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1024 LESSON 28-08-2013 WEDNESDAY FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY 5) School of Buddhist Studies, Philosophy and Comparative Religion; Splitting of the moon Earth Outer Space dream interpretations for revival of Buddhism Reflections on Buddhism -Ven. Dr.Vinayarakkhita Thero Buddhism - A Holy Life to Be Lived
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1024 LESSON 28-08-2013 WEDNESDAY 

FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

5)  School of Buddhist Studies,
Philosophy and Comparative Religion;
Splitting of the moon
Earth Outer Space dream interpretations 
for revival of Buddhism

Reflections on Buddhism -Ven. Dr.Vinayarakkhita Thero

Buddhism - A Holy Life to Be Lived
You will become Pure,
if you like Purity.
You will become Impure,
if you like Impurity.
You will become Holy,
if you like Holiness.
You will become Unholy,
if you like Unholiness.
It is clear from the above verse we become what we like and what we like we become. In the modern world with so many attractions and distractions people have become skeptical about leading a holy life and attaining Nibbana. Actually, the doubt about leading a holy life lies in the defilements inside and not in things outside. Nor it has anything to do with a particular time period of past, present and future. These defilements are ago (Lust and Greed), Dosa (Hatred and Aversion), Moha (Delusion and Ignorance). It is these very difilements inside us that have been the hurdle on the path of Holy life and not the external attractions or detractions. It has been in the past, it is so in the present, and it will be so in the future.
Adhigatam idam bahuhi amatam - Attained has been this deathlessness by many Ajjapi ca labhaniyam idam - And still today, this state can be obtained. Yo yoniso Payunjati - By him who strives in earnestness Na ca sakka aghatamanena - But none will reach it without effort. (Their Gatha).
Therefore the Buddha reminds us not to give up the struggle against the fetters of Raga, Dosa and Moha, in order to escape the misery of Samsara.
Masala Dosa Moha is the daily Raga of my Samsara (wife).
A great satisfaction and assurance is given by our Exalted Teacher the Buddha, when he said that we do possess the power to overcome all evil things in us and can develop all good things. He taught us to abandon evil and unwholesome things and arouse in us good and wholesome things. If this would not have been possible through human effortsin the past, present and future, then the Buddha would never have advised us to put forth all our energy and effort in the Noble Eight Fold Path which is timeless (Akaliko), ever -effective and everlasting, Nibbana.
Proper training is needed for this and the will must be exercised, exertion must be made. One should not turn bad, there must be ardor, there must be perseverance  and one should develop mindfulness, there must be right understanding, above all there must be sincerity and earnestness.
One should believe that when many Monks and laymen have attained it why cannot I ? I am healthy, full of faith, I am not hypocrite, not a pretender or boaster, and I have the will power and understanding that everything is transient, subject to pain and suffering an ulcer, a cancer, a thorn, a misery, a burden, an enemy, a disturbance, it is empty, and void of ego. Why should I not hope for deliverance through Nibbana, when the path is still available ?
In this present world, the Awakened One with Awareness has stimulating and encouraging effect on the youth with scientific education. In this age of spaceships and Aeroplanes, the present generation with their best intentions can find time and leisure to cultivate higher mental facilities through meditation and morality.
Dukkha existed, exists and will continue to exist. At the same time Dukkha Nirodha (End of suffering) also existed , exists and will continue to exist.
Destruction existed, exists and will continue to exist. At the same time Construction through meditation and morality existed, exists and will continue to exist.
If destruction could be triggered, it could also be un-triggered.
The dispute over water
Kapilavatthu, the town of the Sakyans, and Koliya, the town of the Koliyans were situated on either side of the Rohini River.The farmers of both towns irrigated their fields from this river. One year, due to severe drought their paddy and other crops were threatened, and the farmers on both sides wanted to divert the water from the Rohini River to their own fields. Those living in Koliya wanted to divert and channel the water to irrigate their field. However, the farmers from Kapilavatthu protested that they would be denied the use of the water and their crops would be destroyed.
Both sides wanted the water for their own use only and as a result, there was much ill-will and hatred on both sides. The quarrel that started between the farmers soon spread like fire and the matter was reported to their respective rulers. Failing to find a compromise, both sides prepared to go to war.
The Buddha came to know that his relatives on both sides of the river were preparing for battle. For their wellbeing and happiness and to avoid unnecessary suffering, he decided to stop them. All alone, he went and appeared in the middle of the river. His relatives on seeing him, laid aside all their weapons and paid homage to him. Then, the Buddha admonished them, ‘For the sake of some water, which is of little value, you should not destroy your lives which are of so much value. Why have you taken this unwholesome course of action? If I had not been here today, your blood would have been flowing like this river by now. You are living with hatred, but I live free from hatred. You are ailing with moral defilements, but I am free from moral defilements. You are striving to develop selfishness and enmity, but I don’t strive for the development of selfishness.’ Both sides then became ashamed of their foolishness and thus bloodshed was averted.

“Since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace must be constructed”
According to Awakened One with Awareness Dhamma conflicts arise, within a person and amongst persons; at all levels; within a family, in society, in a country and internationally; due to two underlying common causes. The first is the failure to develop the cognitive faculties to the fullest and to see as it is the factors that cause the conflictual situation to arise. The second is the failure to comprehend its true nature.

From the point of conflict management, our attention should be focused on three stages in the unfolding of a conflict. On a time sequence, the final stage is that of transgression. This connotes the stage at which the ordinary behavioural pattern is disturbed and becomes evident or visible through words or actions engendered by the conflict. The next is the preceding stage in which defiled thoughts, through the impact of conflictual stimuli surge up in the form of unwholesome emotions and volitions. And, the earliest stage when defiled thoughts lie dormant without displaying any activity. In Buddhism the three stages are identified in relation to the activity of the mind as “Vitikkama” (the stage of transgression)’ “Pariyutthama” (the stage of manifestation) and “Anusaya” the stage of latent latency.

Conflict Management is essentially a practical exercise and the purpose of this article would not be achieved by a mere analysis of the Dhamma. Hence, the relevant aspects of Dhamma would be presented in reference to a situation in which Lord Buddha personally intervened to resolve a conflict in a state of imminent war and, the ethnic conflict in our country which has had a wide impact on the people and has caused loss of life and damage to property.

The Commentaries of the Anguttara Nikaya and the Samyutta Nikaya recount an instance in which Lord Buddha transcended to an imminent battle field to settle a bitter dispute between people of the Sakya clan, being his paternal relatives and of the Koliya clan, being his maternal relatives. As a result of the peace that the Buddha brought about through his intervention and the resolution of the dispute according to Dhamma, a large number of young persons of the Sakya clan entered the Bhikku sasana. This led to a request by the spouses of those persons that they be ordained as nuns. The demand was spearheaded by Buddha’s foster mother Maha Prajapathi Gothami who cared for him and brought him up after his mother’s demise. The Buddha refused the persistent pleadings to establish a bhikkuni sasana and left Kapilavasthu to arrive at the City of Vishala.

