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LESSON - 42 -ARHAT -PART VII - Ariya puggala -Arahant -28 -09- 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY -Do not dwell in the past, do not dream of the future, concentrate the mind on the present moment. - Buddha-EDUCATE (BUDDHA)! MEDITATE (DHAMMA)! ORGANISE (SANGHA)!-WISDOM IS POWER-Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-She pointed out that once the main Rs. 17 cr. Taj corridor case had come to an end and it was conclusively proved that she had no role to play in the case, the CBI should have dropped the case immediately
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 11:06 pm

 

LESSON - 42 -ARHAT -PART VII - Ariya puggala -Arahant -28 -09- 2010 -FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

 

Do not dwell in the past, do not dream of the future, concentrate the mind on the present moment. - Buddha

EDUCATE (BUDDHA)!                 MEDITATE (DHAMMA)!                ORGANISE (SANGHA)!

WISDOM       IS    POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

COMPUTER IS AN ENTERTAINMENT INSTRUMENT!

INTERNET!

IS

ENTERTAINMENT NET!

TO BE MOST APPROPRIATE!

Using such an instrument

The Free e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS 

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

 Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

                                             Course Programs:

ARHAT

AWAKENING THE BUDDHA IN US

http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/ay/arahat.htm

ariya-puggala. asekha, Suddhodana, Khemā, Mahā Arittha,  Visuddhimagga, Milindapañha, Yasa, Bimbisāra, Suddhodana, Mahāvamsa, Mahā Arittha, Mahā Arittha, Kathavatthu, Milinda, Subha Sutra, Nagasena, Suddhāvāsā,  anāgāmī,Mahapajapati Gotami,Therīgāthā,Somā,Theragāthā, Mahamangala Sutta, Sutta Nipata, Sutta Nipata, Itivuttaka, Theravadins, Sabbatthivadins, Mahasanghikas, Andhakas

Arahat, Arahant

Ariya-puggala

Arahant comes from the Pali word arahati meaning ‘worthy’ or ‘noble’ and is a title given to someone who has attained awaken-ness as a result of listening to and practicing the teachings of a Buddha. Like a Buddha, an arahant has perfected wisdom and compassion and is no longer subject to rebirth. The Buddha describes the arahant as having transcended ‘the round of birth and death, they have destroyed the taints, lived the holy life, done what had to be done, laid down the burden, reached the ultimate goal, destroyed the fetters and become completely free, liberated through final knowledge’ (Majjhima Nikaya 1. 141).

Attaining to the level of full awaken-ness is not to be taken lightly or as something easily attainable. It can take several decades of devoted practice and will more likely take several lifetimes to perfect the Paramitas,(

Theravāda Buddhism

Theravāda Buddhism’s teachings on the pāramitās can be found in late canonical books and post-canonical commentaries.

[edit]Canonical sources

In the Pāli canon’s Buddhavaṃsa[3] the Ten Perfections (dasa pāramiyo) are (original terms in Pāli):

  1. Dāna pāramī : generosity, giving of oneself
  2. Sīla pāramī : virtue, morality, proper conduct
  3. Nekkhamma pāramī : renunciation
  4. Paññā pāramī : transcendental wisdom, insight
  5. Viriya (also spelt vīriya) pāramī : energy, diligence, vigour, effort
  6. Khanti pāramī : patience, tolerance, forbearance, acceptance, endurance
  7. Sacca pāramī : truthfulness, honesty
  8. Adhiṭṭhāna (adhitthana) pāramī : determination, resolution
  9. Mettā pāramī : loving-kindness
  10. Upekkhā (also spelt upekhā) pāramī : equanimity, serenity

Two of the above virtues, metta and upekkha also comprise two of the four immeasurables (brahmavihāra)).

 theJhanas,

(Stages of jhāna

The Rupa Jhānas

There are four stages of deep collectedness which are called the Rupa Jhāna (Fine-material Jhāna):

  1. First Jhāna - In the first jhana there are - “directed thought, evaluation, rapture, pleasure, unification of mind, contact, feeling, perception, intention, consciousness, desire, decision, persistence,mindfulness, equanimity & attention”
  2. Second Jhāna - In the second jhana there are - “internal assurance, rapture, pleasure, unification of mind, contact, feeling, perception, intention, consciousness, desire, decision, persistence, mindfulness, equanimity, & attention.”
  3. Third Jhāna - In the third jhana, there are - “equanimity-pleasure, unification of mind, contact, feeling, perception, intention, consciousness, desire, decision, persistence, mindfulness, equanimity & attention”
  4. Fourth Jhāna - In the fourth jhana there are - “a feeling of equanimity, neither pleasure nor pain; an unconcern due to serenity of awareness; unification of mind, contact, feeling, perception, intention, consciousness, desire, decision, persistence, mindfulness, equanimity & attention”.[10]

[edit]The Arupa Jhānas

Beyond the four jhānas lie four attainments, referred to in the early texts as aruppas. These are also referred to in commentarial literature as immaterial/the formless jhānas (arūpajhānas), also translated as The Formless Dimensions:

  1. Dimension of Infinite Space - In the dimension of infinite space there are - “the perception of the dimension of the infinitude of space, unification of mind, contact, feeling, perception, intention, consciousness, desire, decision, persistence, mindfulness, equanimity, & attention”
  2. Dimension of Infinite Consciousness - In the Dimension of infinite consciousness there are - “the perception of the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness, unification of mind, contact, feeling, perception, intention, consciousness, desire, decision, persistence, mindfulness, equanimity, & attention”
  3. Dimension of Nothingness - In the dimension of nothingness, there are - “the perception of the dimension of nothingness, singleness of mind, contact, feeling, perception, intention, consciousness, desire, decision, persistence, mindfulness, equanimity, & attention”
  4. Dimension of Neither Perception nor Non-Perception - About the role of this jhana it is said: “He emerged mindfully from that attainment. On emerging mindfully from that attainment, he regarded the past qualities that had ceased & changed: ‘So this is how these qualities, not having been, come into play. Having been, they vanish.’ He remained unattracted & unrepelled with regard to those qualities, independent, detached, released, dissociated, with an awareness rid of barriers. He discerned that ‘There is no further escape,’ and pursuing it there really wasn’t for him.” [11]

