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11/02/17
2428 Thu 2429 Fri 2&3 Nov 2017 LESSON Tipitaka 14th National Masters Championship - 2017 in 30) Classical Galician,31) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,32) Classical German-Klassisches Deutsch,33) Classical Greek-Κλασσική Ελληνική,34) Classical Gujarati- ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,35) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl ayisyen,36) Classical Hausa-Hausa na gargajiya,37) Classical Hawaiian -Hawaiian Hawaiian,38) Classical Hebrew - עברית קלאסית 39) Classical Hindi-शास्त्रीय हिंदी,40) Classical Hmong,41) Classical Hungarian -Klasszikus magyar,42) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,43) Classical Igbo
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 10:42 pm



2428 Thu 2429 Fri  2&3 Nov 2017 LESSON 

Tipitaka

14th National Masters Championship - 2017

in 30) Classical Galician,31) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,32) Classical German-Klassisches Deutsch,33) Classical Greek-Κλασσική Ελληνική,34) Classical Gujarati- ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,35) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl ayisyen,36) Classical Hausa-Hausa na gargajiya,37) Classical Hawaiian -Hawaiian Hawaiian,38) Classical Hebrew - עברית קלאסית

39) Classical Hindi-शास्त्रीय हिंदी,40) Classical Hmong,41) Classical Hungarian -Klasszikus magyar,42) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,43) Classical Igbo


https://i.imgur.com/zg7NV8d.png

Inline image 5



Inline image 4

Inline image 3


http://friesian.com/british.htm
Inline image 12




https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qJ0WUgmTndc
Breathing Meditation -New Perspective on the Satipatthana Sutta - Part 2


In this part 2 Bhante Vimalaramsi explains the difference…
youtube.com


Breathing Meditation -New Perspective on the Satipatthana Sutta - Part 2

30) Classical Galician

30) Clásico galego

O
Tipitaka (Pali ti, “tres”, + pitaka, “cestas”) ou o canon de Pali é a
colección de textos de lingua primaria de Pali que forman o fundamento
do Budismo Theravada.
Os textos de Tipitaka e Paracanonical Pali (comentarios, crónicas,
etc.) constitúen o corpo completo de textos Theravada clásicos.

O canon Pali é un vasto corpo de literatura: en inglés, os textos engádense a miles de páxinas impresas. A maioría (pero non todos) da Canon xa se publicaron en inglés ao longo dos anos. Selv om kun en lille de af et tekster er tilgængelige på denne hjemmeside, kan denne samling være et godt sted at starte.

As tres divisións do Tipitaka son:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
A
colección de textos sobre as regras de conduta que rexen os asuntos
diarios dentro da Sangha: a comunidade de bhikkhus (monxes ordenados) e
bhikkhunis (monxas ordenadas).
Máis aló da lista de regras, a Vinaya Pitaka tamén inclúe as historias
detrás da orixe de cada regra, proporcionando unha explicación
detallada da solución de Buda á cuestión de como manter a harmonía
comunal dentro dunha comunidade espiritual grande e diversa.
Sutta Pitaka
    
A
colección de suttas ou discursos atribuídos ao Buda e algúns dos seus
discípulos máis próximos, que contiñan todas as ensinanzas centrais do
Budismo Theravada.
(Máis de mil traducións están dispoñibles neste sitio web.) Os suttas están divididos entre cinco nikayas (coleccións):

        Digha Nikaya - a “longa colección”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - a “colección de lonxitude media”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - a “colección agrupada”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - a “colección máis facturada”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - a “colección de pequenos textos”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettakarana (incluída só na edición birmana do Tipitaka)
            
Petakopadesa (”")
            
Milindapañha (”")

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
De
acordo co profesorado, o profesorado principal pode axudar os alumnos a
reter o seu apoio e reorganizar os seus sistemas de traballo, así como
obter máis información sobre as persoas con discapacidade.




So we just so happened to stumble on a place that not only had delicious pork products, but also had live music that night.…
youtube.com

31) Classical Georgian
31. კლასიკური ქართული

Tipitaka
(Pali ti, “სამი,” + pitaka, “კალათები”), ან პალი კანონი, არის პირველადი
პალის ენობრივი ტექსტების კოლექცია, რომლებიც ქმნიან ტერავდადის ბუდიზმის
დოქტრინალურ საფუძველს.
Tipitaka და Paracanonical Pali ტექსტები (კომენტარები, ქრონიკები და
სხვ.) ერთად წარმოადგენს კლასიკური თეოკრატის ტექსტების სრულ ორგანოს.

პალიკონი ლიტერატურის დიდი ნაწილია: ინგლისურ თარგმანში ტექსტები ათასობით ბეჭდურ გვერდს დაემატება. Canon- ის უმრავლესობა (მაგრამ არა ყველა) უკვე გამოქვეყნდა ინგლისურ ენაზე. სრულად ვცდილობთ, რომ მას შემდეგ, რაც გაეცანით მას, თქვენ უნდა გაეცნოთ მას, და მოგეხსენებათ.

ტიპითკას სამი განყოფილებაა:

ვინანას პოტაკა
    
საკვანძო
სიტყვების კოლექცია, რომელიც დაკავშირებულია სინჟის ფარგლებში ყოველდღიური
საქმეების შესახებ - ბიკხუსის (დანიშნულ ბერები) და ბიხხუნის (დანიშნულ
მონაზვნებს) საზოგადოებაში.
გარდა ამისა, წესების ჩამონათვალში, ვინიატა პიკაკა ასევე მოიცავს ყველა
წესის წარმოშობის ისტორიებს, ბუდას გადაწყვეტის დეტალურ ანგარიშს, თუ როგორ
უნდა შეინარჩუნოს კომუნალური ჰარმონია დიდი და მრავალფეროვანი სულიერი
თემის ფარგლებში.
სუტა პატაკა
    
ბუდასთან
და მის უახლოეს მოწაფეთა რამდენიმე ნაწილთან დაკავშირებული სტურებისა თუ
დისკურსების კოლექცია, რომლებიც მოიცავს ტერავდა ბუდიზმის ყველა ცენტრალურ
სწავლებას.
(ერთი ათასზე მეტი თარგმანი ხელმისაწვდომია ამ ვებ-გვერდზე). სუკასები იყოფა ხუთი ნიკაისგან (კოლექციები):

        დიღას ნიკაია - “ხანგრძლივი კოლექცია”
        
მაჯჯიმი ნიკაია - “საშუალო სიგრძის კოლექცია”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - “დაჯგუფებული კოლექცია”
        
ანგურაარა ნიკაია - “შემდგომი ფაქტორების შეგროვება”
        
ხუდუკ ნიკაია - “პატარა ტექსტების კრებული”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
სუტა ნიპატა
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettakarana (შედის მხოლოდ ბირმული გამოცემა Tipitaka)
            
პეტაკოპადეა (”")
            
მილინდფანა (”")

აბჰიდამმა პატაკა
    
ჩვენ
ვცდილობთ, რომ დავასკვნათ, რომ პრინციპები და პრინციპები არჩეულია
რეპეტიცია და რეორგანიზაცია და სისტემაში, რომელიც საშუალებას მოგვცემს
მივუდგეთ თქვენი ცოდნა.


Afghanistan was well known for its cultural diversity, and…
youtube.com

32) Classical German

32) Klassisches Deutsch


Der
Tipitaka (Pali zehn, “drei” + Pitaka “Körbe”) oder Pali Canon, ist die
Sammlung von Primärtexten Pali-Sprache, der Doctrinal bilden die
Grundlage des Theravada-Buddhismus.
Die Tipitaka und die parakanonischen Pali-Texte (Kommentare, Chroniken
usw.) bilden zusammen den gesamten Bestand an klassischen
Theravada-Texten.

Der
Pali-Kanon ist ein riesiger Bestand an Literatur: Bei der englischen
Übersetzung summieren sich die Texte zu Tausenden von gedruckten Seiten.
Die meisten (aber nicht alle) der Canon wurden bereits über die Jahre in englischer Sprache veröffentlicht. Selv om kun und lille del af disse tekster und tilgængelige på denne hjemmeside, kan denne samling være et godt sted at starte.

Die drei Divisionen des Tipitaka sind:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
Die
Sammlung von Texten über die Verhaltensregeln, die die täglichen
Angelegenheiten innerhalb der Sangha regeln - die Gemeinschaft der
Bhikkhus (ordinierte Mönche) und Bhikkhunis (ordinierte Nonnen).
Weit mehr als nur eine Liste von Regeln enthält die Vinayapitaka også
die Geschichten hinter dem Ursprung jeder Regel eine detaillierte
Darstellung der Lösung zwei spørgsmålet wie Bevare kommunale Harmonie
inom eine große und vielfältige spirituelle Gemeinschaft des Buddhas
Providing.
Sutta Pitaka
    
Die
Sammlung von Suttas oder Diskursen, die dem Buddha und einigen seiner
engsten Schüler zugeschrieben werden, enthält alle zentralen Lehren des
Theravada-Buddhismus.
(Mehr als tausend Übersetzungen sind auf dieser Website verfügbar.) Die Suttas sind auf fünf Nikayas (Sammlungen) aufgeteilt:

        Digha Nikaya - die “lange Sammlung”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - die “mittellange Sammlung”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - die “gruppierte Sammlung”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - die “weitergefasste Sammlung”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - die “Sammlung kleiner Texte”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragāthā
            
Therigatha
            
jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettakarana (nur in der burmesischen Ausgabe des Tipitaka enthalten)
            
Petakopadesa (”")
            
Milindapañha (”")

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
Die
Sammlung von Texten in som zugrunde liegenden Prinzipien Doctrinal im
Suttapitaka präsentiert werden in einem systematischen Rahmen som kan
til en Untersuchung der Natur des Geistes und der Materie Angewandte
Überarbeitete und neu organisiert.
http://www.palikanon.com/
Inline image 6

Tipitaka (Drei-Korb), der Pali Kanon
des Theravāda-Buddhismus

in Deutsch - (a few english
books
)




I. Vinaya Pitaka, Der Korb der Ordens Regeln


  1. Mahā Vibhanga, die
    227 Regeln der Mönche
  2. Bikkhunī Vibhanga, die 311 Regeln der Nonnen
  3. Mahā Vagga, die
    größere Unterteilung
  4. Chulla Vagga,
    die kleinere Unterteilung
  5. Parivāra, Zusammenfassung (nicht vorhanden)


II. Sutta Pitaka, Der Korb der Lehrsätze


  1. Dīgha Nikāya, die Längeren Lehrreden
  2. Majjhima Nikāya, die
    Mittleren Lehrreden
  3. Samyutta Nikāya, die
    Gruppierten Lehrreden
  4. Aṅguttara Nikāya, die Angereihten
    Lehrreden
  5. Khuddaka Nikāya, die Kurzen Texte


  1. Khuddaka Pātha, das
    kleine Lesebuch
  2. Dhammapada, der
    Wahrheitspfad
  3. Udāna, die feierlichen
    Sinnsprüche
  4. Itivuttaka, Aphorismen
  5. Sutta Nipāta, Sutta
    Bruchstücke
  6. Vimāna Vathu, die
    Götterpalastgeschichten
  7. Peta Vathu, die
    Gespenstergeschichten
  8. Theragāthā, die
    Sprüche der Mönche
  9. Therīgāthā, die Sprüche der Nonnen
  10. Jātaka,
    Wiedergeburtsgeschichten
  11. Mahā Nidesa, Ausmalung - Kommentar zum Sutta
    Nipāta (nicht vorhanden) [Pali]
  12. Pathisambhidā Magga, über die Kräfte der Heiligen (nicht
    vorhanden) [Pali]
  13. Apadāna, Abgaben - von Erklärungen zur Heiligkeit (nicht
    vorhanden)
  14. Buddha Vamsa, Legenden der 24 Buddhas vor Gotama (nicht
    vorhanden) [Pali]
  15. Cariyā Pitaka, Korb der Wandlungen (nicht vorhanden) [Pali]




III. Abhidhamma Pitaka, der Korb der Höheren Lehrreden


  1. Dhamma Sanganī, Zusammenfassung der Dinge - der geistigen Elemente (nicht
    vorhanden)
  2. Vibhanga, Erläuterungen - Analyse der geistigen Elemente
    (nicht vorhanden)
  3. Dhātu Kathā, Elementaranalyse - Abhandlung der geistigen
    Elemente (nicht vorhanden)
  4. Puggala Paññati,
    Menschenkunde
    - das Buch der Charaktere.
  5. Kathā
    Vatthu, Streitpunkte
    - Besprechung der strittigen Punkte (nur ein paar Auszüge)
  6. Yamaka, Doppelfragen - Paare von Gegensätzen (nicht
    vorhanden)
  7. Patthāna, Aufstellendes - das Buch der Bedingten Entstehung
    (nicht vorhanden)




Kommentar Literatur:






Buddhistische Handbibliothek


  1. Das Wort
    des Buddha
    . Eine systematische Übersicht der Lehre des Buddha in seinen
    eigenen Worten. Ausgewählt, übersetzt und erläutert von Nyanatiloka. Verlag
    Beyerlein-Steinschulte, ISBN 3-931095-08.
  2. Leer ist die Welt. Buddhistische Studien. Von Kurt Schmidt
  3. Buddhistisches Wörterbuch.
    Kurzgefasstes Handbuch der buddhistischen Lehren und Begriffe. Von
    Nyanatiloka. Verlag Beyerlein-Steinschulte, ISBN 3-931095-09-6.
  4. Sprüche und Lieder. Aus Dhammapāda, Udāna und Aphorismen
    Buddhas aus Sutta-Nitāta und Theragāthā. Übersetzt von Kurt Schmidt.
  5. Die
    Heilslehre des Buddha
    , von Georg Krauskopf
  6. Sutta Nipāta. Frühbuddhistische
    Lehrdichtungen aus dem Palikanon. Mit Auszügen aus den alten Kommentaren.
    Übersetzt, eingeleitet und erläutert von Nyanaponika. Verlag
    Beyerlein-Steinschulte, ISBN 30931095-06-1.
  7. Buddha und seine
    Jünger
    . Charakterbilder aus der buddhistischen Frühzeit von Kurt Schmidt
  8. Der Weg zur
    Erlösung
    . In den Worten der buddhistischen Urschriften. Ausgewählt und
    erläutert von Nyanatiloka. Verlag Beyerlein-Steinschulte, ISBN 3-931095-10-X.
  9. Der einzige
    Weg
    . Buddhistische Texte zur Geistesschulung in rechter Achtsamkeit
    (Satipatthāna). Übersetzt von Nyanaponika. Verlag Beyerlein-Steinschulte, ISBN
    3-931095-04-5.
  10. Buddhismus und Kunst, Religion und Kunst im Lichte des
    Buddhismus. Von Helmuth Hecker. Das buddhistische Kunstwerk. Von Karl Eugen
    Neumann. Verlag Beyerlein-Steinschulte, ISBN 30931095-14-2.
  11. Die Wurzeln
    von Gut und Böse
    . Buddhistische Texte. Aus dem Pali übersetzt, kommentiert
    und eingeleitet von Nyanaponika.
    Verlag Beyerlein-Steinschulte, ISBN 3-931095-05-3.