Being flexible
Maha Prajapathi Gothami undaunted by this refusal, lopped off her hair and clad in coarse saffron coloured garments followed the Buddha on foot accompanied by the other females, a distance of 150 miles to the City of Vishala. Thereafter, Venerable Ananda, being the Buddha’s attendant reiterated the request and finally the Buddha agreed to establish a Bhikkuni Sasana, subject to eight stringent conditions. This instance reveals that a situation of unrest could be adjusted by being flexible and devising a carefully structured solution. Although it marks an important event in the history of the Buddha Sasana, what is more important to the topic and the contemporary history of our country is the preceding incident of resolving a conflict at the stage of imminent war.
The territories of the Sakya and Koliya clans were defined by the river “Rohini”. The respective clans cultivated land on the two banks of the river using its water. There was a severe drought which reduced the flow of water and clansmen suspected that the other would take more of the available water and deny to one sufficient water for cultivation. This suspicion gradually festered and one clan prepared for war. On seeing this, the other clan too assembled on the bank of the river armed for war. The Buddha arrived at the site of imminent and battle as stated before and questioned the warring clansmen as to who took the decision to wage war. It was then revealed that the decision was not made by any one in the ruling segments of the clans but that suspicions in the minds of the people as to the denial of their share of river water resulted in the people arming themselves and assembling for war.
I would pause at this stage and advert to the genesis of the ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka with reference to specific instances drawn from recent history in which communal suspicions erupted in outbreaks of violence. These incidents which took place over a period of nearly 50 years can be briefly stated in a time sequence as follows:
In 1959 — with the enactment of the Official Languages Act and the action taken thereon such as the introduction of the Sinhala letter “shri” on the number plates of vehicles;
In 1977 - With the newly formed Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF) winning all the seats in the North, in the Parliamentary Election that was held and a false rumour that the Sinhala students of the Jaffna University had been killed and their bodies were being brought in the Northern train “Yal Devi”. The disturbances originated at different “Station Towns” along the rail track, commencing from Anuradhapura.
In 1983 - with the killing of 13 soldiers in Jaffna.; and
In 1987 - with the Indo-Lanka Accord which led to the 13th Amendment to the Constitution and the merger of the Northern and Eastern Provinces.
In all these instances and in certain minor instances of a similar nature, the disturbances arose at a lower level from small groups, escalating in spirals of violence which resulted in extensive loss of life and damage to property. In each of these situations those in control of Government like their counterparts of the Sakya and Koliya clans got engulfed in the ethnic waves that arose from the bottom and became inactive allowing each situation to aggravate. Be that as it may, one of the deep rooted causes of the ethnic dispute is the distribution of agricultural water and the establishment of Sinhala settlements, particularly in the Eastern Province. A decisive instance is the Weli Oya Project in the northern area of the Eastern Province and North Central Province beneath Mullaitivu being the final seat of battle. The river identified by the Sinhala people as “Weli Oya” is known as “Manal Aru” by the Tamil people. The meaning in both languages is the same.
The “Eelam IV War” commenced with a group of terrorists shutting down the Mavil Aru Anicut at Seruvila in the Trincomalee District and causing damage to the Verugal Aru Anicut and the 1000 meter spill. The anicut was shut down and other damage done, not by persons who had been in any way denied water resources or, by persons who had handled a mammoty or plough for cultivation. They were the acts of essentially young persons who had engaged in violent and armed activity, virtually throughout their lives. On the other hand , having inspected the area on several occasions, I am personally aware that the anicut, spill and the banks, were repaired and the supply of water was restored to thousands of Sinhala, Tamil and Muslim agricultural families due to the dedicated action of Tamil engineers serving in the area.
Senseless violence
The language issue and the question of decentralization of power have been redressed adequately by amendments to the Constitution itself. These measures have not been fully implemented due to the continuance of war. The implementation of the Mahaweli “A” system and the improvement of the Yodha Wewa and Malwatu Oya irrigation systems will provide adequate agricultural water to the entire region. It is thus seen that the underlying causes which led to the dispute have receded to the background and the conflict erupted into senseless armed violence perpetrated by youth who have been misled and brainwashed with a ferocious ideology. They do not hesitate to commit suicide and in the process kill indiscriminately.
The method adopted by Lord Buddha on the banks of river Rohini to avert an imminent war and his teaching would be most appropriate in the management of the ethnic conflict in this country, which acquired immensely tragic dimensions.
The preceding account of the Rohini river dispute reveals that the decision to wage war did not emanate from the top but escalated from below due to suspicions of an unequal distribution of river water. Having ascertained this, the Buddha questioned both sides as to the consequences of war. In response they agreed with the Buddha that as a result of war there will be extensive loss of life on both sides. The Buddha then posed the question as to what was more valuable, the water they were fighting for or the blood that would be shed. When all agreed that blood that would be shed is more valuable, the Buddha eased the tension that had built up and brought about an amicable settlement. The important sermon the Buddha delivered at this stage was that, “since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace must be constructed”. The very words of this noble sermon have been now incorporated in the Preamble to the Constitution of the UNESCO, denoting its timeless truth.
Deep-seated suspicion
The two facts stated at the beginning, as paving the way to any conflict viz; the failure to see its causal arising, as it is and, the failure to comprehend its true nature, are both mind based. The practical dimension of this proposition can be examined in relation to the incidents cited above. The cause of the conflict between the Sakya and Koliya clans was a fear that there would be an inequality in the distribution of the reduced supply of water. This was further fuelled at the stage of latency “Anusaya,” by the deep seated suspicions between the two clans. At the stage of manifestation ‘Pariyuttana” it acquired a violent dimension. The stage of transgression “Vitikkama” was averted by the timely intervention of the Buddha.
The metomorphosis of our ethnic conflict reveals a like progression. The enactment of the Official Language Act of 1956 led to a fear from amongst the Tamil people that they would be denied employment in the State sector and be deprived of administrative benefits, as a result of Sinhala being the Official Language.
Similarly, the establishment of irrigation schemes and the colonization projects resulted in a fear amongst Tamil people that there would be insufficient space for expansion of the Tamil community in those areas. Furthermore, the continued establishment of strong Sinhala political parties in Government-led to a fear that Tamil people would be left out from the political process.
Both sides failed to rationally see the specific causes that gave rise to suspicion and fear which fuelled the conflict and to understand their true nature. Instead of addressing specific issues and requesting that safeguards be put in place to prevent discriminatory treatment, the Tamil political leaders made demands for a Federal Constitution and a separate State, that went far beyond the causes referred to above. This in turn resulted in a vehement opposition to the demands based on a fear that the territorial integrity of the country would be jeopardized. The neighbouring state of Tamilnadu in India aggravated these fears.
The use of force to negate the demands for a Federal and later separate State led to the emergence of the fearsome “Tiger Terrorists” who had no appreciation of the true nature of the causes of the conflict. Tamil political leaders who made unreasonable demands as a solution to the conflict themselves became victims of the fearsome “Tigers”. The use of military force to put down the violent activities of the terrorists do not form the part of the Buddhist perspectives of conflict management. If Lord Buddha took the view that the underlying dissatisfaction, suspicion and fear could be redressed entirely by war, he would not have brought about peace by visiting the battlefield and averting the imminent war.
Furthermore the fate of the Sakya clan which resulted from a later war also reveals that the Buddha took the view that war cannot be averted in every instance. On the contrary, he has intervened only upon a reasonable belief that such intervention would lead to a peaceful result. Thus a prerequisite of conflict management is that there should be proper understanding of the dispute and a practical flexibility in evolving a feasible solution.
Since, conflict begins in the mind, in management it is foremost that the particular state of mind which caused the conflict to arise be addressed adequately. Hence it is necessary to dwell on the working of the human mind as a prelude to conflict management. In this regard it can be stated without any fear of contradiction that Buddhism is the only religion, philosophy and science which addresses the working of the human mind. According to Buddha all living being, including humans are composed of five aggregates (”Panchaskanda”). One aggregate is the physical form “Rupa” which is visible. Although the physical form is different from one living being to another, whatever be the appearance, it is composed of four elements. They are (i) “Patavi” - the Element of hardness (ii) Apo” - the Element of cohesion (iii) “Thejo” - the Element of heat, (iv) “Vayo” - the Element of wind and pressure.

