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2436 Fri 10 Nov 2017 LESSON Tipitaka 1 History of Buddhism in Scotland in 23) Classical English, 80) Classical Scots Gaelic - Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 8:07 pm

2436 Fri 10 Nov 2017 LESSON
Tipitaka

1 History of Buddhism in Scotland

in 23) Classical English, 80) Classical Scots Gaelic - Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,

The Tipitaka (Pali ti, “three,” + pitaka, “baskets”),
or Pali canon, is the collection of primary Pali language texts which
form the doctrinal foundation of Theravada Buddhism. The Tipitaka and
the
paracanonical Pali texts (commentaries, chronicles, etc.) together
constitute the complete body of classical Theravada texts.

The
Pali canon is a vast body of literature: in English translation the
texts add up to thousands of printed pages. Most (but not all) of the
Canon has already been published in English over the years. Although
only a small fraction of these texts are available on this website, this
collection can be a good place to start.

The three divisions of the Tipitaka are:

Vinaya Pitaka
   
The collection of texts concerning the rules of conduct governing the
daily affairs within the Sangha — the community of bhikkhus (ordained
monks) and bhikkhunis (ordained
    nuns). Far more than merely a list of rules, the Vinaya Pitaka also
    includes the stories behind the origin of each rule, providing a
    detailed account of the Buddha’s solution to the question of how to
    maintain communal harmony within a large and diverse spiritual
    community.
Sutta Pitaka
    The
    collection of suttas, or discourses, attributed to the Buddha and a few
    of his closest disciples, containing all the central teachings of
    Theravada Buddhism. (More than one thousand sutta translations are
    available on this website.) The suttas are divided among five nikayas (collections):

        Digha Nikaya — the “long collection”
        Majjhima Nikaya — the “middle-length collection”
        Samyutta Nikaya — the “grouped collection”
        Anguttara Nikaya — the “further-factored collection”
        Khuddaka Nikaya — the “collection of little texts”:
            Khuddakapatha
            Dhammapada
            Udana
            Itivuttaka
            Sutta Nipata
            Vimanavatthu
            Petavatthu
            Theragatha
            Therigatha
            Jataka
            Niddesa
            Patisambhidamagga
            Apadana
            Buddhavamsa
            Cariyapitaka
            Nettippakarana (included only in the Burmese edition of the Tipitaka)
            Petakopadesa (  ”   ”  )
            Milindapañha (  ”   ”  )

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    The
    collection of texts in which the underlying doctrinal principles
    presented in the Sutta Pitaka are reworked and reorganized into a
    systematic framework that can be applied to an investigation into the
    nature of mind and matter.

https://wikivisually.com/wiki/Buddhism_in_Scotland
The arrival of Buddhism in Scotland is relatively recent. In Scotland
Buddhists represent 0.13% of the population.[1] People were asked both
their current religion and that they were brought up in. 6,830 people
gave Buddhism as their current religion, and 4,704 said they were
brought up in it, with an overlap of 3,146.[2]

Contents

1 History of Buddhism in Scotland
2 Samyé Ling
3 Notable Scottish Buddhists
4 See also
5 External links
6 References

History of Buddhism in Scotland


The earliest Buddhist influence on Scotland came through its imperial
connections with South East Asia, and as a result the early connections
were with the Theravada traditions of Burma, Thailand, and Sri Lanka. To
begin with, 150 years ago, this response was primarily scholarly, and a
tradition of study grew up that eventually resulted in the foundation
of the Pali Text Society, which undertook the huge task of translating
the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhist texts into English.
The main stupa at Samyé Ling monastery in Scotland


The rate of growth was slow but steady through the century, and the
1950s saw the development of interest in Zen Buddhism. In 1967 Kagyu
Samyé Ling Monastery and Tibetan Centre was founded by Tibetan lamas and
refugees Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche and Akong Rinpoche. It is in
Eskdalemuir, in south west Scotland and is the largest Tibetan Buddhist
centre in Western Europe, and part of the Karma Kagyu tradition.


As well there are other Buddhism-based new religious movements such as
the New Kadampa Tradition, Triratna Buddhist Community and Sōka Gakkai
International. The Triratna community maintains a retreat centre at
Balquhidder in the Trossachs.
Samyé Ling

Kagyu Samyé Ling
Monastery and Tibetan Centre monastery—founded in 1967[3]—includes the
largest Buddhist temple in western Europe. There is an associated
community on Holy Isle which is owned by Samyé Ling who belong to the
Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism. The settlements on the island include
the Centre for World Peace and Health and a retreat centre for nuns.
Samyé Ling has also established centres in more than 20 countries,
including Belgium, Ireland, Poland, South Africa, Spain and
Switzerland.[4]
Notable Scottish Buddhists

Stephen Batchelor
Bodhipaksa
Alex Ferns
Rupert Gethin
Ajahn Candasiri
See also

Holy Isle, Firth of Clyde
Buddhism in the United Kingdom
Buddhism by country
Demographics of Scotland
British Asian
Asian-Scots
New Scots
External links

Edinburgh Drikung Kagyu Sangha
Edinburgh Buddhist Centre (FWBO)
Scotland - List of Buddhist groups in Scotland
Portobello Buddhist Priory (OBC)
Edinburgh Theravadan Buddhists
Scottish Wild Geese Sangha (COI)
Diamond Way Buddhism
References
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/stats/bulletins/00398-02.asp
Scotland’s Census 2001: the Registrar-General’s Report to the Scottish
Parliament, General Register Office for Scotland, 2003, page 31
Kate Rew (2010-01-15). “Scotland’s Buddhist retreat”. The Guardian. Retrieved 2010-01-15.
In the Scottish Lowlands, Europe’s first Buddhist monastery turns 40 Retrieved 24 June 2007.


The entire wikipedia with video and photo galleries for each article. Find something interesting to watch in seconds.
wikivisually.com

https://gartrinleyuk.com/

Gar Trinley Yongkhyab Ling


A Vajrayana Buddhist group in Scotland following the Drikung Kagyu
lineage and the enlightened vision of His Eminence Garchen Triptrul
Rinpoche.

Welcome

Inline image 1Inline image 2Inline image 3Inline image 4Inline image 5

final


Gar Trinley Yongkhyab Ling is a Vajrayana Buddhist group in Scotland,
following the Drikung Kagyu lineage and the enlightened vision of His
Eminence Garchen Rinpoche.

Under the spiritual direction of Venerable Dorzin Dhondrup Rinpoche, we are based in Edinburgh and we meet twice a month.

We look forward to meeting you!


A
Vajrayana Buddhist group in Scotland following the Drikung Kagyu
lineage and the enlightened vision of His Eminence Garchen Triptrul
Rinpoche.
gartrinleyuk.com

