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05/18/18
Filed under: General
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A sinking, slow and steady

Nations can sleepwalk into the creeping authoritarianism of the 21st century because of its stealthy incrementalism.

Tarunabh Khaitan | Indian Express: May 18, 2018


During
the 20th century, democratic constitutionalism was typically threatened
by autocrats who staged a coup or declared a state of national
emergency. Convicted of misusing government funds, this is what Indira Gandhi did
in 1975: Within hours the prime minister’s political opponents were
deprived of their liberty, and newspaper editors of their electricity
supply. Today there is no declared State of Emergency, nor are tanks
rolling on the streets of Delhi. And yet, in an unprecedented press
conference in January this year, four senior judges of the Supreme Court
announced that India’s democracy was under threat. In April, the main
Opposition party launched a “Save the Constitution” campaign. Is our
democracy really ailing?

Unlike
their naked-fisted counterparts of the 20th century, autocrats of the
21st century — in Hungary, Poland, Sri Lanka, the US, Turkey, Venezuela
and elsewhere — have used stealthier, incremental tools to undermine
constitutionalism. Constitutionalism looks to independent institutions —
the judiciary, election commission, corruption and human rights
watchdogs, attorneys and auditors general, investigative and prosecution
agencies — to check the most dangerous branch, that is, the political
executive. Political parties are allowed to play the game we called
democracy freely, even aggressively. But they must not cheat, they must
accept the decisions of these checking institutions, and they must not
change the rules of the game for partisan advantage.

Instead
of challenging democratic constitutionalism outright, the latter day
autocrats appropriate its vocabulary even as they undermine it. Rather
than an all-out assault, they chip away at constitutional institutions.
Each covert micro-assault keeps just on the right side of legality and,
when isolated from the broader context, appears relatively
unthreatening. Checking institutions, mindful of choosing their battles
carefully, often tolerate these micro-assaults, until they are
eventually captured by party loyalists. The war is lost even before the
big battle worth-fighting-for materialises. Creeping authoritarianism
destroys democratic constitutions not with a full-frontal assault, but
with a thousand paper cuts.

alt

Is
India in the throes of creeping authoritarianism as well? One of the
most rigorous, global, comprehensive data sets on the health of
democracies (the Varieties of Democracy or “V-Dem” dataset) compiled by
independent social science experts might provide an answer. In this data
set, the Electoral Democracy Index tracks the health of political
competition between parties, the freeness and fairness of elections, and
the ability of civil society to influence politics. The Egalitarian
Democracy Index tracks the degree to which different groups of citizens
enjoy democratic rights and the country’s resources equally. The Free
Expression Index tracks the degree of freedom of media, academic and
cultural expression. And the Judicial Independence Index tracks the
level of independence of the judiciary and its control over the
executive. A higher score indicates a healthier democracy, while a lower
score signals authoritarianism.

As
the graph clearly demonstrates, India’s electoral democracy index score
rose sharply with the inauguration of its 1950 Constitution, and —
except for two exceptions — broadly remained stable. This is no mean
feat. While many post-colonial states succumbed to dictators, the Indian
army stayed in its barracks. Presidents did not dismiss prime
ministers. Elections were mostly regular, free and fair. Political
parties gracefully left office after losing elections. Judicial
declarations of unconstitutionality of laws were generally respected.
These are things Indians should be proud of, even while criticising the
country’s flawed institutions and their inadequate attempts to deliver
on the promises of independence (a shortcoming made painfully visible by
the bottom-most line charting India’s consistently low Egalitarian
Democracy Index).

All
four V-Dem measures dropped sharply during Indira Gandhi’s imperious
career in the 1970s (the first vertical line marks the start of the
Emergency). With a few honourable exceptions, most checking institutions
capitulated to her whims. The Emergency ended only when a
mercifully-misplaced overconfidence in her own popularity led Indira
Gandhi to go to polls in 1977. After her staggering defeat, the
succeeding Janata government strengthened constitutionalism by making
declarations of Emergencies harder. India’s democratic scores were
revived, and remained more or less steadfast until recently (although
some signs of vulnerability were already apparent under UPA-II).

For present purposes, the health of our Constitution since 2014 — when the Narendra Modi government
took office (denoted by the second vertical line in the graph) — is
particularly concerning. Barring the Indira years, the country is worse
off on every single index since 1953. The decline is steady along all
indicators, although the free expression index’s nosedive in the graph
is especially dramatic. The government’s battles with the judiciary have
intensified only recently, so the judicial independence index is likely
to follow suit once the 2018 figures are in. Admittedly, attempts to
reduce such complex phenomena to numbers is imperfect. Neither can all
changes be attributed to the central government. Yet, a trend away from
the constitutional checks and towards a creeping authoritarianism in
India over the last few years is undeniable.

Indira
Gandhi’s authoritarianism was of the older variety — hard to deny and
harder still to defend. Nations can sleepwalk into creeping
authoritarianism of the 21st century because of its stealthy
incrementalism. Whether constitutional guardians are able and willing to
resist institutional capture, check executive power, and protect
opposition and citizen’s rights will ultimately determine the fate of
Indian democracy.

The writer is an associate professor in law at the Universities of Oxford and Melbourne.
http://indianexpress.com/article/india/karnataka-election-results-congress-save-democracy-day-live-updates-vajubhai-vala-yeddyurappa-siddaramaiah-rahul-gandhi-amit-shah-bjp-5181136/
[What has by now become abundantly clear, if anyone had any
doubt about it, that the RSS/BJP is least squeamish about “morality”,
“democratic norms” and all that. 
So is its core constituency. 
(One
should just keep in mind the way the Babri Mosque had been demolished
despite categorical assurance given to the Supreme Court to the
contrary.)

And, not only its core constituency, it, apparently, applies to a sizeable number of Indians, across the class divides. 
Once,
Devi Lal, the Dy. Prime Minister at that time, having been asked by a
journalist to comment on the allegation that he was indulging in
nepotism - “bhai-bhatijabad”, in the exercise of his office, he just
rudely shot back: Main mera bhai-bhatija ka khayal nahin rakhunga to kya
tera bhai-bhatija ka khayal rakhunga!? (For anybody that’s the most
natural thing to do, in fact an obligation to discharge.)

He was a pretty popular leader then, albeit, with a defined group.
And, he must have had been pretty sure in his mind that his own constituency would empathise. 
That’s the “morality” of large sections of Indians.
It’s, apparently, our ancient heritage, which “modernity” has failed to erase off, in fact, has further aggravated, in patches. 

The
relevant point here is what more tricks, under the given circumstances,
may make their appearances from out of the bag of tricks of the evil
duo?
One’s, of course, trying to buy up enough number of newly elected MLAs, using hundreds of crores.
It’s already being widely talked of. 
In case these attempts do not succeed to the required extent, then what?
Would they try to kidnap some MLAs, on the way back? 
Would the vehicles transporting these meet with accidents or get held up on the way back?
Would some other methods be devised to block their entry?
Or
on the floor of the House, taking the alibi of an engineered ruckus,
the Presiding Officer, from the BJP, would suspend/expel sufficient
number? 
Or they’d just accept the inevitable, in apprehension of strong adverse public reactions? 
Or something else?

Let’s wait and watch.

In the meanwhile:
《Protesting
against Karnataka Governor Vajubhai Vala’s “collusion with the BJP”, by
inviting BS Yeddyurappa to take the oath of office despite falling
short of the required mandate, the Congress party is observing a ‘Save
Democracy Day’ across the country. The party will hold protests across
state capitals and district headquarters.》
(Sourcre: ‘‘Save
Democracy Day’ LIVE: Cong district leaders to meet state Governors,
party seeks President Kovind’s appointment’ at <http://indianexpress.com/article/india/karnataka-election-results-congress-save-democracy-day-live-updates-vajubhai-vala-yeddyurappa-siddaramaiah-rahul-gandhi-amit-shah-bjp-5181136/>.)