This painting at the Kelaniya temple depicts the scene where Lord Buddha intervened to bring peace between the two warring factions in Naagadeepa
These four Elements are also known as the “Mahabutha”. The elements in combination form what are known as “Rupa Kalapa” (in relation to the body they would be the “Cells”).
The Buddha Dhamma contains a detailed exposition of the manner in which these Elements and the “Rupa” of which it is composed, function, which would in turn explain the multiplicity of diseases that afflict the physical body, from a common cold to a cancer. Whatever be the extent to which medical science develops, it would to that extent confirm the Buddha Dhamma and not contradict it.
The other four Aggregates, Vedana (feeling), Sanna (Perception), Sankara (formations) and Vinnana (Consciousness) are not visible and constitute the working of the Mind. The function of each of these Aggregates is denoted by its name.
The mind-body (Nama Rupa), combine composed of these five Aggregates function through six organs. These organs are, (Eye - sight), Ear (hearing), Body (feeling), Nose (smell), Tongue (taste) and the Mind (consciousness).
Working of sense bases
Each organ is a distinct functional entity and is described as a “sense base”. According to “Madhupindika Sutta” each sense base functions upon contact (phassa). According to Buddha Dhamma, contact (phassa) is made only upon a meeting of three factors. They are, (1) an external form (to which attention is focussed - “Nimittha” (2) the particular sense base which makes contact with such external form and (3) Consciousness of the particular sense base. The distinct working of each of the sense bases can be understood through a simple personal experience. A fruit that is identified by the eye as being good, may turn out to have a bad odour when taken to the nose. The same fruit may turn out to be tasty when eaten and cause an irritation when it touches the body. On the other hand, the entire fruit may be just rejected out of hand by the working of the Mind itself.
On the basis of extensive research that was carried out, an American scientist has written a book titled “Molecules of Emotion” in which the scientist identified the working of the five organs through an electro chemical process known as Neuro Peptides. It was found that there is a large concentration of Neuro Peptides associated with each of the organs and when contact is made it is transmitted by means of the molecular activity.
When contact is made with an external object in the manner stated above there is “feeling” being the 2nd Aggregate. The “feeling” is identified as being good, bad or indifferent, which is the 3rd Aggregate. Upto this point of the working of the Aggregates of all living beings including four footed animals, creeping and crawling creatures, is the same. At this stage there is a function which is special to humans described as “Vithakka”, “Vichara”, and “Prapancha”. The function of “Vithakka” is to focus the mind on one aspect of the external object with which contact is made. The function of “Vichara” is to spread the mind’s activity only on the selected aspect and the function of “Prapancha” (Proliferation), is to ponder over the matter in relation to the past, present and future. This is the aspect of the working of the Mind which is relevant to our subject of conflict management.
The 4th and the 5th Aggregates being “Formations” and “Consciousness” result in “Kamma” and the continuance of “sansara”, from one existence to another. I would not advert to them since it is not referable directly to the subject of conflict management.
According to Buddha Dhamma, the reaction or response to contact with an external object (Nimiththa”) which may be a living being, thing or event, varies from person to person not because of the physical form (Rupa) of such person but because of the working of the mind, in particular the process of “Vittakka”. “Vichara” and “Prapancha” referred to above. This process is induced by a particular state of Mind described as the “Bhavanga Citta”, which may be translated as “sub consciousness”. It is to be noted that the function attributed in the Buddha Dhamma to this Mind state is different from that attributed to it in the western psychology. “Bhavanga” means the cause of the present existence.
The Buddha described this Mind state as being radiant which functions like a reflector that takes in an image transmitted to it. A contact made through a sense base is transmitted as an image to the Bhavanga Citta, where a process of identification is made which results in the formation of the particular consciousness upon such contact. This accounts for our varied responses to a single external object, as stated above. The “Bhavanga Citta” varies from person to person and from one living being to another and continues throughout one’s existence.
The mind of the terrorist
It is to be noted that “Bhavanga Citta” is the result of a person’s past “kamma”. If in past existence, there had been less greed (craving), less hatred, and less ignorance, the Bhavanga Citta of that person has a higher degree of radiance and the power of assimilation would be refined and of depth. But, where kamma of past existence has had more defilements of greed (craving), hatred, and ignorance the “Bhavanga Citta” is less radiant with a lower level of assimilation and depth and in some with a higher propensity to irrational violence.
We can thus comprehend the Mind state of the Leader of the terrorists who identifies himself with the sign of a fierce animal. His propensity to senseless violence stems from his “Bhavanga Citta” which would not change. Persons of similar “Bhavanga Citta” attract to each other and the behavioural pattern of such persons cannot be comprehended in the same way as of others who have more refined Bhavanga Chitta.
Those who did not understand such distinctions in the working of the Mind, associated with and even attempted to please the terrorists and fell prey to senseless violence, whilst others who trusted them entered into Accords that seriously jeopardized the security of the State and imperiled peaceful citizens. Thus a succession of Peace Conferences and Accords aborted as a result of failure to understand the working of the human mind from a Buddhist perspective.
The process of conflict management should be based on a firm distinction drawn between those with a propensity to senseless violence and the others who form the vast majority. According to the Anguttara Nikaya, the Buddha when describing the “Bhavanga Citta” as being radiant also stated that it is defiled by external factors which cloud its radiance. A variety of such defilements are noted in different aspects of the Buddha Dhamma but in reference to the ethnic conflict we can identify in particular, “Jathi Vitakka” (racial feelings), “Janapada Vitakka” (national feelings) and “Avannati” (egotism or personal and national pride). These are preoccupations with thoughts concerning “our race” or “our state” that are harmful to the concept of a common humanity.
As stated above it is at the stage of Vittaka, Vichara, Prapancha, that one selected aspect of what is perceived on contact by a sense base becomes the focus of mental activity to the exclusion of other material aspects.
In view of the propensities stated above, the incidents referred to, the Official Language Act, Irrigation and Colonization Schemes and the like, have acquired a racial twist leading to thoughts of discrimination and of unequal treatment.
In truth, the Official Language Act of 1956 was intended to redress the grievances of the Sinhala people who were denied participation in the administration of the country of which the language was English. Similarly, irrigation and colonization schemes were designed to accommodate the growing Sinhala population in the South and Central Province who were denied agricultural land due to the plantations and the unavailability of irrigation facilities in the South.
However, the wrong perception engendered by a communal perspective aggravated due to the failure to address the same issues in respect of Tamil people who were equally denied participation in the administration and opportunities of expanding agricultural pursuits. The failure to view these matters from the perspective of different communities led to a situation of one being ignored and left out feeling victimized.
Therefore, conflict management should primarily address on the causes that have been identified above and the resultant effects from the perspective of each community separately and redressed in a manner that there is equality in the extent to which relief is granted. There can never be one solution encompassed as a Federal State or any other form of Constitution. Such a measure would fail to identify in sufficient detail the manner in which the particular community feels victimized. These perceptions are deeply rooted in practical considerations which should be redressed from the base of its occurrence. 
No external intervention or mediation can succeed in the matter of management of the ethnic conflict, since such intervention would fail by focusing on a general solution to a matter which should be addressed in the minutest detail.
The peaceful resolution of conflict is firmly rooted in the Buddhist tradition and its evidence goes back to the beginning of our recorded history in the “Mahavamsa” which recounts two instances in which the Buddha visited Sri Lanka and resolved conflicts in Nagadhipa, an island proximate to the Jaffna peninsular and Kelaniya being the sacred site close to Colombo.
Finally, conflict resolution in relation to the ethnic and all other conflicts should be firmly based in the teaching of the Buddha stated as the “eternal law” -
“Nahi verena verani - sammanti’dha kudacancam
Averenacasammanti - esa dhammo sanantano” 
Hatred is never appeased by hatred in this world;
it is appeased only by non-hatred This is an eternal law.
This article was written to commemorate Vesak and was also published in our sister paper the Lankadeepa on Friday.

