Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University and related NEWS through 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
in
 105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā
Categories:

Archives:
Meta:
September 2010
M T W T F S S
« Aug   Oct »
 12345
6789101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
27282930  
09/21/10
LESSON 36-ARHAT -21-09 2010-FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY -· All things appear and disappear because of the concurrence of causes and conditions. Nothing ever exists entirely alone; everything is in relation to everything else. – Buddha- EDUCATE (BUDDHA)! MEDITATE (DHAMMA)! ORGANISE (SANGHA)!-WISDOM IS POWER-Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-GOOD GOVERNANCE-Impending decision on Sri Ram Janmbhoomi- Babari Masjid case: Maintain law and order at all costs CM tells officers-My Government will not compromise on law and order—Mayawati-CM appeals people to maintain peace and beware of mischievous elements-Irrigation Minister Mr. Naseemuddin Siddiqui conducts aerial survey and spot inspection of flood-affected districts on directives of Hon’ble C.M.-Rs. 20 crore additional amount immediately provided to flood-affected districts on directives of Hon’ble C.M.-Conduct relief works in flood-affected areas of western U.P. on war-footing— C.M.-Rs. 65 crore released for flood-affected districts-C.M. directs officers to maintain constant vigil on dams, barrages and embankments
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 7:29 am

 

LESSON  36-ARHAT -21-09 2010-FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY 

·         All things appear and disappear because of the concurrence of causes and conditions. Nothing ever exists entirely alone; everything is in relation to everything else. – Buddha

 EDUCATE (BUDDHA)!                     MEDITATE (DHAMMA)!       ORGANISE (SANGHA)!

WISDOM      IS    POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

COMPUTER IS AN ENTERTAINMENT INSTRUMENT!

INTERNET!

IS

ENTERTAINMENT NET!

TO BE MOST APPROPRIATE!

Using such an instrument

The Free e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS 

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

 Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

                                             Course Programs:

ARHAT

AWAKENING THE BUDDHA IN US

http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/ay/arahat.htm

ariya-puggala. asekha, Suddhodana, Khemā, Mahā Arittha,  Visuddhimagga, Milindapañha, Yasa, Bimbisāra, Suddhodana, Mahāvamsa, Mahā Arittha, Mahā Arittha, Kathavatthu, Milinda, Subha Sutra, Nagasena, Suddhāvāsā,  anāgāmī,Mahapajapati Gotami,Therīgāthā,Somā,Theragāthā, Mahamangala Sutta, Sutta Nipata, Sutta Nipata, Itivuttaka, Theravadins, Sabbatthivadins, Mahasanghikas, Andhakas

Arahat, Arahant

·         The word is derived from the root arh, to deserve, to be worthy, to be fit, and is used to denote a person who has achieved the goal of religious life (in Theravada Buddhism). See ariya-puggala.

In its usage in early Buddhism the term denotes a person who had gained insight into the true nature of things (yathābhūtañana). In the Buddhist movement the Buddha was the first arahant. He was regarded as an arahant, along with other arahants, without any distinction. Thus, after the conversion of the group of five monks (pañcavaggiya), the first converts to the teachings of Gotama, it is stated that there were six arahants in the world at the time (Vin.I.14), the Buddha being reckoned one of them. At the outset, once an adherent realised the true nature of things, i.e., that whatever has arisen (samudaya-dhamma) naturally has a ceasing-to-be (nirodhā-dhamma), he was called an arahant, and with this realisation one is said to have put an end to repeated existence. The Buddha is said to be equal to an arahant in point of attainment, the only distinction being that the Buddha was the pioneer on the path to that attainment, while arahants are those who attain the same state having followed the path trodden by the Buddha.

The arahants are described as buddhānubuddhā, i.e., those who have attained awaken-ness  after the Fully Awakened One (Thag. p.111). This is brought out very clearly by a simile in the Nidāna Samyutta (S.II.105-6). A man going about in the forest sees an old road used by the people of yore and, going along it, he sees the remains of an old kingdom. He comes back to the town and tells the people that in such and such a forest he had seen the ruins of a magnificent city, and the people, too, following the road-marks indicated by the man come to the ruined city and see it for themselves. Even so the Buddha was the pioneer on the Noble Eightfold Path (ariya-aţţhańgika-magga) and having followed this path he reached the city of Nibbāna. Later, coming amidst the people he revealed this path to them, and following this path they, too, attained the goal of Nibbāna. In this respect the Buddha as well as his disciples follow the same path and reach the same goal, and the distinction between the Buddha and the disciples who become arahants is not with regard to the attainment, but with regard to the fact that the Buddha rediscovered the age-old path (purānam añjasam) to the city of Nibbāna, while the disciples come to the same city having followed the path discovered by the Buddha. The Buddha is, therefore, called the revealer of the path (maggassa akkhātā). He is the teacher (satthā) who teaches the disciples to attain the same ideal as attained by him.

