Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research & Practice Universitu 
in
 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā
Categories:

Archives:
Meta:
April 2017
M T W T F S S
« Mar   May »
 12
3456789
10111213141516
17181920212223
24252627282930
04/20/17
2204 Fri 21 Apr 2017 LESSONS Cakkavatti Sutta: The Wheel-turning Emperor
Filed under: Sutta Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 10:57 pm



2204 Fri 21 Apr 2017 LESSONS


Cakkavatti Sutta: The Wheel-turning Emperor

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/dn/dn.26.0.than.html


DN 26

PTS: D iii 58
Cakkavatti Sutta: The Wheel-turning Emperor
translated from the Pali by
Thanissaro Bhikkhu


Translator’s Introduction

The body of this sutta consists of a narrative illustrating the power of skillful action.

In the past, unskillful behavior was unknown among the human race. As
a result, people lived for an immensely long time — 80,000 years —
endowed with great beauty, wealth, pleasure, and strength. Over the
course of time, though, they began behaving in various unskillful ways.
This caused the human life span gradually to shorten, to the point where
it now stands at 100 years, with human beauty, wealth, pleasure, and
strength decreasing proportionately. In the future, as morality
continues to degenerate, human life will continue to shorten to the
point were the normal life span is 10 years, with people reaching sexual
maturity at five. “Among those human beings, the ten courses of action
(see AN 10.176)
will have entirely disappeared… The word ’skillful’ will not exist,
so from where will there be anyone who does what is skillful? Those who
lack the honorable qualities of motherhood, fatherhood,
contemplative-hood, & brahman-hood will be the ones who receive
homage… Fierce hatred will arise, fierce malevolence, fierce rage,
& murderous thoughts: mother for child, child for mother, father for
child, child for father, brother for sister, sister for brother.”
Ultimately, conditions will deteriorate to the point of a
“sword-interval,” in which swords appear in the hands of all human
beings, and they hunt one another like game. A few people, however, will
take shelter in the wilderness to escape the carnage, and when the
slaughter is over, they will come out of hiding and resolve to take up a
life of skillful and virtuous action again. With the recovery of
virtue, the human life span will gradually increase again until it
reaches 80,000 years, with people attaining sexual maturity at 500. Only
three diseases will be known at that time: desire, lack of food, and
old age. Another Buddha — Metteyya (Maitreya) — will gain Awakening, his
monastic Sangha numbering in the thousands. The greatest king of the
time, Sankha, will go forth into homelessness and attain arahantship
under Metteyya’s guidance.

The story, after chronicling the ups and downs of human wealth, life
span, etc., concludes with the following lesson on kamma and skillful
action.

…”Monks, live with yourself as your island,
yourself as your refuge, with nothing else as your refuge. Live with the
Dhamma as your island, the Dhamma as your refuge, with nothing else as
your refuge. [1]
And how does a monk live with himself as his island, himself as his
refuge, with nothing else as his refuge; with the Dhamma as his island,
the Dhamma as his refuge, with nothing else as his refuge? There is the
case where a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself —
ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed & distress with
reference to the world. He remains focused on feelings in & of
themselves… mind in & of itself… mental qualities in & of
themselves — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed &
distress with reference to the world. This is how a monk lives with
himself as his island, himself as his refuge, with nothing else as his
refuge; with the Dhamma as his island, the Dhamma as his refuge, with
nothing else as his refuge.

“Wander, monks, in your proper range, your own ancestral territory.
When you wander in your proper range, your own ancestral territory, you
will grow in long life, beauty, pleasure, wealth, & strength.

“And what constitutes a monk’s long life? [2]
There is the case where a monk develops the base of power endowed with
concentration founded on desire & the fabrications of exertion. He
develops the base of power endowed with concentration founded on
persistence… founded on intent… He develops the base of power
endowed with concentration founded on discrimination & the
fabrications of exertion. From the development & pursuit of these
four bases of power, he can stay (alive) for an aeon, if he wants, or
for the remainder of an aeon. This constitutes a monk’s long life.

“And what constitutes a monk’s beauty? There is the case where a monk
is virtuous. He dwells restrained in accordance with the Patimokkha,
consummate in his behavior & sphere of activity. He trains himself,
having undertaken the training rules, seeing danger in the slightest
faults. This constitutes a monk’s beauty.

“And what constitutes a monk’s pleasure? There is the case where a
monk — quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful mental
qualities — enters & remains in the first jhana: rapture &
pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought &
evaluation. With the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, he
enters & remains in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born
of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought &
evaluation — internal assurance. With the fading of rapture, he remains
equanimous, mindful, & alert, and senses pleasure with the body. He
enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones
declare, ‘Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasant abiding.’ With the
abandoning of pleasure & pain — as with the earlier disappearance
of elation & distress — he enters & remains in the fourth jhana:
purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither pleasure nor pain. This
constitutes a monk’s pleasure.

“And what constitutes a monk’s wealth? There is the case where a monk
keeps pervading the first direction [the east] — as well as the second
direction, the third, & the fourth — with an awareness imbued with
good will. Thus he keeps pervading above, below, & all around,
everywhere & in every respect the all-encompassing world with an
awareness imbued with good will: abundant, expansive, immeasurable, free
from hostility, free from ill will.

“He keeps pervading the first direction — as well as the second
direction, the third, & the fourth — with an awareness imbued with
compassion… imbued with appreciation…

“He keeps pervading the first direction — as well as the second
direction, the third, & the fourth — with an awareness imbued with
equanimity. Thus he keeps pervading above, below, & all around,
everywhere & in every respect the all-encompassing world with an
awareness imbued with equanimity: abundant, expansive, immeasurable,
free from hostility, free from ill will.

“This constitutes a monk’s wealth.

“And what constitutes a monk’s strength? There is the case where a
monk, through the ending of the mental fermentations, enters &
remains in the fermentation-free awareness-release &
discernment-release, having directly known & realized them for
himself right in the here & now. This constitutes a monk’s strength.

“Monks, I don’t envision any other single strength so hard to overcome as this: the strength of Mara. [3] And the adopting of skillful qualities is what causes this merit to increase.” [4]

That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

Notes

1.
This can also be translated as: “Live with mental qualities
(dhammas) as your island, mental qualities as your refuge, with nothing
else as your refuge.”
2.
Literally, “what is in a monk’s long life?” This appears to be an
idiomatic usage of the locative case. The commentary interprets this
idiom as meaning, what causes a monk’s long life, beauty, etc.
From this reading, it explains, for example, that a monk attracts wealth
if he develops the four sublime attitudes. While this is true, it seems
to cheapen the message of this passage.
3.
This last passage is related to the opening passage of the sutta,
in which the Buddha says, “Wander, monks, in your proper range, your own
ancestral territory. When one wanders in his proper range, his own
ancestral territory, Mara gains no opening, Mara gains no foothold. And
it is because of adopting skillful qualities that this merit increases.”
See also SN 47.6-7.
4.
This is the refrain repeated with each stage in the account of how
human life will improve in the aftermath of the sword-interval. Here,
“merit” seems to have the meaning it has in Iti 22:
“Don’t be afraid of acts of merit.” This is another way of saying what
is blissful, desirable, pleasing, endearing, charming — i.e., acts of
merit.

comments (0)
2204 Fri 21 Apr 2017 LESSONS Cakkavatti Sihanada Sutta- Buddhism and politics
Filed under: Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 10:41 pm



2204 Fri 21 Apr 2017 LESSONS


Cakkavatti Sihanada Sutta-
Buddhism and politics

Please watch:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mQYjy2jfSfk


Published on Oct 27, 2014

Sariputta Sihanada Sutta - Dhamma Talk at Los Angeles Buddhist Vihara, Pasadena, California

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vWjDqd8ueSc



Chakravarthi SinhaNada Sutta චක්‍රවර්ති සිංහනාද සූත්‍රය +122 Ven Nauyane Ariyadhamma Thero

Published on Jun 6, 2015

Chakravarthi
SinhaNada Sutta චක්‍රවර්ති සිංහනාද සූත්‍රය +122 Most Venerable
Nauyane Ariyadhamma Maha Thero - අතීපුජනීය නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම ස්වාමීන්
වහන්සේ

පටිසෝතගාමී පටිපදා | Patisothagami Patipada
http://www.youtube.com/c/patisothagami
https://www.facebook.com/Patisothagam… or
https://www.facebook.com/Patis0thagami
http://www.twitter.com/patisothagami
http://www.plus.google.com/+patisotha…

nauyane ariyadhamma mahathera nauyane ariyadhamma thero bana nauyane ariyadhamma himi bana na uyane ariyadhamma thero
ven
na uyane ariyadhamma thero ven na uyane ariyadhamma maha thero nauyane
ariyadhamma thero dharma deshana nauyane ariyadhamma swaminwahanse
nauyane ariyadhamma maha thero 2015 නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම,පූජ්‍ය නා උයනේ
අරියධම්ම හිමි,Ven Nauyane Ariyadhamma Maha Thero, අතීපුජනීය නා උයනේ
අරියධම්ම ස්වාමීන් වහන්සේගේ, ධර්ම දේශනා,නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම නාහිමි අති
පූජ්‍ය නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම නාහිමි,නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම මහා නා හිමි,නා උයනේ
අරියධම් නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම මහා නා හිමි nauyane ariyadhamma maha thero
2015 nauyane ariyadhamma thero books පූජ්‍ය නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම හිමි ( Ven
Nauyane Ariyadhamma Maha Thero අති පූජනීය නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම මහිමිපානන්
අතීපුජනීය නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම ස්වාමීන් වහන්සේගේ ධර්ම දේශනා . නා උයනේ
අරියධම්ම නාහිමි අති පූජ්‍ය නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම නාහිමි නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම මහා
නා හිමි නා උයනේ අරියධම්
Nauyane Ariyadhamma,Nauyane Ariyadhamma Maha
Thero 2015,ven nauyane ariyadhamma thero,most ven nauyane ariyadhamma
theronauyane ariyadhamma himi,na uyane ariyadhamma maha thero,nauyane
ariyadhamma thero pirith,අති,පූජ්‍ය,නා උයනේ,අරියධම්ම,නාහිමි,නා උයනේ
අරියධම්ම Nauyane Ariyadhamma Maha Thero 2015 Niwanata Maga නිවනට මඟ -
අති පූජ්‍ය නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම නාහිමි
ven nauyane ariyadhamma thero most
ven nauyane ariyadhamma thero nauyane ariyadhamma himi na uyane
ariyadhamma maha thero nauyane ariyadhamma thero pirith Niwanata Maga -
නිවනට මඟ - Most Ven Nauyane Ariyadhamma Maha Thero - අති පූජ්‍ය නා උයනේ
අරියධම්ම මහා හිමිපාණන් වහන්සේ මහා කම්මට්ඨානාචාර්ය, ත්‍රිපිඨකාචාර්ය අති
පූජ්‍ය නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම මහා නහිමිපාණන් වහන්සේ විසින් මෙහෙයවන ලද ධර්ම
දේශනා Maha Kammattanacharya,Tripitakacharya Most Venerable Nauyane
Ariyadhamma Maha Thero
nauyane ariyadhamma thero dharma deshana Ven
Nauyane ariyadhamma thero,nauyane ariyadhamma mahathera,nauyane
ariyadhamma thero bana,nauyane ariyadhamma himi | Niwan Magata - නිවනට
මඟට - Most Ven Nauyane Ariyadhamma Maha Thero - අති පූජ්‍ය නා උයනේ
අරියධම්ම මහා හිමිපාණන් වහන්සේ
nauyane ariyadhamma thero dharma deshana

මහා කම්මට්ඨානාචාර්ය, ත්‍රිපිඨකාචාර්ය අති පූජ්‍ය නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම මහා නහිමිපාණන් වහන්සේ විසින් මෙහෙයවන ලද ධර්ම දේශනා
Maha Kammattanacharya,Tripitakacharya Most Venerable Nauyane Ariyadhamma Maha Thero

›› Patisothagami Patipada පටිසෝතගාමී පටිපදා
http://www.youtube.com/patisothagami
https://www.facebook.com/Patisothagam…
http://www.twitter.com/patisothagami
http://www.plus.google.com/+patisotha… #sinhala #Patisothagami #Patipada #පටිසෝතගාමී #පටිපදා
#sinhala #darma desana #dharma deshana #nivan
magata # ariya gnana himi gihigeyin nivan magata # gihigeyin niwan
magata # Maha Rahathun Wadimaga Osse Darma Discussion Maha Rahathun
Wedimaga Osse ධර්මසාකච්චා Buddhaghosha,sadaham arana,Siri Sadaham
Ashramaya,the buddhist tv,shraddha tv

https://samaggi-phala.or.id/tipitaka/cakkavatti-sihanada-sutta/





CAKKAVATTI SIHANADA SUTTA



Sumber : Sutta Pitaka Digha Nikaya V
Oleh : Lembaga Penterjemah Kitab Suci Agama Buddha
Penerbit : CV. Danau Batur – Jakarta, 1992


Demikian yang telah kami dengar:


  1. Pada suatu ketika Sang Bhagava berdiam di Matula dalam kerajaan
    Magadha. Ketika itu Sang Bhagava berkata kepada para
    bhikkhu: “Para bhikkhu.” Para bhikkhu menjawab: “Ya,
    bhante.” Kemudian Sang Bhagava berkata:”Para bhikkhu,
    jadikanlah dirimu sebagai pelita, berlindunglah pada
    dirimu sendiri dan jangan berlindung pada yang lain; hiduplah
    dalam dhamma sebagai pelitamu, dhamma sebagai pelindungmu dan
    jangan berlindung pada yang lain.

    Para bhikkhu, tetapi bagaimanakah seorang bhikkhu menjadi pelita
    bagi dirinya sendiri, sebagai pelindung bagi dirinya
    sendiri dan tidak berlindung pada yang lain?
    Bagaimana ia hidup dalam dhamma yang sebagai pelita
    bagi dirinya dan tidak berlindung pada yang lain?

    Para bhikkhu, dalam hal ini seorang bhikkhu mengamati tubuh
    (kaya) sebagai tubuh dengan rajin, penuh pengertian dan
    perhatian, melenyapkan keserakahan dan
    ketidaksenangan dalam dunia. Seorang bhikkhu
    mengamati perasaan (vedana)… mengamati kesadaran (citta)…
    dan mengamati ide-ide (dhamma) sebagai dhamma dengan rajin,
    penuh pengertian dan perhatian, melenyapkan keserakahan dan
    ketidaksenangan dalam dunia.