Chief Justice Sarath N. Silva

Please Visit:
Galactic Research Institute, Foundation for the Law of Time 
Noosphere II – The Great Experiment of the Law of Time 
An Experiment in Time (2006-2012 – 21 December)
Theory of the Noosphere, History and Review of the Literature
Negative Ions and Ozone Myths and Facts


Now in this present world, the Buddha should have stimulating and encouraging effect on the people with scientific education. Many people are laboring under the delusion that in this age of spaceships and Aeroplanes, the present generation, despite their best intentions, cannot find time and leisure to cultivate higher mental facilities through meditation and morality. Thus it has been rightly said:
When you run fast
To get somewhere,
You miss half the fun
Of getting there.
When you worry and hurry
Throughout your day,
It is like an unopened gift
Thrown away.
Life is not a race
Do make it slower,
Practice the Dhamma
Before health and life is over.
Over and over again the Buddha assures: You can arouse your will, you can act, and you can change your character by certain ways of effort, i.e., walking on the Noble Eight Fold Path and attain Nibbana. So without giving any lame excuses we should spend our time and energy in the direction of the Noble Eight Fold Path for our own good, for our own benefit, for our own happiness and for our own liberation.
There is a saying that he, who wills success is half way to it. And that where there is a will, there is a way. This is all I have to say. So always keep in mind that will is the root of all things, not only of Vice and Suffering but also of Virtue and happiness. Thus finally I would like to say that:
Fierce winds not a mountain Shake Nor they make firm firm earth to Quake Similarly he good kamma on Make No one can his fortune take. So following the Buddha, the fully awake; Lead a pure life like Lotus in he lake Practicing Precepts (Sila) without break.
May you all live a holy life life and attain Nibbana!

The Buddha Meditation Method
A puzzled man asked the Buddha: I have heard that some monks meditate with expectations, others meditate with no expectations, and yet others are indifferent to the result. What is the best?
The Buddha answered: Whether they meditate with or without expectations, if they have the wrong ideas and the wrong methods, they will not get any fruit from their meditation. Think about it. Suppose a man wants to have some oil and he puts sand into a bowl and then sprinkles it with salt. However much he presses it, he will not get oil, for that is not the method. Another man is in need of milk.  He starts pulling the horns of a young cow. Whether he has any expectations or not, he will not get any milk out of the horn, for that’s not the method. Or if a man fills a jar with water and churns it in order to get butter, he will be left only with water. It’s like filling a bowl with oil seeds and pressing them or milking a cow by pulling the udder or filling a jar with cream and churning it.  It’s the right method. ~ Majjhima Nikaya

What kind of meditation did the Buddha teach?
Truthfully speaking, no one clearly knows; however, we have a few good hints about the nature of the practice he might have taught from some of the Buddhist scriptures. From the above scripture, it is clear Buddha felt that unless one was using a correct method, one could not expect to gain Nirvana—the fully awakened state of absolute freedom and enlightenment.

Buddha also spoke of two qualities that he thought were fundamental to the fully-awakened state: Tranquility and Insight. Two things will lead you to supreme understanding. What are those two? Tranquility and Insight.
If you develop tranquility, what benefit can you expect?  Your mind will develop. The benefit of a developed mind is that you are no longer a slave to your impulses.
If you develop insight, what benefit will it bring? You will find wisdom. And the point of developing wisdom is that it brings you freedom from the blindness of ignorance.
A mind held bound by unconsidered impulse and ignorance can never develop true understanding. But by way of tranquility and insight the mind will find freedom.~ Anguttara Nikaya
It is interesting that the two most popular forms of Buddhist meditation that are taught today are called Samatha and Vipassana.Samatha meditation is based on the intention and persistent effort on the part of the meditator to concentrate the mind on some specific object of meditation: the goal being to develop the ability of the mind to concentrate because when the mind is in a highly concentrated state, it is known to be tranquil and such a mind, it is thought, would make deep insight possible.
Since Buddha explained that only the right method would bring the fruit, it would be valuable to explore whether Samatha meditation, as it’s understood and practiced today, is the right method to bring tranquility to the mind. The term Samatha actually means calmness or tranquility: an integrated state where the mind is not in any way excited or active. It is directly related to the term Samadhi, the state in which the mind is completely settled and unwavering and is effortlessly held in a fully concentrated state.What creates this tranquil state of mind? In its fully developed state, tranquility is produced by the unbounded peace, freedom and wakefulness that are experienced in the unconditioned, infinite state of Nirvana. It is the total freedom and absolute happiness of Nirvana that automatically and spontaneously absorbs and concentrates the mind.

Meditate, and in your wisdom realize Nirvana, the highest happiness. ~ Dhammapada
The misunderstanding regarding Samatha meditation, as it is understood and practiced today, is the idea that the mind needs to be trained to gain the ability to concentrate through the application of strenuous concentration practices.
The mind will automatically and spontaneously achieve this highly tranquil and concentrated state simply by the meditator knowing the technique of how to allow the mind to be effortlessly drawn in to the Bliss of Nirvana.

It is a common experience that the mind will naturally stay concentrated on anything that provides it with peace and contentment; this is an inherent capacity of the mind, so no training or practices of concentration are required.

It is the fulfillment naturally produced by of the state of Nirvana that concentrates the mind and this happens without any effort on the part of the meditator if he or she is using a right method of meditation.

Through the regular and effortless practice of a right method, the vital quality of tranquility will become stabilized in the life of the meditator and, as Buddha said, one will then no longer be a slave to one’s impulses.

In addition, because it is the natural tendency of the mind to move on to a field of stable peace and contentment in a spontaneous manner, the individual’s effort to try to control the mind to remain only on one limited object of attention, as is done with Samatha meditation today, actually obstructs the mind from rushing on to the ever-constant infinity and happiness it so much needs and desires.