But, as time passed, the Buddha-concept developed and special attributes were assigned to the Buddha. A Buddha possesses the six fold super-knowledge (chalabhiññā); he has matured the thirty-seven limbs of awaken-ness (bodhipakkhika dhamma); in him compassion (karunā) and insight (paññā) develop to their fullest; all the major and minor characteristics of a great man (mahāpurisa) appear on his body; he is possessed of the ten powers (dasa bala) and the four confidences (catu vesārajja); and he has had to practise the ten perfections (pāramitā) during a long period of time in the past.

When speaking of arahants these attributes are never mentioned together, though a particular arahant may have one, two or more of the attributes discussed in connection with the Buddha (S.II.217, 222). In the Nidāna Samyutta (S.II.120-6) a group of bhikkhus who proclaimed their attainment of arahantship, when questioned by their colleagues about it, denied that they had developed the five kinds of super-knowledge—namely, psychic power (iddhi-vidhā), divine ear (dibba-sota), knowledge of others’ minds (paracitta-vijānana), power to recall to mind past births (pubbenivāsānussati) and knowledge regarding other peoples’ rebirths (cutū-papatti)—and declared that they had attained arahantship by developing wisdom (paññā-vimutti).

An attempt is made in the Nikāyas as well as in later works to define the content of the attainment of arahantship. The commonest and one of the oldest definitions of an arahant is that he has in him the threefold knowledge (tisso vijjā), namely, knowledge of his own previous births, knowledge of the rebirths of others and knowledge regarding the utter cessation of mental intoxicants (āsavakkhayañāna). Most of the poems in the Thera-, Theri-gāthās end with the statement “The threefold knowledge have I attained and I have done the bidding of the Buddha” (tisso vijjā anuppattā katam buddhassa sāsanam : e.g., Thag. p. 9). Other definitions of arahantship are: “Arahants are those in whom the mental intoxicants (āsava) are utterly waned” (khīnāsavā arahanto: S.I.13); one becomes an arahant by the utter waning of lust, hatred and ignorance (S.IV.252); arahants are those who have cut off completely the ten fetters (samyojana) that bind a man to samsāra (Vin. I, 183); an arahant is one in whom seven things, namely, belief in a soul (sakkāya-ditthi), sceptical doubt (vicikicchā), belief in vows and ceremonies (silabbataparamasa), greed, hatred, ignorance and pride are not found (A.IV.145) ; he is one who has crossed the sea of samsāra (pāragū). The word arahant is defined in a fanciful way in some places. For instance in the Majjhima Nikāya (I.280) it is said that an arahant is so called because all sinful evil things are remote (āraka) from him. The Vimanavatthu Atthakatha (105-6) defines the term in the following words: “An arahant is so called because he is remote (ārake) from sinful things; because he has destroyed the spokes (ara) of the wheel of samsāra ; because he deserves to receive the requisites: food, clothing, etc. (paccayānam arahattā), and because he does not sin even in secret (rahābhāva).

The attainment of arahantship is expressed in several formulas of which the commonest one says ‘destroyed is rebirth, lived is the higher life, done is what had to be done, after this present life there is no beyond’ (Vin.I.14, 35, 183; D.I.84). The declaration itself is called “the declaration of knowledge” (aññā byākarana: M.III.29). The Buddha has indicated a method of verifying the truth of a disciple’s statement when he declares that he has attained arahantship. A few questions have to be posed to him and if he answers them correctly then only should he be taken at his word. The first question is with regard to the four conventions (cattāro vohārā). A true arahant does not feel attracted to or repelled, by things seen (dittha), heard (suta), sensed (muta), or cognised (viññāta) and he is independent, not infatuated, and dwells with an open mind, and thus his mind is well freed with regard to the four conventions. The next question is connected with the five aggregates of grasping (upādānakkhandha). The true arahant understands their nature as dependently originated, and he is detached from them, and all the latent biases that arise through attachment to them are destroyed in him. The third question is regarding the six elements (dhātu). A true arahant has no notions of ‘I’ or ‘mine’ with regard to these elements and all biases that crop up through attachment to them are completely eradicated in him. The fourth question is connected with the internal and external sense spheres (ajjhattika, bāhira-āyatana). The mind of a true arahant is free from attachment, desire that is born of these sense spheres, the consciousness born thereof and the things that are known through the medium of this consciousness. The fifth question relates to the vision and insight through which all latent biases such as and ‘mine’ are completely cut off. A true arahant should be able to reveal how he attained supreme knowledge that is that everything has an origin, a cause to its origination, a cessation and a way that leads to its cessation, through which his mind becomes free from thirst for sense pleasure, becoming and ignorance (M.III.29-37).

