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 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
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05/21/18
2628 Tue 22 May LESSON Index of Subjects
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 9:20 pm








Index of Subjects








B

Bala
the five strengths. See also Bodhipakkhiya-dhamma.
Definition of the ~: AN 5.2
Beauty
As a meditative attainment: SN 14.11
Bhava
existence, life, realm of rebirth. See also Paṭicca-samuppāda (dependent origination).
As a flood: SN 45.171
As a yoke: AN 4.10
Three levels on which ~ operates: AN 3.76, AN 3.77
Bhikkhu (monk)
See Monastic Life.
Bhikkhunī (nun)
See Monastic Life.
The Therīgāthā (Thig) is a collection of verses by nuns.
The Bhikkhunī Saṁyutta (SN 5) is another collection with verses by nuns.
Birth
See Jāti.
Bodhipakkhiya-dhamma
37 factors leading to awakening
~ and their relation to the six senses: MN 149
Prerequisites for the development of the ~: AN 9.1
Also look under each of its constituent seven sets:
Satipaṭṭhāna (4 kinds of mindfulness meditation);
Sammāppadhāna (4 right efforts);
Iddhipada (4 bases of psychic power);
Indriya (5 faculties);
Bala (5 powers);
Bojjhaṅga (7 awakening factors);
Noble Eightfold Path.
Body
See also Asubha; Attachment; Sensuality.
Mindfulness of the ~: see Satipaṭṭhāna.
Thirty-one parts of the ~: MN 10
Foulness of ~: AN 9.15, Snp 1.11, Thag 10.5
Bojjhaṅga
factors leading to awakening. See also Bodhipakkhiya-dhamma.
The right and wrong times to cultivate the ~: SN 46.53
See the suttas in the Bojjhaṅga-saṁyutta of the Saṁyutta Nikāya
Brahmavihāra
Divine abodes; sublime states. See also Mettā; Karuṇā; Muditā; Upekkhā.
Systematic cultivation of ~: SN 42.8, SN 46.54, AN 10.208
Practice of ~ as a door to the Deathless: MN 52, AN 11.17
Offering comfort and protection from the cold: Thag 6.2
Five realizations that arise from concentration based on the ~: AN 5.27
Practicing any one of the ~ can take one all the way to fourth jhāna: AN 8.63
Breath meditation
See Ānāpānassati.
Buddha
See also Arahant.
As one of the ten Recollections: see Recollections, ten.
Buddha’s Awakening: See Tevijjā (Threefold Knowledge)

C

Caste system
Caste (i.e. race, social class, national identity, etc.) does not determine one’s virtue or spiritual potential: MN 90, MN 93
Even outcastes can become arahants: Thag 12.2
A bhikkhu has no caste: AN 10.48
Celibacy
See also Nekkhamma (renunciation); Restraint; Sensuality.
Tools to support one’s resolve towards ~: SN 35.127
Don’t pretend to be celibate if you’re not: Iti 48
Ceremonies
See Rituals.
Characteristics of existence
See Tilakkhaṇa.
Children
See also Parents; Family; Young people (readings for).
Three types of sons and daughters: Iti 74
At one time or another, we have all been each other’s ~: SN 15.14
Grieving the death of ~: SN 42.11, Ud 2.7, Ud 8.8
The anguish an aging parent feels when his ~ show no gratitude: SN 7.14
Childish innocence should not be confused with wisdom: MN 78
Showing the proper respect to one’s parents: Iti 106
Childrens’ duties to their parents: DN 31
Parents’ duties to their ~: DN 31
Clinging
See Upādāna.
Communal harmony
See also Monastic community (Saṅgha).
Six kinds of behavior that lead to amiability and communal harmony: AN 6.12
Comparative Religions
See also God.
Do all religions point towards the same goal? DN 21, Thag 1.86
Are all religious paths fruitful? AN 3.78
Compassion
See Karuṇā.
Conceit
See Māna.
Concentration
See Samādhi.
Conflict
See also Anger; Ill-will (vyāpāda); Papañca; War.
Causes of: Snp 4.8, Snp 4.11, Snp 4.15
Conscience
See Hiri.
Consciousness
See Viññāṇa.
Contact
See Phassa.
Contentment with little
See also Restraint.
As a vital support for practice: AN 4.28
As a quality of a great person: AN 8.30
Live like a flying bird, whose wings are its only burden: DN 2, DN 11
One thing you should not be content with: AN 2.5
Conviction
See Saddhā.
Craving
See Taṇhā.
Creation (of universe)
See Questions not worth asking.

D

Dāna
giving; charity. See also Gradual instruction; Pāramī.
As one of the greatest protections/blessings: Snp 2.4
As a fundamental requirement for success on the Path: AN 5.254
As a treasure: AN 7.6
As one of the ten Recollections: see Recollections, ten.
To whom should one give so as to reap the greatest fruit? SN 3.24, AN 3.57
Eight persons worthy of gifts: AN 8.59
Giving to one who has abandoned the hindrances brings good results: SN 3.24
Never regret a generous gift you gave in the past: SN 3.20
Give while you’re able, before your house burns to the ground!: SN 1.41
Giving is best done at the proper time: AN 5.36
The blessings inherent in the gift of food: AN 5.37
Giving even one’s last meal: Iti 26
The fruits of giving that arises from various motives: AN 7.49
The fruits of giving that can be reaped in this life: AN 5.34
Two kinds of gifts: Iti 98, Iti 100
Gifts of Dhamma: Dhp 354, Iti 98, Iti 100
Citta the householder’s final teaching on generosity: SN 41.10
Give to many; don’t be like a rainless cloud: Iti 75
Giving is good, but there is still more to be done: AN 5.176
The dangers faced by unvirtuous monks who enjoy pleasures, homage and gifts of the laity: AN 7.68
The scale of good deeds: AN 9.20
See the suttas in the Devatā-saṁyutta of the Saṁyutta Nikāya
Dasa-sīla
the ten precepts. See Sīla (ethics, morality).
Death
See also Aging; Deathless; Divine messengers; Grief; Illness; Maraṇassati (mindfulness of death); Murder; Saṁvega (spiritual urgency).
Five subjects for frequent recollection: AN 5.57
Understanding of ~ as a basis for Right View: MN 9
Why do we grieve when a loved one dies? SN 42.11
As one of seven beneficial reflections: AN 7.46
As a call to abandon grief and lamentation: Snp 3.8
The greatest protection for the layperson: Snp 2.4
Overcoming ~ by regarding the world as empty: Snp 5.15
Overcoming fear of ~: AN 4.184, Thag 16.1
Heedlessness leads one to ~: Dhp 21
No need for worry as ~ nears: SN 55.21, SN 55.22, AN 6.16
Citta’s deathbed conversation with some devas: SN 41.10
Sāriputta’s teachings to a dying Anāthapiṇḍika: MN 143
Ven. Ānanda’s grief over Ven. Sāriputta’s ~: SN 47.13
The Buddha’s reaction to Ven. Sāriputta’s ~: SN 47.14
~ by a runaway cow: MN 140, Ud 1.10, Ud 5.3
~ by murder (see also Murder): Ud 4.3
~ of daughter: Thig 3.5
~ of grandson: Ud 8.8
~ of son: MN 87, SN 42.11 Ud 2.7, Thig 6.1
~ of spouse: AN 5.49
Honor your ancestors and deceased loved ones with gifts: Pv 1.5
Reflections on the brevity of life:

  • Death comes rolling towards you, crushing everything in its path. Are you ready? SN 3.25
  • Life flies by, faster than any arrow. What are we to do? SN 20.6
  • No shelter from aging and death: SN 2.19
  • Your last day approaches—this is no time to be heedless! Thag 6.13
  • Life is brief—practice ardently! Ud 5.2
Deathless
Amata. A synonym for Nibbāna.
Eleven modes of practice that lead to the deathless: MN 52, AN 11.17
Defilements
See Kilesa.
Dependent origination
See Paṭicca-samuppāda.
Desire
as part of the Path (dhamma-chanda)
Does the ~ for Awakening get in the way of Awakening? MN 126
Ven. Ānanda’s instructions to Uṇṇābha: SN 51.15
Desire
as defilement (lobha, kāmacchanda, rāga). See also Nīvaraṇa (hindrances); Kilesa (defilements); Taṇhā (craving).
As one of the fetters (Saṁyojana): AN 10.13
As one of the obsessions (Anusaya): AN 7.11, AN 7.12
As the cause of suffering and stress: SN 42.11
~ ties down the world: SN 1.69
Why ~ and passion connected with the senses is worth abandoning: SN 27.1–8
Why ~ and passion connected with the khandha (aggregates) is worth abandoning: SN 27.10
Why ~ and passion connected with the dhātu (elements) is worth abandoning: SN 27.9
Devas
celestial beings. See also Kamma; Planes of Existence, Thirty-one; Sagga (heaven).
Citta’s deathbed conversation with some ~: SN 41.10
Some ~ gather to see the Buddha on his deathbed: DN 16
A huge gathering of ~ visits the Buddha: DN 20
Conversations with the ~ as a basis for faith: DN 11
Occasions when the ~ raise a cheer for a meditator: Iti 82
Omens that a ~ is about to die: Iti 83
As one of the ten Recollections: see Recollections, ten
Devotion
See also Relics; Rituals and Ceremonies.
The four Buddhist pilgrimage sites: DN 16
Dhamma
See also Teaching the Dhamma.
Basic principles: AN 8.53
Five rewards of listening to ~: AN 5.202
How to listen to the ~: AN 6.88
As one of the ten Recollections: see Recollections, ten.
Dhana
treasures. See also Wealth.
Buddha, Dhamma, and Saṅgha: Kp 6
Seven ~: AN 7.7
Dhātu
properties, elements
The Buddha’s explanation of the ~: MN 140
Why desire and passion connected with the ~ is worth abandoning: SN 27.9
Discernment
See Paññā.
Disenchantment
See Nibbidā.
Diṭṭhi
views. See also Questions.
As a yoke: AN 4.10
As a flood: SN 45.171
Wisdom has nothing to do with holding to this or that viewpoint: AN 10.96
What is wrong ~? MN 117
Distinguishing right ~ from wrong ~: AN 10.103, AN 10.104
The many kinds of ~: DN 1, MN 63, SN 41.3, AN 10.93, AN 10.95
Speculative ~: DN 1
Even the view “I have no self” is wrong: MN 22
The thicket of wrong ~: MN 72
Attachment to ~ is the cause of disputes: Snp 4.8
Divine Messengers
See Aging; Illness; Death.
Doubt
vicikicchā. See also Nīvaraṇa (hindrances); Saddhā (faith).
As one of the fetters (Saṁyojana): AN 10.13
As one of the obsessions (Anusaya): AN 7.11, AN 7.12
How can one be freed of all ~? Snp 5.5
Development of jhāna as a means of overcoming ~: Ud 5.7
Downfall
Causes of ~: Snp 1.6
Drawbacks
See Ādīnava.
Dread (moral)
See Ottappa.
Dreams
Five ~ that appeared to the Buddha: AN 5.196
How to ensure good ~: AN 11.16
Interpretation of ~ as a form of wrong livelihood for monks: DN 2, DN 11
Drowsiness
See Laziness.
Dukkha
suffering. See also Paṭicca-samuppāda (dependent origination); Tilakkhaṇa (three characteristics of conditioned phenomena).
The Buddha teaches only ~ and its cessation: MN 22
Six important aspects of ~ to be understood: AN 6.63
~ is inherent in everything the body and mind depend upon for nourishment: SN 12.63
As one of seven perceptions: AN 7.46

E

Ecology
See Nature.
Defilements
See Āsava.
Effort
See Viriya.
Eightfold Path
See Noble Eightfold Path.
Emotion
See also Pasāda; Psychology; Saṁvega; Vedanā.
The source of ~: MN 137
Emptiness
Suññatā
In what way is world empty? SN 35.85
Meditation practice that leads to the “entry into ~,” the doorway to liberation: MN 121
Practical aspects of developing a meditative dwelling in ~: MN 122
Conquering death by seeing the world as empty: Snp 5.15
Voidness of the five khandha: SN 22.95
Engaged Buddhism
See Social action.
Equanimity
See Upekkhā.
Ethics
See Sīla.