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Religion in Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Religion in Scotland includes all forms of religious organisation and practice. Christianity is the largest faith in Scotland. In the 2011 census,
53.8% of the Scottish population identified as Christian (declining
from 65.1% in 2001) when asked: “What religion, religious denomination
or body do you belong to?”. The Church of Scotland, a
1. The ninth century St Martin’s Cross, in front of Iona Abbey, the site of one of the most important religious centres in Scotland   2. John Knox, a key figure in the Scottish Reformation   3. The Disruption Assembly, painted by David Octavius Hill   4. Stained glass showing the burning bush and the motto “nec tamen consumebatur”, St. Mungo’s Cathedral, Glasgow.  
Roman Catholicism in Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Catholic Church in Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: An Eaglais Chaitligeach; Scots: Catholic Kirk), overseen by the Scottish Bishops’ Conference, is part of the worldwide Catholic Church headed by the Pope. After being firmly established in Scotland for nearly a millennium, the Catholic Church was outlawed following the Scottish Reformation in 1560.
1. St. Andrew’s Cathedral in Glasgow, seat of the Archbishop of Glasgow   2. An illuminated page from the Book of Kells, which may have been produced at Iona around 800   3. The hanging of John Ogilvie   4. The college at Scalan in July 2007  
Church of Scotland [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Church of Scotland (Scots: The Scots Kirk, Scottish Gaelic: Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. Protestant and Presbyterian,
its longstanding decision to respect “liberty of opinion in points
which do not enter into the substance of the Faith” means it is tolerant
of a
1. John Knox, who in 1559 returned from ministering in Geneva to lead the Reformation in Scotland.   2. The Burning Bush emblem of the Church of Scotland, above the entrance to the Church Offices in Edinburgh   3. Church of Scotland Offices, George Street, Edinburgh 2013   4. Older rectangular logo of the Church of Scotland.  
Free Church of Scotland (since 1900) [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Free Church of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: An Eaglais Shaor, Scots: Free Kirk o Scotland) is an Evangelical and Reformed Presbyterian denomination in Scotland. Historically it comprised that part of the original Free Church of Scotland that remained outside the union with the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland in 1900. It remains a distinct
1. Free Church in Poolewe   2. Free Church in Coll.   3. Free Church in Kilmaluag on Skye  
Free Church of Scotland (Continuing) [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Free Church of Scotland (Continuing) (Scottish Gaelic: An Eaglais Shaor Leantainneach) is a Scottish Presbyterian denomination which was formed in January 2000. It claims to be the true continuation of the Free Church of Scotland, hence its name. — Formation — In 1996, Professor Donald Macleod, later to be principal of the Free Church College in
1. The FCC church building in Staffin.  
Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: An Eaglais Shaor Chlèireach) was formed in 1893 and claims to be the spiritual descendant of the Scottish Reformation:
its web-site states that it is ‘the constitutional heir of the historic
Church of Scotland’. It is occasionally referred to by the pejorative term the Wee Wee Frees (as
1. Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland, Glendale   2. A communion token from the Free Presbyterian Church.  
Reformed Presbyterian Church of Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Reformed Presbyterian Church of Scotland is a Christian denomination. It is the original church of the Reformed PresbyterianPresbyterianPresbyterian
tradition (commonly known as the RP’s). The RPCS formed in 1690 when
its members declined to be part of the establishment of the Church of
Scotland. In 1876 the vast majority of
1. The National Covenant of 1638 in Edinburgh’s Huntly House Museum. Believed to be the original from which copies were made.  
Associated Presbyterian Churches [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Associated Presbyterian Churches (APC) is a Scottish Christian denomination (with a congregation in Canada), formed in 1989 from part of the community of the Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland. — History — The division occurred because of a continuing difference over liberty of conscience (as defined in the Westminster Confession of Faith),
1. The APC church building in Stornoway.  
Scottish Episcopal Church [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The seven dioceses of the Scottish Episcopal Church (Scottish Gaelic: Eaglais Easbaigeach na h-Alba) make up the ecclesiastical province of the Anglican Communion in Scotland. The church has since the 18th century held an identity distinct from that of the (Presbyterian) Church of Scotland. — A continuation of the Church of Scotland as it was
1. St Ninian’s Cathedral, Perth   2. The death of Charles Stuart led to better conditions for church growth   3. Portrait of James VI by John de Critz, circa 1606   4. Map of the dioceses of the Scottish Episcopal Church  
Orthodox Church [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Eastern Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church,
with over 250 million members. As one of the oldest religious
institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history
and culture of Eastern Europe, and the Near East,
1. The oldest known icon of Christ Pantocrator, encaustic on panel, Saint Catherine’s Monastery, Sinai Peninsula   2. Emperor Constantine presents a representation of the city of Constantinople as tribute to an enthroned Mary and baby Jesus in this church mosaic. Hagia Sophia, c. 1000).   3. An icon of Saint John the Baptist, 14th century, Republic of Macedonia   4. The exterior of the Patriarchal Basilica of St. George, of the Patriarchate of Constantinople, located in the Fener (Fanari) district of Istanbul.  
Methodist Church of Great Britain [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Methodist Church of Great Britain (formally known simply as the Methodist Church) is the fourth-largest Christian denomination in Britain and the mother church to Methodists worldwide. It participates in the World Methodist Council, the World Council of Churches and other ecumenical associations. — Methodism began primarily through the work of
1. Wesley Memorial Church in Oxford, the city where the Wesley brothers studied and formed the “Holy Club”.   2. Wesley’s Chapel was established by John Wesley in 1778 to serve as his London base. Today it incorporates a museum of Methodism in its crypt.   3. John Wesley preaching outside a church. A 19th century engraving. Methodists were forbidden from preaching in parish churches.   4. Hugh Price Hughes, editor and orator, encouraged Methodists to support the more moralistic Liberal Party.  
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
As of January 1, 2009, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints reported 26,536 members in five stakes, 41 congregations (27 wards, 14 branches), one mission, and no temples
in Scotland. The 2011 government census had 4,651. Since Scottish
population tends to be thinly scattered over most of the country, and
concentrated in a few small
1. Arthur’s Seat from Edinburgh Castle   2. Stornoway branch.   3. Eilley Bowers  
Salvation Army [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Salvation Army is a Protestant Christian movement and an international charitable organization structured in a quasi-military fashion.
The organisation reports a worldwide membership of over 1.5 million,
consisting of soldiers, officers and adherents known as Salvationists.
Its founders Catherine and William Booth sought to bring salvation to
1. The Salvation Army founders, Catherine and William Booth   2. Women’s dormitories operated by The Salvation Army, Washington, D.C. c. 1920   3. The monument to the Salvation Army in Kensico Cemetery   4. The Salvation Army red shield logo, displayed on the side of a night shelter in Geneva, Switzerland.  
Scottish Reformation [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Scottish Reformation was the process by which Scotland broke with the Papacy and developed a predominantly Calvinist national Kirk (church), which was strongly Presbyterian in outlook. It was part of the wider European Protestant Reformation that took place from the sixteenth century. — From the late fifteenth century the ideas of Renaissance
1. Statue of John Knox, a leading figure of the Scottish Reformation.   2. Henry Wardlaw (died 1440), Bishop of St Andrews, royal tutor and adviser, founder of The University of St Andrews and key figure in fighting Lollardy   3. A
mid-16th-century oak panel carving from a house in Dundee. It is an
example of art lost in the iconoclasm of the Reformation.   4. The Martyrs’ Monument at Saint Andrews commemorates Protestants executed before the Reformation, including Hamilton and Wishart.  
Islam in Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Islam in Scotland includes all aspects of the Islamic faith in Scotland. The first Muslim known to have been in Scotland was a medical student who studied at the University of Edinburgh from 1858 to 1859. The production of goods and Glasgow’s busy port meant that many lascars were employed there. Most Muslims in Scotland are members of families
1. Edinburgh Central Mosque   2. Glasgow Central Mosque is the largest Sunni mosque in Glasgow   3. Dundee Central Mosque  
History of the Jews in Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The earliest date at which Jews arrived in Scotland is not known. It is possible that Jews visited Scotland at the time of the Roman Empire’s conquest of southern Britain,
but there are no records of this. The earliest concrete historical
references to Jews in Scotland are from the late 17th century. The vast
majority of Scottish Jews today are
1. Garnethill Synagogue in Glasgow.   2. The old Jewish burial ground in Edinburgh dates from 1813   3. Memorial to Edinburgh’s Jews who died fighting in the world wars   4. The Edinburgh Synagogue in the Newington district of the city  
Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Scotland (Scots: [ˈskɔt.lənd]; Scottish Gaelic: Alba [ˈal̪ˠapə] (listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea
1. Scara Brae. A Neolithic settlement, located on the west coast of Mainland, Orkney.   2. The class I Pictish stone at Aberlemno known as Aberlemno 1 or the Serpent Stone   3. The Wallace Monument commemorates William Wallace, the 13th-century Scottish hero.   4. James VI succeeded to the English and Irish thrones in 1603.  
Buddhism [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Buddhism ( or ) is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia,
1. Standing Buddha statue at the Tokyo National Museum. One of the earliest known representations of the Buddha, 1st–2nd century CE.   2. ”The Great Departure”, relic depicting Gautama leaving home, first or second century (Musée Guimet)   3. Dhamek Stupa in Sarnath, India, where the Buddha gave his first sermon. It was built by Ashoka.   4. Buddha statue depicting Parinirvana (Mahaparinirvana Temple, Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh, India)  
South East Asia [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia. Southeast Asia is bordered to the north by East Asia, to the west by South Asia and Bay of Bengal, to the east by Oceania and Pacific Ocean, and to the south by
1. A megalithic statue found in Tegurwangi, Sumatra. 1500 CE   2. Bronze drum from Sông Đà, northern Vietnam. Mid-1st millennium BC   3. Angkor Wat in Siem Reap, Cambodia   4. Kampung Laut Mosque in Tumpat is one of the oldest mosques in Malaysia, dating to the early 18th century.  
Theravada [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Theravāda (Pali, literally “school of the elder monks“) is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha’s teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core. The Pali canon is the only complete Buddhist canon which survives in a classical Indic Language, Pali, which serves as the sacred language and lingua franca of Theravada Buddhism.
1. Map showing the three major Buddhist divisions.   2. Ashoka and Moggaliputta-Tissa at the Third Council, at the Nava Jetavana, Shravasti   3. Sanghamitta and the Bodhi Tree   4. Mihintale, the traditional location of Devanampiya Tissa’s conversion  
Burma [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Myanmar (Burmese pronunciation: [mjəmà]), officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by India and Bangladesh to its west, Thailand and Laos to its east and China to its north and northeast. To its south, about one third of Myanmar’s total perimeter of 5,876
1. Pagodas and kyaungs in present-day Bagan, the capital of the Pagan Kingdom.   2. Temples at Mrauk U.   3. A British 1825 lithograph of Shwedagon Pagoda shows British occupation during the First Anglo-Burmese War.   4. The landing of British forces in Mandalay after the last of the Anglo-Burmese Wars, which resulted in the abdication of the last Burmese monarch, King Thibaw Min.  
Thailand [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Thailand (TY-land), officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. With a total area of approximately 513,000 km2 (198,000 sq mi), Thailand is the world’s 50th-largest country. It is the 20th-most-populous country in the world, with around 69 million people.
1. The ruins of Wat Chaiwatthanaram at Ayutthaya   2. Siamese envoys presenting letter to Pope Innocent XI, 1688   3. Bangkok’s Democracy Monument: a representation of the 1932 Constitution sits on top of two golden offering bowls above a turret.   4. Royal Thai Embassy in Washington, D.C.  
Sri Lanka [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Sri Lanka (or (listen); Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා Śrī Laṃkā, Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located southeast of India and northeast of the Maldives. — The island is home to many cultures, languages and ethnicities. The majority of the population is from the
1. Sculpture of reclining Buddha at Dambulla cave temple, declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1991.   2. Ptolemy’s world map of Ceylon, first century CE, in a 1535 publication.   3. The Sigiriya rock fortress.   4. A Buddhist statue in the ancient capital city of Polonnaruwa, 12th century  
Pali Canon [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Pāli Canon (Pali: Tipitaka, Sanskrit: IAST: Tripiṭaka) is the standard collection of scriptures in the Theravadan Buddhist tradition, as preserved in the Pāli language. It is the first known and most-complete extant early Buddhist canon. — It was composed in North India and was preserved orally until it was committed to writing during the
1. Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon   2. In pre-modern times the Pali Canon was not published in book form, but written on thin slices of wood (Palm-leaf manuscript or Bamboo). The leaves are kept on top of each other by thin sticks and the scripture is covered in cloth and kept in a box.   3. Burmese-Pali manuscript copy of the Buddhist text Mahaniddesa, showing three different types of Burmese script, (top) medium square, (centre) round and (bottom) outline round in red lacquer from the inside of one of the gilded covers  
Kagyu Samyé Ling Monastery and Tibetan Centre [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Kagyu Samye Ling Monastery and Tibetan Centre is a Tibetan Buddhist complex associated with the Karma Kagyu school located at Eskdalemuir, near Langholm, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland. — History — Before the present Temple complex was built, Samye Ling centred on just one building, a former hunting lodge called Johnstone House. In 1965 the
1. The main temple building at Samye Ling   2. Samye Ling Temple with Sangha and Abbot Lama Yeshe Losal Rinpoche leading prayers.  
Zen Buddhism [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Zen (Chinese: 禪; pinyin: Chán; Korean: 선) is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that originated in China during the Tang dynasty as Chan Buddhism. Zen school was strongly influenced by Taoism and developed as a distinct school of Chinese Buddhism. From China, Chan Buddhism spread south to Vietnam, northeast to Korea and east to Japan, where it became
1. Bodhidharma and Dazu Huike, the first two Zen patriarchs   2. Venerable Hsuan Hua meditating in the Lotus Position. Hong Kong, 1953.   3. Japanese buddhist monk from the Sōtō Zen sect   4. Bodhidharma. Woodcut print by Yoshitoshi, 1887.  
Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Chögyam Trungpa (Wylie: Chos rgyam Drung pa; March 5, 1939 – April 4, 1987) was a Buddhist meditation master and holder of both the Kagyu and Nyingma lineages, the eleventh Trungpa tülku, a tertön, supreme abbot of the Surmang monasteries, scholar, teacher, poet, artist, and originator of a radical re-presentation of Shambhala vision. — Recognized
1. Chögyam Trungpa before 1959   2. Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche  
Akong Rinpoche [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Chöje Akong Tulku Rinpoche (25 December 1939 – 8 October 2013) was a tulku in the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism and a founder of the Samye Ling Monastery in Scotland. — Early life — He was born in 1939, near Riwoche 31°12′41.76″N 96°36′0.89″E in Kham, Eastern Tibet. At the age of two he was discovered by the search party seeking the reincarnation
1. Akong Rinpoche at his 65th Birthday celebration in 2005   2. Akong Rinpoche and Tsultrim Zangmo in 2011   3. Lea and Veit Wyler with Akong Rinpoche- the three founders of ROKPA International  
Eskdalemuir [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Eskdalemuir is a civil parish and small village in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, with a population of 265. It is sited around 10 miles north-west of Langholm and 10 miles north-east of Lockerbie. — The area consists of high wet moorlands chiefly used for sheep grazing and forestry plantation. The main settlement is located near to the White Esk
2. Eskdalemuir parish church  
Tibetan Buddhism [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist Vajrayana doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia. It derives from the latest stages of Indian Buddhism and preserves “the Tantric status quo of eighth-century India.” It has been spread outside of Tibet,
1. Buddhist monk Geshe Konchog Wangdu reads Mahayana sutras from an old woodblock copy of the Tibetan Kangyur   2. A sand mandala   3. The Vajrayāna deity, Vajrasattva   4. “Precious Pagoda of the Buddhist Relics of the Diamond Throne”,A Tibetan Buddhism Temple for Mongols  
Karma Kagyu [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Karma
Kagyu (Tibetan: ཀརྨ་བཀའ་བརྒྱུད, Wylie: karma bka’-brgyud), or Kamtsang
Kagyu (Tibetan: ཀརྨ་ཀཾ་ཚང་, Wylie: kar+ma kaM tshang), is probably the
2nd largest and certainly the most widely practiced lineage within the Kagyu school, one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. The lineage has long-standing monasteries in Tibet, China,
New religious movements [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
A new religious movement (NRM), also known as a new religion or an alternative spirituality, is a religious or spiritual
group that has modern origins and which occupies a peripheral place
within its society’s dominant religious culture. NRMs can be novel in
origin or part of a wider religion, in which case they are distinct from
pre-existing
1. A member of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness proselytising on the streets of Moscow, Russia   2.  1893 Parliament of the World’s Religions   3. Practitioners of Falun Dafa perform spiritual exercises in Guangzhou, China.   4. A Rasta man wearing symbols of his religious identity in Barbados  
New Kadampa Tradition [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The New Kadampa Tradition – International Kadampa Buddhist Union (NKT—IKBU) is a global Buddhist new religious movement founded by Kelsang Gyatso in England in 1991. In 2003 the words “International Kadampa Buddhist Union” (IKBU) were added to the original name “New Kadampa Tradition”. The NKT-IKBU is an international organization registered in
1. Je Tsongkhapa (Tsong-kha-pa), founder of the Gelug school, in the fifth vision of Khedrub Jey (Mkhas-’grub)  
Sōka Gakkai International [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Soka Gakkai International (SGI—”Value Creation Association International”) is an international Nichiren Buddhist organization founded in 1975 by Daisaku Ikeda.
The SGI is the world’s largest Buddhist lay organization, with
approximately 12 million Nichiren Buddhist practitioners in 192
countries and regions. It characterizes itself as a
1. An SGI center in Chicago   2. SGI’s 25th anniversary was celebrated by Uruguay with a commemorative stamp   3. Evening view of an SGI Center in Milan, Italy   4. The Taplow Court SGI centre in Buckinghamshire, England  
Balquhidder [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Balquhidder ((listen); Scottish Gaelic: Both Chuidir or Both Phuidir [ˌpɔˈxutʲɪɾʲ]) is a small village in the Stirling council area of Scotland. It is overlooked by the dramatic mountain terrain of the Braes of Balquhidder, at the head of Loch Voil. Balquhidder Glen is also popular for fishing, nature watching and walking. The village’s railway
1. Rob Roy’s Grave.Postcard c.1910-1920   2. Portrait engraving of Rob Roy circa 1820s  
Trossachs [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Trossachs (listen ; Scottish Gaelic, Na Tròiseachan) is a small woodland glen in the Stirling council area of Scotland. It lies between Ben A’an to the north and Ben Venue to the south, with Loch Katrine to the west and Loch Achray to the east. However, the name is used generally to refer to the wider area of wooded glens and braes with quiet
1. A loch in the Trossachs   2. John Ruskin painted at Glenfinlas in the Trossachs by John Everett Millais in 1853–54   3. Engraving of a view of the Trossachs by James Fittler in Scotia Depicta, published 1804   4. An overlook viewing the forested eastern end of Loch Katrine  
Holy Isle, Firth of Clyde [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Holy Isle (Scottish Gaelic: Eilean MoLaise) is one of a number of islands in the United Kingdom which go under the name “Holy Island”. It is located in the Firth of Clyde off the west coast of central Scotland, inside Lamlash Bay on the larger island of Arran. The island is around 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) long and around 1 kilometre (0.6 mi)
1. Holy Isle from Lamlash   2. Holy Isle Outer Lighthouse   3. Holy Isle Inner Lighthouse  
Kagyu [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The
Kagyu, Kagyü, or Kagyud (Tibetan: བཀའ་བརྒྱུད།, Wylie: bka’ brgyud)
school, also known as the “Oral Lineage” or Whispered Transmission
school, is today regarded as one of six main schools (chos lugs) of Himalayan or Tibetan Buddhism. The central teaching of Kagyu is the doctrine of Mahamudra, “the Great Seal”. — The early Kagyu tradition soon
1. Tilopa   2. Marpa   3. Drikung Monastery  
Belgium [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Belgium
((listen)), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in
Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, and the North Sea.
It is a small, densely populated country which covers an area of 30,528
square kilometres (11,787 sq mi) and has a population of about 11
million people. Straddling the cultural
1. Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830 (1834), by Gustaf Wappers   2. A relief map of Belgium   3. Polders along the Yser river   4. The Belgian Federal Parliament in Brussels, one of six different governments of the country  
Ireland [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Ireland ((listen); Irish: Éire [ˈeːɾʲə] (listen); Ulster-Scots: Airlann [ˈɑːrlən]) is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George’s Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth
1. Satellite image of Ireland, October 2010   2. The Uragh Stone Circle, a Neolithic stone circle in Tuosist, close to Gleninchaquin Park, County Kerry   3. Gallarus Oratory, one of the earliest churches built in Ireland   4. Remains of the 12th-century Trim Castle in County Meath, the largest Norman castle in Ireland  
Poland [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Poland (Polish: Polska [ˈpɔlska] (listen)), officially the Republic of Poland (Polish: Rzeczpospolita Polska, listen ), is a sovereign country in Central Europe. It is a unitary state divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,679 square kilometres (120,726 sq mi) with a mostly continental climate. With a population of
1. Reconstruction of a Bronze Age, Lusatian culture settlement in Biskupin, c. 700 BC   2. Earliest known contemporary depiction of a Polish ruler. King Mieszko II Lambert of Poland, who ruled between 1025 and 1031, being presented with a Liturgical book by Matilda of Swabia.   3. Battle of Grunwald was fought against the German Order of Teutonic Knights, and resulted in a decisive victory for the Kingdom of Poland, 15 July 1410.   4. Wawel Castle in Kraków, seat of Polish kings from 1038 until the capital was moved to Warsaw in 1596. The royal residence is an example of early Renaissance architecture in Poland.  
South Africa [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded on the south by 2,798 kilometres (1,739 mi) of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans; on the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe; and on the east and
1. Mapungubwe Hill, the site of the former capital of the Kingdom of Mapungubwe   2. Charles Davidson Bell’s 19th-century painting of Jan van Riebeeck, who founded the first European settlement in South Africa, arrives in Table Bay in 1652.   3. Depiction of a Zulu attack on a Boer camp in February 1838   4. ”For use by white persons” – apartheid sign  
Switzerland [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Switzerland , officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east.
1. The 1291 Bundesbrief (Federal charter)   2. The
Old Swiss Confederacy from 1291 (dark green) to the sixteenth century
(light green) and its associates (blue). In the other colours are shown
the subject territories.   3. The Act of Mediation was Napoleon’s attempt at a compromise between the Ancien Régime and a Republic.   4. Inauguration in 1882 of the Gotthard Rail Tunnel connecting the southern canton of Ticino, the longest in the world at the time  
Spain [map/sat/sites/3D/street] [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Spain (Spanish: España [esˈpaɲa] (listen)), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de España), is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe, with two large archipelagoes, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea and the Canary Islands off the North African Atlantic coast, two cities, Ceuta and Melilla
1. Lady of Elche   2. Celtic castro in Galicia   3. Toledo, capital of the Visigothic Kingdom   4. Reccared I and bishops. Council III of Toledo, 589. Codex Vigilanus, fol. 145, Biblioteca del Escorial.  
Stephen Batchelor (author) [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Stephen Batchelor (born 7 April 1953) is a British
author, teacher, and scholar, writing books and articles on Buddhist
topics and leading meditation retreats throughout the world. He is a
noted proponent of agnostic or secular Buddhism. — Biography — Batchelor was born in Dundee, Scotland in 1953. When he was three, his family relocated briefly to
1. Stephen Batchelor at Upaya Zen Center in New Mexico  
Buddhism in the United Kingdom [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Buddhism
in the United Kingdom has a small but growing number of supporters
which, according to a Buddhist organisation, is mainly because of the
result of conversion. In the UK census for 2011, there were about
178,000 people who registered their religion as Buddhism, and about
174,000 who cited religions other than Christianity, Buddhism,
1. Thomas William Rhys Davids, founder of the Pali Text Society.  
Demographics of Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The
demography of Scotland includes all aspects of population, past and
present, in the area that is now Scotland. Scotland has a population of
5,295,000 (first results of 2011 Census). The population growth rate in
2011 was estimated as 0.6% per annum according to the 2011 GROS Annual
Review. — Covering an area of 78,782 square kilometres (30,418
1. Map of population density in Scotland at the 2011 census   2. Stone houses at Knap of Howar, evidence of a settled agricultural population and the beginnings of demographic growth, c. 3500 BC   3. People on Buchanan Street in Glasgow. Scotland’s population is getting older as many baby boomers approach retirement.  
British Asian [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
British
Asians (also referred as South Asians in the United Kingdom, Asian
British people or Asian Britons) are persons of Asian descent who reside
in the United Kingdom. In British English usage, the term Asians usually refers to people with roots in South Asia, essentially the Indian subcontinent. — Prior to the formation of the United Kingdom,
1. Allamah Muhammad Iqbal, who studied in England, played an influential role in South Asian politics   2. ArcelorMittal Orbit, London Olympic Park, designated by the Indian Anish Kapoor.   3. Amir Khan (left), with American boxer Paulie Malignaggi (right).   4. Shazia Mirza is a popular British comedian.  
Asian-Scots [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
|pop = 86,000 (2011 Census) |regions = Greater Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dundee |langs = |rels = Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism |related-c = British Asian }} — Asian-Scots or Scottish Asians is a term used for people of South Asian ancestry who were born and/or raised in Scotland. Their parents or grandparents are normally South Asia immigrants. Many of them
1. Humza Yousaf   2. Anas Sarwar   3. Hanzala Malik   4. Angela Malik  
History of Christianity in Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The
history of Christianity in Scotland includes all aspects of the
Christianity in the region that is now Scotland from its introduction to
the present day. Christianity was probably introduced to what is now
southern Scotland during the Roman occupation of Britain. It was mainly spread by missionaries from Ireland from the fifth century and is
1. The ruins of the Cathedral of St Andrew in St Andrews, Fife   2. Schottenportal at the Scottish Monastery, Ratisbon   3. Dundrennan Abbey, one of the new continental monasteries founded in the 12th century.   4. Bishoprics in Medieval Scotland.  
Celtic polytheism [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Celtic polytheism, commonly known as Celtic paganism, comprises the religious beliefs and practices adhered to by the Iron Age people of Western Europe now known as the Celts, roughly between 500 BCE and 500 CE, spanning the La Tène period and the Roman era, and in the case of the Insular Celts the British and Irish Iron Age. — Celtic polytheism was
1. Three Celtic goddesses, as depicted at Coventina’s well.   2. Image of a “horned” (actually antlered) figure on the Gundestrup cauldron, interpreted by many archaeologists as being cognate to the god Cernunnos.   3. A reconstructed Celtic burial mound near Eberdingen, Germany. Such burials were reserved for the influential and wealthy in Celtic society.   4. An 18th century illustration of a wicker man,