In the suttas, these are never referred to as jhānas. According to the early scriptures, the Buddha learned the last two formless attainments from two teachers, Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta respectively, prior to his enlightenment.[12] It is most likely that they belonged to the Brahmanical tradition.[13]

[edit]Cessation of feelings and perceptions

The Buddha himself discovered an attainment beyond the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception, the “cessation of feelings and perceptions”. This is sometimes called the “ninth jhāna” in commentarial and scholarly literature.[14][15]

About this, it is said: “Seeing with discernment, his fermentations were totally ended. He emerged mindfully from that attainment. On emerging mindfully from that attainment, he regarded the past qualities that had ceased & changed: ‘So this is how these qualities, not having been, come into play. Having been, they vanish.’ He remained unattracted & unrepelled with regard to those qualities, independent, detached, released, dissociated, with an awareness rid of barriers. He discerned that ‘There is no further escape,’ and pursuing it there really wasn’t for him.”[16]

Someone attaining this state is an anagami or an arahant.[17] In the above extract, the Buddha narrates that Sariputta became an arahant upon reaching it.[18])

and other advanced states. There are however, several other partially enlightened noble levels (see: 10 hindrances).(

There are ten hindrances to enlightenment (shown below) and four stages of realization (enlightenment) based on how many hindrances have been eliminated and / or the degree to which they have been eliminated.

A Buddha is someone who is fully enlightened. A person who is fully enlightened, but not the Buddha of our time, is called an Arahant in Pali. Such a person has eradicated all ten hindrances to enlightenment:

  1. The belief in a permanent personality, ego
  2. Doubt, extreme skepticism
  3. Attachment to rites, rituals, and ceremonies
  4. Attachment to sense desires
  5. Ill-will, anger
  6. Craving for existence in the Form world (heavenly realms)
  7. Craving for existence in the Formless world (heavenly realms)
  8. Conceit
  9. Restlessness
  10. Ignorance

(from Anguttara Nikaya 10.13)

An anagami (non-returner) has completely eradicated the first five hindrances and never returns to earth or any other world system (planet, solar system). Such a person is re-born to a heavenly realm and attains enlightenment from there.

A sakadagami (once-returner) has eradicated the first three hindrances and greatly weakened the fourth and fifth; attachment to sense desires and ill-will. Such a person will be re-born to either the human or heavenly realm and will attain enlightenment there.

A sotapanna (stream-entrant) has eradicated the first three hindrances and will be re-born no more than seven more times and re-birth will either be as a human or a deva in a heavenly realm)

Buddhism is unique among the major world religions in that followers can attain to the same level as the founder. For example, in Judaism, Abraham and Moses are considered the founders who made the covenant with God and provided the Law (Torah) and there cannot be another one to do so. In Christianity, there can only be one Christ. In Islam, Muhammad is considered the seal or final prophet. Whereas, in Buddhism, anyone can attain awaken-ness and reach the same wisdom and title as the Buddha, an awakened one.

MAYAWATI    < ?xml:namespace prefix = v ns = “urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml” />< ?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = “urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office” />                                                           

Message

            In the social transformation movement in our country, the great heroes of social revolution have played a particular important role. The humanitarian thoughts and deeds of those great heroes stirred and influenced the society a great deal. Our Sants, Gurus and other great men wagesd stupendous struggles and made countless sacrifices throughout their life for securing the right to vote and human right to equality that we enjoy today in the 21st century. All o0f you are aware that there is a long saga of relentless struggles and sacrifices by these great men in which names of great humanists, Tathagat  Gautam Buddha, Sant Kabir, Guru Ravidas, Mahatma Jotiba Phule, Chatrapati Shahuji Maharaj,the most revered Baba Saheb Dr.Bhimrao Ambedkar and Bahujan Nayak Hon.Shri Kanshi Ram Ji in particular deserve mention. It is because of limitless love of these leading lights of India for the people , society and country that these great men are held in great esteem everywhere and all of them hold sway over hearts and minds of the people.

            Establishment of a caste-less equalitarian social order based on humanism and equality in our country has been the great goal of these great men. At the time of attaining Independence of the country also, the architect of the Indian Constitution, the most revered Baba Saheb Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar had reminded all his countrymen, “ We have gained Political Independence, but there is no Social Equality in India. How long shall we continue to live the life of contradiction?  If we continue to delay it for long, we will do so, only putting our Political Democracy in peril. We must remove this contradiction at the earlist possible moment…”

            But even 62 years after Independence of the country, the casteist mindset and the social order based on it are destroying our country like white ants. This malady has continued to be a big hurdle in the development of both the country and the state because, as everyone knows it, the renouncing of the castiest mindset alone is true patriotism and without establishing a caste-less society India cannot become a humanitarian and developed country of the world.

            It has always been my efforts that these high priests/great men who sacrificed their all for “Social Transformation” should get adequate honour in the society and our country, and their memories should be preserved as a valuable heritage and  a source of inspiration. During my all the four tenures of power in Uttar Pradesh in the honour of these great men and in the direction of preserving their memorable heritage, efforts have been made to do the historic work of establishing new districts and building sthals, institutions, gr4and memorials, buildings, parks etc., for them.

            In this very process, I am happy that a guide/album, “Certainly Towards an Equalitarian Society”, based on the works that mu government has got done in the honour of Tathagat Gautam Buddha is being published by the Information and Public Relations Department of the state. I am confident that this effort will certainly play a positive role in my government’s campaign to establish an” equalitarian social order”.

                                                                                                            -sd-

                                                                                                            (Mayawati)

                                                                                                Chief Minister, Uttar Pradesh

http://wpcontent.answers.com/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Buddha_in_Sarnath_Museum_(Dhammajak_Mutra).jpg/300px-Buddha_in_Sarnath_Museum_(Dhammajak_Mutra).jpg

http://www.mahindarama.com/mbt/holysite_files/kushinagar-bud.jpg

Sant Kabir Das

Kabir was born in 1398 AD. He was a great poet and a weaver by profession. He was born to a Hindu but grew up in a Muslim weavers family.  Ramananda was his guru from whom he took initiation.