<

In
a matter like this, detailed hearing is required in order to decide as
to whether action of the Governor in inviting respondent no.3 to form
the Government was valid in law or not. Since it may consume substantial
time and the final decision cannot be given immediately, we deem it
proper that Floor Test to ascertain the majority of one or the other
group is conducted immediately and without any delay. Though the
Governor in his letter dated 16.05.2018 inviting respondent no.3 to form
the Government has given him 15 days’ time for proving the majority on
the floor of the House, having regard to all the circumstances of this
case, we are of the view that such a Floor Test be conducted tomorrow
itself i..e. on 19.05.2018.

Since
the elected Members of Legislative Assembly are yet to take oath as
specified in Schedule III of the Constitution and the Speaker is also
yet to be elected, the Court ordered that the following procedure be
followed for conducting the Floor Test.

Pro-tem Speaker shall be appointed for the aforesaid purpose immediately.
All the elected members shall take oath tomorrow (19.05.2018) and this exercise shall be completed before 04.00 p.m.
The Pro-tem Speaker shall conduct the Floor Test on 19.05.2018 at 04.00 P.M. in order to ascertain the majority.
Adequate
and sufficient security arrangements shall be made and Director General
of Police, State of Karnataka will himself supervise the said
arrangements so that there is no lapse on this count
whatsoever.>>]


Murali Krishnan  

May 18, 2018  

Breaking: Supreme Court orders #FloorTest for Karnataka Assembly at 4 pm tomorrow [Read Order]

In a major development, the Supreme Court today ordered that a floor test for the Karnataka Assembly be held tomorrow at 4 pm.

By
this order, a Bench of Justices AK Sikri, SA Bobde and Ashok Bhushan
has effectively stayed the decision of Karnataka Governor Vajubhai Vala
to grant BJP leader BS Yeddyurappa 15 days time to prove majority in the
House.

The Court proceeded to direct that the Floor test be held tomorrow at 4 PM.

In
a matter like this, detailed hearing is required in order to decide as
to whether action of the Governor in inviting respondent no.3 to form
the Government was valid in law or not. Since it may consume substantial
time and the final decision cannot be given immediately, we deem it
proper that Floor Test to ascertain the majority of one or the other
group is conducted immediately and without any delay. Though the
Governor in his letter dated 16.05.2018 inviting respondent no.3 to form
the Government has given him 15 days’ time for proving the majority on
the floor of the House, having regard to all the circumstances of this
case, we are of the view that such a Floor Test be conducted tomorrow
itself i.e. on 19.05.2018.

Since
the elected Members of Legislative Assembly are yet to take oath as
specified in Schedule III of the Constitution and the Speaker is also
yet to be elected, the Court ordered that the following procedure be
followed for conducting the Floor Test.

Pro-tem Speaker shall be appointed for the aforesaid purpose immediately.
All the elected members shall take oath tomorrow (19.05.2018) and this exercise shall be completed before 04.00 p.m.
The Pro-tem Speaker shall conduct the Floor Test on 19.05.2018 at 04.00 P.M. in order to ascertain the majority.
Adequate
and sufficient security arrangements shall be made and Director General
of Police, State of Karnataka will himself supervise the said
arrangements so that there is no lapse on this count whatsoever.
Senior Advocate Mukul Rohatgi undertook that no policy decision will be taken till the Floor Test is conducted.

Similarly, ASG Tushar Mehta appearing for Karnataka government stated that no Anglo-Indian member  will be nominated.

Read a detailed account of today’s hearing here.

Read Order

[Order]

Read Letters written by BS Yeddyurappa to Governor

[Facsimile]



Peace Is Doable

https://barandbench.com/breaking-supreme-court-floor-test-karnataka/


Bar & Bench


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Yeddyurappa Shakes up Karnataka’s Top Bureaucracy as Cloud Hangs Over His Govt

The top level reshuffle includes the transfers
of the advocate general of the state, senior police officers and the
additional chief secretary to the chief minister.

News18.com

Updated:May 17, 2018, 9:08 PM IST
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Yeddyurappa Shakes up Karnataka’s Top Bureaucracy as Cloud Hangs Over His Govt
BJP leader BS Yeddyurappa after being sworn in as the Karnataka CM in Bengaluru on May 17, 2018.
Bengaluru: Wasting no time, Karnataka’s new chief
minister BS Yeddyurappa on Thursday transferred several senior IAS and
IPS officers in the state just hours after being sworn-in.

The top level reshuffle includes the transfers of the advocate general
of the state, senior police officers and the additional chief secretary
to the chief minister. A communique issued by the Governor’s House in
the evening stated that Prabhuling K Navadagi has replaced Madhusudhan R
Naik as the state’s advocate general with immediate effect.

The government also appointed M Lakshminarayana, who was the additional
chief secretary of public works department, as the additional chief
secretary to the chief minister. It also notified that his position will
be equivalent to the additional chief secretary in the home department,
a step up in stature.

The top brass of the police department has seen the biggest shakeup till now, with for senior IPS officers being transferred.

According to an official notification, senior IPS officer Amar Kumar
Pandey, who was serving as Additional Director General of Police,
Railways, has been made the ADGP of Intelligence.

Deputy Inspector General of Police, Karnataka State Reserve Police
Sandeep Patil will be the DIG, Intelligence. Bidar Superintendent of
Police D Devaraja has been transferred to Bengaluru Central division as
the deputy commissioner of police.

Superintendent of police in anti-corruption bureau S Girish has been transferred as DCP of Bengaluru North East Division.

Yeddyurappa has transferred the officers despite the cloud of
uncertainty over his minority government. He is currently the sole man
in the Karnataka Cabinet and his swearing-in-ceremony at the Raj Bhavan
was also a low-key affair, with him being the only one to take oath.

The legal battle over his chief ministership is also not over as the
Supreme Court will once again take up the Congress-JDS petition
challenging the Karnataka Governor’s decision to invite the BJP to form
the government first.

During the pre-dawn hearing on Thursday, the apex court had made it
clear that it won’t stay the swearing-in but it would be subject to
outcome of the petition in the court on Friday.

The BJP has been asked to produce the letter it gave to the Governor
citing support of majority MLAs on the basis of which the Governor
invited the party into power.

But this has not stopped Yeddyurappa from taking major decisions. His
first act after taking oath was to announce that his government will be
waiving off all farm loans up to Rs 1 lakh for farmers in the state.

“I had promised the farmers of the state one thing - that I will waive
loans up to Rs 1 lakh in nationalised banks. I have informed the same to
the Chief Secretary. They will give us the information by today evening
or tomorrow morning. And I will fulfill my promise by tomorrow or day
after. I promise this to the farming community once again,” he told
reporters.

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Assam BJP MLA, Family Served ‘Doubtful Citizen’ Notices

As per the notices, Kishore Nath along
with his family members, who are residents of Ward 28, have been asked
to appear before Foreigners’ Tribunal judge to prove that they are
citizens of India.

PTI

Updated:
May 18, 2018, 9:35 PM IST

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Assam BJP MLA, Family Served 'Doubtful Citizen' Notices

Representative image (PTI)

Guwahati: A BJP legislator from Borkhola
constituency in Assam along with several members of his family have been
served notices by the Foreigners’ Tribunal, suspecting them of being
“doubtful citizens”.

The Foreigners’ Tribunal (FT) No 1 on Friday sent notices to the MLA
from Barak Valley, Kishore Nath, his wife Nilima Nath, four brothers —
Matilal Nath, Pradip Nath, Jagdish Nath, Manik Nath — and sister-in-law
Rakhi Nath, the BJP legislator said.

As per the notices, Kishore Nath along with his family members, who are
residents of Ward 28, have been asked to appear before an FT judge to
prove that they are citizens of India.

Stating that he and his family were indigenous citizens of India, Nath
said he will move court with the requisite documents to prove his
citizenship. The BJP legislator blamed the previous Congress government
in the state for having instructed the tribunal to randomly pick out
names for serving such notices.

Nath has apprised the Speaker of the Assam Assembly about the FT notice served to him and his family, sources said.

A series of protests have rocked Assam over the Citizenship Amendment
Bill, 2016, with locals fearing it would breach the clauses of the Assam
Accord which states that all the illegal foreigners who came to the
state after 1971 from Bangladesh, irrespective of their religion, have
to be deported.