a form of human sacrifice that Caesar alleged the Druids, or Celtic
priesthood, performed, though no archaeological evidence has been
uncovered to support this.  
The Guardian [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper, known from 1821 until 1959 as the Manchester Guardian. Along with its sister papers The Observer and the Guardian Weekly, The Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust. The Trust was created in 1936 “to secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in
1. The Guardian front page on 6 June 2014   2. Manchester Guardian Prospectus, 1821   3. First Gulf War Plaque, Stafford War Memorial   4. Front
page of The Guardian from 2001, showing the old design of the paper
when in broadsheet format. This design was used from 1988-2005  
Christianity in Medieval Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Christianity in Medieval Scotland includes all aspects of Christianity in the modern borders of Scotland in the Middle Ages. Christianity was probably introduced to what is now Lowland Scotland by Roman soldiers stationed in the north of the province of Britannia. After the collapse of Roman authority in the fifth century, Christianity is
1. The Class II Kirkyard stone c. 800 AD from Aberlemno   2. The “Roman” tonsure: in the Irish tradition the hair above the forehead was shaved   3. A coin of Olav Tryggvasson, who is credited with the Christianisation of the Northern Isles   4. The fifteenth-century Trinity Altarpiece by Flemish artist Hugo van der Goes.  
Scottish religion in the seventeenth century [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Scottish religion in the seventeenth century includes all forms of religious organisation and belief in the Kingdom of Scotland
in the seventeenth century. During the sixteenth century, Scotland had
undergone a Protestant Reformation that created a predominately Calvinist national kirk, which was strongly Presbyterian in outlook. James VI
1. Scottish Protestant at prayer. A statue in Culross Abbey   2. John Knox   3. The riots set off by Jenny Geddes in St Giles Cathedral that led to the Bishops’ Wars   4. Solemn League and Covenant 1643  
Scottish religion in the eighteenth century [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Scottish
religion in the eighteenth century includes all forms of religious
organisation and belief in Scotland in the eighteenth century. This
period saw the beginnings of a fragmentation of the Church of Scotland that had been created in the Reformation and established on a fully Presbyterian basis after the Glorious Revolution. These fractures
1. Scottish minister and his congregation, c. 1750   2. William Robertson, Principal of the University of Edinburgh and leading figure in the Moderate Party   3. Ebenezer Erskine, the leading figure of the First Secessionist Church   4. John Paterson, the last bishop of Glasgow and a non-juror  
Scottish religion in the nineteenth century [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Scottish
religion in the nineteenth century includes all forms of religious
organisation and belief in Scotland in the nineteenth century. This
period saw a reaction to the population growth and urbanisation of the Industrial Revolution that had undermined traditional parochial structures and religious loyalties. The established Church of
1. The statue of Thomas Chalmers in Edinburgh   2. Henry John Dobson’s A Scottish Sacrament   3. New College, Edinburgh, opened in 1844 and moved to its current site on completion in 1850   4. Wellington Church, Glasgow, built for the United Presbyterian Church in 1883-84 by the architect Thomas Lennox Watson  
Christianisation of Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Christianisation of Scotland was the process by which Christianity spread in what is now Scotland, which took place principally between the fifth and tenth centuries. — Christianity was probably introduced to what is now Lowland Scotland by Roman soldiers stationed in the north of the province of Britannia. After the collapse of Roman authority
1. The “Cernunnos” type antlered figure on the Gundestrup Cauldron found in Denmark   2. A nineteenth-century painting, showing the traditional, dramatic role of St. Columba in the conversion   3. Benedict Biscop, founder of two monasteries and one of the key figures in the adoption of Roman Authority in Northumbria   4. St. John’s cross which stood outside Iona Abbey  
Covenanter [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Covenanters were a Scottish Presbyterian movement that played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent that of England and Ireland,
during the 17th century. Presbyterian denominations tracing their
history to the Covenanters and often incorporating the name continue the
ideas and traditions in Scotland and
1. An illegal conventicle. Covenanters in a Glen, painting by Alexander Carse.   2. Greyfriars Kirkyard where the National Covenant was signed in 1638   3. The Signing of the National Covenant in Greyfriars Kirkyard, by William Allan.   4. Edinburgh’s copy of the National Covenant  
Westminster Confession of Faith [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Westminster Confession of Faith is a Reformed confession of faith. Drawn up by the 1646 Westminster Assembly as part of the Westminster Standards to be a confession of the Church of England, it became and remains the “subordinate standard” of doctrine in the Church of Scotland and has been influential within Presbyterian churches worldwide. — In
1. Title page of a 1647 printing of the Confession  
Glorious Revolution in Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The
Glorious Revolution in Scotland was part of a wider series of political
disputes in England, Scotland and Ireland collectively known as the Glorious Revolution or Revolution of 1688. It covers events between 1688-90 relating to the deposition of James VII of Scotland and II of England, his replacement by his daughter Mary and her husband
1. James VII of Scotland (and II of England), who was deposed in 1688   2. James II portrayed c. 1685 in his role as Army Commander   3. William III and Mary II depicted on the ceiling of the Painted Hall, Greenwich.   4. Parliament House, where the Convention of Estates met in March 1689  
Marrow Controversy [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Marrow Controversy was a Scottish
ecclesiastical dispute occasioned by the republication in 1718 of The
Marrow of Modern Divinity (originally published in two parts in London in 1645 and 1649 by “E. F.”, generally believed to be a pseudonym for Edward Fisher, a lay theologian of the seventeenth century). The work consists of religious
1. Thomas Boston  
First Secession [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The First Secession was an exodus of ministers and members from the Church of Scotland in 1733. Those who took part formed the Associate Presbytery and later the United Secession Church. They were often referred to as seceders. — The First Secession arose out of an Act of the General Assembly of 1732, which was passed despite the disapproval of the
1. Ebenezer Erskine statue in the Old Town Cemetery, Stirling  
Disruption of 1843 [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Disruption of 1843 was a schism or division within the established Church of Scotland,
in which 450 evangelical ministers of the Church broke away, over the
issue of the Church’s relationship with the State, to form the Free Church of Scotland. It came at the end of a bitter conflict within the established Church, and had huge effects not
1. Parishioners
walk out of church in protest at the unpopular appointment of a
minister in the parish of Marnoch, Strathbogie in 1841.   2. St Andrew’s Church, Edinburgh, scene of the Disruption   3. The 1843 deed of demission   4. New College, on the Mound  
Catholic emancipation [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Catholic emancipation or Catholic relief was a process in the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century that involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the penal laws. Requirements to abjure (renounce) the temporal and
1. The first commemorative postage stamps of Ireland, issued in 1929, commemorate the Roman Catholic Relief Act of 1829 with a portrait of Daniel O’Connell.   2. Satirical cartoon by William Heath, showing Wellington and Peel extinguishing the Constitution for Catholic Emancipation.   3. Daniel O’Connell  
Evangelical revival in Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The
evangelical revival in Scotland was a series of religious movements in
Scotland from the eighteenth century, with periodic revivals into the
twentieth century. It began in the later 1730s as congregations
experienced intense “awakenings” of enthusiasm, renewed commitment and
rapid expansion. This was first seen at Easter Ross in the Highlands
1. George Whitefield preaching at Cambuslang in 1742   2. John Erskine, leading figure in the movement in the late eighteenth century   3. John Wesley, who visited Scotland over 20 times   4. Scalloway Methodist Church, Shetland, one of the areas where Methodism put down extensive roots  
Scottish Protestant missions [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Scottish Protestant missions are organised programmes of outreach and conversion undertaken by Protestant denominations within Scotland, or by Scottish people. Long after the triumph of the Church of Scotland in the Lowlands, Highlanders and Islanders clung to a form of Christianity infused with animistic folk beliefs and practices. From 1708 the
1. David Livingstone preaching from a wagon in one of the illustrations that were used at home to relate missionary work to audiences in Britain   2. James Haldane, retired sea captain and founder of the non-denominational Society for the Propagation of the Gospel at Home   3. David Nasmith founder of the first City Mission   4. Map of Church of Scotland Mission Fields, late nineteenth century  
Church music in Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Church music in Scotland includes all musical composition and performance of music in the context of Christian worship in Scotland, from the beginnings of Christianisation in the fifth century, to the present day. The sources for Scottish Medieval music are extremely limited due to factors including a turbulent political history, the destructive
1. The pipe organ at the Episcopalian Cathedral of St Mary in Edinburgh   2. Detail from the “Trinity Altarpiece” by Hugo van der Goes.   3. The Chapel Royal, Stirling Castle, a major focus for liturgical music   4. A reprint of the 1600 cover of The Gude and Godlie Ballatis  
History of popular religion in Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The
history of popular religion in Scotland includes all forms of religion
outwith the formal theology and structures of institutional religion,
between the earliest times of human occupation of what is now Scotland
and the present day. Very little is known about religion in Scotland
before the arrival of Christianity. It is generally presumed to
1. Remains of a chapel on Eileach an Naoimh   2. The North Berwick Witches meet the Devil in the local kirkyard, from a contemporary pamphlet, Newes From Scotland   3. The Bible of William Hannay of Tundergarth, a Covenanter during the period of the “Killing Time“   4. A Scottish communion token from 1750  
United Reformed Church [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The United Reformed Church (URC) is a Christian church in the United Kingdom.
It has approximately 56,000 members in 1,400 congregations with 608
active ministers, including 13 church related community workers. — Origins and history — The United Reformed Church resulted from the 1972 union of the Presbyterian Church of England and the
1. Lesslie Newbigin was Moderator of the General Assembly of the URC in 1978/1979.   2. The General Assembly of the United Reformed Church meeting in Cardiff, July 2014   3. Over United Reformed Church, Winsford, Cheshire  
Anti-Burgher [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Anti-Burghers were opponents of the Burgher Oath on theological grounds. — In 1733 the First Secession from the Church of Scotland
resulted in the creation of the “Associate Presbytery”. This church
split in 1747 over the issue of the Burgher Oath, which required holders
of public offices to affirm approval of the religion “presently
professed
1. Timeline showing the evolution of the churches of Scotland from 1560  
Catholic Apostolic Church [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
During
the 1940s, a movement to restore ancient Christianity in Britain and
the West used the name “Catholic Apostolic Church (Catholicate of the
West)”. For this use, see Ancient British Church, British Orthodox Church, Celtic Orthodox Church, and ecumenical apostolic succession. — The Catholic Apostolic Church was a religious movement which
1. Church of Christ the King, Bloomsbury   2. James Haldane Stewart   3. Scheme of several Apostolic Churches inside and outside the Netherlands from 1830 until 2005. Click on the image to enlarge.   4. Phoebe Traquair’s murals, Catholic Apostolic Church murals, Edinburgh (east end)  
David Dale [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
David
Dale (1739–1806) was a leading Scottish industrialist, merchant and
philanthropist during the Scottish Enlightenment period at the end of
the 18th century. He was a successful entrepreneur in a number of areas,
most notably in the cotton-spinning industry and was the founder of the
world famous cotton mills in New Lanark, where he provided
Free Church of Scotland (1843–1900) [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Free Church of Scotland was a Scottish denomination which was formed in 1843 by a large withdrawal from the established Church of Scotland in a schism or division known as the Disruption of 1843. In 1900 the vast majority of the Free Church of Scotland joined with the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland to form the
2. Thomas Chalmers, the Free Church’s first Moderator  
Glasite [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Glasites or Glassites were a small Christian church founded in about 1730 in Scotland by John Glas. Glas’s faith, as part of the First Great Awakening, was spread by his son-in-law Robert Sandeman into England and America, where the members were called Sandemanians. — Glas dissented from the Westminster Confession only in his views as to the
1. Glasite Meeting House, Perth, Scotland   2. Sandemanian graveyard, Gayle, Yorkshire   3. 2009 photo of Glasite Church building in Dundee.   4. Barnsbury Grove, Islington. 2008 photo of a 19th-century Sandemanian meeting house.  
United Presbyterian Church (Scotland) [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The United Presbyterian Church of Scotland (1847–1900) was a Scottish Presbyterian denomination. It was formed in 1847 by the union of the United Secession Church and the Relief Church, and in 1900 merged with the Free Church of Scotland to form the United Free Church of Scotland, which in turn united with the Church of Scotland in 1929. For most
1. The former United Presbyterian church in Paisley.  
History of Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The history of Scotland is known to have begun by the end of the last glacial period (in the paleolithic), roughly 10,000 years ago. Prehistoric Scotland entered the Neolithic Era about 4000 BCE, the Bronze Age about 2000 BCE, and the Iron Age around 700 BCE. Scotland’s recorded history began with the arrival of the Roman Empire in the 1st
2. Clach an Tiompain, a Pictish symbol stone in Strathpeffer   3. Scotland from the Matthew Paris map, c. 1250   4. King
Alexander III of Scotland on the left with Llywelyn, Prince of Wales on
the right as guests to King Edward I of England at the sitting of an
English parliament.  
Prehistoric Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Archaeology and geology continue to reveal the secrets of prehistoric Scotland, uncovering a complex past before the Romans brought Scotland into the scope of recorded history.
Successive human cultures tended to be spread across Europe or further
afield, but focusing on this particular geographical area sheds light on
the origin of the
1. Neolithic dwellings at Skara Brae, Orkney   2. Bronze-age burial cist, Cairnpapple West Lothian   3. Traprain Law, East Lothian  
Scotland during the Roman Empire [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Scotland during the Roman Empire refers to the protohistorical period during which the Roman Empire interacted with the area that is now Scotland, which was known to them as “Caledonia“. Roman legions arrived around AD 71, having conquered the Celtic tribes of “Britain” (England and Wales) over the preceding three decades. Aiming to annex all of
1. The Broch of Gurness in Orkney   2. Dun Telve broch in Glenelg   3. ”A gloomy journey amongst uninhabited islands”   4. Statue of Gnaeus Julius Agricola  
Scotland in the Middle Ages [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Scotland in the Middle Ages concerns the history of Scotland from the departure of the Romans to the adoption of major aspects of the Renaissance in the early sixteenth century. —
From the fifth century northern Britain was divided into a series of
petty kingdoms. Of these the four most important to emerge were the Picts, the Scots of Dál Riata, the
1. Major political centres in early Medieval Scotland   2. Danish seamen, painted mid-twelfth century   3. David I alongside his successor, Malcolm IV   4. The statue near Stirling commemorating Robert I  
Scotland in the Early Middle Ages [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Scotland was divided into a series of kingdoms in the early Middle Ages, i.e. between the end of Roman authority in southern and central Britain from around 400 CE and the rise of the kingdom of Alba in 900 CE. Of these, the four most important to emerge were the Picts, the Scots of Dál Riata, the Britons of Alt Clut, and the Anglian kingdom of
1. The so-called Daniel Stone, Pictish cross slab fragment found at Rosemarkie, Easter Ross   2. Dunadd Fort, Kilmartin Glen, probably the centre of the kingdom of Dál Riata   3. Looking north at Dumbarton Rock, the chief fort of Strathclyde from the 6th century to 870 when it was taken by the Vikings   4. St. Aidan, founder of Lindisfarne Priory  
Kingdom of Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Kingdom of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Scots: Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843, which joined with the Kingdom of England to form a unified Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. Its territories expanded and shrank, but it came to occupy the northern
1. James VI, whose inheritance of the thrones of England and Ireland created a dynastic union in 1603   2. Coronation of Alexander III of Scotland at Scone Abbey; beside him are the Mormaers of Strathearn and Fife while his genealogy is recited by a royal poet.   3. The Regiam Majestatem is the oldest surviving written digest of Scots law.   4. Institution of the Court of Session by James V in 1532, from the Great Window in Parliament House, Edinburgh  
Scotland in the High Middle Ages [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The High Middle Ages of Scotland encompass Scotland in the era between the death of Domnall II in 900 AD and the death of King Alexander III in 1286, which was an indirect cause of the Scottish Wars of Independence. — At the close of the ninth century, various competing kingdoms occupied the territory of modern Scotland. Scandinavian influence was
1. Dunnottar Castle in the Mearns
occupies one of the best defensive locations in Great Britain. The site
was in use throughout the High Middle Ages, and the castle itself dates
to the fourteenth century.   2. Sueno’s Stone Located in Forres, in the old kingdom of Fortriu, this gigantic probably post-Pictish monument marks some kind of military triumph   3. St Margaret of Scotland, wife of Máel Coluim III, from a later genealogy   4. Image of David I, a pious and revolutionary Scoto-Norman king  
Davidian Revolution [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Davidian Revolution is a term given by many scholars to the changes which took place in the Kingdom of Scotland during the reign of David I (1124–1153). These included his foundation of burghs, implementation of the ideals of Gregorian Reform, foundation of monasteries, Normanization of the Scottish government, and the introduction of feudalism
1. Steel
engraving and enhancement of the obverse side of the Great Seal of
David I, portraying David in the “European” fashion of the other worldly
maintainer of peace and defender of justice.   2. Duffus Castle, possibly begun by Freskin, one of David’s most successful small scale military immigrants.   3. Silver penny of David I.   4. Burghs established in Scotland before the accession of David’s successor and grandson, Máel Coluim IV; these were essentially Scotland-proper’s first towns.  
Wars of Scottish Independence [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. — The First War (1296–1328) began with the English invasion of Scotland in 1296, and ended with the signing of the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton in 1328. The Second War
1. Edward I and Edward, Prince of Wales   2. The dethroned King John, whom a Scottish chronicler dubbed ‘toom tabard’ (’empty coat’)   3. Notable figures from the first War of Independence as depicted by the Victorian artist William Hole   4. Bannockburn Monument plaque  
Scotland in the Late Middle Ages [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Scotland in the Late Middle Ages, between the deaths of Alexander III in 1286 and James IV in 1513, established its independence from England under figures including William Wallace in the late 13th century and Robert Bruce in the 14th century. In the 15th century under the Stewart Dynasty, despite a turbulent political history, the Crown gained
1. David II (right) and Edward III of England (left).   2. James I, who spent much of his life imprisoned in England.   3. A later portrait of James II, whose eventual military success was ended by his accidental death.   4. James III whose faction riven reign ended in his murder.  
Renaissance in Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Renaissance in Scotland was a cultural, intellectual and artistic movement
in Scotland, from the late fifteenth century to the beginning of the
seventeenth century. It is associated with the pan-European Renaissance that is usually regarded as beginning in Italy in the late fourteenth century and reaching northern Europe as a
Scotland in the early modern period [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Scotland in the early modern period refers, for the purposes of this article, to Scotland between the death of James IV in 1513 and the end of the Jacobite rebellions in the mid-eighteenth century. It roughly corresponds to the early modern period in Europe, beginning with the Renaissance and Reformation and ending with the start of the
1. Portrait of James V, c. 1536, by Corneille de Lyon   2. A contemporaneous wood cut of the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh   3. Mary Queen of Scots depicted with her son, James VI and I; in reality, Mary saw her son for the last time when he was ten months old.   4. The Royal Arms of Scotland as used until 1603, from a window in Parliament House, Edinburgh  
Scottish colonization of the Americas [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Scottish colonisation of the Americas comprised a number of failed or abandoned Scottish settlements in North America; a colony at Darien on the Isthmus of Panama; and a number of wholly or largely Scottish settlements made after the Acts of Union 1707, and those made by the enforced resettlement after the Battle of Culloden and the
1. Scotland’s colonies in North America.   2. Map of the Scottish settlement on the isthmus of Panama as it was in 1699  
Acts of Union 1707 [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland. They put into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union that had been agreed on 22 July 1706, following negotiation between commissioners representing the
1. ”Articles of Union otherwise known as Treaty of Union”, 1707   2. Portrait of Queen Anne in 1702, the year she became queen, from the school of John Closterman   3. 18thC French illustration of an opening of the Scottish Parliament   4. The £2 coin issued in the United Kingdom in 2007 to commemorate the 300th anniversary of the Acts of Union  
Jacobitism [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Jacobitism
(JAK-ə-by-tiz-əm; Scottish Gaelic: Seumasachas [ˈʃeːməs̪əxəs̪], Irish:
Seacaibíteachas, Séamusachas) was a political movement in Great Britain
and Ireland that aimed to restore the Roman Catholic Stuart King James II of England and Ireland (as James VII in Scotland) and his heirs to the thrones of England, Scotland, France and Ireland.
1. Detail of the monument in the Vatican   2. ”Jacobites” by John Pettie: romantic view of Jacobitism  
Scottish Enlightenment [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Scottish Enlightenment (Scots: Scots Enlichtenment, Scottish Gaelic: Soillseachadh na h-Alba) was the period in 18th and early 19th century Scotland
characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific
accomplishments. By the eighteenth century, Scotland had a network of
parish schools in the Lowlands and four universities. The
Lowland Clearances [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Lowland Clearances were one of the results of the Scottish Agricultural Revolution, which changed the traditional system of agriculture which had existed in Lowland Scotland in the seventeenth century. Thousands of cottars and tenant farmers from the southern counties (Lowlands) of Scotland migrated from farms and small holdings they had
Highland Clearances [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The
Highland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaichean nan Gàidheal
[ˈfuə̯t̪içən nəŋ gɛː.əl̪ˠ], the “eviction of the Gaels”) were the
evictions of a significant number of tenants in the Scottish Highlands mostly during the 18th and 19th centuries. They resulted from enclosures of common lands and a change from farming to sheep rearing, largely
1. Ruined croft houses on Fuaigh Mòr in Loch Roag. The island was cleared of its inhabitants in 1841 and is now used only for grazing sheep.   2. Ruins of the Badbea longhouses with the 1911 monument in the background   3. Ormaig was once the principal settlement on the Isle of Ulva near Mull. It had been inhabited since prehistoric times, until it was cleared by Francis William Clark in the mid-19th century.   4. Portrait by Henry Raeburn of Alexander Ranaldson MacDonell of Glengarry in 1812. MacDonnell claimed to support Highland culture, while simultaneously clearing his tenants.  
Industrial Revolution in Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The
Industrial Revolution in Scotland was the transition to new
manufacturing processes and economic expansion between the
mid-eighteenth century and the late nineteenth century. By the start of
the eighteenth century, a political union between Scotland and England
became politically and economically attractive, promising to open up the
much
1. Shipping on the Clyde, by John Atkinson Grimshaw, 1881   2. Adam Smith. the “father of modern economics”   3. An 1851 illustration showing the reaping machine developed by Patrick Bell   4. The former headquarters of the British Linen Bank in St Andrews Square, Edinburgh  
Romanticism in Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Romanticism
in Scotland was an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that
developed between the late eighteenth and the early nineteenth
centuries. It was part of the wider European Romantic movement, which was partly a reaction against the Age of Enlightenment, emphasising individual, national and emotional responses, moving beyond
1. Robert Burns in Alexander Nasmyth’s portrait of 1787   2. The Theatre Royal, Edinburgh, as it was from 1769–1830   3. Jacob More’s The Falls of Clyde: Corra Linn, c. 1771   4. Abbotsford House, re-built for Walter Scott, helped to launch the Scots Baronial revival.  
Scotland in the modern era [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
Scotland in the modern era, from the end of the Jacobite risings
and beginnings of industrialisation in the 18th century to the present
day, has played a major part in the economic, military and political
history of the United Kingdom, British Empire and Europe, while
recurring issues over the status of Scotland, its status and identity
have
1. A map showing the civil parishes of Wigtownshire c. 1854   2. New Lanark, cotton mills and housing on the River Clyde, founded in 1786   3. The headgear at Francis Colliery, Fife   4. David Wilkie’s flattering portrait of the kilted King George IV  
Geography of Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The
geography of Scotland is varied, from rural lowlands to unspoilt
uplands, and from large cities to sparsely inhabited islands. Located in
Northern Europe,
Scotland comprises the northern one third of the island of Great
Britain as well as 790 surrounding islands encompassing the major
archipelagoes of the Shetland Islands, Orkney Islands and
1. Ben Nevis is the highest peak in Great Britain.   2. Large parts of the Scottish coastline are dune pasture, such as here at Traigh Seilebost on the Isle of Harris.   3. The estuary of the River Nith emptying into the Solway Firth to the south of Dumfries.   4. Loch Shin is one of many freshwater bodies in Scotland.  
Anglo-Scottish border [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The Anglo-Scottish border, or the English–Scottish border (known locally as simply The Border), is the official border and administrative boundary between England and Scotland. It runs for 96 miles (154 km) between Marshall Meadows Bay on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west. It is Scotland’s only land border. England shares
1. Map of the modern border: Scotland is to the north and west and England is to the south and east   2. The border at Marshall Meadows Bay on the East Coast Main Line railway   3. A boundary wall marking the border on the A1   4. A fence marking the border  
Climate of Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The climate of Scotland is temperate and oceanic (Köppen climate classification Cfb), and tends to be very changeable, but not normally extreme. It is warmed by the Gulf Stream from the Atlantic, and given its northerly latitude it is warmer than areas on similar latitudes, for example Labrador in Canada—where the sea freezes over in winter and
1. Köppen climate types in Scotland   2. Rain at Glasgow Necropolis   3. Rainbow at Stirling  
Flora of Scotland [videos] [show wikivisually / wikipedia page here]
The
flora of Scotland is an assemblage of native plant species including
over 1,600 vascular plants, more than 1,500 lichens and nearly 1,000
bryophytes. The total number of vascular species is low by world standard but lichens and bryophytes are abundant and the latter form a population of global importance. Various populations of rare fern
1. The Birnam Oak located in Strathtay   2. A Scottish Primrose (Primula scotica) growing near Durness   3. Typical upland scenery with Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris), Silver Birch (Betula pendula) and Heather (Calluna vulgaris)   4. Spear Thistle
(Cirsium vulgare) is one of the national emblems of Scotland, and has
been introduced to various other countries – in this case, Australia.  







