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2456 Thu 30 Nov 2017 LESSON Living Vegan Cow kneels to saviour Best Ancient Buddhist Monasteries Of Sri Lanka Information about Meditation Centers and other important places in Sri Lanka for visiting Western Buddhist lay practitioners. TIPITAKA from FREE ONLINE Tipitaka Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org This outline displays the publication of books in the Devan±gari-script edition of the Chaμμha Saag±yana (Sixth Council) Tipiμaka. The names of the volumes are displayed in italics with the suffix “-p±1⁄4i” indicatingthe volume is part of the root Tipiμaka, rather than commentarial literature. This outline lists the root volumes only. in 23) Classical English,30) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,31) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,32) Classical German-Klassisches Deutsch,33) Classical Greek-Κλασσική Ελληνική,34) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,35) Classical Haitian Creole -Klasik kreyòl ayisyen,36) Classical Hausa-Hausa na gargajiya
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 11:04 pm


2456 Thu 30 Nov 2017 LESSON

Living Vegan

Cow kneels to saviour

Best Ancient Buddhist Monasteries Of Sri Lanka

Information about Meditation Centers and other important places in Sri Lanka for visiting Western Buddhist lay practitioners.

TIPITAKA

from FREE ONLINE  Tipitaka  Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

This
outline displays the publication of books in the Devan±gari-script
edition of the Chaμμha Saag±yana (Sixth Council) Tipiμaka. The names of
the volumes are displayed in italics with the suffix “-p±1⁄4i”
indicatingthe volume is part of the root Tipiμaka, rather than
commentarial literature. This outline lists the root volumes only.

in 23) Classical English,30) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,31) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,32) Classical German-Klassisches Deutsch,33) Classical Greek-Κλασσική Ελληνική,34) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,35) Classical Haitian Creole -Klasik kreyòl ayisyen,36) Classical Hausa-Hausa na gargajiya

http://living-vegan.blogspot.in/2009/09/cow-kneels-to-saviour.html

Life of a vegan in Singapore and Interesting Vegan and vegetarian related Stuff



Sunday, September 6, 2009



Cow kneels to saviour

Below is a picture taken in 2008 in Sri Lanka. The monk in the picture
saved those cows from slaughter. And after he saved their lives, this
was what one grateful cow did.

I think this is more than sufficient to show that animals do not just
behave instinctively, have no emotion, and are meant to be meat and milk
machines to serve us. No doubt some people do not even have gratitude
like this cow.

From Bangalore, Karnataka we went for Swimming
Championship including Ocean Swimming. I made it a point to meet this
Venerable Monk. I was lucky to stay in his Monastery for three days. Now
on 25th January 2017 all my 25 swimmer friends wish to meet him.
I need the address of that Monastery.

http://www.ceylondiscoverytours.com/budhist-monasteries


Best Ancient Buddhist Monasteries Of Sri Lanka



Arankele



Arankele



Fascinating 6th c AD forest monastery in a
thick forest mountain. Calm and quiet, Arankele was the abode to a most
famed Buddhist monk Arahat Maliyadeva who, along with other monastic
monks lived nearly 2,000 years ago. The sylvan environment of this
monastery will relax and refresh you completely and is also home to
archeological findings. Stretching out on many acres of a forest canopy,
there are stone carved caves used for meditation, long pathways across
the dense forest.



Situlpawwe



Situlpawwe



The monastery, identified as one of the
significant Buddhist sites in Sri Lanka, is built in the 2nd c BC and
lies in the midst of Yala National Park. In ancient times, this rock
temple said to have been occupied by a total of 12,000 Arhants;
enlightened Buddhist monks. Inside the monastery there are a number
archeological ruins ,including rock caves, Stupas , chapter houses,
Image Houses, Bodhi Trees and ponds and The caves’ inside have been
built to make it suitable for the monks to live.



Ritigala



Ritigala



One of the less visited but most legendary
ancient sites of Sri Lanka. The Ritigala , nestles deep inside the
Ritigala Strict Nature Reserve, is a partially excavated ruins of
anextensive BuddhistMonastery. It was abandoned following invasions in
10th and 11th centuries and today holds special appeal with its curious
blend of nano-safari and archaeology. Walking around the beautiful ruins
does certainly give you a feeling of adventures in search of mythical
pasts; it is easy to imagine yourself as Indiana Jones whilst clambering
over the overgrown relics of a forgotten time.



Kudumbigala



Kudumbigala



An ancient monastery, dates back to 3rd c
BC, had been re-discovered in recent past.
The monasteryis a very beautiful place with extraordinary tranquility
and peacefulsurrounding as it has been built in a land of boulders that
provides caves, which had been converted into isolated facilities for
meditation.Kudumbigala is one of the most interior monasteries, where
Theravadhi Buddhist monks are even today occupying under very basic
facilities.






http://www.buddhanet.net/…/Sri-Lanka-laypeople-monasteries.…


Information about Meditation Centers and other important places in Sri Lanka for visiting Western Buddhist lay practitioners.

Updated: January 2005.

Introduction

In
Sri Lanka there are many meditation centres and monasteries, only some
of these are suitable for Western Buddhist lay practitioners who do not
intend to become monastics or stay long time in the country. The
following information is particularly intended to western lay Buddhists
who are new to Sri Lanka and who wish to stay in a meditation centre in
Sri Lanka for a limited period of time. The centres have been arranged
according to districts. A separate paper, much moreextensive, has been
written for Western bhikkhus, those who aspire to become bhikkhus, or
are very serious about their practise and are intending to stay a longer
period of time. It is called:

“Information
about Meditation Centers, Forest Monasteries, and other important
places in Sri Lanka for Western bhikkhus and serious lay practitioners.
If one would like to visit a forest monastery during one’s stay in Sri
Lanka then this last paper will provide one with useful information.


The forthcoming book “Sacred Island” by Ven. S. Dhammika (to be
published by the B.P.S.) gives exhaustive information regarding ancient
monasteries and other sacred sites
an pilgrimage places in Sri Lanka.


The best places for those who are new to Sri Lanka and wish to do a
retreat are the ones given under the Colombo District and Kandy
Districtheadings, i.e., Kanduboda Vipassana Meditation Centre, Kanduboda
New Meditation Centre, Nilambe Meditation Centre, Pāramitā
International Meditation Centre, and Dhammakū2a Vipassana Meditation
Centre.


Most meditation centres for laypeople charge a small amount of money
for the lodgings and food. In monastic meditation centres like Kanduboda
there are no charges, but a donation is appreciated.


The place where the meditation centre is gives a good indication about
its climate. In the south-west low-country the climate is tropical,
i.e., hot and humid. The eastern low
country has a dry season
between May and October. The South West (roughly between Mātara,
Colombo, and Ratnapura) is the so-called “wet-zone” where two monsoons a

year take place (May-June, November-January). The so-called
“dry-zone” (this is an exaggeration as it can rain heavily here too at
times) is in the East, North, and South.

Only one main monsoon (Nov-Dec) takes place there.

The
deep South (the coastal area between Ambalantota and Pānama) and the
far North (Northern coast & Jaffna peninsula) are the driest areas
in S.L. The upcountry is the hill- and mountain-area in the center of
Sri Lanka (roughly between Mātale, Badulla, Haputale, and Ratnapura).
Here the climate is temperate and it can get cool at night. It is
generally a more agreeable climate than the low-country for westerners.
In the south-west up-country areas such as the Singharāja rainforest
and the Sri Pada Wilderness areas it rains the most, so much so that it
can be impossible to dry one’s clothes, etc., for days after washing. 


The food is generally everywhere the same all the time in Singhalese
areas, fairly plain and simple. It can be quite spicy compared to
Western food. In the cities the food can be
more nutritious while
in poor rural areas the food can be quite un-nutritious. Many people in
Sri Lanka don’t eat meat or fish. In many meditation centres and
monasteries one gets no meat or fish. In some monasteries and meditation
centres small amounts of fish can be served (meat or eggs are hardly
ever given), but one can easily refuse without
offending anyone. 


Medical care and hygiene are not of the same standards as they
generally is in the west, but the doctors usually do their best to help
one and there are quite a few doctors and
dentists who have trained
and worked in the West. The monastery or meditation centre one is
staying in can help if one needs medicines or medical care. The best
hospitals are
the Apollo and Navaloka private hospitals in Colombo.
The medical care is supposed to be very good in these places, but it is
priced accordingly. The same doctors who work in
the private
hospitals also work in government hospitals, but the equipment and
facilities in government hospitals are of a lesser standard. The
treatment in government hospitals
is free for Sri Lankan citizens, but foreigners have to pay for the treatment. 


There are some good dentists, some trained in the West, in Sri Lanka
who can do the same work as dentists in the West but at a much cheaper
price. 

Sri Lanka is a great place for practising patience,simplicity, renunciation, and humility. 


Conditions in meditation centres and monasteries can be very simple and
uncomfortable for those used to the luxuries and comforts of the west.
Meditation centres and monasteries are not rich in Sri Lanka and only
few places will have a car. 


Public transport is cheap in Sri Lanka, but one needs to be prepared to
spend three or four times or more the amount of time getting to aplace
in Sri Lanka than it would take
in the West. Most roads are small,
badly maintained, and congested. The traffic can be very chaotic and
dangerous. It is not definitely advisable to drive oneself in Sri Lanka.

One
can rent a minibus or car with a driver for about rs. 3000-4000 a day
(including petrol). The hotel one stays initially can help oneto find a
car with a driver. Make sure to
ask for a driver who does not drink
or smoke. Drivers are likely to try to bring one to tourist shops from
which they will get a commission if you buy anything. The same applies
for hotels. Three wheelers are a convenient mode of transport for
shorter distances and in towns they can be quicker than cars. The price
for three wheelers is about rs. 20-25
a km, but a higher price will
generally be charged to Westerners. Make sure to settle the price
before getting into the three wheeler.

Loudspeakers can possibly be quite a disturbance in Sri Lanka, as in Asia in general. 


There are only a few places which completely escape the sound of the
Paritta-chanting blasted from village-temples on Poya-days. 


Sri Lanka used to be a British colony and there are many Singhalese
people who can speak English well, especially in Colombo and other big
towns, however, in remote
country-side areas it can be more
difficult to find English speakers. Nevertheless, in  almost every
village there will be (or is supposed to be) an English teacher in the
village
school who will be keen to practise his English and can help with translating if necessary. 


In the bigger meditation-centres and monasteries there usually are a
few people who can speak English, but in the more remote and smaller
places there might not be English
speakers. 


The greatest concentrations of meditation-centres and monasteries are
in the Western and Central parts of the country, esp. in Colombo and
Kandy districts. Due to the war there
are very few active
monasteries in the northern andeastern districts although there are
ruins of ancient ones in many places. In the highermountain areas there
are also few
monasteries as the Singhalese generally find it toocold up there. 


Western Buddhists are usually treated with respect and wonder by
Singhalese as westerners are not Buddhist out of cultural reasons, but
out of a sincere desire to practice
the Dhamma. Most Singhalese are
Buddhists, but they are Buddhist because they are born so and not
really out of conviction. Most Buddhists in Sri Lanka (and other
countries
in Asia) practice their religion in the same way as, for
example, most Anglicans would do in England. Most will only visit the
monastery a few times a year to offer food to the
monks and
dedicate the merit to their dead father or mother and perform some other
rituals. Not many Singhales laypeople meditate, even the practice of
most of the more
serious Buddhists consists mostly in observing the
precepts, chanting sacred chants, visiting the monastery on poya days,
and other devotional practices. 


In general one can, and needs to be, more independent in Sri Lanka. If
one wishes to practice independently and is not looking for a big guru,
then Sri Lanka can be a great
place. The Singhalese, like Indians,
are more individualistic than the Thais, and leave more space to others.
There is not such a strong teacher-tradition in Sri Lanka as in

Thailand and Burma, but there are monks, nuns, and lay practitioners who
can give useful instructions and help one along the way. 


The transliteration of Sinhala characters has been added when it was
known and considered useful. This makes it easier to pronounce the place
name and make oneself understood to the local people. 


The character æ is pronounced as the Enlgish e in and or a in cat, ǣ is
pronounced long drawn like the a in taxi spoken by a New Yorker, a as
the a in another, ā as the a in art, i as the i in ink, ī as the ee in
eel, the u as the u in put, the ū as the u in prudent, e as the a in age
(but before a conjunct consonant as in endand thus the same as æ), and o
as the o in own (but before a conjunct consonant as in orange). The v/w
is pronounced mid-way between the English v and w. The w has been used
in this work. For more information on the correct pronunciation of
Sinhala, see W.S. Karuna til lake’s “An Introduction to Spoken Sinhala”
p. ix ff and the Guide to Pronunciation in“The Forest Monks of Sri
Lanka” by
Michael Carrithers. 

This paper is as comprehensive and exact as possible but things can change quickly. 

Please send any suggestions with regards this list to:
Bhikkhu Nyanatusita
Forest Hermitage
Udawattakele
PO Box 61
Kandy
Colombo

The capital of Sri Lanka. In general: a hot, humid,noisy, polluted, and sensual place. 

Lanka Vipassana Meditation Centre.
108 Wijerāma Mawatha, Colombo 7. Tel. 011-2694-100. 


This is a branch of Kanduboda in Colombo’s Diplomatic quarter. Ven.
Pemasiri used to stay here, but moved to a new place next to Kanduboda
in 2003 (see previous entry), his
place was taken over by Ven.
AriyavaKsalaLkara. The place has had many long-term Western monastic-
and lay-residents in Ven. Premasiri’s time. Good support, tidy, clean. 


It is fairly quiet here for Colombo standards. Women stay in a separate
wing. There are no official courses but there is group-meditation. 

There is no charge for the lodgings and food, but donations are welcome. 

Pagoda Meditation Centre.
49/2, 1stCross Street, Pagoda Road, Nugegoda. Tel:
011-2812397. Website: http://groups.msn.com/PagodaMeditationCentre 


A new centre started by Ven. Olanda Ānanda, a well-known senior Dutch
monk who speaks fluently Sinhala and has been teaching meditation for a
long time in Sri Lanka and
abroad. There is no accomodation to stay
yet, but visitors are welcome. Retreats are planned. Situated in a
fairly area in a suburb of Colombo. 

Buddhist Cultural Center, (= B.C.C), 125 Anderson Road, Nedimala, Dehiwala,Tel.
26234, 734256 Fax. 736737. Director: Ven. Vimalajothi. Comprehensive
selection of Buddhist Books. There is a branch-bookshop at the junction
of Baudhaloka Mawatha and
Sarana Road in the All Ceylon Buddhist
Congress compound, and 2 smaller centres, one in Kelaniya, and another
near Lake House alongside the Cetiya opposite the Hilton.

Affiliated to this place is a meditation centre in Horana outside
Colombo: Dekandūwala Meditation Centre. See under Colombo District
below.

International Buddhist Research and Information Center
(IBRIC) / Nārada Center, 380/9, Sarana Road, Colombo 00700 Tel 689388. e-mail
bic@col7.metta.lk


Prof. Bhikkhu Dhammavihari’s and Ven. Mettavihari’s place. On the
ground floor there is a Buddhist book shop with a wide selection of
books. 

Vishva Niketan International Peace Centre. 72/30 Rawatawatte Road, Moratuwa.
Tel/Fax: (94-1)655653

E-mail: vishvaniketan@mail.ewisl.net.

Affiliated to the Sarvodaya movement, they have programs for males and females of all religions.

Colombo District.

Mostly flatland with some small hills, rubber estates and paddyfields. A hot and humid climate. 

Siyane Vipassana Meditation Centre or Kanduboda Vipassana Meditation Centre. 

Kanduboda, DelgoQa. Tel. 011-2445518; 011-2570306.
E-mail: bhavanam@sltnet.lk or mupali@sltnet.lk 


A meditation centre and monastery with a long tradition of offering
meditation-instruction to Westerners. The main teacher and head monk is
Ven. Upāli,
who is very experienced in the Mahāsi tradition. Women have a separate area to stay in. 


There are a few large buildings with rooms and some ku2is. It is close
to a small road and surrounded by coconut plantations and a few village
houses. The teaching is in the
Mahāsi tradition. The daily schedule
and discipline is more relaxed than in the Mahāsi centres in Burma.
More individual meditation than group meditation. There is no charge
for the lodgings and food, but donations are welcome. 

The centre is approximately 20 kms east of Colombo.

From
the CTB Bus Station at Olcott Mawatha, Pettah, take the 224 bus which
stops outside the monastery; also the 207 bus from Gampaha goes there.
Some of the buses to Kirin
diwella are passing near Kanduboda (but
this is not a good option, as they are infrequent). Kanduboda has more
than 25 branches throughout the country. Most are of no significance
for westerners. 

Sumantiphāla BM. Hibatgala Rd, Kanduboda, DelgoQa. Tel: 011-2402805.

A new meditation centre has been opened in 2003 on the land right next to Kanduboda.


Lay people can build ku2is and have access to them for life. This might
interest to those who may want to meditate but not become a monk.
Thirty ku2is have been built already. 


The head of the new centre is Ven. Pemasiri, a popular and experienced
teacher in the Mahāsi tradition who is helpful and friendly to
foreigners. He used to stay in Kanduboda VMC and then in Lanka Vipassana
Centre. (See next entry.) Besides the Mahāsi method he also teaches
other traditional methods of meditation. The place is mainly for
laypeople
but monks do visit and stay here for limited periods. The female yogis and nuns have their own separate area.

The facilities are nice and spacious. 

Dekandūwala M.C.


Kananwila, Kahatapitiya, Horana. Inquiries and bookings should be made
through Ven. Vimalajothi at the Buddhist Cultural Center; see Colombo
above. The place is situated on a hill-top. Both small houses (ku2is)
and rooms are available for lay-meditators. Good facilities, nice
meditation hall, quiet, nice views. Westeners are welcome to stay here.
It is about 20 km south-east of Colombo. There is probably a charge for
the lodgings and food. 

Kandy


The ancient capital of the hill country. A fairly large town with the
temple of the tooth-relic and the two headquarters of the Siam Nikaya.
There are some forests left on the hills and mountains. Temperate
climate, cool atnight. 

Lewella Meditation Centre,
160 Dharmashoka Mawatha, Kandy 20000, Tel. 08-2225471.
Fax 08-2225471. A meditation centre in a suburb of Kandy (1,5 km away
from the centre of town) connected with Nilambe, mainly for lay-people,
both Westerners and Singhalese. 


There is a house with a few rooms near a road and 4 ku2is in the
shrubby forest on the slope above the house near the eastern edge of the
Udawattekele. Group-meditation in evening. Yoga-classes. Relaxed
atmosphere This placeis in a town-area and can therefore be a bit noisy.
There is a 400/- a day charge for lodgings and food. 

Burmese Resthouse.

D.S. Senanayaka Maw/Trincomalee Street. Near Trinity College. 


Burmese vihāra on a major and noisy street right in the center of
Kandy. One or two Burmese monks are residing here. Laypeople can get a
room against a small payment and the place is popular with western
backpackers. 


Buddhist Publication Society (B.P.S.), PO Box 61, 54 Sangharaja
Mawatha, Kandy. Tel: 081-2237283. The B.P.S., founded by Ven.
ÑāSaponika, has a big bookshop with large assortment of Buddhist books.
There is also a reasonable reference library upstairs. 


Forest Hermitage, Udawattakele, c/o Buddhist Publication Society, PO
Box 61, Kandy. Tel: 07777-65944. The Hermitage of Ven. ÑāSatiloka, Ven.
ÑāSaponika, and Ven. Bodhi. Laypeople visiting the Forest Hermitage need
not pay the fee for the Udawattakele sanctuary. It is a small place
about 20 minutes walk from the entrance of the forest. If one wishes to
visit then it is recommended to write or telephone beforehand to the
resident bhikkhu, Ven. ÑāSatusita. 

Kandy District

Hills and mountains covered with tea plantations and forests. The higher one goes the cooler it gets. 

Nilambe Meditation Centre, Galaha, Kandy. (Mr. Upul Gamage: 0777-804555.) 


The major lay-meditation centre in Sri Lanka for western travellers.
Many westerners, both male and female, come here, but there are also
some Sinhalese. There is a 400/- a day charge for lodgings and food.
There is a strong daily schedule and little talking. 


Situated in tea-estate-country on a mountain-range above Peradeniya.
Quiet area. Cool, wet climate, beautiful views. Relaxed and friendly
atmosphere. Godwin Samararatne, the respected and internationally known
meditation teacher, was long connected to this place and passed away in
early 2000. The resident teacher for Singhalese meditators is Mr. Upul
Gamage. Other teachers also come occasionally.

There is no resident teacher for westerners at the moment. 


About 20 kms south of Kandy. From Kandy take a bus to Galaha and get
off 17 km after Peradeniya at the Nilambe Bungalow junction (conductors
know the place). From there it is a steep 40 min. climb through tea
plantations. Follow the white arrows. 

Pāramitā International Buddhist Centre. No. 07 Balumgala, Kadugannāwa,
Tel/Fax.08-570732 (office).

A
recently built meditation centre on the hill above the point where the
Kandy-Colombo road starts going down the mountains (where the old road
goes through the rock); 20 km west of Kandy. There is a good library. A
comfortable place especially built for westerners who like good
facilities and food. Various teachers come for visits and sometimes
retreats are held, but normally the emphasis is on practising and
studying by oneself. Ven. Sīlananda is the resident teacher and main
organizer. Some noise from Kandy-Colombo road. There is a charge for
lodgings and food.


Dhammakū3a Vipassana Meditation Centre. Mowbray, Galaha Road,
Hindagala, Perādeniya. (Nr. Kandy) 081-2234649/081-2385774-5/070-800057.

email: dhamma@sltnet.lk

Website:

www.lanka.com/ dhamma/dhammakuta 


A meditation centre where 10-day Vipassana Meditation courses are given
in the tradition of Sayagi U Ba Khin, as taught by S.N. Goenka. On a
mountain, beautiful views, cool. Only courses, no permanent residents.
It is better to book well in advance as the courses are often booked
out. About 5 km from Peradeniya towards the south. Take a Galaha bus
from Kandy. One can not visit here without an appointment. There are no
fixed charges for the courses, but donations are welcome.

Konāravatta Meditation Centre. 

Atanvala. South of Kaikawala/Rattota. Tel: 066-2233450. 