Vipassāna Meditation:






Verschiedene Buddhistische Literatur:


  • Die Parittas, die Schutztexte, von Anagarika Kassapa, als PDF Dokument.
  • Der
    Stromeintritt, von Hellmuth Hecker
    , erhältlich beim Verlag
    Beyerlein-Steinschulte. 
  • Gautama Buddha, die vier edlen Wahrheiten. Texte des
    ursprünglichen Buddhismus. Von Klaus Mylius, dtv Verlag, Nov. 1985. ISBN
    3-423-02166-7 (Erhältlich beim Octopus-Verlag).
  • Wirklichkeit
    und Erlösung
    , von Max Ladner, ISBN 3-931095-12-6, Verlag
    Beyerlein-Steinschulte, 95236 Stammbach, Fax 09256/8301. 
  • Die Lehre
    des Buddha
    , (Einführung in den Buddhismus) von Max Ladner, Rascher Verlag
    Zürich 1946.
  • Die Edikte des
    Kaisers Asoka
  • Buddha, sein Leben, seine Lehre, seine Gemeinde, von
    Hermann Oldenberg. Magnus Verlag Stuttgart, herausgegeben von Helmuth von
    Glasenapp. 
  • Arahat-Bhikkhunis, Inspiration durch erleuchtete Frauen, von Suan Elbaum
    Jootla
  • Buddhas Lehre von Kurt Schmidt.
  • Die Reise nach Westen, wie Hsüan Tsang den Buddhismus nach
    China holte. Von René Grousset, Eugen Didrichs Verlag 1986. ISBN
    3-424-00890-7. (erhältlich bei www.amazon.de)
  • Augenblicke der Wahrheit, Erlebnisse eines Wanderers auf dem Weg nach
    Innen, Paul Brunton, O.W.Barth Verlag,
    ISBN 3-502-62085-7.
  • Bei www.amazon.de gibt
    es zur Zeit (2000 A.D.) über 450 Bücher über Buddhismus. (Suchbegriff: BUDDH*)




Original Pali Version





Die Texte in Pali (Chattha Sangayana Tipitaka 4.0) stammen von dem Vipassana Research Institute Indien: http://www.tipitaka.org (mit deren ausdrücklichen Erlaubnis)


Folgende Abkürzungen weisen auf die verschiedenen Tipitaka Versionen hin:


  • sī. = Sri Lankan

  • syā. = Thai

  • pī. = Pali Text Society

  • ka. = Cambodian

  • A brief overview of Classical Greece - Second in the Dionysium Monograph series. http://www.dionysium.com
    youtube.com

    https://dhammawiki.com/index.php?title=Greeks_in_the_Tipitaka


    Greeks in the Tipitaka



    Many different tribes and ethnic groups are mentioned in the Tipitaka. One of these is the Yona. In his dialogue with the caste-conscious brahman Assalayana, the Buddha
    argues that caste must be a social phenomena rather than a divinely
    ordained reality because amongst the Yona there are only two groups,
    freemen and slaves, and having been a master one could become a slave
    and vica versa (M.II,149). The name Yona is derived from Ionia, the
    ancient name for Greece, or more accurately, the Greek states and people
    of costal Anatolia. When they were conquered by and absorbed into to
    Achaemenid Empire they were able to travel throughout the empire as far
    as its eastern borders. And the eastern border of course was far away as
    the western edge of India. So when Alexander got to Taxila for example,
    a delegation of Greek merchants came out of the city to meet him. One
    of King Asoka’s edicts mentions Ionas as a people on the frontier of his
    empire and one of his edicts is actually written in Greek. The famous
    gold coin of Kaniska (120 CE ?) had an image of the Buddha on it with
    his name (BODDO) written in Greek.

    It is unlikely that the Buddha
    or any Indians in the area where he lived had ever seen a Greek, but
    the lone reference to them in the Tipitaka shows that a few scraps of
    information about them had spread east. Interestingly, the Anguttara
    Nikaya commentary mentions that the Sakyans, the Buddha’s tribe, had
    Yona statues holding lamps. After Alexander’s conquests large numbers of
    Greeks migrated to India (modern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan) and
    went on to have some influence on Indian culture.



    References



    Many
    different tribes and ethnic groups are mentioned in the Tipitaka. One
    of these is the Yona. In his dialogue with the caste-conscious b…
    sdhammika.blogspot.pe


    The Nippapañca Blog

    Inline image 7Inline image 8


    The Indo-Greeks








         “‘What do you think about this,
    Assalāyana, have you heard that among the Yonas and Kambojas and among
    others of the outlying districts there are only two castes—masters and
    slaves; and one having been a master may become a slave, and one having
    been a slave may become a master?’ ‘Even so, sir. I have heard it.’”






         The quote above is from the Majjhima Nikāya (the Assalāyana Sutta,
    M93). It is a very interesting quote from a historical point of view,
    because in it the Buddha actually mentions the ancient Greeks. Yona
    in the Pali language means essentially “Greek”—or, more literally,
    “Ionian.” The Ionian Greeks were the subsection of the Greek people who
    settled mainly on the west coast of Asia Minor, and who occasionally
    settled much further east than that. Venerable Bhikkhu Bodhi, in his
    notes to his and ven. Nyanamoli’s great translation of the Majjhima,
    asserts that the Buddha’s reference is to the Greeks of Bactria. This
    may be correct, although there is one complication: in the Buddha’s time
    there very probably were no Greeks of Bactria.



         The history of Greeks on the frontiers of India (”India” throughout
    this article including what is now Pakistan and even most of
    Afghanistan, in accordance with ancient geography) officially began when
    Alexander the Great invaded and conquered northwestern India in 326BCE,
    roughly a century after the time of the Buddha, and he settled colonies
    of Ionian Greeks there. So if the Sutta is referring to those Greeks, it would be a glaring anachronism. But there are a few other possibilities.



         For example, Persia had among its eastern provinces lands inhabited
    mainly by people of Indian ethnicity; and in 480 BCE the Great King
    Xerxes of Persia launched a huge invasion force into mainland Greece,
    which included soldiers from his Indian provinces. So possibly,
    Indians of the middle Ganges Valley could have heard of Greeks from
    these soldiers returning from the Great King’s miraculous fiasco of an
    invasion. (The fact that a few tens of thousands of Greeks successfully
    defeated an army more than ten times its size, maybe twenty, is an
    amazing and historically extremely important tale in itself, but it lies
    beyond the scope of this story. It just goes to show the phenomenal
    strength of freedom, and what people are prepared to do to maintain that
    freedom. But enough for here.) 



         Or, there may have been significant Greek colonies near India as a
    result of some unruly, uppity Greek subjects in Asia Minor (then part of
    Persia) being relocated to the East as punishment, which the people of
    the Ganges Valley may have heard about. For instance, according to the
    ancient historian Herodotus, the Persian king Darius I (roughly 500BCE)
    relocated the population of a Greek town in Cyrenaica, in North Africa,
    to Bactria as punishment for refusing to hand over some political
    criminals. But it would seem unlikely that enough Greek troublemakers
    would be deported to the Indian frontier to make them common knowledge
    in the 5th century BCE Ganges Valley. Or maybe merchants or soldiers of
    fortune had traveled to the opposite end of Persia and met with Greeks,
    and then told tales of them after returning home to India. But chances
    are that the reference to Ionian Greeks in M93 really is referring to a
    kingdom of Bactrian Greeks, or possibly even to a kingdom of Greeks
    closer than Bactria (Bactria, approximately, being nowadays called
    Afghanistan). So it’s probably a great big anachronism, that is, a
    relatively late addition to the Pali Canon.



         The Yonas are also mentioned elsewhere in the Pali Tipitaka; for
    example in the Mahāniddesa, an ancient commentary on part of the Sutta
    Nipāta, not considered to be a product of “primitive” Buddhism. But the
    reference in M93 is in a core text, and core texts are considered by many to be reliably the oldest Pali texts we’ve got. 



         In fact there are many, including a great many Western bhikkhus,
    who follow the idea that about half the Tipitaka is not really
    authentic, but that the so-called core texts (first four books of the
    Vinaya Pitaka, first four Nikāyas of the Sutta Pitaka, and the first
    several books of the fifth Nikāya—notice Abhidhamma is conspicuously
    absent from this list) were the texts recited at the first Great
    Convocation immediately after the death of the Buddha. So the mention of
    Bactrian Greeks in the Majjhima Nikāya, supposedly by the Buddha
    himself, is somewhat of an embarrassment. (Incidentally, the Yavanas, as
    the Ionians are called in Sanskrit, along with the Kambojas too, are
    also mentioned in the great Indian epics Mahabharata and Ramayana, as
    members of a standard group of valiant, warlike, troublemaking
    barbarians who occasionally invade from the northwest—which makes them
    embarrassingly anachronistic in Hindu literature also.)



         The whole idea that ancient Greeks ruled parts of India is
    fascinating to me, because ancient India is very interesting, and
    ancient Greece is also very interesting, so a combination of the two is
    even more so. Plus the very idea of Gotama Buddha discussing ancient
    Greeks is downright delectable. And so I’ll indulge in a very brief
    outline of the history of the Indo-Greeks. 



         Very shortly after Alexander conquered Bactria and the area of the
    Punjab, the great Indian emperor Chandragupta conquered it back from
    Alexander’s successor in the east, Seleucus I—or else he simply traded
    for the territory with a princess and 5oo war elephants. Either way,
    Bactria remained in Greek hands, but the Indian territory south of it,
    along with the Greek colonists there, came under the governance of
    Indian monarchs. Some time after this the Parthians defeated the
    Seleucids and re-established an independent kingdom of Persia, which
    isolated the Bactrian Greeks from the rest of the Greek world in the
    West. This encouraged a Greek satrap named Diodotus, with the help of
    Parthian allies, to rebel against the Seleucid king and set himself up
    as king of an independent Greek Bactria in around 250BCE. 



         Bactria under the Greeks became very prosperous and powerful, and
    they extended their territory to the west and north, gaining territories
    in Persia and in Central Asia (what is now called Uzbekistan), reaching
    as far as the ancient western frontier of China. These Greeks were
    generally on friendly terms with the Mauryan Empire of India. The Greeks
    and Indians seem to have gotten along rather well. The Mauryas even had
    a special state department for attending to the welfare of the Greeks
    living within their boundaries, and entertained Greek ambassadors. Some
    of the edicts of Ashoka (the grandson of Chandragupta) are inscribed in
    the Greek language.



         Around the end of the third century BCE the Mauryan Empire began to
    collapse, and for various reasons, maybe in part to protect Greek
    colonists still settled in India, a Bactrian king named Demetrius I
    invaded Indian territory, sometime around 185BCE. Demetrius, known to
    the Indians as Dharmamitra, began the Indo-Greek period proper, as
    opposed to the Greco-Bactrian. He may have invaded as far as the Ganges
    Valley, but civil war in Bactria caused him to return quickly, before he
    could consolidate his gains, and he left behind relatively small
    numbers of troops to secure the territories. He was promptly defeated by
    a usurper to the throne of Bactria, and was killed. This separated the
    Greek territory in India, whose leaders pledged no allegiance to the
    Bactrian usurper Eucratides.



         Eucratides attempted to conquer the new Greek territories deeper in
    India, and succeeded as far as the Indus, where he was finally defeated
    and stopped by the most famous Indo-Greek king of all, Menandros I
    (called “The Savior King”), who may have been originally a general of
    Demetrius. The Greek territories in India were united and expanded by
    Menandros, who may have invaded as far as the old Magadhan capital of
    Pataliputra, on the Ganges, and his
    established frontier almost certainly extended as far east as Mathura.
    There will be more to say about Menandros (alias Milinda) momentarily.


    The Indo-Greeks








         “‘What do you think about this,
    Assalāyana, have you heard that among the Yonas and Kambojas and among
    others of the outlying districts there are only two castes—masters and
    slaves; and one having been a master may become a slave, and one having
    been a slave may become a master?’ ‘Even so, sir. I have heard it.’”






         The quote above is from the Majjhima Nikāya (the Assalāyana Sutta,
    M93). It is a very interesting quote from a historical point of view,
    because in it the Buddha actually mentions the ancient Greeks. Yona
    in the Pali language means essentially “Greek”—or, more literally,
    “Ionian.” The Ionian Greeks were the subsection of the Greek people who
    settled mainly on the west coast of Asia Minor, and who occasionally
    settled much further east than that. Venerable Bhikkhu Bodhi, in his
    notes to his and ven. Nyanamoli’s great translation of the Majjhima,
    asserts that the Buddha’s reference is to the Greeks of Bactria. This
    may be correct, although there is one complication: in the Buddha’s time
    there very probably were no Greeks of Bactria.



         The history of Greeks on the frontiers of India (”India” throughout
    this article including what is now Pakistan and even most of
    Afghanistan, in accordance with ancient geography) officially began when
    Alexander the Great invaded and conquered northwestern India in 326BCE,
    roughly a century after the time of the Buddha, and he settled colonies
    of Ionian Greeks there. So if the Sutta is referring to those Greeks, it would be a glaring anachronism. But there are a few other possibilities.



         For example, Persia had among its eastern provinces lands inhabited
    mainly by people of Indian ethnicity; and in 480 BCE the Great King
    Xerxes of Persia launched a huge invasion force into mainland Greece,
    which included soldiers from his Indian provinces. So possibly,
    Indians of the middle Ganges Valley could have heard of Greeks from
    these soldiers returning from the Great King’s miraculous fiasco of an
    invasion. (The fact that a few tens of thousands of Greeks successfully
    defeated an army more than ten times its size, maybe twenty, is an
    amazing and historically extremely important tale in itself, but it lies
    beyond the scope of this story. It just goes to show the phenomenal
    strength of freedom, and what people are prepared to do to maintain that
    freedom. But enough for here.) 



         Or, there may have been significant Greek colonies near India as a
    result of some unruly, uppity Greek subjects in Asia Minor (then part of
    Persia) being relocated to the East as punishment, which the people of
    the Ganges Valley may have heard about. For instance, according to the
    ancient historian Herodotus, the Persian king Darius I (roughly 500BCE)
    relocated the population of a Greek town in Cyrenaica, in North Africa,
    to Bactria as punishment for refusing to hand over some political
    criminals. But it would seem unlikely that enough Greek troublemakers
    would be deported to the Indian frontier to make them common knowledge
    in the 5th century BCE Ganges Valley. Or maybe merchants or soldiers of
    fortune had traveled to the opposite end of Persia and met with Greeks,
    and then told tales of them after returning home to India. But chances
    are that the reference to Ionian Greeks in M93 really is referring to a
    kingdom of Bactrian Greeks, or possibly even to a kingdom of Greeks
    closer than Bactria (Bactria, approximately, being nowadays called
    Afghanistan). So it’s probably a great big anachronism, that is, a
    relatively late addition to the Pali Canon.



         The Yonas are also mentioned elsewhere in the Pali Tipitaka; for
    example in the Mahāniddesa, an ancient commentary on part of the Sutta
    Nipāta, not considered to be a product of “primitive” Buddhism. But the
    reference in M93 is in a core text, and core texts are considered by many to be reliably the oldest Pali texts we’ve got. 