 80) Classical Scots Gaelic
80) Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach

Tha
Tipitaka (Pali deich, “trì,” + Pitaka, “basgaidean”), no Pali Canan, ‘S
e cruinneachadh de bhun-Pali cànan theacsaichean, der teagasgail nam
bunait Theravada Buddhism.
Tha na teacsaichean Tipitaka agus Paracanonical Pali (beachdan,
litrichean, msaa) còmhla mar bhuidheann iomlan de theacsaichean
clasaigeach Theravada.

Is
e buidheann mòr de litreachas a th’ann an canon Pali: ann an
eadar-theangachadh Beurla tha na teacsaichean a ‘cur suas ri mìltean de
dhuilleagan clò-bhuailte.
Tha
a ‘chuid as motha (ach chan eil a h-uile h-uile) den Canon air
fhoillseachadh an-toiseach sa Bheurla thar nam bliadhnaichean.
Selv om kun en lille del af disse tekster er tilgængelige på denne hjemmeside, kan denne samling være et godt sted at starte.

Is iad na trì roinnean anns an Tipitaka:

Vinaya Pitaka
    
Cruinneachadh
de theacsaichean a thaobh riaghailtean giùlain a tha a ‘riaghladh
chùisean làitheil taobh a-staigh na Sangha - coimhearsnachd nam bikkhus
(manaich òrdaichte) agus bhikkhunis (beanntan-dubha òrdaichte).
Fada a bharrachd na dìreach liosta de na riaghailtean, a ‘gabhail
a-steach Vinaya Pitaka også na sgeulachdan air cùl an tùs gach
riaghailt, a’ toirt cunntas mionaideach air a ‘Buddha a’ fuasgladh dà
spørgsmålet mar bevare coitcheann co-sheirm inom mòr spioradail agus
eadar-mheasgte a ‘choimhearsnachd.
Sutta Pitaka
    
An
cruinneachadh de suttas, no deasbadan, a chaidh a thoirt don Buddha
agus beagan de na deiscioblaidhean ab ‘fhaisge aige, anns a bheil prìomh
theagasg Theravada Buddhism.
(Tha barrachd air mìle eadar-theangachadh ri fhaighinn air an
làrach-lìn seo.) Tha na h-eadar-theangachadh air an roinn am measg còig
nikayas (cruinneachaidhean):

        Digha Nikaya - an “cruinneachadh fada”
        
Majjhima Nikaya - an “cruinneachadh meadhanach fada”
        
Samyutta Nikaya - an “cruinneachadh buidhne”
        
Anguttara Nikaya - an “cruinneachadh nas fhasa”
        
Khuddaka Nikaya - an “cruinneachadh de theacsaichean beaga”:
            
Khuddakapatha
            
Dhammapada
            
Udana
            
Itivuttaka
            
Sutta Nipata
            
Vimanavatthu
            
Petavatthu
            
Theragatha
            
Therigatha
            
jataka
            
Niddesa
            
Patisambhidamagga
            
Apadana
            
Buddhavamsa
            
Cariyapitaka
            
Nettakarana (a-mhàin ann an eagran Burmese an Tipitaka)
            
Petakopadesa (”")
            
Milindapañha (”")

Abhidhamma Pitaka
    
Tha
an cruinneachadh de theacsaichean ann an Som prionnsabalan teagasgail a
thoirt seachad ann an Sutta Pitaka tha ath-obrachadh agus
ath-eagrachadh a-steach frèam-obrach eagarach Som Kan Gnìomhaichte til
en rannsachadh nàdar inntinn agus Matter.

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2436 Fri 10 Nov 2017 LESSON Tipitaka Life Sketch of Savitribai Phule – Timeline in 81) Classical Serbian-Класични српски
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 7:24 pm

2436 Fri 10 Nov 2017 LESSON
Tipitaka

Life Sketch of Savitribai Phule – Timeline

in 81) Classical Serbian-Класични српски


Gautama Buddha (c. 563 BCE/480 BCE – c. 483 BCE/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama , Shakyamuni Buddha ,[4] or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage,[4] on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.[5] He is believed to have lived and taught mostly in the eastern part of ancient India sometime between the sixth and fourth centuries BCE.[6] [note 3]

Gautama taught a Middle Way between sensual indulgence and the severe asceticism found in the śramaṇa movement[7] common in his region. He later taught throughout other regions of eastern India such as Magadha and Kosala.[6] [8]

Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism. He is recognized by Buddhists as an enlightened teacher who attained full Buddhahood, and shared his insights to help sentient beings end rebirth and suffering. Accounts of his life, discourses, and monastic
rules are believed by Buddhists to have been summarized after his death
and memorized by his followers. Various collections of teachings
attributed to him were passed down by oral tradition and first committed to writing about 400 years later.

Historical Siddhārtha Gautama



Ancient kingdoms and cities of India during the time of the Buddha.

Scholars
are hesitant to make unqualified claims about the historical facts of
the Buddha’s life. Most accept that he lived, taught and founded a
monastic order during the Mahajanapada era during the reign of Bimbisara (c. 558 – c. 491 BCE, or c. 400 BCE),[9] [10] [11] the ruler of the Magadha empire, and died during the early years of the reign of Ajatasatru, who was the successor of Bimbisara, thus making him a younger contemporary of Mahavira, the Jain tirthankara.[12] [13] Apart from the Vedic Brahmins, the Buddha’s lifetime coincided with the flourishing of influential Śramaṇa schools of thought like Ājīvika, Cārvāka, Jainism, and Ajñana.[14] Brahmajala Sutta records sixty-two such schools of thought. It was also the age of influential thinkers like Mahavira (referred to as ‘Nigantha Nataputta’ in Pali Canon),[15] Pūraṇa Kassapa, Makkhali Gosāla, Ajita Kesakambalī, Pakudha Kaccāyana, and Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta, as recorded in Samaññaphala Sutta, whose viewpoints the Buddha most certainly must have been acquainted with.[16] [17] [note 4] Indeed, Sariputta and Moggallāna, two of the foremost disciples of the Buddha, were formerly the foremost disciples of Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta, the skeptic;[19]
and the Pali canon frequently depicts Buddha engaging in debate with
the adherents of rival schools of thought. There is also philological
evidence to suggest that the two masters, Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, were indeed historical figures and they most probably taught Buddha two different forms of meditative techniques.[20] Thus, Buddha was just one of the many śramaṇa philosophers of that time.[21] In an era where holiness of person was judged by their level of asceticism[22] , Buddha was a reformist within the śramaṇa movement, rather than a reactionary against Vedic Brahminism.[23]
While the general sequence of “birth, maturity, renunciation, search,
awakening and liberation, teaching, death” is widely accepted,[24] there is less consensus on the veracity of many details contained in traditional biographies.[25] [26]

The
times of Gautama’s birth and death are uncertain. Most historians in
the early 20th century dated his lifetime as circa 563 BCE to 483 BCE.[1] [27] More recently his death is dated later, between 411 and 400 BCE, while at a symposium on this question held in 1988,[28] [29] [30] the majority of those who presented definite opinions gave dates within 20 years either side of 400 BCE for the Buddha’s death.[1] [31] [note 3] These alternative chronologies, however, have not yet been accepted by all historians.[36] [37] [note 5]

The evidence of the early texts suggests that Siddhārtha Gautama was born into the Shakya
clan, a community that was on the periphery, both geographically and
culturally, of the eastern Indian subcontinent in the 5th century BCE.[42] It was either a small republic, or an oligarchy, and his father was an elected chieftain, or oligarch.[42] According to the Buddhist tradition, Gautama was born in Lumbini, now in modern-day Nepal, and raised in the Shakya capital of Kapilvastu, which may have been either in what is present day Tilaurakot, Nepal or Piprahwa, India.[note 1] He obtained his enlightenment in Bodh Gaya, gave his first sermon in Sarnath, and died in Kushinagar.

No written records about Gautama were found from his lifetime or some centuries thereafter. One Edict of Asoka, who reigned from circa 269 BCE to 232 BCE, commemorates the Emperor’s pilgrimage to the Buddha’s birthplace in Lumbini. Another one of his edicts mentions the titles of several Dhamma texts, establishing the existence of a written Buddhist tradition at least by the time of the Maurya era. These texts may be the precursor of the Pāli Canon.[59] [60] [note 7] The oldest surviving Buddhist manuscripts are the Gandhāran Buddhist texts, reported to have been found in or around Haḍḍa near Jalalabad in eastern Afghanistan and now preserved in the British Library. They are written in the Gāndhārī language using the Kharosthi script on twenty-seven birch bark manuscripts and date from the first century BCE to the third century CE.[61]

Traditional biographies

Biographical sources

The sources for the life of Siddhārtha Gautama are a variety
of different, and sometimes conflicting, traditional biographies. These
include the Buddhacarita, Lalitavistara Sūtra, Mahāvastu, and the Nidānakathā.[62] Of these, the Buddhacarita[63] [64] [65] is the earliest full biography, an epic poem written by the poet Aśvaghoṣa in the first century CE.[66] The Lalitavistara Sūtra is the next oldest biography, a Mahāyāna/Sarvāstivāda biography dating to the 3rd century CE.[67] The Mahāvastu from the Mahāsāṃghika Lokottaravāda tradition is another major biography, composed incrementally until perhaps the 4th century CE.[67] The Dharmaguptaka biography of the Buddha is the most exhaustive, and is entitled the Abhiniṣkramaṇa Sūtra,[68] and various Chinese translations of this date between the 3rd and 6th century CE. The Nidānakathā is from the Theravada tradition in Sri Lanka and was composed in the 5th century by Buddhaghoṣa.[69]

From canonical sources come the Jataka tales,
the Mahapadana Sutta (DN 14), and the Achariyabhuta Sutta (MN 123),
which include selective accounts that may be older, but are not full
biographies. The Jātakas retell previous lives of Gautama as a bodhisattva, and the first collection of these can be dated among the earliest Buddhist texts.[70]
The Mahāpadāna Sutta and Achariyabhuta Sutta both recount miraculous
events surrounding Gautama’s birth, such as the bodhisattva’s descent
from the Tuṣita Heaven into his mother’s womb.

Nature of traditional depictions



Māyā miraculously giving birth to Siddhārtha. Sanskrit, palm-leaf manuscript. Nālandā, Bihar, India. Pāla period

In the earliest Buddhist texts, the nikāyas and āgamas, the Buddha is not depicted as possessing omniscience (sabbaññu)[71] nor is he depicted as being an eternal transcendent (lokottara) being. According to Bhikkhu Analayo,
ideas of the Buddha’s omniscience (along with an increasing tendency to
deify him and his biography) are found only later, in the Mahayana sutras and later Pali commentaries or texts such as the Mahāvastu.[71]
In the Sandaka Sutta, the Buddha’s disciple Ananda outlines an argument
against the claims of teachers who say they are all knowing [72]
while in the Tevijjavacchagotta Sutta the Buddha himself states that he
has never made a claim to being omniscient, instead he claimed to have
the “higher knowledges” (abhijñā).[73] The earliest biographical material from the Pali Nikayas focuses on the Buddha’s life as a śramaṇa, his search for enlightenment under various teachers such as Alara Kalama and his forty-five-year career as a teacher.[74]

Traditional
biographies of Gautama generally include numerous miracles, omens, and
supernatural events. The character of the Buddha in these traditional
biographies is often that of a fully transcendent (Skt. lokottara) and
perfected being who is unencumbered by the mundane world. In the
Mahāvastu, over the course of many lives, Gautama is said to have
developed supramundane abilities including: a painless birth conceived
without intercourse; no need for sleep, food, medicine, or bathing,
although engaging in such “in conformity with the world”; omniscience,
and the ability to “suppress karma”.[75]
Nevertheless, some of the more ordinary details of his life have been
gathered from these traditional sources. In modern times there has been
an attempt to form a secular understanding of Siddhārtha Gautama’s life by omitting the traditional supernatural elements of his early biographies.

