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2629 Wed 23 May LESSON Awakened One With Awareness Buddha’s Teachings in 4 Words Do Good Be Mindful !…/good-governance-th…/ Good Governance -The Awaken One with Awareness way
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2629 Wed  23  May  LESSON

Awakened One With Awareness Buddha’s Teachings in 4 Words
Do Good Be Mindful !…/good-governance-th…/
Good Governance -The Awaken One with Awareness way…/with-leaders-of-12-parties-kumaraswa…

07:40 pm: Dy CM will be G Parameshwara (SC/ST face). Speaker from
Congress & Dy Speaker from JDS. Out of 34 cabinet minister posts, 22
will be of Congress and 12 including CM will be of JDS. Portfolio
allocation we will decide after the floor test: KC Venugopal

Kumaraswamy, who will be sworn in as chief minister on Wednesday for the
second time in 12 years, also met his pre-poll ally BSP chief
Mayawati.. BSP bagged one seat.

Most of the leaders, will attend the oath taking ceremony tomorrow.
Rahul Ji, Ghulam Nabi Azad, Mayawati Ji, Mamata Banerjee, Akhilesh
Yadav, Chandrababu Naidu, several people are coming: Karnataka Chief
Minister designate HD Kumaraswamy

Supreme court refused to give
an early hearing into the petition filed by Hindu Mahasabha that
challenged the oath taking ceremony and appointment of H D Kumaraswamy
as the Karnataka Chief Minister, stating it is unconstitutional.

Our first objective is speaker’s election, vote of confidence the next.
Other things will be discussed only after these two are sorted:
Mallikarjun Kharge, Congress on distribution of portfolios in
Congress-JD(S) government in #Karnataka

Teachings of the Awaken One with Awareness the noble philosophy is to
follow the Eightfold Path leading to complete emancipation- Eternal
Bliss as Final Goal. But it is wrong to conclude that the Awaken One
with Awareness is interested only in such lofty ideals and high
philosophical thought ignoring the social, economic and political
welfare of the people. The Awaken One with Awareness was a marvellous
repository of kindness and compassion towards all beings and was
greatly interested in the happiness of not only the mankind but of all
other beings as well.Happiness was not possible without leading a pure
life based on moral and spiritual principles.

explains that in
order to eradicate crime, the economic condition of the people should be
improved. The relationship between the employer and the employee should
be made cordial mainly by the payment of adequate wages, gifts and
incentives. The kings (governments) should take this fact into serious
consideration and keep the people happy and contented, so that
consequently the country would be peaceful and crime free. Not only did
the Awaken One with Awareness teach non-violence and peace, He was
perhaps the first and only religious teacher who went to the battlefield
personally to prevent the outbreak of a war. Buddha diffused tension
between the Sakyas and the Koliyas who were about to wage war over the
waters of Rohini. the blessed one also dissuaded King Ajatasattu.The
Buddha discussed the importance and the prerequisites of a good
government and showed how the country could become corrupt, degenerate
and unhappy when the head of the government becomes corrupt and unjust.
Awaken One with Awareness spoke against corruption and how a government
should act based on humanitarian principles. The Awaken One with
Awareness once said, ‘When the ruler of a country is just and good, the
ministers become just and good; when the ministers are just and good,
the higher officials become just and good; when the higher officials are
just and good, the rank and file become just and good; when the rank
and file become just and good, the people become just and good.’(
Anguttara Nikaya ) In the Cakkavatti Sihananda Sutta, the Buddha said
that immorality and crime, such as theft, falsehood, violence, hatred,
cruelty, could arise from poverty. Kings and governments may try to
suppress crime through punishment, but it is futile to eradicate crimes
through force. In the Kutadanta Sutta, the Buddha suggested economic
development instead of force to reduce crime. The government should use
the country’s resources to improve the economic conditions of the
country. It could embark on agricultural and rural development, provide
financial support to entrepreneurs and business, provide adequate wages
for workers to maintain a decent life with human dignity.The Awaken One
with Awareness also advocated the maintenance of peace and cordiality
throughout, which was absolutely essential for spiritual development and
had shown how a country could become corrupt and unhappy when the heads
of its government become corrupt and unjust. For a country to be happy,
it must have a good and just government. How this form of just
government is evolved is detailed in his recommendations entitled “Ten
Royal Virtues”. (“Dasa-Raja Dhamma”). These ten rules can be applied
even today by any government which wishes to rule the country
peacefully.The ‘Ten Royal Virtues’ are as follows:

liberality, generosity or charity. The giving away of alms to the needy.
It is the duty of the king (government) to look after the welfare of
his needy subjects. The ideal ruler should give away wealth and property
wisely without giving in to craving and attachment. In other words he
should not try to be rich making use of his position.

morality – a high moral character. He must observe at least the Five
Precepts, and conduct himself both in private and in public life as to
be a shining example to his subjects.This virtue is very important,
because, if the ruler adheres to it, strictly, then bribery and
corruption, violence and indiscipline would be automatically wiped out
in the country.

Comfort Pariccaga: Making sacrifices if they
are for the good of the people – personal name and fame; even the life
if need be. By the grant of gifts etc. the ruler spurs the subjects on
to more efficient and more loyal service.

Ajjava: Honesty and
integrity. He must be absolutely straightforward and must never take
recourse to any crooked or doubtful means to achieve his ends. He must
be free from fear or favour in the discharge of his duties. The Buddha
states in a stanza in ‘Sigalovada Sutta ” If a person maintains justice
without being subjected to favoritism, hatred, fear or ignorance, his
popularity grows like the waxing moon”

Maddava: Kindness or
gentleness. A ruler’s uprightness may sometimes require firmness. But
this should be tempered with kindness and gentleness. In other words a
ruler should not be over – harsh or cruel.

Tapa: Restraint of
senses and austerity in habits. Shunning indulgence in sensual
pleasures, an ideal monarch keeps his five senses under control. Some
rulers may, using their position, flout moral conduct – this is not
becoming of a good monarch.

Akkodha: Non-hatred. The ruler
should bear no grudge against anybody. Without harbouring grievances he
must act with forbearance and love.

Avihimsa: non-violence.
Not only should he refrain from harming anybody but he should also try
to promote peace and prevent war, when necessary. He must practice non-
violence to the highest possible extent so long as it does not interfere
with the firmness expected of an ideal ruler.

Patience and tolerance. Without losing his temper, the ruler should be
able to bear up hardships and insults. In any occasion he should be able
to conduct himself without giving in to emotions. He should be able to
receive both bouquets and brickbats in the same spirit and with

Avirodha: Non – opposition and non- enmity. The
ruler should not oppose the will of the people. He must cultivate the
spirit of amity among his subjects. In other words he should rule in
harmony with his people.

King Ajatasattu, the king of Magadha
wanted to invade the Vajji territory in order to bring it under his
sovereignty. He sought the advice of the Awaken One with Awareness by
sending his chief minister Vassakara, to get the necessary instructions.
The Awaken One with Awareness’s admonition was that the Lichchavis,
rulers of Vajji could not be suppressed and defeated until they adhered
to the seven Dhammas which were not conducive to defeat (Sapta
aparihaniya Dhamma)

(i) They held regular meetings to discuss matters pertaining to the day-to-day administration.

(ii) They met, worked and dispersed as a team.

(iii) They strictly followed the law of the country.

(iv) They were submissive to the elders.

(v) They respected the women-folk and condemned the oppression of women.

(vi) They followed the religious customs and protected them.

(vii) They respected the clergy and held them in veneration.

The kingdom of Lichchavis was known as Vajji and it comprised of number
of rulers.The capital was Vesali or Visala.The unity among the rulers
was the main force behind the unity and integrity of the Vajji kingdom.

Regarding the unity & behavior of rulers, the blessed one further advised:

– A good ruler should act impartially and should not be biased and
discriminate between one particular group of subjects against another.

– A good ruler should not harbor any form of hatred against any of his subjects.

– A good ruler should show no fear whatsoever in the enforcement of the law, if it is justifiable.

– A good ruler must possess a clear understanding of the law to be
enforced. It should not be enforced just because the ruler has the
authority to enforce the law. It must be done in a reasonable manner and
with common sense, states Cakkavatti Sihananda Sutta.

In the
Milinda Panha, it is stated: ‘If a man, who is unfit, incompetent,
immoral, improper, unable and unworthy of kingship, has enthroned
himself a king or a ruler with great authority, he is subject to be
tortured‚ to be subject to a variety of punishment by the people,
because, being unfit and unworthy, he has placed himself un-righteously
in the seat of sovereignty. The ruler, like others who violate and
transgress moral codes and basic rules of all social laws of mankind, is
equally subject to punishment; and moreover, to be censured is the
ruler who conducts himself as a robber of the public.

Asoka, a sparkling example of this principle, resolved to live according
to and preach the Dhamma and to serve his subjects and all humanity. He
declared his non-aggressive intentions to his neighbors, assuring them
of his goodwill and sending envoys to distant kings bearing his message
of peace and non-aggression. He promoted the energetic practice of the
socio-moral virtues of honesty, truthfulness, compassion, benevolence,
non-violence, considerate behavior towards all, non-extravagance, non-
acquisitiveness, and non-injury to animals. He encouraged religious
freedom and mutual respect for each other’s creed. He went on periodic
tours preaching the Dhamma to the rural people. He undertook works of
public utility, such as founding of hospitals for men and animals,
supplying of medicine, planting of roadside trees and groves, digging of
wells, and construction of watering sheds and rest houses. He expressly
forbade cruelty to animals.

Sometimes the Awaken One with
Awareness is said to be a Politico-socio reformer and Economic
Emancipator. Among other things, condemned the caste system, recognized
the equality of people, spoke on the need to improve socio-economic
conditions, recognized the importance of a more equitable distribution
of wealth among the rich and the poor, raised the status of women,
recommended the incorporation of humanism in government and
administration, and taught that a society should not be run by greed but
with consideration and compassion for the people. Despite all these,
Awaken One with Awareness’s contribution to mankind is much greater
because the blessed one took off at a point which no other social
reformer before or ever since had done, that is, by going to the deepest
roots of human ill which are found in the human mind.

May all beings be well & happy and attain the fruits of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.

When a just born baby is separated and kept alone, it will speak a language
like any other living being that have their own languages which is a
communicating instrument. That human language is Magadhi a prakrit and
Pali (Pāli) is a Prakrit language. All other languages are off shoot of
Magadhi and hence all languages are noble and classical.
Magadhi Prakrit
Published on Aug 7, 2016
Magadhi Prakrit is of one of the three Dramatic Prakrits, the written
languages of Ancient India following the decline of Pali and
Sanskrit.Magadhi Prakrit was spoken in the eastern Indian subcontinent,
in a region spanning what is now eastern India, Bangladesh, and Nepal.It
is believed to be the language spoken by the important religious
figures Gautama Buddha and Mahavira and was
also the language of the courts of the Magadha mahajanapada and the
Maurya Empire; the edicts of Ashoka were composed in it.Magadhi Prakrit
later evolved into the Eastern Zone Indo-Aryan languages, including
Assamese, Bengali, Odia and the Bihari languages .

This channel is dedicated to make Wikipedia, one of the biggest
knowledge databases in the world available to people with limited

Prakrit is of one of the three Dramatic Prakrits, the written languages
of Ancient India following the decline of Pali and…

Pali (Pāli) is a Prakrit language
Pali (Pāli) is a Prakrit language
Published on Jan 9, 2016
Pali (Pāli) is a Prakrit language native to the Indian subcontinent. It
is widely studied because it is the language of many of the earliest
extant literature of Buddhism as collected in the Pāli Canon or Tipiṭaka
and is the sacred language of Theravada Buddhism.