< ?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = “urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office” />Guru Ravidass: Prophet of Untouchables Consciousness

Mahatma Jyotiba Phule

Shahu Chhatrapati

Mahatma Jyotiba Phule was born on the 11th of April 1827 and died on the 28th of November 1890 at the age of 63. Punekar pays tribute to the reformer on the occasion of his 118th Death Anniversary.

Jyotiba Phule was a true believer in the saying, ‘charity begins at home’. As many of us are aware (especially girls), Jyotiba and his wife, Savitribai Phule, were the pioneers in starting schools for women. But Jyotiba took the step of starting a school only after imparting the necessary education to his wife. Married at the tender age of twelve, Jyotiba and Savitribai together walked the road less travelled.

They were the first Indians to promote the cause of female education and make India what it is today. As a woman, I feel immensely honoured to be able to write about the man who brought about a change because of which I am able to sit here and write about him and be independent.

Jyotiba and his wife were not only responsible for starting women’s education but were also one of the few to open their hearts and doors to the ‘Harijans’ or untouchables during the fight for freedom. Jyotiba carried with him an air of liberation as is evidenced in the works of his contemporaries like Raja Ram Mohun Roy who not only supported the cause of education for women but also worked hard to abolish the inhuman laws against the practice of ‘Sati’.

Jyotiba’s contribution did not end at planting the seed of women’s education. He also took efforts to go to people’s houses and convince the parents of the importance of educating the female child. He also, in many cases, took responsibility for the girls coming to his house. Savitribai Phule acted like a teacher and a mother to the girls who were allowed to attend school. Jyotiba and Savitribai did not discriminate on the grounds of caste or religion; they strived towards the selfless goal of imparting education to as many girls as possible.

Jyotiba was also amongst the founder members of the ‘Satyashodhak Samaj’. The aim of this society was to help eradicate the stigma attached with the ‘shudras’ and ‘ati-shudras’ and also to liberate them from the constant exploitation by the ‘Brahmin’ class. The Satyashodhak Samaj propounded rational thinking and rejected the need for a hierarchy in the society in the form of a caste system. His is the first name that comes to mind when mentioning The Social Reform Movement in Maharashtra.

There was more to the man just fighting for the cause of women’s education and eradicating the caste system. As well as being a reformer, he was an educated one. He not only put forth ideas but also explained them in the light of the good they would do to the society. He strongly believed that the ignorance in society cannot be fought without good education being provided to all classes and genders alike.

He also holds the credit for starting a house for widows to save them from the practice of ‘Sati’ and also an orphanage for girls to save them from female infanticide. Jyotiba Phule has truly contributed towards a better future for women and that too with the support of a strong woman, Savitribai.

 

Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar(Babasaheb)

Bharat Ratna Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar

Bahujan Samaj Party

 

 

BSP chief Kanshi Ram offers a piece of cake to Uttar Pradesh chief<br />
minister Mayawati on her 47th birthday, in New Delhi on January 15,<br />
2003.” src=”http://www.timescontent.com/tss/photos/preview/8539/Kanshi%20Ram-Mayawati.jpg”></p>
	<p style=A portrait of mentor Kanshi Ram is seen as Bahujan Samaj Party<br />
president Mayawati, smiles during an election rally in Nuh, 75<br />
kilometers (47 miles) from New Delhi, India, in this, April 6, 2009<br />
photo. Mayawati, whose election symbol is an elephant, seeks national<br />
power as the larger parties…” src=”http://www.dlcache.indiatimes.com/imageserve/09g9d434zAe7f/500×350.jpg?center=0.5,0″></p>
	<p style=She pointed out that once the main Rs. 17 cr. Taj corridor case had come to an end and it was conclusively proved that she had no role to play in the case, the CBI should have dropped the case immediately.

 

The Supreme Court has asked the Union government to clearly spell out its stand whether it wanted to proceed against Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati in the disproportionate assets case or not.

A Bench, comprising Justices B. Sudershan Reddy and S.S. Nijjar, gave six weeks to the Centre and the CBI to file their response to Ms. Mayawati’s petition that sought quashing of the proceedings.

During the resumed hearing on Monday, when counsel for the Centre pleaded for adjournment to file the response, Justice Reddy told him, “What is this? Every time, you seek time or an adjournment. Sometimes, you seek time for filing reply, then you say that you want to file a counter-affidavit then you say that you want to file an affidavit. If both of you [Centre and Ms. Mayawati] are together then let this petition go.”

“Political reasons”

In her petition, Ms. Mayawati accused the CBI of harassing her by filing the disproportionate assets cases. She said while the former Railway Minister, Lalu Prasad, was let off by the CBI without filing any appeal in the income-tax case, she was being targeted for political reasons.

She contended that the CBI had neither the authority nor the jurisdiction to initiate any proceedings, including filing of First Information Report, against her in the DA case.

She pointed out that once the main Rs. 17 cr. Taj corridor case had come to an end and it was conclusively proved that she had no role to play in the case, the CBI should have dropped the case immediately. However, in a most illegal and arbitrary manner, simply to harass and defame her, the CBI had illegally and under political pressure been continuing the DA case till date.

Ms. Mayawati said the CBI and income-tax authorities not only went ahead to investigate the income during 2002-2003 to which the Taj case related but even went back from the assessment years 1998-99 onwards for re-opening the assessment proceedings.

comments (0)
LESSON 41 ARHAT PART VI Ariya puggala Anāgāmī 27 09 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY -He is able who thinks he is able. - Buddha-EDUCATE (BUDDHA)! MEDITATE (DHAMMA)! ORGANISE (SANGHA)!-WISDOM IS POWER-Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-INTRODUCING BUDDHIST ABHIDHAMMA -Towards An Equalitarian Society Uttar Pradesh The Cradle of Buddhism
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 3:12 am

 

LESSON  41 ARHAT PART VI  Ariya puggala Anāgāmī 27 09 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

He is able who thinks he is able. - Buddha

EDUCATE (BUDDHA)!                     MEDITATE (DHAMMA)!       ORGANISE (SANGHA)!