30 km north-east of Kandy, 12 km from Mātale. New, scenic 16 acre place
on the slopes of the Knuckles Range. Belonging to ex-Nyanasīha bhikkhu
(Germany), now Peter.
Laypeople can build their own meditation huts here.
If Peter is not there then the caretaker is Chandrā.


buddhanet.net

30) Classical Galician
30) Clásico galego

2453 Lun 27 de novembro de 2017 LECCIÓN

TIPITAKA

desde FREE ONLINE Tipitaka Research andPractice UNIVERSITY a través de http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

Este esquema mostra a publicación de libros na edición Devan ± gari-script do Chaμμha Saag ± yana (Sexto Consello) Tipiμaka. Os
nomes dos volumes amósanse en cursiva co sufijo “-p ± 1/4i” que indica
que o volume forma parte da raíz Tipiμaka, en lugar de literatura
comentarista.
Este esquema enumera só os volumes raíz.

Vinaya Piμaka

(Tres divisións, impresas en 5 libros)

Sutta Vibhaaga [dous libros que conteñen regras para os bhikkhus e bhikkhunis, que describen oito clases de delitos]

Tipiμaka (tres “cestas”)

Sutta Piμaka

(Cinco nik ± yas ou coleccións)

O Sutta Piṭaka contén a esencia do ensino de Buda sobre o Dhamma. Contén máis de dez mil suttas. Está dividido en cinco coleccións chamadas Nikāyas (A multitude,
asemblea; unha colección; unha clase, orde, grupo; unha asociación,
fraternidade, congregación; unha casa, vivenda).

Dīgha Nikāya
[dīgha: long] O Dīgha Nikāya reúne 34 dos discursos máis longos que deu o Buda. Hai varias indicacións de que moitas delas son adicións tardías ao corpus orixinal e de autenticidade cuestionable.

Majjhima Nikāya
[majjhima: medio] O Majjhima Nikāya reúne 152 discursos do Buda de
lonxitude intermedia, tratando de diversas materias.

Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta: grupo] O Saṃyutta Nikāya reúne as suttas segundo o seu tema en 56 subgrupos chamados saṃyuttas. Contén máis de tres mil discursos de lonxitude variable, pero xeralmente relativamente curto.

Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg: factor | uttara:
additionnal] O Aṅguttara Nikāya está subdividido en once subgrupos
chamados nipātas, cada un deles recollendo discursos compostos por
enumeracións dun factor adicional versus as do precedente nipāta.
Contén miles de suttas que xeralmente son curtos.

Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha: curto, pequeno] Os textos curtos de Khuddhaka Nikāya e considerado como estado
composto por dous estratos: Dhammapada, udana, Itivuttaka, Sutta
Nipata, Theragatha-Therigatha e jātaka formar os estratos antiga,
mentres otherbooks son adicións atrasadas ea súa autenticidade é
dubidosa.

Sutta Piμaka

(Cinco nik ± yas ou coleccións)

1. D2gha-nik ± ya [34 suttas; 3 vaggas ou capítulos (cada un libro)]
(1) S2lakkhandavagga-p ± 1/4i (13 suttas)
(2) Mah ± vagga-p ± 1/4i (10 suttas)
(3) P ± μikavagga-p ± 1/4i (11 suttas)

2. Majjhima-nik ± ya [152 suttas; 15 vaggas; dividido en 3 libros,
5 vaggas cada un, coñecido como paoo ± sa (’cincuenta’)]

(1) M3lapaoo ± ssa-p ± 1/4i (o ‘erro’ cincuenta)
1. M3lapariy ± yavagga (10 suttas)
2. S2han ± davagga (10 suttas)
3. Tatiyavagga (10 suttas)

4. Mah ± yamakavagga (10 suttas)

5. C31/4ayamakavagga (10 suttas)
(2) Majjhimapaoo ± sa-p ± 1/4i (o medio “cincuenta)

6. Gahapati-vagga (10 suttas)
7. Bhikkhu-vagga (10 suttas)
8. Paribb ± jaka-vagga (10 suttas)
9. R ± ja-vagga (10 suttas)

10. Br ± hmana-vagga (10 suttas)
(3) Uparipaoo ± sa-p ± 1/4i (significa ‘máis de cincuenta’)

11. Devadaha-vagga (10 suttas)
12. Anupada-vagga (10 suttas)
13. Suññata-vagga (10 suttas)
14. Vibhaaga-vagga (12 suttas)
15. Sa1/4 ± yatana-vagga (10 suttas)

3. Sa1/2yutta-nik ± ya [2.904 (7.762) suttas; 56 sa1/2yuttas; 5 vaggas; dividido
en 6 libros]

(1) Sag ± thavagga-sa1/2yutta-p ± 1/4i (11 sa1/2yuttas)
(2) Nid ± navagga-sa1/2yutta-p ± 1/4i (10 sa1/2yuttas)
(3) Khandavagga-sa1/2yutta-p ± 1/4i (13 sa1/2yuttas)
(4) Sa1/4 ± yatanavagga-sa1/2yutta-p ± 1/4i (10 sa1/2yuttas)
(5) Mah ± vagga-sa1/2yutta-p ± 1/4i Vol I (6 sa1/2yuttas)
(6) Mah ± vagga-sa1/2yutta-p ± 1/4i Vol. II (6 sa1/2yuttas)

4. Aaguttara-nik ± ya [9,557 suttas; in11 nip ± tas ou grupos, organizados puramente
numéricamente; Cada nip ± ta ten varios vaggas; 10 ou máis suttas en
cada vagga; 6 libros]

(1) Eka-Duka-Tika-nipata-p ± 1/4i (uns, dous, tres)
(2) Catukka-nipata-p ± 1/4i (catro)
(3) Pañcaka-nipata-p ± 1/4i (cinco)
(4) Chakka-Sattaka-nipata-p ± 1/4i (seis, sete)

(5) Aμμhaka-Navaka-nipata-p ± 1/4i (eights, nines)
(6) Dasaka-Ekadasaka-nipata-p ± 1/4i (decenas, elevadas)

5. Khuddaka-nik ± ya [a colección de pequenos libros,
ing de obras en 18 seccións principais; Inclúe suttas, compilacións de
notas doutrinal, historias, versos e literatura comentarista que ten
incorporouse ao propio Tipiμaka; 12 libros]

(1) Kuddhakap ± tha, Dhammapada & Ud ± na-p ± 1/4i

1. Kuddhakap ± tha (nove fórmulas curtas e suttas, usadas como manual de adestramento para
novicio bhikkhus)
2. Dhammapada (o máis famoso de todos os libros do Tipiμaka; unha colección de 423
versos en 26 vaggas)

3. Ud ± na (en 8 vaggas, 80 expresións alegres do Buda, principalmente en versos, con

algunhas contas en prosa das circunstancias que provocaron o enunciado)

(2) Itivuttaka, Suttanip ± ta-p ± 1/4i
4. Itivuttaka (4 nip ± tas, 112 suttas, cada inicio, “iti vutta1/2 bhagavata” [así foi
dixo polo Buda])
5. Suttanip ± ta (5 vaggas; 71 suttas, principalmente en verso; contén moitos dos mellores
coñecidas, suttas máis populares do Buda

(3) Vim ± navatthu, Petavatthu, Therag ± th ± & Therig ± ± ± ± 1/4i
6. Vim ± navatthu (Vim ± na significa mansión; 85 poemas en 7 vaggas sobre actos de
mérito e renacemento nos reinos celestiales)
7. Petavatthu (4 vaggas, 51 poemas que describen os seres miserables [pásas] nados en
estados infelices debido aos seus actos demeritoros)
8. Therag ± ± ± (versos de alegría e deleite logo da obtención do arahatship a partir de 264
bhikkhus ancián; 107 poemas, 1.279 gramos ±.
9. Therig ± ± (o mesmo que o anterior, de 73 monxas máis vellos; 73 poemas, 522 g ± sas)

(4) J ± taka-p ± 1/4i, Vol. Eu
(5) J ± taka-p ± 1/4i, Vol. II

10. J ± taka (relatos de nacemento do Bodisatta antes do seu nacemento como Buda Gotama; 547
contos en versos, divididos en nip ± ta segundo o número de versículos requiridos
contar a historia. As historias completas de J ± taka son realmente os comentarios de J ± taka que
explicar a historia detrás dos versos.

(6) Mah ± nidessa-p ± 1/4i
(7) C31/4anidessa-p ± 1/4i

11. Nidessa (comentario sobre dúas seccións de Suttanip ± ta)
Mah ± nidessa: comentario sobre a 4ª vagga
C31/4anidessa: comentario sobre a 5ª vagga e

o Khaggavis ± o sutta do 1º vagga
(8) Paμisambhid ± magga-p ± 1/4i

12. Paμisambhid ± magga (unha análise detallada do Buda de estilo abhidhamma)
ensino, extraído de todas as porcións do Vin ± it e Sutta Pihakas; tres vaggas,
cada un contén dez temas [kath ±])

(9) Apad ± na-p ± 1/4i, Vol. Eu
13. Apadana (contos en versos da antiga vida de 550 bhikkhus e 40 bhikkhunis)

(10) Apadana, Buddhava1/2sa & Cariy ± piμaka-p ± 1/4i

14. Buddhava1/2sa (a historia dos Budas nos que o Buda, en resposta a un
pregunta de Ven. Sariputta, conta a historia do ascético Sumedha e D2paakara
Buda e os seguintes 24 Budas, incluíndo o Buda Gotama.)
15. Cariy ± piμaka (35 historias do J ± taka dispostas para ilustrar os dez p ± ram2)

(11) Nettippakarana, Peμakopadesa-p ± 1/4i

16. Nettippakarana (pequeno tratado que establece métodos de interpretación e explicación)
ing de textos canónicos)
17. Peμakopadesa (tratado que establece métodos para explicar e ampliar o
ensino do Buda)

(12) Milindapañha-p ± 1/4i

18. Milinda-pañha (un rexistro das preguntas que representa o rei Milinda eo
respostas de Ven. Nagasena; Este debate tivo lugar ca. 500 anos despois do
mah ± parinibb ± na do Buda)

Abhidhamma Piμaka

[Sete seccións de exposición sistemática e abstracta de todos os dhammas; impreso en
12 libros]

1. Dhammasaagao2
(enumeración dos dhammas)

(1) Dhammasaagao2-p ± 1/4i

2. Vibhaaga-p ± 1/42
(distinción ou análise de dhammas)

(2) Vibhaaga-p ± 1/42

3. Dh ± tukath ±
(discusión de elementos; estas tres primeiras seccións forman unha triloxía que
debe ser dixerido como base para entender Abhidhamma)

4. Puggalapaññatti
(designación de individuos; dez capítulos: primeiro tratando de sinxelo
individuos, o segundo con parellas, o terceiro con grupos de tres, etc.

(3) Dh ± tukath ± -Puggalapaññatti-p ± 1/42

5. Kath ± vatthu-p ± 1/42
(puntos de controversia ou visión incorrecta; discute os puntos suscitados e
instalouse no terceiro consello, realizado no momento do reinado de Aokaoka, en Patna)

(4) Kath ± vatthu-p ± 1/42

6. Yamaka-p ± 1/42
(libro de parellas; un uso de preguntas pareadas e opostas para resolver ambi-
guidades e definir o uso preciso de termos técnicos)

(5) Yamaka-p ± 1/42, Vol. I
(6) Yamaka-p ± 1/42, Vol. II
(7) Yamaka-p ± 1/42, Vol. III

7. Paμμh ± na
(libro de relacións; elaboración dun esquema de 24 condicionales
relacións [paccaya] que forman un sistema completo de comprensión
a mecánica do universo enteiro de Dhamma)

(8) Paμμh ± na-p ± 1/4i, Vol. I
(9) Paμμh ± na-p ± 1/4i, Vol. II
(10) Paμμh ± na-p ± 1/4i, Vol. III
(11) Paμμh ± na-p ± 1/4i, Vol. IV
(12) Paμμh ± na-p ± 1/4i, Vol. V

(1) P ± r ± jika-p ± 1/4i Bhikku
p ± r ± jik ± (expulsión) 4
saaghadises ± (reunións da Sangha) 13
aniyat ± (indeterminado) 2
nissagiy ± p ± cittiy ± (expiation con confiscación) 30

(2) P ± cittiya-p ± 1/4i
suddha p ± cittiy ± (expiación ordinaria) 92
p ± tidesaniy ± (confesión re: alms food) 4
sekhiya (sobre etiquetas e decoros) 75
adhikaraoasamath ± (proceso legal) 7

(conclúe coas regras de bhikkuni vinaya) ______
227
Bhikkhuni

8
17
0
30

166
8
75
7
______
311

2. Khandaka [dous libros de regras e procedementos]
(3) Mah ± vagga-p ± 1/4i (10 seccións [khandhakas]; comeza con contas históricas da

A iluminación de Buda, os primeiros discursos eo crecemento temperá da Sangha;
describe as seguintes regras que rexen as accións da Sangha:
1. Regras para a admisión á orde (upasampad ±)
2. A reunión uposatha e recital do p ± timokkha

3. residencia durante a estación de choiva (vassa)
4. Cerimonia que conclúe a vassa, chamada pav ± rao ±
5. regras para artigos de vestimenta e mobiliario
6. Medicina e alimentación
7. distribución anual de túneles (kaμhina)
8. Regras para os bhikkhus enfermos, material de durmir e roupa
9. modo de executar os procedementos da Sangha
10. procesos en caso de cisma

(4) C31/4avagga-p ± 1/4i (ou Cullavagga) (12 khandakas que tratan outras regras e procedementos)
duras por actos ou funcións institucionais, coñecido como saaghakamma:
1. Regras para xestionar os delitos que se presentan ante a Sangha
(saagh ± disesa)

2. Procedementos para poñer un bhikkhu en liberdade condicional
3. Procedementos para xestionar a acumulación de delitos por parte dun bhikkhu
4. Regras para resolver procedementos legais na Sangha
5. misc. regras para bañarse, vestirse, etc.
6. Vivendas, mobiliario, aloxamento, etc.
7. cismas
8. clases de bhikkhus e deberes de profesores e novatos
9. exclusión do p ± timokkha
10. A ordenación e instrución dos bhikkhunis
11. conta do primeiro consello en R ± jagaha
12. conta do 2º consello en Ves ± li

3. Pariv ± ra-p ± 1/4i [un resumo da vinaya, organizado como a
catecismo para instrución e exame]

(5) Pariv ± ra-p ± 1/4i O quinto libro de vinaya serve como unha especie de manual que permite que o lector
facer unha enquisa analítica de toda a Vinaya Piμaka

31) Classical Georgian
31. კლასიკური ქართული

2453 Mon 27 Nov 2017 გაკვეთილი

ტიპითკა

უფასო ონლაინ Tipitaka კვლევისა და პრაქტიკის უნივერსიტეტიდან http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

ეს განტოტვილი გვიჩვენებს წიგნების გამოცემა ჩაანამას სააღი იანის (მეექვსე საბჭო) ტიპაკაკის დევანეს გარი-სცენარის გამოცემაში. ტომის
ტომების სახელები წარმოდგენილია ისპლიკაში ერთად სუპერით “-p ± 1/4i”,
რომლის მიხედვითაც მოცულობა მოცულობითია Tipiakaka- ის ნაწილად, ვიდრე
კომენტარულ ლიტერატურას.
ეს განტოტვილი ჩამოთვლილია მხოლოდ ძირითად მოცულობას.

ვინანას პიკაკა

(სამი დაყოფა, 5 წიგნში დაბეჭდილი)

სუტა ვიბაგაა [ორი წიგნი, რომელიც შეიცავს ფიქხუსსა და ბიხხუნს, რომელიც გამოიკვეთა რვა კლასი დანაშაულის შესახებ]

ტიპიკაკა (სამი “კალათები”)

სუტა პიკაკა

(ხუთი ნიკი, ან კოლექციები)

სუტა პიტაკა შეიცავს ბამას სწავლების არსს დმამთან დაკავშირებით. იგი შეიცავს ათზე მეტი სუნას. იგი გაყოფილია ხუთი კოლექციით, რომელსაც ეწოდება ნიაია (სიმრავლე,
შეკრება, კლასი, შეკვეთა, ჯგუფი, ასოციაცია, ძმობა, კრება, სახლი,
საცხოვრებელი).

დიგა ნიკაია
[დიღას: დიდხანს] დიღას ნიკაია ბუდას მიერ წარმოთქმული ყველაზე გრძელი დისკურსის 34-მა იკრიბება. არსებობს სხვადასხვა მინიშნებები, რომელთა უმრავლესობა არის გვიან დამატებები ორიგინალური კორპუსი და საეჭვო ნამდვილობა.

მაჟჯიმა ნიკაია
[majjhima: საშუალო] Majjhima Nikāya აგროვებს 152 დისკურსები Buddha of
შუალედური სიგრძე, მრავალფეროვანი საკითხების მოგვარება.

საულიო ნიკაია
[samyutta: group] Saṃyutta Nikāya აგროვებს suttas მიხედვით მათი სუბიექტების 56 ქვეჯგუფების მოუწოდა saṃyuttas. იგი შეიცავს 3 ათასზე მეტ დისკურსს ცვლადი სიგრძის, მაგრამ ზოგადად შედარებით მოკლე.

აჟღუტარა ნიაია
[aṅg: ფაქტორი | aṅguttara
nikya არის subdivized თერთმეტი ქვეჯგუფების მოუწოდა nipātas, თითოეული
მათგანი შეკრება დისკურსები შედგება enumerations ერთი დამატებითი ფაქტორი
წინააღმდეგ პრეცედენტი nipāta.
იგი შეიცავს ათასობით suttas რომლებიც ზოგადად მოკლე.

ხუდაკა ნიკაია
[ხუხა: მოკლე, პატარა] ხუდჰაკ ნიკაია მოკლე ტექსტები და ითვლება, როგორც იყო
შედგება ორი ფენა: დმამპადა, უდანა, იტივთაკა, სთატა ნიპათი,
თრეაგათჰ-თირგთა და ჯატაკა უძველესი ფენა, ხოლო სხვა წიგნები გვიან
დამატებებია და მათი ნამდვილობა უფრო საეჭვოა.

სუტა პიკაკა

(ხუთი ნიკი, ან კოლექციები)

1. D2gha-nik ± ya [34 suttas; 3 ვაგასი, ან თავები (თითოეული წიგნი)]
(1) S2lakkhandavagga-p ± 1/4i (13 suttas)
(2) Mah ± vagga-p ± 1/4i (10 suttas)
(3) P ± μikavagga-p ± 1/4i (11 სუნტა)

2. მაჟჰიმა-ნიკ ± ya [152 წუთი; 15 ვაგასი; დაყოფილია 3 წიგნში,
5 ვაგასი თითოეული, რომელიც ცნობილია როგორც paoo ± sa (”ორმოცდაათი”)

(1) M3lapaoo ± ssa-p ± 1/4i (”root” ორმოცდაათი)
1. M3lapariy ± yavagga (10 suttas)
2. S2han ± davagga (10 წუთი)
3. ტატიანავაგა (10 წუთი)

4. მაჰინმაკაგაგა (10 ქულა)

5. C31/4ayamakavagga (10 suttas)
(2) Majjhimapaoo ± sa-p ± 1/4i (”შუა” ორმოცდაათი)

6. გაჰაპათი-ვაგგა (10 წუთი)
7. ბიკიხ-ვაგგა (10 წუთი)
8. Paribb ± jaka-vagga (10 ქულა)
9. R ± ja-vagga (10 ქულა)

10. Br ± hmana-vagga (10 suttas)
(3) Uparipaoo ± sa-p ± 1/4i (ნიშნავს “ორმოცდაათზე მეტი”)

11. დედაჰჰა-ვაგგა (10 წუთი)
12. ანუპად-ვაგგა (10 წუთი)
13. სუზნატა-ვაგგა (10 წუთი)
14. ვიბჰაგა-ვაგგა (12 ქულა)
15. Sa1/4 ± yatana-vagga (10 suttas)

3. Sa1/2yutta-nik ± ya [2,904 (7,762) suttas; 56 sa1/2yuttas; 5 ვაგასი; იყოფა
6 წიგნში]

(1) Sag ± thavagga-sa1/2yutta-p ± 1/4i (11 sa1/2yuttas)
(2) Nid ± navagga-sa1/2yutta-p ± 1/4i (10 sa1/2yuttas)
(3) ხანდავგა-sa1/2yutta-p ± 1/4i (13 sa1/2yuttas)
(4) Sa1/4 ± yatanavagga-sa1/2yutta-p ± 1/4i (10 sa1/2yuttas)
(5) Mah ± vagga-sa1/2yutta-p ± 1/4i მოცულობა I (6 sa1/2yuttas)
(6) Mah ± vagga-sa1/2yutta-p ± 1/4i Vol II (6 sa1/2yuttas)

4. Aaguttara-nik ± ya [9,557 suttas; in11 nip ± ან ჯგუფები, მოწყობილი წმინდა
რიცხობრივი; თითოეული nip ± ta აქვს რამდენიმე vaggas; 10 ან მეტი suttas შემოსული
თითოეული ვაგასი; 6 წიგნები]

(1) ეკა-დუკა-ტიკა-ნიპატა-პ ± 1/4i (პიუსები, თორი, სამი)
(2) კატაკკა-ნიპატა-პ ± 1/4i (ოთხი)
(3) Pañcaka-nipata-p ± 1/4i (ფუტკარი)
(4) Chakka-Sattaka-nipata-p ± 1/4i (ექვსი, შვიდსი)

(5) Aμμhaka-Navaka-nipata-p ± 1/4i (eights, nines)
(6) Dasaka-Ekadasaka-nipata-p ± 1/4i (ათობით, აწევა)

5. ხუდაკა-ნიკ ± [მცირე წიგნების კოლექცია, სხვადასხვა შეკრება-
სამუშაოები 18 ძირითად ნაწილში; იგი მოიცავს suttas, კრებულები
დოქტრინალური შენიშვნები, ისტორიები, ლექსები და კომბინაციური ლიტერატურა
იყო Tipiakaka- ში ჩართული. 12 წიგნები]

(1) კუდჰახა ± ±, დმამპადა და უდ ± na-p ± 1/4i

1. Kuddhakap ± (ცხრა მოკლე ფორმულები და suttas, გამოიყენება სასწავლო სახელმძღვანელო
ახალბედა ბიჭები)
2. Dhammapada (ყველაზე ცნობილი ყველა წიგნი Tipiakaka, კოლექცია 423
ლექსები 26 ვაგებში)

3. უდ ± (8 ვაგაში, ბუდას 80 სიამოვნებით გამონათქვამი, ძირითადად ლექსებით

ზოგიერთი წინადადების ანგარიშები გარემოებები, რომლებიც ჩამოთვლილ სიტყვებით)

(2) Itivuttaka, Suttanip ± ta-p ± 1/4i
4. იტიუთაკა (4 წუთი, 112 ქულა, თითოეული დასაწყისია, “ის ვიტთა 1/2 ბჰაგავატა”
განაცხადა Buddha])
5. Suttanip ± ta (5 vaggas; 71 suttas, ძირითადად ლექსი, შეიცავს ბევრ საუკეთესო
ცნობილი, ყველაზე პოპულარული ბუდას ბუდას

(3) Vim ± navatthu, Petavatthu, Therag ± ± და თრიგის ± ± ± ± 1/4i
6. Vim ± navatthu (Vim ± ნიშნავს mansion; 85 ლექსები 7 vaggas შესახებ აქტების
დამსახურება და აღორძინება ზეციური დარგში)
7. პეტავათუ (4 ვაგასი, 51 ლექსი, რომელიც აღწერს უმწეო ვაჭრობას [petas]
უკმაყოფილო სახელმწიფოები მათი დემეტრიული ქმედებების გამო)
8. Therag ± ± (სიხარულისა და სიამოვნების ლექსები 264-დან არარაციის მიღწევის შემდეგ
უფროსი ბიჭები; 107 ლექსები, 1,279 გრამი)
9. თეირგი ± ± (იგივე, რაც 73 წლის უფროსი ასაკისგან, 73 ლექსები, 522 გ ±)

(4) J ± taka-p ± 1/4i, ტომი. მე
(5) J ± taka-p ± 1/4i, Vol II

10. ჯოშ ტაკა (დაბადება ბოთტატის დაბადებამდე მისი დაბადებამდე, როგორც გოტადა ბუდა, 547
მოთხრობები ლექსები, იყოფა nip ± ta მიხედვით რაოდენობის ლექსები საჭირო
ამბავი ამბავი. სრული J ± taka ისტორიები რეალურად J ± ტაკა კომენტარშია
ახსნას ამბავი ლექსების მიღმა.