Andrew Skilton writes that the Buddha was never historically regarded by Buddhist traditions as being merely human:


It
is important to stress that, despite modern Theravada teachings to the
contrary (often a sop to skeptical Western pupils), he was never seen as
being merely human. For instance, he is often described as having the
thirty-two major and eighty minor marks or signs of a mahāpuruṣa,
“superman”; the Buddha himself denied that he was either a man or a god; and in the Mahāparinibbāna Sutta he states that he could live for an aeon were he asked to do so.[76]

The
ancient Indians were generally unconcerned with chronologies, being
more focused on philosophy. Buddhist texts reflect this tendency,
providing a clearer picture of what Gautama may have taught than of the
dates of the events in his life. These texts contain descriptions of the
culture and daily life of ancient India which can be corroborated from
the Jain scriptures, and make the Buddha’s time the earliest period in Indian history for which significant accounts exist.[77] British author Karen Armstrong
writes that although there is very little information that can be
considered historically sound, we can be reasonably confident that
Siddhārtha Gautama did exist as a historical figure.[78]
Michael Carrithers goes a bit further by stating that the most general
outline of “birth, maturity, renunciation, search, awakening and
liberation, teaching, death” must be true.[24]

Biography

Conception and birth



Maya’s dream of the Birth of Gautama Siddharta



Birthplace of Gautama Buddha in Lumbini, Nepal,[note 1] [79] a holy shrine also for many non-Buddhists.[note 8]

The Buddhist tradition regards Lumbini, in present-day Nepal to be the birthplace of the Buddha.[80] [note 1] He grew up in Kapilavastu.[note 1] The exact site of ancient Kapilavastu is unknown.[81] It may have been either Piprahwa, Uttar Pradesh, in present-day India,[54] or Tilaurakot, in present-day Nepal.[82] Both places belonged to the Sakya territory, and are located only 15 miles apart.[82]

Gautama was born as a Kshatriya,[83] [note 9] the son of Śuddhodana, “an elected chief of the Shakya clan“,[6] whose capital was Kapilavastu, and who were later annexed by the growing Kingdom of Kosala during the Buddha’s lifetime. Gautama was the family name. His mother, Maya (Māyādevī), Suddhodana’s wife, was a Koliyan princess. Legend has it that, on the night Siddhartha was conceived, Queen Maya dreamt that a white elephant with six white tusks entered her right side,[85] [86] and ten months later[87]
Siddhartha was born. As was the Shakya tradition, when his mother Queen
Maya became pregnant, she left Kapilavastu for her father’s kingdom to
give birth. However, her son is said to have been born on the way, at
Lumbini, in a garden beneath a sal tree.

The day of the Buddha’s birth is widely celebrated in Theravada countries as Vesak.[88] Buddha’s Birthday is called Buddha Purnima
in Nepal, Bangladesh, and India as he is believed to have been born on a
full moon day. Various sources hold that the Buddha’s mother died at
his birth, a few days or seven days later. The infant was given the name
Siddhartha (Pāli: Siddhattha), meaning “he who achieves his aim”.
During the birth celebrations, the hermit seer Asita journeyed from his mountain abode and announced that the child would either become a great king (chakravartin) or a great sadhu.[89]
By traditional account, this occurred after Siddhartha placed his feet
in Asita’s hair and Asita examined the birthmarks. Suddhodana held a
naming ceremony on the fifth day, and invited eight Brahmin scholars to read the future. All gave a dual prediction that the baby would either become a great king or a great holy man.[89] Kondañña, the youngest, and later to be the first arhat other than the Buddha, was reputed to be the only one who unequivocally predicted that Siddhartha would become a Buddha.[90]

While later tradition and legend characterized Śuddhodana as a hereditary monarch, the descendant of the Suryavansha (Solar dynasty) of Ikṣvāku (Pāli: Okkāka), many scholars think that Śuddhodana was the elected chief of a tribal confederacy.

Early
texts suggest that Gautama was not familiar with the dominant religious
teachings of his time until he left on his religious quest, which is
said to have been motivated by existential concern for the human
condition.[91] The state of the Shakya clan was not a monarchy and seems to have been structured either as an oligarchy, or as a form of republic.[92]
The more egalitarian gana-sangha form of government, as a political
alternative to the strongly hierarchical kingdoms, may have influenced
the development of the śramanic Jain and Buddhist sanghas, where monarchies tended toward Vedic Brahmanism.[93]


Birth and childhood of the Buddha
Early life and marriage



Departure of Prince Siddhartha

Siddhartha was brought up by his mother’s younger sister, Maha Pajapati.[94]
By tradition, he is said to have been destined by birth to the life of a
prince and had three palaces (for seasonal occupation) built for him.
His father, said to be King Śuddhodana, wishing for his son to be a
great king, is said to have shielded him from religious teachings and
from knowledge of human suffering.
While Śuddhodana has traditionally been depicted as a king, and
Siddhartha as his prince, more recent scholarship suggests the Shakya were in-fact organized as a semi-republican oligarchy rather than a monarchy. [95]

When he reached the age of 16, his father reputedly arranged his marriage to a cousin of the same age named Yaśodharā (Pāli: Yasodharā). According to the traditional account, she gave birth to a son, named Rāhula. Siddhartha is said to have spent 29 years as a prince in Kapilavastu.
Although his father ensured that Siddhartha was provided with
everything he could want or need, Buddhist scriptures say that the
future Buddha felt that material wealth was not life’s ultimate goal.[94]

Renunciation and ascetic life



The Victory of Buddha



The “Great Departure” of Siddhartha Gautama, surrounded by a halo, he is accompanied by numerous guards, maithuna loving couples, and devata who have come to pay homage; Gandhara, Kushan period



Prince Siddhartha shaves his hair and becomes an ascetic. Borobudur, 8th century

At
the age of 29, Siddhartha left his palace to meet his subjects. Despite
his father’s efforts to hide from him the sick, aged and suffering,
Siddhartha was said to have seen an old man. When his charioteer Channa explained to him that all people grew old, the prince went on further trips beyond the palace. On these he encountered a diseased man, a decaying corpse, and an ascetic. These depressed him, and he initially strove to overcome ageing, sickness, and death by living the life of an ascetic.[96]

Accompanied by Channa and riding his horse Kanthaka, Gautama quit his palace for the life of a mendicant. It’s said that “the horse’s hooves were muffled by the gods”[97] to prevent guards from knowing of his departure.

Gautama initially went to Rajagaha
and began his ascetic life by begging for alms in the street. After
King Bimbisara’s men recognised Siddhartha and the king learned of his
quest, Bimbisara offered Siddhartha the throne. Siddhartha rejected the
offer but promised to visit his kingdom of Magadha first, upon attaining enlightenment.

He left Rajagaha and practised under two hermit teachers of yogic meditation.[98] [99] [100] After mastering the teachings of Alara Kalama
(Skr. Ārāḍa Kālāma), he was asked by Kalama to succeed him. However,
Gautama felt unsatisfied by the practice, and moved on to become a
student of yoga with Udaka Ramaputta (Skr. Udraka Rāmaputra).[101]
With him he achieved high levels of meditative consciousness and was
again asked to succeed his teacher. But, once more, he was not
satisfied, and again moved on.[102]

Awakening



The Buddha surrounded by the demons of Māra. Sanskrit palm leaf manuscript. Nālandā, Bihar, India. Pāla period

stone Mahabodhi temple in Bodh Gaya, India, is the place where Gautama Buddha attained nirvana underneath the Bodhi Tree

Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya, India, where Gautama Buddha attained nirvana under the Bodhi Tree (left)

According to the early Buddhist texts,[103] after realizing that meditative dhyana was the right path to awakening, but that extreme asceticism didn’t work, Gautama discovered what Buddhists know as being, the Middle Way[103] —a path of moderation away from the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification, or the Noble Eightfold Path, as described in the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, which is regarded as the first discourse of the Buddha.[103] In a famous incident, after becoming starved and weakened, he is said to have accepted milk and rice pudding from a village girl named Sujata.[104] Such was his emaciated appearance that she wrongly believed him to be a spirit that had granted her a wish.[104]

Following this incident, Gautama was famously seated under a pipal tree—now known as the Bodhi tree—in Bodh Gaya, India, when he vowed never to arise until he had found the truth.[105] Kaundinya
and four other companions, believing that he had abandoned his search
and become undisciplined, ceased to stay with him, and went to somewhere
else. After a reputed 49 days of meditation, at the age of 35, he is
said to have attained Enlightenment,[105] [106] and became known as the Buddha or “Awakened One” (”Buddha” is also sometimes translated as “The Enlightened One”).

According to some sutras of the Pali canon, at the time of his awakening he realized complete insight into the Four Noble Truths, thereby attaining liberation from samsara, the endless cycle of rebirth, suffering and dying again.[107] [108] [109]
According to scholars, this story of the awakening and the stress on
“liberating insight” is a later development in the Buddhist tradition,
where the Buddha may have regarded the practice of dhyana as leading to Nirvana and moksha.[110] [111] [107] [note 10]

Nirvana
is the extinguishing of the “fires” of desire, hatred, and ignorance,
that keep the cycle of suffering and rebirth going.[112]
Nirvana is also regarded as the “end of the world”, in that no personal
identity or boundaries of the mind remain. In such a state, a being is
said to possess the Ten Characteristics, belonging to every Buddha.

According to a story in the Āyācana Sutta (Samyutta Nikaya VI.1) — a scripture found in the Pāli and other canons — immediately after his awakening, the Buddha debated whether or not he should teach the Dharma
to others. He was concerned that humans were so overpowered by
ignorance, greed and hatred that they could never recognise the path,
which is subtle, deep and hard to grasp. However, in the story, Brahmā Sahampati convinced him, arguing that at least some will understand it. The Buddha relented, and agreed to teach.

Formation of the sangha



Dhamek Stupa in Sarnath, India, site of the first teaching of the Buddha in which he taught the Four Noble Truths to his first five disciples



Mulagandhakuti, Remains of Buddha’s hut in Jetavana Monastery, Shravasti, India, Where the Buddha delivered majority of his discourses[113]

After his awakening, the Buddha met Taphussa and Bhallika — two merchant brothers from the city of Balkh
in what is currently Afghanistan — who became his first lay disciples.
It is said that each was given hairs from his head, which are now
claimed to be enshrined as relics in the Shwe Dagon Temple in Rangoon, Burma. The Buddha intended to visit Asita, and his former teachers, Alara Kalama and Udaka Ramaputta, to explain his findings, but they had already died.

He then travelled to the Deer Park near Varanasi (Benares) in northern India, where he set in motion what Buddhists call the Wheel of Dharma
by delivering his first sermon to the five companions with whom he had
sought enlightenment. Together with him, they formed the first saṅgha: the company of Buddhist monks.

All five become arahants, and within the first two months, with the conversion of Yasa
and fifty-four of his friends, the number of such arahants is said to
have grown to 60. The conversion of three brothers named Kassapa
followed, with their reputed 200, 300 and 500 disciples, respectively.
This swelled the sangha to more than 1,000.

Travels and teaching



Buddha with his protector Vajrapani, Gandhāra, 2nd century CE, Ostasiatische Kunst Museum

For the remaining 45 years of his life, the Buddha is said to have traveled in the Gangetic Plain, in what is now Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and southern Nepal, teaching a diverse range of people: from nobles to servants, murderers such as Angulimala, and cannibals such as Alavaka.[114]
Although the Buddha’s language remains unknown, it’s likely that he
taught in one or more of a variety of closely related Middle Indo-Aryan
dialects, of which Pali may be a standardization.

The
sangha traveled through the subcontinent, expounding the dharma. This
continued throughout the year, except during the four months of the Vassa
rainy season when ascetics of all religions rarely traveled. One reason
was that it was more difficult to do so without causing harm to animal
life. At this time of year, the sangha would retreat to monasteries,
public parks or forests, where people would come to them.




A view of Vulture Peak, Rajgir, India where the Atanatiya Sutta was held

The first vassana was spent at Varanasi when the sangha was formed. After this, the Buddha kept a promise to travel to Rajagaha, capital of Magadha, to visit King Bimbisara. During this visit, Sariputta and Maudgalyayana were converted by Assaji,
one of the first five disciples, after which they were to become the
Buddha’s two foremost followers. The Buddha spent the next three seasons
at Veluvana Bamboo Grove monastery in Rajagaha, the capital of Magadha.

Upon
hearing of his son’s awakening, Suddhodana sent, over a period, ten
delegations to ask him to return to Kapilavastu. On the first nine
occasions, the delegates failed to deliver the message and instead
joined the sangha to become arahants. The tenth delegation, led by
Kaludayi, a childhood friend of Gautama’s (who also became an arahant),
however, delivered the message.

Now two years after his
awakening, the Buddha agreed to return, and made a two-month journey by
foot to Kapilavastu, teaching the dharma as he went. At his return, the
royal palace prepared a midday meal, but the sangha was making an alms
round in Kapilavastu. Hearing this, Suddhodana approached his son, the
Buddha, saying:


“Ours is the warrior lineage of Mahamassata, and not a single warrior has gone seeking alms.”

The Buddha is said to have replied:


“That
is not the custom of your royal lineage. But it is the custom of my
Buddha lineage. Several thousands of Buddhas have gone by seeking alms.”

Buddhist
texts say that Suddhodana invited the sangha into the palace for the
meal, followed by a dharma talk. After this he is said to have become a sotapanna. During the visit, many members of the royal family joined the sangha. The Buddha’s cousins Ananda and Anuruddha became two of his five chief disciples. At the age of seven, his son Rahula also joined, and became one of his ten chief disciples. His half-brother Nanda also joined and became an arahant.

Of the Buddha’s disciples, Sariputta, Maudgalyayana, Mahakasyapa,
Ananda and Anuruddha are believed to have been the five closest to him.
His ten foremost disciples were reputedly completed by the quintet of Upali, Subhoti, Rahula, Mahakaccana and Punna.

In the fifth vassana, the Buddha was staying at Mahavana near Vesali
when he heard news of the impending death of his father. He is said to
have gone to Suddhodana and taught the dharma, after which his father
became an arahant.




The last days of buddha teachings

The
king’s death and cremation was to inspire the creation of an order of
nuns. Buddhist texts record that the Buddha was reluctant to ordain
women. His foster mother Maha Pajapati,
for example, approached him, asking to join the sangha, but he refused.
Maha Pajapati, however, was so intent on the path of awakening that she
led a group of royal Sakyan and Koliyan ladies, which followed the
sangha on a long journey to Rajagaha. In time, after Ananda championed
their cause, the Buddha is said to have reconsidered and, five years
after the formation of the sangha, agreed to the ordination of women as
nuns. He reasoned that males and females had an equal capacity for
awakening. But he gave women additional rules (Vinaya) to follow.

Mahaparinirvana

According to the Mahaparinibbana Sutta of the Pali canon, at the age of 80, the Buddha announced that he would soon reach Parinirvana,
or the final deathless state, and abandon his earthly body. After this,
the Buddha ate his last meal, which he had received as an offering from
a blacksmith named Cunda. Falling violently ill, Buddha instructed his attendant Ānanda
to convince Cunda that the meal eaten at his place had nothing to do
with his passing and that his meal would be a source of the greatest
merit as it provided the last meal for a Buddha.[115] Mettanando and von Hinüber argue that the Buddha died of mesenteric infarction, a symptom of old age, rather than food poisoning.[116] [117]

The
precise contents of the Buddha’s final meal are not clear, due to
variant scriptural traditions and ambiguity over the translation of
certain significant terms; the Theravada tradition generally believes that the Buddha was offered some kind of pork, while the Mahayana
tradition believes that the Buddha consumed some sort of truffle or
other mushroom. These may reflect the different traditional views on Buddhist vegetarianism and the precepts for monks and nuns.




Buddha’s cremation stupa, Kushinagar (Kushinara).

Waley
suggests that Theravadins would take suukaramaddava (the contents of
the Buddha’s last meal), which can translate literally as pig-soft, to
mean “soft flesh of a pig” or “pig’s soft-food”, that is, after Neumann, a soft food favoured by pigs, assumed to be a truffle.
He argues (also after Neumann) that as “(p)lant names tend to be local
and dialectical”, as there are several plants known to have suukara-
(pig) as part of their names,[note 11]
and as Pali Buddhism developed in an area remote from the Buddha’s
death, suukaramaddava could easily have been a type of plant whose local
name was unknown to those in Pali regions. Specifically, local writers
writing soon after the Buddha’s death knew more about their flora than
Theravadin commentator Buddhaghosa
who lived hundreds of years and hundreds of kilometres remote in time
and space from the events described. Unaware that it may have been a
local plant name and with no Theravadin prohibition against eating
animal flesh, Theravadins would not have questioned the Buddha eating
meat and interpreted the term accordingly.[118]




The sharing of the relics of the Buddha, Zenyōmitsu-Temple Museum, Tokyo

According to Buddhist tradition, the Buddha died at Kuśināra (present-day Kushinagar, India), which became a pilgrimage center.[119] Ananda protested the Buddha’s decision to enter Parinirvana in the abandoned jungles of Kuśināra of the Malla
kingdom. The Buddha, however, is said to have reminded Ananda how
Kushinara was a land once ruled by a righteous wheel-turning king and
the appropriate place for him to die.[120]

The Buddha then asked all the attendant Bhikkhus
to clarify any doubts or questions they had and cleared them all in a
way which others could not do. They had none. According to Buddhist
scriptures, he then finally entered Parinirvana. The Buddha’s final
words are reported to have been: “All composite things (Saṅkhāra)
are perishable. Strive for your own liberation with diligence” (Pali:
‘vayadhammā saṅkhārā appamādena sampādethā’). His body was cremated and
the relics were placed in monuments or stupas, some of which are believed to have survived until the present. For example, the Temple of the Tooth or “Dalada Maligawa” in Sri Lanka is the place where what some believe to be the relic of the right tooth of Buddha is kept at present.




Life scenes of Buddha, sand stone: Birth, Enlightenment, Descent from Heaven, First Sermon, Passing Away, c. 2nd Century CE, Government Museum, Mathura.