The discipline of a Buddhist monk is aimed at the attainment of arahantship. There are four distinct stages of attainment as one pursues the discipline from the beginning, namely, the states of the stream-entrant (sotāpanna), the once-returner (sakadāgāmī), the non-returner (anāgāmī) and the arahant. A disciple by attaining the state of a stream-entrant does away completely with the mental intoxicant (āsava) of false views (ditthi) and the intoxicants of lust (kāma), becoming (bhava) and ignorance (avijjā) which produce birth in low states (apāya). By attaining the state of a once-returner he does away with mental intoxicants connected with gross (olārika) sense pleasures and some more cankers of becoming and ignorance. By attaining the state of a non-returner a disciple completely puts an end to all mental intoxicants connected with sense pleasures and also further alleviates the cankers of becoming and ignorance. By becoming an arahant a disciple completely puts an end to all mental intoxicants connected with becoming and ignorance (Ps.I.94).

In the Mahālī Sutta (D.6) a clearer and more precise description of the four attainments is given. According to it one becomes a stream-entrant by overcoming three fetters (samyojana), namely, belief in an enduring entity (sakkāyaditthi), doubt regarding the Buddha; the Dhamma and the Sangha, (vicikicchā) and belief in the efficacy of mere rule and ritual (silabbataparamasa). One becomes a once-returner by diminishing lust, hatred and illusion (raga-dosa-moha) in addition to overcoming the three earlier fetters, and such a being returns to this world once only and puts an end to the process of birth and death (samsāra). One becomes a non-returner by overcoming the first five of the ten fetters which belong to the sphere of the senses (pañca orambhāgiyāni samyojanāni), i.e., sensuous desire (kāmacchanda) and ill-will (vyapada) in addition to the three fetters mentioned in connection with the stream-entrant and the once-returner. One becomes an arahant by completely doing away with all mental intoxicants (āsavānam khayā) having attained the emancipation of heart (cetovimutti) and emancipation through wisdom (paññāvimutti).

The disciple who undertakes to pursue the path to the attainment of arahantship has to follow a graduated process. Arahantship is the result of understanding the true nature of things (yathā-bhūtta) and one can see the true nature of things only through a non-prejudiced mind. To develop a non-prejudiced mind one has to develop concentration of the mind, and this is possible only by a disciplined mind. So the process starts with the practice of virtue (sila) which leads to concentration of the mind (samādhi) which ultimately results in true wisdom (paññā). In the Devata Samyutta (S.I.13) a deity asks the Buddha how a person disentangles the tangle of samsāra and the Buddha replies that a wise man, established firmly on virtue, concentrates his mind and develops true wisdom by which he disentangles the tangle of samsāra.

In several suttas we find detailed descriptions of how a disciple initiates himself into the dispensation of the Buddha and gradually follows up the path. A son of a noble family (kulaputta) listens to the Dhamma preached by the Buddha and begets confidence in him and decides to follow his teaching. He enters the Order of monks, thereby cutting himself away from all family bonds and making himself free from all activities that keep a layman occupied. He refrains from sinful activities such as harming life, stealing, uttering falsehood, back-biting, slandering etc. and cultivates positive virtues such as loving and pitying all beings, speaking gentle and kind words, speaking the truth etc. He guards the doors of his senses so that his mind is not distracted when objects of sensation come in contact with the sense faculties. He is always alert and mindful with regard to all his activities. He lives content with whatever he gets by way of food etc. When he has cultivated these virtues his mind is ready to embark on concentration. He retires to a lonely spot in the forest or near a mountain cave and sits in a befitting posture to concentrate his mind. He now surveys his mind and cleanses it of all shortcomings and sees to it that all five hindrances to mental cultivation (nīvarana), namely, covetousness (abhijjhā), ill-will (vyāpāda), sloth and torpor (thīnamiddha), worry and flurry (uddhacca-kukkucca) and doubt (vicikicchā) are completely done away with.

When he sees himself completely freed of all these hindrances, he becomes delighted (pamujja) and this in turn leads to joy (piti) and this makes his body tranquil (passaddha) and he experiences happiness and his mind becomes concentrated. Now he proceeds from the first ecstasy (jhāna) gradually up to the fourth. When the mind is brought to a high state of concentration in this manner, in it could be developed the sixfold knowledge (see abhiññā), the sixth being the knowledge of the utter destruction of mental intoxicants (āsavakkhaya-ñāna). When the disciple has developed the knowledge of the utter destruction of these cankers he has completely understood the true nature of things and for him there will be no more becoming—he is an arahant (D.I.62-84). The arahant is also called asekha because his training is complete.