F

Faculties, five mental
See Indriya.
Faith
See Saddhā.
Family
See also Children; Lay Buddhist practice; Parents.
How a ~ can preserve its wealth: AN 4.255
Qualities that hold a ~ together: AN 4.32
Causes of a ~’s downfall: SN 42.9
Fear
See also Death.
In the wilderness, the Buddha comes face-to-face with his ~: MN 4
Ven. Adhimutta reveals his secret for overcoming ~: Thag 16
Four ways of overcoming ~ of death: AN 4.184
Overcoming ~ by recollecting the Buddha, Dhamma, and Saṅgha: SN 11.3
Your ~ of birth, aging, and death should be greater than your ~ of a dangerous cliff: SN 56.42
Feeling
See Vedanā.
Fermentations
See Āsava.
Fire imagery
See also “Fire” in the Index of Similes.
Used to describe the nature of clinging: SN 12.52
The Fire Sermon: SN 35.28
Fires of passion, aversion, and delusion: Iti 93
Fire as an illustration of the destiny of a fully Awakened being: MN 72
Fool
See Wise person.
Food
physical and otherwise. See also Nutriment (āhāra).
Mindfulness as a preventative against overeating: SN 3.13
Forest traditions
See also Wilderness.
Forgiveness
See Reconciliation.
The Four Noble Truths
cattāri ariyasaccāni. See also Gradual instruction.
The Buddha’s first teaching on ~: SN 56.11
Understanding of ~ as a basis for Right View: MN 9
Direct knowledge of ~ is a hallmark of a true contemplative: Iti 103
As a prequisite for awakening: SN 56.44
Relationship to the Khandha: MN 28
Friendship (admirable)
See Kalyanamittata.

G

Generosity
See Dāna.
Giving
See Dāna.
Goal of Buddhist practice
See Nibbāna.
God
supreme being, Creator, etc. See also Comparative Religions.
Belief in ~ (instead of in the law of Kamma) is a form of wrong view: AN 3.61
Great Brahmā, the deva who mistakenly believes himself to be the supreme being: DN 11
Goodwill
See Mettā.
Goodness
See Puñña (merit).
Gradual instruction
anupubbi-kathā
Mentioned in: Ud 5.3
See each of its constituent topics: Dāna (generosity), Sīla (ethics), Sagga (heaven), Ādīnava (drawbacks), Nekkhamma (renunciation), Four Noble Truths.
Gradual training
anupubba-sikkhā
DN 2, MN 107.
Gratitude
See also Integrity; Respect.
As one of the greatest protections/blessings: Snp 2.4
As a requisite for meaningful progress on the Path: AN 5.254
A grateful person is rare: AN 2.119
The dangers of enjoying a gift without showing the proper ~: AN 7.68
How to repay the debt we owe to our parents: AN 2.32
The anguish an aging parent feels when his children show no ~: SN 7.14
Grief
See also Death.
How to move beyond obsessive grieving: AN 5.49
Do arahants grieve? SN 21.2
Death and loss are inevitable, but is ~? Snp 3.8
Guilt
See Hiri (moral conscience).

H

Habitual patterns of thought
Stopping of ~: MN 19
Happiness
See also Vedanā (feeling).
True ~ lies beyond the realm of sensual pleasure: MN 75
How Nibbāna is understood as happy and pleasant: AN 9.34
Sometimes confused with suffering: Snp 3.12
Seeing even pleasurable feelings as stressful: SN 36.5, Iti 53
There are many kinds and degrees of ~; which one do you want? DN 2, MN 59, SN 36.19, SN 36.31, Iti 73
Harmlessness
See Non-harming.
Hatred
See Ill-will (vyāpāda).
Headache
Ven. Sāriputta’s “slight” ~ Ud 4.4
Heaven realms
See Sagga.
Heedfulness
See Appamāda.
Hell
realm. See also Planes of Existence, Thirty-one; Sagga (heaven); Kamma.
As the destination for one with no discernment: Dhp 137
“Hell” (Dhammapada chapter 12)
Five grave deeds that lead to rebirth in ~: AN 5.129
Causes of rebirth in ~: Iti 70
Hindrances
See Nīvaraṇa.
Hiri
conscience, moral shame. See also Ottappa (moral dread).
Although your past bad deeds cannot be undone, you can overcome your guilt: SN 42.8
As a quality that distinguishes the true contemplative: MN 39
As a basis for acquiring discernment: AN 8.2
As a quality that safeguards the world: Iti 42
As a rare and fine quality: SN 1.18
As a treasure: AN 7.6
As a guardian: AN 2.9
Associated with skillful qualities: Iti 40
Holidays
See Uposatha days.
Householders
See also Family; Lay Buddhist practice; Marriage; Money; Precepts; Sensuality.
Showing the proper respect to one’s parents: Iti 106
~ are dependent on the monastic community (Saṅgha): Iti 107
~ should put aside all worries as death nears: AN 6.16
Four kinds of bliss available to ~: AN 4.62
Citta the householder’s final teaching on generosity: SN 41.10
Household life is crowded and dusty: Snp 3.1, Ud 5.6
Humility
See also Integrity.
As one of the greatest protections/blessings: Snp 2.4

I

Iddhipada
the four bases of power. See also Bodhipakkhiya-dhamma.
Benefits derived from: SN 51.20
The Buddha declines Māra’s invitation to use the ~ for worldly aims: SN 4.20
Ignorance
See Avijjā.
Ill-will
vyāpāda. See also Anger; Conflict; Kilesa (defilements); Mettā (goodwill); Nīvaraṇa (hindrances).
Ten reflections to help overcome hatred: AN 10.80
~ can never be conquered with more ~: Dhp 3
The sources of conflict and hostility: DN 21, MN 18
Illness
See also Aging; Death; Divine messengers.
The Buddha attends to a monk with dysentery: Kd 8.26.1–8
The Buddha’s advice to Mahā Kassapa during a painful illness: SN 46.14
One need not be sick in mind just because one is sick in body: SN 22.1
How even a sick person can realize Awakening: AN 5.121
Ten perceptions that can heal body and mind: AN 10.60
Even the best medicines for the body don’t always work; here’s one for the mind that does: AN 10.108
Five qualities that make a sick person easy (or hard) to tend to: Kd 8.26.1–8
Five qualities that make a good (or bad) nurse: Kd 8.26.1–8
Impermanence
See Anicca.
Indriya
five mental faculties. See also Bodhipakkhiya-dhamma. Look under:
Saddhā (conviction, faith)
Viriya (persistence, effort)
Sati (mindfulness)
Samādhi (concentration)
Paññā (discernment, wisdom)
A summary of the five faculties: SN 48.10
See the suttas in the Indriya-saṁyutta of the Saṁyutta Nikāya
Insight
See Vipassanā.
Integrity
See also Gratitude; Humility; Respect; Stream-entry (sotāpatti); Wise person.
What is a person of ~: MN 110, MN 113, AN 2.31, AN 4.73
How a person of ~ gives gifts: AN 5.148
Intention, intentional action
See Kamma.

J

Jātaka tales
Stories from the Buddha’s previous lives.
The chariot-maker: AN 3.15
The story of prince Dīghāvu: Kd 10.2.3–20
Jāti
birth. See also Aging; Death; Illness; Rebirth.
Understanding of ~ as a basis for Right View: MN 9
Fear of ~ should be even greater than fear of a dangerous cliff: SN 56.42
The darkness of ~ is even greater than that of intergalactic space: SN 56.46
Jhāna
meditative absorption. See also Immersion; Nīvaraṇa (Hindrances); Noble silence; Samatha (tranquillity, calm).
And mindfulness: SN 2.7
How ~ leads the meditator out from the confines of the mind: AN 9.42
Role of ~ in the development of discernment: AN 9.44
Goes hand-in-hand with discernment (paññā): Dhp 372
Goes hand-in-hand with insight (vipassanā): AN 4.170
How insight can be developed during or immediately after ~: MN 111
Paves the way to Nibbāna: Dhp 372
Envied by the devas: Dhp 181
Practiced by enlightened ones: Dhp 23
A mark of heedfulness: Dhp 27, Dhp 371
Frees one from Mara’s grasp: Dhp 276
A hallmark of a true brahman: Dhp 386, Dhp 395, Dhp 414
One day with ~ is better than a hundred years without: Dhp 110
How does the Buddha practice ~ in the forest? SN 7.18
Formless attainments leading to Nibbāna: MN 52, MN 106, AN 11.17
Possible courses of rebirth from practicing ~: AN 4.123, AN 4.124
Joy
See also Pīti (rapture; bliss).
Joy, appreciative/sympathetic
See Muditā.

K

Kalyanamittatā
good friendship See also Teaching the Dhamma.
As a prerequisite for the development of the wings to Awakening: AN 9.1
What is a true friend? AN 7.35, Snp 2.3
Benefits of ~: AN 9.1
Having ~ is conducive to the ending of dukkha: Dhp 376
As a crucial support for Dhamma practice: Iti 17
~ is the whole of the holy life: SN 45.2
Avoiding lazy people: Iti 78
Choose your friends carefully, for you become like them: Iti 76
What is good friendship for householders? AN 8.54
Kamma
karma; intentional action. See also Devas; Hell; Planes of Existence, Thirty-one; Rebirth; Sagga (heaven).
The laws of ~ and rebirth are as inviolable as the law of gravity: SN 42.6
As one of the five subjects for frequent recollection: AN 5.57
Reflect on your actions before, during, and after: MN 61
Six important aspects of ~ to be understood: AN 6.63
Actions of body, speech, and mind determine one’s future course: MN 41
How to ease the inevitable bad results of one’s past bad deeds: SN 42.8
The rewards of skillful ~: AN 2.18, AN 8.40
The results of unskillful ~: AN 2.18, AN 8.40
The ten courses of skillful ~: AN 10.176
The ten courses of unskillful ~: AN 10.176
The difference between “old” and “new” ~: SN 35.145
Present happiness depends on both past and present ~: MN 101
Past ~ alone cannot account for present experience: SN 36.21
Past unskillful ~ can’t be “burned away” through ascetic practice: MN 101
The ~ that leads to the ending of ~: AN 4.235
When I perform an action, am I the same person when I experience its results, or am I different? SN 12.46
Why do the results of bad deeds vary from one person to another? AN 3.99
The influence of present and past ~ on the development of skillful qualities: AN 6.86
Five bad actions that you should never do: AN 5.129 (also AN 5.87)
Trying to figure out the results of ~ is sure to drive you crazy: AN 4.77
Inner goodness is measured by the goodness of one’s actions: AN 4.85
Act like a dog, and that’s what you’ll become: MN 57
How ~ accounts for the fortune and misfortune of beings: MN 135
A more detailed explanation of ~: MN 136
Karuṇā
compassion. See also Brahmavihāra.
As a factor leading to liberation: AN 6.13
Systematic practice of ~: SN 42.8
Practicing ~ as a way to deal with annoying people: AN 5.161
Kāyagatāsati
mindfulness of the body See also Satipaṭṭhāna (mindfulness meditation).
The Buddha’s principal teaching on ~: MN 119
Khandha
the five grasping aggregates. See also Body; Upādāna (clinging); Vipassanā (insight).
See the suttas in the Khandhavagga of the Saṁyutta Nikāya.
How we define ourselves in terms of the ~: SN 22.36
A summary of the ~: SN 22.48
Identification with the ~ as the cause of self-view: SN 22.1
Identifying the five ~ as “self” is the cause of affliction: SN 22.1
Voidness of the ~: SN 22.95
Why desire and passion connected with the ~ is worth abandoning: SN 27.10
See each of its constituents:

Khanti
patience, forbearance. See also Anger; Pāramīs.
As one of the greatest protections/blessings: Snp 2.4
Heals the angry person: SN 11.4
How to develop ~: MN 21
Cultivating ~ while being beaten and stabbed (Ven. Punna’s view): SN 35.88
A heated debate between two deities on the merits of ~: SN 11.5
The best response to the insults of others (a story): AN 6.54
Kilesa
defilements, corruptions—passion (lobha), aversion (dosa), and delusion (moha)—in their various forms. See also Anger; Āsava; Avijjā (ignorance); Nīvaraṇa (hindrances).
As a source of harm and suffering in the world: SN 3.23
As putrefaction: AN 3.126
As stains/enemies/murderers/etc.: Iti 88
Abandonment of ~ as a guarantee of non-return: Iti 1–8
~ form the root of unskillful action: Iti 50
~ burn like fire: Iti 93
~ are like dirty stains on an otherwise clean cloth: MN 7
Killing
See also Conflict, Precepts, War.
The one and only thing whose ~ the Buddha approved: SN 1.71
Kusala
skillfulness, wholesomeness. See also Manners; Sīla (virtue).
Understanding ~ and its opposite as the basis for Right View: MN 9

L

Lay Buddhist practice
See also Family; Householders; Marriage; Parents; Precepts.
The definition of various kinds of lay followers: AN 8.25
Five subjects for frequent recollection: AN 5.57
Four qualities leading to a householder’s happiness: AN 8.54
The duties of the layperson: Snp 2.14
The layperson’s code of conduct: DN 31
What it takes for a layperson to become a stream-winner: AN 10.92
How a layperson can best work for the welfare of others: AN 8.26, AN 4.99
Five qualities of a sincere lay follower: AN 5.175
Five rewards a layperson can expect for having conviction: AN 5.38
Actions that only lead to one’s downfall: Snp 1.6
How skillful actions and choices can protect you: Snp 2.4, Kp 5
Development of the first six recollections can be done no matter how busy you are: AN 11.13
How to recognize a lay stream-winner: AN 5.179
Examples of lay stream-winners in the suttas (see Stream-entry): Anāthapiṇḍika, Nakula’s mother (AN 6.16), Suppabuddha the leper (Ud 5.3), Visākhā a.k.a. “Migāra’s Mother”, 500 women who perish in a fire (Ud 7.10).
Laziness
See Sloth and Drowsiness (thīna-middha).
Listening
See also Speech.
How to listen to the Dhamma: AN 6.88
Five rewards in ~ to Dhamma: AN 5.202
Importance of ~ critically to Dhamma: AN 2.46
Livelihood, Right
Actors and comedians—Tālapuṭa’s lesson from the Buddha: SN 42.2
Soldiers—Yodhajīva’s lesson from the Buddha: SN 42.3
Lokadhamma
worldly conditions
The failings of the world: AN 8.6
Five kinds of loss, five kinds of gain: AN 5.130
The perils of fame: SN 17.3, SN 17.5, SN 17.8
Loving-kindness
See Mettā.
Lust
See Sensuality.

