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09/08/10
08 09 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY JATAKA TALES PART V-LESSON – 24-We are shaped by our thoughts; we become what we think. When the mind is pure, joy follows like a shadow that never leaves.– Buddha-EDUCATE (BUDDHA)! MEDITATE (DHAMMA)! ORGANISE (SANGHA)!-WISDOM IS POWER-Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-The 5 Abilities are Caused by Conditions!-The Experience of Change uproots Egoism!-GOOD GOVERNANCE-C.M. decides to provide various additional facilities to farmers affected by land acquisition for their rehabilitation-U.P.’s new land acquisition policy most progressive in country-Acquisition affected farmers to get better facilities than Haryana
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08 09 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY JATAKA TALES PART V

LESSON – 24
We are shaped by our thoughts; we become what we think. When the mind is pure, joy follows like a shadow that never leaves.
– Buddha

EDUCATE (BUDDHA)!               MEDITATE (DHAMMA)! ORGANISE (SANGHA)!

WISDOM  IS POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

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JATAKA TALES- PART V

Grandma Tales & Jataka Tales telugu Movie

Bas relief of the Jataka Tales

Jataka Tales chronicled the Bodhisatta’s journey from life to life to perfect the 10 Paramis (10 Great Virtues) before Buddhahood.

 

THE KING’S WHITE ELEPHANT

[69]

O
NCE upon a time a number of carpenters lived on a river bank near a large forest. Every day the carpenters went in boats to the forest to cut down the trees and make them into lumber.

One day while they were at work an Elephant came limping on three feet to them. He held up one foot and the carpenters saw that it was swollen and sore. Then the Elephant lay down and the men saw that there was a great splinter in the sore foot. They pulled it out and washed the sore carefully so that in a short time it would be well again.

[Illustration]He held up one foot and the carpenters saw that it was swollen and sore.

Thankful for the cure, the Elephant thought: “These carpenters have done so much for me, I must be useful to them.”

So after that the Elephant used to pull up trees for the carpenters. Sometimes when the trees were chopped down he would roll the logs down to the river. [70] Other times he brought their tools for them. And the carpenters used to feed him well morning, noon and night.

Now this Elephant had a son who was white all over—a beautiful, strong young one. Said the old Elephant to himself, “I will take my son to the place in the forest where I go to work each day so that he may learn to help the carpenters, for I am no longer young and strong.”

[71] So the old Elephant told his son how the carpenters had taken good care of him when he was badly hurt and took him to them. The white Elephant did [72] as his father told him to do and helped the carpenters and they fed him well.

[Illustration]The Elephant used to pull up trees for the carpenters.

When the work was done at night the young Elephant went to play in the river. The carpenters’ children played with him, in the water and on the bank. He liked to pick them up in his trunk and set them on the high branches of the trees and then let them climb down on his back.

[73] One day the king came down the river and saw this beautiful white Elephant working for the carpenters. The king at once wanted the Elephant for his own and paid the carpenters a great price for him. Then with a last look at his playmates, the children, the beautiful white Elephant went on with the king.

[Illustration]With a last look at his playpmates the beautiful white Elephant went on with the king.

The king was proud of his new Elephant and took the best care of him as long as he lived.


 

Sutta Pitaka: The Jātaka Tales

72

Buddhist Scriptures (4th Century B.C.)

The Sutta Pitaka is the second part of the three-part Tripitaka, or (Three baskets [of texts]), the primary canon of Buddhism.The Sutta Pitaka contains more than 10,000 suttas delivered by the Buddha around the time of his 45 year teaching career. It also contains many additional suttas from members of the sangha. (sangha are groups of Buddhist monks)

There are five nikayas (collections) in the Sutta Pitaka. Looking at the nikayas you’ll notice Khuddaka Nikaya, which is “the division of short books”. This consists of 15 books (eighteen in the Burmese edition) with many Buddhist stories and verses inside. Book 10 of the Khuddaka Nikaya is the Jataka.

The Jātaka is a collection of 547 stories, from the Sutta Pitaka division of the Tripitaka. Like the rest of the Tripitaka, the Jataka is in Pali, a north Indian dialect related to Sanskrit, which appears to be the literary language of early Buddhism.