WISDOM      IS    POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

COMPUTER IS AN ENTERTAINMENT INSTRUMENT!

INTERNET!

IS

ENTERTAINMENT NET!

TO BE MOST APPROPRIATE!

Using such an instrument

The Free e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS 

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

 Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

                                             Course Programs:

ARHAT

AWAKENING THE BUDDHA IN US

http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/ay/arahat.htm

ariya-puggala. asekha, Suddhodana, Khemā, Mahā Arittha,  Visuddhimagga, Milindapañha, Yasa, Bimbisāra, Suddhodana, Mahāvamsa, Mahā Arittha, Mahā Arittha, Kathavatthu, Milinda, Subha Sutra, Nagasena, Suddhāvāsā,  anāgāmī,Mahapajapati Gotami,Therīgāthā,Somā,Theragāthā, Mahamangala Sutta, Sutta Nipata, Sutta Nipata, Itivuttaka, Theravadins, Sabbatthivadins, Mahasanghikas, Andhakas

Arahat, Arahant

Ariya-puggala

http://www.scribd.com/doc/489460/Introducing-Buddhist-Abhidhamma

http://www.dhammawiki.com/index.php?title=Ariya-puggala

http://www.dhammawiki.com/index.php?title=Sotapanna

http://forums.sgclub.com/singapore/life_buddha_pictures_227095.html

http://www.dhammawiki.com/index.php?title=Sakadagami

http://www.dhammawiki.com/index.php?title=Anagami

Anāgāmī: The Non-Returner is a Noble Disciple Ariya-puggala on the 3rd stage of Nobility.

An anagami (non-returner) has completely eradicated the first five hindrances of the 10 hindrances (There are ten hindrances to enlightenment (shown below) and four stages of realization (enlightenment) based on how many hindrances have been eliminated and / or the degree to which they have been eliminated.

A Buddha is someone who is fully enlightened. A person who is fully enlightened, but not the Buddha of our time, is called an Arahant in Pali. Such a person has eradicated all ten hindrances to enlightenment:

1.    The belief in a permanent personality, ego

2.    Doubt, extreme skepticism

3.    Attachment to rites, rituals, and ceremonies

4.    Attachment to sense desires

5.    Ill-will, anger

6.    Craving for existence in the Form world (heavenly realms)

7.    Craving for existence in the Formless world (heavenly realms)

8.    Conceit

9.    Restlessness

10.  Ignorance )

to awaken-ness  and never returns to earth or any other world system (planet, solar system). Such a person is re-born to a heavenly realm and attains enlightenment from there.

There are 5 classes of Non-Returners, as it is said e.g. Pug. 42-46:

A being, through the disappearing of the 5 lower mental chains samyojana, reappears in a higher world amongst the devas of the Pure Abodes, suddhāvāsa, and without returning from that world into the sense-sphere, he there reaches Nibbāna.

1. He may, immediately after appearing there in the Pure Abodes or before half of the life-time, attain the Noble path for the overcoming of the higher mental chains. Such a being is called one who reaches Nibbāna within the first half of the life antarā-parinibbāyī.

2. Or, while living more than half of the lifetime there, or at the moment of death, he attains the Noble path for the overcoming of the higher mental chains. Such a being is called one who reaches Nibbāna after crossing half the life-time upahacca-parinibbāyī.

3. Or, with effort he attains the Noble path for the overcoming of the higher mental chains. Such a being is called one who reaches Nibbāna with exertion sasankhāra-parinibbāyī.

4. Or, without effort he attains the Noble path for the overcoming of the higher mental chains. Such a being is called one who reaches Nibbāna without exertion asankhāra-parinibbāyī.

5. Or, after vanishing from the heaven of the Aviha-gods see: suddhāvāsa, he appears in the heaven of the unworried atappa gods. After vanishing from there he appears in the heaven of the clearly-visible sudassa gods, from there in the heaven of the clear-visioned sudassī gods, from there in the heaven of the highest akanittha gods. There he attains the Noble path for the overcoming of the higher mental chains. Such a being is called one who passes up-stream to the highest gods uddhamsota-akanittha-gāmī.

http://integral-options.blogspot.com/2010/05/kenneth-folk-and-joel-groover-power-of.html

The Power of Progress: The Four Paths of Awaken-ness

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Stream-enterer

Main article: Sotāpanna

The first stage is that of Sotāpanna (Pali; Sanskrit: Srotāpanna), literally meaning “one who enters (āpadyate) the stream (sotas),” with the stream being the Noble Eightfold Pathregarded as the highest Dharma. The stream-enterer is also said to have “opened the eye of the Dharma” (dhammacakkhu, Sanskrit: dharmacakus).

A stream-enterer usually reaches enlightenment within seven successive rebirths upon opening the eye of the Dharma.

Due to the fact that the stream-enterer has attained an intuitive grasp of Buddhist doctrine (samyagdṛṣṭi or sammādiṭṭhi, “right view”), and has complete confidence or Saddha in the Three Jewels: Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha, he will not be reborn in any of the unhappy states or rebirths (an animal, a preta, or inhell).

Once-returner

Main article: Sakadagami

The second stage is that of the Sakadāgāmī (Sanskrit:Sakdāgāmin), literally meaning “one who once (sakt) comes (āgacchati)”. The once-returner will return to the human world only one more time, and will attain Nirvana in that life.

Non-returner

Main article: Anāgāmi

The third stage is that of the Anāgāmī (Sanskrit: Anāgāmin), literally meaning “one who does not (an-) come (āgacchati)”. The non-returner does not come back into human existence, or any lower world, after death. Instead, he is reborn in one of the worlds of the Rūpadhātu called the Śuddhāvāsa worlds, or “Pure Abodes”, where he will attain Nirvāa; Pāli: Nibbana; some of them are reborn a second time in a higher world of the Pure Abodes.

An Anāgāmī has abandoned the five lower fetters that bind the mind to the cycle of rebirth. An Anāgāmī is thus partially enlightened, and on the way to perfect and completeEnlightenment.