The Bill was introduced in the Lok Sabha to amend the Citizenship Act,
1955 to make illegal migrants belonging to six communities — Hindus,
Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis and Christians — eligible for Indian
citizenship after six years of residence in the country.

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First Published: May 18, 2018, 9:35 PM IST

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Congress’ Protest Over Pro Tem Speaker ‘Hoax Objection’: Prakash Javadekar

The Congress-JD (S) combine is
contemplating approaching the Supreme Court to challenge Governor
Vajubhai Vala’s decision to appoint Bopaiah as the pro tem speaker,
arguing that he is not the senior most MLA.

PTI

Updated:
May 18, 2018, 8:06 PM IST

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Congress' Protest Over Pro Tem Speaker 'Hoax Objection': Prakash Javadekar

File photo of Union Minister Prakash Javadekar.
(Photo by Burhaan Kinu via Getty Images)

New Delhi: Union minister Prakash Javadekar on
Friday defended senior BJP MLA K G Bopaiah’s appointment as the pro tem
speaker of the Karnataka Assembly to conduct the crucial floor test on
Saturday and dismissed the Congress’ protest over it as a “hoax
objection”.

Javadekar, BJP’s Karnataka Assembly polls in-charge, also noted that
Bopaiah was given the same responsibility by the then governor in 2008.

Bopaiah, who as the speaker of the Karnataka Assembly had disqualified
16 MLAs and bailed out the B S Yeddyurappa government ahead of a
no-confidence vote in 2010, was appointed the pro-tem speaker on Friday.

“K G Bopaiah was appointed as pro tem speaker even in 2008 by the then
Governor. That time Bopaiah was 10 years younger than what he is today.
The Congress is thus raising hoax objection. The appointment of Bopaiah
Ji is as per rules and regulations,” Javadekar tweeted.

“When Rameshwar Thakur as Governor had appointed Bopaiah as pro tem
speaker of Karnataka in 2008, Congress didn’t object. In Jharkhand, when
a junior MLA was appointed, Cong leader A M Singhvi defended it in
court. Now they are objecting. This is Congress hypocrisy,” he said.

The Congress-JD (S) combine is contemplating approaching the Supreme
Court to challenge Governor Vajubhai Vala’s decision to appoint Bopaiah
as the pro tem speaker, arguing that he is not the senior most MLA.

Bopaiah, who was the speaker between 2009 and 2013, is considered close to Yeddyurappa.

The Supreme Court had in 2011 quashed Bopaiah’s decision to disqualify
16 MLAs ahead of the no-confidence motion which had ensured the survival
of the Yeddyurappa government.

The apex court had then said that basic constitutional values and
principles of natural justice were not observed by Bopaiah in
disqualifying the 11 rebel BJP and five independent legislators.

Javadekar also expressed confidence that the BJP will prove its majority in the Assembly tomorrow(Saturday).

The party has won 104 seats and needs the support of at least seven more
MLAs to secure a majority in the 222-member assembly. H D Kumaraswamy
has won from two seats, thus bringing down the number of MLAs to 221.

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First Published: May 18, 2018, 8:06 PM IST | Edited by: Huma Tabassum

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‘Join BJP, Your Wealth Will Grow 100 Times’: Congress Releases Audio Tape Alleging Janardhana Reddy Tried to Bribe MLA

In the audio clip, Reddy, who is close to
BS Yeddyurappa, speaks to Raichur Rural MLA Basangouda Daddal, a
prominent leader of the Valmiki community.

News18.com

Updated:
May 18, 2018, 9:06 PM IST

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'Join BJP, Your Wealth Will Grow 100 Times': Congress Releases Audio Tape Alleging Janardhana Reddy Tried to Bribe MLA

File photo of Janardhana Reddy (left) with Karnataka chief minister BS Yeddyurappa. (GETTY IMAGES)

Bengaluru: The Congress party on Friday
released a sensational audio clip in which mining baron Janardhana Reddy
can be heard trying to lure a Congress MLA by offering to make him a
minister so that he “can make 100 times more money”.

In the audio clip, Reddy, who is close to BS Yeddyurappa, speaks to
Raichur Rural MLA Basangouda Daddal, a prominent leader of the Valmiki
community. Daddal was previously a member of the Badavara Shramikara
Raithara (BSR) Congress, the party floated by Reddy aide B Sriramulu in
2011 after the split in BJP over the mining scam.

Reddy repeatedly claims that he will arrange a one-on-one meeting for
the MLA with the party’s national president Amit Shah. Daddal can be
heard saying that he can’t switch sides now as the Congress had given
him a chance when he was at the lowest point after leaving the BSR
Congress.

But Reddy insists that the bad times are over, and the good times are
here. “There is no doubting that you have lost a lot by believing in us.
But I am telling you, you will grow a 100 times more,” Reddy says.

“Directly we will make you meet the big man. I will make you speak to
him… you will make 100 times the wealth you made so far,” he adds.

The audio clip, released just a day before BS Yeddyurappa takes a floor
test, comes as a major embarrassment for the BJP. HRD minister Prakash
Javadekar, who is also the BJP’s Karnataka in charge, said that the
release of the audio tape was another “dirty trick” by the Congress.
“People are coming to us themselves. This is because we have people’s
mandate. We condemn it. Releasing these CDs means Congress is going to
lose tomorrow,” he said.

News18 cannot independently verify the veracity of the contents of the tape.

Below is a translated version of the conversation:

Janardhana Reddy (purportedly): Is it Basanagouda? Are you free?

Basangouda Daddal: Yes it is me.

JR: Forget all that has happened before, forget all the bad things. I am
telling you, that my good time has begun. And I will arrange a meeting
with the national president and you can speak to him one-to-one and we
can take the next step.

BD: No sir, when I was on my last leg they made me MLA.

JR: I will tell you one thing. BSR time we had very bad time when we
formed the party, where there was a lot of opposition. There is no
doubting that you have lost a lot by believing in us. But I am telling
you, you will grow a 100 times more. Shivanagouda Nayak became a
minister because of me. Today he is strong and able to look after
himself. It all happened because of me. Raju Gowda also benefitted
because of me.

BD: Yes.

JR: It was your misfortune that it was our bad time. Today Shivanagouda
winning is not useful. You will become minister. Did you understand?
Directly we will make you meet the big man. I will make you speak to
him… you will make 100 times the wealth you made so far.

BD: I am sorry sir. I was on my last leg when they gave me a ticket and
made me win. In such a situation I cannot betray him. I respect you…

With just a day left for the trust vote, allegations of horse trading
and poaching are flying thick and fast. Congress leader Siddaramiah said
that its MLA Anand Singh was “abducted” by the BJP and taken to Delhi.
Former home minister Ramalinga Reddy alleged that BJP leaders have been
calling the MLAs incessantly to try to bribe them.

Earlier too, JDS leader HD Kumaraswamy had claimed that BJP leaders were
offering Rs 100 crore to lure the party’s MLAs. The Congress and JDS
had shepherded its MLAs to Hyderabad on Thursday night to prevent any
desertions.

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First Published: May 18, 2018, 7:39 PM IST | Edited by: Aakarshuk Sarna

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comments (0)
Sashi Kanth: Today Pranay got Teachers award and very nice letter from his teacher [9:30 AM, 5/18/2018] Sashi Kanth: Pranay - I loved having you in 5/6 core this year. The infectious enthusiasm you brought to the class enlivened our discussion and helped keep your classmates engaged. You worked hard and set a good example for your classmates, and I really appreciated how well you worked with others especially those who needed extra assistance. Please be sure to maintain and embellish that sense of caring and respect for others throughout your life.
Filed under: General
Posted by: site admin @ 1:14 am


[9:21 AM, 5/18/2018] Sashi Kanth: Today Pranay got Teachers award and very nice letter from his teacher
[9:30 AM, 5/18/2018] Sashi Kanth: Pranay -
I
loved having you in 5/6 core this year. The infectious enthusiasm you
brought to the class enlivened our discussion and helped keep your
classmates engaged. You worked hard and set a good example for your
classmates, and I really appreciated how well you worked with others
especially those who needed extra assistance. Please be sure to maintain
and embellish that sense of caring and respect for others throughout
your life.