M

Māna
conceit
As a motivation for practice: AN 4.159
As a cause of grief: SN 21.2
Ven. Vaṅgīsa admonishes himself to abandon ~: Thag 21
As one of the obsessions (Anusaya): AN 7.11, AN 7.12
As one of the fetters (Saṁyojana): AN 10.13
Manners
See also Kusala (skillfulness); Sīla (virtue).
Respectable people have good ~: AN 7.64
Etiquette and duties for monks: Kd 18
Māra
Ten armies of: Snp 3.2
Maraṇassati
mindfulness of death. See also Death; Illness; Satipaṭṭhāna (kinds of mindfulness meditation).
Death can come at any time; are you ready? AN 6.20
Mindfulness of death should be developed continuously: AN 6.19
As one of the ten Recollections: see Recollections, ten.
Marriage
See also Lay Buddhist Practice.
How to ensure that you’ll be with your spouse in future lives: AN 4.55
Spouses’ duties to each other: DN 31
Meditation
See also Ānāpānassati (mindfulness of breathing); Maraṇassati (mindfulness of death); Mettā (goodwill); Recollections, ten; Satipaṭṭhāna (foundations of mindfulness).
~ is practiced for both one’s own and others’ benefit: SN 16.5, SN 47.19, AN 5.20, AN 7.64
Why bother meditating in the hopes of some future reward when sensual pleasures are available right now? SN 1.20
Isn’t ~ simply a useless and unproductive activity? SN 7.17
~ is a skill to be developed: AN 9.35, AN 9.36
The danger of overestimating one’s progress in ~: MN 105
Formless attainments leading to Nibbāna: MN 106
Merit
See Puñña.
Mettā
goodwill, loving-kindness. See also Brahmavihāra; Pāramīs.
Karaṇīya Mettā Sutta (Discourse on Loving-kindness): Snp 1.8 and Kp 9
As a protection against harm: Kd 15.6, SN 20.5, AN 4.67
As a factor leading to liberation: AN 6.13
Systematic practice of ~: SN 42.8
Eleven benefits of ~: AN 11.16
Even more fruitful than giving: SN 20.4
Course of rebirths to be expected from those who cultivate ~: AN 4.125
Maintain thoughts of ~ no matter how others address you: MN 21
No one is dearer to one than oneself: Ud 5.1
The radiant brightness of ~: Iti 27
As a basis for the development of jhāna: AN 8.63
Practicing ~ as a way to deal with annoying people: AN 5.161
Middle way
Majjhimā paṭipadā
Avoiding extreme views: SN 12.15
Buddha’s first teachings on the ~: SN 56.11
Middle way between indulgence in sensuality and adherence to fixed rituals and precepts: Ud 6.8
Dependent origination as a “middle way” between extremes of views: SN 12.48
Mindfulness
See Sati.
Mind-reading.
One’s own mind: AN 10.51
Another’s mind: See Supranormal powers
Moderation
See also Restraint.
~ with respect to the four requisites: AN 7.64
~ in eating: MN 39, MN 53
Modesty.
As a quality of a great person: AN 8.30
Rare in a person of wealth and power: AN 8.23
Monastic Life
See also Ascetic practices; Vinaya; Work, monastics’.
Permission from one’s parents is a prerequisite for ordination: MN 82
Why it took Ven. Sona so long to go forth: Ud 5.6
Ten things for monks to reflect on often: AN 10.48
The fruits of the homeless life: DN 2
Gradual training for monks: MN 107
How to bring harmony to the community: AN 6.12
Five exhortations for new monks: AN 5.114
What it means to live free of society: SN 22.3
A monk’s duties: Kd 18
Wrong reasons for a monk to go on almsround: Ud 3.8
Do monks really do any useful work? Snp 1.4
Different kinds of monks ought not disparage each other: AN 6.46
What makes a monk worthy of respect? AN 3.94
Money
See also Householders; Wealth.
~ can’t buy true happines: AN 10.46
How to protect and preserve one’s wealth: AN 8.54
Are monks allowed to use money? SN 42.10
Monk
See Monastic Life.
Moral dread
See Ottappa.
Moral shame
See Hiri.
Morality
See Sīla.
Muditā
appreciative/sympathetic joy. See also Brahmavihāra.
As a factor leading to liberation: AN 6.13
Systematic cultivation of ~: SN 42.8
Murder
See also Death.
Fate of those who commit ~: MN 135, SN 3.25

N

Nama-rūpa
name-and-form, mind-and-matter, mentality-materiality. See also Paṭicca-samuppāda (dependent origination).
Understanding of ~ as a basis for Right View: MN 9
Mutual dependence of consciousness and ~: SN 12.67
Nekkhamma
renunciation. See also Celibacy; Gradual instruction; Pāramīs; Restraint; Sensuality.
The bliss of ~: Ud 2.10
Appreciating the value of ~ is a crucial first step in practice: AN 9.41
~ goes “against the flow” (of craving): Iti 109
As the basis for shedding fear of death: AN 4.184
As the escape from sensuality: Iti 72
As a cause for sleeping at ease: AN 3.34
As a profound kind of rest: Snp 5.11, AN 3.38
Nibbāna
extinguishment, quenching. See also Arahant; Awakening; Deathless; Parinibbana; Stream-entry; Vimutti (release).
The foremost: Dhp 184
The foremost ease: Dhp 202
Heedfulness leads one to ~: Dhp 21, Dhp 32
A hallmark of a true brahman: Dhp 414
What lies beyond ~? AN 4.174
~ is the goal; there’s nothing beyond it: MN 144
~ is beyond Māra’s reach: SN 4.19
~ is not a “source” or “ground” from which phenomena (dhamma) arise: MN 1
~ is not itself a phenomenon, but is the final end of phenomena: AN 10.58
Pleasure of ~ exceeds all others: AN 9.34
Two forms of ~ (with fuel remaining, and without fuel remaining): Iti 44
Four qualities to develop that lead one towards ~: AN 4.37
Nibbidā
disenchantment, aversion, and weariness with regard to conditioned phenomena. See also Asubha.
As a mark of practicing Dhamma “in accordance with the Dhamma”: SN 22.39
Nirvāṇa
See Nibbāna.
Nīvaraṇa
hindrances. See also Anger; Desire; Jhāna; Kilesa.
See each of the five hindrances individually:

Feeding and starving the ~: SN 46.51
Antidote: direct the mind towards an inspiring object: SN 47.10
How to abandon the ~: AN 9.64
Abandoning the ~ is a quality that distinguishes the true contemplative: MN 39
Giving to one who has abandoned the ~ brings good results: SN 3.24
~ are to be conquered in all postures: Iti 111
Like canals dissipating the force of a river current: AN 5.51
Noble Eightfold Path
ariya-aṭṭhaṅgika magga. See also Bodhipakkhiya-dhamma.
The individual factors of the Path:

Right View
Sammā-diṭṭhi
Conditions for the arising of ~: MN 43
What is Right View? MN 9
~ is to be used to the point of overcoming attachment to all views: Snp 4.3
Right intention
Sammā-saṅkappa. See also Non-harming.
~ is to be maintained in all postures: Iti 110
Right Speech
sammā-vācā See also Speech.
Speak only words that do no harm: Thag 21
Right Action
sammā-kammanta
Right Livelihood
sammā-ājīva
Right Effort
sammā-vāyāma
Right Mindfulness
sammā-sati
Right Immersion
sammā-samādhi
The central role of ~ in the Eightfold Path: MN 117
Noble silence
second jhāna
~ explained: SN 21.1
No-thinking: Thag 14.1
As a cause for the arising of wisdom: AN 8.2
Either speak Dhamma, or keep noble silence: Ud 2.2
Non-dualism.
Non-dual awareness not the goal: AN 10.29
Non-harming, Non-violence
See also “Right Resolve” in Noble Eightfold Path.
Leads to happiness after death: Dhp 132
As a supporting condition for Awakening: Dhp 270
Isn’t all there is to the Buddhist path: MN 78
The story of Angulimala the bandit: MN 86
How a wise person moves in society: Dhp 49
“The Rod” (Dhammapada chapter 10)
Not-self
See Anattā.
Nutriment
āhāra. See also Food.
~ for the factors of Awakening: SN 46.51
Four types of physical and mental ~: SN 12.63; SN 12.64
Its relationship to dependent origination: SN 12.63; SN 12.11
The need for ~ is what all beings have in common: Kp 1
Nymphs, dove-footed
Ud 3.2

O

Ottappa
prudence, discretion; concern for the results of evil actions. See also Hiri (conscience).
As a quality that distinguishes the true contemplative: MN 39
As a treasure: AN 7.6
As a guardian: AN 2.9
As a quality that safeguards the world: Iti 42

P

Pain
See also Illness; Vedanā (feeling).
Don’t add mental ~ to your physical ~!: SN 36.6
Preventing physical ~ from invading the mind: SN 52.10
The Buddha shows by example how best to handle physical ~: SN 1.38, SN 4.13
Sāriputta’s teachings to a dying Anāthapiṇḍika: MN 143
Mindfulness can protect you from falling into ~’s bottomless pit: SN 36.4
As one of the eight worldly conditions: AN 8.6
Avoiding evil deeds as a way to avoid ~: Ud 5.4
The origin of pleasure and ~: SN 12.25
~ can’t be used to purify oneself of past misdeeds: MN 14
Pañca-sīla
the five precepts. See Precepts
Paññā
discernment, wisdom. See also Pāramīs; Wise person.
Eye of ~: MN 43
Eight requisite conditions for ~: AN 8.2
Which comes first: concentration or ~? AN 3.73
Goes hand-in-hand with jhāna: Dhp 372
As a treasure: AN 7.6
Papañca
complication, objectification, proliferation
As a cause of conflict in the mind: MN 18, DN 21
Pāramīs
perfections.
Not found in the technical sense in the early texts. However, you can look under each of the
constituent factors:

Parents
See also Children; Family.
How to repay the debt we owe to our ~: AN 2.32
The anguish an aging ~ feels when his children show no gratitude: SN 7.14
~ should at least make sure that their children grow up to respect the precepts: Iti 74
One’s ~ should be respected as great teachers and devas: Iti 106
Supporting one’s ~: Snp 2.4
At one time or another, we have all been each other’s ~: SN 15.14
Reverence for one’s ~ as a blessing: Dhp 332
Childrens’ duties to their parents: DN 31
Parents’ duties to their children: DN 31
Permission from one’s ~ is a prerequisite for ordination: MN 82
Parinibbana
total release; complete liberation. See also Nibbāna.
Eye-witness accounts of the Buddha’s ~: SN 6.15
Parisā
The Buddha’s following
The fourfold ~ (monks, nuns, laymen, laywomen) is essential for a full and complete dispensation: DN 16, Kd 1
Householders and monastics depend upon each other: Iti 107
Pasāda
clarity and serene confidence. See also Emotion; Saṁvega.
Paṭicca-samuppāda
dependent origination. See also Saṁsāra.
If you think you understand ~, as did Ven. Ānanda, think again: DN 15
How the world arises and falls according to ~: SN 12.44
A synopsis of ~: SN 12.2
Mutual dependence of consciousness and name-and-form: SN 12.67
Buddha’s rediscovery of ~ on the eve of his Awakening: SN 12.65
Is there someone or something that lies behind the process of ~? SN 12.35
As a cause for the arising of right view: SN 12.15
As a cause for the cessation of wrong views: SN 12.20
As a cause for the ending of the Āsava (defilements): SN 12.23
As a “middle way” between extremes of views: SN 12.35, SN 12.48
The Buddha reflects on ~ for seven days after his Awakening: Ud 1.1–3
The origin of pleasure and pain: SN 12.25
An extended treatment of ~ by the Buddha: DN 15
Its relationship to Nutriment (āhāra): SN 12.63; SN 12.11
See each of its constituent factors:

Patience
See Khanti.
Pātimokkha
monks’ and nuns’ rules of conduct. See Vinaya.
Perception
See Saññā.
Perfections
See Pāramīs.
Peta loka
realm of the hungry ghosts/shades. See Planes of Existence, Thirty-one.
Phassa
contact. See also Paṭicca-samuppāda (dependent origination).
As the conjunction of sense-base + sensory object + sense consciousness: MN 148
Understanding of ~ as a basis for Right View: MN 9
Pīti
rapture; bliss. See also Jhāna.
The pleasure and joy of ~:AN 5.176
Planes of Existence, Thirty-one
See Devas; Hell; Kamma; Peta loka (realm of the hungry ghosts/shades); Sagga (heaven); Saṁsāra.
Pleasure
See also Happiness; Pain; Sensuality; Vedanā (feeling).
The many kinds of pleasure: MN 59
The origin of ~ and pain: SN 12.25
Attending to the ~ of things instead of their dukkha gives rise to attachment: SN 22.60
As one of the eight worldly conditions: AN 8.6
Precepts
See also Lay Buddhist practice; Refuge; Sīla; Uposatha
Different levels of precepts:

Pañcasīla
the Five Precepts (for lay men and women)
The precepts as a gift to oneself and others: AN 8.39
The rewards of observing the precepts: AN 8.39
The consequences of failing to observe the precepts: AN 8.40
Aṭṭhasīla
the Eight Precepts (for lay men and women)
How the ~ practices are to be practiced: AN 8.43
Right and wrong ways of observing ~: AN 3.70
Dasasīla
the Ten Precepts (for novice monks and nuns)
The Bhikkhu Pātimokkha (227 rules for ordained monks); Bhikkhunī Pātimokkha (311 rules for ordained nuns); see also Vinaya.
The present
This present is all there is: MN 131
Protection
See also Precepts; Sīla.
The greatest ~ for the layperson: Snp 2.4
Restraint—the Buddha’s defense policy: SN 3.5
Mettā (goodwill) as a ~ against harm: SN 20.5, AN 4.67
Ten qualities that provide ~ for the mind: AN 10.17
Watching over oneself, one protects others; watching over others, one protects oneself: SN 47.19
Psychic powers
See Supranormal powers.
Puñña
merit, inner wealth, inner goodness
As a blessing: Dhp 331
~ accumulates slowly, like water dripping into a pot: Dhp 122
Benefits of ~ in this life and the next: Dhp 16, Dhp 18
Infidelity erodes one’s accumulated ~: Dhp 310
How to gain immeasurable ~: Dhp 195
Do meritorious deeds to increase your store for future lives: SN 3.20
Don’t be afraid of ~: Iti 22
The arahant’s actions bear no kammic fruit, good or evil: Dhp 39, Dhp 267, Dhp 412
Repeated performance of meritorious deeds brings ease: Dhp 118
Three grounds for meritorious action: Iti 60
As a fund to be looked after: Kp 8
As the means of attaining true happiness: AN 5.43
Is making ~ the best one can aspire to in this short life? SN 2.19

Q

Quarreling
See Conflict.
Questions
See also Diṭṭhi (views); Yoniso manasikāra (appropriate attention).
Four types of ~: AN 4.42
Five motivations behind asking ~: AN 5.165
How to answer ~: AN 3.67
~ not worth asking: DN 9, MN 2, AN 4.77, AN 10.69
~ best answered by silence: SN 44.10
~s that assume an abiding “self” are invalid: SN 12.12
~ the Buddha left unanswered: Avyākata Saṁyutta
How the Buddha handles difficult ~: MN 72

R

Racism
See Caste system.
Radiant Mind
The mind is radiant when freed from defilements: AN 1.49
Rapture
See Pīti.
Realms of Existence
See Planes of Existence.
Rebirth
See also Hell; Jāti (birth); Kamma; Sagga (heaven).
The skillfulness of one’s actions in life determine one’s destination after death: Dhp 17, Dhp 18, Dhp 240
Causes of favorable or unfavorable ~: MN 135, AN 3.65, Dhp 310, Dhp 316
How to gain rebirth as an elephant or a horse: AN 10.177
The laws of kamma and ~ are as inviolable as the law of gravity: SN 42.6
What’s so bad about being reborn? SN 5.6
Why not just settle for rebirth among the devas? SN 5.7
The preciousness of our human birth: SN 20.2, SN 56.48
~ witnessed by Buddha on the night of his Awakening: See Buddha’s Awakening.
Recollections, ten
anussati
Recollection of the Buddha (buddhānussati): SN 11.3, AN 3.70, AN 11.12, AN 11.13, Thag 6.2
Recollection of the Dhamma (dhammānussati): SN 11.3, AN 3.70, AN 11.12, AN 11.13, Thag 6.2; as a governing principle: AN 3.40
Recollection of the Saṅgha (saṅghānussati): SN 11.3, AN 3.70, AN 11.12, AN 11.13, Thag 6.2
Recollection of one’s own virtues (sīlānussati): AN 3.70, AN 11.12, AN 11.13
Recollection of one’s own generosity (cagānussati): AN 11.12, AN 11.13
Recollection of the devas (devatānussati): AN 3.70, AN 11.12, AN 11.13
Mindfulness of death (maraṇassati) (see also Satipaṭṭhāna).
Mindfulness of the body (kāyagatāsati) (see also Satipaṭṭhāna).
Mindfulness of breathing (ānāpānassati) (see also Satipaṭṭhāna).
Recollection of peace (upasamānussati): Iti 90
Reconciliation
Refuge
See also Precepts; Tiratana (the Three Gems).
The formula for going for ~: Kp 1
The supreme ~: Dhp 188
The Dhamma as one’s island and ~: DN 16, SN 47.13, SN 47.14
Release
See Vimutti.
Relics
See also Devotion.
Origin of relic-worship: DN 16
Remorse
See also Sīla.
Two causes of ~: Iti 30
Two causes of no ~: Iti 31
Freedom from ~ is the purpose of developing sīla (virtue): AN 11.1, AN 11.2
Renunciation
See Nekkhamma.
Respect
See also Children; Gratitude; Parents.
What makes a person an elder worthy of ~? AN 2.38
What makes a monk worthy of ~? AN 3.94
As one of the greatest protections/blessings: Snp 2.4
As a basis for acquiring discernment: AN 8.2
As a basis for keeping the Dhamma alive for a long time: AN 7.56
Is there anyone worthy of greater respect than the Buddha? SN 6.2
Restless and worry
uddhacca-kukkucca
Antidote for ~: SN 46.53
Restraint
See also Celibacy; Moderation; Contentment with little; Nekkhamma (renunciation); Sensuality.
Definition of ~: SN 35.206
Benefits of ~: Dhp 7, Dhp 9, Dhp 116, Dhp 360, Dhp 362
As the best protection against harm: SN 3.5
As a quality that distinguishes the true contemplative: MN 39, Dhp 391
~ paves the way to Nibbāna: Dhp 289
As a refuge: AN 3.52
As a support to meditation: DN 2
Like dressing a wound: MN 33, AN 11.18
Like a tortoise protecting itself by withdrawing safely into its shell: SN 35.199
Contentment with little: DN 11
A deva encourages a monk to restrain his wandering mind: SN 9.1
Revenge
The story of Prince Dīghāvu: Kd 10.2.3–20
Right Action
See Noble Eightfold Path.
Right Immersion
See Noble Eightfold Path.
Right Effort
See Noble Eightfold Path.
Right Intention
See Noble Eightfold Path.
Right Livelihood
See Noble Eightfold Path.
Right Mindfulness
See Noble Eightfold Path.
Right Resolve
See Noble Eightfold Path.
Right Speech
See Noble Eightfold Path.
Right View
See Noble Eightfold Path.
Rituals
and ceremonies. See also Devotion; Lay Buddhist practice.
Rites don’t purify the heart; skillful actions do: AN 10.176
Rituals alone can’t take one beyond aging and death: Snp 5.3
Rites and protective charms should be avoided by lay followers: AN 5.175
The best protection comes not from rituals but from generous, moral, and wise actions: Kp 5
Water ablutions cannot wash away one’s past bad kamma: Thig 12.1