(6) Mah ± nidessa-p ± 1/4i
(7) C31/4anidessa-p ± 1/4i

11. Nidessa (კომენტარი Suttanip ± ta ორი მონაკვეთზე)
მაჰუს ნიდესი: კომენტარი მე -4 ვაგას შესახებ
C31/4anidessa: კომენტარი მე -5 vagga და

პირველი ვაგას ხახგავის ± oa sutta
(8) პაისმბამდის ± magga-p ± 1/4i

12. პაისამბიდის ± მაგღა (აბიდიჰამის სტილის დეტალური ანალიზი ბუდას
სწავლება, რომელიც შედგება Vin ± y და Sutta Piakakas- ის ყველა ნაწილიდან; სამი ვაგასი,
ყოველი შემცველი ათი თემა [kath ±])

(9) აპად ± na-p ± 1/4i, ტომი. მე
13. Apad ± na (tail in ყოფილი სიცოცხლე 550 bhikkhus და 40 bhikkhunis)

(10) აფად ±, ბულავა 1 / 2sa & კარუ ± პიკაკა-± ± 1/4i

14. Buddhava1/2sa (ისტორიაში Buddhas, რომელშიც Buddha, პასუხად a
შეკითხვა ვენ. სარიპუტა, მოგვითხრობს ასკეტური Sumedha და D2paakara
ბუდა და მომდევნო 24 Buddhas, მათ შორის Gotama Buddha.)
15. კარუ ± პიკაკა (35 ლოგიკა ჯავას ტაკადან ათი p ± ram2- ის საილუსტრაციოდ მოწყობილი)

(11) ნეტიპაკარანა, პემაკოპადეა-ს ± 1/4i

16. ნეითპაკარანა (პატარა ტრაქტატი, რომელიც განსაზღვრავს მეთოდებს,
კანონალური ტექსტების შესწავლა)
17. Peakakopadesa (ტრაქტატი განსაზღვრავს მეთოდების განმარტებისა და გაფართოების მეთოდებს
სწავლების ბუდა)

(12) მილინდაპანჰა-პ ± 1/4i

18. მილანდ პაანჰა (ჩანაწერის ჩანაწერი, რომელსაც მეფე მილინდა უწოდა
პასუხი ვენ. Nagasena; ეს დებატი შედგა ca. 500 წლის შემდეგ
ბაბის შთამომავლობა)

აბჰიდამჰამ პიკაკა

[ყველა სექსი სისტემატური, აბსტრაქტული ექსპოზიციის შვიდი სექსი; დაბეჭდილი
12 წიგნები]

1. Dhammasaagao2
(dhammas of enumeration)

(1) Dhammasaagao2-p ± 1/4i

2. Vibhaaga-p ± 1/42
(dhammas განსხვავება ან ანალიზი)

(2) ვიბჰაგა- p ± 1/42

3. Dh ± tukath ±
(ელემენტების განხილვა, ეს პირველი სამი ნაწილი ქმნის ტრილოგიას
აბიდაჰმამის გაგების საფუძველია)

4. Puggalapaññatti
(პიროვნების დანიშნულება, ათი თავები: 1 საქმე ერთიანი
პირები, მე -2 წყვილი, სამი მე -3 ჯგუფები და ა.შ.

(3) Dhu Tukath ± -Puggalapaññatti-p ± 1/42

5. Kath ± vatthu-p ± 1/42
(დაპირისპირების ან არასწორი მოსაზრების რაოდენობა;
დასახლდა მე -3 საბჭოში, რომელიც გაიმართა ალოკაას მეფობის დროს, პატნაში)

(4) Kath ± vatthu-p ± 1/42

6. Yamaka-p ± 1/42
(წყვილების წიგნი, წყვილთა, დაპირისპირებული კითხვების გამოყენება ამბი-
გონება და ტექნიკური პირობების ზუსტი გამოყენების განსაზღვრა)

(5) Yamaka-p ± 1/42, Vol I
(6) Yamaka-p ± 1/42, Vol II
(7) Yamaka-p ± 1/42, Vol III

7. პამაჰ na
(ურთიერთობების წიგნი, 24 პირობითი სქემის შემუშავება
ურთიერთობები [paccaya], რომელიც ქმნის სრულ სისტემას გაგება
დმამის მთელი სამყაროს მექანიზმი)

(8) Paμμh ± na-p ± 1/4i, Vol I
(9) PaMhh ± na-p ± 1/4i, Vol II
(10) PaMhh ± na-p ± 1/4i, Vol III
(11) PaMmh ± na-p ± 1/4i, Vol IV
(12) PaMhh ± na-p ± 1/4i, Vol V

(1) P ± r ± jika-p ± 1/4i Bhikku
p ± r ± jik ± (გაძევება) 4
saaghadises ± (შეხვედრების Sangha) 13
aniyat ± (განუსაზღვრელი) 2
nissagiy ± p ± cittiy ± (გათავისუფლება ერთად კონფისკაცია) 30

(2) P ± cittiya-p ± 1/4i
suddha p ± cittiy ± (ჩვეულებრივი ექსპედიცია) 92
p ± tidesaniy ± (აღიარება re: ალმები საკვები) 4
სეკია (ეტიკეტისა და დეკორაციის შესახებ) 75
adhikaraoasamath ± (სამართლებრივი პროცესი) 7

(ასრულებს ბოინუნი ვინინაი წესებს) ______
227

ბიკიხუნი

8
17
0
30

166
8
75
7
______
311

2. ხანდკა [წესების და პროცედურების ორი წიგნი]
(3) Mah ± vagga-p ± 1/4i (10 სექციები [khandhakas]; იწყება ისტორიული ანგარიშების

Buddha- ს განმანათლებლობა, პირველი დისკურსი და Sangha- ს ადრეული ზრდა;
ასახავს კავშირის ქმედებებს:
1. წესრიგის მიღების წესები (upasampad ±)
2. წიაღისეულის შეკრებისა და აღრიცხვა

3. რეზიდენცია წვიმიან სეზონზე (ვაზა)
4. ცერემონიის დასკვნა Vassa, მოუწოდა pav ± rao ±
5. კაბა და ავეჯის სტატიების წესები
6. მედიცინა და საკვები
7. წლიური განაწილება (კაიაჰინა)
8. წესები ავადმყოფი ბიკიკუსის, საძილე და კვართის მასალისთვის
9. კავშირის სამართალწარმოების განხორციელების რეჟიმი
10. სამართალწარმოება სამართალწარმოების დროს

(4) C31/4avagga-p ± 1/4i (ან Cullavagga) (12 khandakas საქმე შემდგომი წესები და proce-
საურავა ინსტიტუციონალური მოქმედებების ან ფუნქციების შესახებ, ცნობილია როგორც საჰახამამა:
1. წესები იმ საქმეებთან დაკავშირებით, რომლებიც წარმოიშვა Sangha- ს წინაშე
(saagh ± disesa)

2. ბიიხუში პრობაციისთვის გამოსაყენებელი პროცედურები
3. ბოხხით დანაშაულის დაგროვების პროცედურები
4. წესები საკანონმდებლო პროცედურების მოგვარების მიზნით
5. misc. ბანაობის წესი, კაბა და ა.შ.
საცხოვრებელი, ავეჯი, საცხოვრებელი და სხვა.
7. გაღიზიანება
პედაგოგთა და მორჩილთა ბიჰკუსის კლასები და მოვალეობები
9. გამონაკლისი p ± timokkha
10. ბიხიხნის კოორდინაცია და მითითება
11. რ. ჯაჰჰაში პირველი საბჭოს ანგარიში
12. ვეს ± li -ის მე -2 საბჭოს ანგარიში

3. Pariv ± ra-p ± 1/4i [vinaya- ის შემაჯამებელი, როგორც მოწყობილი
კატეხიზმი სწავლებისა და გამოკვლევისთვის]

(5) Pariv ± ra-p ± 1/4i მეხუთე წიგნის ვინინაია ემსახურება როგორც სახის სახელმძღვანელო საშუალებას იძლევა მკითხველს
მთელ ვიანას პიაკას ანალიზური გამოკვლევა.

32) Classical German
32) Klassisches Deutsch

2453 Montag 27 Nov 2017 LEKTION

TIPITAKA

von KOSTENLOSER ONLINE Tipitaka Forschung und Praxis UNIVERSITÄT durch http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

Dieser
Überblick zeigt die Veröffentlichung von Büchern in der
Devan-gari-Schrift-Ausgabe des Chaμμha Saag ± yana (Sechster Rat)
Tipiūaka.
Die
Namen der Volumes werden in Kursivschrift mit dem Suffix “-p ± 1/4i”
angezeigt, was darauf hinweist, dass das Volume Teil des Tipiμaka-Stamms
ist, und nicht als Kommentar-Literatur.
Diese Gliederung listet nur die Root-Volumes auf.

Vinaya Piμaka

(Drei Abteilungen, gedruckt in 5 Büchern)

Sutta Vibhaaga [zwei Bücher, die Regeln für die Bhikkhus und Bhikkhunis enthalten und acht Klassen von Straftaten umreißen]

Tipiμaka (drei “Körbe”)

Sutta Piuaka

(Fünf Nik-Yas oder Sammlungen)

Die Sutta Piṭaka enthält die Essenz der Lehre des Buddha bezüglich des Dhamma. Es enthält mehr als zehntausend Sutten. Es ist in fünf Sammlungen unterteilt, die Nikāyas genannt werden (Eine
Menge, Assemblage; eine Sammlung; eine Klasse, Ordnung, Gruppe; eine
Vereinigung, Brüderlichkeit, Gemeinde; ein Haus, Wohnung).

Dīgha Nikāya
[dīgha: long] Der Dīgha Nikāya sammelt 34 der längsten Vorträge, die der Buddha gegeben hat. Es gibt verschiedene Hinweise darauf, dass viele von ihnen späte
Ergänzungen zum ursprünglichen Korpus und von fragwürdiger Authentizität
sind.

Majjhima Nikāya
[majjhima: medium] Der Majjhima Nikāya sammelt 152 Vorträge des Buddha von
Zwischenlänge, Umgang mit verschiedenen Angelegenheiten.

Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta: group] Die Saṃyutta Nikāya sammelt die Sutten nach ihrem Thema in 56 Untergruppen namens Saṃyuttas. Es enthält mehr als dreitausend Diskurse von variabler Länge, aber in der Regel relativ kurz.

Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg: Faktor | uttara:
additional] Das Aṅguttara Nikāya ist in elf Untergruppen unterteilt,
die nipātas genannt werden. Jedes von ihnen sammelt Diskurse, die aus
Aufzählungen eines zusätzlichen Faktors gegenüber denen des
vorhergehenden nipāta bestehen.
Es enthält Tausende von Suttas, die in der Regel kurz sind.

Khuddaka Nikāya
[Khuddha: kurz, klein] Die Khuddhaka Nikāya kurze Texte und gilt als gewesen
Es besteht aus zwei Schichten: Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta
Nipāta, Theragāthā-Therīgāthā und Jātaka bilden die alten Schichten,
während andere Bücher späte Ergänzungen sind und ihre Authentizität
fragwürdiger ist.

Sutta Piuaka

(Fünf Nik-Yas oder Sammlungen)

1. D2gha-nik ± ya [34 Suttas; 3 Vaggas oder Kapitel (jeweils ein Buch)]
(1) S2lakkhandavagga-p ± 1/4i (13 Suttas)
(2) Mah ± vagga-p ± 1/4i (10 Suttas)
(3) P ± μikavagga-p ± 1/4i (11 Suttas)

2. Majjhima-nik ± ya [152 Suttas; 15 Vaggas; aufgeteilt in 3 Bücher,
5 Vaggas jeder, bekannt als Paoo ± sa (’fünfzig’)

(1) M3lapooo ± ssa-p ± 1/4i (die “Wurzel” fünfzig)
1. M3lapariy ± yavagga (10 Suttas)
2. S2han ± davagga (10 Suttas)
3. Tatiyavagga (10 Suttas)

4. Mah ± yamakavagga (10 Suttas)

5. C31 / 4ayamakavagga (10 Suttas)
(2) Majjhimapooo ± sa-p ± 1/4i (die ‘Mitte’ fünfzig)

6. Gahapati-vagga (10 Suttas)
7. Bhikkhu-vagga (10 Suttas)
8. Paribb ± jaka-vagga (10 Suttas)
9. R ± ja-vagga (10 Suttas)

10. Br ± hmana-vagga (10 Suttas)
(3) Uparipaoo ± sa-p ± 1/4i (bedeutet “mehr als fünfzig”)

11. Devadaha-vagga (10 Suttas)
12. Anupada-vagga (10 Suttas)
13. Suññata-vagga (10 Suttas)
14. Vibhaaga-vagga (12 Suttas)
15. Sa1 / 4 ± Yatana-Vagga (10 Suttas)

3. Sa1 / 2yutta-nik ± ya [2.904 (7.762) Suttas; 56 sa1 / 2yuttas; 5 Vaggas; geteilt
in 6 Bücher]

(1) Sag ± Thavagga-Sa1 / 2yutta-p ± 1/4i (11 Sa1 / 2yuttas)
(2) Nid ± navagga-sa1 / 2yutta-p ± 1/4i (10 sa1 / 2yuttas)
(3) Khandavagga-sa1 / 2yutta-p ± 1/4i (13 sa1 / 2yuttas)
(4) Sa1 / 4 ± yatanavagga-sa1 / 2yutta-p ± 1/4i (10 sa1 / 2yuttas)
(5) Mah ± vagga-sa1 / 2yutta-p ± 1/4i Vol. I (6 sa1 / 2yuttas)
(6) Mah ± vagga-sa1 / 2yutta-p ± 1/4i Vol II (6 sa1 / 2yuttas)

4. Aaguttara-nik ± ya [9.557 Suttas; in11 nip ± tas oder Gruppen, rein angeordnet
numerisch; jeder Nip ± ta hat mehrere Vaggas; 10 oder mehr Sutten in
jeder Vagga; 6 Bücher]

(1) Eka-Duka-Tika-nipata-p ± 1/4i (Ein, Zwei, Drei)
(2) Catukka-nipata-p ± 1/4 (vier)
(3) Pañcaka-nipata-p ± 1/4i (fünf)
(4) Chakka-Sattaka-nipata-p ± 1/4i (sechs, sieben)

(5) Aμμhaka-Navaka-nipata-p ± 1/4i (Achten, Neunen)
(6) Dasaka-Ekadasaka-nipata-p ± 1/4i (Zehner, Eleven)
5. Khuddaka-nik ± ya [die Sammlung von kleinen Büchern, eine
Arbeiten in 18 Hauptabschnitten; es enthält Sutten, Zusammenstellungen von
Lehrvermerke, Geschichten, Verse und Kommentarliteratur, die
wurde in das Tipiμaka selbst eingearbeitet .; 12 Bücher]

(1) Kuddhakap ± tha, Dhammapada & Ud ± na-p ± 1/4

1. Kuddhakap ± tha (neun kurze Formeln und Sutten, als Trainingshandbuch für
Anfänger Bhikkhus)
2. Dhammapada (berühmteste aller Bücher des Tipiuaka; eine Sammlung von 423
Verse in 26 Vaggas)

3. Ud ± na (in 8 Vaggas, 80 freudige Äußerungen des Buddha, meist in Versen, mit

einige Prosaberichte über die Umstände, die die Äußerung ausgelöst haben)

(2) Itivuttaka, Suttanip ± ta-p ± 1/4
4. Itivuttaka (4 Nip ± tas, 112 Suttas, jeder Anfang, “iti vutta1 / 2 bhagavata” [also war
sagte der Buddha])
5. Suttanip ± ta (5 Vaggas; 71 Sutten, meist in Versform; enthält viele der besten
bekannte, populärste Suttas des Buddha

(3) Vim ± navatthu, Petavatthu, Therag ± th ± & Therig ± th ± -p ± 1/4i
6. Vim ± navatthu (Vim-na bedeutet Villa; 85 Gedichte in 7 Vaggas über Akte von
Verdienst und Wiedergeburt in himmlischen Reichen)
7. Petavatthu (4 vaggas, 51 Gedichte, die die elenden Wesen [petas] beschreiben, die in. Geboren sind
unglückliche Staaten aufgrund ihrer deseritorischen Handlungen)
8. Therag ± th (Verse der Freude und Freude nach dem Erreichen der Arahatschaft von 264
ältere Bhikkhus; 107 Gedichte, 1.279 g-tas)
9. Therig ± th ± (wie oben, von 73 älteren Nonnen; 73 Gedichte, 522 g-tas)

(4) J ± taka-p ± 1/4i, Vol. ich
(5) J ± Taka-p ± 1/4, Vol. II

10. J ± taka (Geburtsgeschichten der Bodisatta vor seiner Geburt als Gotama Buddha; 547
Geschichten in Versen, aufgeteilt in nip ± ta nach der Anzahl der Verse erforderlich
erzähl die Geschichte. Die vollständigen J ± taka-Geschichten sind tatsächlich in den J taka-Kommentaren enthalten
erkläre die Geschichte hinter den Versen.

(6) Mah ± nidessa-p ± 1/4i
(7) C31 / 4anidessa-p ± 1/4i

11. Nidessa (Kommentar zu zwei Abschnitten von Suttanip ± ta)
Mah ± nidessa: Kommentar zum 4. vagga
C31 / 4anidessa: Kommentar zum 5. Vagga und

das Khaggavis ± oa sutta des 1. vagga
(8) Paμisambhid ± magga-p ± 1/4

12. Paμisambhid-magga (eine detaillierte Analyse des Buddhas im Abhidhamma-Stil)
Lehren, die aus allen Teilen der Vinya- und Sutta-Piuakas gezogen sind; drei Vaggas,
jede enthält zehn Themen [kath ±])

(9) Apad ± na-p ± 1/4i, Vol. ich
13. Apad ± na (Geschichten in Versen der früheren Leben von 550 Bhikkhus und 40 Bhikkhunis)

(10) Apad ± na, Buddhava1 / 2sa und Cariy ± piμaka-p ± 1/4i

14. Buddhava1-2sa (die Geschichte der Buddhas, in der der Buddha als Antwort auf a
Frage von Ven. Sariputta, erzählt die Geschichte der Asketen Sumedha und D2paakara
Buddha und die folgenden 24 Buddhas, einschließlich Gotama Buddha.)
15. Cariy ± piμaka (35 Geschichten von der J ± Taka angeordnet, um die zehn p ± ram2 zu veranschaulichen)

(11) Nettippakarana, Peμakopadesa-p ± 1/4

16. Nettippakarana (kleine Abhandlung über Methoden zur Interpretation und Erklärung
kanonische Texte)
17. Peμakopadesa (Abhandlung über Methoden zur Erklärung und Erweiterung der
Lehre des Buddha)

(12) Milindapañha-p ± 1/4i

18. Milinda-Pañha (eine Aufzeichnung der Fragen von König Milinda und der
Antworten von Ven. Nagasena; Diese Debatte fand ca. 500 Jahre nach dem
mah ± parinibb ± na des Buddha)

Abhidhamma Piμaka

[Sieben Abschnitte der systematischen, abstrakten Darstellung aller Dhammas; gedruckt in
12 Bücher]

1. Dhammasaagao2
(Aufzählung der Dhammas)

(1) Dhammasaagao2-p ± 1/4i

2. Vibhaaga-p ± 1/42
(Unterscheidung oder Analyse von dhammas)

(2) Vibhaaga-p ± 1/42

3. Dh ± Tukath ±
(Diskussion der Elemente; diese ersten drei Abschnitte bilden eine Trilogie, die
muss verdaut werden als Grundlage für das Verständnis von Abhidhamma)

4. Puggalapaññatti
(Benennung von Einzelpersonen; zehn Kapitel: der erste, der sich mit einzelnen befasst
Einzelpersonen, der 2. mit Paaren, der 3. mit Gruppen von drei usw.