Randy Hart

49) Classical Kannada

49) ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ

ನಿಮ್ಮ ಮಾತೃಭಾಷೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಈ Google ಅನುವಾದವನ್ನು ಅನುವಾದಿಸಿ
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ಶಶಿ ಕಾಂತ್: ಇಂದು ಪ್ರಣಯ್ ಅವರಿಗೆ ಶಿಕ್ಷಕ ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿ ಮತ್ತು ಅವರ ಶಿಕ್ಷಕರಿಂದ ಬಹಳ ಒಳ್ಳೆಯ ಪತ್ರವಿದೆ
[9:30 AM, 5/18/2018] ಶಶಿ ಕಾಂತ್: ಪ್ರಾಣಾಯ್ -

ನಾನು ಈ ವರ್ಷ 5/6 ಕೋರ್ನಲ್ಲಿ ನಿಮ್ಮನ್ನು ಪ್ರೀತಿಸುತ್ತೇನೆ. ನೀವು ವರ್ಗಕ್ಕೆ ತಂದ ಸಾಂಕ್ರಾಮಿಕ ಉತ್ಸಾಹವು ನಮ್ಮ ಚರ್ಚೆಯನ್ನು ಉತ್ಕೃಷ್ಟಗೊಳಿಸಿತು ಮತ್ತು ನಿಮ್ಮ ಸಹಪಾಠಿಗಳನ್ನು ತೊಡಗಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಸಹಾಯ ಮಾಡಿತು. ನೀವು
ನಿಮ್ಮ ಸಹೋದ್ಯೋಗಿಗಳಿಗೆ ಕಠಿಣ ಕೆಲಸವನ್ನು ಮಾಡಿದ್ದೀರಿ ಮತ್ತು ಉತ್ತಮ ಉದಾಹರಣೆ
ಹೊಂದಿದ್ದೀರಿ, ಮತ್ತು ನೀವು ಇತರರೊಂದಿಗೆ ವಿಶೇಷವಾಗಿ ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ ಸಹಾಯ
ಅಗತ್ಯವಿರುವವರಿಗೆ ಎಷ್ಟು ಚೆನ್ನಾಗಿ ಕೆಲಸ ಮಾಡಿದ್ದೀರಿ ಎಂದು ನಾನು ನಿಜವಾಗಿಯೂ
ಪ್ರಶಂಸಿಸುತ್ತೇನೆ.
ದಯವಿಟ್ಟು ನಿಮ್ಮ ಜೀವನದುದ್ದಕ್ಕೂ ಇತರರ ಗೌರವವನ್ನು ಕಾಪಾಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳುವುದು ಮತ್ತು ಗೌರವಿಸುವುದು ಮತ್ತು ಗೌರವಿಸುವುದು ಖಚಿತವಾಗಿರಲಿ.

ರ್ಯಾಂಡಿ ಹಾರ್ಟ್

93) Classical Tamil


சஷி காந்த்: இன்று பிராணே -ஆசிரியரின் விருதும்  நல்ல கடிதத்தையும் பெற்றுள்ளார்
[9:30 AM, 5/18/2018]


இந்த
ஆண்டு 5/6 கோடி நான் உங்களை நேசித்தேன். வகுப்புக்கு நீங்கள் கொண்டு வந்த
தொற்று உற்சாகம் எங்கள் கலந்துரையாடலை தூண்டியது, உங்கள் வகுப்பு தோழர்கள்
உதவியது. நீங்கள் கடினமாக உழைத்து, உங்கள் வகுப்பு தோழர்களுக்காக ஒரு நல்ல
முன்மாதிரி வைப்பீர். மற்றவர்களுடன் நீங்கள் எவ்வளவு நன்றியுள்ளவர்களாய்
இருக்கிறீர்கள் என்பதை புரிந்துகொள்ளுகிறேன். உங்கள் வாழ்நாள் முழுவதும்
மற்றவர்களுக்காக அக்கறை செலுத்துவதும் மரியாதையையும்கூட பராமரிக்கவும்
புன்னகை செய்.

ராண்டி ஹார்ட்

94) Classical telugu

94) సంగీతం తెలుగు

ఈ గూగుల్ అనువాదాన్ని మీ తల్లి టాంగ్యులో అనువదించండి
https://translate.google.com

శశి కాంత్: నేడు ప్రాణే టీచర్ అవార్డు మరియు అతని గురువు నుండి చాలా మంచి లేఖ వచ్చింది.

[9:30 AM, 5/18/2018] శశి కాంత్: ప్రాణ -

నేను ఈ సంవత్సరం 5/6 కోర్ లో మీరు కలిగి ప్రియమైన. మీరు తరగతికి తీసుకువచ్చిన అంటుకొత్త ఉత్సాహం మా చర్చను ప్రోత్సహించింది మరియు మీ సహచరులు నిశ్చితార్థం చేసేందుకు సహాయపడింది. మీరు
సహకరి 0 చారు, మీ సహ విద్యార్థులకు ఒక చక్కని మాదిరిని ఉ 0 చారు, ప్రత్యేక
0 గా మీరు అదనపు సహాయ 0 కోస 0 ప్రత్యేక 0 గా పనిచేసిన ఇతరులతో మీరు ఎలా 0
టి స 0 తోష 0 గా ప్రవర్తి 0 చారు.
దయచేసి మీ జీవితమంతా ఇతరుల కోసం శ్రద్ధ మరియు గౌరవం యొక్క భావాన్ని నిర్వహించడానికి మరియు అలంకరించడానికి నిర్థారించుకోండి.

రాండి హార్ట్

63) Classical Malayalam

63) ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം

നിങ്ങളുടെ അമ്മ ടെൻജിൽ ഈ google വിവർത്തനം വിവർത്തനം ചെയ്യുക
https://translate.google.com

ശശി കാന്ത്: ഇന്ന് പ്രണയം അധ്യാപക അവാർഡും അധ്യാപകനിൽ നിന്ന് വളരെ നല്ലൊരു കത്തും കിട്ടിയിട്ടുണ്ട്.

സാക്ഷി കാത്ത്: പ്രണയം -

ഈ വർഷം 5/6 കോർ കൊണ്ട് ഞാൻ നിങ്ങളെ സ്നേഹിച്ചു. നിങ്ങൾ ക്ലാസ്സിലേക്ക് കൊണ്ടുവന്ന പകർച്ചവധിച്ച ഉത്സാഹം ഞങ്ങളുടെ ചർച്ചയെ വിശാലമാക്കുകയും സഹപാഠികളെ സഹായിക്കുകയും ചെയ്തു. നിങ്ങൾ
കഠിനമായി അധ്വാനിക്കുകയും സഹപാഠികൾക്ക് നല്ലൊരു മാതൃക വെക്കുകയും ചെയ്തു.
പ്രത്യേകിച്ച്, കൂടുതൽ സഹായം ആവശ്യമുള്ള മറ്റുള്ളവരുമായി നിങ്ങൾ എത്രത്തോളം
നന്നായി പ്രവർത്തിച്ചു.
നിങ്ങളുടെ ജീവിതകാലം മുഴുവൻ മറ്റുള്ളവർക്കായി കരുതലും ആദരവും പുലർത്തുന്നതും അഴിച്ചുവെക്കുന്നതും ഉറപ്പാക്കുക.