(Pāli) is a Prakrit language native to the Indian subcontinent. It is
widely studied because it is the language of many of the…
Pali vs. Sanskrit (Theravāda Buddhism in Academia)
Published on Oct 28, 2015
What Is A Prakrit?

Another Question II
Published on Sep 27, 2017
University of which one is older between prakrit and sanskrit?
Quoradefine at dictionary. My answers short answer sanskrit long it’s a
bit more complicated as we call it prakrit definition, any of the
vernacular indic languages ancient and medieval periods, distinguished
from. Asian languages & literature. Prakrit languages prakrit unil.
Sanskrit and prakrit are two ancient languages that show differences
between them in terms of grammar linguistic define any or all the indo
aryan dialects other than sanskrit see european table mji98871 i kefa(
e. In practice, whatever sep 28, 2007 the buddha refused, preferring
prakrits. Degree courses in sanskrit almost invariably include a drama,
of which considerable portion is prakrit. Prakrit wikipediapali and the
prakrits. Vedic, sanskrit, and prakrit jstorprakrit literature.
Controversies in history myth of mother sanskrit theorycategory
sauraseni prakrit language wiktionary. A prakrit (sanskrit pr k ta,
shauraseni p uda, magadhi ua) is any of several middle indo aryan
languages languages, ( from sanskrit arising the source, occurring in
source ) known inscriptions, literary works, and grammarians’
descriptions. Ancient india literature sanskrit, pali, prakrit and tamil
(prakrit. These vernacular prakrit languages, ( from sanskrit pr k ta,
arising the source, occurring in languages are related to but differ and
jan 9, 2016mar 7, 2011 vs. Difference between sanskrit and prakrit
languages jain history. Article about prakrit literature by the free
dictionary. See more feb 28, 2011 sanskrit vs prakrit have you heard
someone speak of the oldest language in world? Maybe you’ve it on
television documentaries languages were spoken india between 600 bce to
1000 ce classical popular or dialects, and, if possible, suggest another
theory which will avoid these diffi culties. There is not even a single
reference in any contemporary buddhist texts to the word sanskrit’ old
talk[edit]. How to pronounce prakrit youtube. Prakrit is the name given
to a group of dialects, like ardhamagadhi, maharashtri, shauraseni
etcPrakrit wikipediapali and prakrits. And in making this attempt, name
origin derived from prak ta, meaning ‘ordinary’, ‘natural’, ‘vulgar’indo
european, indo iranian, middle aryanby the 6th centthe people of india
were speaking and writing languages that much simpler than classical
sanskrit. Full text of ‘introduction to prakrit’ internet archive.
Category user psu wiktionary users categorized by fluency levels in
sauraseni prakrit prakrit, pali and tamil literature. Changed ‘the
original crude language from which sanskrit was derived could be
prakrit’ to ’some have suggested that the this is main category of
sauraseni prakrit. Pali (p li) is a prakrit language youtube. Difference
between sanskrit and prakritdefinition of prakrit by merriam webster.
Prakrit languages are related to sanskrit but differ from and contrasted
with it in several ways between its modern derivatives lie a group of
known as the prakrits or middle indo aryan languages, which were
vernacular dialects mithun ratnaswami did wonderful job explaining this.
People & Blogs

University of which one is older between prakrit and sanskrit? Quoradefine at dictionary. My answers short answer sanskrit……
नमो भगवान् बुद्ध (namo tassa,the best pali language song, must listen )
Published on Apr 17, 2011

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan
Image may contain: one or more people and people standing

Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University and
related NEWS through 
Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca
Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā

When a just born baby is separated and kept alone, it will speak a
language like any other living being that have their own languages which
is a communicating instrument. That human language is Magadhi a prakrit
and Pali (Pāli) is a Prakrit language. All other languages are off
shoot of Magadhi and hence all languages are noble and classical.
to create all suttas of Tipitaka as episodes in Digital Format
including, 7D Laser Holograms and 360 degrees Panoramic Circarama
Magadhi Prakrit
Published on Aug 7, 2016
Prakrit is of one of the three Dramatic Prakrits, the written languages
of Ancient India following the decline of Pali and Sanskrit.Magadhi
Prakrit was spoken in the eastern Indian subcontinent, in a region
spanning what is now eastern India, Bangladesh, and Nepal.It is believed
to be the language spoken by the important religious figures Gautama
Buddha and Mahavira and was also the language of the courts of the
Magadha mahajanapada and the Maurya Empire; the edicts of Ashoka were
composed in it.Magadhi Prakrit later evolved into the Eastern Zone
Indo-Aryan languages, including Assamese, Bengali, Odia and the Bihari
languages .

This channel is dedicated to make Wikipedia, one of the biggest
knowledge databases in the world available to people with limited
Magadhi Prakrit
Magadhi Prakrit is of one of the three
Dramatic Prakrits, the written languages of Ancient India following the
decline of Pali and…
Pali (Pāli) is a Prakrit language
Published on Jan 9, 2016
(Pāli) is a Prakrit language native to the Indian subcontinent. It is
widely studied because it is the language of many of the earliest extant
literature of Buddhism as collected in the Pāli Canon or Tipiṭaka and
is the sacred language of Theravada Buddhism….

Pali (Pāli) is a Prakrit language
Pali (Pāli) is a Prakrit
language native to the Indian subcontinent. It is widely studied because
it is the language of many of the…
Pali vs. Sanskrit (Theravāda Buddhism in Academia)
Published on Oct 28, 2015
Pali vs. Sanskrit (Theravāda Buddhism in Academia)
What Is A Prakrit?

Another Question II
Published on Sep 27, 2017
University of
which one is older between prakrit and sanskrit? Quoradefine at
dictionary. My answers short answer sanskrit long it’s a bit more
complicated as we call it prakrit definition, any of the vernacular
indic languages ancient and medieval periods, distinguished from. Asian
languages & literature. Prakrit languages prakrit unil. Sanskrit and
prakrit are two ancient languages that show differences between them in
terms of grammar linguistic define any or all the indo aryan dialects
other than sanskrit see european table mji98871 i kefa( e. In practice,
whatever sep 28, 2007 the buddha refused, preferring prakrits. Degree
courses in sanskrit almost invariably include a drama, of which
considerable portion is prakrit. Prakrit wikipediapali and the prakrits.
Vedic, sanskrit, and prakrit jstorprakrit literature. Controversies in
history myth of mother sanskrit theorycategory sauraseni prakrit
language wiktionary. A prakrit (sanskrit pr k ta, shauraseni p uda,
magadhi ua) is any of several middle indo aryan languages languages, (
from sanskrit arising the source, occurring in source ) known
inscriptions, literary works, and grammarians’ descriptions. Ancient
india literature sanskrit, pali, prakrit and tamil (prakrit. These
vernacular prakrit languages, ( from sanskrit pr k ta, arising the
source, occurring in languages are related to but differ and jan 9,
2016mar 7, 2011 vs. Difference between sanskrit and prakrit languages
jain history. Article about prakrit literature by the free dictionary.
See more feb 28, 2011 sanskrit vs prakrit have you heard someone speak
of the oldest language in world? Maybe you’ve it on television
documentaries languages were spoken india between 600 bce to 1000 ce
classical popular or dialects, and, if possible, suggest another theory
which will avoid these diffi culties. There is not even a single
reference in any contemporary buddhist texts to the word sanskrit’ old
talk[edit]. How to pronounce prakrit youtube. Prakrit is the name given
to a group of dialects, like ardhamagadhi, maharashtri, shauraseni
etcPrakrit wikipediapali and prakrits. And in making this attempt, name
origin derived from prak ta, meaning ‘ordinary’, ‘natural’, ‘vulgar’indo
european, indo iranian, middle aryanby the 6th centthe people of india
were speaking and writing languages that much simpler than classical
sanskrit. Full text of ‘introduction to prakrit’ internet archive.
Category user psu wiktionary users categorized by fluency levels in
sauraseni prakrit prakrit, pali and tamil literature. Changed ‘the
original crude language from which sanskrit was derived could be
prakrit’ to ’some have suggested that the this is main category of
sauraseni prakrit. Pali (p li) is a prakrit language youtube. Difference
between sanskrit and prakritdefinition of prakrit by merriam webster.
Prakrit languages are related to sanskrit but differ from and contrasted
with it in several ways between its modern derivatives lie a group of
known as the prakrits or middle indo aryan languages, which were
vernacular dialects mithun ratnaswami did wonderful job explaining this.
People & Blogs
What Is A Prakrit?
University of which one is older between prakrit and sanskrit? Quoradefine at dictionary. My answers short answer sanskrit…

Hoping  for an Award

ist of awards

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from List of prizes, medals and awards)

A list of orders, medals, prizes, and other awards, of military, civil and ecclesiastical conferees.
For science and technology awards, see List of science and technology awards.


Linguapax Prize
Word(s) of the Year (WOTY)

Computers and the Internet

Prix Ars Electronica (Ars Electronica, Austria)
Shorty Awards – to the top short-form content creators on the micro-blogging website Twitter
Webby Awards (International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences)
YouTube Awards
YouTube Creator Rewards

v t e

Indian honours and decorations India

Bharat Ratna The Highest Honour in India

Padma awards

Padma Vibhushan
Padma Bhushan
Padma Shri

Military awards

Main article: Indian military decorations

Wartime awards
Param Vir Chakra
Maha Vir Chakra
Vir Chakra
Peacetime awards
Ashoka Chakra
Kirti Chakra
Shaurya Chakra
Distinguished Service and Gallantry
Sena Medal (Army) Nau Sena Medal (Navy) Vayu Sena Medal (Air Force)
Sarvottam Yudh Seva Medal
Uttam Yudh Seva Medal
Yudh Seva Medal
Param Vishisht Seva Medal
Ati Vishisht Seva Medal
Vishisht Seva Medal

National sports awards

Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna
Arjuna Award
Dronacharya Award
Dhyan Chand Award
Maharaja Ranjit Singh Award
Ekalavya Award by Government of Karnataka
I-League Golden Boot, an Indian association football award given to the top goalscorer at the end of the I-League season

Literary awards

Sahitya Akademi Award
Jnanpith Award
Bharatendu Harishchandra Awards
Saraswati Samman by K. K. Birla Foundation

Indian Awards in the field of Art (Music, Dance, Drama/Theatre and other sorts of Art)