    Para bhikkhu, beginilah seorang bhikkhu menjadikan dirinya sebagai
    pelita bagi dirinya sendiri, menjadikan dirinya sebagai
    pelindung bagi dirinya sendiri dan tidak berlindung
    pada hal yang lain. Ia menjadikan dhamma sebagai
    pelita bagi dirinya sendiri, ia menjadikan dhamma
    sebagai pelindung bagi dirinya sendiri dan tidak
    berlindung pada yang lain.

    Para bhikkhu, jalanlah di lingkunganmu (gocara) sendiri, yang
    pernah dijalani oleh para pendahulumu. Jikalau kamu sekalian
    berjalan di tempat itu maka Mara tidak akan mendapat
    tempat untuk ditempati dan tidak ada tempat untuk
    dihancurkan. Sesungguhnya dengan mengembangkan
    kebaikan maka jasa-jasa bertambah-tambah.

  2. Para bhikkhu, pada zaman dahulu ada
    seorang maharaja dunia (cakkavatti) yang bernama
    Dalhanemi yang jujur, memerintah berdasarkan
    kebenaran, raja dari empat penjuru dunia, penakluk, pelindung
    rakyatnya, pemilik tujuh macam permata. Ketujuh macam permata
    itu adalah cakka (cakra), gajah, kuda, permata,
    wanita, kepala rumah tangga dan penasehat. Ia
    memiliki keturunan lebih dari seribu orang yang
    merupakan ksatriya-ksatriya perkasa penakluk musuh.
    Ia menguasai seluruh dunia sampai ke batas lautan, yang
    ditaklukkannya bukan dengan kekerasan atau dengan pedang tetapi
    dengan kebenaran (dhamma).
  3. Para bhikkhu, setelah banyak tahun, ratusan tahun dan ribuan
    tahun, Raja Dalhanemi memerintah seseorang dengan berkata:
    ‘Bilamana kau melihat Cakka permata surgawi (dibba
    cakka ratana) telah terbenam sedikit dan telah
    bergeser dari tempatnya, maka beritahukan hal itu
    kepadaku.”Baiklah, raja,’ jawab orang itu.

    Setelah banyak tahun, ratusan tahun dan ribuan tahun, orang
    itu melihat bahwa Cakka ratana surgawi telah terbenam sedikit
    dan telah bergeser sedikit dari tempatnya. Setelah ia
    melihat kejadian ini, ia pergi menghadap Raja
    Dalhanemi dan melapor: ‘Maharaja, ketahuilah bahwa
    Cakka ratana surgawi telah terbenam sedikit dan telah
    bergeser sedikit dari tempatnya.’

    Para bhikkhu, Raja Dalhanemi memanggil putra yang tertua dan berkata:
    ‘Anakku, dengarkanlah, Cakka ratana surgawi telah terbenam sedikit
    dan telah bergeser sedikit dari tempatnya. Juga telah
    diberitahukan kepadaku: ‘Bilamana Cakka ratana
    surgawi dari maharaja dunia (cakkavatti) terbenam dan
    bergeser dari tempatnya, maka raja itu tidak akan
    hidup lama lagi’. Saya telah menikmati kenikmatan
    duniawi. Anakku, pimpinlah dunia ini sampai di batas lautan.
    Karena saya akan mencukur rambut serta janggutku, mengenakan
    jubah kuning, meninggalkan kehidupan duniawi untuk
    menjadi pertapa.’

    Para bhikkhu, demikianlah setelah Raja Dalhanemi menyerahkan
    tahta kerajaan kepada putranya, ia mencukur rambut serta
    janggutnya, mengenakan jubah kuning, meninggalkan
    kehidupan duniawi dan menjadi pertapa. Para hari
    ketujuh Cakka ratana surgawi lenyap.

  4. Kemudian seseorang menghadap raja dan melapor kepada beliau dengan berkata:
    ‘Raja, demi kebenaran, ketahuilah bahwa Cakka ratana surgawi telah lenyap!’

    Para bhikkhu, ketika raja mendengar kabar itu, ia menjadi sedih
    dan berduka cita. Lalu ia pergi menemui pertapa raja dan
    berkata: ‘Tuanku, demi kebenaran, ketahuilah bahwa
    Cakka ratana surgawi telah lenyap.’

    Setelah raja berkata demikian, pertapa raja menjawab: ‘Anakku,
    janganlah bersedih dan berduka cita karena tidak ada
    hubungan keluarga antara kau dan Cakka ratana
    surgawi. Tetapi anakku, putarlah roda kewajiban
    maharaja yang suci. Karena bila kau memutarkan roda
    kewajiban maharaja yang suci dan pada hari uposatha
    di bulan purnama kau membasuh kepalamu serta melaksanakan uposatha
    di teras utama pada tingkat atas istana, maka Cakka ratana
    surgawi akan muncul lengkap dengan seribu ruji, roda
    dan as serta bagian-bagian lain.’

  5. ‘Tetapi, Tuanku, apakah yang dimaksud dengan roda kewajiban
    maharaja yang suci itu?”Anakku, hiduplah dalam kebenaran;
    berbakti, hormati dan bersujudlah pada kebenaran,
    pujalah kebenaran, sucikanlah dirimu dengan
    kebenaran, jadikanlah dirimu panji kebenaran dan tanda kebenaran,
    jadikanlah kebenaran sebagai tuanmu. Perhatikan, jaga dan
    lindungilah dengan baik keluargamu, tentara, para
    bangsawan, para menteri, para rohaniawan, perumah
    tangga, para penduduk kota dan desa, para samana dan
    pertapa, serta binatang-binatang. Jangan biarkan
    kejahatan terjadi dalam kerajaanmu. Bila dalam kerajaanmu ada
    orang yang miskin, berilah dia dana. Anakku apabila para samana
    dan pertapa dalam kerajaanmu meninggalkan minuman
    keras yang menyebabkan kekurangwaspadaan dan mereka
    sabar serta lemah lembut, menguasai diri, menenangkan
    diri serta menyempurnakan diri mereka masing-masing,
    lalu selalu datang menemuimu untuk menanyakan
    kepadamu apa yang baik dan apa yang buruk, perbuatan baik dan
    perbuatan buruk, perbuatan yang pantas dilakukan dan yang tak
    pantas dilakukan, perbuatan yang bermanfaat dan yang
    tidak bermanfaat di masa yang akan datang; kau harus
    mendengar apa yang akan mereka katakan dan kau harus
    menghalangi mereka berbuat jahat serta anjurkanlah
    mereka untuk berbuat baik. Anakku inilah roda
    kewajiban maha raja yang suci.’

    ‘Baiklah, tuanku,’ jawab raja. Ia patuh melaksanakan roda kewajiban
    maharaja yang suci. Pada hari uposatha raja membasuh
    kepalanya dan melaksanakan uposatha di teras utama
    pada tingkat atas istana. Kemudian Cakka ratana
    surgawi muncul lengkap dengan seribu ruji, roda, as
    serta bagian-bagian yang lain. Ketika raja melihat
    kejadian ini ia berpikir: ‘Telah diberitahukan kepadaku bahwa
    raja yang melihat Cakka ratana surgawi yang muncul, maka ia
    menjadi Cakkavatti (maharaja dunia). Semoga saya menjadi
    penguasa dunia!’

  6. Para bhikkhu, kemudian raja bangkit dari tempat duduknya,
    membuka jubah dari bagian salah satu bahunya, dengan tangan
    kiri ia mengambil sebuah kendi dan dengan tangan
    kanannya ia memercikkan air pada Cakka ratana surgawi
    dengan berkata: ‘Berputarlah Cakka ratana. Maju dan
    taklukkanlah, Cakka ratana.’Para bhikkhu, kemudian Cakka ratana berputar
    maju ke arah daerah bagian Timur dan raja cakkavatti
    mengikuti Cakka ratana itu. Raja pergi bersama
    tentaranya, kuda-kuda, kereta-kereta, gajah-gajah dan
    pasukan. Di tempat mana pun Cakka ratana itu berhenti, di
    tempat itu pula raja penakluk bersama empat kelompok pasukannya
    tinggal. Kemudian semua raja yang merupakan musuh di
    daerah bagian Timur datang menemui cakkavatti dengan
    berkata: ‘Datanglah, Maharaja! Selamat datang,
    Maharaja! Semua ini milikmu, Maharaja! Pimpinlah
    kami, Maharaja!’ Raja Cakkavatti menjawab: ‘Kamu sekalian
    janganlah membunuh mahluk, jangan mengambil barang yang tidak
    diberikan, jangan berzinah, jangan berdusta dan jangan
    minum-minuman keras. Nikmatilah apa yang menjadi hak
    kamu sekalian.’ Semua raja-raja yang merupakan musuh
    di daerah bagian Timur menjadi taklukkan Cakkavatti.
  7. Para bhikkhu, kemudian Cakka ratana terjun ke dalam lautan
    timur dan muncul kembali setelah berputar maju ke arah daerah
    bagian selatan… (di sana terjadi seperti yang terjadi
    di daerah bagian timur. Demikian pula Cakka ratana
    terjun ke dalam lautan selatan dan muncul kembali
    serta berputar maju ke arah daerah bagian barat… ke
    arah daerah bagian utara… semua terjadi seperti yang
    terjadi di daerah bagian timur).Setelah Cakkaratana menaklukkan seluruh
    dunia hingga ke batas lautan, Cakka ratana kembali ke
    kota kerajaan dan diam, sehingga orang-orang
    berpikir bahwa Cakka ratana telah tetap tidak akan
    bergerak di depan gedung pengadilan di gerbang istana raja Cakkavatti.
    Cakka ratana menambah keagungan istana dengan berada
    di depan gerbang istana raja Cakkavatti.
  8. Para bhikkhu, demikian pula raja Cakkavatti kedua… raja
    Cakkavatti ketiga … raja Cakkavatti keempat … raja Cakkavati
    kelima … raja Cakkavatti keenam… dan raja Cakkavatti
    ketujuh setelah banyak tahun, setelah ratusan tahun
    dan setelah ribuan tahun, beliau memerintah seseorang
    dengan berkata: ‘Bilamana kau melihat Cakka ratana
    surgawi telah terbenam sedikit dan telah bergeser
    sedikit dari tempatnya, maka beritahukan hal itu
    kepadaku.”Baiklah, raja,’ jawab orang itu.

    Setelah banyak tahun, setelah ratusan tahun, dan setelah ribuan
    tahun, orang itu melihat bahwa Cakka ratana telah terbenam
    sedikit dan telah bergeser sedikit dari tempatnya.
    Ketika melihat kejadian ini, ia pergi menghadap raja
    Cakkavatti dan melaporkan apa yang telah dilihatnya.

    Para bhikkhu, raja cakkavatti memanggil putranya yang tertua
    dan berkata: ‘Anakku, dengarkanlah, Cakka ratana surgawi
    telah terbenam sedikit dan telah bergeser sedikit
    dari tempatnya. Juga telah diberitahukan kepadaku:
    ‘Bilamana Cakka ratana surgawi telah terbenam dan
    bergeser dari tempatnya maka raja Cakkavatti tidak
    akan hidup lama lagi’. Saya telah menikmati kenikmatan
    duniawi, tibalah saatnya bagiku untuk mencari kebahagiaan surgawi.
    Anakku, pimpinlah dunia ini yang sampai di batas lautan.
    Karena saya akan mencukur rambut serta janggutku,
    mengenakan jubah kuning, meninggalkan kehidupan
    duniawi untuk menjadi pertapa.’

    Demikianlah setelah raja Cakkavatti menyerahkan tahta kerajaan
    kepada putranya, ia mencukur rambut dan janggutnya,
    mengenakan jubah kuning, meninggalkan kehidupan
    duniawi dan menjadi pertapa. Pada hari ketujuh
    setelah raja menjadi pertapa, Cakka ratana surgawi
    lenyap.

  9. Kemudian seseorang menghadap raja dan melapor kepada beliau
    dengan berkata: ‘Raja, demi kebenaran, ketahuilah bahwa Cakka
    ratana surgawi telah lenyap!’ Ketika raja mendengar
    berita ini ia menjadi sedih dan berduka cita, tetapi
    ia tidak pergi menemui pertapa raja untuk menanyakan
    roda kewajiban maharaja yang suci. Dengan idenya dan
    caranya sendiri ia memerintah rakyatnya dan rakyat
    yang diperintah seperti itu, yaitu cara yang berbeda
    dengan apa yang mereka ikuti dahulu, menjadi tidak sukses seperti
    apa yang mereka biasa capai di masa raja-raja terdahulu
    yang melaksanakan kewajiban maharaja yang suci dari
    seorang raja Cakkavatti.Para bhikkhu, kemudian para
    menteri, para pegawai istana, para pejabat keuangan,
    para pengawal dan penjaga serta orang-orang yang
    hidup dengan melaksanakan pembacaan mantra pergi menemui
    raja dan berkata: ‘Wahai raja, rakyatmu yang raja perintah
    berdasarkan idemu dan caramu sendiri, yang berbeda
    dengan cara-cara yang mereka ikuti dahulu tidak
    sukses seperti apa yang mereka biasa capai di masa
    raja-raja terdahulu yang melaksanakan kewajiban
    maharaja yang suci. Dalam kerajaan ini ada para menteri, para
    pegawai istana, para pejabat keuangan, para pengawal dan
    penjaga serta orang-orang yang hidup dengan
    melaksanakan pembacaan mantra — semua kami ini dan
    yang lain-lain — memiliki pengetahuan tentang
    kewajiban maharaja yang suci dari raja Cakkavatti. Apabila
    raja menanyakan hal itu kepada kami, maka kami akan
    menerangkannya.’
  10. Para bhikkhu, kemudian raja mempersilahkan para menteri dan
    orang-orang lainnya duduk, setelah itu raja bertanya kepada
    mereka tentang kewajiban maharaja yang suci dari raja
    cakkavatti. Mereka menerangkan hal itu kepada beliau.
    Ketika raja telah mendengar hal itu, beliau
    memperhatikan, menjaga dan melindungi rakyatnya
    dengan baik, tetapi ia tidak memberikan dana kepada
    orang-orang miskin. Karena ia tidak berdana kepada orang-orang
    miskin maka kemelaratan bertambah.Ketika kemiskinan telah
    meluas, seorang tertentu mengambil barang yang tidak
    diberikan kepadanya, perbuatan ini disebut mencuri.
    Ia ditangkap orang-orang dan ia dihadapkan kepada raja dan mereka
    berkata: ‘Raja, orang ini telah mengambil barang yang tidak
    diberikan kepadanya, perbuatan itu adalah mencuri.’

    Lalu raja bertanya sebagai berikut kepada orang itu: ‘Apakah
    benar bahwa kau telah mengambil barang yang tak diberikan
    kepadamu, dan dengan demikian kamu telah melakukan
    perbuatan yang disebut mencuri?’

    ‘Benar, raja.’

    ‘Mengapa kau melakukannya?’

    ‘Raja, saya tak memiliki sesuatu untuk mempertahankan hidupku.’