         In fact there are many, including a great many Western bhikkhus,
    who follow the idea that about half the Tipitaka is not really
    authentic, but that the so-called core texts (first four books of the
    Vinaya Pitaka, first four Nikāyas of the Sutta Pitaka, and the first
    several books of the fifth Nikāya—notice Abhidhamma is conspicuously
    absent from this list) were the texts recited at the first Great
    Convocation immediately after the death of the Buddha. So the mention of
    Bactrian Greeks in the Majjhima Nikāya, supposedly by the Buddha
    himself, is somewhat of an embarrassment. (Incidentally, the Yavanas, as
    the Ionians are called in Sanskrit, along with the Kambojas too, are
    also mentioned in the great Indian epics Mahabharata and Ramayana, as
    members of a standard group of valiant, warlike, troublemaking
    barbarians who occasionally invade from the northwest—which makes them
    embarrassingly anachronistic in Hindu literature also.)



         The whole idea that ancient Greeks ruled parts of India is
    fascinating to me, because ancient India is very interesting, and
    ancient Greece is also very interesting, so a combination of the two is
    even more so. Plus the very idea of Gotama Buddha discussing ancient
    Greeks is downright delectable. And so I’ll indulge in a very brief
    outline of the history of the Indo-Greeks. 



         Very shortly after Alexander conquered Bactria and the area of the
    Punjab, the great Indian emperor Chandragupta conquered it back from
    Alexander’s successor in the east, Seleucus I—or else he simply traded
    for the territory with a princess and 5oo war elephants. Either way,
    Bactria remained in Greek hands, but the Indian territory south of it,
    along with the Greek colonists there, came under the governance of
    Indian monarchs. Some time after this the Parthians defeated the
    Seleucids and re-established an independent kingdom of Persia, which
    isolated the Bactrian Greeks from the rest of the Greek world in the
    West. This encouraged a Greek satrap named Diodotus, with the help of
    Parthian allies, to rebel against the Seleucid king and set himself up
    as king of an independent Greek Bactria in around 250BCE. 



         Bactria under the Greeks became very prosperous and powerful, and
    they extended their territory to the west and north, gaining territories
    in Persia and in Central Asia (what is now called Uzbekistan), reaching
    as far as the ancient western frontier of China. These Greeks were
    generally on friendly terms with the Mauryan Empire of India. The Greeks
    and Indians seem to have gotten along rather well. The Mauryas even had
    a special state department for attending to the welfare of the Greeks
    living within their boundaries, and entertained Greek ambassadors. Some
    of the edicts of Ashoka (the grandson of Chandragupta) are inscribed in
    the Greek language.



         Around the end of the third century BCE the Mauryan Empire began to
    collapse, and for various reasons, maybe in part to protect Greek
    colonists still settled in India, a Bactrian king named Demetrius I
    invaded Indian territory, sometime around 185BCE. Demetrius, known to
    the Indians as Dharmamitra, began the Indo-Greek period proper, as
    opposed to the Greco-Bactrian. He may have invaded as far as the Ganges
    Valley, but civil war in Bactria caused him to return quickly, before he
    could consolidate his gains, and he left behind relatively small
    numbers of troops to secure the territories. He was promptly defeated by
    a usurper to the throne of Bactria, and was killed. This separated the
    Greek territory in India, whose leaders pledged no allegiance to the
    Bactrian usurper Eucratides.



         Eucratides attempted to conquer the new Greek territories deeper in
    India, and succeeded as far as the Indus, where he was finally defeated
    and stopped by the most famous Indo-Greek king of all, Menandros I
    (called “The Savior King”), who may have been originally a general of
    Demetrius. The Greek territories in India were united and expanded by
    Menandros, who may have invaded as far as the old Magadhan capital of
    Pataliputra, on the Ganges,
    and his
    established frontier almost certainly extended as far east as Mathura.
    There will be more to say about Menandros (alias Milinda) momentarily.
    Inline image 9

    “King Milinda”






         After the reign of Menandros the Greek territories in India became
    fragmented and weakened, and were finally wiped out around the first
    century CE by invading Sakas, or Scythians, a large tribe of nomadic
    horsemen who spoke an Iranian language, and who conquered the area for
    themselves, adopting much of the Greek culture they found, including
    worship of Zeus, Athena, and Gotama Buddha. (Their invasion of India was
    part of a huge chain reaction, started when the Chinese and their
    allies drove some particularly nasty nomadic tribes away from the
    western Chinese border, which resulted in a domino effect, radiating
    warlike nomads to the west and south. This culminated a few centuries
    later with the Huns invading ancient Rome, thus doing their part to put
    an end to classical culture…But that’s a whole different story.) Greeks
    continued to live in India as Indian Greek subjects for a few centuries
    longer, until they finally were absorbed into the Indian mainstream and
    lost their Hellenistic cultural identity.



         The Greek invasion of India after the Mauryan collapse may have
    been partly due to the fact that the Bactrian Greeks by this time had
    largely converted to Buddhism, whereas some of the new Indian
    governments replacing the collapsed empire favored Brahmanism and were
    unfriendly to Buddhists. So the Greek kings were mostly well-liked by
    their Buddhist Indian subjects.



         Getting back to Menandros I, he is probably best known as King
    Milinda of the Buddhist text Milinda-Pañha, which is included as part of
    the 40-volume Burmese Pali Tipitaka. I won’t give a synopsis of the
    text, but it is considered by Western scholars not to have been
    originally Theravadin. Other schools of Buddhism had their own Questions
    of Milinda, and the Theravadin version is said to have extensive
    additions. The area ruled by Menandros/Milinda was not Theravada
    Buddhist territory anyway, but was a stronghold of the Sarvastivada
    school. But that is not conclusive of anything. 



         According to the text itself, Milinda not only converted to
    Buddhism after his public interview with the monk Nāgasena, but he
    actually abdicated, renounced the world, was ordained as a bhikkhu, and
    even eventually became fully enlightened, with his relics being entombed
    in a number of pagodas after he died. On the other hand, the
    Greco-Roman biographer Plutarch also mentions this same Menandros in his
    Precepts of Statecraft (or Praecepta Gerendae Reipublicae),
    offering him as an example of wise and benevolent rule, and claimed
    that he died still a king in an army camp, probably while on a military
    campaign. Nevertheless, both accounts, Eastern and Western, agree that
    Menandros/Milinda was well loved by his people, and that his relics were
    divided and entombed in burial monuments with great reverence. He
    apparently really did convert to Buddhism, even though his coins
    continued to show Greek deities on the reverse (”tails”) side,
    especially Athena, which design was copied by some of his successors.
    The Indo-Greeks apparently combined Buddhism with their traditional
    paganism, which apparently is the way most cultures adopt a new system,
    including the modern West.



         In a way the existence of Greek Buddhist kingdoms in ancient India
    is just an interesting but not particularly useful bit of information.
    Knowing it very probably won’t help our meditation; and one can pretty
    obviously reach high spiritual levels while being utterly clueless on
    the topic. But it is nice to know, and the Indo-Greeks apparently did
    have a significant influence on the path of world Dharma. The
    Milinda-Pañha is an obvious example, but the influence extended much
    further.



         For example, the Greeks’ acceptance of Buddhism opened the way for
    Dharma to enter Central Asia, and from there China as well. Some of the
    early Buddhist missionaries were also Greeks; for example a Yona monk
    named Dhammarakkhita is mentioned as an important missionary in the
    Sinhalese chronicle Mahāvamsa.



         Perhaps more obviously significant than this is the effect that
    Greek culture had on Buddhist art and architecture. Some of the very
    first Buddha statues were made in the Greek fashion. In fact it has been
    hypothesized that the strange knob on the head of Buddha images began
    as a topknot of hair, as Greek sculptors modeled the Buddha on the god
    Apollo, who at the time was usually depicted with his hair in an
    aristocratic Greek topknot. The meaning of it was lost, and it evolved
    into a symbolic flame of wisdom, or just a peculiar lump. Some say that
    the first Buddha images were made in Mathura, not in more
    Greek-influenced areas to the northwest, but Mathura itself was included
    in the Greek sphere of influence, and was probably part of the
    territory of King Menandros at least. So there’s a good chance that
    Greeks caused the first Buddha statues to be made, directly or
    indirectly. (The earliest Buddhist art deliberately omitted an image of
    the Buddha, showing only an empty seat, a footprint, or perhaps a Bodhi
    tree or leaf, to emphasize the fact that the Buddha was no longer of
    this world. Perhaps it would have been more appropriate if the situation
    had remained that way, but it didn’t.)



         There are even some who see Greek influence in the origins of
    Mahayana Buddhism. For example the scholar Thomas McEvilley claims that
    Mahayana is “the form of Buddhism which (regardless of how Hinduized its
    later forms became) seems to have originated in the Greco-Buddhist
    communities of India, through a conflation of the Greek
    Democritean-Sophistic-Skeptical tradition with the rudimentary and
    unformalized empirical and skeptical elements already present in early
    Buddhism.” I think this may be pushing it, but it’s an interesting idea,
    and may be at least partially true.



         But it seems to me that one of the most important lessons to be had
    from the Indo-Greek Buddhists is that it proves that an essentially
    European, Western culture can adopt Buddhism. It is proof that seriously
    adopting a Buddhist philosophy and way of life is not necessarily just
    an Asian thing, with a few weird Westerners becoming monks, and some
    more simply adopting some ideas and techniques while ignoring the bulk
    of the system. We may be more sophisticated than the ancient Ionian
    Yonas, having left Athena (not to mention slavery and chariots) behind
    long ago, but still I like to imagine it—a whole country of Western
    Buddhists! A Western Dharmic nation! At least it happened once.

    Inline image 10


    ancient Indian silver drachma, with King Menandros and Greek letters on the obverse,


    and the goddess Athena and Indian Kharosthi letters,



     allegedly expressing the Pali language, on the reverse








    (My main sources of information and inspiration for this article were:



         Tarn, W. W., The Greeks in Bactria and India, second edition (Ares Press, 1985), which I read many years ago



         Warder, A. K., Indian Buddhism, third revised edition
    (Motilal Banarsidass, 2004), an encyclopedic source of information on
    the subject of Indian Buddhism in general



         Wikipedia, “Indo-Greek Kingdom” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Greek_Kingdom)



         Last but not least, the fact that I once owned a
    European-looking Buddha head from ancient Gandhara, which my Aunt Betty,
    an archeologist, dug up in Afghanistan. Once I told a friend that I
    owned a Gandhara Buddha head, and a few days later a different person
    came up to me with a cynical, incredulous look and said, “What’s this
    about you saying you owned a gun the Buddha had?”)





















    4 comments:


  • The
    only Greek known to have seen the North-Western reaches of the
    subcontinent in the lifetime of Buddha was Skylax, the explorer..
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scylax_of_Caryanda
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multan_Sun_Temple

    By
    Indian Sub-continent I mean Pakistani,Punjab and Sindh and the narrow
    strip of fertile agricultural lands west of Indus River in NWFP/Khyber
    Pakhtunwa……The Khyber-Pakhtunwa till 1000 AD was populated by Indic
    races (forefathers of Hindkowans) before they were ethnically cleansed
    in the Islamic invasions by Pashtuns and other Iranic and Turk
    tribes…(a tiny slither of Islamic Hindkowans remain–literally meaning
    Hindus–though Hindu Hindkowans have migrated to India after Partition)

    Afghanistan
    was routinely referred to as Yona in the early common era in the
    Puranas (when the Hindu puranas were being composed) as 30 Greek Kings
    had ruled over Afghanistan over a a few hundred years

    Kamboja refers to mainly Swat Valley and Chitraligl Area of Pakistan and also sometimes Gilgit Baltistan and “Azad Kashmir”

    Gandhara
    refers to the formerly highly Buddhistic and civilized piece of land
    between Kabul and Peshawar…..As I said before it was the Indic
    speaking people of Hindkowan who were established there before the onset
    of Islam and later gradually became a minority…..tere are still 5.8
    million of them in NWFP/Khyber Pahtunwa..al sadly Muslim converts by now

    Reply
  • I
    was dearly looking for the Mansion Ghost story you wrote on 31 planes
    of existence….Found it on the nippapanca site…Sir I am undertaking a
    very long fast…I have five people on my mind to whom I want to send
    merit during this fast..IYou are one of them f you have some wish or
    niggling issue, you may tell me..And I would try to send out good
    karma/merit in that direction which may be accrued during the fast

    Reply
  • Dear Pannobhaso Sir ,
    I want to introduce you to one of the
    most defining books I have ever come across on Indian Subcontinent’s
    History…The Historical Atlas of South Asia by Joseph Schwartzberg
    (1978 and secind edition 1993)….It took around 20 years of painstaking
    research by a team and $1.4 Million in costs and expenditures…..

    I have fished out few maps from there that shows the post-Alexander zenith of Mauryan Empire with lots of details…

    and
    also the rise of the Indo-Greeks coinciding with Maurya decline…you
    see places in the maps where battles, sacks and incursions took
    place…very informative

    and another map will show you in bold borders the extent of Ajatashatru’s, Mauryan and Indo-Greek Empire

    http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/schwartzberg/fullscreen.html?object=055 Mauryan
    http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/schwartzberg/fullscreen.html?object=057 Indo-Greeks

    http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/schwartzberg/fullscreen.html?object=182
    borders of various empires and kingdoms in Ancient India

    The
    sidebars provide an indication as to when these kingdoms were of no
    greater significance, when they were major regional powers, when they
    were Pan-Indian powers….

    http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/schwartzberg/fullscreen.html?object=183
    In this plate you will be able to fish out the border of the last
    great Buddhist Kingdoms in North India …Harshavardhana Pusyabhuti
    and the Palas

    http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/schwartzberg/
    Here is the whole atlas on University of Chicago site…you can get
    lost for hours in it

    Reply
  • I
    very much appreciate your intentions. I also apologize for the huge
    delay in responding, but I have been without Internet access for six
    weeks. I hope your fast was very beneficial.


    Themata

    33) Classical Greek

    33) Κλασσική Ελληνική

    Το
    Tipitaka (Pali ti, “τρία”, “pitaka”, “καλάθια”) ή το Pali canon είναι η
    συλλογή πρωτότυπων κειμένων της γλώσσας Pali που αποτελούν το δογματικό
    υπόβαθρο του Βουδισμού Theravada.
    Τα κείμενα Tipitaka και Paracanonical Pali (σχόλια, χρονικά κτλ.)
    Αποτελούν από κοινού το σύνολο των κλασικών κειμένων Theravada.

    Ο
    κανόνας Pali είναι ένα τεράστιο σώμα λογοτεχνίας: στην αγγλική
    μετάφραση τα κείμενα προστίθενται σε χιλιάδες τυπωμένες σελίδες.
    Οι περισσότερες (αλλά όχι όλες) της Canon έχουν ήδη δημοσιευτεί στα αγγλικά τα τελευταία χρόνια. Πιο συγκεκριμένα, οι άνθρωποι που έχουν την ευκαιρία να
    παρακολουθήσουν το ταξίδι τους στην πόλη τους, μπορούν να
    παρακολουθήσουν το καλοκαίρι και να απολαύσουν τη ζωή τους.