(3) Dh ± Tukath ± -Puggalapaññatti-p ± 1/42

5. Kath ± vatthu-p ± 1/42
(Punkte der Kontroverse oder falsche Sichtweise; diskutiert die aufgeworfenen Punkte und
bei der 3. Rat, in der Zeit von Aœoka Herrschaft, in Patna)

(4) Kath ± vatthu-p ± 1/42

6. Yamaka-p ± 1/42
(Buch der Paare; Gebrauch von gepaarten, gegensätzlichen Fragen, um ambi-
und definieren die genaue Verwendung der Fachbegriffe)

(5) Yamaka-p ± 1/42, Band I
(6) Yamaka-p ± 1/42, Band II
(7) Yamaka-p ± 1/42, Band III

7. Paμμh ± na
(Buch der Beziehungen; die Ausarbeitung eines Schemas von 24 bedingten
Beziehungen [paccaya], die ein vollständiges System für das Verständnis bilden
die Mechanik des gesamten Dhamma-Universums

(8) Paμμh ± na-p ± 1/4i, Vol
(9) Paμμh ± na-p ± 1/4, Vol. II
(10) Paμμh ± na-p ± 1/4, Vol. III
(11) Paμμh ± na-p ± 1/4, Vol. IV
(12) Paμμh ± na-p ± 1/4i, Vol. V

(1) P ± r ± jika-p ± 1/4i Bhikku
p ± r ± jik ± (Ausstoßung) 4
Saaghadis ± (Treffen der Sangha) 13
Aniyat ± (unbestimmt) 2
Nissagiy ± p ± cittiy ± (Sühne mit Verfall) 30

(2) P ± Cittiya-p ± 1/4
suddha p ± cittiy ± (gewöhnliche Sühne) 92
p ± tidesaniy ± (Beichte re: Almosen) 4
Sekhiya (in Bezug auf Etikette und Anstand) 75
adhikaraoasamath ± (rechtlicher Prozess) 7

(schließt mit Bhikkuni Vinaya Regeln) ______
227
Bhikkhuni

8
17
0
30

166
8
75
7
______
311

2. Khandaka [zwei Bücher der Regeln und Verfahren]
(3) Mah ± vagga-p ± 1/4i (10 Abschnitte [khandhakas]; beginnt mit historischen Berichten über die

Buddhas Erleuchtung, die ersten Vorträge und das frühe Wachstum der Sangha;
umreißt die folgenden Regeln, die das Handeln des Sangha regeln:
1. Regeln für die Zulassung zur Bestellung (upasampad ±)
2. das Uposatha-Treffen und das Recital des p ± timokkha

3. Aufenthalt während der Regenzeit (Vassa)
4. Zeremonie zum Abschluss des Vassa, genannt pav ± rao ±
5. Regeln für Kleider und Möbel
6. Medizin und Essen
7. jährliche Verteilung der Roben (kaμhina)
8. Regeln für kranke Bhikkhus, Schlaf- und Gewandmaterial
9. Art der Durchführung der Verfahren der Sangha
10. Verfahren in Fällen von Spaltung

(4) C31 / 4avagga-p ± 1/4i (oder Cullavagga) (12 khandakas, die sich mit weiteren Regeln und
Methoden für institutionelle Handlungen oder Funktionen, bekannt als Saaghakamma:
1. Regeln für den Umgang mit Straftaten, die vor dem Sangha stattfinden
(saagh ± disesa)

2. Verfahren, um einen Bhikkhu auf Bewährung zu stellen
3. Verfahren zur Behandlung von Straftaten durch einen Bhikkhu
4. Regeln für die Beilegung von Rechtsstreitigkeiten in der Sangha
5. Verschiedenes Regeln für Baden, Kleidung, etc.
6. Wohnungen, Möbel, Unterkünfte usw.
7. Schismen
8. Klassen von Bhikkhus und Pflichten von Lehrern und Novizen
9. Ausschluss vom p ± timokkha
10. die Ordination und Unterweisung von Bhikkhunis
11. Bericht des 1. Rates in R ± jagaha
12. Bericht des 2. Rates in Vesli

3. Pariv ± ra-p ± 1/4i [eine Zusammenfassung der Vinaya, als a angeordnet
Katechismus für Unterricht und Prüfung

(5) Pariv ± ra-p ± 1/4i Das fünfte Vinaya-Buch dient als eine Art Handbuch, das dem Leser ermöglicht
eine analytische Untersuchung des gesamten Vinaya Piμaka durchzuführen.

33) Classical Greek
33) Κλασσική Ελληνική

2453 Δευ 27 Νοε 2017 ΜΑΘΗΜΑ

TIPITAKA

από ΔΩΡΕΑΝ ONLINE Tipitaka Research andPractice UNIVERSITY μέσω του http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

Αυτό
το περίγραμμα παρουσιάζει τη δημοσίευση βιβλίων στην έκδοση Devan ±
gari-script της Chaμμha Saag ± yana (Έκτου Συμβουλίου) Tipiμaka.
Τα
ονόματα των τόμων εμφανίζονται με πλάγια γράμματα με την κατάληξη “-p ±
1/4i” που δείχνει ότι ο τόμος είναι μέρος της ρίζας Tipiμaka, και όχι
σχολιαστική βιβλιογραφία.
Αυτό το περίγραμμα αναφέρει μόνο τους ριζικούς τόμους.

Vinaya Piμaka

(Τρία τμήματα, τυπωμένα σε 5 βιβλία)

Sutta Vibhaaga [δύο βιβλία που περιέχουν κανόνες για τον bhikkhus και bhikkhunis, περιγράφοντας οκτώ κατηγορίες αδικημάτων]

Tipiμaka (τρία “καλάθια”)

Sutta Piμaka

(Πέντε ψηφιακές συλλογές ή συλλογές)

Η Sutta Piṭaka περιέχει την ουσία της διδασκαλίας του Βούδα σχετικά με το Dhamma. Περιέχει περισσότερες από δέκα χιλιάδες suttas. Είναι χωρισμένο σε πέντε συλλογές που ονομάζονται Νικαίας (Ένα πλήθος,
συγκρότημα, συλλογή, τάξη, τάξη, ομάδα, ένωση, αδελφότητα, εκκλησία,
σπίτι, κατοικία).

Νίγκα Νικαγιά
[dīgha: long] Η Dīgha Nikāya συγκεντρώνει 34 από τις μακρύτερες ομιλίες που έδωσε ο Βούδας. Υπάρχουν διάφορες συμβουλές ότι πολλοί από αυτούς είναι καθυστερημένες
προσθήκες στο αρχικό σώμα και αμφισβητήσιμη αυθεντικότητα.

Majjhima Nikāya
[majjhima: medium] Η Majjhima Nikaya συγκεντρώνει 152 ομιλίες του Βούδα του
ενδιάμεσο μήκος, που ασχολούνται με διάφορα θέματα.

Σαύντουτα Νικαγιά
[samyutta: group] Η Saṃyutta Nikāya συγκεντρώνει τα suttas σύμφωνα με το θέμα τους σε 56 υποομάδες που ονομάζονται saṃyuttas. Περιέχει περισσότερες από τρεις χιλιάδες συζητήσεις μεταβλητού μήκους, αλλά γενικά σχετικά μικρές.

Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg: συντελεστής | uttara:
addinal] Η Aṅguttara Nikāya υποδιαιρείται σε έντεκα υποομάδες που
ονομάζονται nipātas, κάθε μία από τις οποίες συγκεντρώνει ομιλίες που
συνίστανται σε απαριθμήσεις ενός επιπλέον παράγοντα σε σχέση με εκείνες
του προηγούμενου nipāta.
Περιέχει χιλιάδες suttas τα οποία είναι γενικά μικρά.

Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha: σύντομο, μικρό] Τα σύντομα κείμενα Khuddhaka Nikāya και θεωρείται ότι ήταν
αποτελούμενη από δύο στρώματα: τα αρχαία στρώματα αποτελούν τα
Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta, Theragāthā-Therīgāthā και
Jātaka, ενώ τα υπόλοιπα βιβλία είναι καθυστερημένες προσθήκες και η
αυθεντικότητά τους είναι πιο αμφισβητήσιμη.

Sutta Piμaka

(Πέντε ψηφιακές συλλογές ή συλλογές)

1. D2gha-nik ± ya [34 suttas; 3 vaggas, ή κεφάλαια (κάθε ένα βιβλίο)]
(1) S2lakkhandavagga-p ± 1/4i (13 suttas)
(2) Mah ± vagga-p ± 1/4i (10 suttas)
(3) P ± μikavagga-p ± 1/4i (11 suttas)

2. Majjhima-nik ± ya [152 suttas · 15 vaggas; χωρισμένο σε 3 βιβλία,
5 vaggas το καθένα, γνωστό ως paoo ± sa (’πενήντα’)]

(1) M3lapaoo ± ssa-p ± 1/4i (η «ρίζα» πενήντα)
1. M3lapariy ± yavagga (10 suttas)
2. S2han ± davagga (10 suttas)
3. Tatiyavagga (10 suttas)

4. Mah-yamakavagga (10 suttas)

5. C31 / 4ayamakavagga (10 suttas)
(2) Majjhimapaoo ± sa-p ± 1/4i (η «μέση» πενήντα)

6. Gahapati-vagga (10 suttas)
7. Bhikkhu-vagga (10 suttas)
8. Paribb ± jaka-vagga (10 suttas)
9. R ± ja-vagga (10 suttas)

10. Br-hmana-vagga (10 suttas)
(3) Uparipaoo ± sa-p ± 1/4i (σημαίνει «περισσότερο από πενήντα»)

11. Devadaha-vagga (10 suttas)
12. Anupada-vagga (10 suttas)
13. Σούνια-βάγγκα (10 suttas)
14. Vibhaaga-vagga (12 suttas)
15. Sa1 / 4 ± yatana-vagga (10 suttas)

3. Sa1 / 2yutta-nik ± ya [2.904 (7.762) suttas; 56 sa1 / 2yuttas; 5 vaggas; διαιρεμένη
σε 6 βιβλία]

(1) Sag ± thavagga-sa1 / 2yutta-p ± 1/4i (11 sa1 / 2yuttas)
(2) Nid ± navagga-sa1 / 2yutta-p ± 1/4i (10 sa1 / 2yuttas)
(3) Khandavagga-sa1 / 2yutta-p ± 1/4i (13 sa1 / 2yuttas)
(4) Sa1 / 4 ± yatanavagga-sa1 / 2yutta-p ± 1/4i (10 sa1 / 2yuttas)
(5) Mah ± vagga-sa1 / 2yutta-p ± 1/4i Vol I (6 sa1 / 2yuttas)
(6) Mah ± vagga-sa1 / 2yutta-p ± 1/4i Vol II (6 sa1 / 2yuttas)

4. Aaguttara-nik ± ya [9.557 suttas; in11 nip ± tas, ή ομάδες, διατεταγμένες καθαρά
αριθμητικά; κάθε nip ± ta έχει αρκετά vaggas? 10 ή περισσότερα suttas σε
κάθε vagga? 6 βιβλία]

(1) Eka-Duka-Tika-nipata-p ± 1/4i (ένα, δύο, τρία)
(2) Catukka-nipata-p ± 1/4i (τέσσερα)
(3) Pañcaka-nipata-p ± 1/4i (πενταπλάσια)
(4) Chakka-Sattaka-nipata-p ± 1/4i (έξι, επτά)

(5) Αμμχάκα-Ναβάκα-nipata-p ± 1/4i (οκτώ, εννιά)
(6) Dasaka-Ekadasaka-nipata-p ± 1/4i (δεκάδες, έντεκα)

5. Khuddaka-nik ± ya [η συλλογή μικρών βιβλίων, μια σειρά συλλογών,
έργων σε 18 κύρια τμήματα · περιλαμβάνει suttas, compilations of
δογματικές νότες, ιστορίες, στίχους και σχολιαστική λογοτεχνία που έχει
ενσωμάτωσε στην ίδια την Tipiμaka. 12 βιβλία]

(1) Kuddhakap ± tha, Dhammapada & Ud ± na-p ± 1/4i

1. Kuddhakap ± tha (εννέα σύντομες φόρμουλες και suttas, που χρησιμοποιούνται ως εγχειρίδιο εκπαίδευσης για
αρχάριος bhikkhus)
2. Dhammapada (το πιο διάσημο από όλα τα βιβλία της Tipiμaka, μια συλλογή από 423
στίχοι σε 26 vaggas)

3. Ud ± na (σε 8 vaggas, 80 χαρούμενες δηλώσεις του Βούδα, κυρίως σε στίχους, με

μερικοί λογαριασμοί πεζών σχετικά με τις περιστάσεις που προκάλεσαν τη συζήτηση)

(2) Itivuttaka, Suttanip ± ta-p ± 1/4i
4. Itivuttaka (4 nip ± tas, 112 suttas, κάθε αρχή, “iti vutta1/2 bhagavata” [έτσι ήταν
που είπε ο Βούδας])
5. Suttanip ± ta (5 vaggas, 71 suttas, κυρίως σε στίχο, περιέχει πολλά από τα καλύτερα
γνωστές, πιο δημοφιλείς suttas του Βούδα

(3) Vim ± navatthu, Petavatthu, Therag ± th ± & Therig ± th ± -p ± 1/4i
6. Vim ± navatthu (Vim ± na σημαίνει αρχοντικό, 85 ποιήματα σε 7 vaggas για πράξεις του
αξία και αναγέννηση σε ουράνιες σφαίρες)
7. Petavatthu (4 vaggas, 51 ποιήματα που περιγράφουν τα άθλια όντα [petas] που γεννήθηκαν στο
δυσαρεστημένες πολιτείες λόγω των άθλιων πράξεών τους)
8. Therag ± th ± (στίχοι χαράς και απόλαυσης μετά από την επίτευξη του αραχτισμού από το 264
γέροντας bhikkhus; 107 ποιήματα, 1,279 g ± thas)
9. Therig ± th ± (όπως παραπάνω, από 73 μεγαλύτερες καλόγριες, 73 ποιήματα, 522 g ± thas)

(4) J ± taka-p ± 1/4i, Vol. Εγώ
(5) J ± taka-p ± 1/4i, Vol II

10. J ± taka (ιστορίες γέννησης της Bodisatta πριν από τη γέννησή του ως Γκόταμα Βούδα, 547
ιστορίες σε στίχους, χωρισμένες σε nip ± ta σύμφωνα με τον αριθμό των στίχων που απαιτούνται
πείτε την ιστορία. Οι πλήρεις ιστορίες J ± taka είναι στην πραγματικότητα στα σχόλια J + taka
εξηγεί την ιστορία πίσω από τους στίχους.

(6) Mah ± nessessa-p ± 1/4i
(7) C31 / 4anidessa-p ± 1/4i

11. Nidessa (σχόλιο σε δύο τμήματα του Suttanip ± ta)
Mahnidessa: σχόλιο για το 4ο vagga
C31 / 4anidessa: σχόλια για το 5ο vagga και

το Khaggavis ± oa sutta του 1ου vagga
(8) Paμisambhid ± magga-p ± 1/4i

12. Paṁisambhid ± magga (μια λεπτομερής ανάλυση τύπου Αβιδχαμμά του Βούδα
διδασκαλία, που προέρχεται από όλες τις μερίδες του Vin ± ya και Sutta Piμakas. τρία vaggas,
το καθένα περιέχει δέκα θέματα [kath ±])

(9) Apad ± na-p ± 1/4i, Vol. Εγώ
13. Apad ± na (ιστορίες σε στίχους των πρώτων ζωών των 550 bhikkhus και 40 bhikkhunis)

(10) Apad ± na, Buddhava1 / 2sa & Cariy ± piμaka-p ± 1/4i

14. Buddhava1/2sa (η ιστορία των Βουδών, στην οποία ο Βούδας, απαντώντας σε ένα
ερώτηση από τον Ven. Sariputta, λέει την ιστορία του ασκητή Sumedha και D2paakara
Τον Βούδα και τους επόμενους 24 Βούδες, συμπεριλαμβανομένου του Βούδα του Γκόταμα.)
15. Cariy ± piμaka (35 ιστορίες από το J ± taka διευθετημένες για να απεικονίσουν το δέκα p ± ram2)

(11) Nettippakarana, Peμakopadesa-p ± 1/4i

16. Nettippakarana (μικτή πραγματεία που καθορίζει μεθόδους για την ερμηνεία και εξήγηση-
κείμενα)
17. Πεμπαπαδήδα (διατριβή με τις μεθόδους εξήγησης και επέκτασης του
διδασκαλία του Βούδα)

(12) Milindapagha-p ± 1/4i

18. Milinda-pañha (αρχείο των ερωτήσεων του βασιλιά Milinda και του
απαντήσεις από τον Ven. Nagasena; αυτή η συζήτηση έλαβε χώρα περίπου. 500 χρόνια μετά το
mah ± parinibb ± na του Βούδα)

Abhidhamma Piμaka

[Επτά τμήματα συστηματικής, αφηρημένης έκθεσης όλων των δομάτων. εκτυπωμένο σε
12 βιβλία]

1. Dhammasaagao2
(απαρίθμηση των δομάτων)

(1) Dhammasaagao2-p ± 1/4i

2. Vibhaaga-p ± 1/42
(διάκριση ή ανάλυση του dhammas)

(2) Vibhaaga-p ± 1/42

3. Dh ± tukath ±
(συζήτηση στοιχείων, αυτά τα πρώτα τρία τμήματα αποτελούν μια τριλογία που
πρέπει να αφομοιωθεί ως βάση για την κατανόηση του Abhidhamma)

4. Puggalapaññatti
(ονομασία ατόμων, δέκα κεφάλαια: η πρώτη αφορά τον ενιαίο
τα άτομα, το δεύτερο με ζεύγη, το τρίτο με ομάδες τριών, κλπ.

(3) Dh ± tukath ± -Puggalapanñatti-p ± 1/42

5. Kath ± vatthu-p ± 1/42
(σημεία διαμάχης ή λανθασμένης άποψης · συζητά τα σημεία που τέθηκαν και
εγκαταστάθηκε στο 3ο συμβούλιο, που πραγματοποιήθηκε την εποχή της βασιλείας της Αιοκά, στην Πάτνα)

(4) Kath ± vatthu-p ± 1/42

6. Yamaka-p ± 1/42
(βιβλίο ζευγών, χρήση ζευγαρωμένων, αντιτιθέμενων ερωτημάτων για την επίλυση των αμφιβολιών,
και καθορίζουν την ακριβή χρήση των τεχνικών όρων)

(5) Yamaka-p ± 1/42, Vol
(6) Yamaka-p ± 1/42, Vol II
(7) Yamaka-p ± 1/42, τόμος III

7. Paμμh ± na
(το βιβλίο των σχέσεων, την εκπόνηση ενός σχεδίου 24 υπό όρους)
σχέσεις [paccaya] που αποτελούν ένα πλήρες σύστημα κατανόησης
οι μηχανικοί ολόκληρου του σύμπαντος του Dhamma)

(8) Paμμh ± na-p ± 1/4i, τόμος Ι
(9) Paμμh ± na-p ± 1/4i, Τόμος II
(10) Paμμh ± na-p ± 1/4i, Τόμος III
(11) Paμμh ± na-p ± 1/4i, τόμος IV
(12) Paμμh ± na-p ± 1/4i, Vol V

(1) P ± r ± jika-p ± 1/4i Bhikku
p ± r ± jik ± (αποβολή) 4
saaghadises ± (συναντήσεις του Sangha) 13
aniyat ± (απροσδιόριστος) 2
nissagiy ± p ± cittiy ± (εξόφληση με απώλεια) 30

(2) P ± cittiya-p ± 1/4i
suddha p ± cittiy ± (κανονική αποβολή) 92
p ± tidesaniy ± (εξομολόγηση: alms food) 4
sekhiya (σχετικά με την εθιμοτυπία & τη μόρφωση) 75
adhikaraoasamath ± (νομική διαδικασία) 7

(καταλήγει με τους κανόνες bhikkuni vinaya) ______
227

Bhikkhuni

8
17
0
30

166
8
75
7
______
311

2. Khandaka [δύο βιβλία κανόνων και διαδικασιών]
(3) Mah ± vagga-p ± 1/4i (10 τμήματα [khandhakas]) ξεκινά με ιστορικούς λογαριασμούς του

Ο Φώτος του Βούδα, οι πρώτοι λόγοι και η πρώιμη ανάπτυξη του Σανγκά.
περιγράφει τους ακόλουθους κανόνες που διέπουν τις ενέργειες του Sangha:
1. κανόνες για την εισαγωγή στην παραγγελία (upasampad ±)
2. τη συνάντηση και την αιτιολογική σκέψη της ομιλίας

3. κατοικία κατά τη διάρκεια της βροχερής περιόδου (vassa)
4. τελετή που ολοκληρώνει τη λέξη vassa, ονομάζεται pav ± rao ±
5. κανόνες για είδη από φόρεμα και έπιπλα
6. φάρμακα και τρόφιμα
7. ετήσια κατανομή των μπουρουνιών (kahhina)
8. κανόνες για άρρωστα bhikkhus, ύπνο και ρούχα υλικό
9. τρόπο εκτέλεσης των διαδικασιών του Sangha
10. διαδικασίες σε περιπτώσεις σχίσματος

(4) C31/4avagga-p ± 1/4i (ή Cullavagga) (12 khandakas που ασχολούνται με περαιτέρω κανόνες και διαδικασίες
βήματα για θεσμικές πράξεις ή λειτουργίες, γνωστές ως saaghakamma:
1. κανόνες για την αντιμετώπιση αδικημάτων που έρχονται ενώπιον του Sangha
(saagh ± disesa)

2. διαδικασίες για τη θέση ενός bhikkhu σε δοκιμασία
3. διαδικασίες αντιμετώπισης της συσσώρευσης αδικημάτων από ένα bhikkhu
4. κανόνες για την επίλυση των νομικών διαδικασιών στο Sangha
5. misc. κανόνες κολύμβησης, φόρεμα, κλπ.
6. κατοικίες, έπιπλα, καταλύματα κλπ.
7. σχίσματα
8. τάξεις του bhikkhus και καθήκοντα δασκάλων και αρχαρίων
9. Εξαίρεση από το p ± timokkha
10. η χειροτονία και η διδασκαλία του bhikkhunis
11. λογαριασμό του 1ου συμβουλίου στο R ± jagaha
12. λογαριασμός του 2ου συμβουλίου στο Βεζλ

3. Pariv ± ra-p ± 1/4i [μια σύνοψη του vinaya, διατεταγμένη ως a
κατήχηση για διδασκαλία και εξέταση]

(5) Pariv ± ra-p ± 1/4i Το πέμπτο βιβλίο του vinaya χρησιμεύει ως ένα είδος εγχειριδίου που επιτρέπει στον αναγνώστη
να κάνει μια αναλυτική έρευνα για το σύνολο της Vinaya Piμaka.