However, it is not Samatha meditation that is the most popular type of Buddhist meditation; the most widely used form today is Vipassana or Mindfulness meditation. Vipassana is also referred to as Insight meditation, because through its practice one is supposed to develop penetrating insight into the true nature of reality. Buddha explained that through Vipassana, which literally means through insight, one should gain the wisdom that brings you freedom from the blindness of ignorance.

These days, Vipassana/Mindfulness meditation is practiced by the practitioner having the intention to be an impartial observer of some natural process occurring within his or her body, mind or emotions. For example, one is asked to just observe or be mindful of the rising and falling of the abdomen during the process of breathing, or to just impartially observe the incoming and outgoing of the breath itself.

Another popular form of this meditation is to mindfully observe the body in the natural act of walking or during the process of standing up or sitting down. The key element is to try to be continuously aware of whatever process is taking place without in any way interfering with or reacting to, either positively or negatively, the process that is occurring in the moment.

The idea is to try to be fully aware of the raw experience that is always happening and transforming by noting and letting go of each arising and subsiding sensation. This practice is supposed to bring one deep insight, perfect wisdom, into the ultimate reality of the true nature of existence in both its conditioned and unconditioned states.

Unfortunately, this attempt to develop and obtain Insight through the practice of trying to be an impartial observer is not a right method. The reason for this is that the impartial observer, which alone is capable of right mindfulness and genuine Insight, is the fully-awakened state of Nirvana Itself.

The true impartial observer is never the attention or mind that is attempting to watch a process. The reason for this is that this very attempt is a part of the process itself; it is not outside the process.

In stark contrast to this, the genuine impartial observer is completely outside any and every process of the rising and falling of any conditioned state of existence; it is completely beyond the mind and any human intention or effort to observe anything. Buddha asked the question: ‘What is right mindfulness?’
He answered in the following way:

When going, the monk knows ‘I am going’, or, when standing, he knows ‘I am standing’, or, when lying down, he knows ‘I am lying down’. Or in whatever position his body is placed, he is aware of it….Whether he goes, stands or sits, sleeps or is awake, speaks or is silent, he is acting with full attention. ~ Digha Nikaya
In this above quote, it is vital to note that Mindfulness should be present even when one is sleeping. In other words, the process of sleep should be able to be witnessed or observed as it is naturally occurring.

At first glance, the impartial observation of sleep would seem to be impossible because if one is asleep how could one observe anything? The key to understanding this is that it is not the mind that is observing; in the state of sleep, the mind is sleeping and is not aware of the sleeping process or anything else.

However, it is possible for the Absolute state of consciousness, the state of Nirvana, to impartially witness the sleeping process. It is the unconditioned, transcendental, Absolute state of consciousness that is the true impartial observer of all the ever-changing values of the conditioned aspects of life, including the mind and its intentions.

It is this supreme value of life alone that is capable of being impartial because only It is without any lack and nothing can be subtracted or added to Its eternal status. Consequently, it is only the Absolute existence of the fully-awakened state that is capable of totally penetrating into the true nature of life and gaining the supreme Insight lived, embodied and expressed by a Buddha.

How then can one develop true Insight, Perfect Wisdom, into the ultimate reality of life?  If the human attempt to be an impartial observer of natural processes is not the appropriate method, what would be the right method? It is clear that the right method would need to result in the cultivation and integration of the transcendental state of Absolute Wakefulness, the state of Nirvana.  The Buddhist Shurangama Sutra offers the following deep insight:
Through which sense organ should I cultivate? You ask. Don’t be nervous. It is the very organ of the ear which Gwan Yin Bodhisattva used that is best for you.
Gwan Yin Bodhisattva perfected his cultivation through the organ of the ear, and Ananda will follow him in cultivating the same method. The Buddhas and Bodhisattvas of former times have left us such a wonderful Dharma-door that we should also follow the method of cultivating the organ of the ear to perfect penetration. This is the easiest method.
The method suggested in the Shurangama Sutra is referred to as the easiest method because it involves the simple and effortless act of allowing one’s attention to be with a sound in order to achieve perfect penetration. Perfect penetration means that one has been able to penetrate beyond all the temporal, ever-changing values of all the conditioned states of existence and become at one with the Absolute, unconditioned, eternal, never born and never dying peace and fulfillment, which is the infinite all-knowing state of Nirvana, the end of all suffering.

But, how should one be with a sound? What is the right method? The Shurangama Sutra offers further explanation in the following verses:
Ananda, and everyone in the great assembly, Turn around your mechanism for hearing. Return the hearing to hear your own nature The nature will become the supreme Way. That is what perfect penetration really means. That is the gateway entered by Buddhas as many as dust motes. That is the one path leading to Nirvana. Tathagatas of the past perfected this method. Bodhisattvas now merge with this total brightness. People of the future who study and practice Will also rely on this Dharma. ~ Shurangama Sutra

One is instructed to turn around your mechanism for hearing. What does this mean? Usually, one hears a sound when one is speaking or hearing someone else speak, or hears a sound produced by something in the environment—a bird, thunder, the rushing of a river, anything.

Our mind is usually outwardly directed into the environment. However, with a right method of meditation, one can learn how to effortlessly use a sound to follow it in the inward direction to its ultimate source. The right method here is in knowing how to spontaneously appreciate a sound in the inward direction within the mind.

It seems that this was a technique of meditation taught by the Buddha when he would give specific mantras or sounds (a mantra is a specific sound used during meditation) to his disciples.

The following sutra illustrates this point:
‘There’s no need for you to give up’, said the Buddha. ‘You should not abandon your search for liberation just because you seem to yourself to be thick witted. You can drop all philosophy you’ve been given and repeat a mantra instead—one that I will now give you’. ~ Majjhima Nikaya
The sound of the mantra is innocently and effortlessly experienced in its increasingly subtle values until the sound fades away completely and the meditator is left in the completely calm yet full awakened state of Samadhi. This natural process is what is referred to in the above verses quoted from the Shurangama Sutra: Return the hearing to hear your own nature; the nature will become the supreme Way. That is what perfect penetration really means.

It is clear from these verses that the process that resulted in supreme insight or perfect penetration was a process that was conducted by nature itself: nature will become the supreme Way. It was not a process conducted by individual control or efforts to concentrate, or to try to be an impartial observer.

In our time, one natural process of turning around the “mechanism for hearing” is known as the technique of Transcendental Meditation ™. It is an effortless practice that does not require belief in any doctrine or the following of any particular way of life. People of all religions practice it, as do people of no religion. Its practical benefits have been scientifically researched and documented for 40 years and it has been taught world—wide to over 6 million people of every race and culture.

In addition, this technique does not involve any form of concentration, contemplation, or any controlled effort on the part of the mind, intellect or emotions to distance oneself from one’s experiences by trying to remain unmoved, detached and impartial. This is a vital point because the Tranquility and Insight that Buddha spoke of were never meant to be practices. One cannot practice Tranquility or Insight, but one can easily gain and develop them by regularly transcending to the state of Nirvana and becoming at one with It. It is the state of Nirvana that is perfectly tranquil and the state of perfect Insight, Perfect Wisdom.