It should be stated that this peak of mental culture cannot be reached quickly. One has to cultivate virtues for a considerable length of time in order to clean the mind of its latent biases. The various methods adopted to purify the mind also vary according to the character of the individual concerned. There are several types of characters discussed in this respect, namely, the passion dominated man (raga-carita), the ill-will dominated man (dosa-carita), the ignorance dominated man (moha-carita), the faith dominated man (saddha-carita), the intelligence dominated man (buddhi-carita) and the reflection dominated man (vitakka-carita). The details of the training differ according to the character of the individual (Vim. p.82).

Though it is generally accepted that the path to the attainment of arahantship is a graduated one, there are instances of people who attained arahantship without following all the details, for instance, Suddhodana, Khemā, Mahā Aritthaand many others who attained arahantship even before they entered the Order of monks. There is recognised a type of arahants called the sukka-vipassaka and if we accept the view that sukka stands for Buddha (pure or mere) the term then denotes those who attain perfection without ever having attained any of the mental absorptions (jhāna). The Visuddhimagga (ch.xviii, 503) calls such persons suddha-vipassanā-yānika as distinguished from those with “tranquillity as vehicle” (samatha-yānika). The Milindapañha (trsl. 2, 254) discussing this problem says “there is no realisation of arahantship in one single life without keeping of the vows. Only on the utmost zeal and the most devoted practice of righteousness and with the aid of a suitable teacher is the realisation of arahantship attained.” It would thus not be incorrect to say that the Theravada view regarding arahantship is that the practice of virtue is essential and that even those who follow the suddha-vipassanā-yāna can do so because they have practised the virtues in previous births.

Lay life and arahantship. Though there are many instances of persons attaining spiritual development up to the third stage of non-returner, instances are not many of individuals attaining arahantship while yet being laymen. Yasa attained arahantship while being a layman, but he, too, entered the Order immediately afterwards (Vin.I.15-20). Khemā, chief of the Buddha’s women disciples, attained arahantship before she entered the Order, but she entered the Order with the consent of her husband Bimbisāra, probably on the same day (ThigA.126f). Suddhodana, the father of the Buddha, attained arahantship a little while before his death (DPPN. s.v. Suddhodana). The Mahāvamsa (chap. xvi, 10-11) records that fifty-five brothers headed by the chief minister Mahā Arittha attained arahantship in the tonsure hall, while their heads were being shaved prior to being admitted into the Order. In the Kathavatthu (157-8) the question whether a layman can become an arahant is discussed. The point maintained in it is that what matters is not the external characteristics of a recluse or a layman, and that anybody who is free from the mental fetters and lives a life of complete renunciation could attain arahantship. King Milinda, too, maintains this view and quotes the following words of the Buddha: “I would magnify, o brethren, the supreme attainment either in a layman or in a recluse. Whether he be a layman, o brethren, or a recluse, the man who has reached the supreme attainment shall overcome all the difficulties inherent therein, shall win his way even to the excellent condition of arahantship” (Man. trsl., SBE. vol.36, p.56), but so far this statement has not been traced in the Tipitaka. In the Milindapañha (ibid. p.57) again, a question is posed as to why a person should enter the Order if laymen, too, could attain arahantship. In reply it is shown that facilities and opportunities for cultivating the mind are greater if one enters the Order, since monks are not bound up with duties of laymen such as earning to maintain oneself, wife and children and looking after the needs of relatives. In the Subha Sutra (M.II.197) the Buddha says that a person, whether he be a layman or a recluse, who leads a virtuous life, ever striving to cleanse the mind of impurities, would progress in the path to liberation.

There is a current belief among the Buddhists that when a layman attains arahantship he should enter the Order the same day or else he would die before the end of that day. Nagasena, too, confirms this view. It is difficult to trace from canonical sources any evidence to substantiate this view.

Again, if we examine the connotation of the word anāgāmī (non-returner to the material world) we obtain more evidence to support the view that arahantship is attainable outside the Order of monks. If an anāgāmī does not attain arahantship in that very existence, he will pass away and will be reborn among the Suddhāvāsā deities, where he will put an end to reiterated existence (see anāgāmī).