    Τα τρία τμήματα της Tipitaka είναι:

    Vinaya Pitaka
        
    Η
    συλλογή κειμένων σχετικά με τους κανόνες συμπεριφοράς που διέπουν τις
    καθημερινές υποθέσεις στο Sangha - την κοινότητα bhikkhus
    (χειροτονήθηκαν οι μοναχοί) και bhikkhunis (χειροποίητες μοναχές).
    Πολύ πέρα ​​από τον κατάλογο κανόνων, ο Vinaya Pitaka περιλαμβάνει
    επίσης τις ιστορίες πίσω από την προέλευση κάθε κανόνα, παρέχοντας μια
    λεπτομερή περιγραφή της λύσης του Βούδα στο ερώτημα πώς να διατηρηθεί η
    κοινοτική αρμονία μέσα σε μια μεγάλη και ποικίλη πνευματική κοινότητα.
    Sutta Pitaka
        
    Η
    συλλογή των suttas, ή λόγια, που αποδίδονται στον Βούδα και μερικούς
    από τους πλησιέστερους μαθητές του, που περιέχει όλες τις κεντρικές
    διδασκαλίες του Βουδισμού Theravada.
    (Περισσότερες από μία χίλια μεταφράσεις είναι διαθέσιμες σε
    αυτόν τον ιστότοπο.) Οι suttas χωρίζονται σε πέντε nikayas (συλλογές):

            Digha Nikaya - η “μακρά συλλογή”
            
    Majjhima Nikaya - η “μεσαίου μήκους συλλογή”
            
    Samyutta Nikaya - η “ομαδοποιημένη συλλογή”
            
    Anguttara Nikaya - η “συλλογή περαιτέρω”
            
    Khuddaka Nikaya - η “συλλογή μικρών κειμένων”:
                
    Khuddakapatha
                
    Dhammapada
                
    Udana
                
    Itivuttaka
                
    Sutta Nipata
                
    Vimanavatthu
                
    Petavatthu
                
    Theragatha
                
    Therigatha
                
    Jataka
                
    Niddesa
                
    Patisambhidamagga
                
    Apadana
                
    Buddhavamsa
                
    Cariyapitaka
                
    Nettakarana (περιλαμβάνεται μόνο στη βιρμανική έκδοση της Tipitaka)
                
    Πετακοπαδέζα (”")
                
    Milindapañha (”")

    Abhidhamma Pitaka
        
    Η
    εκτίμηση των επιπτώσεων στη χρηματοδότηση της βασικής χρηματοδότησης
    της Sutta Pitaka είναι απαραίτητη προϋπόθεση για την ανασυγκρότηση και
    την αναδιοργάνωση της πλατφόρμας, ώστε να μπορέσει να αντιμετωπίσει τις
    επιπτώσεις της στη φύση και την ανάπτυξη.

    34) Classical Gujarati
    34) ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી

    Tipitaka
    (પાલી દસ, “ત્રણ” + Pitaka, “બાસ્કેટમાં”), અથવા પાલી સિદ્ધાંત, પ્રાથમિક
    પાલી ભાષા પાઠો સંગ્રહ છે ડર સૈદ્ધાંતિક થરવાડા બોદ્ધ ધર્મ પાયો રચે છે.
    ટિપ્ટકાક અને પેરાકેનોનિકલ પાલી ગ્રંથો (ટિપ્પણીઓ, ક્રોનિકલ્સ, વગેરે)
    સાથે મળીને શાસ્ત્રીય થ્રવીડા ગ્રંથોના સંપૂર્ણ શરીરનું નિર્માણ થાય છે.

    પાલી સિદ્ધાંત સાહિત્યનું એક વિશાળ જૂથ છે: અંગ્રેજી અનુવાદમાં પાઠો હજારો પ્રિન્ટેડ પૃષ્ઠોનો ઉમેરો કરે છે. કેનનની મોટાભાગની (પરંતુ તમામ નહીં) વર્ષોથી પહેલાથી જ અંગ્રેજીમાં પ્રકાશિત થઈ છે. Selvom માત્ર disse પાઠો નાના અપૂર્ણાંક આ વેબસાઇટ પર ઉપલબ્ધ છે, આ સંગ્રહમાં સારો શરૂ સ્થળ હોઈ શકે છે.

    ટિપ્ટકાકના ત્રણ વિભાગો આ પ્રમાણે છે:

    વિનય પિતક
        
    સંઘમાં દૈનિક કાર્યોને સંચાલિત કરવાના નિયમોના સંદર્ભમાં ગ્રંથોનો સંગ્રહ - ભિક્ષુ સમુદાય (વિધિવત સાધુઓ) અને ભિખુનિ (વિધિવત નન). ફાર ફક્ત નિયમો યાદી કરતાં વધુ છે, વિનય Pitaka પણ, દરેક નિયમ મૂળના પાછળ
    કથાઓ સમાવેશ થાય છે બુદ્ધના ઉકેલ બે spørgsmålet કેવી રીતે bevare કોમી
    સંવાદિતા inom મોટા અને વૈવિધ્યસભર આધ્યાત્મિક સમુદાય ડિટેઇલ્ડ એકાઉન્ટ ઓફ ધ
    પૂરી પાડવી.
    સુત્ત પિતાક
        
    સુત્તોનો
    સંગ્રહ, અથવા પ્રવચન, બુદ્ધના આભારી છે અને તેમના કેટલાક નજીકના અનુયાયીઓ,
    જેમાં થરવાડા બૌદ્ધવાદના તમામ કેન્દ્રિય ઉપદેશો છે.
    (આ વેબસાઇટ પર એક હજારથી વધુ અનુવાદો ઉપલબ્ધ છે.) સૂત્રો પાંચ નકાનાઓ (સંગ્રહો) વચ્ચે વહેંચાયેલા છે:

            દિઘા Nikaya - “લાંબા સંગ્રહ”
            
    મેજિહિમા નિકાયા - “મધ્યમ લંબાઈનો સંગ્રહ”
            
    સમ્યુતા નિકાયા - “જૂથ થયેલ સંગ્રહ”
            
    અંગુતરા નિકાયા - “વધુ ફેક્ટરર કલેક્શન”
            
    Khuddaka Nikaya - “થોડી પાઠો સંગ્રહ”:
                
    Khuddakapatha
                
    ધમંપાદા
                
    Udana
                
    Itivuttaka
                
    સુત્ત નિપતા
                
    Vimanavatthu
                
    Petavatthu
                
    Theragatha
                
    Therigatha
                
    Jataka
                
    Niddesa
                
    Patisambhidamagga
                
    Apadana
                
    Buddhavamsa
                
    Cariyapitaka
                
    Nettakarana (માત્ર Tipitaka ના બર્મીઝ આવૃત્તિમાં સમાવેશ થાય છે)
                
    પેટકોપાડેસા (”")
                
    મિલિંદપંહ (”")

    અભિધમ્મા પિટાકા
        
    સોમ
    પાછળની સુત્ત Pitaka પ્રસ્તુત સિદ્ધાંતો સૈદ્ધાંતિક માં પાઠો સંગ્રહ ફરીથી
    અને એક વ્યવસ્થિત માળખું સોમ ઓળખ કાન મન અને મેટર ઓફ કુદરત ઇનટુ til
    માર્કેટિંગ ઇન્વેસ્ટિગેશન લાગુ ફરીથી ગોઠવ્યું આવે છે.

    35) Classical Haitian Creole
    35) Klasik kreyòl ayisyen

    Tipitaka
    a (Pali ti, “twa,” + paka, “panyen”), oswa Pali canon, se koleksyon
    prensipal tèks pale Pali ki fòme fondasyon doktrinal nan Theravada
    Boudis.
    Tipitaka a ak tèks yo Palacanonical Pali (kòmantè, Istwa, elatriye) ansanm konstitye kò a konplè nan tèks klasik Theravada.

    Kanon Pali a se yon vas nan literati: nan lang angle tradiksyon tèks yo ajoute jiska dè milye de paj enprime. Pifò (men se pa tout) nan Canon a te deja pibliye nan lang angle sou ane yo. Ou ka jwenn yon ti tan nan ti koudèy la ki pral ede ou sou sit entènèt sa a, ou ka jwenn yon koleksyon ak yon etwal ak kòmanse.

    Twa divizyon Tipitaka yo se:

    Vinaya Pitaka
        
    Koleksyon
    an nan tèks konsènan règleman yo nan konduit ki gouvène zafè yo chak
    jou nan Sangha a - kominote a nan bhikkhus (òdone mwàn) ak bhikkhunis
    (òdone mè).
    Byen lwen pase lis regleman yo, Vinaya Pitaka gen ladan tou istwa yo
    ki soti nan orijin chak règ, bay yon kont detaye sou solisyon Bouddha a
    pou kesyon sou fason pou kenbe kominote amoni nan yon kominote
    espirityèl gwo ak divès.
    Sutta Pitaka
        
    Koleksyon
    an nan suttas, oswa diskou, atribiye nan Bouda a ak yon kèk nan pi pre
    disip li yo, ki gen tout ansèyman santral yo nan Theravada Boudis.
    (Plis pase yon mil tradiksyon ki disponib sou sit entènèt sa a.) Suttas yo divize nan mitan senk nikayas (koleksyon):

            Digha Nikaya - “koleksyon an long”
            
    Majjhima Nikaya - “koleksyon an mwayen-longè”
            
    Samyutta Nikaya - “koleksyon an gwoupe”
            
    Anguttara Nikaya - “koleksyon an plis faktè”
            
    Khuddaka Nikaya - “koleksyon ti tèks”:
                
    Khuddakapatha
                
    Dhammapada
                
    Udana
                
    Itivuttaka
                
    Sutta Nipata
                
    Vimanavatthu
                
    Petavatthu
                
    Theragatha
                
    Therigatha
                
    Jataka
                
    Niddesa
                
    Patisambhidamagga
                
    Apadana
                
    Buddhavamsa
                
    Cariyapitaka
                
    Nettakarana (enkli sèlman nan edisyon Burmese nan Tipitaka la)
                
    Petakopadesa (”")
                
    Milindapañha (”")

    Abhidhamma Pitaka
        
    De
    koleksyon an, ki sekrè doktè a nan Sutta Pitaka te travay ak reorganize
    ak yon sistèm règleman, ki ka itilize sou yon enkwayab ak nati nan tèt
    yo ak mal.


    https://duckduckgo.com/?q=animated+gifs+of++Haitian+Creole&t=h_&atb=v36-4__&ia=images&iax=1&iai=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.gifs-paradise.com%2Fanimations%2Fanimated-gifs-satellites-02.gif

    36) Classical Hausa

    36) Hausa na gargajiya

    Tipitaka
    (Pali na, “uku,” + pitaka, “kwanduna”), ko kuma Canon Pali, shine tarin
    fassarar harshen harshe na farko wanda ya kafa harsashin koyarwar
    addinin Buddha na Theravada.
    Tipitaka da kalmomin Paracanonical (kalmomi, tarihin, da dai sauransu) tare sun zama cikakkiyar nau’ikan nassi na Theravada.

    Harshen Dutsen Canyon babban ɗumbin wallafe-wallafen: a cikin Turanci fassarar matani ƙara zuwa dubban shafukan da aka buga. Yawancin (amma ba duka) na Canon an riga an buga shi cikin Turanci a tsawon shekaru ba. Duk da haka, idan har yanzu ba za ka iya yin amfani da shi ba tare da
    wani abu ba, za ka iya yin amfani da shi da kuma kullun a starte.

    Sassan uku na Tipitaka sune:

    Vinaya Pitaka
        
    Tarin
    litattafai game da ka’idoji na gudanar da harkokin yau da kullum a
    cikin Sangha - ƙungiyar bhikkhus (’yan majalisa) da bhikkhunis (umarni
    nuns).
    Bisa ga jerin dokoki, Vinaya Pitaka ya haɗa da labarun bayan asalin
    kowace mulkin, ya ba da cikakkun bayanai game da yadda Buddha ke warware
    matsalar game da yadda za a kula da zaman lafiya tsakanin al’ummomi da
    yawa.
    Sutta Pitaka
        
    Tarin
    suttas, ko jawabai, wadanda suka danganci Buddha da wasu daga cikin
    almajiransa mafi kusa, waɗanda ke dauke da dukan koyarwar tsakiya na
    Buddha na Theravada.
    (Fiye da dubu dubu suna samuwa akan wannan shafin yanar gizon.) Suttas suna rarraba tsakanin biyar kokayas (collections):

            Digha Nikaya - “dogon tarin”
            
    Majjhima Nikaya - “tsaka-tsaki”
            
    Samyutta Nikaya - “rukunin tara”
            
    Anguttara Nikaya - “tarin karin”
            
    Khuddaka Nikaya - “tarin ƙananan rubutun”:
                
    Khuddakapatha
                
    Dhammapada
                
    Udana
                
    Itivuttaka
                
    Sutta Nipata
                
    Vimanavatthu
                
    Petavatthu
                
    Theragatha
                
    Therigatha
                
    Jataka
                
    Niddesa
                
    Patisambhidamagga
                
    Apadana
                
    Buddhavamsa
                
    Cariyapitaka
                
    Nettakarana (an haɗa shi ne kawai a cikin harshen Burmese na Tipitaka)
                
    Petakopadesa (”")
                
    Milindapañha (”")

    Abhidhamma Pitaka
        
    Daga
    samfurin da ke nan, da kuma na farko daga cikin Sutta Pitaka ta
    backbejdet da kuma reorganiseret a cikin tsarin tsarin, wanda ya kasance
    a cikin wani abu da kuma a cikin yanayin da kuma maling.




    37) Classical Hawaiian

    37) Hawaiian Hawaiian

    Ka
    Tipitaka (Pali he umi, “ekolu,” + Pitaka, “hinai”), a me Pali Canon, o
    ka ohi ana o iniiaiie Pali’ōlelo hāʻina o nā haʻawina, der Doctrinal
    hana i ke kumu o Theravada Hoʻomana Buda.
    ʻO ka’ōlelo Tipitaka a me nā’ōlelo’ōlelo Paracanonical Pali (nā’ōlelo,
    nā moʻolelo, a me nā mea’ē aʻe) ua hui pūʻia me ke kino holoʻokoʻa o nā
    hua’ōlelo Theravada maʻamau.

    ʻO
    ka canle Pali ka nui o nā puke moʻokalaleo: i ka unuhi Pelekānia e
    hoʻopiliʻia nā kikokikona i nā tausani o nāʻaoʻao i paiʻia.
    Ua hoʻopuka muaʻia ka hapanui (akāʻaʻole nā ​​mea apau) o Canon i ka’ōlelo Pelekānia ma luna o nā makahiki. Ua hōʻoia aku i nā mea a pau e pili ana i ka hōʻailona o ka
    hoʻonaʻauaoʻana i nā mea a pau, a me ka hoʻoukaʻana i ka manawa a me ke
    akua.