റാൻഡി ഹാർട്ട്

10) Classical Bengali

10) ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা

আপনার মা toungue ব্যবহার করে গুগল অনুবাদটি অনুবাদ করুন
https://translate.google.com

[9:২1 এ, 5/18/2018] শশী কাঁথ: আজ প্রানাতে তার শিক্ষকের কাছ থেকে শিক্ষক পদ এবং খুব সুন্দর চিঠি পেয়েছেন

[9:30 এ, 5/18/2018] শশী কাঁথ: প্রাণে -

আমি এই বছরের 5/6 কোর আপনি থাকার পছন্দ আপনি ক্লাসে আনা সংক্রামক উদ্দীপনা আমাদের আলোচনা enlivened এবং আপনার সহপাঠী জড়িত রাখা সাহায্য। আপনি
কঠোর পরিশ্রম করেছেন এবং আপনার সহপাঠীদের জন্য একটি ভাল উদাহরণ স্থাপন
করেছেন, এবং আমি সত্যিই প্রশংসা করেছি যে আপনি অন্যদের সাথে বিশেষভাবে
যাদেরকে অতিরিক্ত সহায়তা প্রয়োজন তাদের সাথে কতটা ভাল কাজ করেছেন।
আপনার জীবন জুড়ে অন্যদের যত্ন এবং সম্মান জন্য যে অর্থে বজায় রাখা এবং সজ্জিত করা নিশ্চিত করুন।

র্যান্ডি হার্ট

98) Classical urdu

98) کلاسیکی urdu

استعمال کرتے ہوئے آپ کی ماں ٹونگگو میں گوگل کی ترجمہ کا ترجمہ کریں
https://translate.google.com

[9:21 AM، 5/18/2018] سشی Kanth: آج پرانیے اساتذہ کے ایوارڈ اور اس کے استاد سے بہت اچھا خط ہے.

[9:30 AM، 5/18/2018] ساشی کنتھ: پرانی -

میں نے آپ کو اس سال 5/6 کور میں پیار کیا تھا. انفیکچرک جوش و جذبہ آپ نے کلاس میں لے کر ہماری بات چیت کی اور آپ کے ساتھیوں کو مصروف رکھنے میں مدد ملی. آپ
نے سخت محنت کی اور آپ کے ہم جماعتوں کے لئے ایک اچھی مثال قائم کی، اور
میں واقعی میں آپ کی تعریف کرتا ہوں کہ آپ نے دوسروں کے ساتھ کتنا اچھا کام
کیا ہے، خاص طور پر ان لوگوں کو جو اضافی مدد کی ضرورت ہے.
براہ
کرم اس بات کو یقینی بنائیں کہ آپ کی زندگی بھر میں دوسروں کی دیکھ بھال
اور احترام کی اس معنی کو برقرار رکھنا اور اس کو تسلیم کرنا.

سینگ ہارٹ

39) Classical Hindi

3 9) शास्त्रीय हिंदी

अपने Google toungue का उपयोग कर इस Google अनुवाद का अनुवाद करें
https://translate.google.com

[9:21 पूर्वाह्न, 5/18/2018] साशी कंथ: आज प्रणय को शिक्षकों का पुरस्कार मिला और उनके शिक्षक से बहुत अच्छा पत्र मिला

[9:30 पूर्वाह्न, 5/18/2018] साशी कंथ: प्रणय -

मुझे इस वर्ष 5/6 कोर में आपसे प्यार था। आपके द्वारा कक्षा में लाए गए संक्रामक उत्साह ने हमारी चर्चा को बढ़ावा दिया और अपने सहपाठियों को व्यस्त रखने में मदद की। आपने
कड़ी मेहनत की और अपने सहपाठियों के लिए एक अच्छा उदाहरण स्थापित किया, और
मैंने वास्तव में सराहना की कि आपने दूसरों के साथ कितनी अच्छी तरह से काम
किया है, विशेष रूप से जिन्हें अतिरिक्त सहायता की आवश्यकता है।
कृपया अपने पूरे जीवन में दूसरों की देखभाल और सम्मान की भावना को बनाए रखने और सजावट सुनिश्चित करें।

रैंडी हार्ट

66) Classical Marathi

66) शास्त्रीय मराठी

आपल्या आई टॉन्ग्यूचा वापर करुन हे Google अनुवाद भाषांतरित करा
https://translate.google.com

[9:21 एएम, 5/18/2018] शशी कांथा: आज प्राणा यांना शिक्षक पुरस्कार आणि त्यांच्या शिक्षकांकडून खूप छान पत्र मिळाले

[9: 30, 5/18/2018] शशी कंथ: प्राणा -

मला या वर्षी 5/6 केंद्रामध्ये आपण प्रेम केले. संभोगशील उत्साहाने आपण आपल्या चर्चेला आकृष्ट केले आणि आपल्या वर्गमित्रांना व्यस्त ठेवण्यात मदत केली. आपण
आपल्या वर्गमित्रांसाठी कष्ट केले आणि चांगले उदाहरण मांडले, आणि इतरांना
विशेषत: ज्यास अतिरिक्त सहाय्याची आवश्यकता होती त्यांच्यासोबत तुम्ही किती
काम केले हे मला खरोखर कौतुक वाटले.
कृपया संपूर्ण आयुष्यभर इतरांबद्दल आदर आणि सन्मान बाळगावा या भावनेची देखभाल व सुशोभित करण्याचे सुनिश्चित करा.

रॅडी हार्ट

75) Classical Punjabi

75) ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ

ਤੁਹਾਡੀ ਮਾਂ ਦੀ ਵਰਤੋਂ ਵਿਚਲੇ ਗੂਗਲ ਅਨੁਵਾਦ ਦਾ ਅਨੁਵਾਦ ਕਰੋ
https://translate.google.com

[9:21 AM, 5/18/2018] ਸ਼ਸ਼ੀ ਕਾਂਥ: ਅੱਜ ਪ੍ਰਣਯ ਨੇ ਅਧਿਆਪਕ ਪੁਰਸਕਾਰ ਅਤੇ ਆਪਣੇ ਅਧਿਆਪਕ ਵੱਲੋਂ ਬਹੁਤ ਵਧੀਆ ਚਿੱਠੀ ਲਿਆਂਦੀ

[9:30, 5/18/2018] ਸ਼ਸ਼ੀ ਕਾਂਥ: ਪ੍ਰਾਣੇ -

ਮੈਨੂੰ ਇਸ ਸਾਲ 5/6 ਕੋਰ ਵਿੱਚ ਤੁਹਾਡੀ ਬਹੁਤ ਪਿਆਰੀ ਸੀ. ਸਾਡੇ ਦੁਆਰਾ ਸਾਡੇ ਵਿਚਾਰਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਉਤਸ਼ਾਹਿਤ ਕਰਨ ਅਤੇ ਤੁਸੀਂ ਆਪਣੇ ਸਹਿਪਾਠੀਆਂ ਨੂੰ ਰੁੱਝੇ ਰੱਖਣ ਵਿੱਚ ਮਦਦ ਕਰਨ ਲਈ ਛੂਤ-ਛਾਤ ਦੇ ਉਤਸ਼ਾਹ ਨੂੰ ਲਿਆ. ਤੁਸੀਂ
ਸਖ਼ਤ ਮਿਹਨਤ ਕੀਤੀ ਅਤੇ ਆਪਣੇ ਸਹਿਪਾਠੀਆਂ ਲਈ ਇਕ ਚੰਗੀ ਮਿਸਾਲ ਕਾਇਮ ਕੀਤੀ, ਅਤੇ ਮੈਂ
ਸੱਚਮੁਚ ਇਸ ਗੱਲ ਦੀ ਪ੍ਰਸੰਸਾ ਕੀਤੀ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਤੁਸੀਂ ਹੋਰਨਾਂ ਨਾਲ ਖਾਸ ਤੌਰ ਤੇ ਉਹਨਾਂ
ਲੋਕਾਂ ਨਾਲ ਕੰਮ ਕੀਤਾ ਹੈ ਜਿਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਵਾਧੂ ਸਹਾਇਤਾ ਦੀ ਜ਼ਰੂਰਤ ਹੈ.
ਕਿਰਪਾ ਕਰਕੇ ਆਪਣੀ ਜ਼ਿੰਦਗੀ ਭਰ ਵਿੱਚ ਦੂਸਰਿਆਂ ਦੀ ਦੇਖਭਾਲ ਅਤੇ ਸਤਿਕਾਰ ਦੀ ਭਾਵਨਾ ਨੂੰ ਬਣਾਈ ਰੱਖਣ ਅਤੇ ਸ਼ਿੰਗਾਰਨ ਬਾਰੇ ਯਕੀਨੀ ਬਣਾਓ.