Many
different tribes and ethnic groups are mentioned in the Tipitaka. One
of these is the Yona. In his dialogue with the caste-conscious b…
sdhammika.blogspot.com
34) Classical Gujarati
34) ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી

2453 સોમ 27 નવે 2017 પાઠ

ટિપીટા

મફત ઓનલાઇન ટીપિટકા સંશોધન અને પ્રેક્ટિસ યુનિવર્સિટીથી http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org દ્વારા

આ બાહ્યરૂપે ચૌયોગા સાગ ± યાન (છઠ્ઠી કાઉન્સીલ) ટીપિકાકના દેવન ± ગાર-સ્ક્રિપ્ટ આવૃત્તિમાં પુસ્તકોના પ્રકાશનનું પ્રદર્શન કરે છે. વોલ્યુમોના
નામો ત્રાંસા અક્ષરોને પ્રત્યક્ષ “-પી ± 1/4 ઇ” સાથે દર્શાવવામાં આવે છે,
જે સૂચવે છે કે વોલ્યુમ ટ્યુટોરીયલ સાહિત્યના બદલે રૂટ ટીપિકાકનો ભાગ છે.
આ રૂપરેખા માત્ર રુટ વોલ્યુમોની યાદી આપે છે.

વિનય પિઓકા

(ત્રણ વિભાગો, 5 પુસ્તકોમાં મુદ્રિત)

સુત્ત વિભાગો [ભિક્ષુસ અને ભીખુનીસ માટેના નિયમો ધરાવતા બે પુસ્તકો, આઠ પ્રકારના અપરાધોનું રૂપાંતરણ]

ટીપિકાકા (ત્રણ “બાસ્કેટ”)

સુત્ત પિઓકા

(પાંચ ik yas, અથવા સંગ્રહો)

સુત્ત પીતુંમાં ધમ્મા સંબંધિત બુદ્ધના શિક્ષણનો સાર છે. તેમાં દસ હજારથી વધુ સંતો છે. તે પાંચ સંગ્રહોમાં વિભાજિત થાય છે, જેને નાયક્યા કહેવાય છે (એક ટોળું,
સંગઠન; એક સંગ્રહ, એક વર્ગ, હુકમ, સમૂહ; એક સંગઠન, બંધુત્વ, મંડળ, એક ઘર,
નિવાસ).

દિગાં નિકાયા
[દીઘા: લાંબું] દિવ નિકારીય બુદ્ધ દ્વારા આપવામાં આવેલા સૌથી લાંબી ઉપદેશોમાંથી 34 ભેગી કરે છે. તેમાં વિવિધ સંકેતો છે કે તેમાંના ઘણા મૂળ ભંડોળ અને પ્રશ્નાર્થ અધિકૃતતાના અંતમાં વધારા છે.

મેજિહિમા નિકારા
[મજ્હિહિમા: મધ્ય] મજજિમા નિકારાએ બુદ્ધના 152 પ્રવચનની રજૂઆત કરી હતી
મધ્યવર્તી લંબાઈ, વિવિધ બાબતો સાથે વ્યવહાર

સૈયુતા નિકાયા
[સમ્યૂતા: ગ્રૂપ] સૈતૂતા નિકારાએ તેમના વિષય મુજબ સ્યુતુઓને 56 સબ-જૂથોમાં સંતોષ આપ્યા છે. તે ચલ લંબાઈના ત્રણ હજાર કરતાં વધારે ભાષણ ધરાવે છે, પરંતુ સામાન્ય રીતે પ્રમાણમાં ટૂંકા હોય છે.

અગમતુ નિકારા
[દા.ત .: પરિબળ | uttara:
additionnal] અગટ્તાર નીયઆને અગિયાર પેટા જૂથોમાં નિપ્તા તરીકે ઓળખાવામાં
આવે છે, તેમાંના દરેક ઉપાસનામાં ભેગા થાય છે જેમાં એક અતિરિક્ત પરિબળની
ગણતરીની ગણતરી કરવામાં આવે છે.
તેમાં હજારો સુત્તાનો સમાવેશ થાય છે જે સામાન્ય રીતે ટૂંકા હોય છે.

ખુડક નિકારા
[ખુધ્હા: ટૂંકા, નાનો] ખદ્દક નિકાયા ટૂંકા ગ્રંથો અને તેને ગણવામાં આવે છે
બે સૂત્રોથી બનેલા: ધમ્મપદ, ઉદના, ઇતિવત્તાક, સુત્ત નિપાત,
થ્રગાથા-થિગ્રથા અને જાકાક પ્રાચીન સ્તરનું નિર્માણ કરે છે, જ્યારે અન્ય
પુસ્તકો અંતમાં ઉમેરા થાય છે અને તેમની અધિકૃતતા વધુ શંકાસ્પદ છે.

સુત્ત પિઓકા

(પાંચ ik yas, અથવા સંગ્રહો)

1. D2gha-nik ± ya [34 સૂટ્સ; 3 vaggas, અથવા પ્રકરણો (દરેક પુસ્તક)]
(1) એસ 2 લેકખંડવાગ-પી ± 1/4 ઇ (13 સૂત્રો)
(2) માહ ± યોગા-પી ± 1/4 ઇ (10 સૂટ્સ)
(3) પી ± μikavagga-p ± 1/4 ઇ (11 સૂટ્સ)

2. મજજીમા-નિક ± યા [152 સૂત્ર; 15 વોગાસ; 3 પુસ્તકોમાં વિભાજીત,
5 યોગજીસ દરેક, જેને પૌ ± સા (’પચાસ’) તરીકે ઓળખવામાં આવે છે]

(1) એમ 3 લીપુ ± એસએસએ-પી ± 1/4 ઇ (’રૂટ’ પચાસ)
1. એમ 3 એલપીરી ± યાવાગા (10 સૂટ્સ)
2. S2han ± દાવગગા (10 સૂટ્સ)
3. તતીયાવગ (10 સૂત્રો)

4. માહ ± યામાકવગ (10 સૂત્રો)

5. સી 31/4યામાકવગ (10 સૂત્રો)
(2) મજજીમપુ ± સા-પી ± 1/4 ઈ (’મધ્યમ’ પચાસ)

6. ગહાપાટી-યોગા (10 સૂત્રો)
7. ભીખુ-યોગા (10 સૂત્રો)
8. પરિબ ± જાક-યોગા (10 સૂટ્સ)
9. આર ± જા-યોગા (10 સૂટ્સ)

10. બીઆર ± હામાન-યોગા (10 સૂટ્સ)
(3) ઉપરીપુ ± સા-પી ± 1/4 ઇ (અર્થ ‘પચાસથી વધુ’)

11. દેવદહા-યોગા (10 સૂત્રો)
12. અનુપડા-યોગા (10 સૂત્રો)
13. સુનાતા-યોગા (10 સૂત્રો)
14. વિભાગો-યોગા (12 સૂત્રો)
15. Sa1/4 ± યટના-યોગા (10 સૂટ્સ)

3. સ 1/2 યુતાત્તા-નાક ± યા [2,904 (7,762) સૂત્રો; 56 સ 1/2 યુતુસ; 5 vaggas; વિભાજિત
6 પુસ્તકોમાં)

(1) સાગ ± થાવગગા-સ 1/2યુયુટ્ટા-પી ± 1/4 ઇ (11 સ 1/2 યુતુસ)
(2) ન્દ ± નવાગગા-સ 1/2 યુટ્ટા-પી ± 1/4 ઇ (10 સ 1/2 યુતુસ)
(3) ખંડાવગગા-સ 1/2યુટ્ટા-પી ± 1/4 ઇ (13 સ -11/2)
(4) સીએ 1/4 ± યાતવાનવાગ-સ 1/2યુયુટ્ટા-પી ± 1/4 ઇ (10 સ 1/2 યુતુસ)
(5) માહ ± યોગા-સ 1/2યુટ્ટા-પી ± 1/4 વાય વોલ્યુમ (6 સ 1/2 યુતુસ)
(6) માહ ± યોગા-સ 1/2યુટ્ટા-પી ± 1/4 ઇંડુ II (6 સ 1/2 યુતુસ)

4. ઓગગરા-નિક ± યા [9,557 સૂટ્સ; ઈન11 નેપ ± તાસ, અથવા જૂથો, ફક્ત સંપૂર્ણ રીતે ગોઠવાયેલા છે
સંખ્યાત્મક રીતે; દરેક નિપ ± ટી પાસે ઘણા વોગગાસ છે; માં 10 અથવા વધુ સૂત્રો
દરેક યોગ; 6 પુસ્તકો]

(1) ઈકા-ડુકા-તિકા-નિપાટા-પી ± 1/4 ઇ (રાશિઓ, બેડો, થ્રીસ)
(2) કતુકકા-નીપતા-પી ± 1/4 ઇ (ચાર)
(3) પંકકા-નીપતા-પી ± 1/4 ઇ (ફિવ્સ)
(4) ચક્કા-સત્તક-નીપતા -પી ± 1/4 ઇ (છગ્ગા, સાત)

(5) એમોહિકા-નવાક-નિપાટા-પી ± 1/4 ઇ (આઠ, નાઇન્સ)
(6) દાસક-એકદાસક-નીપતા -પી ± 1/4 ઇ (દસ, અગિયારમી)
5. Khuddaka-nik ± યા [નાના પુસ્તકો સંગ્રહ, એક પરચુરણ ભેગા-
18 મુખ્ય વિભાગોમાં કામ કરે છે; તેમાં સૂત, સંકલન શામેલ છે
સૈદ્ધાંતિક નોંધો, ઇતિહાસ, છંદો, અને ભાષ્ય સાહિત્ય કે જે છે
પોતે ટિપ્ઇકાકમાં સામેલ છે. 12 પુસ્તકો]

(1) કુધક્પ ± થા, ધમ્મપદ અને ઉદ ± ના-પી ± 1/4

1. કુધક્પ ± થા (નવ ટૂંકા સૂત્રો અને સૂત્રો, જેને તાલીમ મેન્યુઅલ તરીકે ઉપયોગમાં લેવાય છે
શિખાઉ ભિક્ષુ)
2. ધમ્મપદ (ટીપિકાકાના તમામ પુસ્તકોમાં સૌથી પ્રસિદ્ધ છે; 423 નો સંગ્રહ)
છંદો 26 vaggas)

3. ઉદ ± ના (8 વાગ્યોમાં, બુદ્ધના 80 આનંદી ઉચ્ચારણો, મોટે ભાગે છંદો, સાથે

સંજોગોના કેટલાક ગદ્ય એકાઉન્ટ્સ કે જે ઉચ્ચારણની પ્રાપ્તિ કરે છે)

(2) ઇતિવતકાક, સુટાનિપ ± તા-પી ± 1/4 ઇ
4. ઇતિવતકા (4 નીપ ± ટેસ, 112 શુટ, દરેક શરુઆત, “ઈતિ વટતા 1/2 ભાગવત” [આમ
બુદ્ધ દ્વારા કહેવામાં આવે છે]]
5. સુટાનિપ ± ટા (5 વોગગાસ; 71 સૂટ્સ, મોટેભાગે શ્લોકમાં;
બુદ્ધના જાણીતા, સૌથી વધુ લોકપ્રિય સુત્તો

(3) વીમ ± નવટથ્યુ, પેટાત્થા, થ્રગ ± મી ± અને ધિગ ± મી ± -પી ± 1/4
6. વિમ ± નવતાથુ (વીમ ± ના અર્થાત્ મેન્શન;
સ્વર્ગીય પ્રદેશોમાં ગુણવત્તા અને પુનર્જન્મ)
7. પેટાવથ્થુ (4 વાગ્ગો, 51 કવિતાઓ જે દુ: ખી લોકોનું વર્ણન કરે છે [પેટાસ] માં જન્મેલા
તેમના નિરંકુશ કૃત્યોને કારણે નાખુશ રાજ્યો)
8. થ્રેગ ± ઠ ± (264 થી અરાહાશીપની પ્રાપ્તિ પછી આનંદ અને આનંદની છંદો
મોટા ભિક્ષુ; 107 કવિતાઓ, 1,279 ગ્રામ ± થાસ)
9. ધિગ ± મી ± (ઉપર પ્રમાણે, 73 મોટી નનમાંથી 73 કવિતાઓ, 522 જી ± થાસ)

(4) જે ± વળે-પી ± 1/4 ઇ, વોલ્યુમ. હું
(5) જે ± પેક-પી ± 1/4, વોલ્યુમ II

10. જે ± તક (ગોથમ બુધા તરીકે તેમના જન્મ પહેલાં બોડિસાટાની જન્મની વાર્તાઓ; 547
છંદો માં વાર્તાઓ, જરૂરી છંદો સંખ્યા અનુસાર ip ± ta વિભાજિત
વાર્તા કહી સંપૂર્ણ જે ± તકની વાર્તાઓ વાસ્તવમાં જે ± મુકા ટીકામાં છે
છંદો પાછળની વાર્તા સમજાવો.

(6) માહ ± નિદેસ-પી ± 1/4 ઇ
(7) સી 31/4 એનિડેસા-પી ± 1/4 ઇ

11. નિદેસ (સુત્તાનિપ ± તાના બે વિભાગો પરની ટિપ્પણી)
માહ ± નિડાસે: 4 થી યોગા પરના ભાષ્ય
C31/4 એનિડેસે: 5 મી યોગા પરના ભાષ્ય અને

પ્રથમ વેગના ખગાવવીસ ± ઓ સૂત
(8) પાઓસિમ્ભદ ± મેગાગા-પી ± 1/4 ઇ

12. પાઈસિસમ્હીદ ± મેગા (બુધાની અવિશન્મ-શૈલી વિગતવાર વિશ્લેષણ
અધ્યાપન, વિન ± યા અને સુત્ત પીયોકાસના તમામ ભાગોમાંથી દોરવામાં આવે છે; ત્રણ vaggas,
દરેક સમાવિષ્ટ દસ વિષયો [કાથ ±])

(9) અડાડ ± ના-પી ± 1/4 ઇ, વોલ્યુમ. હું
13. અપ્દ ± ના (550 ભિક્ષુઓના ભૂતપૂર્વ જીવનની પંક્તિઓ અને 40 ભિખુનીસની વાર્તાઓ)

(10) અડાડ ± ના, બુધવા 1/2 સે અને કારી ± પીઓકાકા-પી ± 1/4

બુદ્ધા 1/2 સે (બુદ્ધના ઇતિહાસ જેમાં બુદ્ધ, એક જવાબમાં
વેન તરફથી પ્રશ્ન. સારીપુત્ત, સન્યાસી સુમેઠા અને ડી 2પાકરાની વાર્તા કહે છે
બુદ્ધ અને ત્યાર પછીના 24 બુદ્ધ, ગોતમ બુદ્ધ સહિત.)
15. કેરી ± પિઈકાકા (જે ± ટેકામાંથી 35 કથાઓ દસ પ ± રેમ 2 સમજાવવા માટે ગોઠવાય છે)

(11) નેટટીપકરના, પેલકોપડેસ-પી ± 1/4 ઇ

16. Nettippakarana (નાના ગ્રંથ માટે અર્થઘટન અને સમજાવવા માટે પદ્ધતિઓ બહાર સુયોજિત-
કેનોનિકલ પાઠો)
17. પીકોક્પેડેસ (સમજૂતી અને વિસ્તરણ માટેની પદ્ધતિઓ બહાર કાઢવાની પદ્ધતિ
બુદ્ધનું શિક્ષણ)

(12) મિલિંદપંહ-પી ± 1/4 ઇ

18. મિલિન્ડા - પાંખ (કિંગ મિલિન્ડા અને
વે દ્વારા જવાબો નગાસેના; આ ચર્ચા સીએ. 500 વર્ષ પછી
મહા ± પેરિનિબ્બ ± ના બુદ્ધનો)

અભદ્ધા પીઓકાક

[તમામ ધમમાના વ્યવસ્થિત, અમૂર્ત પ્રદર્શનના સાત વિભાગો; મુદ્રિત
12 પુસ્તકો]

1. ધમામસૌગાઓ 2
(ધમામને ગણતરી)

(1) ધમામાસાગાઓ 2-પી ± 1/4 ઇ

2. વિભાગો-પી ± 1/442
(ધમમાનો ભેદ અથવા વિશ્લેષણ)

(2) વિભાગ-પી ± 1/442

3. ધ ± તુકાથ ±
(તત્વોની ચર્ચા; આ પહેલી ત્રણ વિભાગો એક ટ્રાયલોજી બનાવે છે જે
Abhidhamma સમજવા માટે એક આધાર તરીકે પાચન થયેલ હોવું જ જોઈએ)

4. પગલાપાનાત્તી
(વ્યક્તિઓનું નામ; દસ પ્રકરણો: પહેલી વખત સિંગલ સાથે વ્યવહાર
વ્યક્તિઓ, જોડીઓ સાથે 2, ત્રણ જૂથો સાથે વગેરે, વગેરે.

(3) ધ ± તુકઠ ± -ગીગલાપાનાત્તી-પી ± 1/4

5. કાથ ± વથથુ-પી ± 1/4
(વિવાદ અથવા ખોટા દેખાવના મુદ્દાઓ;
ત્રીજી કાઉન્સિલમાં સ્થાયી થયા, પટણામાં ઓઓકના શાસનકાળમાં યોજાયેલી)

(4) કાથ ± વાથુ-પી ± 1/4

6. યમાકા-પી ± 1/442
(જોડાની પુસ્તિકા; અમ્બિ-ટુ-
ગાઈટીઝ અને ટેક્નિકલ શબ્દોનો ચોક્કસ ઉપયોગ વ્યાખ્યાયિત કરે છે)

(5) યામાકા-પી ± 1/4, વોલ્યુમ I
(6) યામાકા-પી ± 1/4, વોલ્યુમ II
(7) યામાકા-પી ± 1/4, વોલ્યુમ III

7. Paμμh ± na
(સંબંધોનું પુસ્તક; 24 શરતી યોજનાની વિસ્તરણ
સંબંધો [paccaya] જે સમજવા માટેની સંપૂર્ણ પદ્ધતિ બનાવે છે
ધમ્માના સમગ્ર બ્રહ્માંડના મિકેનિક્સ)

(8) Paμμh ± na-p ± 1/4 ઇ, વોલ્યુમ I
(9) પેલોમો ± ના-પી ± 1/4, વોલ્યુમ II
(10) Paμμh ± na-p ± 1/4 ઇ, વોલ્યુમ III
(11) પેલોમો ± ના-પી ± 1/4, વોલ્યુમ IV
(12) પેલોમો ± ના-પી ± 1/4, વોલ્યુમ વી

(1) પી ± આર ± જિકા-પી ± 1/4 ઇ ભીક્કુ
પી ± આર ± જાિક ± (હકાલપટ્ટી) 4
સાઘાદીસીસ ± (સંઘની બેઠકો) 13
અનિયત ± (અનિશ્ચિત) 2
નિસગિ ± પી ± સિટ્તિ ± (જપ્તતા સાથેની મુદત) 30

(2) પી ± સિટીયા-પી ± 1/4 ઇ
શુદ્ધ પી ± સિટ્તિ ± (સામાન્ય ખલેલ) 92
પી ± tidesaniy ± (કબૂલાત ફરી: દાન ખોરાક) 4
sekhiya (શિષ્ટાચાર અને શિષ્ટાચાર સંબંધિત) 75
અધિકારીઓસામસિત ± (કાનૂની પ્રક્રિયા) 7

(ભક્કુની વિનોય નિયમો સાથે પૂર્ણ થાય છે) ______
227ભિખૂની

8
17
0
30

166
8
75
7
______
311

2. ખાંડકા [નિયમો અને કાર્યવાહીના બે પુસ્તકો]
(3) માહ ± યોગા-પી ± 1/4 ઇ (10 વિભાગો [ખંધાકા];

બુદ્ધના જ્ઞાન, પ્રથમ પ્રવચનો અને સંઘની પ્રારંભિક વૃદ્ધિ;
સંઘની ક્રિયાઓને સંચાલિત કરવાના નીચેના નિયમોની રૂપરેખા આપે છે:
1. ઓર્ડર માટેના નિયમો (અપસ્પદ ±)
2. અપોષા બેઠક અને પી ± સમયોખાના પાઠ

3. વરસાદની મોસમ દરમિયાન રહેઠાણ (વસા)
4. સમારોહને વસાના સમાપન, જેને પવ ± રાઉ ± કહેવાય છે
5. ડ્રેસ અને ફર્નિચરના લેખો માટે નિયમો
6. દવા અને ખોરાક
7. ઝભ્ભોનું વાર્ષિક વિતરણ (કામોહિના)
8. બીમાર ભિક્ષુઓના નિયમો, ઊંઘ અને ઝભ્ભો
9. સંઘની કાર્યવાહી ચલાવવાની રીત
10. મતભેદના કેસમાં કાર્યવાહી

(4) C31/4avagga-p ± 1/4 ઇ (અથવા કલ્લાવગ) (12 નિયમો અને કાર્યવાહી સાથેના 12 ખંભાતો-
સંસ્થાકિય કૃત્યો અથવા વિધેયો માટેની સારવારો, જેને સાઘકમ્મા કહે છે:
1. સંઘ પહેલાં આવતાં ગુનાનો વ્યવહાર કરવાના નિયમો
(સાઘ ± ડીસા)

પ્રોબેશન પર ભિક્ખ મૂકવા માટેની કાર્યવાહી
3. ભિક્હ દ્વારા અપરાધોના સંચયથી વ્યવહાર કરવા માટેની કાર્યવાહી
4. સંઘમાં કાનૂની કાર્યવાહીના પતાવટ માટેના નિયમો
5. મિશ્ર સ્નાન, ડ્રેસ, વગેરે માટેનાં નિયમો
6. નિવાસો, ફર્નિચર, રહેવા, વગેરે.
7. દલીલ
8. ભિક્ષુ વર્ગ અને શિક્ષકો અને નવીનતાની ફરજો
9. પી ± ટાઇલોકખાથી બાકાત
10. ભિખુનીસનું સંકલન અને સૂચના
11. આર ± જગાહા ખાતે પ્રથમ કાઉન્સિલના ખાતા
12. વેઝ ± લી ખાતે બીજી કાઉન્સિલના ખાતું

3. પરિવા ± રા-પી ± 1/4 ઇ [વિનોયનો સારાંશ, એકની ગોઠવણી
સૂચના અને પરીક્ષા માટે પ્રશ્નોતર દ્વારા બોધ આપવો]

(5) પરિવા ± રા-પી ± 1/4i વિક્યાની પાંચમી પુસ્તક વાચકને સક્ષમ કરવા માટે એક પ્રકારની માર્ગદર્શિકા તરીકે કામ કરે છે.
સમગ્ર વિનએ પિઆકાકના વિશ્લેષણાત્મક સર્વેક્ષણ માટે

35) Classical Haitian Creole

35) Klasik kreyòl ayisyen

2453 Mon 27 Nov 2017 LESSON

TIPITAKA

soti nan gratis sou entènèt Tipitaka rechèch akPractice UNIVERSITY nan http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

Plan sa a montre piblikasyon liv yo nan edisyon Devan ± gari-script nan Chağahha Saag ± yana (Sizyèm Konsèy) Tipi êka. Non
yo nan komèsan yo ap parèt nan italik ak sifiks la “-p ± 1/4i” ki
endike volim a se yon pati nan rasin Tipiμaka a, olye ke literati
kòmantè.
Plan sa a bay lis volim rasin yo sèlman.