    ʻO nā māheleʻekolu o ka Tipitaka penei:

    ʻo Vinaya Pitaka
        
    ʻO
    kaʻohiʻana o nā puke e pili ana i nā rula o ka hana e mālama ana i nā
    hana o nā lā a pau ma loko o Sangha - ka hapanui o nā bhikkhus (monks) a
    me nā bhikkhunis.
    Aole loa aku ma mua o wale i ka papa inoa o na rula, ka Vinaya Pitaka
    også nā nā moʻolelo ma hope o ke kumu o kēlā me kēia aliʻi, E hoomanao e
    ana i ka piha mooolelo o ka Buddha ka pāʻoihana i ka ninau o ke pehea
    bevare ke kaiāulu aloha inom i ka nui a me ka nohona uhane kaiāulu.
    Sutta Pitaka
        
    ʻO
    ka hōʻiliʻiliʻana o nā suttas, a mau’ōlelo paha, i pili i ka Buddha a
    me kekahi o kāna mau haumana kokoke loa, e komo ana i nā kumu a pau o ka
    Buddhist Theravada.
    (Aia ma mua o hoʻokahi tausani unuhi ma ka pūnaewele pūnaewele.) Ua māheleʻia nā suttas i nā kolekaʻelima:

            ʻO Digha Nikaya - ka “hōʻiliʻili nui”
            
    Majjhima Nikaya - ke “hōʻuluʻulu waena”
            
    Samyutta Nikaya - “grouped collection”
            
    ʻO Anguttara Nikaya - ke “hōʻiliʻili hou”
            
    Khuddaka Nikaya - ka “hōʻiliʻili o nā puke liʻiliʻi”:
                
    Khuddakapatha
                
    Dhammapada
                
    Udana
                
    Itivuttaka
                
    Sutta Nipata
                
    Vimanavatthu
                
    Petavatthu
                
    Theragatha
                
    Therigatha
                
    jataka
                
    Niddesa
                
    Patisambhidamagga
                
    Apadana
                
    Buddhavamsa
                
    Cariyapitaka
                
    Nettakarana (i komo waleʻia ma ka puke Burmese o ka Tipitaka)
                
    Petakopadesa (”")
                
    Milindapañha (”")

    Abikamama Pitaka
        
    Ke
    ohi o ka hāʻina o nā haʻawina ma ka som nń ku me nā loina Doctrinal
    hooku iho la ia ia ma ka Sutta Pitaka i Reworked a ana aʻei loko o
    kekahi kahua hoʻonohonohoʻana? Aieao som Kan noi apau em ‘ana I ke ano o
    ka naau a me ka ?? lelo.

    38) Classical Hebrew

    38) עברית קלאסית

    Tipitaka
    (פאלי עשר, “שלוש,” + Pitaka, “סלים”), או הקאנון הפאלי, הוא אוסף של
    טקסטים בשפה העיקרית פאלי, דר בתפיסת הדוקטרינה ביסוד טהרוואדה בודהיזם.
    הטיפיטקה והטקסטים הפארא-קוניים של פאלי (הערות, כרוניקות וכו ‘) מהווים יחד את הגוף המלא של הטקסטים הקלאסיים של תורתאדה.

    הקאנון פאלי הוא גוף עצום של ספרות: בתרגום לאנגלית הטקסטים מוסיפים עד אלפי עמודים מודפסים. רוב (אבל לא כל) של Canon כבר פורסם באנגלית לאורך השנים. Selv אום קון en lille del afse דיסה טיקסטר אה טילג ‘י, חם דמדומים, סנדלינג, סנדלינג,

    שלוש חטיבות של Tipitaka הם:

    Vinaya Pitaka
        
    אוסף
    של טקסטים הנוגעים לכללי ההתנהגות המסדירים את חיי היומיום בסנגהא - קהילת
    הבהיקות (הנזירים המוסמכים) והבהיקונים (נזירות מוסמכות).
    עצם הרחוק יותר את רשימת הכללים, את Vinaya Pitaka OGSA כולל את הסיפורים
    מאחורי ממוצא של כל שלטון, מתן דין וחשבון מפורט של spørgsmålet שני
    הפתרון של בודהה איך bevare inom הרמוניה קהילתית קהילה רוחנית גדולה
    ומגוונת.
    סאטה פיטקה
        
    אוסף של suttas, או השיח, לייחס את הבודהה וכמה מתלמידיו הקרובים ביותר, המכיל את כל תורתו המרכזית של בודהיזם Theravada. (יותר מאלף תרגומים זמינים באתר זה.) Suttas מחולקים בין 5 nikayas (אוספים):

            דיגה ניקאיה - “האוסף הארוך”
            
    Majjhima Nikaya - “האוסף האמצעי”
            
    Samyutta Nikaya - “אוסף מקובצים”
            
    Anguttara Nikaya - “אוסף נוסף factored”
            
    Khuddaka Nikaya - “אוסף של טקסטים קטנים”:
                
    Khuddakapatha
                
    Dhammapada
                
    Udana
                
    Itivuttaka
                
    סוטה ניפאטה
                
    Vimanavatthu
                
    Petavatthu
                
    Theragatha
                
    Therigatha
                
    jataka
                
    Niddesa
                
    Patisambhidamagga
                
    Apadana
                
    Buddhavamsa
                
    Cariyapitaka
                
    Nettakarana (כללה רק את המהדורה הבורמזית של Tipitaka)
                
    פטקופאדה (”")
                
    Milindapañha (”")

    אבהידהמה פיטאקה
        
    האוסף
    של טקסטים סום ביסוד עקרונות בתפיסת דוקטרינה שהוצגה Sutta Pitaka הם עבדו
    ו מחדש לתוך kan סום המסגרת שיטתי אפלייד til en בחקירת טבעה של רוח
    וחומר.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2vZQ5yFiu3A&list=RD2vZQ5yFiu3A

    http://www.thefullwiki.org/Tipitaka


    Tipitaka: Wikis

    Encyclopedia




    (Redirected to Pāli Canon article)
    Inline image 11

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    The Pāli Canon is the standard collection of scriptures in the Theravada Buddhist tradition, as
    preserved in the Pali
    language
    .[1] It is
    the only completely surviving early Buddhist canon, and one of
    the first to be written down.[2] It was
    composed in North India, and preserved orally until it was
    committed to writing during the Fourth Buddhist
    Council
    in Sri Lanka
    in the 1st century BCE, approximately three hundred years
    after the death of Shakyamuni.[3][4][5] The
    Pali Canon was first printed in the nineteenth century[6], and is
    now also available in electronic form and on the Internet.

    The Pāli Canon falls into three general categories, called
    pitaka (piṭaka, basket) in Pali. Because of this,
    the canon is traditionally known as the Tipitaka
    (Tipiṭaka; three baskets). The
    three pitakas are as follows:[7]

    1. Vinaya
      Pitaka
      , dealing with rules for monks and nuns
    2. Sutta Pitaka,
      discourses, mostly ascribed to the Buddha, but some to
      disciples
    3. Abhidhamma Pitaka, variously
      described as philosophy, psychology, metaphysics etc.

    The Vinaya Pitaka and the Sutta Pitaka are remarkably similar to
    the works of other early Buddhist schools. The
    Abhidhamma Pitaka however is a strictly Theravada collection, and
    has little in common with the Abhidhamma works recognized by other
    Buddhist schools[8].

    Inline image 12

    Contents


    The
    Canon in the tradition

    The
    Canon in the tradition

    Theravāda




    Countries


     

    Sri
    Lanka

    Cambodia • Laos
    Burma • Thailand
     

    Texts

     

    Pali Canon

    Commentaries

    Subcommentaries

     

    History

     

    Pre-sectarian Buddhism

    Early schools • Sthavira

    Asoka • Third
    Council


    Vibhajjavada

    Mahinda • Sanghamitta

    Dipavamsa • Mahavamsa

    Buddhaghosa

     

    Doctrine

     

    Saṃsāra • Nibbāṇa

    Middle
    Way


    Noble
    Eightfold Path


    Four Noble
    Truths


    Enlightenment Stages

    Precepts • Three Jewels

     



    The traditional Theravadin (Mahaviharin) interpretation of the Pali
    Canon is given in a series of commentaries covering nearly the whole
    Canon, compiled by Buddhaghosa (fl. 4th–5th century CE) and later monks, mainly
    on the basis of earlier materials now lost. Subcommentaries have been
    written afterwards, commenting further on the Canon and its
    commentaries. The traditional Theravadin interpretation is
    summarized in Buddhaghosa’s Visuddhimagga.[10]

    An official view is given by a spokesman for the Buddha Sasana
    Council of Burma:[11] the
    Canon contains everything needed to show the path to nirvana; the commentaries and
    subcommentaries sometimes include much speculative matter, but are
    faithful to its teachings and often give very illuminating
    illustrations. In Sri Lanka and Thailand, “official” Buddhism has in large
    part adopted the interpretations of Western scholars.[12]

    Although the Canon has existed in written form for two
    millennia, its earlier oral nature has not been forgotten in actual
    Buddhist practice within the tradition: memorization and recitation
    remain common. Among frequently recited texts are the Paritta. Even lay people
    usually know at least a few short texts by heart and recite them
    regularly; this is considered a form of meditation, at least if one
    understands the meaning. Monks are of course expected to know quite
    a bit more (see Dhammapada below for an example). A Burmese
    monk named Vicittasara even learnt the entire Canon by heart for
    the Sixth Council (again according
    to the usual Theravada numbering).[13]
    Recitation is in Pali as the ritual language.[14]

    The relation of the scriptures to Buddhism as it actually exists
    among ordinary monks and lay people is, as with other major
    religious traditions, problematical: the evidence suggests that
    only parts of the Canon ever enjoyed wide currency, and that
    non-canonical works were sometimes very much more widely used; the
    details varied from place to place.[15] Dr Rupert Gethin says
    that the whole of Buddhist history may be regarded as a working out
    of the implications of the early scriptures.[16]


    Origins

    According to a late part of the Pali Canon, the Buddha taught
    the three pitakas.[17] It is
    traditionally believed by Theravadins that most of the Pali Canon
    originated from the Buddha and his immediate disciples. According
    to the scriptures, a council was
    held shortly after the
    Buddha’s passing
    to collect and preserve his teachings. It was
    recited orally from the 5th century BCE to the first century BCE, when it was written down.
    The tradition holds that only a few later additions were made.

    Much of the material in the Canon is not specifically
    “Theravadin”, but is instead the collection of teachings that this
    school preserved from the early, non-sectarian body of teachings.
    According to Peter Harvey, it contains material which is at odds
    with later Theravadin orthodoxy. He states that “the Theravadins,
    then, may have added texts to the Canon for some time, but
    they do not appear to have tampered with what they already had from
    an earlier period.”[18] A
    variety of factors suggest that the early Sri Lankan Buddhists
    regarded canonical literature as such and transmitted it
    conservatively.[19]



    w

    Attribution according to
    scholars

    The views of scholars concerning the attribution of the Pali
    Canon can be grouped into three categories:

    1. Attribution to the Buddha himself.
    2. Attribution to the period of pre-sectarian Buddhism.
    3. Agnosticism.

    Scholars have both supported and opposed the various existing
    views.


    1. Views
    concerning attribution to the Buddha himself

    Various scholars have voiced that some of the contents of the
    Pali Canon (and its main teachings) can be attributed to Gautama
    Buddha. Richard Gombrich thinks that the main
    preachings of the Buddha (as in the Vinaya and Sutta Pitaka) probably go back to the
    Buddha individually.[20] Some
    scholars argue that the teachings are coherent and cogent, and must
    be the work of a single genius: the Buddha himself, not a committee
    of followers after his death.[21][22]

    J.W. de Jong has stated that parts of the Pali Canon could very
    well have been proclaimed by the Buddha, and subsequently
    transmitted and developed by his disciples and, finally, codified
    in fixed formulas.[23] A.
    Wynne has said that the Pali Canon includes texts which go back to
    the very beginning of Buddhism, which perhaps include the substance
    of the Buddha’s teaching, and in some cases, maybe even his
    words.[24]

    A.K. Warder has stated that there is no evidence to suggest that
    the shared teaching of the early schools was formulated by anyone
    else than the Buddha and his immediate followers.[25]

    Some scholars say that little or nothing goes back to the
    Buddha.[26] Prof.
    Ronald Davidson has little confidence that much, if any, of
    surviving Buddhist scripture is actually the word of the historical
    Buddha[27] Some
    of these scholars argue that[28] some
    passages contradict the main teachings, and that the Buddha must
    have been consistent. Some believe only one of the variant
    teachings can have been the teaching of the Buddha, and that if the
    Buddha had taught the main teachings, contradictory teachings would
    never have got in. Some believe that because of this, the Buddha
    must have taught the divergent teachings, and that the main
    teachings were elaborated by his followers after his death.



    2. Views concerning attribution to the period of pre-sectarian
    Buddhism

    Most scholars do agree that there was a rough body of sacred
    literature that a relatively early community maintained and
    transmitted[29] Much
    of the Pali Canon is found also in the scriptures of other early
    schools of Buddhism, parts of whose versions are preserved, mainly
    in Chinese. Many scholars have argued that this shared material can
    be attributed to the period of Pre-sectarian Buddhism. This is
    the period before the early
    schools
    separated in about the fourth or third century BCE.


    3. Views concerning
    agnosticism

    Some scholars see the Pali Canon as expanding and changing from
    an unknown nucleus.[30]
    Arguments given for an agnostic attitude include that the evidence
    for the Buddha’s teachings dates from (long) after his death.

    Some scholars have said that the application of text-critical
    methods derived from Biblical criticism is invalidated by
    the fact that the Bible was a written text while the Pali Canon was
    oral.[31]

    Some scholars have stated that it would be hypocritical to
    assert that nothing can be said about the doctrine of earliest
    Buddhism[32].

    Dr Gregory Schopen,[33]
    argues[34] that
    it is not until the fifth to sixth centuries CE that we can know
    anything definite about the contents of the Canon. This position
    did not attract much support, and was criticized by A. Wynne.[35]


    The Earliest books of the
    Pali Canon

    Different positions have been taken on what are the earliest
    books of the Canon. The majority of Western scholars consider the
    earliest identifiable stratum to be mainly prose works,[36] the
    Vinaya (excluding the Parivara[37]) and
    the first four nikayas of the Sutta Pitaka,[38] and
    perhaps also some short verse works[39] such
    as the Suttanipata.[40]
    However, some scholars, particularly in Japan, maintain that the
    Suttanipata is the earliest of all Buddhist scriptures, followed by
    the Itivuttaka and Udana.[41]
    However, some of the developments in teachings may only reflect
    changes in teaching that the Buddha himself adopted, during the 45
    years that the Buddha was teaching.[42]

    Most of the above scholars would probably agree that their early
    books include some later additions.[43] On
    the other hand, some scholars have claimed[44] that
    central aspects of late works are or may be much earlier.

    According to the Sinhalese chronicles, the Pali Canon was
    written down in the reign of King Vattagamini (Vaṭṭagāmiṇi) (1st century BCE) in Sri Lanka, at the Fourth Buddhist council. Most
    scholars hold that little if anything was added to the Canon after
    this,[45]
    though Schopen questions this.


    Texts and
    translations

    The climate of Theravada
    countries is not conducive to the survival of manuscripts. Apart
    from brief quotations in inscriptions and a two-page fragment from
    the eighth or ninth century found in Nepal, the oldest manuscripts known are from late
    in the fifteenth century,[46] and
    there is not very much from before the eighteenth.[47]

    The first complete printed edition of the Canon was published in
    Burma in 1900, in 38 volumes.[48] The
    following editions of the Pali text of the Canon are readily
    available in the West:

    • Pali
      Text Society
      edition, 1877–1927 (a few volumes subsequently
      replaced by new editions), 57 volumes including indexes, individual
      volumes also (for sale) separately.