    Kemudian raja memberikan dana kepada orang itu dengan berkata:
    ‘Dengan dana ini kau dapat menyambung hidupmu,
    peliharalah orang tuamu, anak-anakmu dan istrimu.
    Kerjakanlah pekerjaanmu dan berdanalah selalu kepada para
    samana dan pertapa, karena perbuatan ini berpahala untuk
    terlahir kembali di alam surga.’

    ‘Baiklah, raja,’ jawab orang itu.

  11. Para bhikkhu, kemudian ada orang lain mencuri. Ia ditangkap
    orang-orang dan mereka membawanya menghadap kepada raja,
    mereka berkata: ‘Raja, orang ini telah mencuri.’ Raja
    bertanya kepada orang itu dan beliau melakukan
    perbuatan yang sama seperti yang beliau lakukan
    kepada pencuri yang lalu, dengan memberikan dana
    kepada orang itu.
  12. Para bhikkhu, orang-orang mendengar bahwa bagi mereka yang
    mencuri mendapat dana dari raja. Karena mendengar hal ini
    mereka berpikir: ‘Marilah kita mencuri.’ Di antara
    mereka itu ada orang tertentu yang melakukannya.
    Orang ini ditangkap dan dibawa kehadapan raja. Raja
    bertanya kepada orang tersebut:
    ‘Apa sebab kau mencuri?’

    ‘Saya mencuri sebab tak dapat mempertahankan hidupku.’

    Namun raja berpikir: ‘Jika saya memberikan dana kepada siapa
    setiap orang yang mencuri maka pencuri akan bertambah banyak.
    Saya harus menghentikan perbuatan ini, ia harus
    diganjar dengan hukuman berat, yaitu kepalanya
    dipancung.’ Selanjutnya raja memerintah bawahannya
    dengan berkata:
    ‘Perhatikanlah, ikatlah tangan orang ini ke belakang tubuhnya
    dan ikatlah dengan kencang. Gunduli kepalanya dan bawalah dia
    berkeliling disertai genderang yang nyaring ke
    jalan-jalan, ke persimpangan-persimpangan jalan.
    Bawalah dia keluar melalui gerbang selatan dan
    berhentilah di selatan kota. Ganjarlah dia dengan
    hukuman terberat berat, yaitu kepalanya dipancung.’

    ‘Baiklah, raja,’ jawab orang-orang itu dan mereka melaksanakan perintah itu.

  13. Para bhikkhu, pada waktu itu telah banyak orang yang mendengar
    bahwa orang yang mencuri dihukum mati. Karena telah
    mendengar hal ini maka beberapa orang tertentu
    berpikir: ‘Sekarang kitapun harus menyediakan pedang
    tajam dan orang-orang yang barangnya kita ambil
    dengan tanpa mereka berikan — perbuatan yang disebut
    mencuri — kita hentikan mereka dengan kepala mereka kita
    pancung.’Selanjutnya, mereka mempersenjatai diri mereka dengan
    pedang-pedang tajam, lalu mereka, pergi merampok di
    desa-desa, di kampung-kampung dan di kota-kota serta
    di jalan-jalan. Orang-orang yang mereka rampoki
    mereka bunuh dengan kepala dipancung.
  14. Para bhikkhu, demikianlah karena dana-dana tidak diberikan
    kepada orang yang miskin maka kemelaratan meluas. Karena
    kemelaratan bertambah maka pencuri bertambah. Karena
    pencuri bertambah maka kekerasan berkembang dengan
    cepat. Disebabkan adanya kekerasan yang meluas maka
    pembunuhan menjadi biasa. Karena pembunuhan terjadi
    maka batas usia kehidupan dan kecantikan manusia berkurang,
    sehingga batas usia kehidupan pada masa itu adalah 80.000 tahun,
    akan tetapi batas usia kehidupan anak-anak mereka
    hanya 40.000 tahun.Selanjutnya, di antara orang-orang
    yang batas usia kehidupan 40.000 tahun ada yang mencuri.
    Pencuri ditangkap oleh orang-orang dan dia dihadapkan
    kepada raja. Orang-orang itu memberitahukan kepada raja
    dengan berkata: ‘Raja, orang telah mencuri.’

    Raja bertanya kepada orang itu: ‘Apakah benar bahwa kau telah mencuri?’

    ‘Tidak, raja,’ jawabnya. Dengan jawaban ini orang itu telah berdusta dengan sengaja.

  15. Demikianlah, karena dana-dana tidak diberikan kepada orang-orang
    yang miskin maka kemelaratan meluas… mencuri … kekerasan
    … pembunuhan… hingga berdusta menjadi biasa. Karena
    berdusta telah menjadi biasa maka batas usia
    kehidupan dan kecantikan manusia berkurang, sehingga
    batas usia kehidupan manusia pada masa itu adalah
    40.000 tahun, akan tetapi batas usia kehidupan
    anak-anak mereka hanya 20.000 tahun.Di antara orang-orang yang batas
    usia kehidupan 20.000 tahun ada orang yang mencuri.
    Ada orang tertentu yang melaporkan hal ini kepada
    raja: ‘Raja, ada orang yang mencuri’, demikianlah ia
    mengatakan kata-kata jahat tentang orang itu.
  16. Para bhikkhu, demikianlah karena dana-dana tidak diberikan kepada
    orang-orang miskin, maka kemelaratan meluas… mencuri…
    kekerasan… pembunuhan… berdusta… memfitnah berkembang.
    Karena memfitnah berkembang maka batas usia kehidupan dan
    kecantikan manusia berkurang. Sehingga batas usia
    kehidupan manusia pada masa itu adalah 20.000 tahun, akan
    tetapi batas usia kehidupan anak-anak mereka hanya 10.000
    tahun.Di antara orang-orang yang batas usia kehidupan 10.000 tahun ada
    yang cantik dan ada yang buruk, sehingga mereka yang
    berparas buruk merasa iri terhadap yang berparas cantik.
    Akibatnya orang-orang yang berparas buruk ini berzinah
    dengan istri-istri tetangga mereka.
  17. Para bhikkhu, demikianlah karena dana-dana tidak diberikan
    kepada orang-orang miskin maka kemelaratan meluas… mencuri…
    kekerasan… pembunuhan… berdusta… memfitnah… berzinah
    berkembang. Karena perzinahan berkembang maka batas
    usia kehidupan dan kecantikan manusia berkurang,
    sehingga batas usia kehidupan manusia pada masa itu
    adalah 10.000 tahun, akan tetapi batas usia kehidupan
    anak-anak mereka hanya 5.000 tahun.Pada masa kehidupan dari orang-orang
    yang batas usia kehidupan mereka hanya 5.000 tahun
    berkembang dua hal yaitu kata-kata kasar dan membual.
    Karena ke dua hal ini berkembang maka batas usia
    kehidupan manusia pada masa itu adalah 5.000 tahun, akan
    tetapi batas usia kehidupan anak-anak mereka ada yang hanya
    2.500 tahun ada yang hanya 2.000 tahun.

    Di antara orang-orang yang batas usia kehidupan mereka 2.500
    tahun, iri hati dan dendam berkembang. Karena ke dua hal ini
    berkembang maka batas usia kehidupan dan kecantikan
    manusia berkurang, sehingga batas usia kehidupan
    manusia pada masa itu adalah 2.500 tahun 2.000 tahun,
    akan tetapi batas usia kehidupan anak-anak mereka
    hanya 1.000 tahun.

    Di antara orang-orang yang batas usia kehidupan mereka 1.000 tahun,
    pandangan sesat (miccha ditthi) muncul dan berkembang.
    Karena pandangan sesat ini berkembang maka batas usia
    kehidupan dan kecantikan manusia berkurang, sehingga
    batas usia kehidupan dan kecantikan pada masa itu adalah
    1.000 tahun, akan tetapi anak-anak mereka hanya 500 tahun.

    Di antara orang-orang yang batas usia kehidupan mereka 500 tahun,
    ada tiga hal yang berkembang, yaitu: berzinah dengan
    saudara sendiri, keserakahan dan pemuasan nafsu.
    Karena tiga hal ini berkembang maka batas usia
    kehidupan dan kecantikan manusia berkurang, sehingga
    batas usia kehidupan manusia pada masa itu adalah 500
    tahun, akan tetapi batas usia kehidupan anak-anak
    mereka ada yang 250 tahun dan ada yang hanya 200 tahun.

    Di antara orang-orang yang batas usia kehidupan mereka 250 tahun,
    hal sebagai berikut ini berkembang — kurang berbakti
    kepada orang tua, kurang hormat kepada para samana
    dan pertapa dan kurang patuh kepada pemimpin
    masyarakat.

  18. Para bhikkhu, demikianlah, karena dana-dana tidak diberikan
    kepada orang-orang miskin maka kemelaratan meluas… mencuri…
    kekerasan… pembunuhan… berdusta… memfitnah…
    perzinahan… kata-kata kasar dan membual… iri hati dan
    dendam … pandangan sesat… berzinah dengan saudara
    sendiri, keserakahan dan pemuasan nafsu… hingga
    kurang berbakti kepada orang tua, kurang hormat
    kepada para samana dan pertapa dan kurang patuh kepada pemimpin
    masyarakat berkembang dan meluas. Karena hal-hal ini
    berkembang dan meluas maka batas usia kehidupan dan
    kecantikan manusia berkurang, sehingga batas usia
    kehidupan manusia pada masa itu adalah 250 tahun,
    akan tetapi batas usia kehidupan anak-anak mereka
    hanya 100 tahun.
  19. Para bhikkhu, akan tiba suatu masa ketika keturunan dari manusia
    itu akan mempunyai batas usia kehidupan hanya 10 tahun.
    Di antara orang-orang yang batas usia kehidupan
    mereka 10 tahun, umur lima tahun bagi wanita
    merupakan usia perkawinan. Pada masa kehidupan
    orang-orang ini, makanan seperti dadi susu (ghee),
    mentega, minyak tila, gula dan garam akan lenyap. Bagi mereka
    ini, biji-bijian kudrusa akan merupakan makanan yang terbaik.
    Seperti pada masa sekarang, nasi dan kari merupakan
    makanan yang terbaik, begitu pula biji-bijian kudrusa
    bagi mereka. Pada masa orang-orang itu, sepuluh
    macam cara melakukan perbuatan baik akan hilang,
    sedangkan sepuluh macam cara melakukan perbuatan
    jahat akan berkembang dengan cepat, di antara mereka tidak ada
    lagi kata-kata yang menyebut tentang perbuatan baik — Siapa
    yang akan melakukan perbuatan baik? Di antara mereka
    tidak ada lagi rasa berbakti kepada orang tua, tidak
    ada lagi rasa menghormat kepada para samana dan
    pertapa serta tidak ada lagi kepatuhan kepada para
    pemimpin masyarakat. Kalau seperti sekarang orang-orang
    masih berbakti kepada orang tua, menghormat kepada para samana
    dan pertapa serta patuh kepada para pemimpin, namun pada
    masa orang-orang… yang batas usia kehidupan mereka
    hanya 10 tahun, rasa berbakti, hormat dan patuh tidak
    ada lagi.
  20. Para bhikku, di antara orang-orang yang batas usia kehidupan
    mereka 10 tahun tidak akan ada lagi (pikiran yang membatasi
    untuk kawin dengan) ibu, bibi dari pihak ibu, bibi
    dari pihak ayah, bibi dari pihak ayah yang merupakan
    istri dari kakak ayah atau istri guru. Dunia akan
    diisi oleh cara bersetubuh dengan siapa saja,
    bagaikan kambing, domba, burung, babi, anjing dan
    srigala.Di antara orang-orang ini saling bermusuhan yang kuat akan
    menjadi hukum, perasaaan yang benci yang hebat,
    dendam yang kuat serta keinginan membunuh dari ibu
    terhadap anaknya, anak terhadap ibunya, ayah terhadap
    anaknya, anak terhadap ayahnya, kakak terhadap
    adiknya, adik terhadap kakaknya dan seterusnya… Hal
    ini terjadi bagaikan pikiran dari para olahragawan yang menghadiri
    pertandingan, begitulah pikiran mereka.
  21. Para bhikku, bagi orang-orang yang batas kehidupan mereka
    10 tahun itu akan muncul suatu masa, yaitu munculnya pedang
    selama seminggu. Selama masa ini mereka akan melihat
    individu lain sebagai binatang liar: pedang tajam
    akan nampak selalu tersedia di tangan mereka dan
    mereka berpikir: ‘Individu ini adalah binatang liar.’
    Dengan pedang mereka saling membunuh.Sementara itu ada orang-orang
    tertentu yang berpikir: ‘Sebaiknya kita jangan
    membunuh atau kita tidak membiarkan orang lain membunuh
    kita. Marilah kita menyembunyikan diri ke dalam belukar, ke
    dalam hutan, ke cekungan di tepi sungai, ke dalam gua gunung
    dan kita hidup dengan akar-akaran atau buah-buahan di
    hutan.’ Mereka akan melaksanakan hal ini selama
    seminggu. Pada hari ke tujuh mereka keluar dari
    belukar, hutan, cekungan dan gua, mereka akan saling
    berangkulan dan akan saling membantu, dengan berkata:
    ‘O, kami masih hidup! Senang sekali melihat anda masih
    hidup!’

    Para bhikkhu, pada orang-orang itu akan muncul keinginan-keinginan
    sebagai berikut : ‘Karena kita melakukan cara-cara yang
    jahat, maka kita kehilangan banyak sanak saudara.
    Marilah kita berbuat kebajikan-kebajikan. Sekarang,
    kebajikan apakah yang dapat kita lakukan? Marilah
    kita berusaha untuk tidak melakukan pembunuhan. Itu
    merupakan perbuatan baik yang dapat kita lakukan.’ Mereka
    akan berusaha untuk tidak membunuh, hal yang baik ini mereka
    laksanakan terus. Karena melaksanakan kebajikan ini maka
    akibatnya batas usia kehidupan dan kecantikan mereka
    bertambah. Bagi mereka yang batas usia hanya 10
    tahun, akan tetapi batas usia kehidupan anak-anak
    mereka mencapai 20 tahun.