Women and arahantship: The Buddha placed women on a par with men in the capacity of developing the mind to the highest level.. A few years after the inauguration of the Order of monks, an Order of nuns, too, was set up withMahapajapati Gotami, the Buddha’s foster-mother, as the first recruit. The Vinaya Pitaka contains a section of special rules laid down for the guidance of bhikkhunis. As is obvious, the purpose of the religious life is to attain arahantship. Women, like men, entered the Order in order to realise this state. Nowhere in Buddhist literature do we come across statements denouncing the capacity of women to develop their minds, and in this respect no distinction is shown between men and women. The Therīgāthā is full of instances of therīs who had attained arahantship (e. g., Thig. pp. 126, 129, 131 etc.). Mara once attempted to dissuade Somā, a therī, from attaining arahantship saying that she with little brains could not aspire to attain a noble state attained by sages with high mental powers. Soma’s reply was that if the mind is properly cultivated so as to develop true know-ledge by which one understands the real state of things, womanhood is no barrier to the attainment of arahantship (Thig. 129). Mrs. Rhys Davids in the Introduction (p. xxiv) to her translation of the Therīgāthā states that the instances of therīs declaring their attainment of arahantship are more in the Therīgāthā than of monks doing so in the Theragāthā.

Arahants and Society. When we study the life-history of the Buddha as well as those of his chief disciples who were arahants, it becomes abundantly clear that the Buddha did not expect his disciples to forsake society altogether, before or after the attainment of arahantship. During a period of forty-five years the Buddha was busy doing missionary work among the people. The better part of his day was spent in going about and meeting people and teaching them how to lead better lives. When he met people he did not always speak to them about the misery of life. When he met ordinary people he admonished them to refrain from anti-social activities and to do things which are for the benefit of the many (D. III, 180-93). When he met kings and higher ministers he spoke to them of ways and means of good government which would result in the happiness of all concerned. When he came across people who were grieved by various misfortunes, he spoke words of comfort to them (ThigA. 108-17). When he came across criminals he preached to reform them for the benefit of the criminals as well as for the benefit of society (ThagA. III, 54-64). He spoke of the duties of children towards their parents and vice versa, of the duties of a wife towards her husband and those of a husband towards his wife, and he also spoke of the mutual duties of all people for the better and smoother running of society. When he gathered round him his first group of disciples, sixty in number and all of them arahants, he dispersed them in all directions asking them to preach the Dhamma for the welfare of the many (Vin.I.21). Chief disciples like Sāriputta, Moggallāna, Kaccayana and others, following the example of the Buddha, spent all their lives in working for the spiritual upliftment of the masses. The Buddha as well as his disciples lived in society, but they were not of society. They lived lives of complete renunciation, though they depended on the generosity of the public for their sustenance, and worked for their spiritual upliftment. Theirs was a disinterested service. The life of a true disciple of the Buddha is compared to a lotus in the pond (A.II.39; Sn. p.101). The lotus bud grows in the mud in the pond, is nourished in it, but it grows through the water, comes above the surface, blossoms out, and is untouched by the water. Likewise the disciple develops into a fully-awakened man, while being in society, but he is not bound by the fetters of social life. He is not carried away by what takes place in it. In the Mahamangala Sutta (Sn.46-7) it is said that if one can stand unmoved (cittam yassa na kampati) when affected by the things of the world (phutthassa lokadhammehi) it would be a great blessing.

Though such is the general attitude of a disciple towards society, we see a parallel development in some texts admonishing the true sage (muni=arahant) to steer clear of society and make a quick escape from samsāra. Society is depicted as a very evil place, full of vicious people, the haunt of all viles, and hence the muni should have nothing to do with it. He should wander about all alone, far away from society, like the rhinoceros (Sn. pp.6-12).

The Mahayanists put forward the ideal of the bodhisattva - a being dedicated to the services of humanity, probably as a protest against this development.

W.G.Weeraratne

The Mahayanists accuse the arahat of selfishness because he strives only for his own liberation from sorrow instead of working for the liberation and happiness of all beings. They exert themselves only for their own complete Nirvana (ātma-parinirvana-hetoh: Sdmp. p.75). The sravakas (arahat) think only of their own good (svartha: Mahayanasutralankara, 53.4). The arahat saves no one but him-self. He is like one confined in a dungeon, who, having found a way of escape, hastens to set him-self at liberty, while callously leaving his fellow-prisoners in darkness and captivity.

The bodhisattva, on the other hand, is the embodiment of supreme unselfishness. He solemnly dedicates himself to the service of all beings who stand in need of succour, suffering the most atrocious tortures, if necessary, if thereby he may save others from pain and sorrow.

It must be stated, however, that this charge of selfishness made against the arahat, in contrast with the unselfishness of the bodhisattva, is not in accordance with fact. In the first place, the concept of the bodhisattva is not peculiar to Mahayana. In the second place, it would be quite incorrect to say that the arahat, as depicted in Hinayana, is entirely occupied with his own salvation and is callous of the salvation and sufferings of others.

As has been stated earlier, the word arahat means ‘one who is worthy’ and his worthiness is of a kind that cannot be reconciled with any form of selfishness. “Even as a mother watches over her only begotten child,” says the Sutta Nipata, one of the oldest texts of the Theravada, “so let his heart and mind be filled with boundless love for all creatures, great and small, let him practise benevolence towards the whole world, above, below, across, without exception, and let him set himself utterly free from all ill-will and enmity.” And, another text, the Itivuttaka (19), says “all the means that can be used as bases for doing right are not worth one-sixteenth part of the emancipation of the heart through love. That takes all those up unto itself, outshining them in radiance and glory.”