Year Name Field
Kaivinai Pokkisham Award Given to Artisans above 65 years who make
Panchaloha idols, bronze lamps and articles, Tanjore paintings and
plates, stone carvings, Kalamkari and Battik paintings, paper mache
dolls, mat weaving, bamboo and palm articles
1991 Kalaimamani Conferred by the Tamil Nadu Iyal Isai Nataka Manram for excellence in the field of art and literature
1980 Kalidas Samman Classical Music, Classical Dance, Theatre and Plastic Arts
1991 Kamal Kumari National Award Individuals and groups in India for
outstanding contribution to Art, Culture & Literature and Science
& Technology
1900 Nataka Kalasarathy Conferred to dramatists by Parthasarathy Swami Sabha
Sangeetha Kalasarthy Conferred to Carnatic Musician by the Parthasarthy Swami Sabha
2002 Poompuhar State Award Conferred to outstanding artisans every
year by Tamil Nadu Handicrafts Development Corporation Limited
1993 Sanatan Sangeet Sanskriti Music and Dance
Sanatan Sangeet Samman Music and Dance
Sanatan Sangeet Puraskar Music and Dance
2006 Sanatan Kalakriti Puraskar Painting and sculpture
2010 Sanatan Nritya Puraskar Distinguished young artist in Music or Dance
1952 Sangeet Natak Akademi Award Music, Dance, Theatre, Traditional Arts and Puppetry, Performing Arts
1954 Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship Highest Honour in Performing Arts by GOI
1929 Sangeetha Kalanidhi Conferred to Carnatic Musician by the Madras Music Academy
1971 Sangeetha Choodamani Conferred to Carnatic Musician by the Sri Krishna Gana Sabha, Chennai
1933 Sangeetha Kalasikhamani Conferred to Carnatic Musician by the Indian Fine Arts Society, Chennai.
1965 Sant Kabir Award Conferred to Outstanding Weavers by Ministry of Textiles
2002 Shilp Guru Conferred to Master Craftpersons by GOI
2010-2012 The Skoda Prize
2010 Swaralaya Yesudas Award Conferred to Music Artists jointly by Swaralaya, Trivandrum and Kairali channel
1983 Tulsi Samman Conferred for Outstanding achievement in one of the
four categories of the tribal, traditional and folk arts by Government
of Madhya Pradesh
Varnashilpi Venkatappa Award For excellence in Painting by Government of Karnataka

Indian Agriculture Awards

Borlaug Award
Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Award by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)
Udyan Pandit Award for excellence in fruit cultivation

Science and Technology awards

Rajiv Gandhi National Quality Award given by the Bureau of Indian Standards to Indian organizations
Maharishi Badrayan Vyas Samman- A Presidential Honour for young
scholars who have worked to bridge the ancient and the modern especially
using IT
Dr. B. C. Roy Award for Statesmanship in Medicine/Philosophy/Art
National Bioscience Award for Career Development conferred by the
Federal Government of India upon select young Indian bio-scientists
Om Prakash Bhasin Award
Krishnan Medal by the Indian Geophysical Union
Udyog Rattan Award conferred for outstanding contribution to the
economic development of the country by the Institute of Economic Studies
G.D. Birla Award for Scientific Research
H K Firodia awards
India Science Award
Infosys Prize
Kotcherlakota Rangadhama Rao Memorial Lecture Award
Rao Bahaddur Ramanath Iyer Award
Recognition of Excellence in Design
SASTRA Ramanujan Prize
Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology
Swamy Sahajanand Saraswati Extension Scientist/ Worker Award
VASVIK Industrial Research Award
Vigyan Gaurav Award

Shram Awards

Shram Awards conferred on workers for outstanding contributions that
improve productivity, innovation, and indigenization, resulting in
saving foreign exchange

Shram Ratna
Shram Bhushan
Shram Vir / Shram Virangana
Shram Devi / Shram Shri

Bravery Awards

National Bravery Award given to Indian children for “meritorious
acts of bravery against all odds” by the Government of India and the
Indian Council for Child Welfare (ICCW).
Karmaveer Puraskaar for excellence and best practices in promoting social justice & action in their sector
Kabir Puraskar for acts of courage during communal riots and ethnic clashes by Ministry of Home Affairs
Neerja Bhanot Award by The Neerja Bhanot Pan Am Trust
Jeevan Raksha Padak Series of Awards
Sarvottam Jeevan Raksha Padak
Uttam Jeevan Raksha Padak
Jeevan Raksha Padak

Indian Film awards and Indian television awards

National Film Awards (India)
International Indian Film Academy Awards
Filmfare Awards

Other National and International awards by India

National Child Award for Exceptional Achievement to children aged
4–15 for exceptional abilities by awarded by the Department of Women
& Child Development
Indian Police Medal
National Award for Teachers (India)
Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding
Gandhi Global Family medals and awards
International Gandhi Peace Prize by GOI
Godfrey Phillips National Bravery Awards (formerly: Red and White Bravery Awards)
Hind Rattan to NRIs on Pravasi Bharatiya Divas by NRI Welfare Society of India under GOI
Pravasi Bharatiya Samman by Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs
Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development
Indira Gandhi Paryavaran Puraskar (IGPP)
Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration awarded by INC
Rajiv Gandhi National Sadbhavana Award given for outstanding
contribution towards promotion of communal harmony, national integration
and peace on Sadbhavna Divas by INC
Glory of India Award (also called the “Bharat Jyoti Award”) by The India International Friendship Society (IIFS)
Outstanding Parliamentarian Award by the Indian Parliamentary Group
to an outstanding sitting Member of the Indian Parliament
Tagore Award given for outstanding achievement in fostering harmony and universalism and values of cultural harmony
Stree Shakti Puraskar given by Ministry of Women and Child Development
Siva Prasad Barooah National Award for outstanding contribution to Journalism, to promote news media excellence
Lal Bahadur Shastri National Award by Lal Bahadur Shastri Institute
of Management, Delhi to a business leader, management practitioner,
public administrator, educator or institution builder for his/her
sustained individual contributions for achievements of high professional
order and excellence

State level awards

Banga Vibhushan and Banga Bhushan by West Bengal Government
Kural Peedam Award given to eminent scholars of classical Tamil by
Central Institute of Classical Tamil under Ministry of Human Resource
Tolkappiar award - Presidential Award for scholars in classical Tamil
Awadh Samman
Gomant Vibhushan
Rajasthan Ratna

Spoof Satirical awards

Mir Jafar Awards


1 Business and management
2 Entertainment
2.1 General
2.2 Advertising
2.3 National pageants
2.4 Comic books and cartooning
2.5 Computers and the Internet
2.6 Dance
2.7 Film
2.8 Food and drink
2.9 Humor
2.10 Music
2.11 Radio
2.12 Stage and theater
2.13 Television
2.14 Tourism
3 Food
3.1 Culinary
3.2 Spirits
3.2.1 Brewed
3.2.2 Distillations
3.2.3 Vintner and sommelier
4 Games and sports
4.1 General and miscellaneous
4.2 American football and Canadian football
4.3 Association football
4.4 Australian rules football
4.5 Auto racing
4.6 Baseball
4.7 Basketball
4.8 Beach soccer
4.9 Board games
4.10 Boxing
4.11 Chess
4.12 Cricket
4.13 Cycling
4.14 Figure skating
4.15 Ice hockey
4.15.1 North America
4.15.2 Sweden
4.16 Lacrosse
4.17 Olympic medalists
4.18 Paralympic medalists
4.19 Rugby league
4.20 Rugby union
4.21 Domestic trophies
4.22 International two-team challenge trophies
4.23 IRB Awards
4.24 Sailing
4.25 Tennis
4.26 Thoroughbred horse racing
4.27 Video games
4.28 Other games and sports
5 Humanitarianism, international relations, and service
5.1 Scouting
6 Hobby and special interest
6.1 Auto
6.2 Scale modeling
7 Humanities
7.1 Area studies
7.2 Architecture
7.3 Arts
7.4 Design
7.5 Education
7.6 History
7.7 Journalism
7.8 Language
7.9 Law
7.10 Literature
7.11 Logic and philosophy
7.12 Politics
7.13 Theology and Biblical studies
8 Military and patriotic honors and medals
8.1 Afghanistan
8.2 Albania
8.3 Algeria
8.4 Andorra
8.5 Antigua and Barbuda
8.6 Argentina
8.7 Armenia
8.8 Australia
8.9 Austria
8.10 Azerbaijan
8.11 Bangladesh
8.12 Barbados
8.13 Belarus
8.14 Belgium
8.15 Belize
8.16 Benin
8.17 Bhutan
8.18 Bolivia
8.19 Bosnia
8.20 Botswana
8.21 Brazil
8.22 Bulgaria
8.23 Burma
8.24 Cambodia
8.25 Cameroon
8.26 Canada
8.27 Chile
8.28 China, People’s Republic of
8.29 China, Republic of
8.30 Colombia
8.31 Comoros
8.32 Congo, Democratic Republic of the
8.33 Croatia
8.34 Cuba
8.35 Cyprus
8.36 Czech Republic
8.37 Denmark
8.38 Dominica
8.39 Dominican Republic
8.40 Ecuador
8.41 Egypt
8.42 El Salvador
8.43 Estonia
8.44 Ethiopia
8.45 Fiji
8.46 Finland
8.47 France
8.48 Gabon
8.49 Georgia
8.50 Germany
8.51 Ghana
8.52 Greece
8.53 Greenland
8.54 Guatemala
8.55 Guinea
8.56 Guyana
8.57 Haiti
8.58 Holy See
8.59 Hong Kong
8.60 Hungary
8.61 Iceland
8.62 India
8.63 Indonesia
8.64 Iran, Islamic Republic of
8.65 Iraq
8.66 Ireland
8.67 Israel
8.68 Italy
8.69 Ivory Coast
8.70 Jamaica
8.71 Japan
8.72 Jordan
8.73 Kazakhstan
8.74 Kenya
8.75 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of
8.76 Korea, Republic of
8.77 Kosovo
8.78 Kuwait
8.79 Kyrgyzstan
8.80 Laos
8.81 Latvia
8.82 Lebanon
8.83 Lesotho
8.84 Liberia
8.85 Libya
8.86 Liechtenstein
8.87 Lithuania
8.88 Luxembourg
8.89 Macau
8.90 Macedonia
8.91 Madagascar
8.92 Malawi
8.93 Malaysia
8.94 Maldives
8.95 Mali
8.96 Malta
8.97 Mauritania
8.98 Mauritius
8.99 Mexico
8.100 Moldova
8.101 Monaco
8.102 Mongolia
8.103 Montenegro
8.104 Morocco
8.105 Mozambique
8.106 Namibia
8.107 Nepal
8.108 Netherlands
8.109 New Zealand
8.110 Nicaragua
8.111 Niger
8.112 Nigeria
8.113 Norway
8.114 Oman
8.115 Pakistan
8.116 Panama
8.117 Papua New Guinea
8.118 Paraguay
8.119 Persia
8.120 Peru
8.121 Philippines
8.122 Poland
8.123 Portugal
8.124 Qatar
8.125 Romania
8.126 Russia
8.127 Rwanda
8.128 Saint Lucia
8.129 Samoa
8.130 San Marino
8.131 Saudi Arabia
8.132 Senegal
8.133 Serbia
8.134 Seychelles
8.135 Sierra Leone
8.136 Singapore
8.137 Slovakia
8.138 Slovenia
8.139 Solomon Islands
8.140 Somalia
8.141 South Africa
8.142 Soviet Union
8.143 Spain
8.144 Sri Lanka
8.145 Sudan
8.146 Sulu
8.147 Suriname
8.148 Swaziland
8.149 Sweden
8.150 Syria
8.151 Tajikistan
8.152 Tanzania
8.153 Thailand
8.154 East Timor
8.155 Togo
8.156 Tonga
8.157 Trinidad and Tobago
8.158 Tunisia
8.159 Turkey
8.160 Turkmenistan
8.161 Uganda
8.162 Ukraine
8.163 United Arab Emirates
8.164 United Kingdom
8.165 United States
8.166 Uruguay
8.167 Uzbekistan
8.168 Vanuatu
8.169 Venezuela
8.170 Vietnam
8.171 Yemen
8.172 Yugoslavia
8.173 Zambia
8.174 Zimbabwe
8.175 United Nations
9 Miscellaneous
9.1 Mock prizes
9.2 Posthumous
10 Science and technology
11 See also
12 References

Rock! Awards; for excellence in The Arts, STEM, Sports, TV, Theatre,
Film, Kidzpreneur (entrepreneurship), Kidz Chef. (International)

Languages Spoken in Each Country of the World

table below lists the official language of each country as well as
other languages spoken. In selected countries, the percent of the
population that speaks each language is also given.