ਰੇਂਡੀ ਹਾਟ

34) Classical Gujarati

34) ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી

આ ઉપયોગ કરીને તમારી માતા toungue માં આ Google અનુવાદ અનુવાદ
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[9:21 પોસ્ટેડ, 5/18/2018] શશી કાંઠ: આજે પ્રાણને શિક્ષકના એવોર્ડ અને તેમના શિક્ષક તરફથી સરસ પત્ર મળ્યો

[9:30 AM, 5/18/2018] શશી કાંઠ: પ્રાણ -

હું તમને આ વર્ષે 5/6 કોરમાં પ્રેમ કરતો હતો ચેપી ઉત્સાહ તમે વર્ગમાં લાવ્યા હતા જે અમારી ચર્ચાને ઉત્તેજન આપતા હતા અને તમારા સહપાઠીઓને રોકાયેલા રાખવામાં મદદ કરી હતી. તમે
સખત મહેનત કરી અને તમારા સહપાઠીઓ માટે સારું ઉદાહરણ બેસાડ્યું છે, અને મેં
ખરેખર પ્રશંસા કરી છે કે તમે અન્ય લોકો સાથે કેવી રીતે કામ કર્યું છે, ખાસ
કરીને જેઓને વધારાની સહાયની જરૂર છે
કૃપા કરીને તમારા જીવન દરમિયાન અન્ય લોકો માટે કાળજી અને આદરની સમજ જાળવવા અને સુનિશ્ચિત કરવાની ખાતરી કરો.

રેન્ડી હાર્ટ

May all sentient and non-sentient beings be ever happy, well and secure!
May all have calm, quiet, alert, attentive and an equanimity mind with a clear understanding that everything is changing !!


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2624 Fri 18 May LESSON Awakened One With Awareness Buddha’s Teachings in 5 Words Always Do Good Be Mindful ! For full explanation Please visit: Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University and related NEWS through 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
in
 105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES From: http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org Translate this Google Translation in your mother tongue using https://translate.google.com That is your LESSON Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com http://www.palicanon.org/ Pali Canon Online The Original Words of the Buddha
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Posted by: site admin @ 1:02 am



2624 Fri 18  May  LESSON
Awakened One With Awareness Buddha’s Teachings in 5 Words
Always Do Good Be Mindful !

For full explanation

Please visit:
Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice
University and related NEWS through 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
in

105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

From:
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

Translate this Google Translation in your mother tongue using
https://translate.google.com

That is your LESSON

Email:
buddhasaid2us@gmail.com

http://www.palicanon.org/

Pali Canon Online

The Original Words of the Buddha

‘Suppose
a monk were to say: “Friends, I heard and received this from the Lord’s
own lips: this is the Dhamma, this is the discipline, this is the
Master’s teaching”, then, monks, you should neither approve nor
disapprove his words. Then, without approving or disapproving, his words
and ex­pressions should be carefully noted and compared with the Suttas
and reviewed in the light of the discipline. If they, on such
comparison and review, are found not to conform to the Suttas or the
discipline, the conclusion must be: “Assuredly this is not the word of
the Buddha, it has been wrongly un­derstood by this monk”, and the
matter is to be rejected. But where on such comparison and review they
are found to con­form to the Suttas or the discipline, the conclusion
must be: “Assuredly this is the word of the Buddha, it has been rightly
understood by this monk.”

- DN 16 Mahāparinibbāna Sutta - The Great Passing, The Buddha’s Last Days

The authentic teachings of Gotama the Buddha have been preserved and
handed down to us and are to be found in the Tipiṭaka. The Pāli word,
‘Tipiṭaka’, literally means ‘the three baskets’ (ti=three +
piṭaka=collections of scriptures). All of the Buddha’s teachings were
divided into three parts.

1. The first part is known as the Vinaya Piṭaka and it contains all the rules which Buddha laid down for monks and nuns.
2. The second part is called the Suttaṅta Piṭaka and it contains the Discourses.
3. The third part is known as the Abhidhamma Piṭaka and comprises the psycho-ethical teachings of the Buddha.

It is known, that whenever the Buddha gave a discourse to his ordained
disciples or lay-followers or prescribed a monastic rule in the course
of his forty-five year ministry, those of his devoted and learned monks,
then present would immediately commit his teachings word for word to
memory. Thus the Buddha’s words were preserved accurately and were in
due course passed down orally from teacher to pupil. Some of the monks
who had heard the Buddha preach in person were Arahants, and so by
definition, ‘pure ones’ free from passion, ill-will and delusion and
therefore, was without doubt capable of retaining, perfectly the
Buddha’s words. Thus they ensured that the Buddha’s teachings would be
preserved faithfully for posterity.

Even those devoted monks
who had not yet attained Arahantahood but had reached the first three
stages of sainthood and had powerful, retentive memories could also call
to mind word for word what the Buddha had preached and so could be
worthy custodians of the Buddha’s teachings. One such monk was Ānanda,
the chosen attendant and constant companion of the Buddha during the
last twenty-five years of the his life. Ānanda was highly intelligent
and gifted with the ability to remember whatever he had heard. Indeed,
it was his express wish that the Buddha always relate all of his
discourses to him and although he was not yet an Arahanta he
deliberately committed to memory word for word all the Buddha’s sermons
with which he exhorted monks, nuns and his lay followers. The combined
efforts of these gifted and devoted monks made it possible for the
Dhamma and Vinaya, as taught by the Buddha to be preserved in its
original state.

The Pāli Tipiṭaka and its allied literature
exists as a result of the Buddha’s discovery of the noble and liberating
path of the pure Dhamma. This path enables all those who follow it to
lead a peaceful and happy life. Indeed, in this day and age we are
fortunate to have the authentic teachings of the Buddha preserved for
future generations through the conscientious and concerted efforts of
his ordained disciples down through the ages. The Buddha had said to his
disciples that when he was no longer amongst them, that it was
essential that the Saṅgha should come together for the purpose of
collectively reciting the Dhamma, precisely as he had taught it. In
compliance with this instruction the first Elders duly called a council
and systematically ordered all the Buddha’s discourses and monastic
rules and then faithfully recited them word for word in concert.

The teachings contained in the Tipiṭaka are also known as the Doctrine
of the Elders [Theravāda]. These discourses number several hundred and
have always been recited word for word ever since the First Council was
convened. Subsequently, more Councils have been called for a number of
reasons but at every one of them the entire body of the Buddha’s
teaching has always been recited by the Saṅgha participants, in concert
and word for word. The first council took place three months after the
Buddha’s attainment of Mahāparinibbāṇa and was followed by five more,
two of which were convened in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
These collective recitations which were performed by the monks at all
these Dhamma Councils are known as the ‘Dhamma Saṅgītis’, the Dhamma
Recitations. They are so designated because of the precedent set at the
First Dhamma Council, when all the Teachings were recited first by an
Elder of the Saṅgha and then chanted once again in chorus by all of the
monks attending the assembly. The recitation was judged to have been
authentic, when and only when, it had been approved unanimously by the
members of the Council. What follows is a brief history of the Six
Councils.

The First Council

King Ajātasattu sponsored the First Council. It was convened in 544
B.C. in the Sattapaāāī Cave situated outside Rājagaha three months after
the Buddha had passed away. A detailed account of this historic meeting
can be found in the Cūllavagga of the Vinaya Piṭaka. According to this
record the incident which prompted the Elder Mahākassapa to call this
meeting was his hearing a disparaging remark about the strict rule of
life for monks. This is what happened. The monk Subhadda, a former
barber, who had ordained late in life, upon hearing that the Buddha had
expired, voiced his resentment at having to abide by all the rules for
monks laid down by the Buddha. Many monks lamented the passing of the
Buddha and were deeply grieved. However, the Elder Mahākassapa heard
Subhadda say: ‘’Enough your Reverences, do not grieve, do not lament. We
are well rid of this great recluse (the Buddha). We were tormented when
he said, ‘this is allowable to you, this is not allowable to you’ but
now we will be able to do as we like and we will not have to do what we
do not like’’. Mahākassapa was alarmed by his remark and feared that the
Dhamma and the Vinaya might be corrupted and not survive intact if
other monks were to behave like Subhadda and interpret the Dhamma and
the Vinaya rules as they pleased. To avoid this he decided that the
Dhamma must be preserved and protected. To this end after gaining the
Saṅgha’s approval he called to council five hundred Arahants. Ānanda was
to be included in this provided he attained Arahanthood by the time the
council convened. With the Elder Mahākassapa presiding, the
five-hundred Arahant monks met in council during the rainy season. The
first thing Mahākassapa did was to question the foremost expert on the
Vinaya of the day, Venerable Upāli on particulars of the monastic rule.
This monk was well qualified for the task as the Buddha had taught him
the whole of the Vinaya himself. First of all the Elder Mahākassapa
asked him specifically about the ruling on the first offense [pārājika],
with regard to the subject, the occasion, the individual introduced,
the proclamation, the repetition of the proclamation, the offense and
the case of non-offense. Upāli gave knowledgeable and adequate answers
and his remarks met with the unanimous approval of the presiding Saṅgha.
Thus the Vinaya was formally approved.