S

Sacca
truthfulness. See also Pāramīs.
Saddhā
faith; conviction
As a factor of stream-entry: SN 55.1
~ underlies the practice all the way to the Deathless: MN 70
Five rewards a layperson can expect for having ~: AN 5.38
As a treasure: AN 7.6
Sagga
heaven realms. See also Devas; Gradual instruction; Hell; Kamma; Planes of Existence, Thirty-one.
A rare destination: Dhp 174
Causes of rebirth in ~: Iti 71
Proper use of wealth leads to rebirth in ~: SN 3.19
Sakkāya-diṭṭhi
self-identity view, personality-belief. See also Diṭṭhi (views).
As one of the fetters (Saṁyojana): AN 10.13
As one of the obsessions (Anusaya): AN 7.11, AN 7.12
Like grabbing hold of a branch with a sticky hand: AN 4.178
How ~ comes about: MN 109
How to develop ~: MN 148
How to relinquish ~: MN 148
What is the origin of self-view? SN 41.3
Identifying the five khandhas as “self” is the cause of affliction: SN 22.1
Saḷāyatana
the six sense fields. See also Paṭicca-samuppāda (dependent origination); Sensuality.
Relation between the ~ and the emotions: MN 137
Understanding of ~ as a basis for Right View: MN 9
Contemplation of ~ in terms of not-self: MN 148
Why desire and passion connected with the ~ is worth abandoning: SN 27.1
How becoming consummate in the ~ leads to Awakening: SN 35.153
See the suttas in the Saḷāyatana-saṁyutta of the Saṁyutta Nikāya.
Samādhi
immersion, coalescence, convergence, oneness. Often mistranslated as “concentration”. See also Jhāna; Samatha (tranquillity, calm).
~ is to be developed in all postures: Iti 111
~ is a progressive practice: MN 66
Five-factored noble ~: AN 5.28
Not every state of ~ is wholesome: MN 108
Five realizations that arise from ~ based on the Brahmavihāra (sublime states): AN 5.27
How ~ leads to discernment: SN 22.5
Which comes first: ~ or wisdom? AN 3.73
Four developments of ~: AN 4.41
Samatha
tranquillity, calm. See also Samādhi (immersion); Vipassanā (insight).
~ is developed in tandem with vipassanā (insight): SN 35.205, AN 2.30, AN 4.170, AN 10.71
Sammāppadhāna
the four right exertions. See also Bodhipakkhiya-dhamma; Viriya (persistence, effort).
Sampajañña
situational awarenes, alertness, clear comprehension
As a component of mindfulness: SN 48.10
Saṁsāra
the round of rebirth. See also Kamma (intentional action); Paṭicca-samuppāda (dependent origination); Planes of Existence, Thirty-one.
Lasts long for fools: Dhp 60
Four causes of our long journey in ~: AN 4.1
All the blood we have shed in ~: SN 15.13
All the tears we have shed in ~: SN 15.3
We have suffered hardship in past times: SN 15.11
We have enjoyed happiness in past times: SN 15.12
We wander from birth to birth, as a falling stick sometimes lands on its side, sometimes on its end: SN 15.9
Is a difficult path: Dhp 414
The preciousness of our human birth: SN 20.2, SN 56.48
See the suttas from the Saṁyutta Nikāya on the topic of Saṁsāra.
Saṁvega
spiritual urgency. See also Death; Pasāda.
Danger #1—death threatens from all sides: AN 5.77
Danger #2—the conditions for practice may never again be so good: AN 5.78
Danger #3—there may not always be good teachers around: AN 5.79
Danger #4—the Saṅgha may someday decline: AN 5.80
Who knows?—tomorrow, death may come: MN 131
A call to wake up: Snp 2.10
Death is crashing in on you, like a huge mountain: SN 3.25
Three urgent duties for meditators: AN 3.91
Saṅgha
1. Monastic community; 2. Community of Noble (Awakened) Ones. See also Monastic life; Tiratana (Triple Gem).
Seven conditions for no decline of the Saṅgha: AN 7.21
Concord in the Saṅgha: Iti 19
Saṅgha members are dependent on the lay community: Iti 107
As one of the ten Recollections: See Recollections, ten.
Saṅkhāra
choices, intentions, acts, conditions, causes. See also Khandha (clinging-aggregates); Paṭicca-samuppāda (dependent origination).
Understanding of ~ as a basis for Right View: MN 9
Saṁyojana
fetter
Listed: AN 10.13
Saññā
perception, naming, labeling. See also Khandha (clinging-aggregates).
Four erroneous perceptions that keep you trapped in Saṁsāra: AN 4.49
Six important aspects of ~ to be understood: AN 6.63
Why desire and passion connected with ~ is worth abandoning: SN 27.6
Sati
mindfulness. See also Meditation; Satipaṭṭhāna.
The Buddha praises Ven. Cula Panthaka’s mindfulness: Ud 5.10
Definition of ~: SN 48.10
As a quality of a great person: AN 8.30
Satipaṭṭhāna
kinds of mindfulness meditation; foundations or establishments of mindfulness. See also Ānāpānassati (mindfulness of breathing); Bodhipakkhiya-dhamma; kāyagatāsati (mindfulness of the body); Maraṇassati (mindfulness of death); Sati (mindfulness).
See the suttas in the Satipaṭṭhāna-saṁyutta of the Saṁyutta Nikāya
As a basis for the development of jhāna: AN 8.63
Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta (The Discourse on the Kinds of Mindfulness Meditation MN 10)
Seclusion
See Viveka.
Self-view
See Sakkāya-diṭṭhi.
Sensuality
See also Asubha (unattractiveness, loathsomeness); Body; Nekkhamma (renunciation); Pleasure; Restraint; Saḷāyatana (six sense-media); Upādāna (clinging).
As a yoke: AN 4.10
As a flood: SN 45.171
The allures and drawbacks of ~: MN 13
Dangers of: MN 45
What’s wrong with sensual pleasures? SN 5.6
Like falling into debt: AN 6.45
Be careful with ~ as you would a venomous snake: Snp 4.1
Clinging to sense-pleasures is a fetter: Ud 7.3
Like a fish caught in a trap: Ud 7.4
Like a suckling calf dependent on its mother: Ud 7.4
Renouncing ~ brings an even higher happiness: Ud 3.2
Six important aspects of ~ to be understood: AN 6.63
Ānanda’s advice to Vaṅgīsa on overcoming lust: Thag 21
The source of ~ lies in the mind’s passionate response to sense-objects, not in the objects themselves: AN 6.63
Separation from what is dear and appealing
See also Dukkha.
Sexual intercourse
See also Sensuality.
~ is to be abandoned: AN 4.159
Sexual misconduct
See also Precepts; Sīla.
As a cause of one’s downfall: Dhp 309
Causes of promiscuity: AN 2.9
Shame (moral)
See Hiri.
Sickness
See Illness.
Sīla
virtue; morality; ethics; behavior. See also Gradual instruction; Manners; Pāramīs; Precepts; Uposatha.
If you truly care about your welfare, then develop your inner goodness: SN 3.4
As the foundation upon which the entire path is built: AN 11.1, AN 11.2
As a quality that distinguishes the true contemplative: MN 39
As one of the ten Recollections: see Recollections, ten.
As a treasure: AN 7.6
Guard your ~ well: Iti 76
The Buddha’s instructions to his young son: MN 61
Sāriputta’s teachings to a dying Anāthapiṇḍika: MN 143
Admirable ~: Iti 97
How to recognize a virtuous person: AN 4.192, Ud 6.2
How to recognize a wise person: AN 3.2
The layperson’s code of conduct: DN 31
Development of ~ as a way to ease the inevitable bad results of one’s past bad deeds: SN 42.8
Results of transgressing the precepts: AN 8.40
Rewards of observing the precepts: AN 8.39
Rewards of skillful conduct; drawbacks of unskillful conduct: AN 2.18
Standards of ~ for contemplatives: DN 2
Claiming to be enlightened does not justify unrestrained behavior: MN 105
Heightened ~ (adhisīla): AN 3.88
Simplicity.
As a quality of a great person: AN 8.30
Sleep
See also Sloth and Drowsiness (thīna-middha).
How to get a good night’s ~: SN 10.8, AN 3.34, AN 11.16, Dhp 79, Dhp 168
Sleepiness
See Sloth and Drowsiness (thīna-middha).
Sloth and Drowsiness
thīna-middha. See also Nīvaraṇa (hindrances); Sleep; Viriya (effort).
Antidote for ~ in meditation: SN 46.53, AN 7.58
The eight grounds for laziness: AN 8.80
Excuses: “It’s too cold to meditate. It’s too hot… It’s too…”: Thag 3.5
As an obstruction to Awakening: Iti 34
Smile
What makes the Buddha ~: AN 5.180, Thag 12.2
Social Action
The Buddha attends to a monk with dysentery: Kd 8.26.1–8
How a layperson can best work for the welfare of others: AN 8.26, AN 4.99
Solitude
See Viveka.
Speech
See also Listening; Noble silence; “Right Speech” in Noble Eightfold Path.
The definition: SN 45.8
Speak only words that do no harm: Thag 21
Self-purification through well-chosen speech: AN 10.176
Its relation to the other factors of the path: MN 117
The criteria for deciding what is worth saying: MN 58, Snp 3.3
Reflect on your speech, before, during, and after speaking: MN 61
Kinds of speech to be avoided by contemplatives: DN 2, SN 56.9
How to admonish another skillfully: AN 10.44
The criteria for determining whether something should be said: MN 58
Five aspects of suitable ~: MN 21
Five keys to blameless ~: AN 5.198
Ten kinds of praiseworthy ~: AN 10.70
Four ways to answer a question: AN 4.42
Lying is to be avoided: Iti 25
Sensual desire is usually the motive behind telling lies: SN 3.7
The nature of well-spoken ~: Snp 3.3
The results of various kinds of wrong ~: AN 8.40
Right ~ does not mean total frankness or openness: AN 4.183
Ten topics of proper conversation: AN 10.69
Either speak Dhamma, or keep noble silence: Ud 2.2
Stream-entry
sotapatti. See also Nibbāna; Lay Buddhist Practice (for examples of lay stream-winners); Wise person.
Better than ruling the world or going to heaven: SN 55.1, Dhp 178
Six rewards of ~: AN 6.97
Upon ~, one does away with a vast amount of suffering: SN 13.1, SN 13.2, SN 13.8
Like a thirsty traveler looking into a well: SN 12.68
How to recognize a lay stream-winner: AN 5.179
The kind of conviction and discernment required to attain ~: SN 35.1–10
What it takes for a layperson to become a stream-winner: AN 10.92
How appropriate attention (yoniso manasikāra) leads to ~: SN 22.122
The four factors of ~ (and their variations): SN 55.30, SN 55.31, SN 55.32, SN 55.33, AN 10.92
How to recognize—and become—a person of integrity: MN 110
Why doubt does not arise in a stream-winner: AN 7.51
The teaching that led Ven. Ānanda to ~: SN 22.83
Suicide
See also Death.
Sappadasa chooses life: Thag 6.6
Supranormal powers
Is the development of ~ a prerequisite for enlightenment? SN 12.70
Clairaudience: DN 2, DN 11
Ending of the taints/defilements (Āsava): DN 2,DN 11
Mind-reading: DN 2, DN 11, AN 3.60
Passing away and reappearance of beings: DN 2, DN 11
Recollection of past lives: DN 2, DN 11
As a miracle: AN 3.60
As the fruit of five-factored noble concentration: AN 5.28
How to reduce a pile of wood to its constituent elements: AN 6.41
Drawbacks of ~: DN 11
A monk displays his ~: SN 41.4
Beware: you can’t hide from those with ~: AN 3.40

T

Taints
See Āsava.
Taṇhā
craving. See also Kilesa (defilements); Paṭicca-samuppāda (dependent origination); Sensuality.
As a motivation for practice: AN 4.159
Understanding of ~ as a basis for Right View: MN 9
As a fetter: Iti 15
Abandoning ~ for what one holds dear: Snp 5.8
The many kinds of thoughts motivated by ~: AN 4.199
~ causes your thoughts to be influenced by the opinions of others: AN 4.200
See the verses in the Dhammapada on craving.
Why desire and passion connected with ~ is worth abandoning: SN 27.8
Teaching the Dhamma
See also Kalyanamittata.
The Buddha teaches only dukkha and its cessation: MN 22
The Buddha’s simile on ~: SN 22.84
Three kinds of mindfulness meditation for becoming a fit teacher: MN 137
Ven. Isidatta wisely declines a teaching invitation from his elders: SN 41.3
How to teach Dhamma: AN 4.111
Meditators and Dhamma scholars: Do not disparage each other!: AN 6.46
Don’t teach what you don’t know: AN 10.24
The Buddha doesn’t hold back any esoteric teachings: DN 16
A skilled teacher is like a ferry-man: Snp 2.8
Dhamma should not be taught for the purpose of material reward: AN 5.159
Five prerequisites to teaching the Dhamma to others: AN 5.159
Teaching alone doesn’t mean you’re truly committed to the Dhamma: AN 5.73
How to recognize authentic teachings: AN 3.72, AN 7.79, AN 8.53
Examples of lay Dhamma teachers: Anāthapiṇḍika (AN 10.93); Citta (SN 41.7)
How to choose—and learn from—a teacher: MN 95
How to recognize a teacher: AN 4.192
Three kinds of Dhamma teachers: DN 12
Dhamma teaching compared to medical treatment: AN 3.22
The Buddha asks who is his teacher: Dhp 353
Tevijjā
Threefold knowledge realized by the Buddha during his Awakening. See also Buddha.
Descriptions of ~: MN 19, MN 125
What makes one a true brahman: Iti 99
Various monks and nuns realize the ~: SN 35.88 (Ven. Punna), AN 8.30 (Ven. Anuruddha), Thag 5.1 (Ven. Rājadatta), Thag 6.6 (Ven. Sappadasa), Thag 7.1 (Ven. Sundara Samudda), Thig 5.11 (Ven. Sister Paṭacāra), Thig 5.12 (Ven. Sister Candā), Ud 3.3 (500 monks)
Thinking
See Thought.
Thought
Habitual ways of thinking: MN 19
Three kinds of unskillful ~: Iti 87
Three kinds of skillful ~: Iti 87
Distracting thoughts.
How to overcome speculative thinking: SN 5.10
The Relaxation of Thoughts (Vitakkasaṇṭhāna Sutta, MN 20)
Tilakkhaṇa
the three characteristics of existence. See also Vipassanā (insight).
See each one individually:
Anicca (impermanence)
Dukkha (unsatisfactoriness)
Anattā (not-self)
As marking the path to Awakening: Dhp 277–9
As true regardless of the existence of a Buddha: AN 3.134
Tirataṇa
the Triple Gem. See also Refuge.
Verified confidence in ~ as a factor of stream-entry: SN 55.1
Tisaraṇa
the Threefold Refuge
Truthfulness
See Sacca.

U

Unattractiveness
See Asubha.
Unbinding
See Nibbāna.
Universe, origin and fate of
See Questions not worth asking.
Upādāna
clinging. See also Khandha; Paṭicca-samuppāda (dependent origination).
Understanding of ~ as a basis for Right View: MN 9
Aṭṭhaka Vagga (The Octet Chapter)—Snp 4
Upekkhā
equanimity. See also Brahmavihāra; Pāramīs;
As a factor leading to liberation: AN 6.13
Systematic practice of ~: SN 42.8
~ with respect to the sense faculties: MN 152
Three kinds of ~: SN 36.31
Practicing ~ as a way to deal with annoying people: AN 5.161
Uposatha
sabbath, observance day. See also Sīla.
How the eight ~ practices are to be practiced: AN 8.43
Right and wrong ways of observing the ~: AN 3.70
If you choose to observe the ~, do so consistently: AN 10.46