Vinaya Piûka

(Twa divizyon, enprime nan 5 liv)

Sutta Vibhaaga [de liv ki gen règ pou bhikkhus ak bhikkhunis, ki dekri uit klas ofans]

Tipièaka (twa “panyen”)

Sutta Piûka

(Senk nik yas, oswa koleksyon)

Sṭta Piṭaka a gen sans nan ansèyman Bouddha a konsènan Dhamma la. Li gen plis pase dis mil suttas. Li se divize an senk koleksyon yo rele Nikiya (Yon foul moun, asanble;
yon koleksyon; yon klas, lòd, gwoup; yon asosyasyon, fratènite,
kongregasyon; yon kay, rete).

Dijital Nikiya
[dijè: tan] Dīgha Nikāya a ranmase 34 nan diskou yo pi long yo bay nan Bouda la. Gen divès kalite sijesyon ke anpil nan yo se ajoute an reta nan corpus orijinal la ak nan bon jan kalite dout.

Majjhima Nikya
[maj: medyòm] Majjhima Nikāya a ranmase 152 diskou nan Bouddha a
entèmedyè longè, fè fas ak divès zafè.

Sa a Nikiya
[chakutta: gwoup] Sa’nyutta Nikāya rasanble suttas yo selon sijè yo nan 56 sub-gwoup yo rele sa lengyutas. Li gen plis pase twa mil diskours nan longè varyab, men jeneralman relativman kout.

Aksamutara Nikiya
[aṅg: faktè | Apre
sa: adisyonèl] Nikiya a Aṅguttara se sibdivize nan onz sub-gwoup yo
rele nipātas, chak nan yo rasanble diskours ki gen ladan enimerasyon nan
yon sèl faktè adisyonèl kont sa yo ki nan presedan nipāta.
Li gen dè milye de suttas ki jeneralman kout.

Khuddaka Nikiya
[khuddha: kout, ti] Khuddhaka Nikwaya tèks kout ak konsidere kòm te
ki konpoze de de stratas: Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta Nipāta,
Theragāthā-Therīgāthā ak Jātaka fòme kouch yo ansyen, pandan y ap
otherbooks yo se ajoute anreta ak otantisite yo se pi plis dout.

Sutta Piûka

(Senk nik yas, oswa koleksyon)

1. D2gha-nik ± ya [34 suttas; 3 vaggas, oswa chapit (chak yon liv)]
(1) S2lakkhandavagga-p ± 1/4i (13 suttas)
(2) Vèmin-p ± 1/4i (10 pousan)
(3) P ± μikavagga-p ± 1/4i (11 suttas)

2. Majjhima-nik ± ya [152 pousan; 15 vaggas; divize nan 3 liv,
5 vaggas chak, li te ye tankou paoo ± sa (’senkant’)]

(1) M3lapaoo ± ssa-p ± 1/4i (’rasin’ senkant lan)
1. M3lapariy ± yavagga (10 suttas)
2. S2han ± davagga (10 suttas)
3. Tatiyavagga (10 jou)

4. Chak jou (10 mwa)

5. C31/4 (10 pousan)
(2) Majjhimapaoo ± sa-p ± 1/4i (’mitan’ senkant)

6. Gahapati-vagga (10 suttas)
7. Bhikkhu-vagga (10 suttas)
8. Paribb vakyòm (10 souta)
9. R ± ak vagga (10 suttas)

10. Bransman vagga (10 jou)
(3) Uparipaoo ± sa-p ± 1/4i (vle di ‘plis pase senkant’)

11. Devadaha-vagga (10 suttas)
12. Anupada-vagga (10 suttas)
13. Suññata-vagga (10 suttas)
14. Vibhaaga-vagga (12 suttas)
15. Sa1/4 ± yang-vagga (10 pousan)

3. Sa1/2yutta-nik ± ya [2,904 (7,762) suttas; 56 sa1/2yuttas; 5 vaggas; divize
nan 6 liv]

(1) Sag ± thavagga-sa1/2yutta-p ± 1/4i (11 sa1/2yuttas)
(2) Pa gen navagga-sa1/2yutta-p ± 1/4i (10 sa1/2yuttas)
(3) Khandavagga-sa1/2yutta-p ± 1/4i (13 sa1/2yuttas)
(4) Sa1/4 ± yatanavagga-sa1/2yutta-p ± 1/4i (10 sa1/2yuttas)
(5) Vandredi-sa1 / 2y-p ± 1/4i Vol I (6 sa1/2yuttas)
(6) vagga-sa1/2yutta-p ± 1/4i Vol II (6 sa1/2yuttas)

4. Aaguttara-nik ± ya [9,557 pousan; nan11 nip ± tas, oswa gwoup, ranje piman
nimerik; chak nip ± ta gen plizyè vaggas; 10 oswa plis suttas nan
chak vagga; 6 liv]

(1) Eka-Duka-Tika-nipata-p ± 1/4i (sa yo, de fwa, twa)
(2) Catukka-nipata-p ± 1/4i (four)
(3) Pa-nika-nipata-p ± 1/4i (fives)
(4) Chakka-Sattaka-nipata-p ± 1/4i (sis, sèt)

(5) Akawo-Navaka-nipata-p ± 1/4i (kat yo, ni)
(6) Dasaka-Ekadasaka-nipata-p ± 1/4i (dè dizèn, elevens)
5. Khuddaka-nik ± ya [koleksyon an nan liv ti, yon divès ranmase-
en nan travay nan 18 seksyon prensipal; li gen ladan suttas, konpilasyon nan
doktrin nòt, istwa, vèsè, ak literati kòmantè ki genyen
te enkòpore nan Tipiμaka nan tèt li .; 12 liv]

(1) Kuddhakap ± tha, Dhammapada & Ud ± na-p ± 1/4i

1. Kuddhakap ± tha (nèf fòmil kout ak suttas, yo itilize kòm yon manyèl fòmasyon pou
novice bhikkhus)
2. Dhammapada (ki pi popilè nan tout liv yo nan Tipiμaka a; yon koleksyon 423
vèsè nan 26 vaggas)

3. Ud ± na (nan 8 vaggas, 80 kè kontan pale nan Bouda a, sitou nan vèsè, ak

kèk kont prose nan sikonstans yo ki ékrit eksplikasyon an)

(2) Itilize, Suttanip ± ta-p ± 1/4i
4. Itivuttaka (4 pousan, 112 pousan, chak kòmansman, “iti vutta1/2 bhagavata” [konsa te
te di pa Bouda a])
5. Suttanip ± ta (5 vaggas, 71 suttas, sitou nan vèsè; gen anpil nan pi bon an
li te ye, suttas ki pi popilè nan Bouda la

(3) Vim ± navatthu, Petavatthu, Therag ± th ± & Therig ± th ± -p ± 1/4i
6. Vim ± navatthu (Vim ± na vle di chato; 85 powèm nan 7 vaggas sou zak
merit ak rne nan domèn nan syèl la)
7. Petavatthu (4 vaggas, 51 powèm ki dekri èt mizerab [petas] fèt nan
eta yo kontan akòz zak demeritorious yo)
8. Therag ± th ± (vèsè nan kè kontan ak pran plezi apre reyalizasyon an nan arahatsi soti nan 264
ansyen bhikkhus; 107 powèm, 1,279 g ± thas)
9. Therig ± th ± (menm jan anwo a, ki soti nan 73 manman ansyen; 73 powèm, 522 g ± thas)

(4) J ± taka-p ± 1/4i, Vol. Mwen
(5) J ± taka-p ± 1/4i, Vol II

10. Jaka (istwa nesans nan Bodisatta a anvan nesans li kòm Gotama Bouda; 547
istwa nan vèsè, divize an nip ± ta selon kantite vèsè yo mande yo
rakonte istwa a. Tout JTA taka istwa yo aktyèlman nan commentaires J ± taka sa
eksplike istwa a dèyè vèsè yo.

(6) Mah ± nidessa-p ± 1/4i
(7) C31/4anidessa-p ± 1/4i

11. Nidessa (Kòmantè sou de seksyon nan Suttanip ± ta)
Li te di: kòmantè sou vagga a 4yèm
C31/4anidessa: Kòmantè sou vagga a 5th ak

Khaggavis ± oa sutta nan vagga a 1st
(8) Pa ekzanp ± magga-p ± 1/4i

12. Paiisabhid ± magga (yon abhidhamma-style analiz detaye nan Bouda a
ansèyman, trase nan tout pòsyon nan Vin ± ya a ak Sutta Piμakas; twa vaggas,
chak ki gen sijè dis [kath ±])

(9) Apad ± na-p ± 1/4i, Vol. Mwen
13. Apad ± NA (kont nan vèsè nan lavi yo ansyen nan 550 bhikkhus ak 40 bhikkhunis)

(10) Apad ± na, Buddhava1/2sa & Cariy ± piμaka-p ± 1/4i

14. Buddhava1/2sa (istwa a nan Bouddha a nan ki Bouda a, nan repons a yon
kesyon soti nan Ven. Sariputta, rakonte istwa a nan Sumedha asosye ak D2paakara
Bouda ak siksè 24 Bouddha yo, ki gen ladan Gotama Bouddha.)
15. Cariy ± piμaka (35 istwa ki soti nan J ± taka a ranje ilistre dis p ± ram2)

(11) Nettoyage, Pèakopadesa-p ± 1/4i

16. Nettippakarana (ti trete anviwònman metòd pou entèprete epi eksplike-
enkoni tèks kanonik)
17. Peμakopadesa (trete mete metòd pou eksplike ak agrandi a
ansèyman nan Bouda a)

(12) Milindapañha-p ± 1/4i

18. Milinda-pañha (yon dosye sou kesyon ki te poze pa wa Milinda ak a
repons pa Ven. Nagasena; deba sa a te pran plas 500 ane apre a
mah ± parinibb ± na nan Bouda a)

Abhidhamma Piğaka

[Sèt seksyon nan sistematik, ekspozisyon abstrè nan tout dhammas; enprime nan
12 liv]

1. Dhammasaagao2
(enimerasyon nan dhammas yo)

(1) Dhammasaagao2-p ± 1/4i

2. Vibhaaga-p ± 1/42
(distenksyon oswa analiz de dhammas)

(2) Vibhaaga-p ± 1/42

3. Dh ± tukath ±
(diskisyon sou eleman; premye seksyon sa yo twa fòm yon triloji ki
dwe dijere kòm yon baz pou konprann Abhidhamma)

4. Puggalapaññatti
(deziyasyon nan moun; dis chapit: 1ye nan fè fas ak yon sèl
moun, 2nd la ak pè, 3yèm la ak gwoup nan twa, elatriye.

(3) Dh ± tukath ± -Puggalapaññatti-p ± 1/42

5. Kat ± vatthu-p ± 1/42
(pwen nan konfli oswa move View; diskite pwen yo leve soti vivan ak
rete nan Gran Konsèy la 3yèm, ki te fèt nan tan an nan rèy Aœoka a, nan Patna)

(4) Kat ± pentyèm-p ± 1/42

6. Yamaka-p ± 1/42
(liv de pè; yon itilizasyon pè, opoze kesyon pou rezoud anbi-
lite ak defini egzak egzak nan tèm teknik)

(5) Yamaka-p ± 1/42, Vol I
(6) Yamaka-p ± 1/42, Vol II
(7) Yamaka-p ± 1/42, Vol III

7. Pa
(liv relasyon; elaborasyon nan yon konplo de 24 kondisyonèl
relasyon [paccaya] ki fòme yon sistèm konplè pou konpreyansyon
mekanik yo nan linivè a tout antye de Dhamma)

(8) Pa gen ± p-1/4i, Vol I
(9) Pa gen ± p-1/4i, Vol II
(10) Pa gen ± p-1/4i, Vol III
(11) Pa gen ± p-1/4i, Vol IV
(12) Pa gen ± p-1/4i, Vol V

(1) P ± rika-p ± 1/4i Bhikku
p ± r ± jik ± (ekspilsyon) 4
saaghadises ± (reyinyon nan Sangha la) 13
aniyat ± (endetèmine) 2
nissagiy ± p ± cittiy ± (èkspayasyon ak forfeiture) 30

(2) P ± cittiya-p ± 1/4i
suddha p ± cittiy ± (òdinè èkspozisyon) 92
p ± tidesaniy ± (konfesyon re: manje almay) 4
sekhiya (konsènan etikèt ak dekorasyon) 75
adhikaraoasamath ± (pwosesis legal) 7

(konkli ak bhikkuni règleman vinaya) ______
227
Bhikkhuni

8
17
0
30

166
8
75
7
______
311

2. Khandaka [de liv regleman ak pwosedi]
(3) Mah ± vagga-p ± 1/4i (10 seksyon [khandhakas]; kòmanse ak kont istorik nan

Syèk Limyè Bouda a, diskou yo an premye ak kwasans lan byen bonè nan Sangha a;
esplike règ sa yo ki gouvène aksyon Sangha yo:
1. règ pou admisyon nan lòd la (upasampad ±)
2. reyinyon an uposatha ak resital nan p ± timokkha la

3. rezidans pandan sezon lapli a (vassa)
4. Seremoni konkli vassa a, yo rele pav ± rao ±
5. règ pou atik nan rad ak mèb
6. Medikaman ak manje
7. distribisyon chak ane nan rad (kaõhina)
8. règ pou malad bhikkhus, dòmi ak rad materyèl
9. mòd nan egzekite pwosedi nan Sangha la
10. pwosedi nan ka nan chal

(4) C31/4avagga-p ± 1/4i (oswa Cullavagga) (12 khandakas fè fas ak règ plis ak proce-
dures pou zak enstitisyonèl oswa fonksyon, li te ye tankou saaghakamma:
1. règ pou fè fas ak ofans ki vini anvan Sangha la
(saagh ± disesa)

2. pwosedi pou mete yon bhikkhu sou pwobasyon
3. pwosedi pou fè fas ak akimile nan ofans pa yon bhikkhu
4. règ pou rezoud pwosedi legal nan Sangha la
5. misc. règ pou benyen, rad, elatriye
6. abitasyon, mèb, lojman, elatriye.
7. schisms
8. klas bhikkhus ak devwa nan pwofesè & novices
9. eksklizyon soti nan p ± timokkha la
10. Ordinasyon an ak enstriksyon nan bhikkhunis
11. Kont nan konsèy la 1st nan R ± jagaha
12. kont nan konsèy la 2nd nan Ves ± li

3. Pariv ± ra-p ± 1/4i [yon rezime nan vinaya a, ranje kòm yon
katechism pou enstriksyon ak egzamen an]

(5) Pariv ± ra-p ± 1/4i Liv senkyèm lan nan vinaya sèvi kòm yon kalite manyèl ki pèmèt lektè a
fè yon sondaj analyse nan tout Vinaya Piμaka.

 36) Classical Hausa
36) Hausa na gargajiya

2453 Mon 27 Nov 2017 LITTAFI

TIPITAKA

daga LITTAFI LITTAFI Tipitaka Research andPractice UNIVERSITY ta hanyar http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

Wannan
zane yana nuna tallace-tallace na littattafai a cikin littafin Devan ±
gari-script na Chaμμha Saag ± da (Taro shida) Tipiwaka.
Sunayen
sunayen da aka nuna a cikin rubutun kalmomi tare da “suffi” -p ± 1/4i
“yana nuna ɓangaren na daga cikin tushen Tipiwaka, maimakon
wallafe-wallafen sharhi.
Wannan shafuka ya ƙunshi kundin tsarin kawai kawai.

Vinaya Piμaka

(Uku sassa, buga a cikin 5 littattafai)

Sutta Vibhaaga [litattafai guda biyu da ke dauke da dokoki ga bhikkhus da bhikkhunis, wadanda ke nuna nau’o'i takwas na laifuka]

Tipiμaka (kwanduna guda uku)

Sutta Pi’aka

(Shine ± yas, ko tarin)

Sutta Piṭaka yana da ainihin koyarwar Buddha game da Dhamma. Ya ƙunshi fiye da suttas dubu goma. An rarraba a cikin tarin abubuwa biyar da aka kira Nikāyas (taron,
taro, tarin, kundin, tsari, rukuni, ƙungiyoyi, ƙungiyoyi, ikilisiya,
gida, mazauna).

Dīgha Nikāya
[dīgha: tsawon] Dīgha Nikāya ya tattara 34 daga cikin jawabin da ya fi tsawo da Buddha ta ba da ita. Akwai alamomi daban-daban da yawa daga cikinsu sune jikunan marigayi zuwa asali na asali da kuma gaskiyar gaskiyar.

Majjhima Nikāya
[Majjhima: matsakaici] Majjhima Nikāya ya tara jawabin 152 na Buddha na
Tsakanin tsaka-tsaka, tsayayya da al’amura dabam daban.

Saokwayutta Nikāya
[samyutta: ƙungiyar] Saokwayutta Nikāya ta tara suttas bisa ga batun su a cikin ƙungiyoyi 56 da ake kira saokwayuttas. Ya ƙunshi fiye da dubu uku na jawabi na tsawon tsayi, amma yawanci inganci kaɗan.

Aṅguttara Nikāya
[harag: factor | uttara:
Karin bayani] An rarraba Nikāya Akyguttara a cikin ƙungiyoyi goma sha
ɗayan da ake kira nipātas, kowanne ɗayan suna tattara maganganu wanda ya
ƙunshi lissafi na wani ƙarin matakan da wadanda ke da alaƙa.
Ya ƙunshi dubban suttas wadanda suke da gajeren lokaci.

Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha: gajeren, kananan] The Khuddhaka Nikāya short texts kuma an dauke kamar yadda
wanda ya hada da bangarori guda biyu: Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka,
Sutta Nipta, Theragāthā-Therīgāthā da Jātaka sune tsohuwar sifa, yayin
da wasu litattafai sune mahimmancin tarawa kuma amincin su yafi dacewa.

Sutta Pi’aka

(Shine ± yas, ko tarin)

1. D2gha-nik ± [34 suttas; 3 fuskoki, ko barori (kowannen littafi)]
(1) S2lakkhandavagga-p ± 1/4i (13 suttas)
(2) Maɗaukaki-p ± 1/4i (10 suttas)
(3) ± ± ± ± ± 1/4i (11 suttas)

2. Shigar da ± 15 [152 suttas; 15 wurare; raba cikin littattafai 3,
5 hanyoyi kowane, da aka sani da paoo ± sa (’hamsin’)]

(1) M3lapaoo ± ssa-p ± 1/4i (’tushen’ hamsin)
1. M3lapariy ± yavagga (10 suttas)
2. S2han ± davagga (10 suttas)
3. Tatiyavagga (10 suttas)

4. Ma’aikata (10 suttas)

5. C31/4ayamakavagga (10 suttas)
(2) Maɗaukaki ± sa-p ± 1/4i (na ‘tsakiya’ hamsin)

6. Gahapati-gaba (10 suttas)
7. Bunkkhu-hari (10 suttas)
8. Kwankwayo ± jaka-vagga (10 suttas)
9. R ± ja-gaba (10 suttas)

10. Br ± hmana-vagga (10 suttas)
(3) Tsarin ± sa-p ± 1/4i (na nufin “fiye da hamsin”)

11. Harshen (10 suttas)
12. Kwafi (10 suttas)
13. Suññata-vagga (10 suttas)
14. Harshen Vibhaaga-Tsaro (12 samurai)
15. Sa1/4 ± yatana-gaba (10 suttas)

3. Sa1/2yutta-nik ± ya [2,904 (7,762) suttas; 56 Sa1/2yuttas; 5 hanyoyi; rabu
cikin 6 littattafai]

(1) Sag ± thavagga-sa1/2yutta-p ± 1/4i (11 sa1/2yuttas)
(2) Sanya ± navagga-sa1/2yutta-p ± 1/4i (10 sa1/2yuttas)
(3) Khandavagga-sa1/2yutta-p ± 1/4i (13 sa1/2yuttas)
(4) Sa1/4 ± yatanavagga-sa1/2yutta-p ± 1/4i (10 sa1/2yuttas)
(5) Mah ± vagga-sa1/2yutta-p ± 1/4i Vol I (6 sa1/2yuttas)
(6) Mah ± vagga-sa1/2yutta-p ± 1/4i Vol II (6 sa1/2yuttas)

4. Shigar da ± ya [9,557 suttas; in11 kop, ko kungiyoyi, sun shirya daidai
sau ɗaya; Kowane kullun yana da hanyoyi masu yawa; 10 ko fiye suttas in
kowane yanki; 6 littattafai]

(1) Eka-Duka-Tika-nipata-p ± 1/4i (wadanda, twos, uku)
(2) Catukka-nipata-p ± 1/4i (hudu)
(3) Pañcaka-nipata-p ± 1/4i (fives)
(4) Chakka-Sattaka-nipata-p ± 1/4i (shida, bakwai)

(5) Aƙhaka-Navaka-nipata-p ± 1/4i (makiyoyi, nines)
(6) Dasaka-Ekadasaka-nipata-p ± 1/4i (goma sha, goma sha ɗaya)

5. Khuddaka-nik ± ya [tarin littattafan littattafai, wani taro mai yawa-
yin aiki a cikin sassa na 18; ya haɗa da suttas, compilations of
rubuce-rubucen koyarwa, tarihin, ayoyi, da wallafe-wallafen wallafe-wallafen da ke da
An sanya shi cikin Tipiwaka kanta; 12 littattafai]

(1) Kuddhakap ± tha, Dhammapada & Ud ± na-p ± 1/4i

1. Kuddhakap ± tha (ƙananan hanyoyi guda uku da suttas, ana amfani da su azaman horo don
novice bhikkhus)
2. Dhammapada (mafi shahararrun dukkan littattafai na Tipiμaka; tarin 423
ayoyi a cikin 26 hanyoyi)

3. Ud ± na (a cikin sama 8, kalmomin farin ciki 80 na Buddha, mafi yawa a ayoyi, tare da

wasu bayanan lissafin abubuwan da suka haifar da furcin)

(2) Tattaunawa, Suttanip ± ta-p ± 1/4i
4. Tattaunawa (4 digit, 112 suttas, kowane farawa, “vutta1/2 bhagavata” [ta haka ne
ya ce da Buddha])
5. Suttanip ± ta (5 wurare; 71 suttas, mafi yawa a aya; ya ƙunshi mafi yawa daga cikin mafi kyau
sananne, mafi yawan mashahuran Buddha

(3) Saukake, Petavatthu, Therag & Th & ± ± ± 1/4i
6. Sakamakon ± a cikin (Vim ± yana nufin gidan mutum; 85 waƙoƙi a cikin 7 hanyoyi game da ayyukan
cancanci da sake haifuwa a cikin sammai)
7. Petavatthu (4 makamai, 51 waƙa da aka kwatanta da mummunan halittu [petas] haife shi a
jihohin da ba su damu ba bisa ga ayyukansu masu banƙyama)
8. Sakamakon ± ± (ayoyi na farin ciki da farin ciki bayan samun nasara daga 264
elder bhikkhus; 107 waƙa, 1,279 g ± thas)
9. Siffar (kamar yadda aka sama, daga tsoffin shugabannin 73, 73 waƙa, 522 g)

(4) J ± taka-p ± 1/4i, Vol. Ni
(5) J ± taka-p ± 1/4i, Vol II

10. J ± taka (labarin haihuwa na Bodisatta kafin haihuwa kamar Gotama Buddha; 547
labaran da ke cikin ayoyi, ƙaddamar da su kamar yadda yawan ayoyin da ake bukata
gaya labarin. Labarin cikakken J ± taka ne a cikin sharhin J ± taka
bayyana labarin bayan ayoyin.