According to the Pāli historical chronicles of Sri Lanka, the Dīpavaṃsa and Mahāvaṃsa, the coronation of Emperor Aśoka (Pāli: Asoka) is 218 years after the death of the Buddha. According to two textual records in Chinese (十八部論 and 部執異論),
the coronation of Emperor Aśoka is 116 years after the death of the
Buddha. Therefore, the time of Buddha’s passing is either 486 BCE
according to Theravāda record or 383 BCE according to Mahayana record.
However, the actual date traditionally accepted as the date of the
Buddha’s death in Theravāda countries is 544 or 545 BCE, because the
reign of Emperor Aśoka was traditionally reckoned to be about 60 years
earlier than current estimates. In Burmese Buddhist tradition, the date
of the Buddha’s death is 13 May 544 BCE.[121] whereas in Thai tradition it is 11 March 545 BCE.[122]

At his death, the Buddha is famously believed to have told his disciples to follow no leader. Mahakasyapa was chosen by the sangha to be the chairman of the First Buddhist Council, with the two chief disciples Maudgalyayana and Sariputta having died before the Buddha.




Hair Relics of Buddha on display at Gangaramaya Temple (Colombo).

While
in the Buddha’s days he was addressed by the very respected titles
Buddha, Shākyamuni, Shākyasimha, Bhante and Bho, he was known after his
parinirvana nirvana as Arihant, Bhagavā/Bhagavat/Bhagwān, Mahāvira,[123] Jina/Jinendra, Sāstr, Sugata, and most popularly in scriptures as Tathāgata.

Relics

After his death, Buddha’s cremation relics were divided
amongst 8 royal families and his disciples; centuries later they would
be enshrined by King Ashoka into 84,000 stupas.[124] [125]
Many supernatural legends surround the history of alleged relics as
they accompanied the spread of Buddhism and gave legitimacy to rulers.


Physical characteristics



Gandhāran depiction of the Buddha from Hadda, Afghanistan; Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

An extensive and colorful physical description of the Buddha has been laid down in scriptures. A kshatriya
by birth, he had military training in his upbringing, and by Shakyan
tradition was required to pass tests to demonstrate his worthiness as a
warrior in order to marry. He had a strong enough body to be noticed by
one of the kings and was asked to join his army as a general. He is also
believed by Buddhists to have “the 32 Signs of the Great Man”.

The
Brahmin Sonadanda described him as “handsome, good-looking, and
pleasing to the eye, with a most beautiful complexion. He has a godlike
form and countenance, he is by no means unattractive.” (D, I:115)

“It
is wonderful, truly marvellous, how serene is the good Gotama’s
appearance, how clear and radiant his complexion, just as the golden
jujube in autumn is clear and radiant, just as a palm-tree fruit just
loosened from the stalk is clear and radiant, just as an adornment of
red gold wrought in a crucible by a skilled goldsmith, deftly beaten and
laid on a yellow-cloth shines, blazes and glitters, even so, the good
Gotama’s senses are calmed, his complexion is clear and radiant.” (A,
I:181)

A disciple named Vakkali, who later became an arahant, was
so obsessed by the Buddha’s physical presence that the Buddha is said
to have felt impelled to tell him to desist, and to have reminded him
that he should know the Buddha through the Dhamma and not through
physical appearances.

Although there are no extant representations of the Buddha in human form until around the 1st century CE (see Buddhist art), descriptions of the physical characteristics of fully enlightened buddhas are attributed to the Buddha in the Digha Nikaya’s Lakkhaṇa Sutta (D, I:142).[127] In addition, the Buddha’s physical appearance is described by Yasodhara to their son Rahula
upon the Buddha’s first post-Enlightenment return to his former
princely palace in the non-canonical Pali devotional hymn, Narasīha
Gāthā (”The Lion of Men”).[128]

Among the 32 main characteristics it is mentioned that Buddha has blue eyes.[129]

Nine virtues

Recollection of nine virtues attributed to the Buddha is a common Buddhist meditation and devotional practice called Buddhānusmṛti. The nine virtues are also among the 40 Buddhist meditation subjects. The nine virtues of the Buddha appear throughout the Tipitaka,[130] and include:


Sammasambuddho – Perfectly self-awakened
Vijja-carana-sampano – Endowed with higher knowledge and ideal conduct.
Sugato – Well-gone or Well-spoken.
Lokavidu – Wise in the knowledge of the many worlds.
Anuttaro Purisa-damma-sarathi – Unexcelled trainer of untrained people.
Satthadeva-Manussanam – Teacher of gods and humans.
Bhagavathi – The Blessed one
Araham – Worthy of homage. An Arahant
is “one with taints destroyed, who has lived the holy life, done what
had to be done, laid down the burden, reached the true goal, destroyed
the fetters of being, and is completely liberated through final
knowledge.”
Teachings



Lord Buddha at Pandavleni Caves, Nashik.
Use of Brahmanical motifs

In the Pali Canon, the Buddha uses many Brahmanical devices. For example, in Samyutta Nikaya 111, Majjhima Nikaya 92 and Vinaya i 246 of the Pali Canon, the Buddha praises the Agnihotra as the foremost sacrifice and the Gayatri mantra as the foremost meter:


aggihuttamukhā yaññā sāvittī chandaso mukham.

Sacrifices have the Agnihotra as foremost; of meter, the foremost is the Sāvitrī.[131]

Tracing the oldest teachings

Information of the oldest teachings may be obtained by
analysis of the oldest texts. One method to obtain information on the
oldest core of Buddhism is to compare the oldest extant versions of the
Theravadin Pali Canon and other texts.[note 12] The reliability of these sources, and the possibility of drawing out a core of oldest teachings, is a matter of dispute.[134] [135] [136] [137] According to Vetter, inconsistencies remain, and other methods must be applied to resolve those inconsistencies.[132] [note 13]

According to Schmithausen, three positions held by scholars of Buddhism can be distinguished:[140]

  1. “Stress on the fundamental homogeneity and substantial authenticity of at least a considerable part of the Nikayic materials;”[note 14] [note 15] , from the oldest extant texts a common kernel can be drawn out.[141]
    According to Warder, c.q. his publisher: “This kernel of doctrine is
    presumably common Buddhism of the period before the great schisms of the
    fourth and third centuries BC. It may be substantially the Buddhism of
    the Buddha himself, although this cannot be proved: at any rate it is a
    Buddhism presupposed by the schools as existing about a hundred years
    after the parinirvana of the Buddha, and there is no evidence to suggest
    that it was formulated by anyone else than the Buddha and his immediate
    followers”.[141] and Richard Gombrich. [142]
    Richard Gombrich: “I have the greatest difficulty in accepting that the
    main edifice is not the work of a single genius. By “the main edifice” I
    mean the collections of the main body of sermons, the four Nikāyas, and
    of the main body of monastic rules.”[137]
  2. “Scepticism with regard to the possibility of retrieving the doctrine of earliest Buddhism;”[note 16] [note 17]
  3. “Cautious optimism in this respect.”[note 18]
Dhyana and insight



The Buddha on a coin of Kanishka I, circa 130 CE.

A core problem in the study of early Buddhism is the relation between dhyana and insight.[135] [134] [137]
Schmithausen notes that the mention of the four noble truths as
constituting “liberating insight”, which is attained after mastering the
Rupa Jhanas, is a later addition to texts such as Majjhima Nikaya 36.[138] [134] [135]

Earliest Buddhism

According to Tilmann Vetter, the core of earliest Buddhism is the practice of dhyāna,[146] as a workable alternative to painful ascetic practices.[147] [note 19] Bronkhorst agrees that Dhyāna was a Buddhist invention,[134] whereas Norman notes that “the Buddha’s way to release […] was by means of meditative practices.”[149] Discriminating insight into transiency as a separate path to liberation was a later development.[150] [151]

According to the Mahāsaccakasutta,[note 20] from the fourth jhana the Buddha gained bodhi. Yet, it is not clear what he was awakened to.[149] [134]
According to Schmithausen and Bronkhorst, “liberating insight” is a
later addition to this text, and reflects a later development and
understanding in early Buddhism.[138] [134]
The mentioning of the four truths as constituting “liberating insight”
introduces a logical problem, since the four truths depict a linear path
of practice, the knowledge of which is in itself not depicted as being
liberating:[152]


[T]hey
do not teach that one is released by knowing the four noble truths, but
by practicing the fourth noble truth, the eightfold path, which
culminates in right samadhi.[152]

Although “Nibbāna”
(Sanskrit: Nirvāna) is the common term for the desired goal of this
practice, many other terms can be found throughout the Nikayas, which
are not specified.[153] [note 21]

According to Vetter, the description of the Buddhist path may initially have been as simple as the term “the middle way”.[154] In time, this short description was elaborated, resulting in the description of the eightfold path.[154]

According to both Bronkhorst and Anderson, the four truths became a substitution for prajna, or “liberating insight”, in the suttas[111] [107] in those texts where “liberating insight” was preceded by the four jhanas.[155]
According to Bronkhorst, the four truths may not have been formulated
in earliest Buddhism, and did not serve in earliest Buddhism as a
description of “liberating insight”.[156] Gotama’s teachings may have been personal, “adjusted to the need of each person.”[155]

The three marks of existence[note 22]
may reflect Upanishadic or other influences. K.R. Norman supposes that
these terms were already in use at the Buddha’s time, and were familiar
to his listeners.[157]

The Brahma-vihara was in origin probably a brahmanic term;[158] but its usage may have been common to the Sramana traditions.[134]

Later developments

In time, “liberating insight” became an essential feature of
the Buddhist tradition. The following teachings, which are commonly seen
as essential to Buddhism, are later formulations which form part of the
explanatory framework of this “liberating insight”:[135] [134]


Other religions



Buddha depicted as the 9th avatar of god Vishnu in a traditional Hindu representation

Some Hindus regard Gautama as the 9th avatar of Vishnu.[note 8] [159] However, Buddha’s teachings deny the authority of the Vedas and the concepts of Brahman-Atman.[160] [161] [162] Consequently Buddhism is generally classified as a nāstika school (heterodox, literally “It is not so”[note 23] ) in contrast to the six orthodox schools of Hinduism.[165] [166] [167]

The Buddha is regarded as a prophet by the minority Ahmadiyya[168] sect of Muslims – a sect considered a deviant and rejected as apostate by mainstream Islam.[169] [170] Some early Chinese Taoist-Buddhists thought the Buddha to be a reincarnation of Laozi.[171]

Disciples of the Cao Đài religion worship the Buddha as a major religious teacher.[172]
His image can be found in both their Holy See and on the home altar. He
is revealed during communication with Divine Beings as son of their
Supreme Being (God the Father) together with other major religious
teachers and founders like Jesus, Laozi, and Confucius.[173]

The Christian Saint Josaphat is based on the Buddha. The name comes from the Sanskrit Bodhisattva via Arabic Būdhasaf and Georgian Iodasaph.[174] The only story in which St. Josaphat appears, Barlaam and Josaphat, is based on the life of the Buddha.[175]
Josaphat was included in earlier editions of the Roman Martyrology
(feast day 27 November) — though not in the Roman Missal — and in the
Eastern Orthodox Church liturgical calendar (26 August).

In the ancient Gnostic sect of Manichaeism, the Buddha is listed among the prophets who preached the word of God before Mani.[176]

Depiction in arts and media
Films

Television
Literature
Music
See also

Notes

  1. According to the Buddhist tradition, following the Nidanakatha,[43] the introductory to the Jataka tales, the stories of the former lives of the Buddha, Gautama was born in Lumbini, present-day Nepal.[44] [45] In the mid-3rd century BCE the Emperor Ashoka
    determined that Lumbini was Gautama’s birthplace and thus installed a
    pillar there with the inscription: “…this is where the Buddha, sage of
    the Śākyas (Śākyamuni), was born.”[46] Based on stone inscriptions, there is also speculation that Lumbei, Kapileswar village, Odisha, at the east coast of India, was the site of ancient Lumbini.[47] [48] [49] Hartmann discusses the hypothesis and states, “The inscription has generally been considered spurious (…)”[50]
    He quotes Sircar: “There can hardly be any doubt that the people
    responsible for the Kapilesvara inscription copied it from the said
    facsimile not much earlier than 1928.” Kapilavastu was the place where
    he grew up:[51] [note 6]

    • Warder:
      “The Buddha […] was born in the Sakya Republic, which was the city
      state of Kapilavastu, a very small state just inside the modern state
      boundary of Nepal against the Northern Indian frontier.[6]
    • Walsh:
      “He belonged to the Sakya clan dwelling on the edge of the Himalayas,
      his actual birthplace being a few miles north of the present-day
      Northern Indian border, in Nepal. His father was, in fact, an elected
      chief of the clan rather than the king he was later made out to be,
      though his title was raja – a term which only partly corresponds to our
      word ‘king’. Some of the states of North India at that time were
      kingdoms and others republics, and the Sakyan republic was subject to
      the powerful king of neighbouring Kosala, which lay to the south”.[53]
    • The exact location of ancient Kapilavastu is unknown.[51] It may have been either Piprahwa in Uttar Pradesh, northern India,[54] [55] [56] or Tilaurakot,[57] present-day Nepal.[58] [51] The two cities are located only fifteen miles from each other.[58]
    See also Conception and birth and Birthplace Sources
  2. According to Mahaparinibbana Sutta,[3] Gautama died in Kushinagar, which is located in present-day Uttar Pradesh, India.
    • 411–400: Dundas 2002,
      p. 24: “…as is now almost universally accepted by informed
      Indological scholarship, a re-examination of early Buddhist historical
      material, […], necessitates a redating of the Buddha’s death to
      between 411 and 400 BCE…”
    • 405: Richard Gombrich[32] [33] [34] [35]
    • Around 400: See the consensus in the essays by leading scholars in Narain, Awadh Kishore, ed. (2003), The Date of the Historical Śākyamuni Buddha, New Delhi: BR Publishing, ISBN 81-7646-353-1.
    • According to Pali scholar K. R. Norman,
      a life span for the Buddha of c. 480 to 400 BCE (and his teaching
      period roughly from c. 445 to 400 BCE) “fits the archaeological evidence
      better”.[2] See also Notes on the Dates of the Buddha Íåkyamuni.
  3. According
    to Alexander Berzin, “Buddhism developed as a shramana school that
    accepted rebirth under the force of karma, while rejecting the existence
    of the type of soul that other schools asserted. In addition, the
    Buddha accepted as parts of the path to liberation the use of logic and
    reasoning, as well as ethical behavior, but not to the degree of Jain
    asceticism. In this way, Buddhism avoided the extremes of the previous
    four shramana schools.”[18]
  4. In 2013, archaeologist Robert Coningham found the remains of a Bodhigara, a tree shrine, dated to 550 BCE at the Maya Devi Temple, Lumbini, speculating that it may possible be a Buddhist shrine. If so, this may push back the Buddha’s birth date.[38] Archaeologists caution that the shrine may represent pre-Buddhist tree worship, and that further research is needed.[38]
    Richard Gombrich has dismissed Coningham’s speculations as “a fantasy”,
    noting that Coningham lacks the necessary expertise on the history of
    early Buddhism.[39] Geoffrey Samuels notes that several locations of both early Buddhism and Jainism are closely related to Yaksha-worship, that several Yakshas were “converted” to Buddhism, a well-known example being Vajrapani,[40] and that several Yaksha-shrines, where trees were worshipped, were converted into Buddhist holy places.[41]
  5. Some
    sources mention Kapilavastu as the birthplace of the Buddha. Gethin
    states: “The earliest Buddhist sources state that the future Buddha was
    born Siddhārtha Gautama (Pali Siddhattha Gotama), the son of a local
    chieftain — a rājan — in Kapilavastu (Pali Kapilavatthu) what is now the
    Indian–Nepalese border.”[52] Gethin does not give references for this statement.
  6. Minor
    Rock Edict Nb3: “These Dhamma texts – Extracts from the Discipline, the
    Noble Way of Life, the Fears to Come, the Poem on the Silent Sage, the
    Discourse on the Pure Life, Upatisa’s Questions, and the Advice to
    Rahula which was spoken by the Buddha concerning false speech – these
    Dhamma texts, reverend sirs, I desire that all the monks and nuns may
    constantly listen to and remember. Likewise the laymen and laywomen.”[59]
    Dhammika:”There is disagreement amongst scholars concerning which Pali
    suttas correspond to some of the text. Vinaya samukose: probably the
    Atthavasa Vagga, Anguttara Nikaya, 1:98-100. Aliya vasani: either the
    Ariyavasa Sutta, Anguttara Nikaya, V:29, or the Ariyavamsa Sutta,
    Anguttara Nikaya, II: 27-28. Anagata bhayani: probably the Anagata
    Sutta, Anguttara Nikaya, III:100. Muni gatha: Muni Sutta, Sutta Nipata
    207-221. Upatisa pasine: Sariputta Sutta, Sutta Nipata 955-975.
    Laghulavade: Rahulavada Sutta, Majjhima Nikaya, I:421.”[59]
  7. Kumar Singh, Nagendra (1997). “Buddha as depicted in the Purāṇas”. Encyclopaedia of Hinduism. 7. Anmol Publications. pp. 260–75. ISBN 978-81-7488-168-7. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
  8. According to Geoffrey Samuel, the Buddha was born as a Kshatriya,[83]
    in a moderate Vedic culture at the central Ganges Plain area, where the
    shramana-traditions developed. This area had a moderate Vedic culture,
    where the Kshatriyas were the highest varna, in contrast to the Brahmanic ideology of Kuru-Panchala, where the Brahmins had become the highest varna.[83] Both the Vedic culture and the shramana tradition contributed to the emergence of the so-called “Hindu-synthesis” around the start of the Common Era.[84] [83]
  9. Scholars
    have noted inconsistencies in the presentations of the Buddha’s
    enlightenment, and the Buddhist path to liberation, in the oldest
    sutras. These inconsistencies show that the Buddhist teachings evolved,
    either during the lifetime of the Buddha, or thereafter. See: * Andre
    Bareau (1963), Recherches sur la biographie du Buddha dans les
    Sutrapitaka et les Vinayapitaka anciens, Ecole Francaise
    d’Extreme-Orient * Schmithausen, On some Aspects of Descriptions or
    Theories of ‘Liberating Insight’ and ‘Enlightenment’ in Early Buddhism *
    K. R. Norman, Four Noble Truths * Tilman Vetter, The Ideas and Meditative Practices of Early Buddhism * Richard F. Gombrich (2006). How Buddhism Began: The Conditioned Genesis of the Early Teachings. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-19639-5.
    , chapter four * Bronkhorst, Johannes (1993), The Two Traditions Of Meditation In Ancient India, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, chapter 7 * Anderson, Carol (1999), Pain and Its Ending: The Four Noble Truths in the Theravada Buddhist Canon, Routledge
  10. Waley
    notes: suukara-kanda, “pig-bulb”; suukara-paadika, “pig’s foot” and
    sukaresh.ta “sought-out by pigs”. He cites Neumann’s suggestion that if a
    plant called “sought-out by pigs” exists then suukaramaddava can mean
    “pig’s delight”.
  11. The surviving portions of the scriptures of Sarvastivada, Mulasarvastivada, Mahisasaka, Dharmaguptaka and other schools,[132] [133] and the Chinese Agamas and other surviving portions of other early canons.
  12. Exemplary studies are the study on descriptions of “liberating insight” by Lambert Schmithausen,[138] the overview of early Buddhism by Tilmann Vetter,[135] the philological work on the four truths by K.R. Norman,[139] the textual studies by Richard Gombrich,[137] and the research on early meditation methods by Johannes Bronkhorst.[134]
  13. A well-known proponent of the first position is A.K. Warder
  14. According to A.K. Warder, in his 1970 publication “Indian Buddhism”
  15. A proponent of the second position is Ronald Davidson.
  16. Ronald
    Davidson: “While most scholars agree that there was a rough body of
    sacred literature (disputed)(sic) that a relatively early community
    (disputed)(sic) maintained and transmitted, we have little confidence
    that much, if any, of surviving Buddhist scripture is actually the word
    of the historic Buddha.”[143]
  17. Well-known
    proponents of the third position are: * J.W. de Jong: “It would be
    hypocritical to assert that nothing can be said about the doctrine of
    earliest Buddhism […] the basic ideas of Buddhism found in the
    canonical writings could very well have been proclaimed by him [the
    Buddha], transmitted and developed by his disciples and, finally,
    codified in fixed formulas.”[144]
    * Johannes Bronkhorst: “This position is to be preferred to (ii) for
    purely methodological reasons: only those who seek may find, even if no
    success is guaranteed.”[140]
    * Donald Lopez: “The original teachings of the historical Buddha are
    extremely difficult, if not impossible, to recover or reconstruct.”[145]
  18. Vetter:
    “However, if we look at the last, and in my opinion the most important,
    component of this list [the noble eightfold path], we are still dealing
    with what according to me is the real content of the middle way,
    dhyana-meditation, at least the stages two to four, which are said to be
    free of contemplation and reflection. Everything preceding the eighth
    part, i.e. right samadhi, apparently has the function of preparing for
    the right samadhi.”[148]
  19. Majjhima Nikaya 36
  20. Vetter:
    “I am especially thinking here of MN 26 (I p.163,32; 165,15;166,35)
    kimkusalagavesi anuttaram santivarapadam pariyesamano (searching for
    that which is beneficial, seeking the unsurpassable, best place of
    peace) and again MN 26 (passim), anuttaramyagakkhemam nibbiinam
    pariyesati (he seeks the unsurpassable safe place, the nirvana).
    Anuppatta-sadattho (one who has reached the right goal) is also a vague
    positive expression in the Arhatformula in MN 35 (I p, 235), see chapter
    2, footnote 3, Furthermore, satthi (welfare) is important in e.g. SN
    2.12 or 2.17 or Sn 269; and sukha and rati (happiness), in contrast to
    other places, as used in Sn 439 and 956. The oldest term was perhaps
    amata (immortal, immortality) […] but one could say here that it is a
    negative term.”[153]
  21. Understanding of these marks helps in the development of detachment:
    • Anicca (Sanskrit: anitya): That all things that come to have an end;
    • Dukkha (Sanskrit: duḥkha): That nothing which comes to be is ultimately satisfying;
    • Anattā (Sanskrit: anātman): That nothing in the realm of experience can really be said to be “I” or “mine”.
  22. “in
    Sanskrit philosophical literature, ‘āstika’ means ‘one who believes in
    the authority of the Vedas’, ’soul’, ‘Brahman’. (’nāstika’ means the
    opposite of these).[163] [164]
References