The Elder Mahākassapa
then turned his attention to Ānanda in virtue of his reputable expertise
in all matters connected with the Dhamma. Happily, the night before the
Council was to meet, Ānanda had attained Arahantship and joined the
Council. The Elder Mahākassapa, therefore, was able to question him at
length with complete confidence about the Dhamma with specific reference
to the Buddha’s sermons. This interrogation on the Dhamma sought to
verify the place where all the discourses were first preached and the
person to whom they had been addressed. Ānanda, aided by his
word-perfect memory was able to answer accurately and so the Discourses
met with the unanimous approval of the Saṅgha. The First Council also
gave its official seal of approval for the closure of the chapter on the
minor and lesser rules, and approval for their observance. It took the
monks seven months to recite the whole of the Vinaya and the Dhamma and
those monks sufficiently endowed with good memories retained all that
had been recited. This historic first council came to be known as the
Paācasatika because five-hundred fully enlightened Arahants had taken
part in it.

Second Council

The Second Council was called one hundred years after the Buddha’s
Parinibbāṇa in order to settle a serious dispute over the ‘ten points’.
This is a reference to some monks breaking of ten minor rules. they were
given to:

1. Storing salt in a horn.
2. Eating after midday.
3. Eating once and then going again to a village for alms.
4. Holding the Uposatha Ceremony with monks dwelling in the same locality.
5. Carrying out official acts when the assembly was incomplete.
6. Following a certain practice because it was done by one’s tutor or teacher.
7. Eating sour milk after one had his midday meal.
8. Consuming strong drink before it had been fermented.
9. Using a rug which was not the proper size.
10. Using gold and silver.

Their misdeeds became an issue and caused a major controversy as
breaking these rules was thought to contradict the Buddha’s original
teachings. King Kāḷāsoka was the Second Council’s patron and the meeting
took place at Vesāli due to the following circumstances. One day,
whilst visiting the Mahāvana Grove at Veāsli, the Elder Yasa came to
know that a large group of monks known as the Vajjians were infringing
the rule which prohibited monk’s accepting gold and silver by openly
asking for it from their lay devotees. He immediately criticized their
behavior and their response was to offer him a share of their illegal
gains in the hope that he would be won over. The Elder Yasa, however
declined and scorned their behavior. The monks immediately sued him with
a formal action of reconciliation, accusing him of having blamed their
lay devotees. The Elder Yasa accordingly reconciled himself with the lay
devotees, but at the same time, convinced them that the Vijjian monks
had done wrong by quoting the Buddha’s pronouncement on the prohibition
against accepting or soliciting for gold and silver. The laymen
immediately expressed their support for the Elder Yasa and declared the
Vajjian monks to the wrong-doers and heretics, saying ‘’the Elder Yasa
alone is the real monk and Sākyan son. All the others are not monks, not
Sākyan sons’’.

The Stubborn and unrepentant Vajjian monks then
moved to suspend the Venerable Yasa Thera without the approval of the
rest of the Saṅgha when they came to know of the outcome of his meeting
with their lay devotees. The Elder Yasa, however escaped their censure
and went in search of support from monks elsewhere, who upheld his
orthodox views on the Vinaya. Sixty forest dwelling monks from Pāvā and
eighty monks from the southern regions of Avanti who were of the same
view, offered to help him to check the corruption of the Vinaya.
Together they decided to go to Soreyya to consult the Venerable Revata
as he was a highly revered monk and an expert in the Dhamma and the
Vinaya. As soon as the Vajjian monks came to know this they also sought
the Venerable Revata’s support by offering him the four requisites which
he promptly refused. These monks then sought to use the same means to
win over the Venerable Revata’s attendant, the Venerable Uttara. At
first he too, rightly declined their offer but they craftily persuaded
him to accept their offer, saying that when the requisites meant for the
Buddha were not accepted by him, Ānanda would be asked to accept them
and would often agree to do so. Uttara changed his mind and accepted the
requisites. Urged on by them he then agreed to go and persuade the
Venerable Revata to declare that the Vajjian monks were indeed speakers
of the Truth and upholders of the Dhamma. The Venerable Revata saw
through their ruse and refused to support them. He then dismissed
Uttara. In order to settle the matter once and for all, the Venerable
Revata advised that a council should be called at Vāḷikārāma with
himself asking questions on the ten offenses of the most senior of the
Elders of the day, the Thera Sabbjakāmi. Once his opinion was given it
was to be heard by a committee of eight monks, and its validity decided
by their vote. The eight monks called to judge the matter were the
Venerables Sabbakāmi, saḷha, Khujjasobhita and Vāsabhagāmika, from the
East and four monks from the West, the Venerables Revata,
Sambhuta-Sāṇavāsī, Yasa and Sumana. They thoroughly debated the matter
with Revata as the questioner and sabbakāmī answering his questions.
After the debate was heard the eight monks decided against the Vajjian
monks and their verdict was announced to the assembly. Afterwards
seven-hundred monks recited the Dhamma and Vinaya and this recital came
to be known as the Sattasatī because seven-hundred monks had taken part
in it. This historic council is also called, the Yasatthera Sangīti
because of the major role the Elder Yasa played in it and his zeal for
safeguarding the Vinaya. The Vajjian monks categorically refused to
accept the Council’s decision and in defiance called a council of there
own which was called the Mahāsaṅgiti.

The Third Council

The
Third Council was held primarily to rid the Saṅgha of corruption and
bogus monks who held heretical views. The Council was convened in 326
B.C. At Asokārāma in Paṭaliputta under the patronage of Emperor Asoka.
It was presided over by the Elder Moggaliputta Tissa and one thousand
monks participated in this Council. Tradition has it that Asoka had won
his throne through shedding the blood of all his father’s son’s save his
own brother, Tissa Kumāra who eventually got ordained and achieved
Arahantship.

Asoka was crowned in the two hundred and eighteenth
year after the Buddha’s Mahaparinibbāna. At first he paid only token
homage to the Dhamma and the Saṅgha and also supported members of other
religious sects as his father had done before him. However, all this
changed when he met the pious novice-monk Nigrodha who preached him the
Appamāda-vagga. Thereafter he ceased supporting other religious groups
and his interest in and devotion to the Dhamma deepened. He used his
enormous wealth to build, it is said, eighty-four thousand pagodas and
vihāras and to lavishly support the Bhikkhus with the four requisites.
His son Mahinda and his daughter Saṅghamittā were ordained and admitted
to the Saṅgha. Eventually, his generosity was to cause serious problems
within the Saṅgha. In time the order was infiltrated by many unworthy
men, holding heretical views and who were attracted to the order because
of the Emperor’s generous support and costly offerings of food,
clothing, shelter and medicine. Large numbers of faithless, greedy men
espousing wrong views tried to join the order but were deemed unfit for
ordination. Despite this they seized the chance to exploit the Emperor’s
generosity for their own ends and donned robes and joined the order
without having been ordained properly. Consequently, respect for the
Saṅgha diminished. When this came to light some of the genuine monks
refused to hold the prescribed purification or Uposatha ceremony in the
company of the corrupt, heretical monks.