The right method of meditation would be one that is capable of bringing us beyond all the impermanent, ever-changing, conditioned states of existence to the state of Nirvana. It would be a method that is capable of completely transcending its own process and leaving us at one with the Absolute, freed from the illusion of a limited and separate self-existence.

Then, through its regular effortless practice, this method would allow us to fully integrate and stabilize this unwavering, Absolute state of Nirvana into all activities and experiences of daily life allowing us to achieve the goal of all Buddhas and Bodhisattvas—a world without suffering.

To conclude, the main point of this essay on Buddha and Meditation is that to gain the Tranquility and Insight that are the qualities of full enlightenment, to realize the Perfect Wisdom that blossoms into infinite compassion, one has to learn and use the right method of turning within.
It’s like filling a bowl with oil seeds and pressing them or milking a cow by pulling the udder or filling a jar with cream and churning it.  It’s the right method. ~ Majjhima Nikaya
By Dr. Evan Finkelstein on
Dr. Evan Finkelstein is professor
of Comparative Religion and Maharishi Vedic Science at Maharishi University of
Management. He has written many papers that identify the common ground inherent
in many of the ancient wisdom traditions, and teaches courses on the universal
principles inherent in Hinduism, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism, Judaism,
Christianity, and Islam.


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ancient legal books report that Sudras caught listening to Vedic
recitations had molten lead poured into their ears. A Sudra could also
have been forced to drink boiling oil if he or she claimed to have
taught someone something learned from the Vedas.


Sudras (also Sudhra or Shudra) are people occupying a
position next to the bottom of the Hindu caste system in India. Most
Sudras are menial workers. At times it is difficult to distinguish
Sudras from untouchables (Dalits), who stand below them and are
considered to be so polluted that they are regarded as outside the caste
system entirely. The Vaisya (Vaishya) or merchant caste stands directly
above the Sudras in India’s cast hierarchy.

Identifying a member of the Sudra class is a matter
of recognizing subtle distinctions with which one becomes familiar after
living around Sudras. They are usually identified by their vocabulary,
which may include vulgarities; by the towns where they live or were
born; by their occupations or by their personal names, which may include
a reference to their occupations; and by other subtle characteristics.
By tradition when a Sudra dies, the body is taken to the burial place
through a south gate because all other gates are reserved for the upper
castes. There have been times when the jobs performed by Sudras were
considered to be so polluting that Sudras were considered equivalent to
untouchables. Strictly speaking, this would not be their status by birth
but by economic actions. In addition Sudras could be exiled or slain at

Caste, or varna (literally, “color”), is affirmed by
the Vedas as an expression of cosmic law (rita). Sudras are associated
with the color black, which may have originated in the colors assigned
to the various varna. One Hindu justification for the caste system rests
in the belief that people were created from parts of the body of the
god Purusha. Social standing is defined by the part of Purusha from
which a person and his or her line is descended. Sudras are said to come
from the feet.

In the Hindu Rig-Veda, the dvijas (twice-born) are
identified as members of the Brahman, Kshatriya, and Vaisya castes. At
about twelve years of age, members of these castes underwent a ceremony
that made them “twice-born,” and they were thereafter permitted to study
the Vedic scriptures. The Sudras were not dvijas and therefore were not
allowed to study the Vedas. Such study usually consisted of listening
to recitations or readings of the Vedas because the very sounds were
believed to have religious power. Some ancient legal books report that
Sudras caught listening to Vedic recitations had molten lead poured into
their ears. A Sudra could also have been forced to drink boiling oil if
he or she claimed to have taught someone something learned from the

The ancient Hindu Laws of Manu discusses castes in great detail. This
text gives names to the offspring of unions of men with wives of the
different castes and to those born to unmarried parents. The Chandalas
were produced by the union of a Sudra father and a Brahman mother. A
Nishada (or Parasava) was produced by a Brahman father and a Sudra
mother. A Sudra father and a Vaisya mother produced an Ayogava. A Sudra
father and a Kshatriya mother produced a Kshattri. In addition the son
of a Sudra man by a Nishada woman was identified as a Kukkutaka, among
the many such designations outlined by the Laws of Manu.

The powerless Sudras were assigned to the rank of servants in India,
and most service and menial jobs became their duties. According to the
Laws of Manu, a Sudra faced with starvation could engage in handicrafts.
However, the best way of life for a Sudra was to serve a Brahman,
because this was the best occupation and prepared one for the next life.
A Sudra is unable to lose caste, being already at the bottom; however,
Sudras can prepare for the next world by imitating the virtuous.

Although Indians traditionally organized people into
four major, rigidly defined social classes or castes, contemporary
Indian society includes several thousand subcastes called jati, meaning
“birth,” “lineage,” or “race.” Most jati probably developed from
hereditary occupational practices. Many jati are regionally based. Some
jati groups comprise only a few hundred families, while others may
include thousands of families. Usually these are endoga-mous status

Another function of varna is that it creates a complex system of
purity and impurity. The ritual purity one acquires at birth may be
enhanced by the practice of rituals during life. The higher the caste,
the purer are its members. However, the higher castes are also
considered to face the grave danger of ritual contamination from members
of the lower castes. Purity regulations codify many areas of Indian
life, especially those involving intimacy, such as drinking, eating,
touching, and marriage. According to the Laws of Manu, drinking from a
vessel after a Sudra used it would cause spiritual pollution of members
of the higher castes. Purification requires a three-day regimen of
drinking water in which kusa grass has been boiled. In addition
twice-born Indians are forbidden to eat food prepared by a Sudra because
it is considered to be impure. If a Brahman died with Sudra food
undigested in his or her stomach, that person would be reborn as a
Sudra. Sudras were urged to fast and eat only the leftovers of the
dvijas. To become Vaisyas in the next life, Sudras had to abstain from

Practices regarding touch have remained a sensitive area.
If a Sudra should accidentally touch someone of a higher caste, such as
a Brahman, then the Brahman would consider himself or herself
contaminated, and extensive rites of purification would be necessary to
remove the stain. Marriage is permitted only between members of the jati
of a particular varna. According to the Laws ofManu, mixed-caste
marriages violate the cosmic law of dharma that orders the world. Such
marriages would therefore cause chaos.

In Tamil-speaking areas of South India, the population is made up
mostly of Sudras, with only a few Brahmans and almost no Kshatriyas or
Vaisyas living in many areas. Tamil-speaking Sudras have developed
practices unknown to the original caste system of northern India. Among
the numerous rankings of agricultural Tamil, the success of many Sudras
has in practice put them above other castes in wealth and power.

Discrimination on the basis of caste has been against the law in
India since the country achieved independence from Britain in 1947.
However, the Hindu system requires castes, so the lives of many Sudras
in tradition-bound rural India have barely changed. Many still belong to
agricultural jati in which they are landlords or members of particular
skill groups, giving them an incentive to maintain the caste system.

In urban areas the pace of life makes it more difficult to practice
caste discrimination. While discrimination still exists in many rural
areas, it is breaking down in India’s cities. Urban Sudras have been
able to organize and use political power to advance the status of their
caste. Their success has been limited, however, by their numerous jati
and the continuance in many areas of Hinduism’s varna belief. Long
practice enforces personal and informal discrimination despite the laws,
but in many areas prosperous Sudras are marrying into higher castes.
When this occurs, Sudras often change their names to disguise their
Sudra origin.