(6) Mah ± nidessa-p ± 1/4i
(7) C31/4anidessa-p ± 1/4i

11. Nidessa (sharhi akan sassan biyu na Suttanip ± ta)
Mah ± nidessa: sharhin akan 4th
C31/4anidessa: sharhin akan 5th kuma

da Khaggavis ± a sutta na 1st hanya
(8) Bayanin ± magga-p ± 1/4i

12. Pa’isambhid ± magga (wani tsarin abhidhamma cikakken nazarin Buddha
koyarwa, daga dukkan bangarori na Vin ± ya da Sutta Piμakas; uku hanyoyi,
kowannensu yana da abubuwa goma (kath ±))

(9) Ayuba ± 1/4i, Vol. Ni
13. Al’ummar (tales a ayoyi na tsohon rayuwar 550 bhikkhus da 40 bhikkhunis)

(10) Na’urar, Buddhava1/2sa & Cariy ± piμaka-p ± 1/4i

14. Buddhava //2sa (tarihin Buddha inda Buddha, a amsa ga
tambayar daga Ven. Sariputta, ya ba da labari game da asalin Sumedha da D2paakara
Buddha da Buddha masu nasara 24, ciki har da Gotama Buddha.)
15. Cariy ± piμaka (labarin talatin da aka tsara na J ± taka don nuna misalin karfe goma)

(11) Nettippakarana, Peμakopadesa-p ± 1/4i

16. Nettippakarana (ƙananan tsarin rubutun hanyoyin da za a fassara da bayyana-
mai amfani da rubutun kalmomi)
17. Magoya bayanan (tsarin saiti na sasantawa don bayyanawa da fadada
koyar da Buddha)

(12) Milindapañha-p ± 1/4i

18. Milinda-pañha (rubutun tambayoyi da Sarki Milinda ya yi da kuma
amsoshin da Ven. Nagasena; wannan muhawara ta faru ca. Shekaru 500 bayan
mah ± parinibb ± na na Buddha)

Abhidhamma Piwamaka

[Sashe bakwai na tsabtaceccen abu, bayyanannen bayani na dukkan dhammas; buga a
12 littattafai]

1. Dhammasaagao2
(enumeration na dhammas)

(1) Dhammasaagao2-p ± 1/4i

2. Vibhaaga-p ± 1/42
(bambanci ko bincike na dhammas)

(2) Vibhaaga-p ± 1/42

3. Dh ± kull ±
(tattaunawa game da abubuwa; wadannan sassa uku na farko sun samar da wata alama ce
dole ne a yi digiri a matsayin tushen don fahimtar Abhidhamma)

4. Puggalapaññatti
(siffanta mutane, goma sharuɗɗa: farko game da aure
mutane, 2 tare da nau’i-nau’i, 3rd tare da kungiyoyi uku, da dai sauransu.

(3) Dh ± kath ± -Puggalapaññatti-p ± 1/42

5. Kath ± vatthu-p ± 1/42
(batutuwan jayayya ko ra’ayi mara kyau, tattauna batun da aka taso da kuma
ya zauna a majalisa na uku, wanda aka gudanar a lokacin mulkin Aœoka, a Patna)

(4) Kath ± vatthu-p ± 1/42

6. Yamaka-p ± 1/42
(littafin nau’i-nau’i; yin amfani da tambayoyin da aka saba da su, don warware matsalolin da za a yi,
guits da kuma ayyana ainihin amfani da fasaha)

(5) Yamaka-p ± 1/42, Vol I
(6) Yamaka-p ± 1/42, Vol II
(7) Yamaka-p ± 1/42, Vol III

7. Paμμh ± na
(littafi na dangantaka; da bayanin da aka tsara game da mahimmanci 24
dangantaka [paccaya] wanda ke samar da cikakkiyar tsarin don ganewa
masanin injunan duniya na Dhamma)

(8) Paμμh ± da-p ± 1/4i, Vol I
(9) Paμμh ± na-p ± 1/4i, Vol II
(10) Paμμh ± na-p 1/4i, Vol III
(11) Paμμh ± na-p ± 1/4i, Vol IV
(12) Paμμh ± da-p ± 1/4i, Vol V

(1) Mako-p ± 1/4i Bhikku
± ± ± (fitar da shi) 4
Saaghadises ± (tarurruka na Sangha) 13
aniyat ± (indeterminate) 2
± p ± citti ± (ƙetare da kashewa) 30

(2) P ± cittiya-p ± 1/4i
suddha p ± cittiy ± (talakawa ƙetare) 92
± tidesaniy ± (furci sake: sadaka abinci) 4
sekhiya (game da ladabi da al’adu) 75
Adhikaraoasamath ± (tsarin shari’a) 7

(ya ƙare da dokokin barnkuni vinaya) ____
227

Bhikkhuni

8
17
0
30

166
8
75
7
____
311

2. Khandaka [litattafai biyu na dokoki da hanyoyin]
(3) Sauƙi-p ± 1/4i (10 sassan [khandhakas]; fara da bayanan tarihi na

Binciken Buddha, jawabi na farko da farkon Sangha;
Ya tsara dokokin da ke biye da ayyukan Sangha:
1. dokoki don shiga cikin tsari (upasampad ±)
2. gamuwa da tarbiyyar da ake yi a kan p ± timokkha

3. zama a lokacin damina (vassa)
4. bikin cikawa da vassa, wanda ake kira ± rao ±
5. dokoki don abubuwan kayan ado da kayan ado
6. magani da abinci
7. rarraba riguna na yau da kullum (ka’hina)
8. dokoki ga rashin lafiya bhikkhus, barci da tufafi kayan
9. Yanayin aiwatar da ayyukan Sangha
10. aikace-aikace a lokuta na schism

(4) C31/4avagga-p ± 1/4i (ko Cullavagga) (12 khandakas da ake rubutu da kara dokoki da kuma bincike-
dures don ayyuka ko ayyuka, wanda aka sani da saaghakamma:
1. dokoki don magance laifukan da suka zo gaban Sangha
(saagh ± watsa)

2. hanyoyin da za a sa dan bhikkhu akan gwaji
3. hanyoyin da za a magance jingina laifuka ta hanyar bhikkhu
4. Dokoki don magance hanyoyin shari’a a cikin Sangha
5. kuskure. dokoki don wanka, tufafi, da dai sauransu.
6. gidaje, kayan ado, ɗakin kwana, da dai sauransu.
7. schisms
8. azuzuwan bhikkhus da nauyin malaman makaranta
9. cire daga p ± timokkha
10. Tsayar da umarni na bhikkhunis
11. asusun na 1st majalisa a R ± jagaha
12. asusun na 2nd majalisa a Ves ± li

3. Sakamakon ± ra-p ± 1/4i [taƙaitaccen launi, an shirya a matsayin
Catechism don koyarwa da jarrabawa]

(5) Pariv ± ra-p ± 1/4i Littafin na biyar na vinaya yana aiki ne a matsayin mai aiki wanda zai sa mai karatu
don yin nazarin nazarin dukan Vinaya Pi’aka.


http://egyptsearchreloaded.proboards.com/thread/436
“It would seem that Buddha was an Egyptian priest, chased from Memphis
by the persecution of Cambyses. This tradition would justify the
portrayal of Buddha with woolly hair. Historical documents do not
invalidate this tradition…There is general agreement today on placing in
the sixth century not only Buddha but the whole religious and
philosophical movement in Asia with Confucius in China, Zoroaster in
Iran. This would conf…

Continue reading

“It
would seem that Buddha was an Egyptian priest, chased from Memphis by
the persecution of Cambyses. This tradition would justify the portrayal
of Buddha with woolly hair. Historical documents do
egyptsearchreloaded.proboards.com
al~Takruri Avatar

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2455 Wed 29 Nov 2017 LESSON medicine,business,form,education,science,donation,designing,page,conceptual,vectors,stripe,medical,research,illness,disease,procedure,system,money TIPITAKA from FREE ONLINE Tipitaka Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org This outline displays the publication of books in the Devan±gari-script edition of the Chaμμha Saag±yana (Sixth Council) Tipiμaka. The names of the volumes are displayed in italics with the suffix “-p±1⁄4i” indicatingthe volume is part of the root Tipiμaka, rather than commentarial literature. This outline lists the root volumes only. in 23) Classical English,Sacred City of Anuradhapura
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 2:50 am

2455 Wed 29 Nov 2017 LESSON

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Inline image 3


Sacred City of Anuradhapura

This sacred city was established around a cutting from the
‘tree of enlightenment’, the Buddha’s fig tree, brought there in the 3rd
century B.C. by Sanghamitta, the founder of an order of Buddhist nuns.
Anuradhapura, a Ceylonese political and religious capital that
flourished for 1,300 years, was abandoned after an invasion in 993.
Hidden away in dense jungle for many years, the splendid site, with its
palaces, monasteries and monuments, is now accessible once again.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0



  • Dutch



Sacred City of Anuradhapura
© Vincent Ko Hon Chiu


Media

http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/200/video

UNESCO/NHK Videos on Heritage


This sacred city was established around a cutting from the
‘tree of enlightenment’, the Buddha’s fig tree, brought there in the 3rd
century B.C. by Sanghamitta, the founder of an order of Buddhist nuns.
Anuradhapura, a Ceylonese political and religious capital that
flourished for 1,300 years, was abandoned after an invasion in 993.
Hidden away in dense jungle for many years, the splendid site, with its
palaces, monasteries and monuments, is …

Source: UNESCO TV / © NHK Nippon Hoso Kyokai
URL: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/200/

English

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anuradhapura


Anuradhapura

Anuradhapura

අනුරාධපුරය
அனுராதபுரம்

City

Kuttam Pokuna

Anuradhapura is located in Sri Lanka

Anuradhapura
Anuradhapura

Location in Sri Lanka

Coordinates: 8°21′0″N 80°23′7″ECoordinates: 8°21′0″N 80°23′7″E

Country
Sri Lanka

Province
North Central Province

District
Anuradhapura

Established
4th century BC

Government

 • Type
Municipal Council

Area

 • City
7,179 km2 (2,772 sq mi)

 • Urban
36 km2 (14 sq mi)

Elevation
81 m (266 ft)

Population (2012)

 • City
50,595

 • Density
2,314/km2 (5,990/sq mi)

Demonym(s)
Anuradhians

Time zone
Sri Lanka Standard Time Zone (UTC+5:30)

Postal code
50000

UNESCO World Heritage Site

Official name
Sacred City of Anuradhapura

Criteria
Cultural: (ii), (iii), (vi) Edit this on Wikidata

Reference
200

Inscription
1982 (6th Session)

Anuradhapura (Sinhalese: අනුරාධපුරය; Tamil: அனுராதபுரம்) is a major city in Sri Lanka. It is the capital city of North Central Province, Sri Lanka and the capital of Anuradhapura District. Anuradhapura is one of the ancient capitals of Sri Lanka, famous for its well-preserved ruins of an ancient Sri Lankan civilization. It was the third capital of the Kingdom of Rajarata, following the kingdoms of Tambapanni and Upatissa Nuwara.

The city, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site, was the centre of Theravada Buddhism for many centuries. The city lies 205 km (127 mi) north of the current capital Colombo in the North Central Province, on the banks of the historic Malvathu Oya. It is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world and one of the eight World Heritage Sites of Sri Lanka.

It is believed that from the fourth century BC until the beginning of the 11th century AD it was the capital of the Sinhalese.During
this period it remained one of the most stable and durable centres of
political power and urban life in South Asia. The ancient city,
considered sacred to the Buddhist world, is today surrounded by
monasteries covering an area of over sixteen square miles (40 km²).

Contents

Urban Area

Protohistoric Iron Age

Although according to historical records the city was founded in the
5th century BC, the archaeological data put the date as far back as the
10th century BC.[1]
Very little evidence was available about the period before the 5th
century BC (i.e. the protohistoric period), though excavations have
revealed information about the earlier inhabitants of the city.

Further excavations in Anuradhapura have uncovered information about
the existence of a protohistoric habitation of humans in the citadel.
The protohistoric Iron Age,
which spans from 900 to 600 BC, marked the appearance of iron
technology, pottery, the horse, domestic cattle and paddy cultivation.
In the time period 700 to 600 BC, the settlement in Anuradhapura had
grown over an area of at least 50 hectares (120 acres). The city was
strategically situated of major ports northwest and northeast. It was
surrounded by irrigable and fertile land. The city was also buried deep
in the jungle providing natural defence from invaders.

Lower Early Historic period

The Lower Early Historic period, spanning from 500 to 250 BC, is studied on the lines of the chronicles. During this time King Pandukabhaya
formally planned the city, with gates, quarters for traders etc. The
city at the time would have covered an area of 1 square kilometre, which
would have made it one of the largest in the continent at the time.

Beginnings

The layout of Anuradhapura as described in the Mahavamsa:

He laid out four suburbs as well as the Abhaya-tank, the common
cemetery, the place of execution, and the chapel of the Queens of the
West, the banyan-tree of Vessavana and the Palmyra-palm of the Demon of
Maladies, the ground set apart for the Yonas and the house of the Great
Sacrifice; all these he laid out near the west gate.[2]
A hermitage was made for many ascetics; eastward of that same
cemetery, the ruler built a house for the Nigantha Jotiya. On the
further side of Jotiya’s house and on this side of the Gamani tank, he
likewise built a monastery for wandering mendicant monks, and a dwelling
for the Ajivakas and a residence for the Brahmans, and in this place
and that he built a lying-in shelter and a hall for those recovering
from sickness.[2]

It is believed that King Pandukabhaya
made it his capital in the 4th century BC, and that he also laid out
the town and its suburbs according to a well-organized plan. He
constructed a reservoir named Abhayavapi.
He established shrines for yakkhas such as Kalawela and Cittaraja. He
housed the Yaksini-Cetiya in the form of a mare within the royal
precincts, and offerings were made to all these demi-gods every year. He
chose the sites for the cemetery and for the place of execution, the
Chapel of the Western Queen, the Pacchimarajini, the Vessavana Banyan
Tree, the Palm of the Vyadhadeva, the Yona Quarter and the House of the
Great Sacrifice. The slaves or Candalas were assigned their duties, and a
village was set apart for them. They build dwellings for Niganthas, for
wandering ascetics and for Ajivakas and Brahmanas. He established, the
village boundaries. The tradition that King Pandukabhaya made
Anuradhapura the capital city of Sri Lanka as early as the 4th century BC had been very important.

The administrative and sanitary arrangements made for the city and
the shrines he provided indicate that over the years, the city developed
according to an original master plan. His son, Mutasiva, succeeded to
the throne. During his reign of sixty years, he maintained Anuradhapura
as his capital and further laid out the Mahameghavahana
Garden which was to play an important role in the early history of
Buddhism in Sri Lanka. It was in the period of his successor, his son Devanampiya Tissa, that Buddhism was first introduced to this island 236 years after the passing away of the Buddha. Emperor Ashoka of India was a contemporary of Devanampiya Tissa.

Mahinda
was the son of Emperor Ashoka of India. Ashoka embraced Buddhism after
he was inspired by a very small monk named Nigrodha. The king, who was
in great misery after seeing the loss of life caused by his waging wars
to expand his empire, was struck by the peaceful countenance of such a
young monk. Meeting this young monk made a turning point in his life and
he thereafter, renounced wars. He was determined to spread the message
of peace, to neutralize the effects from the damages caused by him
through his warfare. As a result, both his son and daughter were
ordained as Buddha disciples, and became enlightened as Arahats. In his
quest to spread the message of peace instead of war, he sent his son
Mahinda, to the island of Lanka, which was also known as “Sinhalé”.
According to Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa, Thera Mahinda came to Sri Lanka
from India on the full moon day of the month of Poson (June) and met
King Devanampiyatissa and the people, and preached the doctrine.

Historically this period is believed to extend from 250 to 210 BC.
This is the point at which a kingship began and a civilization developed
based on one of the most significant religions of South Asia, Buddhism.

Buddhism and Anuradhapura

With the introduction of Buddhism, the city gained more prominence and the great building era began. The Mahavansa states that King Kutakannatissa built the first city wall to a height of seven cubits
with a moat in front of the wall. This fortification was further
enlarged by raising the wall a further 11 cubits to 18 cubits by King Vasabha.
The king also added fortified gatehouses at the entrances of which the
ruins can be seen to date. The Mahavamsa also states that soothsayers
and architects were consulted in the construction.

During the late Anuradhapura period, the royal family and nobility of
Sri Lanka strongly supported Buddhism. As such, they frequently
commissioned works of art and donated these items to Buddhist temples.
In return, the temple and local Buddhist community supported the king’s
rule. Art works featuring depictions of Avalokitesvara, the Bodhisattva of Mercy and Compassion, became increasing popular.[3]

Great Building Era

The
architectural remains can still be seen and gives a glimpse of what had
been the country at that time.Abayagiri Stupa or the Abayagiri Dageba
was constructed in 1 Century BC by King Vattagamini Abaya. The Abayagiri
complex covers an area of 200 hectares. The height of the stupa is 235
feet and has a diameter of 310 feet at the base of the dome. It is built
on a stone paved platform.The techniques used in Anuradhapura era is
outstanding.

The city grows

The
city’s popularity grew both as a ritual centre and as the
administrative centre, a large population was attracted to the city for
permanent settlement. Thus the living facilities were improved to
accommodate the expanding population. King Vasabha
constructed many ponds which were fed by a network of subterranean
channels which were constructed to supply water to the city. The Tissa and Abhayavapi
tanks were built, the Nuwara weva was built and the Malwatu Oya was
dammed to build the Nachchaduwa wewa which was 4,408 acres (17.84 km2) in size.

Parks were also provided in the city. The Ranmasu Uyana below the bund of Tissavapi or Tissa weva
was one such, but it was strictly reserved for the members of the royal
family. Health care and education were two other aspects to which the
authorities paid attention. There were several hospitals in the city. In
the 4th century King Upatissa II provided quarters and homes for the
crippled and the blind. King Buddhadasa
(337-365 AD), himself a doctor of great repute, appointed a physician
to be in charge of every ten villages. For the maintenance of these
doctors, one tenth of the income from the fields was set apart. He also
set up refuges for the sick in every village. Doctors were also
appointed to look after the animals. Kassapa V (914-923 AD) founded a
hospital close to the southern gate of Anuradhapura. General Sena in the
10th century is believed to have built a hospital close to the
ceremonial street (Managala Veediya). The history of medical care began
early, for in the 4th century BC King Pandukhabaya,
in the course of sanitizing the town constructed a hospital. A large
workforce was entrusted with the task of keeping the city clean.

Large lakes were also constructed by the city’s rulers to irrigate
paddy lands and also to supply water to the city. Nuwara wewa and Tissa wewa are among the best known lakes in the city.

The Great City

Anuradhapura attained its highest magnificence about the commencement of the common era.
The city had some of the most complex irrigation systems of the ancient
world, situated in the dry zone of the country the administration built
many tanks to irrigate the land. Most of these tanks still survive.

Modern era

European discovery

The area was uninhabited for many centuries, but the local population remained aware of the ruins. In Robert Knox’s 1681 An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon,
he wrote: “At this City of Anurodgburro is a Watch kept, beyond which
are no more people that yield obedience to the King of Candy”.[4] In 1821, John Davy
wrote that: “Anooradapoora, so long the capital of Ceylon, is now a
small mean village, in the midst of a desert. A large tank, numerous
stone pillars, two or three immense tumuli, (probably old dagobahs,) are
its principal remains. It is still considered a sacred spot; and is a
place of pilgrimage.”[5]

Excavations

Various excavations have taken place at the site, beginning in 1884-86 by Stephen Montagu Burrows.[6]

According to carbon dating, the ruins excavated were from the 10th century BC.[citation needed]

Ruins


1890 map of Anuradhapura by Harry Charles Purvis Bell

The ruins consist of three classes of buildings, dagobas, monastic buildings, and pokunas. The dagobas
are bell-shaped masses of masonry, varying from a few feet to over
1100 ft (340 m) in circumference. Some of them contain enough masonry to
build a town for twenty-five thousand inhabitants. Remains of the
monastic buildings are to be found in every direction in the shape of
raised stone platforms, foundations and stone pillars. The most famous
is the Brazen Palace erected by King Dutugamunu about 164 BC. The pokunas
are bathing-tanks or tanks for the supply of drinking water, which are
scattered everywhere through the jungle. The city also contains a sacred
Bo-Tree, which is said to date back to the year 245 BC.