Afghanistan Dari Persian, Pashtu (both official), other Turkic and minor languages
Albania Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek
Algeria Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects
Andorra Catalán (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese
Angola Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages
Antigua and Barbuda English (official), local dialects
Argentina Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French
Armenia Armenian 98%, Yezidi, Russian
Australia English 79%, native and other languages
Austria German (official nationwide); Slovene, Croatian, Hungarian (each official in one region)
Azerbaijan Azerbaijani Turkic 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995 est.)
Bahamas English (official), Creole (among Haitian immigrants)
Bahrain Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu
Bangladesh Bangla (official), English
Barbados English
Belarus Belorussian (White Russian), Russian, other
Belgium Dutch (Flemish) 60%, French 40%, German less than 1% (all official)
Belize English (official), Spanish, Mayan, Garifuna (Carib), Creole
Benin French (official), Fon, Yoruba, tribal languages
Bhutan Dzongkha (official), Tibetan dialects (among Bhotes), Nepalese dialects (among Nepalese)
Bolivia Spanish, Quechua, Aymara (all official)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian
Botswana English 2% (official), Setswana 78%, Kalanga 8%, Sekgalagadi 3%, other (2001)
Brazil Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French
Brunei Malay (official), English, Chinese
Bulgaria Bulgarian 85%, Turkish 10%, Roma 4%
Burkina Faso French (official); native African (Sudanic) languages 90%
Burundi Kirundi and French (official), Swahili
Cambodia Khmer 95% (official), French, English
Cameroon French, English (both official); 24 major African language groups
Canada English 59.3%, French 23.2% (both official); other 17.5%
Cape Verde Portuguese, Criuolo
Central African Republic French (official), Sangho (lingua franca, national), tribal languages
Chad French, Arabic (both official); Sara; more than 120 languages and dialects
Chile Spanish
China Standard
Chinese (Mandarin/Putonghua), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei
(Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects,
minority languages
Colombia Spanish
Comoros Arabic and French (both official), Shikomoro (Swahili/Arabic blend)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the French (official), Lingala, Kingwana, Kikongo, Tshiluba
Congo, Republic of French (official), Lingala, Monokutuba, Kikongo, many local languages and dialects
Costa Rica Spanish (official), English
Côte d’Ivoire French (official) and African languages (Dioula esp.)
Croatia Croatian 96% (official), other 4% (including Italian, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, German)
Cuba Spanish
Cyprus Greek, Turkish (both official); English
Czech Republic Czech
Denmark Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (Inuit dialect), German; English is the predominant second language
Djibouti French and Arabic (both official), Somali, Afar
Dominica English (official) and French patois
Dominican Republic Spanish
East Timor Tetum, Portuguese (official); Bahasa Indonesia, English; other indigenous languages, including Tetum, Galole, Mambae, and Kemak
Ecuador Spanish (official), Quechua, other Amerindian languages
Egypt Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
El Salvador Spanish, Nahua (among some Amerindians)
Equatorial Guinea Spanish, French (both official); pidgin English, Fang, Bubi, Ibo
Eritrea Afar, Arabic, Tigre and Kunama, Tigrinya, other Cushitic languages
Estonia Estonian 67% (official), Russian 30%, other (2000)
Ethiopia Amharic, Tigrigna, Orominga, Guaragigna, Somali, Arabic, English, over 70 others
Fiji English (official), Fijian, Hindustani
Finland Finnish 92%, Swedish 6% (both official); small Sami- (Lapp) and Russian-speaking minorities
France French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects (Provençal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish)
Gabon French (official), Fang, Myene, Nzebi, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi
Gambia English (official), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous
Georgia Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, Armenian 7%, Azerbaijani 6%, other 7% (Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia)
Germany German
Ghana English (official), African languages (including Akan, Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe, and Ga)
Greece Greek 99% (official), English, French
Grenada English (official), French patois
Guatemala Spanish
60%, Amerindian languages 40% (23 officially recognized Amerindian
languages, including Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi, Mam, Garifuna, and
Guinea French (official), native tongues (Malinké, Susu, Fulani)
Guinea-Bissau Portuguese (official), Criolo, African languages
Guyana English (official), Amerindian dialects, Creole, Hindi, Urdu
Haiti Creole and French (both official)
Honduras Spanish (official), Amerindian dialects; English widely spoken in business
Hungary Magyar (Hungarian) 94%, other 6%
Iceland Icelandic, English, Nordic languages, German widely spoken
India Hindi
30%, English, Bengali, Gujarati, Kashmiri, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya,
Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu, Kannada, Assamese, Sanskrit, Sindhi (all
official); Hindi/Urdu; 1,600+ dialects
Indonesia Bahasa Indonesia (official), English, Dutch, Javanese, and more than 580 other languages and dialects
Iran Persian
and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic dialects 26%, Kurdish 9%,
Luri 2%, Balochi 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other 2%
Iraq Arabic (official), Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian
Ireland English, Irish (Gaelic) (both official)
Israel Hebrew (official), Arabic, English
Italy Italian (official); German-, French-, and Slovene-speaking minorities
Jamaica English, Jamaican Creole
Japan Japanese
Jordan Arabic (official), English
Kazakhstan Kazak (Qazaq, state language) 64%; Russian (official, used in everyday business) 95% (2001 est.)
Kenya English (official), Swahili (national), and numerous indigenous languages
Kiribati English (official), I-Kiribati (Gilbertese)
Korea, North Korean
Korea, South Korean, English widely taught
Kosovo Albanian (official), Serbian (official), Bosnian, Turkish, Roma
Kuwait Arabic (official), English
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyz, Russian (both official)
Laos Lao (official), French, English, various ethnic languages
Latvia Latvian 58% (official), Russian 38%, Lithuanian, other (2000)
Lebanon Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian
Lesotho English, Sesotho (both official); Zulu, Xhosa
Liberia English 20% (official), some 20 ethnic-group languages
Libya Arabic, Italian, and English widely understood in major cities
Liechtenstein German (official), Alemannic dialect
Lithuania Lithuanian 82% (official), Russian 8%, Polish 6% (2001)
Luxembourg Luxermbourgish (national) French, German (both administrative)
Macedonia Macedonian 67%, Albanian 25% (both official); Turkish 4%, Roma 2%, Serbian 1% (2002)
Madagascar Malagasy and French (both official)
Malawi Chichewa
57.2% (official), Chinyanja 12.8%, Chiyao 10.1%, Chitumbuka 9.5%,
Chisena 2.7%, Chilomwe 2.4%, Chitonga 1.7%, other 3.6% (1998)
Malaysia Bahasa
Melayu (Malay, official), English, Chinese dialects (Cantonese,
Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow), Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam,
Panjabi, Thai; several indigenous languages (including Iban, Kadazan) in
East Malaysia
Maldives Maldivian Dhivehi (official); English spoken by most government officials
Mali French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages
Malta Maltese and English (both official)
Marshall Islands Marshallese
98% (two major dialects from the Malayo-Polynesian family), English
widely spoken as a second language (both official); Japanese
Mauritania Hassaniya Arabic (official), Pulaar, Soninke, French, Wolof
Mauritius English less than 1% (official), Creole 81%, Bojpoori 12%, French 3% (2000)
Mexico Spanish, various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional indigenous languages
Micronesia English (official, common), Chukese, Pohnpeian, Yapase, Kosrean, Ulithian, Woleaian, Nukuoro, Kapingamarangi
Moldova Moldovan (official; virtually the same as Romanian), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)
Monaco French (official), English, Italian, Monégasque
Mongolia Mongolian, 90%; also Turkic and Russian (1999)
Montenegro Serbian/Montenegrin (Ijekavian dialect—official)
Morocco Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French often used for business, government, and diplomacy
Mozambique Portuguese
9% (official; second language of 27%), Emakhuwa 26%, Xichangana 11%,
Elomwe 8%, Cisena 7%, Echuwabo 6%, other Mozambican languages 32% (1997)
Myanmar Burmese, minority languages
Namibia English
7% (official), Afrikaans is common language of most of the population
and of about 60% of the white population, German 32%; indigenous
languages: Oshivambo, Herero, Nama
Nauru Nauruan (official), English
Nepal Nepali
48% (official), Maithali 12%, Bhojpuri 7%, Tharu 6%, Tamang 5%, others.
English spoken by many in government and business (2001)
Netherlands Dutch, Frisian (both official)
New Zealand English, Maori (both official)
Nicaragua Spanish 98% (official); English and indigenous languages on Atlantic coast (1995)
Niger French (official), Hausa, Djerma
Nigeria English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Ibo, Fulani, and more than 200 others
Norway Bokmål
Norwegian, Nynorsk Norwegian (both official); small Sami- and
Finnish-speaking minorities (Sami is official in six municipalities)
Oman Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects
Pakistan Urdu
8%, English (both official); Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a
Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%,
Burushaski, and others 8%
Palau Palauan
64.7%, English 9.4%, Sonsoralese, Tobi, Angaur (each official on some
islands), Filipino 13.5%, Chinese 5.7%, Carolinian 1.5%, Japanese 1.5%,
other Asian 2.3%, other languages 1.5% (2000)
Palestinian State (proposed) Arabic, Hebrew, English
Panama Spanish (official), English 14%, many bilingual
Papua New Guinea Tok Pisin (Melanesian Pidgin, the lingua franca), Hiri Motu (in Papua region), English 1%–2%; 715 indigenous languages
Paraguay Spanish, Guaraní (both official)
Peru Spanish, Quéchua (both official); Aymara; many minor Amazonian languages
Philippines Filipino
(based on Tagalog), English (both official); eight major dialects:
Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray,
Pampango, and Pangasinense
Poland Polish 98% (2002)
Portugal Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official, but locally used)
Qatar Arabic (official); English a common second language
Romania Romanian (official), Hungarian, German
Russia Russian, others
Rwanda Kinyarwanda, French, and English (all official); Kiswahili in commercial centers
St. Kitts and Nevis English
St. Lucia English (official), French patois
St. Vincent and the Grenadines English, French patois
Samoa Samoan, English
San Marino Italian
São Tomé and Príncipe Portuguese (official)
Saudi Arabia Arabic
Senegal French (official); Wolof, Pulaar, Jola, Mandinka
Serbia Serbian (official); Romanian, Hungarian, Slovak, and Croatian (all official in Vojvodina); Albanian (official in Kosovo)
Seychelles Seselwa Creole 92%, English 5%, French (all official) (2002)
Sierra Leone English (official), Mende (southern vernacular), Temne (northern vernacular), Krio (lingua franca)
Singapore Mandarin
35%, English 23%, Malay 14.1%, Hokkien 11.4%, Cantonese 5.7%, Teochew
4.9%, Tamil 3.2%, other Chinese dialects 1.8%, other 0.9% (2000)
Slovakia Slovak 84% (official), Hungarian 11%, Roma 2%, Ukrainian 1% (2001)
Slovenia Slovenian 91%, Serbo-Croatian 5% (2002)
Solomon Islands English 1%–2% (official), Melanesian pidgin (lingua franca), 120 indigenous languages
Somalia Somali (official), Arabic, English, Italian
South Africa IsiZulu
23.8%, IsiXhosa 17.6%, Afrikaans 13.3%, Sepedi 9.4%, English 8.2%,
Setswana 8.2%, Sesotho 7.9%, Xitsonga 4.4%, other 7.2%
South Sudan English
(official), Arabic (includes Juba and Sudanese variants) (official),
regional languages include Dinka, Nuer, Bari, Zande, Shilluk
Spain Castilian Spanish 74% (official nationwide); Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2% (each official regionally)
Sri Lanka Sinhala
74% (official and national), Tamil 18% (national), other 8%; English is
commonly used in government and spoken competently by about 10%
Sudan Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English
Suriname Dutch (official), Surinamese (lingua franca), English widely spoken, Hindustani, Javanese
Swaziland English, siSwati (both official)
Sweden Swedish, small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
Switzerland German 64%, French 20%, Italian 7% (all official); Romansch 0.5% (national)
Syria Arabic (official); Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian widely understood; French, English somewhat understood
Taiwan Chinese (Mandarin, official), Taiwanese (Min), Hakka dialects
Tajikistan Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business
Tanzania Swahili, English (both official); Arabic; many local languages
Thailand Thai (Siamese), English (secondary language of the elite), ethnic and regional dialects
Togo French (official, commerce); Ewé, Mina (south); Kabyé, Dagomba (north); and many dialects
Tonga Tongan (an Austronesian language), English
Trinidad and Tobago English (official), Hindi, French, Spanish, Chinese
Tunisia Arabic (official, commerce), French (commerce)
Turkey Turkish (official), Kurdish, Dimli, Azeri, Kabardian
Turkmenistan Turkmen 72%; Russian 12%; Uzbek 9%, other 7%
Tuvalu Tuvaluan, English, Samoan, Kiribati (on the island of Nui)
Uganda English (official), Ganda or Luganda, other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic
Ukraine Ukrainian 67%, Russian 24%, Romanian, Polish, Hungarian
United Arab Emirates Arabic (official), Persian, English, Hindi, Urdu
United Kingdom English, Welsh, Scots Gaelic
United States English 82%, Spanish 11% (2000)
Uruguay Spanish, Portunol, or Brazilero
Uzbekistan Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
Vanuatu Bislama 23% (a Melanesian pidgin English), English 2%, French 1% (all 3 official); more than 100 local languages 73%
Vatican City (Holy See) Italian, Latin, French, various other languages
Venezuela Spanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects
Vietnam Vietnamese
(official); English (increasingly favored as a second language); some
French, Chinese, Khmer; mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and
Western Sahara (proposed state) Hassaniya Arabic, Moroccan Arabic
Yemen Arabic
Zambia English (official); major vernaculars: Bemba, Kaonda, Lozi, Lunda, Luvale, Nyanja, Tonga; about 70 other indigenous languages
Zimbabwe English (official), Shona, Ndebele (Sindebele), numerous minor tribal dialects