In ancient times the Pali Canon was written on thin slices of wood. The 'pages' are kept on top of each other by two thin sticks, which go through little holes in the scripture. The scripture is wrapped in cloth and stored inside the box Click thumbnIn ancient times the Pali Canon was written on thin slices of wood. The ‘pages’ are kept on top of each other by two thin sticks, which go through little holes in the scripture. The scripture is wrapped in cloth and stored inside the box Click thumbn

The Jataka

Jataka means “the story of a birth,” and the Jatakas are stories, in a mixture of prose and verse, of the 550 lives through which Gautama Buddha is said to have passed before his birth as Prince Siddhartha of the Sakya clan in northern India (563 B.C.)

In his earlier births Gautama is said to have been a Pali Bodhisatta (a being destined to acheive enlightenment), who in each life, born as an animal, person, or god, moves a step closer to perfect wisdom. The perfect wisdom being the attainment of Buddha (an “Enlightened Being”).

As the tale begins, you find the Buddha in conversation with his Buddhist monks or lay followers. A question from one of them will bring to the teacher’s mind a story of the past (that is, of one of his past lives as a Bodhisattva), which he then tells to illustrate a point of conduct. This is the main narrative, with its most dramatic moments highlighted by one or more stanza (gatha) spoken by a character or characters within it. At the end, the Buddha comments on his role as the Bodhisattva hero of the tale. The rebirth theme, together with the specifically Buddhist ideals of conduct expounded, mark the story as a Jataka.

  • Tales From The Jtaka - The Cheating Merchant
    Scene for The Life of the Buddha Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, The Bodhisatta was born into a merchant’s family and on name-day was named “Wise.” When he grew up he entered into.

  • Tales From The Jātaka - The Cheating Merchant

    61
  • Scene for The Life of the Buddha

  • Jataka Tale - The Cheating Merchant

    Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, The Bodhisatta was born into a merchant’s family and on name-day was named “Wise.” When he grew up he entered into partnership with another merchant named “Wisest,” and traded with him. So, these two took five hundred wagons of merchandise from Benares to the country-districts, where they unloaded their wares, returning afterwards with the profits to the city.

    When it came time to divide their proceeds, Wisest said, “I must have a double share.” “Why so?” asked Wise. “Because while you are Wise, I am Wisest; and Wise ought to have only one share to Wisest’s two. “But we both had an equal interest in the stock-in-trade and in the oxens and wagons. Why should you have two shares?” “Because I am Wisest.” And so they talked away till they fell to quarrelling.



  • “Ah!” thought Wisest, “I have a plan.” He then bade his father to hide in a hollow tree, enjoining the old man to say, when the two came, “Wisest should have a double portion.” This arranged, he went to the Bodhisatta and proposed to him to refer the claim for a double share to the competent decision of the Tree-Sprite. Then he made his appeal in these words: “Lord Tree-Sprite, decide our cause!” Hereupon the father, who was hiding in the tree, in a changed voice asked them to state the case.

    The cheat addressed the tree as follows: “Lord, here stands Wise, and here stand I Wisest. We have been partners in trade. Declare what share each should receive.”

    “Wise should receive one share, and Wisest two” was the response.

    Hearing this decision, the Bodhisatta resolved to find out whether it was indeed a Tree-Sprite or not. So he filled the hollow trunk with straw and set it on fire. Wisest’s father was half roasted by the rising flames and clambered up by clutching hold of a bough. Then falling to the ground he uttered this stanza:

    Wise rightly, Wisest wrongly got his name; 
    Through Wisest, I’m nigh roasted in the flame.

    Then the two merchants made an equal division and each took half; and at their death passed away to fare according to their deserts.


    “Thus you see,” said the Master, “that your partner was as great a cheat in past times as now.” Having ended his story, he identified the Birth by saying,”The cheating merchant of today was the cheating merchant in the story, and I the honest merchant named Wise.”


  • Addendum

    Translated by E.B. Cowell

    Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares — Many Jātaka tales begin this way, though there is no known king named Brahmadatta
    Because Benares is the place where Gautama Buddha preached his first sermon (the “Deer-Park Sermon”) and as it is situated on the sacred river Ganges, it is the great holy city of the Hindus

    Bodhisatta — “A being on the path to enlightenment.” or a buddha-to-be; more commonly known by the Sanskrit equivalent Bodhisattva. In the Jātaka the term always connotes Gautama Buddha in one of his previous incarnations.