Arahant

Main article: Arahant

The fourth stage is that of Arahant, a fully enlightened being who has abandoned all fetters, and who upon death (Sanskrit:Parinirvāa, Pāli: Parinibbāna) will not be reborn in any world, having wholly abandoned sasāra.[2] [3]

If you want more on each stage, go check out the main articles.

With that foundation, here is the discussion.

http://www.palikanon.com/english/intro-abhidhamma/chapter_i.htm

INTRODUCING BUDDHIST ABHIDHAMMA 

The Buddha preaching Abhidhamma in the Tavatimsa

Buddha alighting from Tavatimsa to teach Abhidhamma to Sariputta, the Thai version

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Beautiful Breath

1 - Preliminaries

l. The Buddha

2. Ultimates (paramattha)

3. Ultimates in Matter

4. Consciousness

5. Mental Constituents (cetasika)

6. Conventional Truth (paññatti)

7. Ultimates in Mind and Matter

9. Three Spheres or Realms

10. Thirty-one Planes of Existence

11. Death and Rebirth

12. The Subjective Mind

13. Noble Ones

14. Mundane and Supramundane Wisdom.




l. The Buddha

Prince Siddartha was the eldest son of King Suddhodhana. His mother was Queen Mahāmaya, and on the night he was conceived, she had a wonderful dream. She related the dream to her royal husband, who summoned the Sage Asita to explain its meaning. He told the royal parents that the Queen had conceived a son who would one day become either a Universal Monarch or a Buddha.

The King wanted his son to become a Universal Monarch and did not like the idea of his son becoming a Buddha. With that aim, he surrounded his son with sensual pleasures.

Prince Siddartha was married to Princess Yasodhara. He was given 3 palaces to suit the 3 seasons. One day, whilst he was driving through the Park, he saw an aged person. On another occasion he saw a diseased person, and later a dead corpse.

All this is described in the Anguttara Nikāya, III, 35, as, ’Warnings’ regarding decay, disease, and death, and has been put in a rhetorical way.

Herewith :

Did you never see in the world a man, or a woman, eighty, or ninety, or a hundred years old, frail, crooked as a gable roof, bent down, resting on crutches, with tottering steps, infirm, youth long since fled, with broken teeth, gray and scanty hair, or bald headed, wrinkled, with blotched limbs? And did the thought never come to you that also you are subject to decay, that you cannot escape it?

Did you never see in the world a man, or a woman who, being sick, afflicted, and grievously ill, and wallowing in their filth, was lifted up by some people, and put to bed by others? And did the thought never come to you that also you are subject to disease, and also you cannot escape it?

Did you never see in the world the corpse of a man, or a woman, one or two or three days after death, swollen, blue black in color, and full of corruption? And did the thought never come to you that also you are subject to death, and that also you cannot escape it?

What he saw and the explanations he received no doubt made a great impression on this introspective young man.

At the age of 29, on the birth of a child, he renounced his kingdom, for the purpose of solving the riddle of birth and death.

For fully 6 years, he studied under the Greatest Teachers of the day, meditating, or what would be called concentration his mind. Finally, along with 5 companions, called the 5 Vaggi, he took to ascetic practices and achieved all the psychic powers that could be got.

He had obtained the 5 super intellections, called abhiññas, one of which was the seeing of past existences. He was a Hindu and had the preconceived idea that what he saw were the souls of the different beings transmigrating from existence to existence.

One day he fell down in a swoon for lack of strength. On his recovery he realized that he was not getting to the bottom of what he renounced his kingdom to find out, namely the problem of birth and death.

He began to eat again and finally on the full moon eve of May he sat down under the Bodhi tree to meditate. The time was now ripe for him to distinguish between ultimate realities and conventional concepts and ideas.

It was only by meditating on ultimate realities that he came to realize the illusions and delusions and hallucinations and perversions induced by Mind-Consciousness, allegorized as Māra, the King of Darkness, whom I have called the Great Magician. The Buddha achieved Enlightenment at the dawn of the next day.

He now understood that there was no transmigration of souls but results of deeds which brings about beings from one existence to another.




2. Ultimates (paramattha)

Water exists. However, a molecule of water can be subdivided into H2 O, namely, two atoms of hydrogen to one atom of oxygen; therefore, water, as such, cannot be regarded as an ultimate, for an ultimate, by definition, is something that cannot be subdivided.

Once again, an atom is not an ultimate unit, for it can be subdivided into protons, electrons and neutrons. These protons, electrons and neutrons are not ultimates either, for they can be subdivided into atomic particles and muons and quarks, and maybe these are the present ultimates in Science.

There are two kinds of truth, one is conventional truth, like our concept of water, (sammuti-sacca), and there is ultimate truth, like atomic particles (paramattha-sacca).

This book deals with ultimate realities in Buddhism. You cannot see an ultimate with the naked eye but only with the eye of wisdom, that can be called the “inner eye”, for it is abstract. Similarly, you cannot see an atom or a molecule except with the “inner-eye”.

Just pause for a moment to consider that the whole body of water in this universe, the lakes and rivers and oceans are not ultimates; they exist only in conventional language but they do not exist in terms of ultimates.

There are ultimates in Matter (materiality) and ultimates in Mind (mentality), and they are seen by the Buddhist inner eye as having or manifesting properties or qualities. But nothing exists apart form the ultimates.

Each of these ultimates has its individual essence, called sabhāva; sabhāva is also translated as intrinsic nature. One has to come to realize these individual essences by contemplation or meditation, both the individual essences of the ultimates in Matter and ultimates in Mind.

Mind and Matter can be likened to a Cripple and a Blind Man. The Cripple can’t walk, and the Blind Man can’t see. When the cripple is put on the shoulders of the blind man, the cripple can see and directs the blind man to go left and right.

Mind wants to eat but it cannot eat, and it is the body that eats, Mind wants to drink, but it cannot drink and it is the body that drinks. It is the Mind that controls and directs.