No selfish being could, therefore, become an arahat. Arahatship consists in a spiritual exaltation that transcends the limitations of temporal individuality. No system which aims at the elimination of the phenomenal ego can be accused of egoism or selfishness. Arahatship is the full realisation of the transcendental self and such self-realisation is far removed from selfishness and, indeed, involves self-sacrifice.

In charging the arahat, therefore, with being over-mindful of his own development and salvation and with ignoring the moral and spiritual well-being of his fellow-men, the Mahayanists were. hardly fair. The arahat, on the other hand, is one who acts in accordance with the principle that each man forms part of a spiritual whole of which all his fellow-men are also parts and that to serve them is to enrich and ennoble his own higher self, while to neglect them would be to impoverish it. Even at the lowest estimate, the arahat is one who seeks and attains an enlightenment for himself so that he might subtract at least himself from the vast burden of sorrow and pain that weighs upon the world. Having done this, he continues the good life for the gain and the welfare of the many, in benevolent activity, although it could add nothing to the reward which he has already won.

After he has won Arahatship, up to the time of his death, the arahat lives wishlessly, happy and con-tented, because his supreme achievement leaves no room for wishes of any kind. According to the Milindapañha (pp. 134 IT., 253) he is liable to suffer bodily pain, however, because he cannot control his body. But such pain he bears with equanimity which nothing can disturb.

According to the Theravadins, the acquisition of Nirvana is final and definite and can never again be lost. The Sammitiyas, Vajjiputtiyas, Sabbatthivadins and some Mahasanghikas, however, held that the arahat is liable to fall away. The Saddharmapundarika (v, 59—83) speaks of the nirvana of the arahats as a temporary repose and distinguishes it from the final Nirvana of the Buddha. The Theravadins regard the arahat as being of almost god-like stature but the Mahasanghikas maintained that he was human and he had many imperfections, e.g., that he could still be troubled by demons, have various doubts and be ignorant of many things. The Andhakas said that the arahat could be surpassed in knowledge by others, in opposition to the Vibhajjavadins in whose view the arahat has complete knowledge.

GP Malalsekara

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ananda

Venerable Ananda

Ananda reciting the Suttapitaka at the First Buddhist Council

Ananda reciting the Suttapitaka at the First Buddhist Council

How Ananda became enlightened?

Ananda was the only one left at the time of the first council of Buddha’s own disciples who didn’t become an arhat. He was Buddha’s attendant. He heard every word that Buddha taught, and memorized them all, but he didn’t meditate much because he was too busy.

Some time after Buddha’s death, there was a meeting of all the arhats, but since Ananda wasn’t an arhat he couldn’t go. So he kept meditating, trying at the last minute to become awakened, and it got to be midnight, 2, 3 o’clock in the morning of the first council of Buddhist arhats, but still he couldn’t make it, even though he was the repository of all of Buddha’s words. All the other arhats wanted him to go, but he couldn’t since he wasn’t an arhat.

Finally it got to be 3:45 in the morning, 15 minutes before the 4:00 wakeup call. Finally,Ananda just gave up and said, “Oh ********, I’m not an arhat.” Then he got awakened, because he saw things as they were. It was the end of the struggle. No more trying to become an arhat, and he became an arhat.

Many Buddhist traditions teach this story. That says something that is being yourself, rather than to mere doing and self-improvement. It expresses clear vision, seeing things just as they are, rather than as we’d like them to be. It is a lovely, timeless story.

GOOD GOVERNANCE

Press information Bureau

(C.M. Information Campus)

Information & Public Relations Department, U.P.

Impending decision on Sri Ram Janmbhoomi- Babari Masjid case: Maintain law and order at all costs CM tells officers

My Government will not compromise on law and order

Mayawati

CM appeals people to maintain peace and beware of mischievous elements

Lucknow: September 20, 2010

The Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Ms. Mayawati has strictly directed

the officers to maintain law and order at all costs all over the State as the

decision on Sri Ram Janmbhoomi- Babari Masjid case was possible any

time. She directed them to implement an integrated plan to maintain peace

all over the State. She also appealed to the people of the State to maintain

peace and cautioned them to remain careful against the mischievous

elements.

The Chief Minister extensively reviewed the law and order of the

State at a meeting held at her official residence here today. She asked the

officers to take tough action against those who try to disturb the peace and

law and order of the State. Directing the administrative and intelligence

set-up of the State to remain alert and keep an eye on the situation all

over the State, she said that her government never compromised on the

issue of law and order. She asked them to control the spread of rumours.