    Tree Sprite — One of the many demigods whose worship was absorbed into early Buddhism from popular cults of tree worship (male and female tree deities are abundantly represented in early Buddhist art).



  •  Tathagata - one who has thus gone (Tath-gata) and one who has thus come (Tath-gata) Buddha refers to himself as thus in the writings of the Pali CanonTathagata - one who has thus gone (Tath-gata) and one who has thus come (Tath-gata) Buddha refers to himself as thus in the writings of the Pali Canon

  • Buddhist Beliefs

    Buddhist beliefs are evidenced in the stories at moments like that of the hare’s self sacrifice. In the Buddhist doctrine utterly selfless acts and attitudes are a crucial component of the path to enlightenment and thus to liberation from the cycle of birth and death.The basic decider of one’s liberation is karma. Good deeds, like that of the hare’s self sacrifice, will bring one good fortune. While bad deeds, such as the jackal’s theft, will return later as bad fortune. Even if the act is severely detrimental to the actor it will bring positive karma if it’s done for the benefit others.


  • Tortoise from Kaccapavadana Tortoise from Kaccapavadana


  • As Buddhism spread, the jatakas spread with it to become a part of literature, art, and culture of Sri Lanka, Burma, Tibet, China, Japan, and other countries in East and Southeast Asia.

    The arrangement of the Jataka as we have it today may have been made as late as the fourth century A.D. based on the text preserved by Sri Lankan Buddhist monks. Many Jatakas are also sculpted on the north Indian relic shrines (stupa) of the Buddha at Bharhut and Sanchi (Second century B.C. to A.D. first century) the earliest surviving Buddhist monuments in India, thus confirming the antiquity and importance of these tales in tradition.


  • Northern Sanchi Gateway (stupa)Northern Sanchi Gateway (stupa)


  • The Chinese Diamond Sutra, the oldest known dated printed book in the world, printed in the 9th year of Xiantong Era of the Tang Dynasty (Buddhist)The Chinese Diamond Sutra, the oldest known dated printed book in the world, printed in the 9th year of Xiantong Era of the Tang Dynasty (Buddhist)


  •  King Visvantara (Jataka tales)
  • Jataka Tales,Vesak 2009,Sri Lanka                  - Greca M DurantJataka Tales,Vesak 2009,Sri Lanka - Greca M DuranBuddha,Vesak 2009,Sri Lanka - Greca M DurantBuddha,Vesak 2009,Sri Lanka 
    Theravada Buddhism Poya Full Moon Night, Greca M Durant
  • Theravada Buddhism Poya Full Moon Night 
  • The 5 Abilities are Caused by Conditions!

    The origin of the ability of Faith is the desire to make a decision!
    The origin of the ability of Energy is the longing for exertion!
    The origin of the ability of Awareness is the wanting to establish!
    The origin of the ability of Concentration is yearning for non-distraction!
    The origin of the ability of Understanding is the wish to see!

    On The Five Mental Abilities (indriya) see:
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Final_Abilities.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/II/Origin_of_Abilities.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Finding_the_Abilities.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Fruits_of_the_Abilities.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Analysis_of_the_Abilities.htm

    1: Faith (saddhā): The Initiating Key!
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/The_Buddha_on_Faith.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Going_Forth_Faith.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Outstanding_Faith.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Unwavering_Faith.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Analysis_of_Faith.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Power_of_Faith.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Highest_Faith.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Leaping_Faith.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Fruitful_Faith.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Mutual_Faith.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Dual_Faith.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Fine_Faith.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Rich_Faith.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Lay_Faith.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Faith_Summary.htm

    2: Energy (viriya): The Motor & Fuel! 
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/The_Definition_of_Energy.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/The_Arising_of_Energy.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/The_Ability_of_Energy.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/The_Origin_of_Energy.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/Enthusiastic_is_Energy.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Power_of_Energy.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Ballanced_Energy.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Energetic_Effort.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/The_Chief_Hero.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Avoiding_Effort.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Feeding_Energy.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Energy_Viriya.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Dual_Energy.htm

    3: Awareness (sati): The Light to See with!
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Four_Foundations_of_Awareness.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Clear_and_Aware_Comprehension.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/II/Careful_and_Rational_Attention.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/The_Awareness_Ability.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/What_is_Right_Awareness.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Awareness_Analysis.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Feeding_Awareness.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/One_and_only_Way.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Noble_Awareness.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/Clear_Comprehension.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Awareness_Sati.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/Causes_of_sati.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/Sati_Studies.htm