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Buddhist GIF ☸️ Your worst enemy can not harm you as much as your own thoughts, unguarded. But once mastered, no one can help you as much, not even your father or your mother. (Dh., ch. 3)
巴米安(Bamiyan / 巴米揚) 大佛
Published on May 2, 2013
這一部紀錄片 是由日本NHK / FuturePlanet Co.動畫製作, 根據三藏玄奘大師的著作 - “大唐西域記” 其中所描述 梵衍那國 (今 阿富汗巴米安地區) 大佛的相關細節, 以電腦3D畫面技術重新呈現出來, 揣摩當時的宏偉景像 !!
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49) Classical Kannada
49) ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ

2629 ಬುಧ 23 ಮೇ ತಿಂಗಳು

4 ವರ್ಡ್ಸ್ನಲ್ಲಿ ಜಾಗೃತಿ ಬುದ್ಧನ ಬೋಧನೆಗಳನ್ನು ಎಚ್ಚರಗೊಳಿಸಿದವರು
ಒಳ್ಳೆಯದು ಮನಸ್ಸಿರಿ!

ನಿಮ್ಮ ಮಾತೃಭಾಷೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಈ ಗೂಗಲ್ ಅನುವಾದವನ್ನು ಸರಿಪಡಿಸಿ…/good-governance-th…/
ಉತ್ತಮ ಆಡಳಿತ-ಜಾಗೃತಿ ಮಾರ್ಗದೊಂದಿಗೆ ಒಂದು ಜಾಗೃತಗೊಳಿಸಿ

ಎಚ್ಚರಗೊಳ್ಳುವ ಒಂದು ಬೋಧನೆಗಳು ಉದಾತ್ತ ತತ್ತ್ವವು ಎಂಟನೇ ಪಥವನ್ನು ಪೂರ್ಣ
ವಿಮೋಚನೆಗೆ ಮುನ್ನಡೆಸುವುದು- ಫೈನಲ್ ಗೋಲ್ ಆಗಿ ಎಟರ್ನಲ್ ಬ್ಲಿಸ್.
ಜನರ ಜಾಗತಿಕ ಸಾಮಾಜಿಕ ಮತ್ತು ಆರ್ಥಿಕ ಮತ್ತು ರಾಜಕೀಯ ಕಲ್ಯಾಣವನ್ನು ನಿರ್ಲಕ್ಷಿಸಿ
ಅಂತಹ ಉತ್ಕೃಷ್ಟವಾದ ಆದರ್ಶಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಮತ್ತು ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ ತತ್ತ್ವಚಿಂತನೆಯ ಚಿಂತನೆಯಲ್ಲಿ
ಜಾಗೃತಿ ಮೂಡಿಸುವವನು ಆಸಕ್ತಿ ತೋರುತ್ತದೆ ಎಂದು ತೀರ್ಮಾನಿಸುವುದು ತಪ್ಪು.
ಮೂಡಿಸುವವನು ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಜೀವಿಗಳ ಕಡೆಗೆ ದಯೆ ಮತ್ತು ಸಹಾನುಭೂತಿಯ ಅದ್ಭುತವಾದ ಭಂಡಾರ
ಮತ್ತು ಮಾನವಕುಲದಷ್ಟೇ ಅಲ್ಲದೆ ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಇತರ ಜೀವಿಗಳ ಸಂತೋಷದ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಬಹಳವಾಗಿ
ಆಸಕ್ತನಾಗಿದ್ದನು. ನೈತಿಕ ಮತ್ತು ಆಧ್ಯಾತ್ಮಿಕ ಆಧರಿಸಿ ಶುದ್ಧ ಜೀವನವನ್ನು ಮುನ್ನಡೆಸದೆ
ಸಂತೋಷವು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ

ಅಪರಾಧವನ್ನು ನಿರ್ಮೂಲನೆ ಮಾಡಲು, ಜನರ ಆರ್ಥಿಕ ಸ್ಥಿತಿಯನ್ನು ಸುಧಾರಿಸಬೇಕು ಎಂದು ವಿವರಿಸುತ್ತಾರೆ. ಉದ್ಯೋಗದಾತ ಮತ್ತು ಉದ್ಯೋಗಿಗಳ ನಡುವಿನ ಸಂಬಂಧವು ಮುಖ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಸಾಕಷ್ಟು ವೇತನ, ಉಡುಗೊರೆಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಪ್ರೋತ್ಸಾಹದ ಹಣವನ್ನು ಪಾವತಿಸಬೇಕಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. ರಾಜರು
(ಸರ್ಕಾರಗಳು) ಈ ಸತ್ಯವನ್ನು ಗಂಭೀರ ಪರಿಗಣನೆಗೆ ತೆಗೆದುಕೊಳ್ಳಬೇಕು ಮತ್ತು ಜನರನ್ನು
ಸಂತೋಷವಾಗಿ ಮತ್ತು ತೃಪ್ತಿಪಡಿಸಬೇಕು, ಇದರಿಂದಾಗಿ ದೇಶವು ಶಾಂತಿಯುತ ಮತ್ತು ಅಪರಾಧ
ಮೂಡಿಸುವವರು ಕೇವಲ ಅಹಿಂಸೆ ಮತ್ತು ಶಾಂತಿಯನ್ನು ಕಲಿಸುತ್ತಾರೆ ಮಾತ್ರವಲ್ಲ, ಅವರು
ಯುದ್ಧದ ಆರಂಭವನ್ನು ತಡೆಗಟ್ಟಲು ವೈಯಕ್ತಿಕವಾಗಿ ಯುದ್ಧಭೂಮಿಗೆ ಹೋದ ಮೊದಲ ಮತ್ತು ಏಕೈಕ
ಧಾರ್ಮಿಕ ಶಿಕ್ಷಕರಾಗಿದ್ದರು.
ರೋಹಿಣಿ ನೀರಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಯುದ್ಧ ನಡೆಸಲು ಸಕಾಯರು ಮತ್ತು ಕೊಲಿಯಾಸ್ಗಳ ನಡುವೆ ಬುದ್ಧ ವಿಕಸನಗೊಂಡಿತು. ಆಶೀರ್ವದಿಸಿದವನು
ರಾಜ ಅಜತಾಸತ್ತುನನ್ನು ಕೂಡಾ ವಜಾಗೊಳಿಸಿದ್ದಾನೆ. ಬುದ್ಧನು ಉತ್ತಮ ಸರಕಾರದ
ಪ್ರಾಮುಖ್ಯತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಪೂರ್ವಾಪೇಕ್ಷಿತ ಅಂಶಗಳನ್ನು ಚರ್ಚಿಸುತ್ತಾನೆ ಮತ್ತು ಸರ್ಕಾರದ
ಮುಖ್ಯಸ್ಥ ಭ್ರಷ್ಟ ಮತ್ತು ಅನ್ಯಾಯವಾಗುವಾಗ ದೇಶ ಭ್ರಷ್ಟಾಚಾರ, ಅವನತಿ ಮತ್ತು
ಅಸಂತೋಷಗೊಂಡಿದೆ ಎಂಬುದನ್ನು ತೋರಿಸಿತು.
ಭ್ರಷ್ಟಾಚಾರದ ವಿರುದ್ಧ ಮಾತನಾಡಿದ ಜಾಗರೂಕತೆಯೊಂದಿಗೆ ಒಂದು ಜಾಗೃತಗೊಳಿಸಿ ಮತ್ತು ಸರಕಾರ ಮಾನವೀಯ ತತ್ವಗಳ ಆಧಾರದ ಮೇಲೆ ಹೇಗೆ ಕಾರ್ಯ ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸಬೇಕು. ಜಾಗೃತಿ ಮೂಡಿಸಿದವರು ಒಮ್ಮೆ ಹೇಳಿದರು, ‘ದೇಶದ ಆಡಳಿತಗಾರನು ಕೇವಲ ಒಳ್ಳೆಯದಾಗಿದ್ದಾಗ, ಸಚಿವರು ಕೇವಲ ಒಳ್ಳೆಯವರು ಆಗಿದ್ದಾರೆ; ಮಂತ್ರಿಗಳು ಕೇವಲ ಮತ್ತು ಉತ್ತಮವಾಗಿದ್ದಾಗ, ಉನ್ನತ ಅಧಿಕಾರಿಗಳು ಕೇವಲ ಉತ್ತಮರಾಗುತ್ತಾರೆ; ಉನ್ನತ ಅಧಿಕಾರಿಗಳು ಕೇವಲ ಮತ್ತು ಉತ್ತಮವಾಗಿದ್ದಾಗ, ಶ್ರೇಣಿ ಮತ್ತು ಕಡತವು ಕೇವಲ ಉತ್ತಮವಾಗಿದೆ; ಶ್ರೇಣಿ
ಮತ್ತು ಕಡತವು ಕೇವಲ ಒಳ್ಳೆಯದಾಗಿದ್ದರೆ, ಜನರು ಕೇವಲ ಒಳ್ಳೆಯವರು ಆಗಿದ್ದಾರೆ.
“(ಅಂಗುಟ್ಟರಾ ನಿಕಾಯಾ) ಕಕ್ಕಾವಟ್ಟಿ ಸಿಹಾನಂದ ಸೂಟದಲ್ಲಿ, ಕಳ್ಳತನ, ಸುಳ್ಳುತನ,
ಹಿಂಸಾಚಾರ, ದ್ವೇಷ, ಕ್ರೌರ್ಯದಂತಹ ಅನೈತಿಕತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಅಪರಾಧಗಳು ಉದ್ಭವವಾಗಬಹುದೆಂದು
ಬಡತನದಿಂದ. ಶಿಕ್ಷೆಯ ಮೂಲಕ ಅಪರಾಧವನ್ನು ನಿಗ್ರಹಿಸಲು ರಾಜರು ಮತ್ತು ಸರ್ಕಾರಗಳು ಪ್ರಯತ್ನಿಸಬಹುದು, ಆದರೆ ಅಪರಾಧಗಳನ್ನು ನಿರ್ಮೂಲನೆಗೆ ನಿಷ್ಫಲವಾಗಿದೆ. ಕುತಂದಾಂತ ಸೂಟದಲ್ಲಿ, ಬುದ್ಧನು ಅಪರಾಧವನ್ನು ಕಡಿಮೆ ಮಾಡಲು ಬಲವಂತದ ಬದಲಿಗೆ ಆರ್ಥಿಕ ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿಯನ್ನು ಸೂಚಿಸಿದನು. ದೇಶದ ಆರ್ಥಿಕ ಪರಿಸ್ಥಿತಿಯನ್ನು ಸುಧಾರಿಸಲು ಸರ್ಕಾರವು ದೇಶದ ಸಂಪನ್ಮೂಲಗಳನ್ನು ಬಳಸಬೇಕು. ಇದು
ವ್ಯವಸಾಯ ಮತ್ತು ಗ್ರಾಮೀಣ ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿಯನ್ನು ಕೈಗೊಳ್ಳಲು, ಉದ್ಯಮಿಗಳು ಮತ್ತು
ವ್ಯವಹಾರಗಳಿಗೆ ಹಣಕಾಸಿನ ಬೆಂಬಲವನ್ನು ಒದಗಿಸುವುದು, ಮಾನವ ಘನತೆಗೆ ಯೋಗ್ಯವಾದ
ಜೀವನವನ್ನು ಕಾಪಾಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಕಾರ್ಮಿಕರಿಗೆ ಸಾಕಷ್ಟು ವೇತನವನ್ನು ಒದಗಿಸಬಹುದು. ಜಾಗೃತಿ
ಹೊಂದಿರುವ ಜಾಗೃತತೆ ಕೂಡಾ ಶಾಂತಿಯ ಮತ್ತು ಕಾರ್ಡಿಯಾಲಿಟಿಗಳ ನಿರ್ವಹಣೆಗೆ ಸಂಪೂರ್ಣ
ಬೆಳವಣಿಗೆಗೆ ಮತ್ತು ಅದರ ಸರ್ಕಾರವು ಭ್ರಷ್ಟಾಚಾರ ಮತ್ತು ಅನ್ಯಾಯಕ್ಕೊಳಗಾದಾಗ ದೇಶ
ಭ್ರಷ್ಟಾಚಾರ ಮತ್ತು ಅತೃಪ್ತಿ ಆಗಬಹುದು ಎಂಬುದನ್ನು ತೋರಿಸಿದೆ.
ಒಂದು ದೇಶವು ಸಂತೋಷವಾಗಿರಲು, ಅದು ಉತ್ತಮ ಮತ್ತು ಕೇವಲ ಸರ್ಕಾರವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿರಬೇಕು. ಈ ರೀತಿಯ ಸರ್ಕಾರದ ವಿಕಸನವು ಹೇಗೆ “ಟೆನ್ ರಾಯಲ್ ವರ್ಚ್ಯೂಸ್” ಎಂಬ ತನ್ನ ಶಿಫಾರಸುಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ವಿವರಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ. (”ದಾಸ-ರಾಜ ಧಮ್ಮ”). ದೇಶವನ್ನು ಶಾಂತಿಯುತವಾಗಿ ಆಳುವ ಯಾವುದೇ ಸರ್ಕಾರದಿಂದ ಈ ಹತ್ತು ನಿಯಮಗಳನ್ನು ಕೂಡ ಅನ್ವಯಿಸಬಹುದು. ‘ಹತ್ತು ರಾಯಲ್ ವರ್ಚ್ಯೂಸ್’ ಕೆಳಕಂಡಂತಿವೆ:

ಡಾನಾ: ಉದಾರತೆ, ಔದಾರ್ಯ ಅಥವಾ ಚಾರಿಟಿ. ಅಗತ್ಯವಿರುವವರಿಗೆ ಭಿಕ್ಷೆ ನೀಡುವಿಕೆ. ತನ್ನ ಅಗತ್ಯವಿರುವವರ ಕಲ್ಯಾಣವನ್ನು ನೋಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಅರಸನ (ಸರ್ಕಾರ) ಕರ್ತವ್ಯವೇ ಆಗಿದೆ. ಆದರ್ಶ ರಾಜನು ಕಡುಬಯಕೆ ಮತ್ತು ಲಗತ್ತನ್ನು ನೀಡದೆಯೇ ಬುದ್ಧಿವಂತಿಕೆಯಿಂದ ಸಂಪತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಆಸ್ತಿಯನ್ನು ಕೊಡಬೇಕು. ಬೇರೆ ರೀತಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಹೇಳುವುದಾದರೆ, ತನ್ನ ಸ್ಥಾನವನ್ನು ಶ್ರೀಮಂತವಾಗಿ ಬಳಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳುವ ಪ್ರಯತ್ನ ಮಾಡಬಾರದು.

ಸಿಲಾ: ನೈತಿಕತೆ - ಉನ್ನತ ನೈತಿಕ ಪಾತ್ರ. ಅವರು
ಐದು ಪದ್ಧತಿಗಳನ್ನಾದರೂ ಗಮನಿಸಬೇಕು, ಮತ್ತು ತನ್ನ ಪ್ರಜೆಗಳಿಗೆ ಪ್ರಕಾಶಮಾನವಾದ
ಉದಾಹರಣೆಯಾಗಿ ಖಾಸಗಿ ಮತ್ತು ಸಾರ್ವಜನಿಕ ಜೀವನದಲ್ಲಿ ತನ್ನನ್ನು ತಾನೇ
ತೊಡಗಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಬೇಕು. ಈ ಸದ್ಗುಣವು ಬಹಳ ಮುಖ್ಯವಾದುದು ಏಕೆಂದರೆ, ಏಕೆಂದರೆ ರಾಜನು
ಅದನ್ನು ಅನುಸರಿಸಿದರೆ, ಕಟ್ಟುನಿಟ್ಟಾಗಿ, ಲಂಚ ಮತ್ತು ಭ್ರಷ್ಟಾಚಾರ
, ಹಿಂಸೆ ಮತ್ತು ಅಶಿಸ್ತುಗಳನ್ನು ದೇಶದಲ್ಲಿ ಸ್ವಯಂಚಾಲಿತವಾಗಿ ನಾಶಗೊಳಿಸಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ.

ಕಂಫರ್ಟ್ ಪ್ಯಾರಿಕಾಗ: ಜನರು ಒಳ್ಳೆಯದಕ್ಕಾಗಿ ಇದ್ದರೆ ತ್ಯಾಗ ಮಾಡುವುದು - ವೈಯಕ್ತಿಕ ಹೆಸರು ಮತ್ತು ಖ್ಯಾತಿ; ಅಗತ್ಯವಿದ್ದರೆ ಜೀವನ ಕೂಡ. ಉಡುಗೊರೆಗಳನ್ನು ನೀಡುವ ಮೂಲಕ. ಆಡಳಿತಗಾರನು ಹೆಚ್ಚು ಪರಿಣಾಮಕಾರಿಯಾದ ಮತ್ತು ಹೆಚ್ಚು ನಿಷ್ಠಾವಂತ ಸೇವೆಗೆ ವಿಷಯವನ್ನು ಮುಟ್ಟುತ್ತಾನೆ.

ಅಜಜಾ: ಪ್ರಾಮಾಣಿಕತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಸಮಗ್ರತೆ. ಅವರು ಸಂಪೂರ್ಣವಾಗಿ ನೇರವಾಗಬೇಕು ಮತ್ತು ಅವರ ತುದಿಗಳನ್ನು ಸಾಧಿಸಲು ಯಾವುದೇ ಬಾಗಿದ ಅಥವಾ ಅನುಮಾನಾಸ್ಪದ ವಿಧಾನಗಳಿಗೆ ಯಾವತ್ತೂ ಅವಲಂಬಿಸಬಾರದು. ಅವನು ತನ್ನ ಕರ್ತವ್ಯಗಳ ಕಾರ್ಯನಿರ್ವಹಣೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಭಯದಿಂದ ಅಥವಾ ಪರವಾಗಿ ದೂರವಿರಬೇಕು. ‘ಸಿಗೋಲೊವಾಡಾ ಸುಟ್ಟಾ’ ಎಂಬ ಪುಸ್ತಕದಲ್ಲಿ ಬುದ್ಧನು ಹೇಳುತ್ತಾನೆ, ವ್ಯಕ್ತಿಯು
ಪಕ್ಷಪಾತ, ದ್ವೇಷ, ಭಯ ಅಥವಾ ಅಜ್ಞಾನಕ್ಕೆ ಒಳಗಾಗದೆ ನ್ಯಾಯವನ್ನು ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸಿದರೆ, ಅವನ
ಜನಪ್ರಿಯತೆಯು ವ್ಯಾಕ್ಸಿಂಗ್ ಚಂದ್ರನಂತೆ ಬೆಳೆಯುತ್ತದೆ “

ಮಡವ: ದಯೆ ಅಥವಾ ಸೌಜನ್ಯ. ಒಬ್ಬ ರಾಜನ ನೆಟ್ಟಗೆ ಕೆಲವೊಮ್ಮೆ ನಿಶ್ಶಕ್ತಿ ಬೇಕಾಗಬಹುದು. ಆದರೆ ಇದು ದಯೆ ಮತ್ತು ಸೌಜನ್ಯದೊಂದಿಗೆ ಮೃದುಗೊಳಿಸಬೇಕು. ಬೇರೆ ರೀತಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಹೇಳುವುದಾದರೆ, ಒಬ್ಬ ಅಧಿಪತಿಯು ಅತಿಯಾದ ಅಥವಾ ಕ್ರೂರವಾಗಿರಬಾರದು.

ತಪ: ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಗಳ ನಿಗ್ರಹ ಮತ್ತು ಪದ್ಧತಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂಯಮ. ಇಂದ್ರಿಯ ಸಂತೋಷಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ತೊಡಗಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳುವುದನ್ನು ನಿರಾಕರಿಸುವುದು, ಆದರ್ಶ ರಾಜನು ತನ್ನ ಐದು ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಗಳನ್ನು ನಿಯಂತ್ರಿಸುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಕೆಲವು ಆಡಳಿತಗಾರರು ತಮ್ಮ ಸ್ಥಾನವನ್ನು ಬಳಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಬಹುದು, ನೈತಿಕ ನಡವಳಿಕೆಯನ್ನು ತಪ್ಪಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಬಹುದು - ಇದು ಉತ್ತಮ ರಾಜನಾಗುತ್ತಿಲ್ಲ.