      • The Pali scriptures and some Pali commentaries were digitized
        as an MS-DOS/extended ASCII compatible database through cooperation
        between the Dhammakaya
        Foundation
        and the Pali Text Society in 1996 as PALITEXT
        version 1.0: CD-ROM Database of the Entire Buddhist Pali Canon

        ISBN 978-9748235875.[49] The
        Dhammakaya Foundation are currently negotiating with the Pali Text
        Society to make available an updated database which adds the
        English translations and Windows/Unicode compatibility.
    • Thai edition, 1925–28, 45 volumes; more accurate than the PTS
      edition, but with fewer variant readings;[50]

    • Sixth Council edition, Rangoon, 1954–56, 40
      volumes; more accurate than the Thai edition, but with fewer
      variant readings;[51]

      • electronic transcript by Vipassana Research Institute available
        online in searchable database free of charge, or
        on CD-ROM (p&p only) from the Institute
      • Another transcript of this edition, produced under the
        patronage of the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand, World Tipitaka
        Edition, 2005, 40 volumes, published by the Dhamma Society Fund, claims to include the full
        extent of changes made at the Sixth Council,
        and therefore reflect the results of the council more accurately
        than some existing Sixth Council editions. Available for viewing
        online (registration required) at e-Tipiṭaka Quotation WebService.
    • Sinhalese (Buddha Jayanti) edition, 1957–?1993, 58 volumes
      including parallel Sinhalese translations, searchable, free of
      charge (not yet fully proofread.) Available at Journal of Buddhist Ethics

      • Transcript in BudhgayaNews Pali Canon.
        In this version it is easy to search for individual words across
        all 16,000+ pages at once and view the contexts in which they
        appear.

    No one edition has all the best readings, and scholars must
    compare different editions.[52]

    Translation: Pali Canon in English Translation, 1895- ,
    in progress, 43 volumes so far, Pali Text Society, Bristol; for
    details of these and other translations of individual books see the
    separate articles. In 1994, the then President of the Pali Text
    Society stated that most of these translations were
    unsatisfactory.[53]
    Another former President said in 2003 that most of the translations
    were done very badly.[54] The
    style of many translations from the Canon has been criticized[55] as “Buddhist Hybrid English”, a
    term invented by Paul Griffiths for translations from Sanskrit. He
    describes it as “deplorable”, “comprehensible only to the initiate,
    written by and for Buddhologists”.[56]

    Selections: see List of Pali Canon
    anthologies
    .


    Contents
    of the Canon


    Pali Canon

     
     
    Vinaya Pitaka
     
     
     
     

        

        

        

        

        

        

        

        
    Sutta-
    vibhanga
    Khandhaka Pari-
    vara

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     
     
     
     
    Sutta
    Pitaka

     
     
     
     

        

        

        

        

        

        

        

        

        

        

        
    Digha
    Nikaya
    Majjhima
    Nikaya
    Samyutta
    Nikaya

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     
     
     
     

        

        

        

        

        

        

        

        

        

        

        

        

        

        
    Anguttara
    Nikaya
    Khuddaka
    Nikaya

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     
     
     
     
    Abhidhamma Pitaka
     
     
     
     

        

        

        

        

        

        

        

        

        

        

        

        
    Dhs. Vbh. Dhk.

    Pug.
    Kvu. Yamaka Patthana

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     
     
     
     

     

     
     


















    Details are given below. For more complete information, see
    standard references on Pali literature.[57]


    Vinaya
    Pitaka

    The first category, the Vinaya Pitaka, is mostly concerned with
    the rules of the sangha, both monks and nuns. The
    rules are preceded by stories telling how the Buddha came to lay
    them down, and followed by explanations and analysis. According to
    the stories, the rules were devised on an ad hoc basis as the
    Buddha encountered various behavioral problems or disputes among
    his followers. This pitaka can be divided into three parts.

    • Suttavibhanga (-vibhaṅga) Commentary on the Patimokkha, a basic code
      of rules for monks and nuns that is not as such included in the
      Canon. The monks’ rules are dealt with first, followed by those of
      the nuns’ rules not already covered.
    • Khandhaka Other
      rules grouped by topic in 22 chapters.
    • Parivara (parivāra)
      Analysis of the rules from various points of view.


    Sutta
    Pitaka

    The second category is the Sutta Pitaka (literally “basket of
    threads”, or of “the well spoken”; Sanskrit: Sutra Pitaka,
    following the former meaning) which consists primarily of accounts
    of the Buddha’s teachings. The Sutta Pitaka has five subdivisions
    or nikayas.

    • Digha Nikaya
      (dīghanikāya) 34 long discourses.[58] Joy
      Manné argues[59] that
      this book was particularly intended to make converts, with its high
      proportion of debates and devotional material.
    • Majjhima
      Nikaya
      152 medium-length discourses.[60]
      Manné argues[61]
      that this book was particularly intended to give a solid grounding
      in the teaching to converts, with a high proportion of sermons and
      consultations.
    • Samyutta
      Nikaya
      (saṃyutta-) Thousands of short discourses
      in fifty-odd groups by subject, person etc. Bhikkhu Bodhi, in
      his translation, says this nikaya has the most detailed
      explanations of doctrine.
    • Anguttara
      Nikaya
      (aṅguttara-) Thousands of short discourses
      arranged numerically from ones to elevens. It contains more
      elementary teaching for ordinary people than the preceding
      three.
    • Khuddaka
      Nikaya
      A miscellaneous collection of works in prose or
      verse.


    Abhidhamma
    Pitaka

    The third category, the Abhidhamma Pitaka (literally
    “beyond the dhamma”, “higher dhamma” or “special dhamma”, Sanskrit:
    Abhidharma Pitaka), is a collection of
    texts which give a systematic philosophical description of the
    nature of mind, matter and time. There are seven books in the
    Abhidhamma Pitaka.

    • Dhammasangani (-saṅgaṇi or -saṅgaṇī) Enumeration, definition and
      classification of dhammas
    • Vibhanga (vibhaṅga) Analysis of 18 topics by
      various methods, including those of the Dhammasangani
    • Dhatukatha
      (dhātukathā) Deals with interrelations between ideas from the
      previous two books
    • Puggalapannatti (-paññatti)
      Explanations of types of person, arranged numerically in lists from
      ones to tens
    • Kathavatthu
      (kathā-) Over 200 debates on points of doctrine
    • Yamaka Applies to 10
      topics a procedure involving converse questions (e.g. Is X Y? Is Y
      X?)
    • Patthana (paṭṭhāna) Analysis of 24 types of
      condition[62]

    The traditional position is that the Abhidhamma is the absolute
    teaching, while the suttas are adapted to the hearer. Most scholars
    describe the abhidhamma as an attempt to systematize the teachings
    of the suttas: Harvey,[61]
    Gethin.[63]
    Cousins says that where the suttas think in terms of sequences or
    processes the abhidhamma thinks in terms of specific events or
    occasions.[64]


    Comparison with other
    Buddhist canons

    The other two main canons in use at the present day are the
    Tibetan Kangyur and the Chinese Buddhist Canon. The former is in
    about a hundred volumes and includes versions of the Vinaya Pitaka
    and the Dhammapada (the latter by the title Udanavarga)
    and of parts of some other books. The standard modern edition of
    the latter is the Taisho published in Japan, which is in a hundred much larger volumes.
    It includes both canonical and non-canonical (including Chinese and
    Japanese) literature and its arrangement does not clearly
    distinguish the two. It includes versions of the Vinaya Pitaka, the
    first four nikayas, the Dhammapada, the Itivuttaka and the
    Milindapanha and of parts of some other books. These Chinese and
    Tibetan versions are not usually translations of the Pali and
    differ from it to varying extents, but are recognizably the “same”
    works. On the other hand, the Chinese abhidharma books are
    different works from the Pali Abhidhamma Pitaka, though they follow
    a common methodology.

    Looking at things from the other side, the bulk of the Chinese
    and Tibetan canons consists of Mahayana sutras and tantras, which, apart from a few tantras,[65] have
    no equivalent in the Pali Canon.


    Notes




    1. ^
      Gombrich, Theravada Buddhism, 2nd edn, Routledge, London,
      2006, page 3
    2. ^
      Harvey, Introduction to Buddhism, Cambridge University
      Press, 1990, page 3.
    3. ^
      If the language of the Pāli canon is north Indian in origin,
      and without substantial Sinhalese additions, it is likely that the
      canon was composed somewhere in north India before its introduction
      to Sri Lanka
      How old is the Sutta Pitaka?, Alexander Wynne,
      St. Johns’ College, 2003
    4. ^
      Encyclopedia of Religion, Macmillan, New York, sv
      Councils, Buddhist
    5. ^
      A.K. Warder, Indian Buddhism, 3rd edn, page 307. American
      Asiatic Association, Asia Society, Asia: Journal of the
      American Asiatic Association
      , p724.
    6. ^
      Bechert & Gombrich, The World of Buddhism, Thames & Hudson,
      1984, page 293
    7. ^
      Gombrich, page 4
    8. ^
      “Buddhism.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Ultimate Reference Suite.
      Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008.
    9. ^
      Gombrich, page 20
    10. ^
      Gombrich, pages 153-4
    11. ^
      Morgan, Path of the Buddha, Ronald Press, New York, 1956,
      pages v, 71
    12. ^
      Journal of the International Association of Buddhist
      Studies
      , volume 28 (part 2), page 302
    13. ^
      Mendelson, Sangha and State in Burma, Cornell University
      Press, Ithaca, New York, 1975, page 266
    14. ^
      Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd edn, volume
      9, Elsevier, Amsterdam/Oxford, 2006
    15. ^
      Journal of the Pali Text Society, volume XV, pages
      103f
    16. ^
      Gethin, Foundations of Buddhism, Oxford University Press,
      1998, page 43
    17. ^
      Book of the Discipline, volume VI, page 123
    18. ^
      Peter Harvey, The Selfless Mind. Curzon Press, 1995, page
      9.
    19. ^
      Alexander Wynne, The origin of Buddhist meditation.
      Routledge, 2007, page 4.
    20. ^
      I am saying that there was a person called the Buddha, that the
      preachings probably go back to him individually… that we can
      learn more about what he meant, and that he was saying some very
      precise things.
      source: http://www.ordinarymind.net/Interviews/interview_jan2003.htm
    21. ^
      Gombrich, Theravada Buddhism, 2nd edn, Routledge, London,
      2006, pages 20f
    22. ^
      While parts of the Pali Canon clearly originated after the time
      of the Buddha, much must derive from his teaching.
      —An
      introduction to Buddhism, Peter Harvey, 1990, p.3
    23. ^
      the basic ideas of Buddhism found in the canonical writings
      could very well have been proclaimed by him [the Buddha],
      transmitted and developed by his disciples and, finally, codified
      in fixed formulas.
      J.W. De Jong, 1993: The Beginnings of
      Buddhism
      , in The Eastern Buddhist, vol. 26, no. 2, p. 25
    24. ^
      If some of the material is so old, it might be possible to
      establish what texts go back to the very beginning of Buddhism,
      texts which perhaps include the substance of the Buddha’s teaching,
      and in some cases, maybe even his words
      , How old is the
      Suttapitaka? Alexander Wynne, St John’s College, 2003.
      [www.ocbs.org/research/Wynne.pdf]
    25. ^
      there is no evidence to suggest that it was formulated by anyone
      else than the Buddha and his immediate followers. AK Warder, Indian
      Buddhism, 1999, 3rd edition, inside flap.
    26. ^
      Skorupski, Buddhist Forum, volume I, Heritage, Delhi/SOAS,
      London,1990, page 5
    27. ^
      Prof. Ronald Davidson states, “we have little confidence that much,
      if any, of surviving Buddhist scripture is actually the word of the
      historical Buddha’” Davidson, Ronald M. Indian Esoteric
      Buddhism
      . pg 147. Columbia University Press, 2003. ISBN
      0231126182.
    28. ^
      see Journal of the International Association of Buddhist
      Studies
      , vol 21, part 1, page 11 for some of this
    29. ^
      Prof. Ronald Davidson states, “most scholars agree that there was a
      rough body of sacred literature (disputed) that a relatively early
      community (disputed) maintained and transmitted.” Davidson, Ronald
      M. Indian Esoteric Buddhism. pg 147. Columbia University
      Press, 2003. ISBN 0231126182.
    30. ^
      an article in the Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism
      (2004), page 10
    31. ^
      Buddhist Studies in Honour of Hammalawa Saddhatissa ed
      Dhammapala, Gombrich & Norman, University of Jayawardenepura,
      Nugegoda, Sri Lanka, 1984, pages 56, 67
    32. ^
      It would be hypocritical to assert that nothing can be said
      about the doctrine of earliest Buddhism … the basic ideas of
      Buddhism found in the canonical writings could very well have been
      proclaimed by him [the Buddha], transmitted and developed by his
      disciples and, finally, codified in fixed formulas.
      J.W. De
      Jong, 1993: The Beginnings of Buddhism, in The Eastern
      Buddhist, vol. 26, no. 2, p. 25
    33. ^
      Professor of Sanskrit, Tibetan, and Buddhist Studies at the
      University of Texas at Austin
    34. ^
      Bones, Stones, and Buddhist Monks, University of Hawai’i Press, 1997, page 24
      (reprinted from Studien zur Indologie und Iranistik,
      volume 10 (1985))
    35. ^
      How old is the Suttapiṭaka? The relative value of textual and
      epigraphical sources for the study of early Indian Buddhism
      -
      Alexander Wynne, St John’s College, 2003. [1](pdf)
    36. ^
      A. K. Warder, Introduction to Pali, 1963, Pali Text
      Society, page viii
    37. ^
      L. S. Cousins in Buddhist Studies in Honour of Hammalava
      Saddhatissa
      , ed Dhammapala, Gombrich and Norman, University of
      Jayewardenepura, 1984, page 56
    38. ^
      The World of Buddhism, ed Bechert and Gombrich, Thames and
      Hudson, London, 1984, page 78; Gethin, pages 42f
    39. ^
      Gethin, The Buddha’s Path to Awakening, E. J. Brill,
      Leiden, 1992
    40. ^
      Cousins, loc. cit.
    41. ^
      Nakamura, Indian Buddhism, Japan, 1980, reissued by
      Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 1987, 1989, page 27
    42. ^
      as the Buddha taught for 45 years, some signs of development in
      teachings may only reflect changes during this period.
      - An
      introduction to Buddhism, Peter Harvey, 1990, p.3
    43. ^
      Bechert and Gombrich; Warder, Introduction to Path of
      Discrimination
      , 1982, Pali Text Society, page xxix
    44. ^
      Cousins, “Pali oral literature”, in Buddhist Studies, ed
      Denwood and Piatigorski, Curzon Press, London, 1982/3; Harvey, page
      83; Gethin, page 48; The Guide, Pali Text Society, page
      xxvii
    45. ^
      Harvey, page 3; Warder, Path of Discrimination, Pali Text
      Society, pages xxxixf; Gethin, Path, page 8
    46. ^
      Hinüber, Handbook of Pali Literature, Walter de Gruyter,
      Berlin, 1996, page 5.
    47. ^
      Pali Text Society Home Page
    48. ^
      Günter Grönbold, Der buddhistische Kanon: eine
      Bibliographie
      , Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 1984, page 12; as
      noted there and elsewhere, the 1893 Siamese edition was
      incomplete
    49. ^
      Mark Allon (1997) “An Assessment of the Dhammakaya CD-ROM: Palitext
      Version 1.0.” Buddhist Studies (Bukkyō Kenkyū) 26: 109–29.
    50. ^
      Warder, Introduction to Pali, 1963, PTS, page 382
    51. ^
      Hamm in German Scholars on India, volume I, ed Cultural
      Department of the German Embassy in India, pub Chowkhamba Sanskrit
      Series Office, Varanasi, 1973, translated from Zeitschrift der
      Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft
      , 1962
    52. ^
      Cone, Dictionary of Pali, volume I, PTS, 2001
    53. ^
      Memoirs of the Chuo Academic Research Institute, No. 23,
      Dec. 1994, page 12, reprinted in Norman, Collected Papers,
      volume VI, 1996, Pali Text Society, Bristol, page 80
    54. ^
      Interview with professor
      Richard Gombrich for Ordinary Mind - An Australian Buddhist Review
      issue No 21
    55. ^
      Journal of the Pali Text Society, Volume XXIX, page
      102
    56. ^
      Journal of the International Association of Buddhist
      Studies
      , 4.2 (1981)
    57. ^
      Norman, Pali Literature, Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden,
      1983; Hinüber,op. cit.
    58. ^
      Harvey, Introduction to Buddhism, appendix
    59. ^
      Journal of the Pali Text Society, volume XV
    60. ^ Harvey,
      appendix
    61. ^ a
      b
      loc. cit.
    62. ^
      Harvey, page 83
    63. ^
      Foundations, page 44
    64. ^
      “Pali oral literature”, page 7
    65. ^
      Most notably, a version of the Atanatiya Sutta (from the Digha
      Nikaya) is included in the tantra (Mikkyo, rgyud) divisions of the
      Taisho and of the Cone, Derge, Lhasa, Lithang, Narthang and Peking
      (Qianlong) editions of the Kangyur: Skilling, Mahasutras,
      volume I, Parts I & II, 1997, Pali Text Society, Bristol, pages
      84n, 553ff, 617ff.



