

))Tyq rcq lSjla fyda lshhso$ rcq yd iu. lreKq jsuid ne,Sula fyda lrhso$ fumuKlska fyf;fuz rcq fyda rdcdud;Hjrfhla jkafkao$))

))ke;auh” Np;a f.#;uhka jykai’))

58′ ))wuzngzGh” tmrsoafokau nuqKkaf.a uq,a RDIsyq jQ uka;1 lrA;DyQjQ
uka;1 meje;ajQjdjQ huz uq,a .2rejrfhda jQjdyqo” jrA;udkfhys nuqfKda huz
flfkl2f.a mqrdK fjzo uka;1hka *Tjqka jsiska( lgmdvfuz lSu lrK ,o fia
lgmdvfuz lSu lr;ao” lshjk ,o fia lshj;ao” /ia fldg ;nk ,o fia ;noao” ta
wgzglh” jdulh” jdufojh” fjiaidus;a;h” hu;.a.sh” wx.Srih” Ndroajdch”
jdfigzGh” liaimh” N.2h hk wdoS RDIsjrhkaf.a uka;1hka lgmdvuz l< uehs
.2rejrhd iys;jQ kqU lgmdvuz lrkafkysh’ tmuKlska kqU RDIsjrfhla fyda RDIs
njg meusKsfhla fyda fjyso$ fuz ldrKh fkdjsh yelsh’))

59′ ))wuzngzGh” fuz .ek kqU l2ulehs is;kafkyso$ uka;1 lrA;Dyq jQ
uka;1 meje;ajQjdjQ huz uq,a RDIsyQ jQy’ fuz ld,fhys nuqfKda huz flfkl2ka
mqrdK fjzo uka;1hka lgmdvfuz lSu l,d fia lgmdvfuz lSu lr;ao” lshjk ,o
fia lshj;ao” /ia fldg ;nk ,o fia ;noao$” mQrAj RDIsyq ukdfldg kEu lr
msrsisoq jQjdyq lemQ flia yd rjq,q we;a;dyq” usKsfldfvd,a wnrK
me

[\q 73/]


))ke;” Nj;a f.#;uhka jykai’))

50′ )).2reka iys;jQ kqU huzfiao” tfia Tjqyq myl< lZMmdg weg we;s
msrsisoq udxYrifhka hqla;jQ fkdfhla fydos jH[ack we;s we,ayd,a n;a lEu
l

))ke;” Nj;a f.#;uhka jykai’))

))fufia fyhska wuzngzGh” .2reka iys;jQ kqU RDIs fkdfjz” RDIs njg
ms

5-’ tjsg Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia ksjdifhka kslauS ilaukg jevsfial’ tjsg
wuzngzG ;reKhd f;fuz;a *.kaOl2gs( ksjdifhka kslauS ilaukg .sfhah’
blans;s wuzngzG ;reKhd Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag wkqj ilauka lrkqfha Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafiaf.a YrSrfhys fo;sia uyd mqrsia ,l2Kq mrSCId lf

[\q 74/]


blans;s Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafia wuzngzG ;reKhd huzfia flfidys;jJ:;2hayh olSo” tnZoqjQ RDoaOs
jsfYaIhla l

tjsg wuzngzG ;reKhdyg funZoq is;la my< jsh’ ))Y1uK f.#;uhka
jykafia fo;sia uy mqrsia ,l2Kska hqla;h” iuzmQrAKh” wiuzmQrAK fkdfjz))
fufia is;d ;reKhd ))hym;” Nj;a f.#;uhka jykai” oeka wms huq’ wms
wjYHfhka l

))wuzngzGh” .uklg ld,h kqUu okqjhs)) nqoqyq lSfhdah’ tjsg wuzngzG ;reKhd fj

6=’ tl, fmdlaLrid;s nuqKq f;fuz WlaLgzGdfjka kslau uy;a n1dyauK
iuQyhla iu. ;ukaf.a wdrdufhys wuzngzG ;reKhd .ek n,dfmdfrd;a;2 fjuska
yqkafkah’ fuz fjzf,ys wuzngzG ;reKhd;a tys meusKsfhah’

63′ ))lsu orej” wuzngzGh” ta Nj;a f.#;uhka oqgqfhao$))

))tfiah” iajduSks’))

))lsu orej” wuzngzGh” ta Nj;a f.#;uhkaf.a tfia we;a;djQu lSrA;s
f>daIdjla Wiaj kexf.ao” ke;akuz tfia fkdfjzo$ ta Nj;a f.#;u f;fuz
tnZoqo” ke;akuz tnZoq fkdfjzo$))