  22. Para bhikkhu, hal-hal seperti ini akan terjadi pada orang-orang
    yang batas usia kehidupan mereka 20 tahun: ‘Sekarang,
    karena kita mengikuti dan melaksanakan kebajikan maka
    batas usia kehidupan dan kecantikan kita bertambah.
    Marilah kita meningkatkan kebajikan kita. Marilah
    kita berusaha untuk tidak mengambil apa yang tidak
    diberikan, kita berusaha untuk tidak berzinah, kita berusaha
    untuk tidak berdusta, kita berusaha untuk tidak memfitnah, kita
    berusaha untuk tidak mengucapkan kata-kata kasar,
    kita berusaha untuk tidak membual, kita berusaha
    untuk tidak serakah, kita berusaha untuk tidak
    membenci, kita berusaha untuk tidak berpandangan
    sesat, kita berusaha untuk tidak melakukan tiga hal berikut,
    yaitu: tidak bersetubuh dengan keluarga sendiri, tidak tamak
    dan tidak memuaskan nafsu. Marilah kita berbakti kepada
    orang tua kita, kita menghormati para samana dan
    pertapa serta kita patuh kepada pemimpin masyarakat.
    Marilah kita selalu melaksanakan kebajikan-kebajikan
    ini.’Demikianlah mereka akan selalu melaksanakan kebajikan: tidak
    mengambil apa yang tidak diberikan… berbakti kepada ke
    dua orang tua, menghormat para samana dan pertapa serta
    patuh kepada pemimpin masyarakat. Karena mereka
    melaksanakan kebajikan-kebajikan itu, maka batas usia
    kehidupan anak-anak dan kecantikan manusia bertambah, sehingga mereka
    yang batas usia kehidupan hanya 20 tahun, akan tetapi batas
    usia kehidupan anak-anak mereka mencapai 40 tahun.
    Selanjutnya, bagi mereka yang batas usia kehidupan hanya
    40 tahun, akan tetapi batas usia kehidupan anak-anak
    mereka mencapai 80 tahun; …. anak-anak mereka mencapai
    160 tahun;… anak-anak mereka mencapai 320 tahun;…
    anak-anak mereka mencapai 640 tahun;… anak-anak mereka mencapai
    2.000 tahun;… anak-anak mereka mencapai 4.000 tahun;… anak-anak
    mereka mencapai 8.000 tahun;… anak-anak mereka mencapai
    20.000 tahun; anak-anak mereka mencapai 40.000 tahun; dan
    mereka yang pada masa itu hanya berbatas usia kehidupan
    40.000 tahun, akan tetapi anak-anak mereka akan mencapai
    batas usia kehidupan 80.000 tahun.
  23. Para bhikkhu, di antara orang-orang yang batas usia kehidupan
    mereka 80.000, maka usia perkawinan bagi wanita adalah
    pada usia 500 tahun. Pada masa orang-orang ini hanya
    akan ada tiga macam penyakit — keinginan, lupa makan
    dan ketuaan. Pada masa kehidupan orang-orang ini
    Jambudipa akan makmur dan jaya, desa-desa,
    kampung-kampung, kota-kota dan kota-kota kerajaan akan berdekatan
    satu dengan yang lain sehingga ayam jantan dapat terbang
    dari satu kota ke kota yang lain. Pada masa kehidupan
    orang-orang ini, Jambudipa — bagaikan avici — akan
    penuh dengan penduduk bagaikan hutan yang dipenuhi
    semak belukar. Pada masa kehidupan orang-orang ini,
    kota Baranasi yang kita kenal sekarang akan bernama
    Ketumati yang merupakan kota kerajaan yang besar dan
    makmur, berpenduduk banyak dan padat serta berpangan cukup.
    Pada masa kehidupan orang-orang ini, di Jambudipa akan terdapat
    84.000 kota dengan Ketumati sebagai ibu kota.
  24. Para bhikkhu, pada masa kehidupan orang-orang ini di Ketumati,
    ibu kota kerajaan, akan muncul seorang raja Cakkavatti
    bernama Sankha, yang jujur, memerintah berdasarkan
    kebenaran, penguasa empat penjuru dunia, penakluk,
    pelindung rakyatnya dan pemilik tujuh macam permata,
    yaitu: cakka, gajah, kuda, permata, wanita (istri),
    kepala rumah tangga dan panglima perang. Ia akan memiliki
    keturunan lebih dari 1000 orang yang merupakan ksatriya-ksatriya
    digjaya, penakluk musuh-musuh. Ia akan menguasai dunia
    sampai ke batas lautan, tetapi ia menguasai dunia ini
    bukan dengan kekerasan atau dengan pedang melainkan
    dengan kebenaran.
  25. Para bhikkhu, pada masa kehidupan orang-orang ini, di dalam
    dunia akan muncul seorang Bhagava Arahat Sammasambuddha
    bernama Metteyya, yang sempurna dalam pengetahuan dan
    pelaksanaannya, sempurna menempuh jalan, pengenal
    segenap alam, pembimbing manusia yang tiada taranya,
    yang sadar serta yang patut dimuliakan, yang sama
    seperti saya sekarang. Ia, dengan dirinya sendiri
    akan mengetahui dengan sempurna dan melihat dengan jelas alam
    semesta bersama alam-alam kehidupan para dewa, brahma, mara,
    serta para samana, para pertapa, para pangeran dan
    orang-orang lainnya, seperti apa yang saya tahu
    dengan sempurna dan lihat dengan jelas sekarang.
    Dhamma kebenaran yang indah pada permulaan, indah
    pada pertengahan dan indah pada akhir akan dibabarkan
    dalam kata-kata dan semangat, kehidupan suci akan dibina dan
    dipaparkan dengan sempurna dengan penuh kesucian, seperti yang
    saya lakukan sekarang. Ia akan diikuti oleh beberapa
    ribu bhikkhu sangha, seperti saya sekarang ini yang
    diikuti oleh beberapa ratus bhikkhu sangha.
  26. Para bhikkhu, Raja Sankha akan membangun kembali tempat suci
    yang pernah dibangun oleh Raja Maha Panada. Raja Sankha
    akan tinggal di tempat suci itu, tetapi tempat itu
    akan diberikannya sebagai dana kepada para samana,
    para pertapa, para pengembara, para pengemis dan
    mereka yang membutuhkan. Ia sendiri akan mencukur
    rambut dan janggut, mengenakan jubah kuning, meninggalkan kehidupan
    berumah tangga dan menjadi siswa dari Bhagava Arahat
    Sammasambuddha Metteyya. Setelah Raja Sankha
    meninggalkan kehidupan duniawi, ia akan hidup
    menyendiri dan dengan usaha sungguh-sungguh, tekad,
    penuh kewaspadaan berusaha mengusahai dirinya. Tidak lama kemudian
    ia akan mencapai tujuan yang merupakan cita-cita dari
    mereka yang meninggalkan kehidupan duniawi dan hidup
    sebagai pertapa. Masih dalam kehidupan dalam dunia
    ini, ia akan mencapai, mengetahui dan merealisasi
    tujuan akhir dari penghidupan suci.
  27. Para bhikkhu, jadikanlah dirimu sebagai pelita; berlindunglah
    pada dirimu sendiri dan jangan berlindung pada orang lain.
    Hiduplah dalam dhamma kebenaran yang sebagai
    pelitamu, dengan dhamma sebagai pelindungmu dan
    jangan berlindung pada yang lain.Para bhikkhu, tetapi bagaimana seorang
    bhikkhu menjadi pelita bagi dirinya sendiri, sebagai
    pelindung bagi dirinya sendiri dan tidak berlindung
    pada yang lain?

    Para bhikkhu, dalam hal ini, seorang bhikkhu mengamati tubuh
    (kaya) sebagai tubuh dengan rajin, penuh pengertian dan
    perhatian, melenyapkan keserakahan dan
    ketidaksenangan dalam dunia. Seorang bhikkhu
    mengamati perasaan (vedana)… mengamati kesadaran (citta)…
    dan mengamati ide-ide (dhamma) sebagai dhamma dengan rajin penuh
    pengertian dan perhatian, melenyapkan keserakahan dan
    ketidaksenangan dalam dunia.

    Para bhikkhu, beginilah seorang bhikkhu menjadikan dirinya sebagai
    pelita bagi dirinya sendiri, menjadikan dirinya sebagai
    pelindung bagi dirinya sendiri dan tidak berlindung
    pada yang lain. Ia menjadikan dhamma sebagai pelita
    bagi dirinya sendiri, ia menjadikan dhamma sebagai
    pelindung bagi dirinya sendiri dan tidak berlindung
    pada hal yang lain.

  28. Para bhikkhu, jalanlah di lingkunganmu sendiri, di mana para
    pendahulumu berjalan. Jikalau kamu sekalian berjalan di
    tempat itu maka usia akan bertambah, kecantikan akan
    bertambah, kebahagiaan akan bertambah, kekayaan akan
    bertambah dan kekuatan akan bertambah.Para bhikkhu, apakah yang dimaksud
    dengan usia? Dalam hal ini seorang bhikkhu
    mengembangkan Empat dasar kemampuan batin (iddhipada)
    dengan membangkitkan (chanda), semangat (viriya), kesadaran
    (citta), dan penyelidikan (vimamsa) tentang pelaksanaan, usaha
    dan meditasi. Dengan dikembangkannya Empat Iddhipada
    ini, maka bila ia menginginkan, ia dapat hidup selama
    satu kalpa (kappa) atau selama masa kappa di mana ia
    hidup. Inilah yang dimaksud dengan usia.

    Para bhikkhu, apakah yang dimaksud dengan kecantikan? Dalam
    hal ini, seorang bhikkhu melaksanakan peraturan-peraturan
    moral (sila), mengendalikan dirinya sesuai dengan
    Patimokkha, sempurna dalam sikap dan tingkah laku; ia
    melihat bahaya sekalipun itu hanya merupakan
    kesalahan kecil dan ia menghindarkan diri dari
    kesalahan itu. Ia melatih diri dengan melaksanakan sila. Inilah
    yang dimaksudkan dengan kecantikan.

    Para bhikkhu, apakah yang dimaksud dengan kebahagiaan? Dalam
    hal ini, seorang bhikkhu menjauhkan diri dari pemuasan nafsu,
    bebas dari pikiran-pikiran jahat, mencapai dan tetap
    berada dalam Jhana I dengan memiliki usaha untuk
    menangkap obyek (vitakka), obyek dikuasai (vicara),
    kegiuran (piti), kebahagiaan (sukha) dan ketenangan
    (viveka) batin. Dengan melenyapkan vitakka dan vicara
    ia mencapai dan tetap berada dalam Jhana II dengan diliputi
    kegiuran (piti), kebahagiaan (sukha) dan ketenangan (viveka)
    batin. Dengan melenyapkan piti ia mencapai dan tetap
    berada dalam Jhana III dengan diliputi kebahagiaan
    (sukha) dan ketenangan (viveka) batin. Dengan
    melenyapkan sukha ia mencapai dan tetap berada dalam
    Jhana IV dengan pikiran terpusat dan penuh ketenangan
    batin.

    Para bhikkhu, apakah yang dimaksud dengan kekayaan? Dalam hal
    ini, seorang bhikkhu membiarkan batinnya diliputi oleh cinta
    kasih (metta) yang dipancarkannya ke satu arah, ke
    dua arah, ke tiga arah dan ke empat arah dari dunia.
    Jadi dengan demikian seluruh dunia, dari atas, bawah,
    sekeliling dan di seluruh penjuru dunia dipancarkan
    cinta kasihnya yang tanpa batas, yang mulia, tak
    terukur, yang bebas dari kebencian dan iri hati. Ia pun
    membiarkan dirinya diliputi dengan kasih sayang atau welas asih
    (karuna) … simpati (mudita) … dan keseimbangan batin
    (upekkha) yang dipancarkannya ke satu arah, ke dua
    arah, ke tiga arah dan ke empat arah dari dunia. Jadi
    dengan demikian seluruh dunia dipancarkan
    keseimbangan batinnya yang tanpa batas, yang mulia,
    tak terukur, yang bebas dari kebencian dan iri hati. Inilah
    yang dimaksud dengan kekayaan.

    Para bhikkhu apakah yang dimaksud dengan kekuatan? Dalam hal
    ini, seorang bhikkhu melenyapkan kekotoran batin (asava)
    sehingga pada kehidupan sekarang ini ia sendiri
    mencapai dan tetap berada dalam keadaan batin yang
    suci dan kebijaksanaan yang suci. Inilah yang
    dimaksud dengan kekuatan.

    Para bhikkhu, tidak ada kekuatan lain yang sulit sekali ditaklukkan
    selain kekuatan mara. Tetapi perbuatan baik (kusala)
    yang dikembangkan sendiri (hingga mencapai
    kearahatan) akan merupakan cara yang paling baik
    untuk menaklukkannya.”


Demikianlah yang diucapkan oleh Sang Buddha. Para bhikkhu menjadi
gembira setelah mendengar uraian Sang Bhagava.


http://www.thesangaiexpress.com/buddhism-and-politics-2/


Buddhism and politics

Thangjam Sanjoo Singh
(Contd from previous issue)
In
the Cakkavatti Sihananda Sutta, the Buddha said that immorality and
crime, such as theft, falsehood, violence, hatred, cruelty, could arise
from poverty. Kings and governments may try to suppress crime through
punishment, but it is futile to eradicate crimes through force.
In
the Kutadanta Sutta, the Buddha suggested economic development instead
of force to reduce crime. The government should use the country’s
resources to improve the economic conditions of the country. It could
embark on agricultural and rural development, provide financial support
to entrepreneurs and business, and provide adequate wages for workers to
maintain a decent life with human dignity.
In the Jataka, the Buddha
had given to rules for Good Government, known as ‘Dasa Raja Dharma’.
These ten rules can be applied even today by any government which wishes
to rule the country peacefully. The rules are as follows:
a.    be liberal and avoid selfishness, maintain a high moral character,
b.    be prepared to sacrifice one’s own pleasure for the well-being of the subjects,
c.    be honest and maintain absolute integrity,
d.    be kind and gentle,
e.    lead a simple life for the subjects to emulate,
f.    be free from hatred of any kind, exercise non-violence, practise patience,
g.    and respect public opinion to promote peace and harmony.
Regarding the behaviour of rulers, He further advised:

A good ruler should act impartially and should not be biased and
discriminate between one particular groups of subjects against another.
– A good ruler should not harbour any form of hatred against any of his subjects.
– A good ruler should show no fear whatsoever in the enforcement of the law, if it is justifiable.