ಅಕೋಧಾ: ದ್ವೇಷವಿಲ್ಲ. ಆಡಳಿತಗಾರನು ಯಾರಿಗೂ ವಿರುದ್ಧವಾಗಿ ಯಾವುದೇ ದ್ವೇಷವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿರಬಾರದು. ಕುಂದುಕೊರತೆಗಳನ್ನು ಕೊಡದೆ ಅವರು ಸಹಿಷ್ಣುತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಪ್ರೀತಿಯಿಂದ ವರ್ತಿಸಬೇಕು.

ಅವಿಹಿಂಸಾ: ಅಹಿಂಸೆ. ಅವನು ಯಾರನ್ನಾದರೂ ಹಾನಿಗೊಳಿಸದಂತೆ ತಡೆಯಬೇಕು ಆದರೆ ಅವರು ಶಾಂತಿಯನ್ನು ಉತ್ತೇಜಿಸಲು ಮತ್ತು ಅಗತ್ಯವಾದಾಗ ಯುದ್ಧವನ್ನು ತಡೆಯಲು ಪ್ರಯತ್ನಿಸಬೇಕು. ಆದರ್ಶ ಆಡಳಿತಗಾರನ ನಿರೀಕ್ಷೆಯ ನಿಶ್ಚಿತತೆಗೆ ಇದು ಮಧ್ಯಪ್ರವೇಶಿಸದಿದ್ದಾಗ, ಅವರು ಅಹಿಂಸಾಚಾರವನ್ನು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಾದಷ್ಟು ಮಟ್ಟಿಗೆ ಅಭ್ಯಾಸ ಮಾಡಬೇಕು.

ಖಾಂತಿ: ತಾಳ್ಮೆ ಮತ್ತು ಸಹಿಷ್ಣುತೆ. ತನ್ನ ಸ್ವಭಾವವನ್ನು ಕಳೆದುಕೊಳ್ಳದೆ, ರಾಜನು ಕಷ್ಟಗಳನ್ನು ಮತ್ತು ಅವಮಾನಗಳನ್ನು ಹೊಂದುವ ಸಾಮರ್ಥ್ಯ ಹೊಂದಿರಬೇಕು. ಯಾವುದೇ ಸಂದರ್ಭದಲ್ಲಿ ಅವರು ಭಾವನೆಗಳನ್ನು ಕೊಡದೆ ಸ್ವತಃ ನಡೆಸಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. ಅವರು ಒಂದೇ ರೀತಿಯ ಆತ್ಮ ಮತ್ತು ಸಮಾನತೆಗಳೊಂದಿಗೆ ಎರಡೂ ಹೂಗುಚ್ಛಗಳನ್ನು ಮತ್ತು ಬ್ರಿಕ್ಬಾಟ್ಗಳನ್ನು ಸ್ವೀಕರಿಸಲು ಸಮರ್ಥರಾಗಬೇಕು.

ಅವಿರೋಧ: ವಿರೋಧಿ ಮತ್ತು ವಿರೋಧಿತ್ವ. ರಾಜನು ಜನರ ಇಚ್ಛೆಯನ್ನು ವಿರೋಧಿಸಬಾರದು. ಅವನು ತನ್ನ ಪ್ರಜೆಗಳ ನಡುವೆ ಮನೋಭಾವದ ಚೈತನ್ಯವನ್ನು ಬೆಳೆಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಬೇಕು. ಬೇರೆ ರೀತಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಹೇಳುವುದಾದರೆ ಅವನು ತನ್ನ ಜನರೊಂದಿಗೆ ಸಾಮರಸ್ಯದಿಂದ ಆಳಬೇಕು.

ಮಗಾಧದ ರಾಜನಾದ ಅಜತಾಸಟ್ಟು ತನ್ನ ಸಾರ್ವಭೌಮತ್ವದ ಅಡಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಅದನ್ನು ತರಲು ವಾಜಜಿ ಪ್ರದೇಶವನ್ನು ಆಕ್ರಮಿಸಲು ಬಯಸಿದನು. ಅಗತ್ಯವಾದ ಸೂಚನೆಗಳನ್ನು ಪಡೆಯಲು ತನ್ನ ಮುಖ್ಯಮಂತ್ರಿ ವಸಾಕರಾ ಅವರನ್ನು ಕಳುಹಿಸುವ ಮೂಲಕ ಜಾಗೃತತೆಯ ಒಂದು ಸಲಹೆಯೊಡನೆ ಅವರು ಸಲಹೆ ನೀಡಿದರು. ಜಾಗೃತಿಯ ಸೂಚನೆಗಳೊಂದಿಗೆ ಎಚ್ಚರಗೊಳ್ಳುವೆಂದರೆ, ಲಿಚ್ಚಾವಿಸ್, ವಾಜ್ಜಿಯ
ಆಡಳಿತಗಾರರು ಸೋಲಿಸಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಾಗಲಿಲ್ಲ ಮತ್ತು ಸೋಲಿಸಲು ಅನುಕೂಲಕರವಾಗಿರದ ಏಳು
ಧಮಮಾಗಳನ್ನು ಅಂಗೀಕರಿಸುವವರೆಗೂ ಸೋಲಿಸಲಾಗಲಿಲ್ಲ (ಸಪ್ತಾ ಅಪರಿಹನಿಯಾ ಧಮ್ಮ)

(ನಾನು) ದೈನಂದಿನ ಆಡಳಿತಕ್ಕೆ ಸಂಬಂಧಿಸಿದ ವಿಷಯಗಳನ್ನು ಚರ್ಚಿಸಲು ನಿಯಮಿತ ಸಭೆಗಳನ್ನು ನಡೆಸಿದರು.

(ii) ಅವರು ಭೇಟಿಯಾದರು, ಕೆಲಸ ಮಾಡಿದರು ಮತ್ತು ತಂಡವಾಗಿ ಹರಡಿದರು.

(iii) ಅವರು ದೇಶದ ಕಾನೂನನ್ನು ಕಟ್ಟುನಿಟ್ಟಾಗಿ ಅನುಸರಿಸಿದರು.

(iv) ಅವರು ಹಿರಿಯರಿಗೆ ವಿಧೇಯರಾಗಿದ್ದರು.

(v) ಅವರು ಮಹಿಳಾ-ಜನರನ್ನು ಗೌರವಾನ್ವಿತರು ಮತ್ತು ಮಹಿಳೆಯರ ದಬ್ಬಾಳಿಕೆಯನ್ನು ಖಂಡಿಸಿದರು.

(vi) ಅವರು ಧಾರ್ಮಿಕ ಆಚರಣೆಗಳನ್ನು ಅನುಸರಿಸಿದರು ಮತ್ತು ಅವರನ್ನು ರಕ್ಷಿಸಿದರು.

(vii) ಅವರು ಪಾದ್ರಿಗಳನ್ನು ಗೌರವಾನ್ವಿತರಾಗಿ ಗೌರವಿಸಿದರು.

ಲಿಚವಿಸ್ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯವನ್ನು ವಾಜ್ಜಿಯೆಂದು ಕರೆಯಲಾಗುತ್ತಿತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಇದು ರಾಜರ
ಸಂಖ್ಯೆಯನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿತ್ತು. ರಾಜಧಾನಿಯು ವೆಸಲಿ ಅಥವಾ ವಿಶಾಲಾ ಆಗಿತ್ತು. ರಾಜರುಗಳ
ನಡುವೆ ಏಕತೆ ವಾಜಜಿ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯದ ಏಕತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಸಮಗ್ರತೆಯ ಹಿಂದಿನ ಮುಖ್ಯ

ಆಡಳಿತಗಾರರ ಏಕತೆ ಮತ್ತು ನಡತೆಗೆ ಸಂಬಂಧಿಸಿದಂತೆ, ಆಶೀರ್ವದಿಸಿದ ಮತ್ತೊಬ್ಬರು ಸಲಹೆ ನೀಡಿದರು:

- ಒಬ್ಬ ಉತ್ತಮ ಆಡಳಿತಗಾರನು ನಿಷ್ಪಕ್ಷಪಾತವಾಗಿ ವರ್ತಿಸಬೇಕು ಮತ್ತು ಒಂದು
ನಿರ್ದಿಷ್ಟ ಗುಂಪಿನ ನಡುವೆ ಇನ್ನೊಬ್ಬರ ವಿರುದ್ಧ ಪಕ್ಷಪಾತ ಮತ್ತು ತಾರತಮ್ಯ ಮಾಡಬಾರದು.

- ಒಬ್ಬ ಒಳ್ಳೆಯ ರಾಜನು ತನ್ನ ಯಾವುದೇ ಪ್ರಜೆಗಳ ವಿರುದ್ಧ ಯಾವುದೇ ರೀತಿಯ ದ್ವೇಷವನ್ನು ಹೂಡಬಾರದು.

- ನ್ಯಾಯಸಮ್ಮತವಾದರೆ, ಉತ್ತಮ ಆಡಳಿತಗಾರನು ಕಾನೂನು ಜಾರಿಗೊಳಿಸುವಲ್ಲಿ ಯಾವುದೇ ಭಯವನ್ನು ತೋರಿಸಬಾರದು.

- ಉತ್ತಮ ಆಡಳಿತಗಾರನು ಕಾನೂನನ್ನು ಜಾರಿಗೆ ತರಲು ಸ್ಪಷ್ಟವಾದ ಅರ್ಥವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿರಬೇಕು. ಕಾನೂನನ್ನು ಜಾರಿಗೆ ತರುವ ಅಧಿಕಾರವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿರುವ ಆಡಳಿತಗಾರನಿಗೆ ಇದರಿಂದ ಜಾರಿ ಮಾಡಬಾರದು. ಇದು ಒಂದು ಸಮಂಜಸವಾದ ರೀತಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಮತ್ತು ಸಾಮಾನ್ಯ ಅರ್ಥದಲ್ಲಿ ಮಾಡಬೇಕು, ಕಕವಟ್ಟಿ ಸಿಹಾನಂದ ಸುಟ್ಟ ಹೇಳುತ್ತದೆ.

ಪನ್ಹಾದಲ್ಲಿ, ಹೀಗೆಂದು ಹೇಳಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ: ‘ಅನರ್ಹ, ಅಸಮರ್ಥ, ಅನೈತಿಕ, ಅಸಮರ್ಥನಾಗದ,
ಅಸಮರ್ಥನಾಗುವ ಮತ್ತು ರಾಜತ್ವವನ್ನು ಅನರ್ಹನಾದ ವ್ಯಕ್ತಿಯು ತನ್ನನ್ನು ರಾಜನನ್ನಾಗಿ
ಅಥವಾ ಅಧಿಕಾರವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿರುವ ಅಧಿಪತಿಯಾಗಿ ಸಿಂಹಾಸನವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿದ್ದಾನೆ, ಅವನು
ಹಿಂಸೆಗೆ ಒಳಗಾಗುತ್ತಾನೆ
ಜನರಿಂದ ವಿವಿಧ ರೀತಿಯ ಶಿಕ್ಷೆಗೆ ಗುರಿಯಾಗಬೇಕು, ಏಕೆಂದರೆ ಅನರ್ಹ ಮತ್ತು ಅನರ್ಹರಾಗಿರುವ ಅವರು, ಸಾರ್ವಭೌಮತ್ವದ ಸ್ಥಾನದಲ್ಲಿ ಸ್ವತಃ ನೀತಿವಂತಿಕೆಯಿಲ್ಲ. ಮಾನವಕುಲದ
ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಸಾಮಾಜಿಕ ಕಾನೂನುಗಳ ನೈತಿಕ ನಿಯಮಗಳನ್ನು ಮತ್ತು ಮೂಲಭೂತ ನಿಯಮಗಳನ್ನು
ಉಲ್ಲಂಘಿಸುವ ಮತ್ತು ಅತಿಕ್ರಮಿಸುವ ಇತರರಂತೆ ಆಡಳಿತಗಾರನು ಶಿಕ್ಷೆಗೆ
ಮತ್ತು ಇದಲ್ಲದೆ, ಜನರನ್ನು ದರೋಡೆ ಎಂದು ನಡೆಸುವ ಆಡಳಿತಗಾರನು ಸನ್ಮಾನಿಸಲ್ಪಟ್ಟನು.