The categories of the ultimate realities in Buddhism are:

1.     Consciousness; (citta)

2.     Mind Constituents; (cetasikas)

3.     Materiality; (rūpa)

4.     Nirvana (Nibbāna).




3. Ultimates in Matter

The ultimates in Matter are 28, namely,

a. The 4 essential qualities or properties of

1.     hardness, or softness; (pathavī)

2.     cohesion or fluidity; (āpo)

3.     heat or lack of heat; and (tejo)

4.     motion or resistance to motion. (vāyo)

b. The 4 secondary qualities or properties of

1.     colour; (vanna)

2.     smell; (gandhā)

3.     taste; (rasa)

4.     nutriment (ojā)

These eight properties are inseparable and are called the Octad. They are explained more fully later, and also how to see each property or quality with the inner eye. The other 20 properties are listed in the Appendix.

We have mentioned about the ultimates in matter.

Matter is generated by :

1.     Karma (Kamma),

2.     Mind (citta),

3.     Temperature (utu),

4.     Nutriment (āhāra).

They are called:

1.     Karma-produced matter,

2.     Mind-produced matter,

3.     Temperature-produced matter, and

4.     Nutriment-produced matter.

Matter is being produced all the time by these 4 causes. At any instant, the karma-produced matter may be prominent, at other times mind-produced matter may be prominent or temperature-produced matter or nutriment-produced matter.

It must be remembered that these ultimate realities in matter are what can be visualised only by the inner eye. But the properties or qualities are reflected in the human body. When you are angry, even a child can sense that you are angry. Similarly for other emotions, your body will reflect your emotions and moods.




4. Consciousness

There are 5 sense-organs in the body, and if anyone is defective, for instance, if you are blind or deaf, people are not apt to accept you as a full human being. The inanimate body has no sentience.

You see something. There arises visual consciousness.

You hear something. There arises auditory consciousness.

You smell something. There arises smell or olfactory consciousness.

You taste something. There arises gustatory consciousness.

You touch something. There arises tactile consciousness.

You daydream or think of something, without the basis of any of the 5 senses. There arises ideational consciousness, or mind consciousness.

It is the function of the eye to see, the ear to hear, and the nose to smell, etc. The eye cannot hear or smell, and the ear cannot see or smell, and the nose cannot see or hear, etc.

Consciousness arises and disappears immediately. Only one consciousness can arise at a time and it immediately disappears for the next consciousness to arise.




5. Mental Constituents (cetasika)

Mind is consciousness plus something. Along with any consciousness, there arise certain mental constituents which are called cetasikas, like love, hate anger, disgust, disappointment, etc. These cetasikas are also translated as mental factors, mental concomitants, mental adjuncts, psychic factors, etc.

There are 52 cetasikas. When any consciousness arises, some appropriate cetasikas always arise. These cetasikas arise and disappear along with consciousness.

Some 7 cetasikas always arise with every unit of consciousness and they are called Universals. Some 6 others arise as a whole or in parts. The remainder are morally good or bad or neutral and they arise in different combinations.

When a consciousness disappears, all the cetasikas that had arisen along with it also disappear simultaneously.

Each cetasika has its own individual essence or sabhāva.

The 7 Univerals or Common Properties (sabbacitta): (in every consciousness)

1.     phassa (Contact)

2.     vedanā (Feeling)

3.     saññā (Perception)

4.     cetanā (Volition)

5.     ekaggatā (One-pointedness of Mind)

6.     jīvitindriya (Psychic Life)

7.     manasikāra (Attention)

Consciousness is extremely swift. Commentators say that in the time taken by the twinkling of an eye or a flash of lightning, there are more than a billion consciousnesses. We can paraphrase it by saying that a consciousness takes about a billionth of a second to function.

In a course-of-cognition, which is called a thought-process by certain authors, there are 17 thought moments. In each thought moment there are 3 phases or khanas, namely: arising, development and cessation.

A thought-process always follows a certain sequence of consciousnesses; it is explained in more detail in the next chapter.

We receive information of the outside world through 5 sense doors. There is also a sixth door, called the mind door, through which we perceive our own ideas; this is ideational consciousness. We use our imagination here.

So far as a material object is concerned, it exists for 17 thought moments till a new material object takes its place existing for 17 thought moments.




6. Conventional Truth (paññatti)

You were told the distinction between ultimate truth (paramattha) and conventional truth. This conventional or relative truth is also called paññatti, which means concepts, ideas, notions, names or terms.

A paññatti either makes known or is made known.

The different kinds are given different names. There are collective concepts, general concepts, derivative concepts, formal concepts, concepts relating to locality, time and space, concepts of nothingness, and continuity, and conceptualized afterimages (in Samatha concentration) and conventional signs.

Some may be interested in the Pāli names:

·         Santhāna paññatti are concepts of form, like land, mountains, etc.

·         Samūha paññatti are collective concepts, corresponding to a collection or group of things, like chariot, table.

·         Disā paññatti refer to concepts of locality.

·         Kāla paññatti refer to concepts of time.

·         ākāsa paññatti refer to space, like caves, wells.

·         Nimitta paññatti refer to conceptualized images, visualized images.




7. Ultimates in Mind and Matter

The paramatthas are:

So all that is not a paramattha can be called a paññatti. This distinction between paramattha and paññatti is important A paramattha exists in reality. It is the bedrock of all existence. There are ultimates in matter and mind. They really exist, and what does not really exist is said not to exist. So such things as lakes, rivers, mountains, a human being, a person, a male, a female, do not exist in reality and are said not to exist. They are paññatti. It is called vohāra-sacca or spoken or relative truth. They are just words and ideas and names, and therefore conventional truth. They are not ultimate reality.

It was only under the Bodhi-Tree that the future Buddha came to understand the difference between paramattha and paññatti. Previously, his world was the world of paññatti; now it was the world of paramattha. Only on meditation on paramattha did he achieve Enlightment. Similarly you must meditate on paramattha in Vipassanā Meditation.




8. Subject and Object

In Abhidhamma there is always a subject and an object, and they arise together simultaneously. The subject is called arammanika and the object is arammana, also called alambana. The subject is “I” in paññatti language. The object can be anything at all. In terms of paramattha, the arammanika is citta, cetasika and rūpa. When we turn the mind inwards and think of the immediately past mind, the arammanika becomes the arammana.