The CM extensively reviewed the law and order of all the 72 district

of the State. She also reviewed the security of important religious, social

and historical places apart from other sensitive spots. She also discussed

the points which had emerged from the district-wise tours undertaken by

Principal Secretary Home, DGP and ADGP. It may be recalled that in the

light of the CM

s order these senior officers toured all the districts of the

State and reviewed the law and order of every district with the senior

officers there.

The CM said that almost two months ago the government came to

know that decision on Ayodhya issue was possible in the Hon

ble High

Court. Since then the government was making special efforts to maintain

law and order in the State. The Government was making all possible efforts

to ensure that the communal forces could not disturb the law and order of

the State. The State Government had been apprising the Central

Government of the entire situation continuously. In this light, it had sent

DGP to New Delhi to discuss the situation with the Union Home Secretary.

She said that her government was very serious towards maintaining the

law and order of the State and she was herself reviewing the situation form

time to time.

The officers, at the meeting, said that in the light of the impending

decision on Ayodhya issue, the State Government had been continuously

demanding Central Security Forces since 2 August 2010. They said that

458 companies of Central Security Forces had been demanded from the

Centre through a letter dated 6 August 2010, so that any untoward

situation could be handled. Another 143 companies of Central Security

Forces were demanded from the Centre from a letter dated 1 September

2010 to protect the disputed site at Ayodhya. About 29 companies of the

same were demanded through a letter dated 1 September 2010 for the

security of the Hon

ble High Court campuses situated in Allahabad and

Lucknow. Twelve companies of RAF were also demanded through a letter

dated 6 September 2010 to maintain peace and order. A total of 642

companies had been demanded from the Centre.

They said that only 52 companies of Central Security Forces had

been allocated for Uttar Pradesh. They said that it was not enough to deal

with any possible difficult situation arising out of this sensitive issue.

During the meeting, the Chief Minister also reviewed the security of

High Court campuses situated in Allahabad and Lucknow. The officers said

that according to the orders of the Hon

ble Supreme Court, the Central

Security Forces had been deployed at both the campuses of the Hon

ble

High Court. It may be recalled that the State Government had requested

Centre to provide 29 companies of Central Security Forces for the security

of both the campuses of Hon

ble High Court.

The Cabinet Secretary Mr. Shashank Shekhar Singh, Principal

Secretary Home Kunwar Fateh Bahadur, DGP Mr. Karam Veer Singh, ADGP

(law and order) Mr. Braj Lal and other senior officers were present at the

meeting.

*********

Irrigation Minister Mr. Naseemuddin Siddiqui conducts aerial survey and spot inspection of flood-affected

districts on directives of Hon

ble C.M.

Rs. 20 crore additional amount immediately provided to flood-affected districts on directives of Hon

ble C.M.

Lucknow : September 20, 2010

The Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Ms. Mayawati Ji directed the

officers of Irrigation Department and district administration to carry out

relief works in the flood-affected areas of Bijnore, Rampur, Moradabad,

Shahjahanpur, Farrukhabad, Mathura, Bareilly and Muzaffar Nagar

districts on war-footing. The floods in western U.P. have been caused by

the release of huge quantity of water by Uttarakhand. She said that the

State Government would not allow paucity of funds to affect the rescue

and relief works. She said that the relief material should reach the floodvictims

quickly. She said that any laxity in relief works would not be

tolerated and the responsibility of the concerning officers would be fixed.

The Hon

ble Chief Minister had held an emergency meeting at her

official residence here yesterday to review the implementation of rescue

and relief works and to discuss the ways to deal with the flood situation.

She had directed Irrigation Minister Mr. Naseemuddin Siddiqui to conduct

aerial survey and spot inspection of the relief works being carried out in

various flood-affected districts. In compliance with orders of the Hon

ble

C.M., the Irrigation Minister undertook aerial survey of Bijnore, Rampur,

Jyotiba Phoole Nagar and Moradabad districts and held meetings with the

officers. After returning from the survey he apprised Hon

ble C.M. of the

inferences of the trip.

Reviewing the flood situation, Hon

ble Chief Minister Ms. Mayawati Ji

said that the flood victims should be taken to secured places and people

trapped in flood waters should be airlifted and taken to safer places.

Arrangement of their food, etc. should also be ensured. She said that the

officers of the Irrigation Department should keep a constant vigil on the

flood control structures. They should also ensure that embankments and

flood control structure were not damaged and if any damage was

detected then the district administration should be informed immediately.

The Hon

ble C.M. Ji directed the concerning officers to ensure that

the flood affected families were kept in camps and proper arrangement of

their food was also ensured. She directed them to take people trapped in

flood waters to safer places through motor-boats and helicopters.