))iajduSks” ta Nj;a f.#;uhka jykafia tnZoquh’ iuzmQrAKjQ fo;sia uy mqrsia ,l2Kq j,ska ta Nj;a f.#;uhka jykafia hqla;hy’))

))orej” wuzngzGh” Y1uK f.#;uhka jykafia iu. kqfUz flnZoq l:djla kuz jQfhao$))


[\q 75/]

blans;s wuzngzG ;reKhd huz l:djla Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia iu. jQfhakuz ta ish,a, fmdlaLrid;S nuqKq yg lSfhah’

64′ tfia lS l, fmdlaLrid;S nuqKq f;fuz wuzngzG ;reKhdyg fufia lSfhah’
))wfka fydZohs” wmf.a mKAvs; kuznqldrdhd” fndfyda Ys,am Ydia;1 oekSfuys
kuznqldrhd” ;1sjsoHd kuznqldrhd” funZoqjQ ys;jf;l2 huz usksfil2g
we;sjQfjd;a ta usksid urKska miq wmdh kuzjQ kmqre .;s we;s” oqlajQ
ksrfhysu Wmoskafkah’))

))wuzngzGh” kqU ta Nj;a f.#;uhka .g .gd nekafkysh’ tjsg Nj;a f.#;u
f;fuz;a wm ms

tl,ays fmdlaLrid;S nuqKq f;fuz iajlSh .Dyfhys usysrs lE hq;2 foa
ms

))Nj;a f.#;uhka jykai” wuzngzG ;reKhd iu. flnZoqjQ ljr kuz l:djla jqfhao$))

tjsg Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia wuzngzG ;reKhd iu. huz muK m1Yafkda;a;r l:djla
jQfha kuz ta ish,a, fmdlaLrid;S n1dyauKhdg lSy’ tfia lS l, n1dyauK
f;fuz Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fufia lSh’ ))Nj;a f.#;uhka jykai” wuzngzG
;reKhd nd,fhls’ Nj;a f.#;uhka jykai” wuzngzG ;reKhdg CIudjk fialajd’))


[\q 76/]

))n1dyauKh” wuzngzG ;reKhd iqjm;a fjzjd’))

65′ tjsg fmdlaLrid;S nuqKq f;fuz wuzngzGhd fukau th Nd.Hj;2ka
jykafiaf.a YrSrfhys fo;sia uy mqrsia ,l2Kq jsuid oqgqfhah’ Y1uK f.#;uhka
jykafia iuzmQrAK fo;sia uy mqrsia ,l2Kska hqla; nj oek .;af;ah’ Tyq
fufia lSfhah’ ))Nd.Hj;2ka jykai” NsCIq ix>hd iu. wo odkh
ms

66′ blans;s fmdlaLrid;S nuqKq
f;fuz Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiaf.a ms

67′ Nd.Hj;2ka jykafia tfia yqka fmdlaLrid;S nuqKdyg odk l:djh” iS,
l:djh” iajrA. l:djh” lduhkaf.a jereoao yd flf,fik njh” my;a njh”
uyKjSfuz W;2uzluh hk OrAu foaYkd flf

[\q 77/]


nqoqjrhska ;uka
jsiskau wjfndaO l< W;2uz i;H OrAu y;r m1ldY flf

68′ tjsg fmdlaLrid;S nuqKq f;fuz Nd.Hj;2ka jykafiag fufia lSh’ ))Nj;a
f.#;uhka jykai” meyeoqfkus” b;d meyeoqfkus’ Nj;a f.#;uhka jykai” fuz uu
orejka yd NdhH!djo” msrsia yd wud;Hhkao iu. Nj;a f.#;uhka jykafiao”
OrAuh yd ix>hdo irKfldg fhus’ Ndj;a f.#;uhka jykafia ud wo mgka
osjsf;la irK .sh Wmdilfhl2 fldg ms

))nuqK” *Tn jsiska( hym;a ldrKhla lshk ,os’))


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UPASAKA JAGATHEESAN CHANDRASEKHARAN


MAY YOU ALL BE EVER HAPPY, WELL AND SECURE

MAY YOU LIVE LONG
MAY ALL SENTIENT AND NON-SENTIENT BEINGS BE EVER HAPPY

MAY YOU BE ALWAYS HAVE CALM, QUIET, ALERT,ATTENTIVE AND

EQUANIMITY MIND WITH A CLEAR UNDERSTANDING THAT

EVERYTHING IS CHANGING

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