A good ruler must possess a clear understanding of the law to be
enforced. It should not be enforced just because the ruler has the
authority to enforce the law. It must be done in a reasonable manner and
with common sense. — (Cakkavatti Sihananda Sutta)
In the Milinda
Panha, it is stated: ‘If a man, who is unfit, incompetent, immoral,
improper, unable and unworthy of kingship, has enthroned himself a king
or a ruler with great authority, he is subject to be tortured‚ to be
subject to a variety of punishment by the people, because, being unfit
and unworthy, he has placed himself unrighteously in the seat of
sovereignty. The ruler, like others who violate and transgress moral
codes and basic rules of all social laws of mankind, is equally subject
to punishment; and moreover, to be censured is the ruler who conducts
himself as a robber of the public.’ In a Jataka story, it is mentioned
that a ruler who punishes innocent people and does not punish the
culprit is not suitable to rule a country.
The king always improves
himself and carefully examines his own conduct in deeds, words and
thoughts, trying to discover and listen to public opinion as to whether
or not he had been guilty of any faults and mistakes in ruling the
kingdom. If it is found that he rules unrighteously, the public will
complain that they are ruined by the wicked ruler with unjust treatment,
punishment, taxation, or other oppressions including corruption of any
kind, and they will react against him in one way or another. On the
contrary, if he rules righteously they will bless him: ‘Long live His
Majesty.’ (Majjhima Nikaya)
The Buddha’s emphasis on the moral duty of a ruler to use public power
to improve the welfare of the people had inspired Emperor Asoka in the
Third Century BC to do likewise. Emperor Asoka, a sparkling example of
this principle, resolved to live according to and preach the Dhamma and
to serve his subjects and all humanity. He declared his non-aggressive
intentions to his neighbours, assuring them of his goodwill and sending
envoys to distant kings bearing his message of peace and non-aggression.
He
promoted the energetic practice of the socio-moral virtues of honesty,
truthfulness, compassion, benevolence, non-violence, considerate
behaviour towards all, non-extravagance, non-acquisitiveness, and
non-injury to animals. He encouraged religious freedom and mutual
respect for each other’s creed. He went on periodic tours preaching the
Dhamma to the rural people. He undertook works of public utility, such
as founding of hospitals for men and animals, supplying of medicine,
planting of roadside trees and groves, digging of wells, and
construction of watering sheds and rest houses. He expressly forbade
cruelty to animals.
Sometimes the Buddha is said to be a social
reformer. Among other things, He condemned the caste system, recognized
the equality of people, spoke on the need to improve socio-economic
conditions, recognized the importance of a more equitable distribution
of wealth among the rich and the poor, raised the status of women,
recommended the incorporation of humanism in government and
administration, and taught that a society should not be run by greed but
with consideration and compassion for the people. Despite all these,
His contribution to mankind is much greater because He took off at a
point which no other social reformer before or ever since had done, that
is, by going to the deepest roots of human ill which are found in the
human mind. It is only in the human mind that true reform can be
effected. Reforms imposed by force upon the external world have a very
short life because they have no roots. But those reforms which spring as
a result of the transformation of man’s inner consciousness remain
rooted. While their branches spread outwards, they draw their
nourishment from an unfailing source — the subconscious imperatives of
the life-stream itself. So reforms come about when men’s minds have
prepared the way for them, and they live as long as men revitalize them
out of their own love of truth, justice and their fellow men.
The
doctrine preached by the Buddha is not one based on ‘Political
Philosophy’. Nor is it a doctrine that encourages men to worldly
pleasures. It sets out a way to attain Nirvana. In other words, its
ultimate aim is to put an end to craving (Tanha) that keeps them in
bondage to this world. A stanza from the Dhammapada best summarizes this
statement: ‘The path that leads to worldly gain is one, and the path
that leads to Nibbana (by leading a religious life) is another.’
However,
this does not mean that Buddhists cannot or should not get involved in
the political process, which is a social reality. The lives of the
members of a society are shaped by laws and regulations, economic
arrangements allowed within a country, institutional arrangements, which
are influenced by the political arrangements of that society.
Nevertheless, if a Buddhist wishes to be involved in politics, he should
not misuse religion to gain political powers, nor is it advisable for
those who have renounced the worldly life to lead a pure, religious life
to be actively involved in politics.
(The writer is President of an NGO called Population Health Institute (PHI). He can be reached at thangjamsanjoo42@gmail.com)

comments (0)
Dissolving Cataracts with Eye Drops Instead of Surgery?
Filed under: Sutta Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 10:36 am

https://www.aao.org/eye-health/news/dissolving-cataracts-with-eye-drops-instead-of-sur



Dissolving Cataracts with Eye Drops Instead of Surgery?



Written by: Dayle Kern

Aug. 06, 2015

The news has been buzzing with reports of a new eye drop that may one day allow for cataracts
to be treated without surgery. But don’t cancel that cataract surgery
consultation just yet. While this research may show initial promise, it
has yet to be tested in humans or approved for patient use.


Chinese and American scientists and ophthalmologists have found that a
natural chemical may stop the development of cataracts, the leading
cause of blindness worldwide. Named lanosterol, the chemical was found
to be missing in children who had developed a rare form of childhood
cataracts. In contrast, the chemical was found in their parents who did
not have the condition. The researchers developed an eye drop solution
made of lanosterol and tested the solution on dogs, rabbits and
synthetic cataracts developed in labs using cells from human lenses.
They found that the drops shrank cataracts significantly in all three
groups.


“If this treatment is successfully tested in humans and approved for
patient use, it could be a promising alternative for people living in
low-resource areas, where it is difficult to access cataract surgery,”
said Ravi D. Goel, M.D., a clinical spokesperson for the American
Academy of Ophthalmology and cataract surgeon at Wills Eye Hospital.
“However, it’s still too early to tell if these eye drops are a viable
treatment.”


The researchers are not yet sure of the exact mechanism by which
lanosterol causes the cataracts to shrink, nor do they know whether or
not there are any risks in using lanosterol clinically in human eyes.
It’s likely that this research will continue to evolve, so stay tuned!

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/297240.php

MNT home

Cataracts may be treatable with eye drops instead of surgery


Published:



Cataracts, a leading cause of blindness in humans, may one day be treatable with eye drops

instead of surgery.

senior eye]
Surgery to treat cataracts is not available to everyone. Treatment with eye drops could be a game changer.

In the journal Nature, a study led by the University of
California-San Diego (UCSD) shows how a solution containing a natural
steroid that can be given via eye drops decreased

cataracts in dogs.

The lenses in our eyes are made mostly of crystallin proteins that have two jobs to do - they

allow us to change focus and they keep the lens clear. Nobody knows exactly how they do this.

Cataracts is a condition that develops when the delicate structure of the crystallin proteins is

disrupted and they start to form clumps and make the lens cloudy.

The lens is also rich in a molecule called lanosterol that is an essential building block of many

important steroids in the body. Lanosterol is synthesized by an enzyme called lanosterol

synthase.

The researchers began to look into lanosterol because they found children with an

inherited form of cataracts had the same gene mutation that blocked lanosterol

synthase.

They had a hunch that perhaps in normal eyes, where lenses are enriched with lanosterol, it stops

the cataract-forming proteins from clumping.

Lanosterol decreased clumping in cataract-forming proteins

The researchers ran three sets of experiments, starting with lab cells and progressing to animals.

First, in human lens cells, the team found

lanosterol decreased clumping in cataract-forming proteins. They then
showed treatment with lanosterol reduced cataracts and increased lens
transparency in

rabbits.

Fast facts about cataracts

  • Cataracts account for 51% of world blindness
  • Most cataracts develop later in life
  • Risk factors include too much sun, diabetes, tobacco and alcohol.

Learn more about cataracts

And, finally, when they tested the lanosterol solution - both in injected and eye drop form - in

live dogs with cataracts, it had the same effect in reducing protein clumping as in the human lens

cells and the rabbits’ lenses: the cataracts reduced and lens transparency improved.

The researchers conclude:

“Our study identifies lanosterol as a key molecule in the prevention of lens protein

aggregation and points to a novel strategy for cataract prevention and treatment.”

Should lanosterol in the form of eye drops prove to be an effective treatment for cataracts in

humans, it could be a game changer.

Currently, the only way to treat cataracts is with surgery. But this is not an option that is

available to everyone. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in many countries there are

barriers that prevent patients accessing surgery, and so cataract remains the leading cause of

blindness.

The new study follows another recent success story reported by Medical News Today

where, after receiving an implanted bionic eye, an 80-year-old

man with age-related macular degeneration regained some visual function.



http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-07-23/cataracts-treated-with-eye-drops-in-future/6641418

ABC News

Cataracts could be treated with eye drops instead of surgery in future, study says



Posted




An eye drop tested on dogs suggests that cataracts,
the most common cause of blindness in humans, could one day be cured
without surgery, a study has said.

A naturally-occurring molecule
called lanosterol, administered with an eye dropper, shrank canine
cataracts, a team of scientists reported in Nature.

Currently the
only treatment available for the debilitating growths, which affect tens
of millions of people worldwide, is going under the knife.

While
surgery is generally simple and safe, the number of people who need it
is set to double in the next 20 years as populations age. And for many,
it remains prohibitively costly.

The chain of research leading to
the potential cure began with two children — patients of lead researcher
Kang Zhang of Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, China — from
families beset with a congenital, or inherited, form of the condition.

Dr
Zhang and colleagues discovered that his patients shared a mutation in a
gene critical for producing lanosterol, which the researchers suspected
might impede cataract-forming proteins from clumping in normal eyes.

In a first set of lab experiments on cells, they confirmed their hunch that lanosterol helped ward off the proteins.

In subsequent tests, dogs with naturally-occurring cataracts received eye drops containing the molecule.

After six weeks of treatment, the size and characteristic cloudiness of the cataracts had decreased, the researchers reported.

“Our
study identifies lanosterol as a key molecule in the prevention of lens
protein aggregation and points to a novel strategy for cataract
prevention and treatment,” the authors concluded.

Cataracts account for half of blindness cases worldwide.

“These
are very preliminary findings,” said J Fielding Hejtmancik, a scientist
at the US National Eye Institute, who wrote a commentary also published
in Nature.

“Before there are any human trials, the scientists
will probably test other molecules to see if they might work even
better,” he said.

AFP

http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/cataracts/news/20150722/success-in-dogs-points-to-first-nonsurgical-cataract-treatment#1

Drops Show Promise as Nonsurgical Cataract Treatment



Eye drops may offer new approach for research, expert says

By Dennis Thompson


HealthDay Reporter




WEDNESDAY, July 22, 2015 (HealthDay News) — Eyes clouded by cataracts may one day be treated with drops rather than surgery, a new animal study suggests.


Today, surgery is the only means of treating cataracts, the leading cause of blindness in the world. Doctors extract cloudy lenses and replace them with artificial lenses.


But researchers have discovered that an organic compound called lanosterol can improve vision by dissolving the clumped proteins that form cataracts,
said study lead author Dr. Kang Zhang, chief of ophthalmic genetics
with the Shiley Eye Institute at the University of California, San
Diego.


Eye drops containing lanosterol completely cleared the vision
of three dogs with naturally occurring cataracts after six weeks of
treatment. The drops improved vision for four other cataract-afflicted
dogs, according to findings published July 22 in the journal Nature.


“The results we have point to a new nonsurgical treatment of
cataracts that can be used for people who might have moderate cataracts
or do not have access to surgery,” Zhang said.


These findings “point to a new direction in cataract research,”
at a time when there’s huge pressure to come up with a better way of
treating cataracts, said Dr. J. Fielding Hejtmancik, a senior
investigator at the U.S. National Eye Institute (NEI).


The aging of the baby boom population is expected to fuel a
huge increase in cataracts, since most occur as part of the aging
process, Hejtmancik said.


It’s already occurring. Between 2000 and 2010, cases of
cataracts in the United States rose 20 percent, from 20.5 million to
24.4 million, according to the NEI. By 2050, that number is expected to
double to an estimated 50 million.


Cataract surgery is a safe and routine procedure, but demand
will rise dramatically. “You’re going to probably double your surgical
requirements within the next 10 years,” Hejtmancik said.


Lanosterol eye drops could provide a cheaper and easier
alternative for cataract treatment in many people, and perhaps prevent
cataracts in someone at risk for developing them, Zhang and Hejtmancik
said.

http://www.cbsnews.com/news/eye-drops-hold-promise-for-reversing-cataracts/



Eye drops hold promise for reversing cataracts



Last Updated Jul 28, 2015 6:47 PM EDT

More than 20 million Americans have cataracts, a leading cause of vision loss and blindness, and right now surgery is the only available option to correct the problem. But new research raises the hope that someday, cataracts could be cured with simple eye drops.

Cataracts
occur when the normally transparent lens of the eye gradually clouds
over due to an accumulation of proteins that malform and clump together.
The condition often develops as people get older; the National Eye Institute estimates that by the age of 80, more than half of all Americans either have a cataract or have had surgery to remove one.

Now
researchers from the University of California, San Diego have
discovered a promising alternative to surgery: an eye drop that
effectively reversed cataracts in animal testing. Their findings are
published in the journal Nature.

Their work began with the cases of three children who had a
severe cataract condition that ran in their family. The scientists
sequenced the children’s genomes and identified a genetic mutation that
interfered with the production of lanosterol, a naturally occurring
steroid in the body. From that clue, they decided to test whether
lanosterol might have the ability to prevent or even eliminate
cataracts.

They tested it first in lab cultures, then in the
cataract lenses of rabbits, and finally on 7 dogs from 3 species (black
Labrador, Queensland Heeler and Miniature Pinscher ) who were suffering
from adult-onset cataracts, which can happen in canines as well as
humans.

For the dogs’ treatment, they sedated the animals and
injected lanosterol (100 mg)-loaded nanoparticles into the vitreous
cavity of the eye, the area behind the lens which is filled with a
gel-like substance called the vitreous humor. The treatment eyes then
received lanosterol in topical eye drops, one drop three times a day for
6 weeks.

“Treatment by lanosterol,” the researchers write,
“significantly decreased preformed protein aggregates both in vitro and
in cell-transfection experiments.”

dogs-cataract-study-310.jpg

Before and after photos showing dogs’ cataracts diminished after lanosterol treatment.

LING ZHAO ET. AL./NATURE

The
dogs who received the treatment showed notable improvement in their
cataracts, graded on a scale from zero (no cataract) to 3 (extensive
opacity of the entire lens).

“I was pleasantly surprised, even in
principle, this treatment should work,” one of the authors of the study,
Dr. Kang Zhang, professor of ophthalmology and chief of ophthalmic
genetics at UC San Diego, told CBS News.

Other scientists in the field were impressed by the results.

In
a commentary published in Nature to accompany the study, J. Fielding
Hejtmancik, of the Ophthalmic Genetics and Visual Function Branch of the
National Eye Institute, suggested the research could lead to
non-surgical prevention and treatment of cataracts.

“The potential
for this finding to be translated into the first practical
pharmacological prevention, or even treatment, of human cataracts could
not come at a more opportune time,” he writes.

“This is a really
comprehensive and compelling paper - the strongest I’ve seen of its kind
in a decade,” Jonathan King, a molecular biologist at Massachusetts
Institute of Technology who researches cataract proteins, told Science
magazine. “They discovered the phenomena and then followed with all of
the experiments that you should do - that’s as biologically relevant as
you can get.”

Before testing can begin in humans, Zhang said the
team will need to check the toxicity of lanosterol, even though it is “a
product of our own body. Then we will need to formulate the drug as
the most efficient eye drop for a human trial.”