Besides, she directed the local bodies and medical and health department

to undertake vaccination drive to prevent the outbreak of infectious

diseases. She also directed the officers to ensure proper supply of fodder

in flood-affected areas.

Ms. Mayawati Ji directed the officers of the P.W.D. and Irrigation

Department to assess the damage caused to roads and embankments by

the floods and submit estimate for repairs at the earliest. She directed

them to repair the roads at the earliest, so that the traffic could ply

smoothly. She directed the D.M.s of the flood-affected districts to assess

the loss of crop because of floods and submit its report to the

Government. She directed the officers to ensure supply of clean drinking

water in the flood affected areas and ensure that the de-funct handpumps

were repaired.

The Hon

ble C.M. Ji directed the officers to drop food packets and

tarpaulin from the helicopters in the areas where people had been

trapped in the flood waters.

On the directives of the Hon

ble C.M. Ji, an additional amount of Rs.

20 crore had been provided to the flood-affected districts. On her

directives, the representatives of the State Government attended a

meeting convened by the Cabinet Secretary of the Government of India

and demanded that the Air Force should be directed to provide

helicopters whenever the D.M.s made a request to protect the people.

The State Government requested the Government of India to

provide police force to carry out rescue-relief works in flood-affected

districts. The GOI was informed that the districts of Uttar Pradesh were

affected by flood waters released by Uttarakhand. Therefore, the motorboats

of the NDRF should be provided for rescue works. The Principal

Secretary Mr. Kishan Singh Atoriya accompanied Mr. Naseemuddin

Siddiqui during the survey.

**********

Conduct relief works in flood-affected areas of western U.P. on war-footing

C.M.

Rs. 65 crore released for flood-affected districts

C.M. directs officers to maintain constant vigil on dams, barrages and embankments

Lucknow : September 19, 2010

The Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Ms. Mayawati directed the

officers of Irrigation Department and district administration to carry

out relief works in the flood-affected areas of Bijnore, Rampur,

Moradabad, Shahjahanpur, Farrukhabad, Mathura and Bareilly

districts of western U.P. on war-footing. The floods in western U.P.

have been caused by the release of huge quantity of water by

Uttarakhand and the C.M. seriously reviewed the flood situation of

the above districts in this light.

The Chief Minister held an emergency meeting at her official

residence here today to review the flood situation of western U.P.

She expressed her satisfaction that no loss of life had been reported

from the flood-affected areas so far. She directed the officers of the

Irrigation Department to monitor the security of all the barrages,

embankments etc. round-the-clock. She said that the affected

families should be taken to secured places and should be kept in

camps.

Ms. Mayawati said that the affected families should be

provided relief material immediately. Releasing Rs. 65 crore for all

flood-affected districts, she directed the D.M.s of Rampur and

Bijnore districts to airlift people trapped in the floods. She hoped

that the N.D.R.F. (National Disaster Relief Force) would provide

adequate number of motor-boats. She directed the D.G.P. to deploy

P.A.C. battalions in flood-affected districts. She said that diversions

should be immediately created at the roads which had been eroded

by floods, so that the traffic could pass through smoothly.

The Chief Minister directed Irrigation Minister Mr. Nasimuddin

Siddiqui to conduct survey of the flood-affected districts and review

the relief works as well.

It may be recalled that owing to heavy rains in Uttarkhand

huge amount of water overflowed from Bhim Goda barrage situated

on Ganga River in Haridwar, Kalagarh dam on Ramganga River and

Ram Nagar barrage constructed on Kosi River. Record 6.6 lakh

cusecs of water passed through Ganga in 1924. In 1978, about

4.58 lakh cusecs of water was released, while in year 2010 about

4.78 lakh cusecs of water has been released and Ganga had

crossed the danger mark and it had risen 2.30 meters above it.

Likewise, the water level of the Kalagarh dam, which had

been constructed in 1974-75, never crossed the danger level. About

1.98 lakh cusecs of water had been released in Ramganga River,

which is the highest amount of water released so far. A maximum

of 1.6 lakh cusecs of water was released from barrage situated at

Kosi River in Ram Nagar. Sharda River had also been causing floods

and about 3.80 lakh cusecs water had passed from Banbasa

barrage. The flood situation in Yamuna River had re-emerged as 06

lakh cusecs of water had been released in the river from

Hathinikund barrage.

The Cabinet Secretary Mr. Shashank Shekhar Singh, Chief

Secretary Mr. Atul Kumar Gupta, Additional Cabinet Secretary Mr.

Net Ram, Principal Secretary Irrigation Mr. K.S. Atoriya, Principal

Secretary Revenue Mr. K.K. Sinha and other senior officers were

present at the meeting.

**********

comments (0)