Citations

  1. Cousins 1996, pp. 57–63.
  2. Norman 1997, p. 33.
  3. “Maha-parinibbana Sutta”, Digha Nikaya (16), Access insight, part 5
  4. Baroni 2002, p. 230.
  5. Boeree, C George. “An Introduction to Buddhism”. Shippensburg University. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
  6. Warder 2000, p. 45.
  7. Laumakis 2008, p. 4.
  8. Skilton 2004, p. 41.
  9. Rawlinson, Hugh George. (1950) A Concise History of the Indian People, Oxford University Press. p. 46.
  10. Muller, F. Max. (2001) The Dhammapada And Sutta-nipata, Routledge (UK). p. xlvii. ISBN 0-7007-1548-7.
  11. India: A History. Revised and Updated,
    by John Keay: “The date [of Buddha’s meeting with Bimbisara] (given the
    Buddhist ’short chronology’) must have been around 400 BCE.”
  12. Smith 1924, pp. 34, 48.
  13. Schumann 2003, pp. 1-5.
  14. Jayatilleke 1963, chpt. 1-3.
  15. Clasquin-Johnson, Michel. “Will the real Nigantha Nātaputta please stand up? Reflections on the Buddha and his contemporaries”. Journal for the Study of Religion. 28 (1): 100–114. ISSN 1011-7601.
  16. Walshe 1995, p. 268.
  17. Collins 2009, pp. 199–200.
  18. Berzin, Alexander (April 2007). “Indian Society and Thought before and at the Time of Buddha”. Study Buddhism. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  19. Nakamura 1980, p. 20.
  20. Wynne 2007, pp. 8–23, ch. 2.
  21. Warder 1998, p. 45.
  22. Roy 1984, p. 1.
  23. Roy 1984, p. 7.
  24. Carrithers 2001.
  25. Buswell 2003, p. 352.
  26. Lopez 1995, p. 16.
  27. Schumann 2003, pp. 10–13.
  28. Bechert 1991–1997.
  29. Ruegg 1999, pp. 82-87.
  30. Narain 1993, pp. 187-201.
  31. Prebish 2008, p. 2.
  32. Gombrich 1992.
  33. Narain 1993, pp. 187–201.
  34. Hartmann 1991.
  35. Gombrich 2000.
  36. Schumann 2003, p. xv.
  37. Wayman 1993, pp. 37–58.
  38. Vergano, Dan (25 November 2013). “Oldest Buddhist Shrine Uncovered In Nepal May Push Back the Buddha’s Birth Date”. National Geographic. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  39. Gombrich, Richard (2013), Recent discovery of “earliest Buddhist shrine” a sham?, Tricycle
  40. Tan, Piya (2009-12-21), Ambaṭṭha Sutta. Theme: Religious arrogance versus spiritual openness (PDF), Dharma farer
  41. Samuels 2010, pp. 140–52.
  42. Gombrich 1988, p. 49.
  43. Davids, Rhys, ed. (1878), Buddhist
    birth-stories; Jataka tales. The commentary introd. entitled
    Nidanakatha; the story of the lineage. Translated from V. Fausböll’s ed.
    of the Pali text by TW Rhys Davids
    (new & rev. ed.)
  44. “Lumbini, the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha”. UNESCO. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
  45. “The Astamahapratiharya: Buddhist pilgrimage sites”. Victoria and Albert Museum. Archived from the original on 31 October 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2012.
  46. Gethin 1998, p. 19.
  47. Mahāpātra 1977.
  48. Mohāpātra 2000, p. 114.
  49. Tripathy 2014.
  50. Hartmann 1991, pp. 38–39.
  51. Keown & Prebish 2013, p. 436.
  52. Gethin 1998, p. 14.
  53. Walsh 1995, p. 20.
  54. Nakamura 1980, p. 18.
  55. Srivastava 1979, pp. 61–74.
  56. Srivastava 1980, p. 108.
  57. Tuladhar 2002, pp. 1–7.
  58. Huntington 1986.
  59. Dhammika 1993.
  60. Bhikkhu, Thanissaro. “That the True Dhamma Might Last a Long Time: Readings Selected by King Asoka”. Access to Insight. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  61. “Ancient Buddhist Scrolls from Gandhara”. UW Press. Retrieved 4 September 2008.
  62. Fowler 2005, p. 32.
  63. Beal 1883.
  64. Cowell 1894.
  65. Willemen 2009.
  66. Olivelle, Patrick (2008). Life of the Buddha by Ashva-ghosha (1st ed.). New York: New York University Press. p. xix. ISBN 9780814762165.
  67. Karetzky 2000, p. xxi.
  68. Beal 1875.
  69. Swearer 2004, p. 177.
  70. Schober 2002, p. 20.
  71. Anålayo, The Buddha and Omniscience, Indian International Journal of Buddhist Studies, 2006, vol. 7 pp. 1–20.
  72. Tan, Piya (trans) (2010). “The Discourse to Sandaka (trans. of Sandaka Sutta, Majjhima Nikāya 2, Majjhima Paṇṇāsaka 3, Paribbājaka Vagga 6)” (PDF). The Dharmafarers. The Minding Centre. pp. 17–18. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
  73. MN 71 Tevijjavacchagotta [Tevijjavaccha]
  74. Access to Insight, ed. (2005). “A Sketch of the Buddha’s Life: Readings from the Pali Canon”. Access to Insight: Readings in Theravāda Buddhism. Access to Insight (Legacy Edition). Retrieved 24 September 2015.
  75. Jones 1956.
  76. Skilton 2004, p. 64-65.
  77. Carrithers 2001, p. 15.

Read the entire article on Wikipedia


81) Classical Serbian

81) Класични српски

2436 Пет 10 Нов 2017 ЛЕКЦИЈА

Типитака

Типитака (Пали ти, “три”, питака, “корпе”),
или Пали канон, је колекција примарних текстова Пали језика који су
формирају доктринарну основу Тхеравадског будизма. Типитака и
паракононски пали текстови (коментари, хронике, итд.) заједно чине комплетно тело класичних текстова Тхеравада.

Тхе
Пали канон је огромно тело књижевности: у преводу на енглески језик
текстови додају хиљаде штампаних страница. Већина (али не и све)
Цанон је већ објављен на енглеском преко година. Иако
само мали део ових текстова је доступан на овој веб страници, ово
колекција може бити добро место за почетак.

Три одјела Типитаке су:

Винаиа Питака
    
Збирка текстова који се тичу правила понашања која се односе на
дневне послове унутар Сангхе - заједница бхиккхуса (ордаинед монкс) и
бхиккхунис (ордаинед
    
монахиње). Далеко више од само правила, Винаиа Питака такође
    
укључује приче иза извора сваког правила, а
    
детаљан приказ Будиног рјешења за питање како
    
одржавају заједничку хармонију унутар великог и разноликог духовног
    
заједница.
Сутта Питака
    
Тхе
    
збирка сутата или дискурса, приписаних Буди и неколико
    
његових најближих ученика, који садрже сва централна учења
    
Тхеравада будизам. (Више од хиљаду превода сутте су
    
доступне на овој веб страници.) ​​Сутате су подељене међу пет никаиас (колекције):

        Дигха Никаиа - “дуга колекција”
        
Мајјхима Никаиа - “колекција средњих дужина”
        
Самиутта Никаиа - “груписана колекција”
        
Ангуттара Никаиа - “додатна збирка”
        
Кхуддака Никаиа - “збирка малих текстова”:
            
Кхуддакапатха
            
Дхаммапада
            
Удана
            
Итивуттака
            
Сутта Нипата
            
Виманаваттху
            
Петаваттху
            
Тхерагатха
            
Тхеригатха
            
Јатака
            
Ниддеса
            
Патисамбхидамагга
            
Ападана
            
Буддхавамса
            
Царииапитака
            
Неттипакарана (укључен само у бурманско издање Типитаке)
            
Петакопадеса (”")
            
Милиндапанха (”")

Абхидхамма Питака
    
Тхе
    
збирка текстова у којима су основни принципи доктрине
    
представљени у Сутта Питаки су преобликовани и реорганизовани у а
    
систематски оквир који се може применити на истрагу о
    
природа ума и материје.

Life Sketch of Savitribai Phule – Timeline

http://velivada.com/life-sketch-of-savitribai-phule-timeline/
Life Sketch of Savitribai Phule – Timeline

Life Sketch of Savitribai Phule – Timeline

“Savitribai Phule (1831-97), struggled and suffered with her
revolutionary husband in an equal measure, but remains obscured due to
casteist and sexist negligence. Apart from her identity as Jotirao
Phule’s wife, she is little known even in academia. Modern India’s first
woman teacher, a radical exponent of mass and female education, a
champion of women’s liberation, a pioneer of engaged poetry, a
courageous mass leader who took on the forces of caste and patriarchy
certainly had her independent identity and contribution. It is indeed a
measure of the ruthlessness of elite-controlled knowledge-production
that a figure as important as Savitribai Phule fails to find any mention
in the history of modern India. Her life and struggle deserves to be
appreciated by a wider spectrum, and made known to non-Marathi people as
well,” writes Braj Ranjan Mani.


Here we present life-sketch of Savitribai Phule. In case we have
missed any important event from the life of Savitribai Phule or have
made any mistake while recording any event, let us know in the comments
section and we will try to update the timeline. Alternatively, you can
submit further information here. If you like this timeline, share it with your friends!



Savitribai Phule

1831
1831

Birth of Savitribai Phule

Savitribai-Phule Google Art

Savitribai
Jyotirao Phule was born on January 3, 1831 at Naigaon, about 50 km from
Pune. She was the eldest daughter of mother Lakshmi and father Khandoji
Neveshe Patil.



1840
1840

Marriage with Jyotirao Phule

Krantijyoti Savitribai Phule Educational Circle

As
was the practice then, at the age of nine, she was married to
twelve-year-old Jyotirao Phule in 1840. Savitribai and Jyotirao had no
children of their own but they adopted Yashavantrao, a son born to a
widowed Brahmin.



1841
1841

Started Education

Mahatma-Jyotiba-Phule taught Savitribai Phule

Shortly
after the marriage to Jyotiba Phule, education of Savitribai Phule
started. Impressed by her thirst for learning, Savitribai’s husband,
Jyotirao Phule, taught her to read and write. Becoming fond of teaching,
Savitribai trained at Ms Farar’s Institution in Ahmednagar.



1846
1846

Passed Examinations

Savitri Bai Phule

Passed third and fourth year examination from a normal school.



1847
1847

Started School in Maharwada

Savitribai Jyotirao Phule

Savitribai
Phule along with Sagunabai started school in Maharwada on 1st may 1847,
initially 8-9 girls were enrolled but within year strength reached to
40-45.



1848
1848

Started India’s First School for Girls

Savitribai Phule and Jotiba Phule

Country’s
first school for girls was started at Bhide Wada in Pune. On 1st Jan.
1848, India’s first school for girls was started at Bhide Wada in Pune
by Mahatma Jotiba Phule and Savitribai Phule. The present condition of
that first school for girls is miserable because of the lack of interest
from subsequent governments in preserving the Dalit-Bahujan heritage.  



1848

First Woman Teacher & First Woman Headmistress!

Savitri Bai Phule

India’s
first school was started at Bhide Wada in Pune by Phule couple,
Savitribai Phule became not only the first woman teacher but Savitribai
was nominated as India’s first lady headmistress in 1st Jan 1848.



1849
1849

Life At School & Opposition of Brahmins

Savitribai Phule

Life
of Savitribai Phule as a teacher in the school at the time when upper
caste orthodox people used to look down wasn’t easy and many times they
used to pelt stones and throw dung on her. The young couple faced severe
opposition from almost all sections. Savitribai was subject to intense
harassment every day as she walked to the school. Stones, mud and dirt
were flung at her as she passed but Savitribai Phule faced everything
courageously.



1849

Thrown Out of Their House

Savitribai Phule and Jotiba Phule

Savitribai
Phule and Jotiba Phule’s work of educating downtrodden and girls
infuriated many Brahmins of that time and because of the fears of
attacks from orthodox Brahmins, Jyotiba Phule’s father was afraid. In
1849, both Savitribai Phule and Jotiba Phule were thrown out of their
home.



1849

First School For Shudra and Ati-Shudra

Savitri_Bai_Phule_Fatima_Sheikh_first_women_teachers_of_India

After
being thrown out of their home, Savitribai Phule and Jotiba Phule
started school for adults at Usman Sheikh’s Wada in Pune for educating
Shudra and Ati-Shudra community. Savitribai taught at this school along
with the first Muslim woman teacher of India, Fatima Sheikh.



1850
1850

Inspiring Students

Savitribai-Phule

Savitribai
Phule is also said to have inspired a young student to ask for a
library for the school at an award ceremony instead of gifts for
herself. She inspired the young girls to take up painting, writing, and
other activities. An essay written by a young girl, Mukta Salve, at that
time became the face of Dalit literature and Dalit Feminism.
Parent-teacher meeting was conducted at regular intervals to aware the
parents about the importance of education and to encourage their
children to attend the schools regularly.