When the Emperor heard
about this he sought to rectify the situation and dispatched one of his
ministers to the monks with the command that they perform the ceremony.
However, the Emperor had given the minister no specific orders as to
what means were to be used to carry out his command. The monks refused
to obey and hold the ceremony in the company of their false and
‘thieving’ companions [theyyasinivāsaka]. In desperation the angry
minister advanced down the line of seated monks and drawing his sword,
beheaded all of them one after the other until he came to the King’s
brother, Tissa who had been ordained. The horrified minister stopped the
slaughter and fled the hall and reported back to the Emperor Asoka was
deeply grieved and upset by what had happened and blamed himself for the
killings. He sought Thera Moggaliputta Tissa’s counsel. He proposed
that the heretical monks be expelled from the order and a third Council
be convened immediately. So it was that in the seventeenth year of the
Emperor’s reign the Third Council was called. Thera Moggaliputta Tissa
headed the proceedings and chose one thousand monks from the sixty
thousand participants for the traditional recitation of the Dhamma and
the Vinaya, which went on for nine months. The Emperor, himself
questioned monks from a number of monasteries about the teachings of the
Buddha. Those who held wrong views were exposed and expelled from the
Saṅgha immediately. In this way the Bhikkhu Saṅgha was purged of
heretics and bogus bhikkhus.
This council achieved a number of other
important things as well. The Elder Moggaliputta Tissa, in order to
refute a number of heresies and ensure the Dhamma was kept pure,
complied a book during the council called the Kathāvatthu. This book
consists of twenty-three chapters, and is a collection of discussion
(kathā) and refutations of the heretical views held by various sects on
matters philosophical. It is the fifth of the seven books of the
Abhidhamma Piṭaka. The members of the Council also gave a royal seal of
approval to the doctrine of the Buddha, naming it the Vibhajjavāda, the
Doctrine of Analysis. It is identical with the approved Theravāda
doctrine. One of the most significant achievements of this Dhamma
assembly and one which was to bear fruit for centuries to come, was the
Emperor’s sending forth of monks, well versed in the Buddha’s Dhamma and
Vinaya who could recite all of it by heart, to teach it in nine
different countries. These Dhammadūta monks included the Venerable
Majjhantika Thera who went to Kashmir and Gandhāra. He was asked to
preach the Dhamma and establish an order of monks there. The Venerable
Mahādeva was sent to Mahinsakamaṇḍaḷa (modern Mysore) and the Venerable
Rakkhita Thera was dispatched to Vanavāsī (northern Kanara in the south
of India.) The Venerable Yonaka Dhammarakkhita Thera was sent to Upper
Aparantaka (northern Gujarat, Kathiawar, Kutch and Sindh].

 The
Venerable Mahārakkhita Thera went to Yonaka-loka (the land of the
lonians, Bactrians and the Greeks.) The Venerable Majjhima Thera went to
Himavanta (the place adjoining the Himalayas.) The Venerable Soṇa and
the Venerable Uttara were sent to Suvaṇṇabhūmi [now Myanmar]. The
Venerable Mahinda Thera, The Venerable Ittiya Thera, the Venerable
Uttiya Thera, the Venerable Sambala Thera and the Venerable Bhaddasāla
Thera were sent to Tambapaṇṇi (now Sri Lanka). The Dhamma missions of
these monks succeeded and bore great fruits in the course of time and
went a long way in ennobling the peoples of these lands with the gift of
the Dhamma and influencing their civilizations and cultures.

With
the spread of Dhamma through the words of the Buddha, in due course
India came to be known as Visvaguru, the teacher of the world.

The Fourth Council

The
Fourth Council was held in Tambapaṇṇi [Sri Lanka] in 29 B.C. under the
patronage of King Vaṭṭagāmaṇi. The main reason for its convening was the
realization that is was now not possible for the majority of monks to
retain the entire Tipiṭaka in their memories as had been the case
formerly for the Venerable Mahinda and those who followed him soon
after. Therefore, as the art of writing had, by this time developed
substantially, it was thought expedient and necessary to have the entire
body of the Buddha’s teaching written down. King Vaṭṭagāmaṇi supported
the monk’s idea and a council was held specifically to reduce the
Tipiṭaka in its entirety to writing. Therefore, so that the genuine
Dhamma might be lastingly preserved, the Venerable Mahārakhita and five
hundred monks recited the words of the Buddha and then wrote them down
on palm leaves. This remarkable project took place in a cave called, the
Āloka lena, situated in the cleft of an ancient landslip near what is
now Matale. Thus the aim of the Council was achieved and the
preservation in writing of the authentic Dhamma was ensured. Later, in
the Eighteenth Century, King Vijayarājasīha had images of the Buddha
created in this cave.

The Fifth Council

The Fifth Council
took place in Māndalay, Burma now known as Myanmar in 1871 A.D. in the
reign of King Mindon. The chief objective of this meeting was to recite
all the teachings of the Buddha and examine them in minute detail to see
if any of them had been altered, distorted or dropped. It was presided
over by three Elders, the Venerable Mahāthera Jāgarābhivaṃsa, the
Venerable Narindābhidhaja, and the Venerable Mahāthera Sumaṅgalasāmi in
the company of some two thousand four hundred monks (2,400). Their joint
Dhamma recitation lasted for five months. It was also the work of this
council to cause the entire Tipiṭaka to be inscribed for posterity on
seven hundred and twenty-nine marble slabs in the Myanmar script after
its recitation had been completed and unanimously approved. This
monumental task was done by some two thousand four hundred erudite monks
and many skilled craftsmen who upon completion of each slab had them
housed in beautiful miniature ‘piṭaka’ pagodas on a special site in the
grounds of King Mindon’s Kuthodaw Pagoda at the foot of Māndalay Hill
where this so called ‘largest book in the world’, stands to this day.


The Sixth Council

The Sixth Council was called at Kaba Aye in Yangon, formerly Rangoon
in 1954, eighty-three years after the fifth one was held in Mandalay. It
was sponsored by the Burmese Government led by the Prime Minister, the
Honorable U Nu. He authorized the construction of the Mahā Pāsāna Gūhā,
the great cave that was built from the ground up, to serve as the
gathering place much like India’s Sattapānni Cave–the site of the first
Dhamma Council. Upon its completion, the Council met on the 17th of
May, 1954. As in the case of the preceding councils, its first objective
was to affirm and preserve the genuine Dhamma and Vinaya. However it
was unique in so far as the monks who took part in it came from eight
countries. These two thousand five hundred learned Theravāda monks came
from Myanmar, Cambodia, India, Laos, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and
Vietnam. The late Venerable Mahāsi Sayadaw was appointed the noble task
of asking the required questions about the Dhamma of the Venerable
Bhadanta Vicittasārābhivaṃsa Tipiṭakadhara Dhammabhaṇḍāgārika who
answered all of them learnedly and satisfactorily. By the time this
council met, all the participating countries had the Pāli Tipiṭaka
rendered into their native scripts, with the exception of India.

The traditional recitation of the Dhamma Scriptures took two years
during which the Tipiṭaka and its allied literature in all the scripts
were painstakingly examined. Any differences found were noted down, the
necessary corrections were made and all the versions were then collated.
Happily, it was found that there was not much difference in the content
of any of the texts. Finally, after the Council had officially approved
them, all the volumes of the Tipiṭaka and their Commentaries were
prepared for printing on modern presses and published in the Myanmar
(Burmese) script. This notable achievement was made possible through the
dedicated efforts of the two thousand five hundred monks and numerous
lay people. Their work came to an end in May, 1956, two and a half
millennia after the Lord attained Parinibbāna. This council’s work was
the unique achievement of representatives from the entire Buddhist
world. The version of the Tipiṭaka which it undertook to produce has
been recognized as being true to the pristine teachings of Gotama the
Buddha and the most authoritative rendering of them to date.

The volumes printed after the Sixth Saṅgāyana were printed in Myanmar
script. In order to make the volumes to the people of India, Vipassana
Research Institute started the project to print the Tipiṭaka with its
Aṭṭhakathās and ṭikas in Devanagari in the year 1990.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e9HSraZiBiY
Pali Canon by Sis Siew Fong
Buddhist Fellowship
Published on Mar 16, 2015
1Hr:00:20
01 Mar 2015 at BF West
Category
Education

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