    4: Concentration (samādhi): The Focus to Drill & Catch with! 
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/Requisites_for_Jhāna_Absorption.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/The_Concentration_Ability.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/What_is_Right_Concentration.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Concentration_Samadhi.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Feeding_Concentration.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/Samma-Samadhi.htm

    5: Understanding (pañña): The Resultant Aloof State!
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/The_Understanding_Ability.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Outstanding_Understanding.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Revealing_Understanding.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/Understanding_is_the_Chief.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Supreme_Understanding.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Right_Understanding.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/library/DPPN/wtb/n_r/pannaa.htm

    The Experience of Change uproots Egoism!

    At Savatthi the blessed Buddha said:
    Bhikkhus, when the perception of impermanence is developed & cultivated,
     
    then it eliminates all sense desire, it eliminates all lust for becoming into 
    something else, it also eliminates all ignorance, and finally it uproots even 
    this deep self-deception that “I Am”…
    Just as, bhikkhus, in the autumn, when the sky is ultra clear and cloudless, 
    then the rising sun dispels all darkness from all the space where it shines,
    so too when the perception of impermanence is developed and cultivated, 
    then it eliminates all sense desire, it eliminates lust for renewed becoming 
    into something else, and it also evaporates and eliminates all ignorance… 
    Finally it even uproots this core conceit that “I Am”!
    And how, bhikkhus, is perception of impermanence developed & cultivated 
    so that it eliminates all sense desire, lust for becoming, ignorance & egoism?
    Such is form, such is the arising of form, such is the ceasing of form..
    Such is feeling, such is the arising of feeling, such is the ceasing of feeling..
    Such is perception, such is the arising of perception, such is its cessation..
    Such is construction, such is the arising of construction, & such its ceasing.
    Such is consciousness, such is the arising of consciousness, & such its ceasing.
    That is how the perception of impermanence is developed and cultivated so 
    that it eliminates all sense desire, all lust for becoming something else, 
    all ignorance, and so that it finally uproots this conceit that “I Am”…

    Causes cause emergence when present, while ceasing when they are absent: 
    Body is caused by food, ignorance, form lust, & intention resulting in form.
    Feeling arises from contact, ignorance, desire for feeling, & prior intention.
    Perception is caused by contact, ignorance, lust for perception, and kamma.
     
    Mental Construction arises caused by contact, past ignorance, desire for 
    mental construction, and prior intention = kama resulting in construction. 
    The causes of consciousness are mentality-&-materiality, prior ignorance,
    desire for being conscious, and kammic intention resulting in consciousness.
    Ignorance is 
    Not Knowing: Suffering, Craving as the cause of Suffering, 
    No Craving as the End of Suffering, and the Noble Way to end Suffering…

    Whether going along, above, across or back, wherever he goes in this world
    let him carefully scrutinize the arising & ceasing of all constructed things…
    Itivuttaka 120

    More on the Universal Fact of Impermanence:
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/II/Transient_formations.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/Impermanence_Anicca.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/II/The_Internal_Transience.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/II/The_External_Transience.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/IV/Experiencing_Impermanence.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/IV/Contemplating_Impermanence.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/IV/Contemplating_Impermanence_2.htm
    http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/IV/Experiencing_Universal_Transience.htm

    Source: 
    The Grouped Sayings by the Buddha.
     
    Samyutta 
    Nikāya 22:102 III 155-7
    http://www.pariyatti.com/book.cgi?prod_id=948507
    http://www.accesstoinsight.org/canon/samyutta/index.html

    Have a nice & noble day!

    Bhikkhu Samāhita _/\_ ]
    http://what-buddha-said.net/ 

  • GOOD GOVERNANCE

  • Press Information Bureau

    (C.M. Information Campus)

    Information & Public Relations Department, U.P.

    C.M. decides to provide various additional facilities to farmers affected by land acquisition for their rehabilitation

    U.P.

    s new land acquisition policy most progressive in country

    Acquisition affected farmers to get better facilities than Haryana

    Lucknow: 03 September 2010

    Holding all the Central Governments responsible for the poor

    condition of farmers and the problem of naxalism, the Uttar Pradesh Chief

    Minister, Ms. Mayawati said that owing to various flaws in the Land

    Acquisition Act, the farmers of the country were forced to take to the roads

    to get their problems solved. She said that her government and party were

    totally against the forceful acquisition of farmers

    land.