1850

Foundation of RTE and Mid-day Meal Schemes

Jyotiba-Savitribai-Phule

You
might wonder the Right to Education Act, midday meal schemes are a
modern-day concept but Savitribai Phule and Jotiba Phule set the stage
for it almost 170 years back by giving stipends to children to reduce
the dropout rate in schools. They took initiatives to reduce
malnutrition in children by taking care of the health of each and every
child in school.



1851
1851

Running 3 Schools at a Time

Jotiba Phule, Savitribai Phule and Women Empowerment Bahujan Unity

By
1851, Savitribai Phule along with her husband was running three schools
with around 150 female students. For her, education was not simply
alphabetical learning, but rather, an evolution of the mind itself. Her
innovative methods of teaching slowly attracted the common people, as
the number of girls increased.



1852
1852

Award From British Government

Savitribai Phule and Jotiba Phule

On
16th Nov. 1852, Phule family was honoured by the British government for
their works in the field of education and Savtribai was declared as the
best teacher.



1852

Started Mahila Seva Mandal

Savitribai Phule Inspired Students

Savitribai
Phule started Mahila Seva Mandal in 1852, which worked for raising
women’s consciousness about their human rights, the dignity of life and
other social issues. She went on to organise a successful barbers strike
in Mumbai and Pune against the prevailing practice of shaving of
widows’ heads.



1853
1853

Started India’s First Infanticide Prohibition Home

savitribai-phule

On
28 January 1853, the first-ever infanticide prohibition home of India
was started by Savitribai Phule. Due to the Brahminical Social Order,
those were the days when women irrespective of their caste and class
were very much oppressed in all fields of life. There were many
patriarchal and Brahminical traditions, values and rituals which were
against women.  There were a large number of widows in the Pune City and
the nearby villages during days. Adolescents and young girls happened
to more among in the widows. These widows were boycotted publicly and
with the meagre financial support, they were clandestine subjects to
sexual exploitation.



1854
1854

First Indian Woman Whose Poems Got Noticed

Savitribai Phule Poems

Savitribai
Phule wrote many poems against discrimination and advised people to get
educated. Savitribai Phule was the first Dalit women, in fact, the
first Indian woman whose poems got noticed in the British empire.
Savitribai Phule was the mother of modern poetry stressing the necessity
of English and education through her poems. “Kavya Phule”- the first
collection of poems was published in 1854. Read a few of her poems from
“Kavyaphule” from here.



1855
1855

Started Night School

Savitribai Phule Teaching Students

In
1855, a night school for agriculturist and labourers was started by
Phule couple. There were many downtrodden people who had no option to go
to regular schools but could themselves available only at night so to
cater their needs Phule couple started the night school.



1855

Published Jyotirao Phule’s Speeches

Savitribai Phule and Jotiba Phule

Savitribai
Phule edited and published Jyotirao Phule’s Speeches on 25 December
1856. It contains four speeches by Jyotirao Phule.



1863
1863

Started Orphanage Home

Savitribai Phule and Jotiba Phule

Phule
couple started orphanage home for the pregnant widows in 1863 so that
they can give birth to their children and live without the fear of
society.



1868
1868

Opened the Well for Untouchables

Phule Couple Open Well

At
a time when even the shadow of untouchables was considered impure when
the people were unwilling to offer water to thirsty untouchables,
Savitribai Phule and Mahatma Jotiba Phule opened the well in their house
for the use of untouchables. It was a challenge thrown at the Brahmins
to change their mindset towards untouchables (But unfortunately, the
sick mindset of so-called upper castes have not changed even after
almost 200 years, Dalit (untouchables) still strive for water rights).



1873
1873

Head of Satya Shodhak Samaj

Savitri Bai Phule

When
Jotiba Phule established the Satya Shodhak Samaj, Savitribai became the
head of the women’s section which included ninety female members.
Moreover, she worked tirelessly as a school teacher for girls. After
Jotiba Phule’s death, she was the chairperson of Satya Shodhak Samaj and
carried his work ahead. Savitribai Phule acted as a Chairperson of
Satya Shodhak Samaj Conference at Saswad in 1893. Its purpose was to
liberate the Shudra and Untouchable castes from exploitation and
oppression.



1874
1874

Adoption of Son

Jyotiba-Savitribai-Phule

In
1874, Phule couple adopted the son of Kashibai, a Brahmin widow. When
Infanticide Prohibition Home started by Savitribai Phule working as a
hospital, Savitribai did not remain as one who served to widows but she
went further in this regard. She adopted a child from a Brahmin widow
(Kashibai) and thereby gave a message to the progressive people of the
society. This adopted child was named Yashwant Rao, who later became a
doctor.



1876
1876

Started 52 Free Food Hostels

Jotiba Phule, Savitribai Phule and Women Empowerment Bahujan Unity

During
the 1876 to 1898 famines, Savitribai Phule worked courageously with her
husband and suggested many new ways to overcome the difficult time.
They started distributing free food at many locations. Phule couple
started 52 free food hostels in Maharashtra.



1887
1887

Nursing Jotiba Phule

Jyotiba-Savitribai-Phule

In
July 1889, when Jyotiba Phule suffered a stroke and right side of the
body was paralyzed, Savitribai nursed him night and day hence he managed
to recover and write again.



1896
1896

Forced British Government to Start Relief Work

savitribai-phule

During
the draught in 1897, Savitribai Phule forced British government, that
was ignoring the well-being of people, to start relief work



1897
1897

Death of Savitribai Phule

Savitribai Phule and Jotiba Phule

Savitribai
and her adopted son, Yashwant, opened a clinic to treat those affected
by the bubonic plague when it appeared in the area around Nallasopara in
1897. Savitribai Phule personally took patients to the clinic where her
son served them. While caring for the patients, she contracted the
disease herself. She died from it on 10 March 1897 while serving a
plague patient.



1983
1983

Memorial

Savitribai_Phule

Pune City Corporation built a memorial in the memory of Savitribai Phule in 1983.



1998
1998

Post Stamp in Honour

Government of India honoured Savitribai Phule by publishing a postage stamp on 10 March 1998.

A century after her death, on 10 March 1998, a stamp was released by India Post in honour of Savitribai Phule.



2015
2015

University of Pune Renamed as Savitribai Phule Pune University

university-of-pune-to-be-renamed-to-savitribai-phule-vidyapeeth

In 2015, the University of Pune was renamed as Savitribai Phule Pune University in her honour.



2017
2017

Savitribai Phule Google Doodle

Savitribai Phule Doodle2436 Fri 10 Nov 2017 LESSON

http://velivada.com/life-sketch-of-savitribai-phule-timeline/
Life Sketch of Savitribai Phule – Timeline

Life Sketch of Savitribai Phule – Timeline

“Savitribai Phule (1831-97), struggled and suffered with her
revolutionary husband in an equal measure, but remains obscured due to
casteist and sexist negligence. Apart from her identity as Jotirao
Phule’s wife, she is little known even in academia. Modern India’s first
woman teacher, a radical exponent of mass and female education, a
champion of women’s liberation, a pioneer of engaged poetry, a
courageous mass leader who took on the forces of caste and patriarchy
certainly had her independent identity and contribution. It is indeed a
measure of the ruthlessness of elite-controlled knowledge-production
that a figure as important as Savitribai Phule fails to find any mention
in the history of modern India. Her life and struggle deserves to be
appreciated by a wider spectrum, and made known to non-Marathi people as
well,” writes Braj Ranjan Mani.


Here we present life-sketch of Savitribai Phule. In case we have
missed any important event from the life of Savitribai Phule or have
made any mistake while recording any event, let us know in the comments
section and we will try to update the timeline. Alternatively, you can
submit further information here. If you like this timeline, share it with your friends!



Savitribai Phule

1831
1831

Birth of Savitribai Phule

Savitribai-Phule Google Art

Savitribai
Jyotirao Phule was born on January 3, 1831 at Naigaon, about 50 km from
Pune. She was the eldest daughter of mother Lakshmi and father Khandoji
Neveshe Patil.



1840
1840

Marriage with Jyotirao Phule

Krantijyoti Savitribai Phule Educational Circle

As
was the practice then, at the age of nine, she was married to
twelve-year-old Jyotirao Phule in 1840. Savitribai and Jyotirao had no
children of their own but they adopted Yashavantrao, a son born to a
widowed Brahmin.



1841
1841

Started Education

Mahatma-Jyotiba-Phule taught Savitribai Phule

Shortly
after the marriage to Jyotiba Phule, education of Savitribai Phule
started. Impressed by her thirst for learning, Savitribai’s husband,
Jyotirao Phule, taught her to read and write. Becoming fond of teaching,
Savitribai trained at Ms Farar’s Institution in Ahmednagar.



1846
1846

Passed Examinations

Savitri Bai Phule

Passed third and fourth year examination from a normal school.



1847
1847

Started School in Maharwada

Savitribai Jyotirao Phule

Savitribai
Phule along with Sagunabai started school in Maharwada on 1st may 1847,
initially 8-9 girls were enrolled but within year strength reached to
40-45.



1848
1848

Started India’s First School for Girls

Savitribai Phule and Jotiba Phule

Country’s
first school for girls was started at Bhide Wada in Pune. On 1st Jan.
1848, India’s first school for girls was started at Bhide Wada in Pune
by Mahatma Jotiba Phule and Savitribai Phule. The present condition of
that first school for girls is miserable because of the lack of interest
from subsequent governments in preserving the Dalit-Bahujan heritage.  



1848

First Woman Teacher & First Woman Headmistress!

Savitri Bai Phule

India’s
first school was started at Bhide Wada in Pune by Phule couple,
Savitribai Phule became not only the first woman teacher but Savitribai
was nominated as India’s first lady headmistress in 1st Jan 1848.



1849
1849

Life At School & Opposition of Brahmins

Savitribai Phule

Life
of Savitribai Phule as a teacher in the school at the time when upper
caste orthodox people used to look down wasn’t easy and many times they
used to pelt stones and throw dung on her. The young couple faced severe
opposition from almost all sections. Savitribai was subject to intense
harassment every day as she walked to the school. Stones, mud and dirt
were flung at her as she passed but Savitribai Phule faced everything
courageously.



1849

Thrown Out of Their House

Savitribai Phule and Jotiba Phule

Savitribai
Phule and Jotiba Phule’s work of educating downtrodden and girls
infuriated many Brahmins of that time and because of the fears of
attacks from orthodox Brahmins, Jyotiba Phule’s father was afraid. In
1849, both Savitribai Phule and Jotiba Phule were thrown out of their
home.



1849

First School For Shudra and Ati-Shudra

Savitri_Bai_Phule_Fatima_Sheikh_first_women_teachers_of_India

After
being thrown out of their home, Savitribai Phule and Jotiba Phule
started school for adults at Usman Sheikh’s Wada in Pune for educating
Shudra and Ati-Shudra community. Savitribai taught at this school along
with the first Muslim woman teacher of India, Fatima Sheikh.



1850
1850

Inspiring Students

Savitribai-Phule

Savitribai
Phule is also said to have inspired a young student to ask for a
library for the school at an award ceremony instead of gifts for
herself. She inspired the young girls to take up painting, writing, and
other activities. An essay written by a young girl, Mukta Salve, at that
time became the face of Dalit literature and Dalit Feminism.
Parent-teacher meeting was conducted at regular intervals to aware the
parents about the importance of education and to encourage their
children to attend the schools regularly.



1850

Foundation of RTE and Mid-day Meal Schemes

Jyotiba-Savitribai-Phule

You
might wonder the Right to Education Act, midday meal schemes are a
modern-day concept but Savitribai Phule and Jotiba Phule set the stage
for it almost 170 years back by giving stipends to children to reduce
the dropout rate in schools. They took initiatives to reduce
malnutrition in children by taking care of the health of each and every
child in school.



1851
1851

Running 3 Schools at a Time

Jotiba Phule, Savitribai Phule and Women Empowerment Bahujan Unity

By
1851, Savitribai Phule along with her husband was running three schools
with around 150 female students. For her, education was not simply
alphabetical learning, but rather, an evolution of the mind itself. Her
innovative methods of teaching slowly attracted the common people, as
the number of girls increased.



1852
1852

Award From British Government

Savitribai Phule and Jotiba Phule

On
16th Nov. 1852, Phule family was honoured by the British government for
their works in the field of education and Savtribai was declared as the
best teacher.



1852

Started Mahila Seva Mandal

Savitribai Phule Inspired Students

Savitribai
Phule started Mahila Seva Mandal in 1852, which worked for raising
women’s consciousness about their human rights, the dignity of life and
other social issues. She went on to organise a successful barbers strike
in Mumbai and Pune against the prevailing practice of shaving of
widows’ heads.



1853
1853

Started India’s First Infanticide Prohibition Home

savitribai-phule

On
28 January 1853, the first-ever infanticide prohibition home of India
was started by Savitribai Phule. Due to the Brahminical Social Order,
those were the days when women irrespective of their caste and class
were very much oppressed in all fields of life. There were many
patriarchal and Brahminical traditions, values and rituals which were
against women.  There were a large number of widows in the Pune City and
the nearby villages during days. Adolescents and young girls happened
to more among in the widows. These widows were boycotted publicly and
with the meagre financial support, they were clandestine subjects to
sexual exploitation.



1854
1854

First Indian Woman Whose Poems Got Noticed

Savitribai Phule Poems

Savitribai
Phule wrote many poems against discrimination and advised people to get
educated. Savitribai Phule was the first Dalit women, in fact, the
first Indian woman whose poems got noticed in the British empire.
Savitribai Phule was the mother of modern poetry stressing the necessity
of English and education through her poems. “Kavya Phule”- the first
collection of poems was published in 1854. Read a few of her poems from
“Kavyaphule” from here.



1855
1855

Started Night School

Savitribai Phule Teaching Students

In
1855, a night school for agriculturist and labourers was started by
Phule couple. There were many downtrodden people who had no option to go
to regular schools but could themselves available only at night so to
cater their needs Phule couple started the night school.



1855

Published Jyotirao Phule’s Speeches

Savitribai Phule and Jotiba Phule

Savitribai
Phule edited and published Jyotirao Phule’s Speeches on 25 December
1856. It contains four speeches by Jyotirao Phule.



1863
1863

Started Orphanage Home

Savitribai Phule and Jotiba Phule

Phule
couple started orphanage home for the pregnant widows in 1863 so that
they can give birth to their children and live without the fear of
society.



1868
1868

Opened the Well for Untouchables

Phule Couple Open Well

At
a time when even the shadow of untouchables was considered impure when
the people were unwilling to offer water to thirsty untouchables,
Savitribai Phule and Mahatma Jotiba Phule opened the well in their house
for the use of untouchables. It was a challenge thrown at the Brahmins
to change their mindset towards untouchables (But unfortunately, the
sick mindset of so-called upper castes have not changed even after
almost 200 years, Dalit (untouchables) still strive for water rights).



1873
1873

Head of Satya Shodhak Samaj

Savitri Bai Phule

When
Jotiba Phule established the Satya Shodhak Samaj, Savitribai became the
head of the women’s section which included ninety female members.
Moreover, she worked tirelessly as a school teacher for girls. After
Jotiba Phule’s death, she was the chairperson of Satya Shodhak Samaj and
carried his work ahead. Savitribai Phule acted as a Chairperson of
Satya Shodhak Samaj Conference at Saswad in 1893. Its purpose was to
liberate the Shudra and Untouchable castes from exploitation and
oppression.



1874
1874

Adoption of Son

Jyotiba-Savitribai-Phule

In
1874, Phule couple adopted the son of Kashibai, a Brahmin widow. When
Infanticide Prohibition Home started by Savitribai Phule working as a
hospital, Savitribai did not remain as one who served to widows but she
went further in this regard. She adopted a child from a Brahmin widow
(Kashibai) and thereby gave a message to the progressive people of the
society. This adopted child was named Yashwant Rao, who later became a
doctor.



1876
1876

Started 52 Free Food Hostels

Jotiba Phule, Savitribai Phule and Women Empowerment Bahujan Unity

During
the 1876 to 1898 famines, Savitribai Phule worked courageously with her
husband and suggested many new ways to overcome the difficult time.
They started distributing free food at many locations. Phule couple
started 52 free food hostels in Maharashtra.



1887
1887

Nursing Jotiba Phule

Jyotiba-Savitribai-Phule

In
July 1889, when Jyotiba Phule suffered a stroke and right side of the
body was paralyzed, Savitribai nursed him night and day hence he managed
to recover and write again.



1896
1896

Forced British Government to Start Relief Work

savitribai-phule

During
the draught in 1897, Savitribai Phule forced British government, that
was ignoring the well-being of people, to start relief work



1897
1897

Death of Savitribai Phule

Savitribai Phule and Jotiba Phule

Savitribai
and her adopted son, Yashwant, opened a clinic to treat those affected
by the bubonic plague when it appeared in the area around Nallasopara in
1897. Savitribai Phule personally took patients to the clinic where her
son served them. While caring for the patients, she contracted the
disease herself. She died from it on 10 March 1897 while serving a
plague patient.



1983
1983

Memorial

Savitribai_Phule

Pune City Corporation built a memorial in the memory of Savitribai Phule in 1983.



1998
1998

Post Stamp in Honour

Government of India honoured Savitribai Phule by publishing a postage stamp on 10 March 1998.

A century after her death, on 10 March 1998, a stamp was released by India Post in honour of Savitribai Phule.



2015
2015

University of Pune Renamed as Savitribai Phule Pune University

university-of-pune-to-be-renamed-to-savitribai-phule-vidyapeeth

In 2015, the University of Pune was renamed as Savitribai Phule Pune University in her honour.



2017
2017

Savitribai Phule Google Doodle

Savitribai Phule Doodle

On 3 January 2017, the search engine Google marked the 186th birth anniversary of Savitribai Phule with a Google doodle.


On 3 January 2017, the search engine Google marked the 186th birth anniversary of Savitribai Phule with a Google doodle.


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