“If the Sudra intentionally listens for committing to memory the Veda, then his ears 
should be filled with (molten) lead; if he utters the Veda, then his tongue should be cut 
off.” – Manusmriti
[Source: <>.]
Premier Institute or The hub of Caste Discrimination
Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Banglore
“If the Sudra intentionally listens for committing to memory the Veda, then his ears should be filled with (molten) lead; if he utters the Veda, then his tongue should be cut off.” – Manusmriti
Above versa is from the Manusmriti, the law book of Hindu religion. It undoubtedly states how lower caste should be treated if they try to learn from the texts. In the modern India the religious scriptures are no-more the source of knowledge. But the modern education is used as the mean to break the caste barriers and attain development by the Dalits in India. The reservation of the seats for Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes in educational institutions including technical, engineering and medical colleges played crucial role in bringing the Dalits in modern occupations.
The traditional Bramhinical knowledge system has become increasingly irrelevant and useless but traditional laws even though become un-constitutional but it seems they have been internalized by society.
On 26th August 2007 V.Ajay Sree Chandra PhD scholar from Indian Institute Of Sciences forced to commit suicide by the two of his faculties.
Late. V. Ajay Sree Chandra: A Promising Dalit Scientist Silenced by Dominated Brahminic Society
He hanged himself in his hostel room. He belongs to scheduled caste and comes from the Andhra Pradesh. He had been repeatedly abused, humiliated, insulted being a Dalit by two of his
- 1 -
faculty, one is Dr. Ajit Kumar who was supervisor to him and another is Prof.Raghavendra Gadkar who is co-supervisor to him. Ajay left seven page suicide notes, as confirmed by one of his friend, which has been surprisingly missing and deliberately suppressed by the police during investigation. Institute authorities also destroyed some pages from the personal diary of the Ajay which might have used as the evidence to expose the inhuman treatment Ajay was subjected to by the faculties.
Picture of Late Ajay Sree Chandra’s sealed room, where he Committed Suicide
On the Sunday night Ajay was watching TV with his hostel-mates Diptaroop Nandi and Sumantra Roy among others. According to Deeptaroop Nandi, Ajay looked depressed on the Sunday. Nandi got phone call from Prof. Raghvendra Gadkar to enquiring the whereabouts of Ajay On Monday morning (26 Th August 2007). When Ajay didn’t arrive for break fast in the mess-hall, Nandi called up on Ajay’s mobile, but when there was no response from him, he went to Ajay’s room. As room was closed from inside they knocked door and shouted many times, but when there was no response from inside, they peeped through the window. He saw Ajay’s body hanging to the ceiling. With the help of security guards, they broke the lock and opened the room. Nandhi saw seven page suicide-note in the room. He has informed that to Prof. Gadkar. But surprisingly suicide note was not produced for police report. All the batch mates of Ajay were forced by Institute authority to go home after this incidence happened.
Ajay’s father V.Ravindra Kumar was informed by the Institute on the same day by 10:30 AM. He rushed to Banglore and reached to M.S. Ramaiah Hospital by 6:45 PM where post mortem was done. Death body handed over to V.Ravindra Kumar on next day. After that he reached to Institute campus. One police sub-inspector along with Institute official asked him to sign some papers, as those papers were written in Kannada, he couldn’t read it. He was so sad and - 2 -
had to take son’s body to native place, he signed on those papers. Later he came to know that police stated the reasons of suicide are personal and family problems.
Ajay was eldest among the three siblings of the V. Ravindra Kumar. His academic credentials were proven. In S.S.C. he got 81%, in H.S.C. he got 94% and in B.Sc. he got 80%. He was one among the top twelve in India who got into the Ph.D. course in Biological sciences at Indian Institute of Sciences, Bangalore. The above record speaks volumes about his capability and potential that is enough to cope with the academic requirements to manage and deal his Ph.D. course. He was in first year of his Ph.D programme. He shared his problems with many of his friends that how Prof. Raghvendra Gadkar and Prof. Ajit Kumar used to humiliate him on the basis of caste.
Many of the Dalit students told reporter that they also had been abused and humiliated by the Dr. Gadkar and Dr. Ajit Kumar on the basis of caste. The fear of being harassed by faculties is so immense that these students asked the author of this report not to mention their names in the report.
Harassment in the laboratory:
Ajay must have mentioned harassment from his faculties in that missing suicide note. Ajay used to write diary. When Police along with the institute authority came to Ajay’s room, they took away his diary also. The diary was with institute security and after three days it was handed over to local police station. Many pages from the diary were torn. Presently the diary is with police but they gave photocopies of the few pages to Ajay’s father. One page of it clearly mentions that Ajay was scared with some one in the laboratory. He mentions it six times in eight line paragraph.
Original text extract from Ajay’s Personal Diary
Diary reads “those eyes, they scare me, they look with such inferiority - 3 -
/superiority complex @ you. They tell everything (most of the time). Those eyes scare me……those eyes scares me a lot. My legs are paining…”
It clearly proves that he was terrorized by some one in the laboratory. The persons who used to terrorize can not be any student or non-teaching staff, if it was so he would have complained or shared it with his research supervisor or someone else. But he shared with his friends that Prof. Gadkar and Prof. Ajit Kumar used humiliated him, so it is clear that the person mentions in the diary were Prof. Gadkar and Prof. Ajit Kumar.
Indian institute of Sciences, Bangalore, deemed university and premier institute in the research of science and technology. Each year around 350 research candidates enroll in the institute and around 300 Ph. D. and M.Sc. (Engg) students passed out each year. Institute claims they have largest library in the field of science and technology in the country.
This maximum of the teaching and non-teaching staffs comes from the caste- Hindu. Dalit research students are being discriminated by them on the basis of caste. Many Dalit students spoke with the reporter that their guides used harsh and derogatory language. Dalit Research scholars are always discouraged by their guides. Research students who are working on the research projects are not evaluated properly. The non-contributor upper caste students are always appreciated by the upper caste supervisors and the hard working Dalit students are commented as incompetent in the group.
Dalit employees also being discriminated, they are not given promotion. There are very few Dalit faculties in the institute. Their research projects are many times not given permission by the concern authorities.
Atrocities on Dalits is no more the rural phenomenon but is now perpetuated in the modern and secular places like educational institutions, governmental and non-governmental establishments etc. The difference between the two is former is more visible like physical attacks, destroying private properties, social boycott and in the modern institutions it is more subtle, discrimination is practiced in the institutions through decision making processes. Another form of atrocity is verbal attack, using derogatory words
- 4 -
and making comments. This has been observed and experienced by many Dalit students on the campuses. They are being commented by the non-dalit counterparts as well their teachers.
It is clear that Ajay was subjected to a brutal form of harassment by his two upper caste faculties, one is Dr. Ajit Kumar who was supervisor to him and another is Prof.Raghavendra Gadkar that forced him to commit suicide. This is only a pick of iceberg that has come out to our notice. There were many volumes of unwritten and unspoken harassment stories in the institute that are being submerged in the institute history.
This report is prepared by Bahujan Students Network (BSN) with the help of students of IISc Banglore
Sep, 2007 - 5 -

to day there are believers in Hinduism that the bramhins are 1st rate
kshtriyas 2nd rate, vaishyas 3rd rate, shudras 4th rate and the
untouchables (SC/ST) without any soul, so that they could do any harm to
them as wished by these athmaas including believing that the SC/STs
have got no merit, efficiency etc. But the Buddha never believed in any
soul. He said all are equal. Therefor Dr. Ambedkar with lakhs of people
returned back to the original religion of PRABUDDHA BHARATH, Buddhism.
The process has begun and continues. After some times Buddhism will be
the major system in this country with the MASTER KEY acquired by BSP.