    Hindi Publications Related to the Tipitaka
    tipitaka.org

    Tipiṭaka Related Hindi Publications


    by the Vipassana Research Institute


    Hindi publications of Vipassana Research Institute related to the Tipitaka available online. Kindly download and install the Acrobat Reader
    to enable you to access it. Clicking on the book links will take you to
    the Table of contents and clicking on the topics will take you to the
    page containing the respective topics.


    1. Suttasaar in three volumes - Essence in short of the various suttas from the Tipitaka



    2. Dhammapada Pali with hindi translation of this important book from the cannon is very valuable.


    3. Dhammavani sangraha Inspiring couplets in pali with hindi translations.


    4. Anguttara Nikaya - volume 1 - A Hindi translation of a part of the Sutta pitaka of the pali cannon



    https://www.scribd.com/lists/2718556/Tipitaka-Hindi




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    http://religion.answers.wikia.com/wiki/Tipitaka_in_hindi_pdf


    39) Classical Hindi
    39) शास्त्रीय हिंदी


    टिपेटका (पली ती, “तीन,” + पिसाक, “बास्केट”), या पाली केन, प्राथमिक पली
    भाषा ग्रंथों का संग्रह है जो थिवड़ा बौद्ध धर्म की सैद्धांतिक नींव बनाते
    हैं।
    द टिपेटका और पैराएकोनोनिकल पाली ग्रंथों (टिप्पणियां, इतिहास, इत्यादि) एक साथ शास्त्रीय थेरेवाद ग्रंथों का पूरा शरीर बनाती हैं।

    पली कनॉन साहित्य का एक विशाल शरीर है: अंग्रेजी अनुवाद में ग्रंथों के हजारों मुद्रित पृष्ठों को जोड़ते हैं। कैनन के अधिकांश (लेकिन सभी नहीं) पहले ही वर्षों में अंग्रेजी में प्रकाशित हो चुके हैं। सेल्व ऑम कून इन लिले डेल ऐंड टीकेस्टर टिगेंगेलिगे ऑन हेन्डेसाइड, केन डेन सलेलिंग एंड इटेट एंड स्टार्ट ए

    टिपिटैक के तीन प्रभाग हैं:

    विनया पितका
        
    संघ
    के भीतर दैनिक मामलों को संचालित करने वाले आचरण के नियमों के बारे में
    ग्रंथों का संग्रह- भिक्खों का समुदाय (ठहराया भिक्षुओं) और भिक्खुनी
    (नियुक्त नन)।
    नियमों की सूची से परे, विनया पितका में प्रत्येक नियम की उत्पत्ति के
    पीछे की कहानियों को भी शामिल किया गया है, जिसमें बुद्ध के समाधान का एक
    विस्तृत विवरण दिया गया है कि एक बड़े और विविध आध्यात्मिक समुदाय के भीतर
    सांप्रदायिक सद्भाव कैसे बनाए रखा जाए।
    सुट्टा पिटाक
        
    सूत्तों
    का संग्रह, या प्रवचन, बुद्ध और उनके कुछ निकटतम चेले के कारण होता है,
    जिसमें थिवड़ा बौद्ध धर्म के सभी केंद्रीय शिक्षा शामिल हैं।
    (इस वेबसाइट पर एक हजार से अधिक अनुवाद उपलब्ध हैं।) सूत को पांच निकाय (संग्रह) में विभाजित किया गया है:

            दीघा निकिया - “लम्बी कलेक्शन”
            
    Majjhima Nikaya - “मध्यम लंबाई संग्रह”
            
    Samyutta Nikaya - “समूहबद्ध संग्रह”
            
    एंगुटारारा निकिया - “आगे-कारगर संग्रह”
            
    खुद्का निकिया - “छोटे ग्रंथों का संग्रह”:
                
    Khuddakapatha
                
    धम्मपद
                
    Udana
                
    Itivuttaka
                
    सुत्ता निपाता
                
    Vimanavatthu
                
    Petavatthu
                
    थेरगाथा
                
    थेरीगाथा
                
    जातक
                
    Niddesa
                
    पटिसंभिदामग्ग
                
    अपादना
                
    Buddhavamsa
                
    Cariyapitaka
                
    Nettakarana (केवल Tipitaka के बर्मी संस्करण में शामिल)
                
    पेटकोपडे (”")
                
    मिलिंदप्न्हा (”")

    अभिदम पिटाक
        
    डे
    सैलिंग एंड टेक्कास्टर, हुकूमत के नीचे की बातों के बारे में मुझे बताते
    हैं कि सुट्टा पिटाक के पुनर्गठन और पुनर्निर्माण के लिए सिस्टम रैकेट है,
    कुछ लोगों को उनके जीवन में और भी कुछ नहीं है।

    40) Classical Hmong

    Lub
    Tipitaka (Pali kaum, “peb,” + Pitaka, “baskets”), los yog Pali Canon,
    yog tus sau los ntawm thawj Pali lus ntawv, der Doctrinal tsim lub hauv
    paus ntawm Theravada Buddhism.
    Lub Tipitaka thiab cov paracanonical Pali ntawv (commentaries, Vaj
    Keeb Kwm, thiab lwm yam) ua ke tshwm sim tawm lub tag lub cev ntawm
    classical Theravada ntawv.

    Lub
    Pali canon yog lub cev loj ntawm cov ntaub ntawv: nyob rau hauv lus
    Askiv txhais cov ntawv ntxiv mus txog phav phav nplooj ntawv.
    Feem ntau (tab sis tsis yog tag nrho) ntawm Canon tau luam tawm ua lus Askiv nyob rau xyoo lawm. Selvom tsuas ib tug me me feem ntawm Disse ntawv no muaj nyob rau cov website no, no sau yuav ua tau ib qhov chaw zoo mus pib.

    Peb pawg ntawm Tipitaka yog:

    Vias Pitaka
        
    Tus
    sau los ntawm phau ntawv vedrørende cai ntawm kev coj cwj pwm tus kav
    lub hnub affairs xyuas nyob rau hauv lub Sangha - lub zej lub zos ntawm
    bhikkhus (tsa monks) thiab bhikkhunis (tsa nuns).
    Far ntau tshaj luag ib daim ntawv teev txog cov kev cai, cov Vinaya
    Pitaka Tseem muaj xws li cov dab neeg qab lub hauv paus chiv keeb ntawm
    txhua txoj cai, Muab ib tug ncauj lus kom ntxaws account ntawm tus hauj
    sam txoj kev tshuaj ob spørgsmålet yuav ua li cas bevare communal kev
    sib raug zoo inom ib tug loj thiab muaj ntau haiv neeg ntawm sab ntsuj
    plig lub zej lub zos.
    Sutta Pitaka
        
    Tus
    sau los ntawm suttas, los yog discourses, ntaus nqi rau Buddha thiab ob
    peb ntawm nws cov thwj tim ze, uas muaj tag nrho cov central qhia ntawm
    Theravada Buddhism.
    (Ntau tshaj ib txhiab translations muaj nyob rau ntawm lub
    website no.) Cov suttas raug muab faib ntawm tsib nikayas (Collections):

            Digha Nikaya - tus “sau ntev”
            
    Majjhima Nikaya - tus “nruab nrab-ntev sau”
            
    Samyutta Nikaya - cov “pawg sau”
            
    Anguttara Nikaya - tus “ntxiv-qhov sau”
            
    Khuddaka Nikaya - tus “sau ntawm cov ntawv me me”:
                
    Khuddakapatha
                
    Dhammapada
                
    Udana
                
    Itivuttaka
                
    Sutta Nipata
                
    Vimanavatthu
                
    Petavatthu
                
    Theragatha
                
    Therigatha
                
    jataka
                
    Niddesa
                
    Patisambhidamagga
                
    Apadana
                
    Buddhavamsa
                
    Cariyapitaka
                
    Nettakarana (nrog rau hauv Burmese ib tsab ntawm Tipitaka nkaus xwb)
                
    Petakopadesa (”")
                
    Milindapañha (”")

    Abhidhamma Pitaka
        
    Tus
    sau los ntawm phau ntawv nyob rau hauv som lwm Principles Doctrinal
    nyob rau hauv lub Sutta Pitaka yog Reworked thiab reorganized rau hauv
    ib tug systematic moj khaum som kan Hos til en tshawb nrhiav mus rau
    hauv lub qhov ntawm lub siab thiab teeb meem.

    41) Classical Hungarian
    41) Klasszikus magyar

    A
    Tipitaka (Pali ti, “három”, “pitaka”, “kosarak”), vagy a Pali canon, az
    elsődleges Pali nyelvi szövegek gyűjteménye, amelyek a Theravada
    buddhizmus tana alapját képezik.
    A Tipitaka és a paracanonikus Pali szövegek (megjegyzések, krónikák
    stb.) Együtt alkotják a klasszikus Theravada szövegek teljes testét.

    A Pali kánon egy hatalmas irodalom: az angol fordításban a szövegek több ezer kinyomtatott lapot tartalmaznak. A Canon legtöbb (de nem mindegyik) anyaga már az évek során angolul is megjelent. Selv om kun en lille del af disse tekster er tilgængelige van denne hjemmeside, kan denne samling være et godt sted at starte.

    A Tipitaka három részlege a következő:

    Vinaya Pitaka
        
    A
    Sangha - a bhikkhus (ordasztott szerzetesek) és a bhikkhunis (elrendelt
    apácák) közösségét szabályozó magatartási szabályokról szóló szövegek
    gyűjteménye.
    A szabályok listáján túlmutatva a Vinaya Pitaka magában foglalja az
    egyes szabályok eredetét bemutató történeteket is, részletesen bemutatva
    a Buddha megoldását arra vonatkozóan, hogyan lehet fenntartani a
    közösség harmóniáját egy nagy és változatos lelki közösségen belül.
    Sutta Pitaka
        
    A
    Buddhának és néhány legközelebbi tanítványának tulajdonított szutták
    vagy diskurzusok gyűjteménye, amely a Theravada buddhizmus minden
    központi tanítását tartalmazza.
    (Több mint ezer fordítás érhető el ezen a weboldalon.) A szutták öt nikayas (gyűjtemények) köré oszlanak:

            Digha Nikaya - a “hosszú gyűjtemény”
            
    Majjhima Nikaya - a “középhosszú gyűjtemény”
            
    Samyutta Nikaya - a “csoportos gyűjtemény”
            
    Anguttara Nikaya - a “további faktoros gyűjtemény”
            
    Khuddaka Nikaya - a “kis szövegek gyűjteménye”:
                
    Khuddakapatha
                
    Dhammapada
                
    Udana
                
    Itivuttaka
                
    Sutta Nipata
                
    Vimanavatthu
                
    Petavatthu
                
    Theragatha
                
    Therigatha
                
    Jataka
                
    Niddesa
                
    Patisambhidamagga
                
    Apadana
                
    Buddhavamsa
                
    Cariyapitaka
                
    Nettakarana (csak a Tipitaka burmai kiadásában szerepel)
                
    Petakopadesa (”")
                
    Milindapañha (”")

    Abhidhamma Pitaka
        
    De
    samling af tekster, hvor de underliggende doktrinære principperne i
    Sutta Pitaka a hátsóbódé és a rendszerváltozás és a rendszerszemléletű
    műemlékek, amelyek a természeten és a természeten kívül helyezkednek el.

    42) Classical Icelandic
    42) Klassísk íslensku

    The
    Tipitaka (Pali tíu, “þrír”, + Pitaka, “karfa”), eða palí Canon, er safn
    af aðal Pali texta tungumál, der Kenningaheild mynda grundvöll
    Theravada búddisma.
    The Tipitaka og Paracanonical Pali textarnir (athugasemdir,
    chronicles, osfrv.) Saman mynda alla líkama klassískra Theravada texta.

    The Pali canon er gríðarstór bókmenntafræði: í ensku þýðingu innihalda texta allt að þúsundum prentuðu blaða. Flestir (en ekki allir) Canon hefur þegar verið birt á ensku í gegnum árin. Although only a small part of these texts are available on this website, this collection may be a good place to start.

    Þremur deildir Tipitaka eru:

    Vinaya Pitaka
        
    Söfnun
    texta um reglur um hegðun sem stjórnar daglegu málefnum innan Sangha -
    samfélag bhikkhusar (vígður munkar) og bhikkhunis (vígður nunnur).
    Miklu meira en bara lista af reglum, sem Vinaya Pitaka også inniheldur
    sögur á bak uppruna hvers reglu, veita ítarlega grein Búdda lausn
    tveimur spørgsmålet hvernig bevare samfélagsleg sátt Inom stór og
    fjölbreytt andlega samfélag.
    Sutta Pitaka
        
    Söfnun
    suttas, eða umræður, sem rekja má til Búdda og nokkrar nánustu
    lærisveinar hans, sem innihalda öll aðal kenningar Theravada búddisma.
    (Meira en eitt þúsund þýðingar eru fáanlegar á þessari vefsíðu.) Suttan er skipt í fimm nikayas (söfn):

            Digha Nikaya - “langa safnið”
            
    Majjhima Nikaya - “miðlungs safn”
            
    Samyutta Nikaya - “hópasafnið”
            
    Anguttara Nikaya - “frekari sönnun”
            
    Khuddaka Nikaya - “safn af litlum texta”:
                
    Khuddakapatha
                
    Dhammapada
                
    Udana
                
    Itivuttaka
                
    Sutta Nipata
                
    Vimanavatthu
                
    Petavatthu
                
    Theragatha
                
    Therigatha
                
    jataka
                
    Niddesa
                
    Patisambhidamagga
                
    Apadana
                
    Buddhavamsa
                
    Cariyapitaka
                
    Nettakarana (aðeins með í Burmese útgáfunni af Tipitaka)
                
    Petakopadesa (”")
                
    Milindapañha (”")

    Abhidhamma Pitaka
        
    Samantekt
    á texta, þar sem undirliggjandi doktorsprófar í Sutta Pitaka er
    endurreist og endurskipulagt í kerfisbundnum ramma sem hægt er að nota í
    rannsókn í náttúrunni um sinn og málningu.