V

Vedanā
feeling. See also Khandha (clinging-aggregates); Pain; Paṭicca-samuppāda (dependent origination).
Understanding of ~ as a basis for Right View: MN 9
Whatever is felt is a form of dukkha: SN 36.11
Seeing even pleasurable ~ as stressful: SN 36.5, Iti 53
Seeing ~ as not-self: DN 15
Three kinds of ~: Iti 52, Iti 53
Six important aspects of ~ to be understood: AN 6.63
Why desire and passion connected with ~ is worth abandoning: SN 27.5
See the suttas in the Vedanā-saṁyutta of the Saṁyutta Nikāya
Vedanta
See Comparative religions.
Vegetarianism
Views
See Diṭṭhi.
Vimutti
release, deliverance. See also Awakening.
From what is one released? AN 10.81
Released through awareness: AN 6.13
Four kinds of awareness-release: SN 41.7
Released through discernment: AN 9.44
Released “both ways”: AN 9.45
The Buddha’s question-and-answer session concerning release: Snp 5
Vinaya
See also Monastic Life.
Basic principles of: AN 8.53
A monk’s duties: Kd 18
How to know if a particular action is allowable: Kd 6.40.1
The standards of sīla for contemplatives: DN 2
Are monks allowed to use money? SN 42.10
The Bhikkhu Pātimokkha: The Bhikkhus’ Code of Discipline
The Bhikkhunī Pātimokkha: The Bhikkhunīs’ Code of Discipline
Viññāṇa
consciousness. See also Khandha (clinging-aggregates); Paṭicca-samuppāda (dependent origination).
Understanding of ~ as a basis for Right View: MN 9
Why desire and passion connected with ~ is worth abandoning: SN 27.3
Mutual dependence of ~ and name-and-form: SN 12.67
Violence
See Non-violence.
Vipassanā
insight. See also Samatha (tranquillity); Tilakkhaṇa (three characteristics of existence).
~ is developed in tandem with samatha (tranquillity): SN 35.205, AN 2.30, AN 4.170, AN 10.71
How ~ can be developed during or immediately after jhāna: MN 111
As direct knowledge of the five aggregates (khandha):
Analyzing the five aggregates until their appeal is shattered: SN 23.2
Developing skill in applying the four noble truths to the five aggregates: SN 22.56
Developing skill in seeing seven qualities in each of the five aggregates: SN 22.57
A contemplation for every meditator, from beginner to arahant: SN 22.122
Like taking apart a lute in search of its sound: SN 35.205
As direct knowledge of the six sense bases (saḷāyatana): MN 149
Reflection on not-self as a basis for insight: SN 22.59
Virāga
dispassion
Highest of all Dhammas: Iti 90, Dhp 273
The arahant as having gone beyond both passion and ~: Snp 4.4, Snp 4.6, Snp 4.10
“In the seen there is only the seen…”: SN 35.95, Ud 1.10
Viriya
effort, energy. See also Pāramīs; Saṁvega; Sloth and Drowsiness (thīna-middha).
Needed for final attainment of truth: MN 95
Wake up!: Snp 2.10
As a quality of a great person: AN 8.30
Five factors that sustain ~: AN 5.53
Virtue
See Sīla.
Viveka
seclusion, solitude. See also Wilderness.
Thoughts of ~ are the mark of a great person: AN 8.30
The pleasure of ~: AN 5.30, AN 6.42
True seclusion is found within: SN 9.1, SN 21.10
It’s better to be alone than in the company of fools: Dhp 61, Dhp 328–330
Delighting in the wilds—the mark of a wise person: Dhp 305, Dhp 395, Thag 3.8
“Wander alone, a rhinoceros”: Snp 1.3
The monks’ way of life in the wilds: Snp 3.11, Snp 4.9, Snp 4.16

W

Wakefulness
See also Appamāda (heedfulness).
As a quality that distinguishes the true contemplative: MN 39
Walking meditation
See also Meditation.
Benefits of ~: AN 5.29
War
See also Anger; Conflict.
In ~, there is no winning side: SN 3.14, SN 3.15
Only forbearance, never revenge, can bring an end to ~: Kd 10.2.3–20
Hostility can never be conquered with hostility: Dhp 3
What kind of rebirth can a soldier expect? SN 42.3
Wealth
See also Money; Dhana (treasures); Puñña (merit, inner wealth).
The ~ of a householder vs. the ~ of one who has lived the renunciate life to its culmination: Snp 1.2
Downfall caused by stinginess: Snp 1.6
How ~ should be both shared and enjoyed: SN 3.19
Actions that lead to the loss of one’s material ~: DN 31
~ can’t buy true happines: AN 10.46
Focusing on material gain leads one away from Nibbāna: Dhp 75
Five skillful ways of using one’s ~: AN 5.41
How a family can preserve its ~: AN 4.255
How to safeguard one’s material ~: AN 8.54
Relative value of material and spiritual ~: Ud 2.2
The bliss that arises from using ~ wisely: AN 4.62
Few are those who don’t get intoxicated by ~: SN 3.6
Contentment is the greatest ~: Dhp 204
Wedding
See Marriage.
Well, parable of the: Ud 7.9
Wilderness
See also Forest traditions; Nature; Viveka (seclusion, solitude).
Where ardent meditators prefer to dwell: Dhp 99, Dhp 305, Dhp 395
Mountains, forests, and grasslands: Dhp 188, Thag 1.41, Thag 1.113, Thag 3.5, Thag 19, Thig 3.4
Qualities required for living in the ~: AN 4.259
As a suitable place for meditation: DN 12, DN 22, MN 118, MN 119, SN 11.3, AN 5.76, AN 8.86, etc.
As a place to sleep at ease: AN 3.34
What can one possibly accomplish by living in the forest, just meditating? SN 7.17
In the ~, the Buddha comes face-to-face with his fear: MN 4
In the ~, the Buddha shows by example how best to handle physical pain: SN 1.38, SN 4.13
Wandering like a wild deer: Snp 1.3
~ is for those not seeking sensual delight: Dhp 99
The Buddha exhorts others to seek out ~: AN 5.114
The hazards of the ~ as an incentive to meditate: AN 5.77
Proper attitude for living with hardship in the ~: Thag 3.8, Thag 5.8
Why do those who live in the forest look so happy? SN 1.10
Craving follows you, even into the ~: SN 35.63
A lonely monk briefly considers leaving the forest: SN 9.9
An early example of “wilderness poetry”: Thag 18
Ven. Mahā Kassapa’s life in the forest: Thag 18
Why Ven. Mahā Kassapa chose to live in the forest: SN 16.5
Wings to Awakening
See Bodhipakkhiya-dhamma.
Wisdom
See Paññā.
Wise person
See also Paññā (discernment, wisdom).
How to recognize a ~: AN 3.2, AN 4.35, AN 4.192, Ud 6.2
What distinguishes the ~ from the fool: SN 12.19, AN 2.21, AN 2.98, AN 4.115
It’s better to be alone than in the company of fools: Dhp 61, Dhp 328–330
What the ~ and the fool have in common: MN 33, AN 11.18
Wise reflection
See Yoniso manasikāra.
Women
The thought, “Women can’t attain Awakening” is not to be believed: SN 5.2
Bhikkhunī-saṁyutta—stories concerning nuns and their battles with Mara (from the Saṁyutta Nikāya)
Verses of the Elder Nuns (Therīgāthā)
The Bhikkhunī Pātimokkha: The Bhikkhunīs’ Code of Discipline
Work, monastics’
See also Monastic life.
Do contemplatives do any useful work? (various answers): SN 7.17; Thig 13.2; Snp 1.4.
World, origin of
See Questions not worth asking.
Worship
See Devotion.

XYZ

Yoniso manasikāra
appropriate attention; wise reflection. See also the first six of the Ten Recollections; Questions.
What things should one attend to with ~? SN 22.122
A remedy for a mind consumed by unskillful thoughts: SN 9.11
As a condition for right view: AN 2.125–126
As the key to abandoning greed, hatred, delusion: AN 3.68
As an important quality to develop: Iti 16
As a means to ending the Āsava: MN 2

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2627 Mon 21 May LESSON Awakened One With Awareness Buddha’s Teachings in 4 Words Do Good Be Mindful ! There is a terrific free tool out there — the Digital Pali Reader (SourceForge has a copy) — that has the entire canon in Pali. Load it up, load up a sutta, click on a word, and it will offer definitions and a tiny little “c” near the word will provide conjugations. I recommend this more than I can express. If you really want to dig into the Tipitaka, there is no better way than comparing translations, and checking out the various meanings of the words you question in the Pali.
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 9:51 am



2627 Mon 21  May  LESSON

Awakened One With Awareness Buddha’s Teachings in 4 Words
Do Good Be Mindful !


There is a terrific free tool out
there — the Digital Pali Reader (SourceForge has a copy) — that has the
entire canon in Pali. Load it up, load up a sutta, click on a word, and
it will offer definitions and a tiny little “c” near the word will
provide conjugations. I recommend this more than I can express. If you
really want to dig into the Tipitaka, there is no better way than
comparing translations, and checking out the various meanings of the
words you question in the Pali.


Outlook.com - rsullivan44@hotmail.comAnguttara Nikaya


5 nikayas
Digha Nikaya
Majjhima Nikaya
Samyutta Nikaya
Anguttara Nikaya


To get an overview of what the Buddha
taught. Many of the lessons in the Tipitaka overlap between nikayas,
and a general understanding of Buddhism can be obtained by purchasing
just one of these books, or by getting an anthology like In the Buddha’s
Words by Bhikkhu Bodhi.

In the Buddha’s Words is, arguably, the
best anthology of the Tipitaka available. It features lucid translations
of the most important suttas needed for awakenment.

Read a nikaya from beginning
to end, with only some of the repetitions removed,
 
The Majjhima Nikaya

It’s the most balanced of the 5
nikayas.
The suttas aren’t too short or too long, and most of the
Buddha’s principal teachings on loving-kindness, meditation, and nibanna
can be found here. The online audio series A Systematic Study of the
Majjhima Nikaya compliments


But be warned:
Nikayas aren’t easy to get through. If you’re new to the Tipitaka, I
suggest purchasing an anthology first, or reading through the suttas
that are freely available on Access to Insight.


There are three baskets, and a great deal has been translated into English.


If you start with the suttas — when you get through all of those , the
second basket is the monastic code (the Vinaya) and it is already fully
translated into English, so you can work through that. Then at least the
major works of the third basket, the commentaries, have also been
translated so you can work on those. If you still want all the rest,
you’ll be well-prepared to translate them yourself. But I suspect you’ll
find most of what you need within the suttas.

There is a terrific free tool out
there — the Digital Pali Reader (SourceForge has a copy) — that has the
entire canon in Pali. Load it up, load up a sutta, click on a word, and
it will offer definitions and a tiny little “c” near the word will
provide conjugations. I recommend this more than I can express. If you
really want to dig into the Tipitaka, there is no better way than
comparing translations, and checking out the various meanings of the
words you question in the Pali.

One thing about the use of
language in the Buddha’s time (maybe it is even still true in India) is
that his culture accepted that any single word could have many meanings
and rather than doing as we do and confining meaning to one — saying
“but I only meant definition #3” — they tend to work with all the
meanings simultaneously. It provides quite a workout for the mind! This
is why looking up the words provides a richness you’ll never get from
reading translations.

Pali Canon is huge. And since it’s a language which has not been in
active use for centuries it’s hard to determine the exact meaning of
some words. The interest of western academics in the Pali Canon is
relatively recent and does not date some 2000 years back to the times of
the much more investigated Greek scriptures. There are some places,
suttacentral.net being one of them, which cover many suttas.


This is a common view from people coming from a background where belief
in a holy book is a huge part of the belief system. When you get a
little knowledgeable about the Buddhist suttas you find that Gautama
Buddha very often referred to common knowledge and the natural way of
things. Since we are born we are subject to illness, ageing, old age and
death. That’s something we can all observe in our life.
Or he would
point to a fire and ask: where does the flame go when it goes out? Does
it go west, east, south, north? Or maybe up or down? With such a
statement he would indicate that a question with the wrong formulation
would not give the desired answer.

If you get to know Buddhist
culture and background you will find that there is not a single person
claiming enlightenment based only on reading the Pali Canon. Sometimes
insight might rise while reading in it, yet the core of Buddhism is
practice, doing. And this is a frequently recurring theme in the suttas.
We see Gautama Buddha stressing time after time to stop certain
lifestyles, to cultivate other lifestyles, to stop bad behaviour, to
start good behaviour. And once doing this results in a less stressful
life, he would provide basic instructions into meditation.

Yet
this meditation, often thought to be meditation on the breath, is
something which is less explained in the suttas. This is not because
it’s very obvious, it’s because there are several ways of meditating and
each has different benefits. The core meditation is body contemplation,
the instructions given to monks who are send of on their own: hair on
the head, hair on the body, teeth, nails and skin. Yet unfortunate
events showed that not all monks could handle the mental pressure that’s
involved in such meditation and to counter the disturbance it caused
instructions on meditation on the breath were given because of it’s
calming effects.

In the end, all knowledge you need to acquire is
already inside you, in this body, in this mind, in the thoughts that
rise, in the feelings that keep appearing. It’s the same story over and
over: something starts and with that the process of ending starts. When
we breath in, we cannot breath out at the same time. The start of one
means that the other one has to end. And when we breath in, we know we
have to breath out at a certain point. Without the process of breathing
in followed by breathing out, over and over, we cannot survive. And we
can find this process all over in our body and mind.



The Pali Canon does not provide the answer, the answer is found in
practice and focus on the components of self. And you carry these along
your entire life.
The ‘opinion’ of the Buddha is not important, one
of his close followers remarks in a sutta when asked about his viewpoint
that he knows that viewpoints are stressful and that this knowledge is
sufficient for him. We find something similar with certain teachings,
one person asking questions is not answered, another asking a slightly
different question receives a detailed explanation. The skill and
knowledge of the questioner is taken into consideration while answering.


Decades ago I learned something that’s still of great value to me: you
cannot trust a single translation of ‘holy scriptures’. Either you learn
the language yourself and dig in (I did that with biblical greek) or
you take several translations which will show you the similarities and
differences in the translation of the word, indicating that on some
words there is agreement and on other there is none. It will also show
you a bit of the dogmatic interpretations of some translators. Being
bi-langual is an even greater advantage, you can read the interpretation
in two languages which might reveal nuances not present in a single
language.
Doing this with the Pali Canon is almost madness. Remember, it’s huge.
But it’s not needed. Take one or two suttas, get to understand them in
any way and see if they point to the body or mind. If so, the sutta can
be used as a guide in practice, which has the highest priority.