In a Nature podcast, Zhang said he and his colleagues hope to begin human trials within a year.


http://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/these-eye-drops-shrunk-cataracts-dogs/

New Eye Drops Can Dissolve Cataracts With No Need For Surgery

A cataract is the clouding of the eye’s lens and accounts
for over half of all cases of blindness worldwide. Though cataracts can
be effectively treated with surgery, it’s costly and requires trained
surgeons. This is a problem for developing countries with poor health
systems. Drug treatments have the potential to be a game changer in
providing cheap and accessible treatment, but there are many hurdles. A
new study that used eye drops to shrink cataracts in dogs may have made
an important step in overcoming them.  



The vast majority of cataracts are age related,
but some can develop the condition as a result of an injury or a
genetic defect. Researchers became more interested in researching how
this defect led to cataracts. Professor Kang Zhang, from the University of California San Diego, and his research team studied two families who had children born with cataracts, known as congenital cataracts.



They found that those with congenital cataracts had
a mutation in the gene that produces a small molecule known as
lanosterol. The healthy version of this molecule usually prevents
cataract-causing proteins from clumping together. In the abnormal
version of this molecule, however, cataract-causing proteins caused
cloudiness in the eye’s lens.



Zhang and his research team went on to develop eye drops
that contained lanosterol as a drug treatment for cataracts. To test
whether the eye drops could reduce cataracts, researchers isolated
lenses from rabbits that had cataracts and placed them in a lanosterol
solution for six days. They found that this reduced cataract severity
and increased lens clarity.



“We went on to test the effect of the eye drops in dogs with
cataracts. We gave them eye drops twice a day for six weeks and found
it had reduced the effect of cataract severity,” Zhang explains to
IFLScience.





Eye drops dissolved cataracts in dogs. Image credit: Kang Zhang



The study, published in Nature, only
lasted for a few months, so the cataracts are likely to have reoccurred
after the drops stopped, Zhang says. He does, however, believe that the
eye drops could play an important role in the prevention of cataracts
in those showing early signs. The ultimate “goal” is to develop a cheap,
effective drug that can be widely used in low-resource settings.



Dr Manuel Datiles, a senior investigator and attending ophthalmologist at the National Eye Institute in the National Institutes of Health,
tells IFLScience that though eye drops have the potential to overcome a
number of limitations of surgery, they won’t be able to replace it yet.



“You cannot compare the improvements shown in this study
with surgery. With cataract surgery, you become 20 years old again; with
this one the lens is cleared up, but your vision can still be murky,”
he explains.



The study is quite important, Datiles says, as researchers
have discovered that a gene in a certain clinical pathway related to
cholesterol production caused cataracts. This is, however, only one of
the many pathways that can be used to alleviate cataracts.



“There are other drops that do the same thing but use
different pathways. This is why we need multifunctional anti-cataract
agents that work together across multiple pathways to clear the lens,”
Datiles says.



“There’s now scope to investigate how we can combine this drug with other ones to better improve treatment,” he adds.



According to Datiles, eye drops will become key in treating
cataracts, as surgery will not be able to cope with the growing needs of
the world’s aging population. There’s already a backlog in many
developing countries as clinics cannot cope with the demand for
surgeries and, as a result, many become blind, Datiles says.

http://www.sciencealert.com/scientists-have-developed-an-eye-drop-that-can-dissolve-cataracts-from-eyes


Scientists Have Developed an Eye Drop That Can Dissolve Cataracts



A whole lot better than surgery. 



BEC CREW

23 JUL 2015







Researchers in the US have developed a new drug that can be delivered
directly into the eye via an eye dropper to shrink down and dissolve
cataracts - the leading cause of blindness in humans. 


While the effects have yet to be tested on humans, the team from the
University of California, San Diego hopes to replicate the findings in
clinical trials and offer an alternative to the only treatment that’s
currently available to cataract patients - painful and often
prohibitively expensive surgery.

Affecting tens of millions of people worldwide, cataracts cause the
lens of the eye to become progressively cloudy, and when left untreated,
can lead to total blindness. This occurs when the structure of the
crystallin proteins that make up the lens in our eyes deteriorates,
causing the damaged or disorganised proteins to clump and form a milky
blue or brown layer. While cataracts cannot spread from one eye to the
other, they can occur independently in both eyes. 


Scientists aren’t entirely sure what causes cataracts, but most cases are related to age, with the US National Eye Institute reporting that
by the age of 80, more than half of all Americans either have a
cataract, or have had cataract surgery. While unpleasant, the surgical
procedure to remove a cataract is very simple and safe, but many
communities in developing countries and regional areas do not have
access to the money or facilities to perform it, which means blindness
is inevitable for the vast majority of patients.


According to the Fred Hollows Foundation,
an estimated 32.4 million people around the world today are blind, and
90 percent of them live in developing countries. More than half of these
cases were caused by cataracts, which means having an eye drop as an
alternative to surgery would make an incredible difference. 


The new drug is based on a naturally-occurring steroid called
lanosterol. The idea to test the effectiveness of lanosterol on
cataracts came to the researchers when they became aware of two children
in China who had inherited a congenital form of cataract, which had
never affected their parents. The researchers discovered that these
siblings shared a mutation that stopped the production of lanosterol,
which their parents lacked. 


So if the parents were producing lanosterol and didn’t get cataracts, but their children weren’t producing lanosterol and did
get cataracts, the researchers proposed that the steroid might halt the
defective crystallin proteins from clumping together and forming
cataracts in the non-congenital form of the disease.


They tested their lanosterol-based eye drops in three types of
experiments. They worked with human lens in the lab and saw a decrease
in cataract size. They then tested the effects on rabbits, and according to Hanae Armitage at Science Mag,
after six days, all but two of their 13 patients had gone from having
severe cataracts to mild cataracts or no cataracts at all. Finally, they
tested the eye drops on dogs with naturally occurring cataracts. Just
like the human lens in the lab and the rabbits, the dogs responded
positively to the drug, with severe cataracts shrinking away to nothing,
or almost nothing.


The results have been published in Nature.


“This is a really comprehensive and compelling paper - the strongest
I’ve seen of its kind in a decade,” molecular biologist Jonathan King
from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) told Armitage.
While not affiliated with this study, King has been involved in
cataract research for the past 15 years. “They discovered the phenomena
and then followed with all of the experiments that you should do -
that’s as biologically relevant as you can get.”


The next step is for the researchers to figure out exactly how the
lanosterol-based eye drops are eliciting this response from the cataract
proteins, and to progress their research to human trials.

http://www.aoa.org/news/clinical-eye-care/could-eye-drops-be-an-alternative-treatment-to-cataract-surgery?sso=y

American

Could eye drops be an alternative treatment to cataract surgery?

Researchers have discovered a compound that reverses cataracts and is soluble enough to be used as eye drops, Science reports.



The research could be a stepping stone for research of future treatments.

If left untreated, cataracts can lead to blindness. The only
treatment is surgery to remove the lens, which is commonplace in the
United States but not available in many developing countries.

“Cataracts
in humans have been around as long as humans have been around, and this
is the first time in history that they’re using a nonsurgical approach
for their removal,” says Andrew Morgenstern, O.D., chair of AOA’s New
Technology Committee and a consultant with Booz Allen Hamilton whose
current assignment is with the Vision Center of Excellence at Walter
Reed National Military Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland.

Crystallins
in our eyes work as chaperones to help prevent the clumping of
proteins, or aggregation of insoluble amyloids, that cause cataracts,
but crystallins can become overwhelmed as we age. Previous research had
shown that lanosterol, which belongs to a group of chemical compounds
called sterols, reversed cataracts. However, lanosterol was not
water-soluble enough to be included in an eye drop solution and had to
be injected into the eye.

In this new study, researchers tested 32 additional sterols,
focusing on Compound 29, which not only dissolved the amyloids in a lab
dish but also prevented the formation of new protein clumps.
Researchers then confirmed that Compound 29 reversed hereditary- and
age-related cataracts in mice and in human lens tissue removed during
cataract surgery.

Not an immediate option

One limitation of the study is that it was a mouse study, says Sue Lowe,
O.D., chair of the AOA Health Promotions Committee who practices in
Laramie, Wyoming. You can’t ask mice about their visual acuity.

“Every individual still interprets what they see differently,” she says.

Dr.
Lowe explains that a cataract might appear cloudy to the optometrist,
yet the patient says he or she can see well. On the other hand, another
patient may have a clearer-looking cataract, yet complain about poor
eyesight.

An animal model also means the research isn’t “going
anywhere fast,” Dr. Morgenstern says. But it could be a stepping stone
for research of future treatments.

The concept of eye drops as
cataract treatment isn’t new, Dr. Lowe says. A product was developed in
Russia using a compound called N-acetylcarnosine in eye drops to treat
cataracts. It’s available in the United States as a dietary supplement
but is not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. It was
patented by the research team in Russia, where most of the studies have
been conducted.

Drs. Morgenstern and Lowe agree that cataract
surgery will likely remain the primary treatment in the United States,
but an eye drop that improves cataracts could be a boon to the
developing world, even if it doesn’t eliminate the cataract altogether.

“Sometimes
the best treatment you can get for a patient is an improvement and not
necessarily a complete cure,” Dr. Morgenstern says. “If you can take an
individual with a 20/200 cataract and you can get them to 20/40
best-corrected vision with a simple eye drop, that’s pretty amazing
stuff.”

The AOA follows all research and new technology closely,
including potential new cataract treatment. Although these eye drops are
an interesting development, more research is needed regarding their
influence on visual health. For more information or help for better
vision, please visit the AOA website.

http://www.livescience.com/51634-eyedrops-could-treat-cataracts.html

New Eyedrops Could Shrink Cataracts Without Surgery



comments (0)
2203 Fri 20 Apr 2017 LESSONS dukkha (unsatisfactoriness), anicca (impermanence), and anatta (egolessness). nowhere in Samsara is there real freedom, not even in the heavens or the world of Brahama. Anguttara Nikaya Cakkavatti Sihananda Sutta Kutadanta Sutta Dasa Raja Dharma Milinda Panha Aṅguttara Nikāya — The discourses of one additional factor — Finally, the wheels of justice are turning in the Babri Masjid demolition case,” the IE editorial, at sl. no. II below, rightly points out. But, after a huge delay. BSP to fight Uttar Pradesh urban body polls on party symbol after 22 years
Filed under: General, Sutta Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 2:35 am

2203 Fri 20 Apr 2017 LESSONS


dukkha (unsatisfactoriness), anicca (impermanence), and anatta (egolessness).


nowhere in Samsara is there real freedom, not even in the heavens or the world of Brahama.


Anguttara Nikaya


Cakkavatti Sihananda Sutta


Kutadanta Sutta


Dasa Raja Dharma

Milinda Panha


Aṅguttara Nikāya
— The discourses of one additional factor —

Finally, the wheels of justice are turning in the Babri Masjid
demolition case,” the IE editorial, at sl. no. II below, rightly
points out. But, after a huge delay.

BSP to fight Uttar Pradesh urban body polls on party symbol after 22 years

Correct translation of the word Dukkha, is ‘A wheel that turns and doesn’t sit on its hinge correctly’. Or a ’squeaky wheel’.

To think of the word ’suffering’ and how its used in our vernacular,
it conjures up images of hospital beds, extreme pain, wailing and
gnashing of teeth. Anyone who has had a little joy in life knows that
this is indeed not the case.

“Life is conditioned by” or “Life is permeated by” Dukkha. Namely, that
nothing is ultimately lasting or satisfactory - even if for a little
while it may be joyful, pleasant or joyless and unpleasant.

By practicing the eightfold path, and performing/cultivating skilful
acts will more often than not lead to a condition of ‘Sukkha’, or
relative joy and calm.


Meditating on this for a while, it’s rung truer. Life is
conditioned by things being a pain.


In knowing this underlying condition, that ultimately all things must
pass, and ultimately, nothing cognised through the six sense bases - or
the five aggregates of clinging - is truly lasting or satisfying, one
is able to be unhinged from the clinging (thirst, or Tanha) that causes
Dukkha.


https://archive.org/download/AnguttaraNikaya


Index of /35/items/AnguttaraNikaya/

../
Anguttara Nikaya.djvu               14-Feb-2016 18:06     59.8M
Anguttara Nikaya.gif                14-Feb-2016 13:09     207.5K
Anguttara Nikaya.pdf                14-Feb-2016 11:48     60.4M
Anguttara Nikaya_abbyy.gz           14-Feb-2016 16:21     62.7M
Anguttara Nikaya_djvu.txt           20-Feb-2016 01:21     4.0M
Anguttara Nikaya_djvu.xml           14-Feb-2016 16:36     37.6M
Anguttara Nikaya_jp2.zip            14-Feb-2016 13:06     1.6G
Anguttara Nikaya_scandata.xml       14-Feb-2016 18:06     565.0K
AnguttaraNikaya_archive.torrent     20-Dec-2016 04:38     38.4K
AnguttaraNikaya_files.xml           20-Dec-2016 04:38     3.7K
AnguttaraNikaya_meta.sqlite         05-May-2016 15:14     11.0K
AnguttaraNikaya_meta.xml            20-Dec-2016 04:37     1.3K
  

https://ia600206.us.archive.org/35/items/AnguttaraNikaya/Anguttara%20Nikaya.gif


https://ia600206.us.archive.org/35/items/AnguttaraNikaya/Anguttara%20Nikaya.gif

https://ia600206.us.archive.org/35/items/AnguttaraNikaya/Anguttara%20Nikaya.pdf

http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/bsp-to-fight-uttar-pradesh-urban-body-polls-on-party-symbol-after-22-years/articleshow/58262526.cms


https://de.pinterest.com/pin/549579960760335401/

“It is in the nature of things that joy arises in a person free from remorse.”   ~ The Buddha [Cetana Sutta, Anguttara Nikaya]  ॐ lis:
Bellos colores:
:


Aṅguttara Nikāya
— The discourses of one additional factor —
[ aṅg: factor | uttara: additional ]

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/anguttara.html


Aṅguttara Nikāya

— The discourses of one additional factor —
[ aṅg: factor | uttara: additional ]

The Aṅguttara Nikāya contains thousands
of short discourses, which have the particularity to be structured as
enumerations. It is divided into eleven sections, the first dealing with
enumerations of one item, the second with those of two items etc. The
Buddha, having never made use of writing, asked his listeners to be
attentive and to memorize his instructions. In order to make his words
as clear as possible and to facilitate this memorization, he often
presented his teaching in the form of enumerations.