    The Cabinet Secretary Mr. Shashank Shekhar Singh informed the

    media persons about the decisions of the Chief Minister Ms. Mayawati at a

    press conference held at the Lal Bahadur Shastri Bhawan Media Centre

    here today. He said that the Chief Minister, while considering the issues

    like land acquisition and rehabilitation of farmers seriously, decided to

    formulate a new system of rehabilitation of farmers for the future. Under it,

    the affected farmers would be provided various facilities at the time of

    acquisition of their land.

    The Chief Minister decided that an amount of Rs. 20,000 per acre per

    annum would be provided as annuity for a length of 33 years to the

    affected farmer whose land had been acquired. It would be paid in addition

    to the compensation. It would be increased by Rs. 600 every year and

    would be payable in every July. He said that if a farmer did not want to

    take the annuity, then he would be paid one time amount of Rs. 2,40,000

    per hectare as rehabilitation subsidy. If a company acquired the land, then

    the farmer would have the option to hold 25 per cent share of the land

    acquired by the company.

    Regarding the land development projects, the Chief Minister also

    decided that the original land owners would be allotted 7 per cent of the

    acquired land for residential purposes. The minimum area of this allotted

    plot would be 120 sq. m. and the maximum limit would be decided by the

    related authority. If a housing scheme was being implemented at the land

    acquired by the authority, 17.5 per cent reservation would be applicable for

    the affected farmers.

    The Chief Minister said that the Congress party praised Haryana in

    this regard, but the truth is that the Uttar Pradesh Government had made

    arrangements to provide better facilities to the farmers of the State than

    Haryana. In Haryana, the farmers were being provided an annuity of Rs.

    15000 per acre per year for a length of 33 years in addition to the

    compensation, while in UP the farmers were being provided an annuity of

    Rs. 20,000 per acre per year for a period of 33 years. In Haryana, it was

    being increased by Rs. 500 per year while in UP the same was being hiked

    by Rs. 600 per year. There is no provision of one time payment of annuity

    in Haryana, while in UP a provision of one time payment of Rs. 2.40 lakh

    per acre had been made.

    The Chief Minister said that there was no provision of providing

    company

    s shares in case of land acquisition for the companies, while the

    farmer can opt to have 25 per cent of the one time amount as share.

    Besides, under the land for development schemes, the farmers would be

    provided 7 per cent of the acquired land for housing projects. There is no

    such arrangement in Haryana. Thus, the new land acquisition policy of the

    State Government had been formulated keeping in view the interests of the

    farmers and it was the most progressive policy of the country.

    Regarding the condition of the farmers getting landless because of

    the acquisition of land by the State Government, the Chief Minister said

    that it had issued orders on 17 August 2010 to provide one time labour

    charges of Rs. 1.85 lakhs to every farmer family for 5 years equivalent to

    the daily charges of agriculture labour. The State Government clearly

    decided that if the farmers of Aligarh district (Tappal) did not want

    township then the same would not be set up there. He said that as far as

    the land related problem of the farmers of Aligarh and Agra was concerned,

    the State Government had solved them. The farmers had been given

    adequate compensation and they had also accepted it, but opposition

    parties were trying to vitiate the law and order there.

    The Chief Minister always said that all the Central Governments were

    responsible for the poor plight of the farmers as they worked in the

    interests of the industrialists and exploited forest land to benefit them. On

    the other hand, the Chief Minister supported farmers

    demand of amending

    Land Acquisition Act. Moreover, she also supported their programme to

    gherao of the Parliament from outside to amend this Act.

    The CM said that the farmers had been long demanding to amend the

    Land Acquisition Act 1894, but the anti-farmer and pro-industrialist Central

    Government did not hear the demands of the farmers and kept quiet for 6

    decades almost.

    The Chief Minister said that her Government always protected the

    interests of the farmers and made all possible efforts to resolve the

    problem of the farmers. She is of the opinion that without the prosperity of

    the farmers the country could not forge ahead on the path of development.

    The efforts were being made to solve the land acquisition related problems

    of the farmers and also for their rehabilitation and the new policy

    announced today by the CM would benefit the farmers.

    The Principal Secretary Information Mr. Vijay Shankar Pandey was

    also present on the occasion.

    ********

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