Ayodhya yatra: SP trying to divide UP on religious lines, says BSP

New Delhi/ Lucknow: The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) on Sunday criticized
the Akhilesh Yadav-led Uttar Pradesh Government’s decision to oppose the
Vishwa Hindu Parishad’s ‘Chaurasi Kosi Parikrama Yatra’ around Ayodhya,
and said that the ruling Samajwadi Party (SP) is trying to create an
atmosphere to divide the society on religious lines.

BSP leader Sudhindra Bhadoria said that the proposed yatra was a
strategy of the ruling Uttar Pradesh Government to disrupt peace in the

“An atmosphere to divide the society on religious lines is being
created in Uttar Pradesh. But the people of Uttar Pradesh and the rest
of the country are alert and they know all about the drama,” Bhadoria
told media in New Delhi.

“The government is trying to fool the people, as one party is adamant on
taking out the rally while the other is bent on thwarting it. It seems a
joint conspiracy of the two,” Bhandoria added.
DNA logo

Row over VHP yatra: Won’t let Uttar Pradesh become Gujarat


Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan


Ayodhya yatra: SP trying to divide UP on religious lines, says BSP

New Delhi/ Lucknow: The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) on Sunday criticized
the Akhilesh Yadav-led Uttar Pradesh Government’s decision to oppose the
Vishwa Hindu Parishad’s ‘Chaurasi Kosi Parikrama Yatra’ around Ayodhya,
and said that the ruling Samajwadi Party (SP) is trying to create an
atmosphere to divide the society on religious lines.

BSP leader Sudhindra Bhadoria said that the proposed yatra was a
strategy of the ruling Uttar Pradesh Government to disrupt peace in the

“An atmosphere to divide the society on religious lines is being
created in Uttar Pradesh. But the people of Uttar Pradesh and the rest
of the country are alert and they know all about the drama,” Bhadoria
told media in New Delhi.

“The government is trying to fool the people, as one party is adamant on
taking out the rally while the other is bent on thwarting it. It seems a
joint conspiracy of the two,” Bhandoria added.

Sonia defends Food Security Bill; BJP calls it ‘vote security bill’

With the existing Electronic Voting Machine that is not tamper proof as
observed by Supreme Court which had asked the Election Commission to
replace all the EVMs it is vote and note security for both Congress and
BJP with the support of the media.

VHP yatra: Ayodhya turns into fortress; Togadia, Singhal among hundreds held

VHP pulls up SP, says ban on yatra will have negative impact

VHP yatra: Ayodhya turns into fortress, 350 arrested across Uttar Pradesh

A religion by Birth or by Practice

It is very common to hear people saying that they are birth Hindu, Muslim,
Christian, Buddhist etc. But most fundamental question is what does it
mean when someone says so. Is it that one is born with the label of a
particular religion ?

The fact is that no one by birth belong to a particular religion just because is
parents follow that particular religion. It is like Engineer or Doctor
parents labelling their child as an Engineer or Doctor just because they
themselves parctice that particular profession. Even to have the right
to vote one has to be major, i.e., over 18 yrs. Wken such is the case,
how is it some one is born into a particular religion which is to be
practiced day to day with one’s own proper understanding.

It will be right in the interest of healthy society that every child is
informed and exposed to all religions till the age of 21 and then he or
she is given the right to take up the religion of his choice.

This is because, one belongs to a particular religion only when he or she
personally accepts, commits and practices according to the ideals put
forth by that particular religious Teacher or so called god. In Vasala
Sutta - the discourse on who is outcaste Budddha says:

Na jaccha vasalo hoti

Na jaccha hoti bramano

Kammana vasalo hoti

Kammana hoti bramano.

It means that no one is by birth low or high, but it is by action that one
is low or high. Similarly no one by birth belongs to a particular
religion by it is by self understanding and self accepted practice that
one belongs to a particular religion. Therefore about Buddhism it is
said that:

In one sense Buddhism is not a religion

In another sense Buddhism is a religion of religions.

In another sense it is not a philosophy

In another sense it philosophy of philoshphies.

Thus Buddhism in neither a metaphysical path nor a ritualistic path.

It si neityher sceptical nor dogmatic.

It is neither eternalism nor nihilism.

It is neither self-mortification nor self-indulgence.

It is neither absolutely this-worldly nor other-worldly.

It is not extrovert but introvert.

It is not theo-centric but homo-centric.

It is a unique pqth of Awakenment to end the Universal malady called Dukkha (Suffering). - (Ve. Narada)

Therefore whatever may be ones religion it is the practice that amkes the person
perfect. In the case of Buddhism this can be best understood from the
simile of the doctor’s prescription. A man becomes sick and goes to the
doctor for help. The doctor examines him and writes out a prescription
for medicine. The man having great faith in his doctor returns home and
in his prayer room he puts a beautiful picture of the doctor. Then he
sits down and pays respect to the picture or atatue; he bows down and
offers flowers and incfense. And then he takes out the prescription that
the doctor wrote for him, and solemnly he recites it: “Three pills in
the morning! Three pills in the afternoon! Three pills in the evening!
All day, all week he keeps reciting the prescription because he has
great faith in the doctor. Still the prescription does not help him.

So the man decides that he would like to more about the prescription, and
therefore goes to the doctor. He asks him, “why did you prescribe this
medicine ? How will it help me ? ” Then the doctor explains, “Well look,
this is your disease, and this is the root cause of your disease. Ifd
you take the medicine I have prescribed, it will eradicate the cause of
your disease. When the cause is eradficated, the disease will
automatically disppear.” The man thinks, “Ah wonderful! My doctor is so
intellegent! His priscription is so helpful!” And he goes home and
starts fighting with his neighbours and acquaintances, insisting, “My
soctor is the best doctor! All other doctore are useless!” But what does
he gain by such arguments ? All his life he may continue fighting,
still this does not help him at all. If he takes the medicine, only then
will the man be relieved of his misery, his disease. Only then will the
medicine help him.

Every liberated person is like a physician. Out of compassion, he gives a
prescription advising people how oto free themselvesof suffering. If
people develop blind faith in that person, they turn the prescription
into a scripture and start fighting with other sects, claiming that the
teaching of the founder of their religion is superior. But they do not
care to practice the teaching, to take the medicine prescribesin order
to eliminate the malady.

Having faith in the doctor is useful if it encourages the patient to follow
his advice. Understanding how the medicine works is beneficial if it
encourages one to take the medicine. But without actually taking the
medicine, one cannot be cured of the disease. You have to take the
medicine yourself.

Religion is not to be followed because of birth,

Religion is to be followed for its worth.

Religion is not to be followed for tacvtics;

Religion is to be followed for practice.

May All Practice Religion For Its Worth And Not Just Because Of Birth.

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