Nipātas


1. Ekaka Nipāta        7. Sattaka Nipāta
2. Duka Nipāta        8. Aṭṭhaka Nipāta
3. Tika Nipāta        9. Navaka Nipāta
4. Catuka Nipāta        10. Dasaka Nipāta
5. Pañcaka Nipāta        11. Ekādasaka Nipāta
6. Chakka Nipāta


——————oooOooo——————



1. Ekaka Nipāta

Rūpādi Vagga (AN 1.1-10) - word by word
There are five types of sense objects that overpower the mind of (most) human beings more than any others.
Nīvaraṇappahāna Vagga (AN 1.11-20) - word by word
The five dhammas that nourish most efficiently the five hindrances, and the five most effective ways to dispell them.
Akammaniya Vagga (AN 1.21-30) - word by word
The mind can be our worst enemy or our best friend.
Adanta Vagga (AN 1.31-40) - enhanced translation
The mind can be our worst enemy or our best friend.
Udakarahaka Suttas (AN 1.45 & 46) - enhanced translation
The difference between a clear mind and a muddy one.
Mudu Sutta (AN 1.47) - enhanced translation
A simile for a mind that’s pliant.
Lahuparivatta Sutta (AN 1.48) - enhanced translation
The Buddha, normally so adept at finding similes, is here at a loss.
Accharāsaṅghāta Peyyāla (AN 1.53-55) - word by word
Practicing goodwill makes one worthy of gifts.
Kusala Suttas (AN 1.56-73) - word by word
What produces and what eliminates wholesome and unwholesome mental states.
Pamāda Suttas (AN 1.58-59) - enhanced translation
Nothing is so disadvantageous as this.
Pamādādi Vagga (AN 1.81-97) - word by word
The Buddha repetedly warns us against heedlessness.
Kāyagatāsati Vagga (AN 1.563-574) {excerpts} - enhanced translation
The Buddha speaks in high praise of the mindfulness directed to the body.
——————oooOooo——————


2. Duka Nipāta

Appaṭivāna Sutta (AN 2.5) - enhanced translation
How we ought to train ourselves if we wish to reach awakening.
Cariya Sutta (AN 2.9) - enhanced translation
What is it, after all, that guarantees harmony, politeness,
honesty, brotherhood in a word peace within a given society? The Buddha
explains here which are the two guardians of the world.
Ekaṃsena Sutta (AN 2.18) - enhanced translation
Here is one thing that the Buddha declares categorically.
Vijjābhāgiya Sutta (AN 2.32) - word by word
Here the Buddha relates Samatha with rāga and cetovimutti, and Vipassanā with avijjā and paññāvimutti.
——————oooOooo——————



3. Tika Nipāta

Kesamutti [aka Kālāmā] Sutta (AN 3.66) - word by word
In
this famous sutta, the Buddha reminds us to ultimately trust only our
own direct experience of the reality, not what is declared by others,
even if they happen to be our ‘revered teacher’.
Sāḷha Sutta (AN 3.67) - enhanced translation
The advice given here is very similar to that given to the Kalamas.
Aññatitthiya Sutta (AN 3.69) - enhanced translation
The
three roots of the unwholesome are explained with their respectve
characteristic, the cause of their arising, and the way to bring about
their cessation.
Uposatha Sutta (AN 3.71) - enhanced translation
In this sutta, the Buddha defines how lay people should practice Uposatha and describes the different types of devas.
Sīlabbata Sutta (AN 3.79) - enhanced translation
Ānanda explains by which very simple creteria rites and rituals can be judged as beneficial or not.
Samaṇa Sutta (AN 3.82) - enhanced translation
Here are the three ascetics tasks of an ascetic.
Vajjiputta Sutta (AN 3.85) - enhanced translation
A
certain monk cannot train with so many rules. The Buddha explains him
how he can do without them, and it works out rather well.
Sikkhattaya Sutta (AN 3.90) - word by word
The Buddha defines the three trainings, i.e. adhisīlasikkhā, adhicittasikkhā and adhipaññāsikkhā.
Accāyika Sutta (AN 3.93) - enhanced translation
Three urgent tasks of an ascetic which are like three urgent tasks of a farmer.
Sikkhattaya Sutta (AN 3.91) - word by word
Here the Buddha gives an alternate definition of adhipaññāsikkhā.
Paṃsudhovaka Sutta (AN 3.102) - few info·bubbles
In
this sutta, the Buddha compares the removal of mental impurities
through the practice to the work of a goldsmith. It is particularly
interesting, because it provides a gradual exposition of the impurities
one has to deal with during the practice, which gives an useful
reference.
Nimitta Sutta (AN 3.103) - few info·bubbles
Do
you find yourself nodding off or becoming overly agitated during your
meditation practice? This is a very useful discourse for the meditators
who wish to balance the two corresponding spiritual faculties of effort
and concentration, together with equanimity. Many of us would benefit
substantially from applying properly these instructions.
Ruṇṇa Sutta (AN 3.108) - word by word
Here
the Buddha explains what is singing and dancing in the discipline of
the noble ones, and then gives his instrunction regarding laughing and
smiling.
Atitti Sutta (AN 3.109) - enhanced translation
Three wrong things, of which many are unfortunately fond, that can never bring about satiety.
Nidāna Sutta (AN 3.112) - enhanced translation
Six causes, three wholesome and three unwholesome, to the arising of kamma.
Kammapatha Sutta (AN 3.164) - word by word
It is demonstrated here that the view according to which there is nothing wrong in being non-vegetarian is erroneous.
——————oooOooo——————



4. Catukka Nipāta

Yoga Sutta (AN 4.10) - enhanced translation
What the Buddha means when he talks about yoga and yogakkhema (rest from the yoke).
Padhāna Sutta (AN 4.13) - word by word
In this sutta, the Buddha gives a definition of the sammappadhānas.
Aparihāniya Sutta (AN 4.37) - enhanced translation
Four simple practices that make one incapable of falling away, right in the presence of Nibbāna.
Samādhibhāvanā Sutta (AN 4.41) - word by word
The
four types of concentration that the Buddha commends. It is quite
obvious here that no clear distinction is made between samādhi and
paññā.
Vipallāsa Sutta (AN 4.49) - word by word
In this sutta, the Buddha describes the fourfold distortion of saññā, citta and diṭṭhi.
Appamāda Sutta (AN 4.116) - simple translation
Four instances in which one should practice with assiduity.
Ārakkha Sutta (AN 4.117) - simple translation
Four things to be undertaken with assiduity, mindfulness while protecting the mind.
Mettā Sutta (AN 4.125) - enhanced translation
Here
the Buddha explains what kind of rebirth one who thoroughly practices
the four Brahmavihāras can expect, and the great advantage of being his
disciple.
Asubha Sutta (AN 4.163) - enhanced translation
The
four ways of practicing, according to the type of practice chosen and
the intensity or weakness of strengths and spiritual factulties.
Abhiññā Sutta (AN 4.254) - without translation
How the Noble Path works with the abhiññā pertaining to various dhammas as a guest-house welcoming various kinds of visitors.
Arañña Sutta (AN 4.262) - enhanced translation
What sort of person is fit to live in the wilderness?
——————oooOooo——————



5. Pañcaka Nipāta

Vitthata Sutta (AN 5.2) - without translation
Here the Buddha defines in detail what he calls the five
Sekha-balas (strenghs of one in training). This sutta is easily
understandable without requiring a parallel translation, if you refer to
the Satta saddhammā Formulae as will be suggested in the text. The Pali-English Dictionary is also available, just in case.
Vitthata Sutta (AN 5.14) - word by word
Here are defined the five balas.
Samādhi Sutta (AN 5.27) - enhanced translation
Five uplifting knowledges that occur to one who practices the boundless concentration.
Akusalarāsi Sutta (AN 5.52) - enhanced translation
Speaking rightly, what should be called ‘accumulation of demerit’?
Abhiṇhapaccavekkhitabbaṭhāna Sutta (AN 5.57) {excerpt} - word by word
How to consider one’s own kamma.
Anāgatabhaya Sutta (AN 5.80) - enhanced translation
The
Buddha reminds the monks that the practice of Dhamma should not be put
off for a later date, for there are no guarantees that the future will
provide any opportunities for practice.
Sekha Sutta (AN 5.89) - without translation
The
Buddha reminds us of five things that deteriorate the practice, which
for anyone wishing to progress in the training are nearly as important
to know about, remember and integrate into our lifestyles as the
knowledge of the five standard nīvaraṇas.
Sekha Sutta (AN 5.90) - enhanced translation
Five attitudes that lead to the deterioration of the practice.
Sutadhara Sutta (AN 5.96) - enhanced translation
Five qualities the lead one practicing mindfulness of breathing to liberation in no long time.
Kathā Sutta (AN 5.97) - enhanced translation
Five qualities the lead one practicing mindfulness of breathing to liberation in no long time.
Āraññaka Sutta (AN 5.98) - enhanced translation
Five qualities the lead one practicing mindfulness of breathing to liberation in no long time.
Andhakavinda Sutta (AN 5.114) - enhanced translation
Five things that the Buddha exhorted his newly ordained monks to do.
Samayavimutta Sutta (AN 5.149) - without translation
Five conditions under which one who has gained ‘occasional liberation’ will backslide.
Samayavimutta Sutta (AN 5.150) - without translation
Another set of five conditions under which one who has gained ‘occasional liberation’ will backslide.
Vaṇijjā Sutta (AN 5.177) - enhanced translation
The Buddha specifies here five trades which should not be carried on by his lay followers, among which the business of meat.
Gihī Sutta (AN 5.179) - enhanced translation
In
this sutta, the Buddha gives greater precision about the way in which
the four usual sotāpattiyaṅgas have to be internalized in order to
constitute the proper conditions for sotāpatti.
Nissāraṇīya Sutta (AN 5.200) - enhanced translation
This sutta declines five types of nissāraṇas.
Yāgu Sutta (AN 5.207) - enhanced translation
The Buddha gives five advantages of eating rice-gruel.
Dantakaṭṭha Sutta (AN 5.208) - enhanced translation
The Buddha gives five reasons to use a tooth-cleaner.
Gītassara Sutta (AN 5.209) - word by word
This
sutta has been largely overlooked by the various buddhist traditions:
the Buddha explains why he does not allow the bhikkhus to perform any
melodic chanting.
Muṭṭhassati Sutta (AN 5.210) - enhanced translation
The disadvantages of falling asleep without proper sati and sampajañña, and the respective advantages of doing so with them.
Duccarita Sutta (AN 5.241) - enhanced translation
Five dangers of duccarita (bad conduct) and five advantages of sucarita (good conduct).
Duccarita Sutta (AN 5.245) - enhanced translation
Another sutta about the five dangers of duccarita and five advantages of sucarita.
Sivathika Sutta (AN 5.249) - enhanced translation
Five ways in which an ill-conducted person can be similar to a charnel ground where people throw dead bodies.
Puggalappasāda Sutta (AN 5.250) - enhanced translation
Here is a rare warning given by the Buddha about the dangers of placing confidence in anyone.
Rāgassa abhiññāya Sutta (AN 5.303) - enhanced translation
Five things to be practiced for the direct knowledge of rāga.
——————oooOooo——————



6. Chakka Nipāta

Bhaddaka Sutta (AN 6.14) - few info·bubbles
Sāriputta
explains what makes the difference between a bhikkhu whose death will
be unauspicious and one whose death will be auspicious.
Anutappiya Sutta (AN 6.15) - few info·bubbles
Sāriputta
explains what makes the difference between a bhikkhu whose death will
be remorseful and one whose death will be remorseless.
Maraṇassati Sutta (AN 6.20) - enhanced translation
This sutta explains in detail how to practice the mindfulness of death.
Sāmaka Sutta (AN 6.21) - few info·bubbles
Prompted
by the intervention of a deva, the Buddha reveals the six ageless ways
by which bhikkhus deteriorate in kusala dhammas.
Aparihāniya Sutta (AN 6.22) - few info·bubbles
Six dhammas connected to non-deterioration. Another set of very useful dhammas for keen practitioners.
Himavanta Sutta (AN 6.24) - enhanced translation
Six qualities undowed with which a meditator would reportedly break into pieces the Himalayas.
Anussatiṭṭhāna Sutta (AN 6.25) - enhanced translation
This sutta defines what are the six subjects of recollection.
Sekha Sutta (AN 6.31) - without translation
The Buddha explains which are the six dhammas leading to the deterioration of a bhikkhu under training.
Nāgita Sutta (AN 6.42) - enhanced translation
While
dwelling in a forest grove, the Buddha speaks in praise of modesty,
contentment, unentanglement, and seclusion in the wilderness.
Dhammika Sutta (AN 6.54) - plain texts
In
this sutta, the word tathāgata is not used to designate the Buddha but
in the common sense, which allows us a better grasp of its meaning.
Nibbedhika Sutta (AN 6.63) - plain texts
This
sutta provides an interesting systematic analysis of Kāma, Vedanā,
Saññā, Āsavā, Kamma and Dukkha. Each of these terms is defined and then
described witht the pattern of the four ariya-saccas.
Anavatthitā Sutta (AN 6.102) - enhanced translation
Six rewards that should act as a motivation for establishing the perception of anicca.
Atammaya Sutta (AN 6.104) - enhanced translation
Six rewards that should act as a motivation for establishing the perception of anatta.
Assāda Sutta (AN 6.112) - enhanced translation
How to eradicate the view of enjoyment, the view of self, and wrong view in general.
Dhammānupassī Sutta (AN 6.118) - word by word
It
is worth having repeated the message given in this sutta: six habits
without abandoning which it is not possible to practice the
satipaṭṭhānas properly. Quite some cleaning may be advisable here.
——————oooOooo——————



7. Sattaka Nipāta

Anusaya Sutta (AN 7.11) - plain texts
Here are listed the seven anusayas.
Anusaya Sutta (AN 7.12) - enhanced translation
On abandoning the seven anusaya (obsessions or latent tendencies).
Saññā Sutta (AN 7.27) - enhanced translation
Seven perceptions that lead to the long-term welfare of the bhikkhus and prevent their decline.
Parihāni Sutta (AN 7.28) - enhanced translation
Seven points on which a bhikkhu in training may decline or not.
Parihāni Sutta (AN 7.29) - enhanced translation
Seven points of behavior on which a lay follower may decline or not.
Vipatti Sutta (AN 7.30) - enhanced translation
Seven points of behavior on which a lay follower may meet his/her failure or success.
Parābhava Sutta (AN 7.31) - enhanced translation
Seven points of behavior on which a lay follower may meet his/her ruin or prosperity.
Saññā Sutta (AN 7.49) - enhanced translation
Seven inner reflections that are well worth pursuing.
Nagaropama Sutta (AN 7.67) - plain texts with Pali Formulae
Here the Buddha uses an enlightening simile to explain how seven
good qualities that should be mastered by the trainee in order to be
successful work together to prevent the troops of Māra (ie. akusala
dhammas) from entering the fortress of the mind.
Satthusāsana Sutta (AN 7.83) - word by word
Here is a very concise sevenfold instruction to discriminate what is the Teaching of the Buddha from what is not.
——————oooOooo——————