    43) Classical Igbo

    Tipitaka
    (Pali nke, “atọ,” + pitaka, “nkata”), ma ọ bụ akara ihu ala, bụ
    nchịkọta isi okwu nke asụsụ Pali bụ isi nke ntọala ozizi nke Buddha
    Theravada.
    Tipitaka na ihe odide Paracanonical Pali (ihe ọ bụla, oge, etc.) jikọtara akụkụ zuru ezu nke ihe odide Theravada oge ochie.

    Okpukpo ihe omuma bu uzo akwukwo: N’asusu Bekee ka edere ihe di iche iche nye otutu puku akwukwo. Imirikiti (ma ọ bụghị ihe niile) nke Canon abanyelarị n’asụsụ Bekee kemgbe afọ. Ọ bụrụ na ị na-eme ka ị na-agụ ihe ọ bụla na-eme ka ọ bụrụ na ị na-eme ka ọ bụrụ na ị na-eche na ị na-atụ egwu na starter.

    Ngalaba atọ nke Tipitaka bụ:

    Vinaya Pitaka
        
    Nchịkọta
    ederede banyere iwu nke omume na-achịkwa ihe omume kwa ụbọchị n’ime
    Sangha - obodo nke bhikkhus (ndị mọnk) na bhikkhunis (edoziri nuns).
    Karịa ndepụta nke iwu, Vinaya Pitaka na-agụnye akụkọ ndị sitere na
    nchịkwa nke ọ bụla, na-enye nkọwa zuru ezu banyere ngwọta nke Buddha na
    ajụjụ banyere otu esi eme ka udo dịrị n’otu obodo dị ukwuu na nke dị
    iche iche nke ime mmụọ.
    Sutta Pitaka
        
    Nchịkọta
    suttas, ma ọ bụ nkwupụta, ndị Buddha na ụfọdụ n’ime ndị na-eso ụzọ ya
    kacha dịrị nso, nwere ozizi nile bụ isi nke okpukpe Buddha Theravada.
    (Ihe karịrị otu puku nsụgharị dị na ebe nrụọrụ weebụ a.) A na-ekeji suttas n’etiti ise nchịkọta (nchịkọta):

            Digha Nikaya - “ogologo collection”
            
    Majjhima Nikaya - “nchịkọta ogologo”
            
    Samyutta Nikaya - “nchịkọta ìgwè”
            
    Anguttara Nikaya - “nchịkọta ndị ọzọ”
            
    Khuddaka Nikaya - “nchịkọta obere ederede”:
                
    Khuddakapatha
                
    Dhammapada
                
    Udana
                
    Itivuttaka
                
    Sutta Nipata
                
    Vimanavatthu
                
    Petavatthu
                
    Theragatha
                
    Therigatha
                
    jataka
                
    Niddesa
                
    Patisambhidamagga
                
    Apadana
                
    Buddhavamsa
                
    Cariyapitaka
                
    Nettakarana (gụnyere naanị na mbipụta Burmese nke Tipitaka)
                
    Petakopadesa (”")
                
    Milindapañha (”")

    Abhidhamma Pitaka
        
    Nke
    a na-eme, dị ka a na-eme ka ị na-eme ka ị na-elebara anya na ndị ọzọ na
    ndị ọzọ na ndị ọzọ, na-eme ka ha na-eme ka ha na-eme ihe ọ bụla.

    http://swimindiain.s3.amazonaws.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Day-1-Results-of-14th-National-Masters-Championship-2017.pdf


    Rank
    YB
    Time
    Event 60
    Men, 100m Butterfly
    75 - 79 years
    01-11-2017
    Results
    Rank
    YB
    Time
    1.
    Venkataraman K
    41
    Tamilnadu
    5:10.58
    2.
    Chandrashekaran J
    41
    Karnataka
    6:22.09


    http://www.swimindia.in/14th-national-masters-championship-2017

    Inline image 1

    Inline image 2

    14th National Masters Championship - 2017


    From Mon, Oct 30, 2017 8:00 AM To Fri, Nov 3, 2017 8:00 PM


    Mysore



    Complete Results: https://goo.gl/zKhgWP

    Complete Participants List: https://goo.gl/yXUogn

    Book Your Stay Through SwimIndia: https://goo.gl/ZfsFfj

    Swimming:

    Venue: DYSS Swimming Pool, Chamundi Stadium Mysore - 570010

    Dates: 1st November to 3rd November 2017

    Diving :

    Venue: Kensington Swimming Pool, Ulsoor, Bengaluru

    Dates: 30th & 31st October 2017 

    Meet Circular: https://goo.gl/SZasxa

    Order of Events: https://goo.gl/Y8xbSj

    Individual Registration Form: https://goo.gl/H5pf6w

    Entry Form: https://goo.gl/E6QNko

    Entry Fee: Rs. 50 per Event per Head

    Registration Fee: Rs. 100 per Participant

    Last day for submitting the Entry Forms: 15th October, 2017

    Intercity Airport Bus Service: https://goo.gl/aiVfDj



    Please Login to Attend the meet.

    [5:08 AM, 11/2/2017] +91 94492 60443: http://swimindia.in/
    [5:09 AM, 11/2/2017] +91 94492 60443: http://swimindia.in/complete-meet-updates-of-14th-national-masters-championship-2017
    [5:23
    AM, 11/2/2017] +91 94492 60443: The 14th National Masters Championship -
    2017 is being organized by Swimming Federation of India from 30th
    October to 3rd November 2017.

    Result- Day 1

    Startlist

    Complete Participants List

    Order of Events

    Meet Circular

    Complete Meet Details
    [5:25 AM, 11/2/2017] +91 94492 60443: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B-gP1q_O7fngVlNvTlhRRnAyc2c/view
    [5:47
    AM, 11/2/2017] +91 94492 60443:
    https://www.google.co.in/search?client=safari&channel=iphone_bm&source=hp&ei=dGP6WZ7VEsXXvASDm6mABA&sjs=3&q=importance+of+swimming+quotes%2C+gifs%2C+videos&oq=importance+of+swimming+quotes%2C+gifs%2C+videos&gs_l=mobile-gws-hp.3..33i21k1.158.38114.0.38840.36.36.0.0.0.0.3709.25948.6-1j2j7j4.14.0….0…1.1.64.mobile-gws-hp..22.14.25945…0i19k1j0i22i30k1j0i13i30k1j33i160k1.0.aUZ6EyY1e3Q
    [5:55 AM, 11/2/2017] +91 94492 60443: 10 Motivational Swimming Quotes to Get You Fired Up
    Need
    a swift kick of motivation? Give this list of swim quotes a look the
    next time you feel your motivation sagging in the pool. Let’s do this.

    As athletes we all have days where the last thing we want to do is go down to the pool, strap up, and pound out 5,000 meters.

    While
    the following might not cure injury or illness, the list of
    motivational swimming quotes outlined in this post are designed to help
    you curb the biggest practice-killer of them all… insufficient
    motivation.

    Without further ado, here are 10 quotes (plus some
    thoughts of my own on selection and interpretation) to get you fired up
    for your next practice/competition–

    1. “I Only Fear Not Trying.”
    [5:56 AM, 11/2/2017] +91 94492 60443: Simple, and yet profound.

    Living a life without regret should be the true aim for each and every one of us. And that includes our swimming.

    Looking
    back on our swimming days and wondering “what if” can be a life-lasting
    and agonizing experience. It’s why you see so many comebacks in the
    run-up to the Olympics.

    Don’t wonder what you could have done with your swimming, and instead resolve to live regret-free with your swimming.

    NOTE: Check out our “I Only Fear Not Trying” poster. It’s organic, rad, and 102% legit.
    [5:58
    AM, 11/2/2017] +91 94492 60443: 3. “Be a yardstick of quality. Some
    people aren’t used to an environment where excellence is expected.” –
    Steve Jobs

    Being a kick-butt swimmer is about much more than
    setting records or winning gold medals. It is about being part of an
    environment that fosters and encourages success for not only yourself
    and the swimmers in your group but the ones coming up behind you.

    It’s
    about doing your best, all the time, regardless of who is watching. One
    of the easiest ways to see who is going to be successful is to see how
    well they work when there is no one else around. Quality, high-level
    swimming should be your default setting.

    Establish a culture
    where excellence is common-place, and the impact will ripple far outside
    the pool deep into people’s lives long after they have hung up the
    bathing suit.
    [5:59 AM, 11/2/2017] +91 94492 60443: 4. “The price of excellence is discipline. The cost of mediocrity is disappointment.”

    Discipline gets a bit of a bad rep.

    When
    you hear the word your first thoughts tend to flutter to the
    stereotypical 1960’s conservative dad, sporting black horn-rimmed
    glasses with the short sleeve white dress shirt, cracking his belt in
    his hand. Not pretty.

    But in reality, discipline can be your best
    friend, because once you harness it, discipline becomes easier and
    easier to use. Disciplines form habits, and good swimming habits are
    what makes champions. While most swimmers will wait around for
    motivation to strike them, the disciplined swimmer does the work
    regardless of how motivated or not they are.

    This swim quote should you to not shy away from being a self-disciplined athlete. Instead, embrace it.
    [6:01 AM, 11/2/2017] +91 94492 60443: 7. “There is no substitute for hard work.” – Thomas Edison

    We
    live in a world that plasters us with daily messages promising us
    short-cuts. Nowhere do you see this more incessantly than in the fitness
    and wellness market. The promises of Six Minute Abs, losing weight by
    eating like crap, and so on.

    We are being marketed solutions that
    are almost always too good to be true. Everywhere we turn, we are being
    told that we can outsmart hard work.

    The path to success in the pool isn’t a pretty one; it’s rife with obstacles, failure and a metric ton of hard work.

    But
    it is precisely that it is so laborious and challenging that so few
    decide to embrace the work required to climb the summit of swimming
    excellence
    [6:01 AM, 11/2/2017] +91 94492 60443: Be one of the few.
    [6:02 AM, 11/2/2017] +91 94492 60443: 8. “Procrastination makes easy things hard, hard things harder.”

    How
    often have you set yourself an audacious goal, wrote out a plan to
    achieve it, and then simply not gotten started on it? If you are like
    most swimmers, probably at least a few times, right?

    Intentions
    are no more than wishes until they are acted upon. You can say that you
    want big things for yourself in the water, but until you stop waiting
    around for perfect conditions and take action you are merely
    fantasizing.

    Don’t let your best intentions go to waste by not
    taking the first step towards achieving them. No matter what your goal
    is – crushing your best time, swimming a 10k straight, or winning
    Olympic gold – whatever it is, start today.

    Heck, start right now. Not tomorrow, not next week, and certainly not when you “feel like it.”
    [7:05 AM, 11/2/2017] +91 94492 60443: 9. “If you’re going through hell, keep going.” – Winston Churchill

    There
    will be tough times. The length and frequency of our swim season and
    our workouts ensure this. There are the two-a-days when your muscles are
    ringing with soreness, the holiday camps where all you can do is sleep
    and sleep before returning to the pool. And of course, the doubt and
    shattered confidence that comes from under-performing in competition.

    Brave
    these moments, for they are not only temporary, but it is precisely
    these moments that separate champions from B-finalists.

    It’s not
    what happens in the pool when you feel great and up for everything, what
    truly makes an athlete elite is the decision to forge through the tough
    times and not let anything stand in their way.
    [7:07 AM, 11/2/2017]
    +91 94492 60443: 10. “We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is
    not an act, but a habit.” — Aristotle

    I saved this one for last
    because, well, it’s my favorite. It instills everything that matters to
    high-performance swimming: doing things well, and doing them
    consistently.

    The moment you decide to do everything with excellence is the exact moment that things will turn around.

    Things
    might be bumpy at first – change always is – and there will be some
    moments where you will want to sag back into the comfortable and
    well-worn sweater that is mediocrity, but nothing will improve your
    swimming more than adopting this adage.

    Living with excellence as a habit doesn’t mean being the very best at everything. Not even close.

    We
    aren’t talking about perfectionism, which in it’s crappy forms (we talk
    about the difference between good and bad perfectionism in our mental
    training workbook for swimmers, Conquer the Pool) leave us feeling
    anxious, stressed and more likely to burn out.

    Adopting the habit
    of excellence means that everything you do is to your best. You have
    high standards and you consistently reach for them.

    Not perfect, not spotless, but to the limits of your ability.

    For
    swimmers – and athletes in general – this means living a life that is
    consistent with your goals. You cannot realistically commit to being
    elite – whatever that means in your particular case – and eat McDonalds
    twice a day, not get regular sleep, go out on the weekends, and so on.

    Don’t be the swimmer that just talks about their goals, be the athlete who lives and breaths by them.
    [7:16 AM, 11/2/2017] +91 94492 60443: https://www.sportsfeelgoodstories.com/swimming-slogans/

    Swimming Slogans

    Swimming Slogans are great for swim teams and individuals. Motivate yourself or others to perform at their top level.

    H2O = 2 parts heart, one part obsession

    Swimming is all about good times

    If you have a lane, you have a chance

    Seven Days Without Swimming makes one WEAK

    I swim therefore IM

    Want seconds? Follow me!

    My weapon is my body. My element is water – My world is swimming.

    Oxygen is overrated

    Wanna turn heads? Make waves!

    Building a tradition one stroke at a time

    swimming certificates templates image
    Click on image to find out more about our swimming certificates
    When the ice caps melt, swimmers will rule the world

    Life is simple. Eat. Sleep. Swim.

    Swimming, it does a body good.

    “Veni. Natavi. Vici.” Translation: “I Came. I Swam. I Conquered.

    Real athletes swim – the rest just play games

    I swim because I’m too sexy for sports that require clothes

    Chlorine, the breakfast of champions

    So much water, so little time.

    Swimming is as easy as H20

    All it takes is all you got

    You can always breathe later

    In the water, your only enemy is the clock

    Swimming – The only sport with no half times, no substitutions, no timeouts, and you only get 1 shot for your goal

    Funny Swimming Slogans

    Eat my turbulence

    Chlorine is my perfume

    No, we’re not on steroids, but thanks for asking.

    If I have but one day to live, please take me to a swim meet because they last forever!

    It’s not a real day if you haven’t watched the sun rise from the swimming pool.

    No one ever got stronger by working less

    If life piddles in your pool of dreams, add chlorine and keep swimming

    There’s enough water in the pool already, so quit crying and swim

    In the pool, life is cool, swimmers rule

    Eat my bubbles

    The earth is 75% water but I only need one lane to beat you!

    Learn more about USA Swimming

    Inspirational Swim Slogans

    We do more flips in an hour than gymnasts do in a season.

    It’s not pain, it’s exercise-induced discomfort.

    I don’t come from the sea, but I live in the water.

    Have goggles, will travel.

    The Swimmer Recipe — Just Add Water.

    Go BIG or Go Home.

    Zen saying: Be the fish.

    Swimming
    certificates button imageAny ideas for additional swimming sayings,
    slogans or phrases to put on shirts, warm-ups, posters or banners? Let
    us know.

    If you like our swimming slogans, check out our swimming quotes and sayings.
    [7:23 AM, 11/2/2017] +91 94492 60443: https://visual.ly/community/infographic/entertainment/50-ways-jump-swimming-pool
    https://visual.ly/community/infographic/animals/infographic-summer-activities-dubai-kids


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