As last remark: there is a firefox (browser) plugin that offers the Pali
canon with a huge dictionary. You’d have to translate yourself, yet
it’s one of the closest ways you can get to the actual words in the Pali
Canon. Yet without understanding context on living conditions and
religious beliefs some 2500 years ago in Nepal and India you are bound
to make mistakes on interpretation.

Modern
Western culture’s interest in the Pali canon only goes back to the late
19th century. Recall that it took hundreds of years for the transmission
of Buddhism into China; consider Xuanzang’s efforts at translation - it
took him the rest of his life and continued on with his disciples. Good
translation requires a rare combination of rigorous scholarship, strong
grasp of Pali, ability to write well in English, and time.


Consider the size of of the Tipitaka - several bookshelves!!! Consider
the obstacles in publishing something that, especially before computers.

Less interested
in the Vinaya (rules for monastics) or the Abidharma (commentaries).
That leaves the Suttas (sutra). Various sutras, including multiple
English translations of the same text in Pali, are on Access to Insight.
For published books, I’d go with works by @Bhikkhu Bodhi.

Where
to start? I highly recommend Bhikkhu Bodhi’s anthology In the Buddha’s
Words, and then choose a translation of the Dhammapada. Once you’ve got a
good grasp on Buddhist concepts and terminology, get Bhikkhu Bodhi’s
other translations (with his associated lectures available online as
audio or video) or get another anthology, Handful of Leaves by
Thannisaro Bhikkhu.

So in this
case, Kalamas, don’t go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by
scripture, by logical deduction, by inference, by analogies, by
agreement through pondering views, by probability, or by the thought,
‘This contemplative is our teacher.’

- from Kalama Sutta: To the Kalamas, with translator’s associated essay at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/…/thani…/lostinquotation.html


First, if you are really seriously concerned with the quality of the
translations, you should learn Pali.

Seriously, without
the necessary cultural and historical context, it is a fool’s errand to
think you can interpret the Pali Canon on your own.

living well, day to day, according to Buddhism, does not require
intimate knowledge of the Tipitaka. Follow the first five precepts, and
obey Jesus’ second commandment (Love your neighbor as yourself.), and
you are covered from a behavioral standpoint.

All the rest isn’t
anything more than a dry intellectual exercise unless you meditate. And
there are online and remote resources available for training in
meditation.

There is a lot of repetition in the Pali
Canon. By the time you have exhausted the parts of the Canon that have
already been translated, if you are still into it, I expect you will be
good and ready to learn Pali for yourself.
It’s as simple as reading everything you can find. Apply analytical meditation and debate. Decide for yourself.


Dwell making yourselves your island, making yourselves your refuge, and not anyone else your refuge. - the Buddha

23) Classical English
2627 Mon 21 May  LESSON
Awakened One With Awareness Buddha’s Teachings in 5 Words
Always Do Good Be Mindful !
For full explanation
Please visit:
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Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University and
related NEWS through 
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in
 105 CLASSICAL
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From:
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That is your LESSON

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http://www.palicanon.org/
Pali Canon Online

The Original Words of the Buddha
The Origin of the Pali Canon

‘Suppose
a monk were to say: “Friends, I heard and received this from the Lord’s
own lips: this is the Dhamma, this is the discipline, this is the
Master’s teaching”, then, monks, you should neither approve nor
disapprove his words. Then, without approving or disapproving, his words
and ex­pressions should be carefully noted and compared with the Suttas
and reviewed in the light of the discipline. If they, on such
comparison and review, are found not to conform to the Suttas or the
discipline, the conclusion must be: “Assuredly this is not the word of
the Buddha, it has been wrongly un­derstood by this monk”, and the
matter is to be rejected. But where on such comparison and review they
are found to con­form to the Suttas or the discipline, the conclusion
must be: “Assuredly this is the word of the Buddha, it has been rightly
understood by this monk.”

- DN 16 Mahāparinibbāna Sutta - The Great Passing, The Buddha’s Last Days
The
authentic teachings of Gotama the Buddha have been preserved and handed
down to us and are to be found in the Tipiṭaka. The Pāli word,
‘Tipiṭaka’, literally means ‘the three baskets’ (ti=three +
piṭaka=collections of scriptures). All of the Buddha’s teachings were
divided into three parts.

1. The first part is known as the Vinaya Piṭaka and it contains all the rules which Buddha laid down for monks and nuns.
2. The second part is called the Suttaṅta Piṭaka and it contains the Discourses.
3. The third part is known as the Abhidhamma Piṭaka and comprises the psycho-ethical teachings of the Buddha.

It
is known, that whenever the Buddha gave a discourse to his ordained
disciples or lay-followers or prescribed a monastic rule in the course
of his forty-five year ministry, those of his devoted and learned monks,
then present would immediately commit his teachings word for word to
memory. Thus the Buddha’s words were preserved accurately and were in
due course passed down orally from teacher to pupil. Some of the monks
who had heard the Buddha preach in person were Arahants, and so by
definition, ‘pure ones’ free from passion, ill-will and delusion and
therefore, was without doubt capable of retaining, perfectly the
Buddha’s words. Thus they ensured that the Buddha’s teachings would be
preserved faithfully for posterity.

Even those devoted monks who
had not yet attained Arahantahood but had reached the first three stages
of sainthood and had powerful, retentive memories could also call to
mind word for word what the Buddha had preached and so could be worthy
custodians of the Buddha’s teachings. One such monk was Ānanda, the
chosen attendant and constant companion of the Buddha during the last
twenty-five years of the his life. Ānanda was highly intelligent and
gifted with the ability to remember whatever he had heard. Indeed, it
was his express wish that the Buddha always relate all of his discourses
to him and although he was not yet an Arahanta he deliberately
committed to memory word for word all the Buddha’s sermons with which he
exhorted monks, nuns and his lay followers. The combined efforts of
these gifted and devoted monks made it possible for the Dhamma and
Vinaya, as taught by the Buddha to be preserved in its original state.

The
Pāli Tipiṭaka and its allied literature exists as a result of the
Buddha’s discovery of the noble and liberating path of the pure Dhamma.
This path enables all those who follow it to lead a peaceful and happy
life. Indeed, in this day and age we are fortunate to have the authentic
teachings of the Buddha preserved for future generations through the
conscientious and concerted efforts of his ordained disciples down
through the ages. The Buddha had said to his disciples that when he was
no longer amongst them, that it was essential that the Saṅgha should
come together for the purpose of collectively reciting the Dhamma,
precisely as he had taught it. In compliance with this instruction the
first Elders duly called a council and systematically ordered all the
Buddha’s discourses and monastic rules and then faithfully recited them
word for word in concert.

The
teachings contained in the Tipiṭaka are also known as the Doctrine of
the Elders [Theravāda]. These discourses number several hundred and have
always been recited word for word ever since the First Council was
convened. Subsequently, more Councils have been called for a number of
reasons but at every one of them the entire body of the Buddha’s
teaching has always been recited by the Saṅgha participants, in concert
and word for word. The first council took place three months after the
Buddha’s attainment of Mahāparinibbāṇa and was followed by five more,
two of which were convened in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
These collective recitations which were performed by the monks at all
these Dhamma Councils are known as the ‘Dhamma Saṅgītis’, the Dhamma
Recitations. They are so designated because of the precedent set at the
First Dhamma Council, when all the Teachings were recited first by an
Elder of the Saṅgha and then chanted once again in chorus by all of the
monks attending the assembly. The recitation was judged to have been
authentic, when and only when, it had been approved unanimously by the
members of the Council. What follows is a brief history of the Six
Councils.

The First Council

King Ajātasattu sponsored the
First Council. It was convened in 544 B.C. in the Sattapaāāī Cave
situated outside Rājagaha three months after the Buddha had passed away.
A detailed account of this historic meeting can be found in the
Cūllavagga of the Vinaya Piṭaka. According to this record the incident
which prompted the Elder Mahākassapa to call this meeting was his
hearing a disparaging remark about the strict rule of life for monks.
This is what happened. The monk Subhadda, a former barber, who had
ordained late in life, upon hearing that the Buddha had expired, voiced
his resentment at having to abide by all the rules for monks laid down
by the Buddha. Many monks lamented the passing of the Buddha and were
deeply grieved. However, the Elder Mahākassapa heard Subhadda say:
‘’Enough your Reverences, do not grieve, do not lament. We are well rid
of this great recluse (the Buddha). We were tormented when he said,
‘this is allowable to you, this is not allowable to you’ but now we will
be able to do as we like and we will not have to do what we do not
like'’. Mahākassapa was alarmed by his remark and feared that the Dhamma
and the Vinaya might be corrupted and not survive intact if other monks
were to behave like Subhadda and interpret the Dhamma and the Vinaya
rules as they pleased. To avoid this he decided that the Dhamma must be
preserved and protected. To this end after gaining the Saṅgha’s approval
he called to council five hundred Arahants. Ānanda was to be included
in this provided he attained Arahanthood by the time the council
convened. With the Elder Mahākassapa presiding, the five-hundred Arahant
monks met in council during the rainy season. The first thing
Mahākassapa did was to question the foremost expert on the Vinaya of the
day, Venerable Upāli on particulars of the monastic rule. This monk was
well qualified for the task as the Buddha had taught him the whole of
the Vinaya himself. First of all the Elder Mahākassapa asked him
specifically about the ruling on the first offense [pārājika], with
regard to the subject, the occasion, the individual introduced, the
proclamation, the repetition of the proclamation, the offense and the
case of non-offense. Upāli gave knowledgeable and adequate answers and
his remarks met with the unanimous approval of the presiding Saṅgha.
Thus the Vinaya was formally approved.

The Elder Mahākassapa then
turned his attention to Ānanda in virtue of his reputable expertise in
all matters connected with the Dhamma. Happily, the night before the
Council was to meet, Ānanda had attained Arahantship and joined the
Council. The Elder Mahākassapa, therefore, was able to question him at
length with complete confidence about the Dhamma with specific reference
to the Buddha’s sermons. This interrogation on the Dhamma sought to
verify the place where all the discourses were first preached and the
person to whom they had been addressed. Ānanda, aided by his
word-perfect memory was able to answer accurately and so the Discourses
met with the unanimous approval of the Saṅgha. The First Council also
gave its official seal of approval for the closure of the chapter on the
minor and lesser rules, and approval for their observance. It took the
monks seven months to recite the whole of the Vinaya and the Dhamma and
those monks sufficiently endowed with good memories retained all that
had been recited. This historic first council came to be known as the
Paācasatika because five-hundred fully enlightened Arahants had taken
part in it.

The Second Council

The
Second Council was called one hundred years after the Buddha’s
Parinibbāṇa in order to settle a serious dispute over the ‘ten points’.
This is a reference to some monks breaking of ten minor rules. they were
given to:

1. Storing salt in a horn.
2. Eating after midday.
3. Eating once and then going again to a village for alms.
4. Holding the Uposatha Ceremony with monks dwelling in the same locality.
5. Carrying out official acts when the assembly was incomplete.
6. Following a certain practice because it was done by one’s tutor or teacher.
7. Eating sour milk after one had his midday meal.
8. Consuming strong drink before it had been fermented.
9. Using a rug which was not the proper size.
10. Using gold and silver.

Their
misdeeds became an issue and caused a major controversy as breaking
these rules was thought to contradict the Buddha’s original teachings.
King Kāḷāsoka was the Second Council’s patron and the meeting took place
at Vesāli due to the following circumstances. One day, whilst visiting
the Mahāvana Grove at Veāsli, the Elder Yasa came to know that a large
group of monks known as the Vajjians were infringing the rule which
prohibited monk’s accepting gold and silver by openly asking for it from
their lay devotees. He immediately criticized their behavior and their
response was to offer him a share of their illegal gains in the hope
that he would be won over. The Elder Yasa, however declined and scorned
their behavior. The monks immediately sued him with a formal action of
reconciliation, accusing him of having blamed their lay devotees. The
Elder Yasa accordingly reconciled himself with the lay devotees, but at
the same time, convinced them that the Vijjian monks had done wrong by
quoting the Buddha’s pronouncement on the prohibition against accepting
or soliciting for gold and silver. The laymen immediately expressed
their support for the Elder Yasa and declared the Vajjian monks to the
wrong-doers and heretics, saying ‘’the Elder Yasa alone is the real monk
and Sākyan son. All the others are not monks, not Sākyan sons'’.