Mind is consciousness plus a few appropriate cetasikas (mental constituents). So when we speak of Mind, we can also say Consciousness.

The objects taken by the different Minds are either one of the 5 sense objects, or an ideational object. Mind is also regarded in Buddhism as one of the senses, making 6 senses in all.

Consciousness can get more and more exalted till it reaches the very heights. How exalted can your consciousness become? It can’t get very exalted if it is bogged down by immoral or evil thoughts or what is called craving (tanhā) or selfish desire or thirst. You will hear more about this tanhā.




9. Three Spheres or Realms

In the universe, there are 3 Spheres or Realms, namely,

1.     Sphere or Realm of sensuous desires (kāmā vacara or kāma-loka).

2.     Sphere or Realm of Form (rūpāvacara or rūpa-loka)

3.     Sphere or Realm of the Formless (arūpāvacara or arūpa-loka).

In the sphere of sensuous desires, there are morally good and morally bad consciousnesses and the neutral. Unless you have transcended your bad thoughts and inclinations, your consciousness cannot reach the sphere of Form and the Formless, where the consciousnesses are all good.

It is the function of mental development (bhāvanā) to get your consciousness more and more exalted. Eventually there is Nirvana (Nibbāna) which can be attained if tanhā, or craving, is permanently eliminated.

By Vipassanā Meditation, by methods of acquiring the required Wisdom, Nirvana is attained. Buddhism is the only Religion that promises to reach its highest goal during life time, and you do not have to wait till after death.




10. Thirty-one Planes of Existence

In this Universe, we talk of the “human world”, the “animal world”, the “plant world”, etc., but we do not think of them as different material worlds or different places.

There are 31 planes of existence. The human mind can descend to the lowest depths and also ascend to the highest regions. We reach the heights as the results of the states of concentration called jhāna.

Kāma-loka, the Realm of sensuous desire, is divided into 6 main planes according to their respective degrees of suffering. They are in ascending order:

The plane of Purgatory (Niraya)

The plane of animals (Tirachhāna-yoni)

The plane of beings in whom the desire outweighs the possibilities of satisfaction (Petti-visaya)

The plane of ghosts (Asura-kāya)

The human plane (Manussā)

The planes of Higher Beings within the sense world (Devā-loka)

The 4 lower planes are called the abodes of misery (Apāya-bhūmi).

The two higher ones, including the human plane, are the abodes of fortunate sense experience (kāma-sugati-bhūmi).

In the Realm of Pure Form (Rūpa-loka), the only senses are visual, aural (auditory), and the mental.

The intensity of consciousness, namely, in purity and in its light, increases. Here, we have Beings of radiant light, of limited or boundless aura, limited or infinite radiance, and Beings of the abodes of purity.

The description of the 4 planes of non-form (arūpa-loka) coincides with that of the 4 Stages of non-form consciousness.

The human Mind can reach all these planes, by practicing the methods for reaching them. The human Mind can attain all the jhānas as the result of which beings are reborn in all the planes.




11. Death and Rebirth

The death consciousness (cuti-citta) of this existence occurs at the end of the dying process. The next consciousness is the Rebirth-linking consciousness, called the patisandhi citta, which is the moment of conception in the next existence.

It is explained in the Patthana, the last book of the Abhidhamma, that when death ceases, the force of proximity-condition brings about the next consciousness which is the Rebirth-linking Consciousness. It is further explained that the force left behind produces results. Although an asynchronous faultless or faulty volition arises for one thought moment and then ceases, this is not the end of it. For a special force is left behind in the mind’s successive continuity so that at some time in the future, the appropriate result of that volition will be produced when the proper conditions are satisfied. It is due to the presence of this force that results appear. However, this force does not manifest itself like the mind with its nascent, static and terminating phases but is present like the latent tendencies. And just as the latter are not concepts, so also this special force of asynchronous kamma is not a concept. It is a special force of the ultimate realities. It may be called a germinal force.

The patisandhi consciousness lasts for one thought moment only and is then called the bhavangha which lasts for 16 thought moments impelled by its craving for existence and then sinks into the passive state of mind.

It is at the moment of conception that the foetus gets its tactile sense organ and the heart basis (hadaya-vatthu), and its gender, whether it is going to be a male or a female, and all these are produced by its past karma.

At the end of each course-of-cognition, the bhavangas arise and cease successively till the next course-of-cognition occurs. But consciousnesses are so swift that the bhavangas in between are not detectable. How many thought moments your bhavanga takes between courses of cognition depends on the stage of your mind development. It is the aim of mind development to reduce the time of the bhavanga, and the shorter the time, the more alert is your mind. It determines the acuteness of your brain.

This death consciousness takes as its object one of three things. At the last moment, the person thinks of something that has been most prominent in his mind. A murderer may get an idea that he is going to commit a crime, whereas a pious man may think he is worshipping the Buddha or listening to a sermon. This is known as kamma or the “vision of action”.

Or he may see all article generally associated with his action. The murderer may see a knife whilst the pious man may see a yellow robe. This is vision as kamma-nimitta or the “vision of an article associated with the action”.

Or he may get a vision of hellfire or a vision of the higher regions. This is known as gati-nimitta, or the “vision of the sign of destiny”.

Your bhavanga of this existence has as its object what was the object of your last dying process.

After each course-of-cognition, the mind goes back to the bhavanga-state.

Life has been compared to a river, which has its beginning or source at birth and its mouth at death (cuti). It seems to have a constant form or identity but there is not a drop today of all the water that composed it yesterday.

This stream of life or being is also called the life-continuum by certain authors; it is the passive state of mind as in dreamless sleep.

The dividing line between Being and Thought is called the Mind Door (mano-dvāra); it is the threshold of consciousness. Below the threshold is subliminal consciousness and above the threshold is called supra-liminal consciousness.