8. Aṭṭhaka Nipāta

Nanda Sutta (AN 8.9) {excerpt} - word by word
The Buddha describes how Nanda, though being prey to fierce
sense desire, practices throroughly in accordance to his instructions.
This sutta contains a definition of satisampajañña.
Mahānāma Sutta (AN 8.25) {excerpt} - word by word
Mahānāma asks the Buddha to define what is a lay follower and in what respect a lay follower is expected to be virtuous.
Anuruddhamahāvitakka Sutta (AN 8.30) - few info·bubbles
Seven
wise thoughts which are truly worth understanding and remembering occur
to ven. Anuruddha. The Buddha comes to him to teach him the eighth,
endowed with which he will attain arahantship. The Buddha then explains
in detail the meaning of those thoughts.
Abhisanda Sutta (AN 8.39) - enhanced translation
Here are eight ways in which all serious disciples of the Buddha create much merit for themselves.
Duccaritavipāka Sutta (AN 8.40) - few info·bubbles
This sutta describes the kind of suffering which one undergoes owing to the non observance of the main precepts.
Saṅkhitta Sutta (AN 8.53) - word by word
The Buddha gives here to his former nurse eight criteria to
discriminate whether a given statement belongs to his teaching or not,
which may happen to be handy nowadays.
Dīghajāṇu Sutta (AN 8.54) {excerpt} - plain texts
Among other things, the Buddha defines in this sutta what he means by generosity.
Vimokkha Sutta (AN 8.66) - enhanced translation
An explanation of the eight vimokkhas (liberations).
Parihāna Sutta (AN 8.79) - without translation
The Buddha explains which are the eight dhammas leading to the deterioration of a bhikkhu under training.
——————oooOooo——————



9. Navaka Nipāta

Nāga Sutta (AN 9.40) - plain texts
This sutta, colored with subtle humor, explains how a bhikkhu of
heightened mind is comparable to a solitary elephant, both of whom are
usually called Nāga.
Tapussa Sutta (AN 9.41) {excerpt} - plain texts
Here saññā·vedayita·nirodha, the cessation of saññā and vedanā is presented as a ninth jhāna.
Sikkhādubbalya Sutta (AN 9.63) - word by word
What to do if one is not yet perfect in the five precepts.
Nīvaraṇa Sutta (AN 9.64) - word by word
How to remove the five hindrances.
——————oooOooo——————



10. Dasaka Nipāta

Saṃyojana Sutta (AN 10.13) - plain texts
This very short sutta lists the ten saṃyojanas.
Kasiṇa Sutta (AN 10.25) - word by word
This is the standard description of the practice on the ten kasiṇas.
Girimānanda Sutta (AN 10.60) - enhanced translation
In
order to help Girimānanda recovering from a grave illness, the Buddha
gives a great teaching reviewing ten types of very useful perceptions
that can be developped.
Kathāvatthu Sutta (AN 10.69) {excerpt} - plain texts
The Buddha reminds the bhikkhus what they should not talk about and what they should talk about.
Cunda Sutta (AN 10.176) - some info·bubbles
The buddha explains a deeper meaning of purity, in kāya, vācā and mana, not in rites or rituals and demonstrates that the former underlies the latter, whose inefficiency is made obvious.
——————oooOooo——————



11. Ekādasaka Nipāta

30/03/2555
Mettā Sutta (AN 11.15) - few info·bubbles
Eleven good results that come out of the practice of mettā.
——————oooOooo——————

Bodhi leaf

BSP to fight Uttar Pradesh urban body polls on party symbol after 22 years

By PTI | Updated: Apr 19, 2017, 06.00 PM IST
“There
is a need to work with renewed vigour and missionary zeal through a new
strategy to deal with new challenges before the BSP movement,”
Mayawati said.
LUCKNOW: The BSP today decided to contest the upcoming urban body elections on the party symbol after a gap of more than two decades and stressed on dealing with fresh challenges through a new strategy.

At a meeting of party leaders of Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand convened by party supremo Mayawati,
detailed discussions were held on the issue of upcoming urban body
elections in the state, and it was decided that they will be contested
on the party symbol, said a statement issued here.

The
decision has been taken in view of the growth in people’s support in
urban areas as well, the release said.

“The party will try to give good results with the help of sarv samaj (entire society),” it said quoting the party chief.

The BSP has not fought the urban body polls
on party ticket after 1995 but today’s decision was taken following a
demand to this effect from its leaders who felt it was time to make the
party’s presence felt in the state.

Reviewing the
present political situation, Mayawati directed the leaders to increase
the BSP’s support base among the sarv samaj while facing new challenges,
the release said.

“There is a need to work with renewed
vigour and missionary zeal through a new strategy to deal with new
challenges before the BSP movement,” she said.

“Although
the BSP movement is on a solid footing in the state but ever since the
Assembly poll results which have not been in keeping with our hopes and
preparations, casteist and communal forces are upbeat and are spreading
rumours to demoralise our party workers,” the BSP chief said.


“To divert attention from EVM tampering, they are trying to mislead
the people through false propaganda,” she said, adding the manner in
which the BJP is working with the support of the RSS poses a risk to
democracy.

“If the Constitution and democracy are not kept
alive in true spirit, the doors to power will be closed for SC/STs and
backwards, and they will remain deprived forever,” she said.


http://indianexpress.com/…/babri-demolition-case-25-yrs-la…/

Sukla Sen sukla.sen@gmail.com [indiathinkersnet]
To foil-l
BCC indiathinkersnet@yahoogroups.com
Today at 14:53


[”Finally, the wheels of justice are turning in the Babri Masjid
demolition case,” the IE editorial, at sl. no. II below, rightly
points out. But, after a huge delay.

What, however, of significance here is the observation made by the
Supreme Court in the instant case: “In the present case, crimes which
shake the secular fabric of the Constitution of India have allegedly
been committed almost 25 years ago. The accused persons have not been
brought to book largely because of the conduct of the CBI in not
pursuing the prosecution of the aforesaid alleged offenders in a joint
trial, and because of technical defects which were easily curable, but
which were not cured by the state government”.
That’s perhaps the only silver lining of the dark clouds gathering
over the nation.]

I/II.
http://indianexpress.com/…/babri-demolition-case-25-yrs-la…/

Babri demolition case: 25 yrs later, LK Advani, Murli Manohar Joshi,
Uma Bharti face trial
Criminal conspiracy charges restored, trial moved from Rae Bareli to Lucknow

Written by Utkarsh Anand | New Delhi | Published:April 20, 2017 5:12 am

Uma Bharti on Wednesday (Source: Express Photo by Prem Nath Pandey)

Describing the demolition of Babri Masjid in Ayodhya as “crimes which
shake the secular fabric of the Constitution of India”, the Supreme
Court Wednesday put senior BJP leaders L K Advani, Murli Manohar Joshi
and Union Minister Uma Bharti on a joint trial with ‘kar sevaks’ in
the 1992 case under various charges, including criminal conspiracy to
pull down the disputed structure.

The bench of Justices P C Ghose and Rohinton F Nariman said the
Supreme Court was convinced it must use its power under Article 142 to
do complete justice in the matter and club the trial of Advani and
others with scores of kar sevaks, who are being tried at a special
court in Lucknow, so that a judgment is delivered within two years.

“In the present case, crimes which shake the secular fabric of the
Constitution of India have allegedly been committed almost 25 years
ago. The accused persons have not been brought to book largely because
of the conduct of the CBI in not pursuing the prosecution of the
aforesaid alleged offenders in a joint trial, and because of technical
defects which were easily curable, but which were not cured by the
state government,” the bench said.
While reviving the criminal conspiracy charges against the senior
leaders of the BJP and shifting their trial from Rae Bareli, the court
also ordered restoration of charges against Rajasthan Governor Kalyan
Singh and eight others in connection with the case but exempted Kalyan
Singh from prosecution on account of the constitutional immunity he
enjoys as Governor.

[Video: Ready To Face Any Punishment On Babri Masjid Says Uma Bharti]

“Kalyan Singh, being the Governor of Rajasthan, is entitled to
immunity under Article 361 of the Constitution as long as he remains
Governor of Rajasthan. The Court of Sessions will frame charges and
move against him as soon as he ceases to be Governor,” the bench said
as it allowed a CBI appeal against the dropping of conspiracy charges
against the veteran BJP leaders.

Additional Sessions Judge (Ayodhya Matters) has been directed to frame
additional charges of criminal conspiracy against Advani, Joshi,
Bharti, Vinay Katiyar, Sadhvi Rithambara and Vishnu Hari Dalmia within
four weeks. Accepting submissions by senior lawyer Kapil Sibal and
advocate M R Shamshad, who represented Haji Mehboob, one of the
original petitioners in the Ramjanmabhoomi-Babri title suit case, the
court also directed the sessions judge to conduct their trial on a
day-to-day basis from the current stage and finish it in two years
while allowing accused to recall crucial witnesses wherever required.
“There shall be no de novo (fresh) trial. There shall be no transfer
of the judge conducting the trial until the entire trial concludes.
The case shall not be adjourned on any ground except when the Sessions
Court finds it impossible to carry on the trial for that particular
date. In such an event, on grant of adjournment to the next day or a
closely proximate date, reasons for the same shall be recorded in
writing,” the bench held. Besides, the top court gave liberty to all
the parties, including the prosecution, complainants and witnesses, to
approach it directly if its “directions not being carried out, both in
letter and in spirit”.

Addition of conspiracy charges do not enhance the maximum punishment
of five years in jail, as prescribed under the alleged offences that
mainly related to promotion of enmity between different groups on the
ground of religion. But shifting of trial to a sessions judge take
away one right of appeal from the accused since the leaders were being
tried by a magisterial court in Rae Bareli and, therefore, they could
move the sessions court against the magistrate’s order at first
instance. Their appeal would now lie before the High Court.
There are two main FIRs registered in connection with the demolition —
one each in Lucknow and Rae Bareli. In Lucknow, the accused, chiefly
the kar sevaks, face charges of demolition whereas those in Rae
Bareli, including Advani and others, were being tried for allegedly
instigating the crowd through speeches.

Seeking a joint trial, the CBI had in October 1993 filed a
consolidated chargesheet against both set of accused at Lucknow but
the cases could not be clubbed for want of sanction from the High
Court before setting up a special court to try both FIRs as one case.
In 2001, the Allahabad High Court affirmed the decision that the
government’s notification was invalid due to lack of approval from the
High Court.

Since no new notification was issued by the state government after
this judgment, the Lucknow court dropped proceedings against 21
persons, which included Advani and Kalyan Singh. While Advani and
seven others continued to face trial at Rae Bareli where there was a
separate FIR against them for inciting the mob from a dais near the
site of the incident on December 6, 1992, 13 others, including Kalyan
Singh, were let off completely since no charges were pressed
separately against them at Rae Bareli after their exoneration in
Lucknow.

The CBI appealed against the HC order, and sought trial of all 21
accused under criminal conspiracy charges, apart from other offences.
Allowing the plea for a joint trial, the bench said that the evidence
for all these offences is almost the same and these offences,
therefore, cannot be separated from each other.

It maintained that the CBI’s failure to challenge the 2001 HC order on
invalidation of the notification on the joint trial “has completely
derailed the joint trial envisaged and has resulted in a fractured
prosecution going on in two places simultaneously based on a joint
chargesheet filed by the CBI itself”. The court turned down arguments
by senior advocate K K Venugopal, who appeared for Advani and Joshi,
that the court could not exercise its authority under Article 142 to
take away rights of a litigant when there are substantial provisions
on the particular subject.

“Article 142(1) of the Constitution of India had no counterpart in the
Government of India Act, 1935 and to the best of our knowledge, does
not have any counterpart in any other Constitution the world over. The
Latin maxim fiat justitia ruat cælum is what first comes to mind on a
reading of Article 142 — Let justice be done though the heavens fall,”
the bench said.

II.
http://indianexpress.com/…/babri-masjid-demolition-case-ay…/

Wheel of justice

Supreme Court order in the Babri demolition case holds out hope of
closure. Uma Bharti and Kalyan Singh must step down

By: Editorials | Updated: April 20, 2017 7:05 am

The apex court has ordered that the two separate trials related to the
demolition be bunched together and heard in the same court in Lucknow.

Finally, the wheels of justice are turning in the Babri Masjid
demolition case. The possibility of due process leading to justice and
closure in one of the most seminal cases in India’s political history
seems within reach now, 25 years after the 16th century mosque at
Ayodhya was demolished by Sangh Parivar activists in the wake of the
rath yatra of the-then BJP chief L.K. Advani, shaming a nation and
setting powerful new political dynamics in motion. The Supreme Court’s
order on Wednesday sets back on track the judicial process and lays
down conditions to ensure that the trial is not delayed or compromised
further.

READ | A case each in Rae Bareli and Lucknow, now a joint trial

The apex court has ordered that the two separate trials related to the
demolition be bunched together and heard in the same court in Lucknow.
Splitting the accused into two groups and holding the trial in
different courts in different districts has been an important factor
in slowing down the judicial process. Significantly, the apex court
has restored the CBI’s charge of criminal conspiracy against the
accused facing trial in a Rae Bareli court on the relatively mild
charge of addressing an unlawful assembly.

This group, which includes Advani, senior BJP leader Murli Manohar
Joshi and Union Minister for Water Resources Uma Bharti, will now be
tried for conspiring to demolish the mosque. Kalyan Singh, Uttar
Pradesh chief minister at the time of the demolition, and now the
governor of Rajasthan, has been exempted on the ground of
constitutional immunity. Both Bharti and Singh, however, must
immediately step down in order to uphold the principle of propriety
and the dignity of the office they hold.

READ | Consensus in BJP core: Best if they stand trial, get acquitted

The two-judge bench has ordered daily hearings, sought a verdict in
two years, indicated that the trial judge should not be transferred
and ruled against the demand for a retrial. These directives should
have come earlier, but even if belatedly, they have revived hopes that
the perpetrators, and conspirators, of the heinous assault on the rule
of law and the edifice of secular India, will finally be punished.
Over 2,000 persons were reportedly killed in the nation-wide riots
that followed the demolition.

READ | ‘Let law take its course’: Congress guarded in its response to SC order
The events of December 6, 1992 in Ayodhya were the culmination of the
abdications of several institutions. The Supreme Court has initiated a
welcome process that carries within it a belated opportunity to
rectify this shameful record. When it begins, the trial will be
monitored closely, especially since the BJP is in government in
Lucknow and at the Centre. The quality of prosecution and the
cooperation of state agencies will be key to the smooth conduct of the
trial. At stake is not merely the fate of an important case, but the
ability, and willingness, of the constitutional republic to stay true
to its foundational principles.


Peace Is Doable

comments (0)