The
Stubborn and unrepentant Vajjian monks then moved to suspend the
Venerable Yasa Thera without the approval of the rest of the Saṅgha when
they came to know of the outcome of his meeting with their lay
devotees. The Elder Yasa, however escaped their censure and went in
search of support from monks elsewhere, who upheld his orthodox views on
the Vinaya. Sixty forest dwelling monks from Pāvā and eighty monks from
the southern regions of Avanti who were of the same view, offered to
help him to check the corruption of the Vinaya. Together they decided to
go to Soreyya to consult the Venerable Revata as he was a highly
revered monk and an expert in the Dhamma and the Vinaya. As soon as the
Vajjian monks came to know this they also sought the Venerable Revata’s
support by offering him the four requisites which he promptly refused.
These monks then sought to use the same means to win over the Venerable
Revata’s attendant, the Venerable Uttara. At first he too, rightly
declined their offer but they craftily persuaded him to accept their
offer, saying that when the requisites meant for the Buddha were not
accepted by him, Ānanda would be asked to accept them and would often
agree to do so. Uttara changed his mind and accepted the requisites.
Urged on by them he then agreed to go and persuade the Venerable Revata
to declare that the Vajjian monks were indeed speakers of the Truth and
upholders of the Dhamma. The Venerable Revata saw through their ruse and
refused to support them. He then dismissed Uttara. In order to settle
the matter once and for all, the Venerable Revata advised that a council
should be called at Vāḷikārāma with himself asking questions on the ten
offenses of the most senior of the Elders of the day, the Thera
Sabbjakāmi. Once his opinion was given it was to be heard by a committee
of eight monks, and its validity decided by their vote. The eight monks
called to judge the matter were the Venerables Sabbakāmi, saḷha,
Khujjasobhita and Vāsabhagāmika, from the East and four monks from the
West, the Venerables Revata, Sambhuta-Sāṇavāsī, Yasa and Sumana. They
thoroughly debated the matter with Revata as the questioner and
sabbakāmī answering his questions. After the debate was heard the eight
monks decided against the Vajjian monks and their verdict was announced
to the assembly. Afterwards seven-hundred monks recited the Dhamma and
Vinaya and this recital came to be known as the Sattasatī because
seven-hundred monks had taken part in it. This historic council is also
called, the Yasatthera Sangīti because of the major role the Elder Yasa
played in it and his zeal for safeguarding the Vinaya. The Vajjian monks
categorically refused to accept the Council’s decision and in defiance
called a council of there own which was called the Mahāsaṅgiti.

The Third Council

The
Third Council was held primarily to rid the Saṅgha of corruption and
bogus monks who held heretical views. The Council was convened in 326
B.C. At Asokārāma in Paṭaliputta under the patronage of Emperor Asoka.
It was presided over by the Elder Moggaliputta Tissa and one thousand
monks participated in this Council. Tradition has it that Asoka had won
his throne through shedding the blood of all his father’s son’s save his
own brother, Tissa Kumāra who eventually got ordained and achieved
Arahantship.

Asoka was crowned in the two hundred and eighteenth
year after the Buddha’s Mahaparinibbāna. At first he paid only token
homage to the Dhamma and the Saṅgha and also supported members of other
religious sects as his father had done before him. However, all this
changed when he met the pious novice-monk Nigrodha who preached him the
Appamāda-vagga. Thereafter he ceased supporting other religious groups
and his interest in and devotion to the Dhamma deepened. He used his
enormous wealth to build, it is said, eighty-four thousand pagodas and
vihāras and to lavishly support the Bhikkhus with the four requisites.
His son Mahinda and his daughter Saṅghamittā were ordained and admitted
to the Saṅgha. Eventually, his generosity was to cause serious problems
within the Saṅgha. In time the order was infiltrated by many unworthy
men, holding heretical views and who were attracted to the order because
of the Emperor’s generous support and costly offerings of food,
clothing, shelter and medicine. Large numbers of faithless, greedy men
espousing wrong views tried to join the order but were deemed unfit for
ordination. Despite this they seized the chance to exploit the Emperor’s
generosity for their own ends and donned robes and joined the order
without having been ordained properly. Consequently, respect for the
Saṅgha diminished. When this came to light some of the genuine monks
refused to hold the prescribed purification or Uposatha ceremony in the
company of the corrupt, heretical monks.

When the Emperor heard
about this he sought to rectify the situation and dispatched one of his
ministers to the monks with the command that they perform the ceremony.
However, the Emperor had given the minister no specific orders as to
what means were to be used to carry out his command. The monks refused
to obey and hold the ceremony in the company of their false and
‘thieving’ companions [theyyasinivāsaka]. In desperation the angry
minister advanced down the line of seated monks and drawing his sword,
beheaded all of them one after the other until he came to the King’s
brother, Tissa who had been ordained. The horrified minister stopped the
slaughter and fled the hall and reported back to the Emperor Asoka was
deeply grieved and upset by what had happened and blamed himself for the
killings. He sought Thera Moggaliputta Tissa’s counsel. He proposed
that the heretical monks be expelled from the order and a third Council
be convened immediately. So it was that in the seventeenth year of the
Emperor’s reign the Third Council was called. Thera Moggaliputta Tissa
headed the proceedings and chose one thousand monks from the sixty
thousand participants for the traditional recitation of the Dhamma and
the Vinaya, which went on for nine months. The Emperor, himself
questioned monks from a number of monasteries about the teachings of the
Buddha. Those who held wrong views were exposed and expelled from the
Saṅgha immediately. In this way the Bhikkhu Saṅgha was purged of
heretics and bogus bhikkhus.
This council achieved a number of other
important things as well. The Elder Moggaliputta Tissa, in order to
refute a number of heresies and ensure the Dhamma was kept pure,
complied a book during the council called the Kathāvatthu. This book
consists of twenty-three chapters, and is a collection of discussion
(kathā) and refutations of the heretical views held by various sects on
matters philosophical. It is the fifth of the seven books of the
Abhidhamma Piṭaka. The members of the Council also gave a royal seal of
approval to the doctrine of the Buddha, naming it the Vibhajjavāda, the
Doctrine of Analysis. It is identical with the approved Theravāda
doctrine. One of the most significant achievements of this Dhamma
assembly and one which was to bear fruit for centuries to come, was the
Emperor’s sending forth of monks, well versed in the Buddha’s Dhamma and
Vinaya who could recite all of it by heart, to teach it in nine
different countries. These Dhammadūta monks included the Venerable
Majjhantika Thera who went to Kashmir and Gandhāra. He was asked to
preach the Dhamma and establish an order of monks there. The Venerable
Mahādeva was sent to Mahinsakamaṇḍaḷa (modern Mysore) and the Venerable
Rakkhita Thera was dispatched to Vanavāsī (northern Kanara in the south
of India.) The Venerable Yonaka Dhammarakkhita Thera was sent to Upper
Aparantaka (northern Gujarat, Kathiawar, Kutch and Sindh].

The
Venerable Mahārakkhita Thera went to Yonaka-loka (the land of the
lonians, Bactrians and the Greeks.) The Venerable Majjhima Thera went to
Himavanta (the place adjoining the Himalayas.) The Venerable Soṇa and
the Venerable Uttara were sent to Suvaṇṇabhūmi [now Myanmar]. The
Venerable Mahinda Thera, The Venerable Ittiya Thera, the Venerable
Uttiya Thera, the Venerable Sambala Thera and the Venerable Bhaddasāla
Thera were sent to Tambapaṇṇi (now Sri Lanka). The Dhamma missions of
these monks succeeded and bore great fruits in the course of time and
went a long way in ennobling the peoples of these lands with the gift of
the Dhamma and influencing their civilizations and cultures.

With
the spread of Dhamma through the words of the Buddha, in due course
India came to be known as Visvaguru, the teacher of the world.

The Fourth Council

The
Fourth Council was held in Tambapaṇṇi [Sri Lanka] in 29 B.C. under the
patronage of King Vaṭṭagāmaṇi. The main reason for its convening was the
realization that is was now not possible for the majority of monks to
retain the entire Tipiṭaka in their memories as had been the case
formerly for the Venerable Mahinda and those who followed him soon
after. Therefore, as the art of writing had, by this time developed
substantially, it was thought expedient and necessary to have the entire
body of the Buddha’s teaching written down. King Vaṭṭagāmaṇi supported
the monk’s idea and a council was held specifically to reduce the
Tipiṭaka in its entirety to writing. Therefore, so that the genuine
Dhamma might be lastingly preserved, the Venerable Mahārakhita and five
hundred monks recited the words of the Buddha and then wrote them down
on palm leaves. This remarkable project took place in a cave called, the
Āloka lena, situated in the cleft of an ancient landslip near what is
now Matale. Thus the aim of the Council was achieved and the
preservation in writing of the authentic Dhamma was ensured. Later, in
the Eighteenth Century, King Vijayarājasīha had images of the Buddha
created in this cave.

The Fifth Council

The Fifth Council
took place in Māndalay, Burma now known as Myanmar in 1871 A.D. in the
reign of King Mindon. The chief objective of this meeting was to recite
all the teachings of the Buddha and examine them in minute detail to see
if any of them had been altered, distorted or dropped. It was presided
over by three Elders, the Venerable Mahāthera Jāgarābhivaṃsa, the
Venerable Narindābhidhaja, and the Venerable Mahāthera Sumaṅgalasāmi in
the company of some two thousand four hundred monks (2,400). Their joint
Dhamma recitation lasted for five months. It was also the work of this
council to cause the entire Tipiṭaka to be inscribed for posterity on
seven hundred and twenty-nine marble slabs in the Myanmar script after
its recitation had been completed and unanimously approved. This
monumental task was done by some two thousand four hundred erudite monks
and many skilled craftsmen who upon completion of each slab had them
housed in beautiful miniature ‘piṭaka’ pagodas on a special site in the
grounds of King Mindon’s Kuthodaw Pagoda at the foot of Māndalay Hill
where this so called ‘largest book in the world’, stands to this day.

The
Venerable Mahārakkhita Thera went to Yonaka-loka (the land of the
lonians, Bactrians and the Greeks.) The Venerable Majjhima Thera went to
Himavanta (the place adjoining the Himalayas.) The Venerable Soṇa and
the Venerable Uttara were sent to Suvaṇṇabhūmi [now Myanmar]. The
Venerable Mahinda Thera, The Venerable Ittiya Thera, the Venerable
Uttiya Thera, the Venerable Sambala Thera and the Venerable Bhaddasāla
Thera were sent to Tambapaṇṇi (now Sri Lanka). The Dhamma missions of
these monks succeeded and bore great fruits in the course of time and
went a long way in ennobling the peoples of these lands with the gift of
the Dhamma and influencing their civilizations and cultures.

With
the spread of Dhamma through the words of the Buddha, in due course
India came to be known as Visvaguru, the teacher of the world.

The Fourth Council

The
Fourth Council was held in Tambapaṇṇi [Sri Lanka] in 29 B.C. under the
patronage of King Vaṭṭagāmaṇi. The main reason for its convening was the
realization that is was now not possible for the majority of monks to
retain the entire Tipiṭaka in their memories as had been the case
formerly for the Venerable Mahinda and those who followed him soon
after. Therefore, as the art of writing had, by this time developed
substantially, it was thought expedient and necessary to have the entire
body of the Buddha’s teaching written down. King Vaṭṭagāmaṇi supported
the monk’s idea and a council was held specifically to reduce the
Tipiṭaka in its entirety to writing. Therefore, so that the genuine
Dhamma might be lastingly preserved, the Venerable Mahārakhita and five
hundred monks recited the words of the Buddha and then wrote them down
on palm leaves. This remarkable project took place in a cave called, the
Āloka lena, situated in the cleft of an ancient landslip near what is
now Matale. Thus the aim of the Council was achieved and the
preservation in writing of the authentic Dhamma was ensured. Later, in
the Eighteenth Century, King Vijayarājasīha had images of the Buddha
created in this cave.

The Fifth Council

The Fifth Council
took place in Māndalay, Burma now known as Myanmar in 1871 A.D. in the
reign of King Mindon. The chief objective of this meeting was to recite
all the teachings of the Buddha and examine them in minute detail to see
if any of them had been altered, distorted or dropped. It was presided
over by three Elders, the Venerable Mahāthera Jāgarābhivaṃsa, the
Venerable Narindābhidhaja, and the Venerable Mahāthera Sumaṅgalasāmi in
the company of some two thousand four hundred monks (2,400). Their joint
Dhamma recitation lasted for five months. It was also the work of this
council to cause the entire Tipiṭaka to be inscribed for posterity on
seven hundred and twenty-nine marble slabs in the Myanmar script after
its recitation had been completed and unanimously approved. This
monumental task was done by some two thousand four hundred erudite monks
and many skilled craftsmen who upon completion of each slab had them
housed in beautiful miniature ‘piṭaka’ pagodas on a special site in the
grounds of King Mindon’s Kuthodaw Pagoda at the foot of Māndalay Hill
where this so called ‘largest book in the world’, stands to this day.


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