One Indian author is of the opinion that a thought may be compared to a wave in the sea. The wave rises up from the surface and then sinks down again. Similarly, a thought rises up from the surface of the bhavanga and sinks back to its base; it sinks back between courses of cognition and after cognition is over before the start of any new course-of-cognition. However, this opinion is not universally accepted as it is said that the bhavanga is arrested before a thought commences.

For a vivid sense-object, there are 17 thought-moments in a course-of-cognition, after which bhavangas arise and cease successively for a few hundred thought-moments and then there arises the second course-of-cognition, followed by a few hundred more bhavangas.

Then there are thousands and thousands of more impressions, and course-of-cognitions, each followed at the end of each course by bhavangas, the duration of which are about 30,000 or 40,000 thought-moments. It is said that chief Disciple Sāriputta had such a great mind that there were only a few hundred bhavangas after each course-of-cognition.

It is the function of mind development to reduce the duration of the bhavangas between the course-of-cognitions. The quick mind has only a few thousand bhavangas after each course-of-cognition.

You cannot be born a human being, without some good karma in the sum total of previous existences. Nevertheless ignorance (avijjā) and craving (tanhā), of which you will hear a lot later, are pulling, like gravity, to bad deeds, to blindness of moral vision. Your education during all your childhood years, including your training, makes you a better and better boy changing your blindness to a better vision. The time will come when you will be more good than bad. Or, if you cannot profit from your education, you will be predominately bad.




12. The Subjective Mind

All verbal and physical actions are motivated by the mind. If you raise your hand or you sit down or you walk, it is all mind-motivated action.

It is well known that old people cannot hear certain sounds that are audible to younger people. And humans cannot hear certain sounds heard by animals. It does not mean, however, that these sounds do not exist.

Moreover, if the Mind is absorbed in something else and attention is not paid to these sounds, the Mind does not hear these sounds. In these cases, the sounds do not exist for the Mind.

Only when the Mind takes these sounds as objects can a person hear them, and they exist for the Mind.

Things may exist in the world but they are not known to the Mind, if they are not objects of the Mind.

However, the Mind cannot take everything as objects at one and the same time. The Mind can take as an object only one thing at any one time, and the rest of the world is non-existent so far as the Mind is concerned.

The Minds that have already disappeared are no more existent, and the Minds that are not yet born are still non-existent. Mind Consciousness exists at the present moment only, though the object it takes can be of the past, present or future, real or imaginary.




13. Noble Ones

There are 4 types of individuals, called the Noble Ones, who are near the Goal;

·         one “who has entered the stream” (sotāpanna),

·         the “once-returner” (sakadāgāmī),

·         the “non-returner” (anāgāmī),

·         the “Holy One” (arahat), who has realised the highest goal.

A definition of these Noble Ones is found in the fourth book of the Abhidhamma-Pitaka (Puggala-Paññatti 26-27):

He who has overcome the three fetters; such a man is called “one who has entered the stream” (sotāpanna).

He in whom sensual desire and anger are utterly reduced; such a man is called “once-returner” (sakadāgāmī).

He who has completely overcome sensual desire and anger; such a man is called “non-returner” (anāgāmī).

He who has completely overcome the craving or the world of Pure Form or of Non-Form as well as pride, restlessness, and ignorance; such a man is called a “Holy One” (arahat).

Of the ten fetters (samyojana) by which the ordinary human being (puthujjana) is bound to the world, the “stream winner” has overcome the first three:

·         the belief in a permanent personality (sakkāya-ditthi)

·         doubt (or scepticism) (vicikicchā)

·         clinging to rules and rituals (sīlabbata-parāmāsa)

The remaining seven fetters are:

·         sensual desire (kāma-rāga)

·         aversion or anger (patigha)

·         craving for existence in the world of Pure Form (rūpa-rāga)

·         craving for existence in the world of Non-Form (arūpa-rāga)

·         pride (māna)

·         restlessness (uddhacca)

·         ignorance, delusion (avijjā)

The first five are called the lower fetters. The five higher fetters are only overcome by the arahat.

Here is a short summary:

ARIYA-PUGGALA SAMYOJANA

1.     sotāpanna 1-3

2.     sakadāgāmī 1-3; 4 and 5 partly

3.     anāgāmī 1-5

4.     arahat 1-10




14. Mundane and Supramundane Wisdom.

The whole world is using mundane or paññatti wisdom. All Western philosophers are using mundane, paññatti wisdom.

But there is another wisdom, called the Supramundane Wisdom. This Book will explain how you become a Noble One.

Say, you meet a pretty girl who wants to come and live with you. On making inquiries, you learn that she has a venereal disease, and that she tells lies and she is a habitual thief. You use paññatti wisdom to decide that she will cause you suffering, and you turn down the proposition.

The other Wisdom is called Vipassanā Wisdom leading to Magga Wisdom, which leads to Nirvana, our final goal. It is also called Lokuttara Wisdom.

Towards An Equalitarian Society Uttar Pradesh The Cradle of Buddhism

The land of Uttar Pradesh has the glory of having been blessed by the dust beneath the feet of the great humanitarian and epoch-making person like Gautam Buddha. Gautam Buddha undertook a journey across the country with a view to inculcating in the masses the feelings of humanity and universal brotherhood. Places like Kapilavattu, (Piprahwa), Saranath, Savatti, Kausambi, Sankisa and Kusinara etc., in the state had the pride of having been blessed by the foot prints by the kindness and compassion incarnate. As a result these places in Uttar Pradesh became venerable and worthy of visit by national and international tourists. This is the reason why devout tourists from not only India, but also from many other countries like Japan, Thailand, Taiwan, Korea and Burma consider themselves fortunate in being able to come to these places and their floral tribute to Lord Buddha.

Named on the 5th day of the birth – Siddharth Gautam

                                                                        (Gautam ws family name)

Birth                                      -About 650 BC        Father’s Name - Shuddhodhan

Mother’s name                  -Mahamaya             Birth Place – Lumbini

Wife’s Name                       -Yashodhara

Mahaparinibbana             -In Kusinara at the age of 81 years

Important and historic places of Buddhist pilgrimage located in Uttar Pradesh have an extremely glorious history….in memorials and remains here is reflected an unforgettable and indelible image of peace, devotion and faith.

 

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