Eight Great Places of Veneration in Anuradhapura - Atamasthana

Main article: Atamasthana

* Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi * Ruwanwelisaya * Thuparamaya * Lovamahapaya * Abhayagiri Dagaba * Jetavanarama * Mirisaveti Stupa * Lankarama

Other structures

Demographics

Ethnicity Population % Of Total
Sinhalese 51,775 91.42
Sri Lankan Moors 3,825 6.75
Sri Lankan Tamils 850 1.50
Indian Tamils 45 0.08
Other (including Burgher, Malay) 137 0.24
Total 56,632 100

Source: www.statistics.gov.lk - Census 2001

Transportation

Anuradhapura is served by railway and highways. The Northern railway line connects Anuradhapura with Colombo, Jaffna, and Kankesanthurai. Anuradhapura railway station is the city’s rail gateway, with major services, such as the Yal Devi,
calling there. Anuradhapura is a central city of Sri Lanka. It is
directly connected to a large number of major cities and towns of the
island. By road, it is connected to Vavuniya, Dambulla, Puttalam, Trincomalee, Jaffna, Kurunegala and Kandy.
Due to its status as a crossroads city, the city is a good base for
exploring many important ancient landmarks a short distance away.

References


  • Deraniyagala, SU. The Prehistory of Sri Lanka, Vol II, Department of Archaeological Survey, Colombo: 1992. p435.

  • Mahavamsa X, trans. Wilhelm Geiger

  • Birmingham Museum of Art (2010). Birmingham Museum of Art : guide to the collection. [Birmingham, Ala]: Birmingham Museum of Art. p. 57. ISBN 978-1-904832-77-5.

  • Robert Knox (1681), Historical Relation
    chapter 2, full quote “There are besides these already mentioned,
    several other ruinous places that do still retain the name of Cities,
    where Kings have Reigned, tho now little Foot steps remaining of them.
    At the North end of this Kings Dominions is one of these Ruinous Cities,
    called Anurodgburro, where they say Ninety Kings have Reigned, the
    Spirits of whom they hold now to be Saints in Glory, having merited it
    by making Pagoda’s and Stone Pillars and Images to the honour of their
    Gods, whereof there are many yet remaining: which the Chingulayes count
    very meritorious to worship, and the next way to Heaven. Near by is a
    River, by which we came when we made our escape: all along which is
    abundance of hewed stones, some long for Pillars, some broad for paving.
    Over this River there have been three Stone Bridges built upon Stone
    Pillars, but now are fallen down; and the Countrey all desolate without
    Inhabitants. At this City of Anurodgburro is a Watch kept, beyond which
    are no more people that yield obedience to the King of Candy. This place
    is above Ninety miles to the Northward of the City of Candy. In these
    Northern Parts there are no Hills, nor but two or three Springs of
    running water, so that their Corn ripeneth with the help of Rain.”

  • John Davy (1821), An Account,
    full quote: “Anooradapoora, so long the capital of Ceylon, is now a
    small mean village, in the midst of a desert. A large tank, numerous
    stone pillars, two or three immense tumuli, (probably old dagobahs,) are
    its principal remains. It is still considered a sacred spot; and is a
    place of pilgrimage. This information was collected partly from the
    natives, and partly from an officer who visited it during the
    rebellion.”

    1. Department of Archaeology - Sri Lanka:
      “The first methodical excavation of the Department of Archaeology had
      been carried out by Mr. S.M. Burrows in Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa
      during 1884 to 1886. Subsequently, the exploration and excavation
      activities were undertaken mainly in Anuradhapura and Sigiriya with the
      guidance of Mr. H.C.P. Bell in 1890. Similarly archaeological
      excavations in Anuradhapura and other areas of the island were carried
      out under the supervision of Mr. E.M. Ayrton (1912-1914) and Mr. Raja De
      Silva (1983). Mr. E.M. Hocart who was appointed as the Commissioner of
      Archaeology in Sri Lanka in 1926, carried out excavations using the
      method of stratification, in places such as Mathota, Pomparippu,
      Anuradhapura inner city and Ambalantota.”
    • Harischandra, B. W.: The Sacred City of Anuradhapura, Reprint. New Delhi, Asian Educational Services, 1998.
    • Nissanka, H.S.S.: Maha Bodhi Tree in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka : The Oldest Historical Tree in the World, New Delhi 1996, (Reprint. Vikas)
    • R. A. E. Coningham.: The Origins of the Brahmi Script Reconsidered: The New Evidence from Anuradhapura, Minerva 8(2): 27-31, 1995.
    • R. A. E. Coningham.: Anuradhapura Citadel Archaeological Project: Preliminary Results of a Season of Geophysical Survey. South Asian Studies 10: 179-188, 1994.
    • A. Seneviratne.: Ancient Anuradhapura The Monastic City, Archaeological Department of Sri Lanka. p. 310, 1994.
    • S. M. Burrows, The Buried Cities of Ceylon - A Guide Book to Anuradhapura and Polonaruwa Reprint, p. 120, 1999.

    External links

    comments (0)
    Abhayagiri vihāra
    Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
    Posted by: @ 2:44 am

    http://www.wow.com/wiki/Abhayagiriya


    Abhayagiri vihāra


    The restored Abhayagiri Dagoba (stupa) in Anuradhapura

    Abhayagiriya Monastery with Samadhi Statue, Kuttam Pokuna (twin pond) and moonstone.

    Abhayagiri Vihāra was a major monastery site of Mahayana, Theravada and Vajrayana Buddhism that was situated in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. It is one of the most extensive ruins in the world and one of the most sacred Buddhist pilgrimage cities in the nation. Historically it was a great monastic centre as well as a royal capital, with magnificent monasteries
    rising to many stories, roofed with gilt bronze or tiles of burnt clay
    glazed in brilliant colors. To the north of the city, encircled by great
    walls and containing elaborate bathing ponds, carved balustrades and
    moonstones, stood “Abhayagiri”, one of seventeen such religious units in
    Anuradhapura and the largest of its five major viharas. One of the focal points of the complex is an ancient stupa, the Abhayagiri Dagaba.
    Surrounding the humped dagaba, Abhayagiri Vihara was a seat of the
    Northern Monastery, or Uttara Vihara and the original custodian of the Tooth relic in the island.

    The term “Abhayagiri Vihara” means not only a complex of monastic buildings, but also a fraternity of Buddhist monks, or Sangha,
    which maintains its own historical records, traditions and way of life.
    Founded in the 2nd century BC, it had grown into an international
    institution by the 1st century AD, attracting scholars from all over the
    world and encompassing all shades of Buddhist philosophy. Its influence
    can be traced to other parts of the world, through branches established
    elsewhere. Thus, the Abhayagiri Vihara developed as a great institution
    vis‑a‑vis the Mahavihara and the Jetavana Buddhist monastic sects in the ancient Sri Lankan capital of Anuradhapura.

    King Valagamba and Abhayagiri

    It is recorded in the chronicle [1] that Abhayagiri Dagaba was established by King Valagamba during the period of his second reign, from 89-77 BC. A young Brahmin
    named Tiya (Tissa) declared war against him. Tiya was deluded by the
    prophecy of another Brahmin that was destined to be king. Before the
    arrival of Bhikkhu Mahinda, who brought Buddhism to the island, Brahmins held the highest place in society. After the establishment of the Buddhist sangha
    on the island, however, they lost their supremacy, and were replaced by
    the sangha. Some Brahmins converted to Buddhism, while others revolted.
    Tiya, who enjoyed the support of his community, lived both in and
    outside of Sri Lanka, and was therefore very powerful.

    At the same time, seven Tamil chiefs landed at Mahatittha
    with a mighty army. Valagamba, a good diplomat, realized that his
    forces were too weak to fight against both of these enemies and tried to
    rid himself of them by making them fight each other. He sent a message
    to Tiya that if he could have the kingdom, provided he managed to defeat
    the foreign invaders. Tiya agreed, advanced with his forces to meet the
    Tamils, and was vanquished by them. The Tamils, elated by their
    success, advanced towards Anuradhapura and defeated the King, who was
    forced to abandon the throne and go into hiding in the mountains. As the
    King, defeated in battle, was fleeing Anuradhapura, a Jain priest of Giri Monastery, which had been built by King Pandukhabaya
    near the northern gate of the city, cried out: “The great black Sinhala
    is fleeing.” The king thereupon resolved, “if my wish (of regaining the
    kingdom) is fulfilled, I will build a Temple here.”

    During the Beminitiya Seya
    or period of famine and foreign rule which followed, Vattagamani Abhaya
    took refuge in the mountain region amassing troops until, after more
    than fourteen years of exile, he marched on Anuradhapura in 89 BC and
    defeated the last Tamil king, Bhatiya. In fulfillment of the vow made on
    the day of his defeat, one of his first acts was to build the
    Abhayagiri Vihara on the site of the Giri monastery. Mahatissa Thera of
    Kupikkala was appointed its Chief Incumbent as a mark of gratitude for
    his support in the fight against the invaders. Abhayagiri thereafter
    became a symbol not only of religious, but also of national, resurgence,
    as it signaled the end of Brahmin and Jain influence in the country.

    According
    to the chronicles, the name Abhayagiri Vihara originated from the names
    of King Vattagamani Abhaya and of the Giri priests who lived in the
    Jain monastery. However, since most ancient monasteries were built
    around a hillock, or giri in Sinhala, (for example the Vessagiri,
    Meghagiri or Chetiyagiri monasteries) it is possible that the name
    Abhayagiri symbolizes the monastery created by Vattagamani Abhaya after
    his recapture of the kingdom surrounding the hillock known as
    Digapasana, now inside the Abhayagiri complex.

    The golden age of Abhayagiri


    Bronze statue of Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva. Sri Lanka, ca. 750 CE

    Royal patronage

    Under Gajabahu I, Abhayagiri grew in prestige and importance.[2] The accession of King Mahasena in the 3rd century AD saw the suppression of the Mahavihara
    monks. The king prohibited the giving of alms to them and went as far
    as to demolish the buildings of the Mahavihara and re‑use their
    materials for the construction of new buildings at the Abhayagiri. The
    accession of Mahasena ushered in the golden age of Abhayagiri. After the
    Buddha’s Tooth Relic was brought to Sri Lanka in the 4th century, Abhayagiri was selected to house it for public veneration.

    Faxian, a Chinese monk, recounted:

    Ten
    days from now, Buddha’s tooth will be brought out and carried to the
    Abhayagiri Monastery… on both sides of the road; the king sets images
    of the Five Hundred Forms which the Buddha assumed in his previous
    existence.’[3]

    By the time Faxian came to Sri Lanka in search of the Dhamma
    and visited Abhayagiri in 412 AD, it had developed into a leading
    Buddhist centre of Sri Lanka. By the 7th century, Abhayagiri Vihara
    consisted of four mulas (literally “families”, fraternities or grouped institutions for religious teaching):

    • Uttara‑mula
    • Kapara‑mula
    • Mahanethpa‑mula
    • Vahadu‑mula

    All of these have been located and identified through archaeological excavations, research and epigraphical evidence.

    Before
    the 12th century CE, more rulers of Sri Lanka gave support and
    patronage to the Abhayagiri Theravādins, and travelers such as Faxian
    saw the Abhayagiri Theravādins as the main Buddhist tradition in Sri
    Lanka.[4][5]

    Foreign relations

    In
    the course of time, Abhayagiri had developed into a well‑organized
    religious and educational institution having well established relations
    with China, Java, and Kashmir.

    According to the Chinese text Biqiuni Zhuan, the biography of the bhikkhuni compiled by Shi Baochang in 526 AD, and the biography of Gunavarnam and Sanghavarnam, the Sinhala nuns gave the second Upasampada, or higher ordination, to the Chinese nuns. According to another Chinese source, in 426 AD, eight Sinhala nuns arrived in Nanjing, the capital of the Liu Song dynasty
    (420–77 AD), on a merchant ship owned by man named Nandi. Consequently,
    three more nuns, headed by Tissara, arrived in Nanjing. Thus in the
    year 434, over three thousand nuns received their higher ordination for
    the second time in the presence of more than ten Sinhala nuns headed by
    Tissara at the Nanjing Temple in China.

    It is also recorded that
    there were religious contacts between Sri Lanka and Java through the
    Abayagiri Vihara, at least toward the end of 8th century, as described
    by a fragmentary inscription from the Ratubaka plateau in central Java.
    This inscription records the establishment of “the Abhayagiri Vihara of
    Sinhalese ascetics trained in the sayings of jinas [Buddhas].”
    Commenting on this record, J.G. de Casparis observes, ‘The most
    important detail is the name of the foundation, the Abhayagiri Vihara.

    Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna

    Abhayagiri Vihara appears to have been a center for Theravadin Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna teachings;[6] as such, it was seen as heretical by more conservative Mahavihara monks.[7] In the 7th century CE, Xuanzang also describes the concurrent existence of both monasteries in Sri Lanka, and refers to the monks of the Mahavihara as the “Hīnayāna Sthaviras” (Pali: Thera), and the monks of the Abhayagiri Vihara as the “Mahāyāna Sthaviras.”[8] Xuanzang further writes:[9]

    The
    Mahāvihāravāsins reject the Mahāyāna and practice the Hīnayāna, while
    the Abhayagirivihāravāsins study both Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna teachings
    and propagate the Tripiṭaka.

    As
    a major university and center of learning, Abhayagiri was the home of
    various important Buddhist scholars working in Sanskrit and Pali. These
    include Upatissa (who wrote the Vimuttimagga), Kavicakravarti Ananda (authored the Saddhammopåyana), Aryadeva, Aryasura, and the tantric masters Jayabhadra, and Candramåli.[10]

    In
    the 8th century CE, it is known that both Mahāyāna and the esoteric
    Vajrayāna form of Buddhism were being practiced in Sri Lanka, and two
    Indian monks responsible for propagating Esoteric Buddhism in China, Vajrabodhi and Amoghavajra, visited the island during this time.[11]

    Suppression and destruction

    The
    trend of Abhayagiri Vihara being the dominant Theravāda sect changed in
    the 12th century CE, when the Mahāvihāra gained the political support
    of King Parakkamabāhu I (1153-1186 CE), and completely abolished the Abhayagiri and Jetavana traditions.[12][13]

    The
    Culavamsa narrates that (ch 78:1-27) king Parakramabahu I purified the
    Mahavihara first and then unified it with the Abhayagiri and Jethawana
    fraternities.

    The monks of these two traditions were then
    defrocked and given the choice of either returning to the laity
    permanently, or attempting re-ordination under the Mahāvihāra tradition
    as “novices” (sāmaṇera) according to [13][14] Richard Gombrich who writes:[15]

    Though
    the chronicle says that he reunited the Sangha, this expression glosses
    over the fact that what he did was to abolish the Abhayagiri and
    Jetavana Nikāyas. He laicized many monks from the Mahā Vihāra Nikāya,
    all the monks in the other two – and then allowed the better ones among
    the latter to become novices in the now ‘unified’ Sangha, into which
    they would have in due course to be reordained.

    Parakkamabāhu also appointed a Sangharaja, or “King of the Sangha,” a monk who would preside over the Sangha and its ordinations in Sri Lanka, assisted by two deputies.[15]

    Periodic South Indian invasions, especially in the 9th century in the reign of Sena I,
    almost half a century of Cola rule and the subsequent abandonment of
    the capital, Anuradhapura, led to the disintegration of the Abhayagiri
    Vihara. Despite efforts by Vijayabahu I and Parakramabahu I in the 13th
    century to renovate and resurrect the temple, its gradual destruction in
    the course of time could not be averted, particularly after the final
    transfer of the capital from Polonnaruwa in the Rajarata, or King’s Country, to an alternative location in 1215 as a result of repeated Maga invasions.[citation needed]

    A
    dark era of eight hundred years engulfed Abhayagiri Vihara until its
    rediscovery in the 1880s awoke scientific and scholarly interest in the
    abandoned and vandalized ruins. Mistakenly identified at first as
    Jetavana Vihara, they were photographed and drawn by specialists in the
    late 19th century, while the Department of Archaeology, established
    about the same period, undertook excavation and conservation work of
    some of the edifices at the beginning of the 20th century.

    Legacy

    Veneration of Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva has continued to the present day in Sri Lanka, where he is called Nātha.[16] Avalokiteśvara
    worship is a prominent practice in Mahayana, while the Maithreya
    Bodhisatta (Santhusitha) is venerated by Theravadins. In more recent
    times, it has been attempted to identify Nātha with Maitreya Bodhisattva. However, traditions and basic iconography, including an image of Amitābha Buddha on his crown, identify Nātha as Avalokiteśvara.[17] Andrew Skilton writes:[18]


    It is clear from sculptural evidence alone that the Mahāyāna was fairly
    widespread throughout [Sri Lanka], although the modern account of the
    history of Buddhism on the island presents an unbroken and pure lineage
    of Theravāda. (One can only assume that similar trends were transmitted
    to other parts of Southeast Asia with Sri Lankan ordination lineages.)
    Relics of an extensive cult of Avalokiteśvara can be seen in the
    present-day figure of Nātha.

    Early reports by Europeans from the 18th century describe the Buddhist monks of Sri Lanka as being engaged in the recitation of mantras, and using mālā beads for counting, as practiced in Mahāyāna Buddhism.[18]

    Architectural decoration


    The Abhayagiri dagoba

    The
    architectural elements of the buildings excavated at Abhayagiri Vihara
    clearly reflect the social beliefs and religious practices prevalent at
    the time. Although Buddhism was the state religion and the principal
    doctrine followed by the majority of the population, the influence of
    other local beliefs, particularly Hinduism,
    were considerable, and are expressed in the architecture of the period.
    The design of entrances, for example, illustrates the practice of
    placing buildings under the protection of a guardian deity.

    The
    two slabs erected on either side of the foot of the flight of steps
    leading to a building are known as guard stones (Muragal). They are
    usually carved, although plain guard stones have also been found. Among
    the Hindu symbols represented on these stones, the most common, apart
    from the Pot of Abundance and Kalpavrksa, is the figure of the Nagaraja,
    or anthropomorphic King Cobra. The best example of these, and one of
    the finest guardstones yet discovered, was found at the Ratnaprasada in Abhayagiriya,
    and illustrates the degree of perfection reached by the sculptors of
    Abhayagiri. Lotuses and punkalas are indicative of plenty.
    Representations of the lotus
    are of particular significance in agricultural societies where they
    symbolize the daughters of the guardian deity of rain. The elephant
    figure at the Eth Pokuna is also a symbol of water.

    The principal
    Buddhist guardian deities are frequently indicated by the animal
    vehicles of the particular gods, particularity on the guard stones. A
    good example is furnished by the exquisite statues on either side of the
    entrance to Abhayagiri Stupa. The head‑dress of one of the statues is a
    conch while that of the other is a lotus. Representing Sanka and Padma,
    the two principal treasure houses of Kuvera, they are believed to have
    been erected to ward off any evil or danger that might threaten the stupa
    or its precinct. Even at present they are commonly believed to be
    endowed with mystic powers, and courts of law in Anuradhapura accept
    swearing before the statues as evidence in settlement of minor disputes
    between litigants.

    The best example of a moonstone,
    a unique creation of Sri Lanka sculptors, can be seen at the foot of
    the steps leading to the Pancavasa commonly known as Mahasena’s palace. A
    smaller example, just as exquisitely carved, was found nearby at the
    Queen’s Pavilion. Varying in shape and size and made of different kinds
    of stones, all are exquisite artistic creations. According to
    Paranavitana, the moonstone symbolizes samsara, the endless cycle of rebirth, and the path to freedom from the samsaric process leading to nirvana.
    He interprets the pattern of the outermost ring as flames, and the
    various animals shown in the other concentric circles as successive
    phases of man’s passage through samsara.

    Current status

    Over the course of 15 years, the Abhayagiri Stupa
    was fully restored and renovated by the Sri Lankan Central Cultural
    Fund as a UNESCO project for a total of Rs519.5 million (US$3.9
    million). It was unveiled in June 2015 with President Maithripala
    Sirisena and Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe attending.[19]

    See also

    References

    1. ^ Geiger, Wilhelm. “Mahavamsa - The Ten Kings”. Retrieved 2012-11-28.
    2. ^ Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). “Abhayagiri”. Encyclopædia Britannica. I: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
    3. ^ A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms, by Fa-hsien.
    4. ^ Hirakawa, Akira. Groner, Paul. A History of Indian Buddhism: From Śākyamuni to Early Mahāyāna. 2007. p. 125
    5. ^ Sujato, Bhikkhu. Sects & Sectarianism: The Origins of Buddhist Schools. 2006. p. 59
    6. ^ “Esoteric Buddhism in Southeast Asia in the Light of Recent Scholarship” by Hiram Woodward. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 35, No. 2 (Jun., 2004), p. 341
    7. ^ The Rough Guide to Sri Lanka by Gavin Thomas. pg 391
    8. ^ Baruah, Bibhuti. Buddhist Sects and Sectarianism. 2008. p. 53
    9. ^ Hirakawa, Akira. Groner, Paul. A History of Indian Buddhism: From Śākyamuni to Early Mahāyāna. 2007. p. 121
    10. ^ Rangama, Chandawimala;The impact of the Abhayagiri practices on the development of TheravadaBuddhism in Sri Lanka, 2007
    11. ^ Hirakawa, Akira. Groner, Paul. A History of Indian Buddhism: From Śākyamuni to Early Mahāyāna. 2007. pp. 125-126
    12. ^ Hirakawa, Akira. Groner, Paul. A History of Indian Buddhism: From Śākyamuni to Early Mahāyāna. 2007. p. 126
    13. ^ a b Williams, Duncan. Queen, Christopher. American Buddhism: Methods and Findings in Recent Scholarship. 1999. p. 134
    14. ^ Gombrich, Richard. Theravāda Buddhism: A Social History From Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo. 1988. p. 159
    15. ^ a b Gombrich, Richard. Theravāda Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo. 1988. p. 159
    16. ^ Baruah, Bibhuti. Buddhist Sects and Sectarianism. 2008. p. 137
    17. ^ “Art & Archaeology - Sri Lanka - Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara”.
    18. ^ a b Skilton, Andrew. A Concise History of Buddhism. 2004. p. 151
    19. ^ http://nation.lk/online/2015/07/25/abhayagiri-stupa-to-be-unveiled.html

    Bibliography

    • von Schroeder, Ulrich. (1990). Buddhist Sculptures of Sri Lanka. (752 p.; 1620 illustrations). Hong Kong: Visual Dharma Publications, Ltd. ISBN 962-7049-05-0
    • von Schroeder, Ulrich. (1992). The Golden Age of Sculpture in Sri Lanka - Masterpieces of Buddhist and Hindu Bronzes from Museums in Sri Lanka,
      [catalogue of the exhibition held at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery,
      Washington, D. C., 1 November 1992 – 26 September 1993]. Hong Kong:
      Visual Dharma Publications, Ltd. ISBN 962-7049-06-9

    External links

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