ಅಶೋಕ, ಈ ತತ್ತ್ವದ ಒಂದು ಹೊಳೆಯುವ ಉದಾಹರಣೆ, ಧಮ್ಮನ ಪ್ರಕಾರ ಬದುಕಲು ಮತ್ತು ತನ್ನ
ಪ್ರಜೆಗಳಿಗೆ ಮತ್ತು ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಮಾನವತೆಗೂ ಸೇವೆ ಸಲ್ಲಿಸಲು ನಿರ್ಧರಿಸಿದನು.
ನೆರೆಹೊರೆಗಳಿಗೆ ಅವರ ಆಕ್ರಮಣಕಾರಿ ಉದ್ದೇಶಗಳನ್ನು ಅವರು ಘೋಷಿಸಿದರು, ಅವರ ಅಭಿಮಾನದ
ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಭರವಸೆ ನೀಡಿದರು ಮತ್ತು ಶಾಂತಿ ಮತ್ತು ಆಕ್ರಮಣಶೀಲತೆಯ ಸಂದೇಶವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿರುವ
ದೂರದ ರಾಜರಿಗೆ ಕಳುಹಿಸುವ ರಾಯಭಾರಿಗಳನ್ನು ಕಳುಹಿಸಿದರು.
ಪ್ರಾಮಾಣಿಕತೆ, ಸತ್ಯತೆ, ಸಹಾನುಭೂತಿ, ಉದಾಸೀನತೆ, ಅಹಿಂಸೆ, ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಕಡೆಗೆ ಪರಿಗಣಿಸುವ
ವರ್ತನೆ, ದುಂದುಗಾರಿಕೆ, ಅಲ್ಲದ ಸ್ವಾಧೀನತೆ, ಮತ್ತು ಪ್ರಾಣಿಗಳಿಗೆ ಗಾಯಗೊಳ್ಳದೆ
ಇರುವಂತಹ ಸಾಮಾಜಿಕ-ನೈತಿಕ ಸದ್ಗುಣಗಳ ಶಕ್ತಿಯುತ ಅಭ್ಯಾಸವನ್ನು ಉತ್ತೇಜಿಸಿದರು.
ಅವರು ಪರಸ್ಪರರ ಧರ್ಮಕ್ಕಾಗಿ ಧಾರ್ಮಿಕ ಸ್ವಾತಂತ್ರ್ಯ ಮತ್ತು ಪರಸ್ಪರ ಗೌರವವನ್ನು ಪ್ರೋತ್ಸಾಹಿಸಿದರು. ಅವರು ಧಮ್ಮವನ್ನು ಗ್ರಾಮೀಣ ಜನರಿಗೆ ಬೋಧಿಸುವ ಆವರ್ತಕ ಪ್ರವಾಸಗಳನ್ನು ನಡೆಸಿದರು. ಪುರುಷರು ಮತ್ತು ಪ್ರಾಣಿಗಳಿಗೆ ಆಸ್ಪತ್ರೆಗಳ ಸ್ಥಾಪನೆ, ಮೀ ಸರಬರಾಜು ಮಾಡುವಂತಹ ಸಾರ್ವಜನಿಕ ಉಪಯೋಗದ ಕೆಲಸಗಳನ್ನು ಅವರು ಕೈಗೊಂಡರು

ಅಶೋಕ, ಈ ತತ್ತ್ವದ ಒಂದು ಹೊಳೆಯುವ ಉದಾಹರಣೆ, ಧಮ್ಮನ ಪ್ರಕಾರ ಬದುಕಲು ಮತ್ತು ತನ್ನ
ಪ್ರಜೆಗಳಿಗೆ ಮತ್ತು ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಮಾನವತೆಗೂ ಸೇವೆ ಸಲ್ಲಿಸಲು ನಿರ್ಧರಿಸಿದನು.
ನೆರೆಹೊರೆಗಳಿಗೆ ಅವರ ಆಕ್ರಮಣಕಾರಿ ಉದ್ದೇಶಗಳನ್ನು ಅವರು ಘೋಷಿಸಿದರು, ಅವರ ಅಭಿಮಾನದ
ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಭರವಸೆ ನೀಡಿದರು ಮತ್ತು ಶಾಂತಿ ಮತ್ತು ಆಕ್ರಮಣಶೀಲತೆಯ ಸಂದೇಶವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿರುವ
ದೂರದ ರಾಜರಿಗೆ ಕಳುಹಿಸುವ ರಾಯಭಾರಿಗಳನ್ನು ಕಳುಹಿಸಿದರು.
ಪ್ರಾಮಾಣಿಕತೆ, ಸತ್ಯತೆ, ಸಹಾನುಭೂತಿ, ಉದಾಸೀನತೆ, ಅಹಿಂಸೆ, ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಕಡೆಗೆ ಪರಿಗಣಿಸುವ
ವರ್ತನೆ, ದುಂದುಗಾರಿಕೆ, ಅಲ್ಲದ ಸ್ವಾಧೀನತೆ, ಮತ್ತು ಪ್ರಾಣಿಗಳಿಗೆ ಗಾಯಗೊಳ್ಳದೆ
ಇರುವಂತಹ ಸಾಮಾಜಿಕ-ನೈತಿಕ ಸದ್ಗುಣಗಳ ಶಕ್ತಿಯುತ ಅಭ್ಯಾಸವನ್ನು ಉತ್ತೇಜಿಸಿದರು.
ಅವರು ಪರಸ್ಪರರ ಧರ್ಮಕ್ಕಾಗಿ ಧಾರ್ಮಿಕ ಸ್ವಾತಂತ್ರ್ಯ ಮತ್ತು ಪರಸ್ಪರ ಗೌರವವನ್ನು ಪ್ರೋತ್ಸಾಹಿಸಿದರು. ಅವರು ಧಮ್ಮವನ್ನು ಗ್ರಾಮೀಣ ಜನರಿಗೆ ಬೋಧಿಸುವ ಆವರ್ತಕ ಪ್ರವಾಸಗಳನ್ನು ನಡೆಸಿದರು. ಅವರು
ಪುರುಷರಿಗೆ ಮತ್ತು ಪ್ರಾಣಿಗಳಿಗೆ ಆಸ್ಪತ್ರೆಗಳ ಸ್ಥಾಪನೆ, ಔಷಧೋಪಚಾರವನ್ನು
ಪೂರೈಸುವುದು, ರಸ್ತೆಬದಿಯ ಮರಗಳನ್ನು ಮತ್ತು ತೋಪುಗಳನ್ನು ನೆಡುವಿಕೆ, ಬಾವಿಗಳ
ಅಗೆಯುವಿಕೆ, ಮತ್ತು ನೀರು ಕುಡಿಯುವ ಶೆಡ್ಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ವಿಶ್ರಾಂತಿ ಮನೆಗಳ ನಿರ್ಮಾಣದಂತಹ
ಸಾರ್ವಜನಿಕ ಬಳಕೆಗಾಗಿ ಕೆಲಸಗಳನ್ನು ಕೈಗೊಂಡರು.
ಅವರು ಪ್ರಾಣಿಗಳಿಗೆ ಕ್ರೌರ್ಯವನ್ನು ವ್ಯಕ್ತಪಡಿಸಿದ್ದಾರೆ.

ಕೆಲವೊಮ್ಮೆ ಜಾಗೃತಿ ಮೂಡಿಸುವವರನ್ನು ರಾಜಕೀಯ-ಸಾಮಾಜಿಕ ಸುಧಾರಣಾಧಿಕಾರಿ ಮತ್ತು ಆರ್ಥಿಕ ವಿಮೋಚಕ ಎಂದು ಹೇಳಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. ಇತರ
ವಿಷಯಗಳ ಪೈಕಿ, ಜಾತಿ ಪದ್ದತಿಯನ್ನು ಖಂಡಿಸಿ, ಜನರ ಸಮಾನತೆಯನ್ನು ಗುರುತಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ,
ಸಾಮಾಜಿಕ-ಆರ್ಥಿಕ ಪರಿಸ್ಥಿತಿಗಳನ್ನು ಸುಧಾರಿಸುವ ಅಗತ್ಯವನ್ನು ಕುರಿತು ಮಾತನಾಡಿದರು,
ಶ್ರೀಮಂತರು ಮತ್ತು ಬಡವರ ನಡುವೆ ಸಂಪತ್ತಿನ ಹಂಚಿಕೆಯನ್ನು ಹೆಚ್ಚು ಪ್ರಾಮುಖ್ಯತೆಯನ್ನು
ಗುರುತಿಸಿದರು, ಮಹಿಳೆಯರ ಸ್ಥಾನಮಾನವನ್ನು ಹೆಚ್ಚಿಸಿದರು, ಶಿಫಾರಸು ಮಾಡಿದರು
ಮತ್ತು ಆಡಳಿತದಲ್ಲಿ ಮಾನವತಾವಾದವನ್ನು ಸಂಯೋಜಿಸುವುದು, ಮತ್ತು ಸಮಾಜವನ್ನು
ದುರಾಶೆಯಿಂದ ನಡೆಸಬಾರದು ಎಂದು ಕಲಿಸಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ ಆದರೆ ಜನರಿಗೆ ಪರಿಗಣನೆ ಮತ್ತು
ಹೊರತಾಗಿಯೂ, ಮನುಕುಲಕ್ಕೆ ಜಾಗೃತಿ ಕೊಡುಗೆಯನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿರುವ ಒಂದು ಜಾಗವನ್ನು
ಹೆಚ್ಚಿಸಿರಿ ಏಕೆಂದರೆ ಆಶೀರ್ವದಿಸಿದವರು ಯಾವುದೇ ಸಾಮಾಜಿಕ ಸುಧಾರಣಾಧಿಕಾರಿಯು ಮೊದಲು
ಅಥವಾ ಹಿಂದೆಂದೂ ಮಾಡದ ಹಂತದಲ್ಲಿ ಹೊರಟರು, ಅಂದರೆ, ಮಾನವನ ಅಸ್ವಸ್ಥತೆಯ ಆಳವಾದ
ಬೇರುಗಳಿಗೆ ಹೋಗುವುದರ ಮೂಲಕ
ಮಾನವ ಮನಸ್ಸಿನಲ್ಲಿ.

ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಜೀವಿಗಳು ಅಂತಿಮ ಮತ್ತು ಅಂತಿಮ ಗುರಿಯಾಗಿ ಎಟರ್ನಲ್ ಬ್ಲಿಸ್ನ ಫಲವನ್ನು ಪಡೆಯುತ್ತವೆ.

Congress leader G Parameshwara to be Karnataka deputy chief minister


  • Congress leader G Parameshwara will take oath as deputy chief minster of Karnataka tomorrow
  • As a Dalit leader, Parameshwara was a front runner for the deputy chief minister’s post
  • Congress will head 22 of the 34 ministries in Karnataka, while the remaining 12 will be with the JD(S)
KPCC president G Parameshwara (PTI photo)KPCC president G Parameshwara (PTI photo)

NEW DELHI: After days of hectic parleying, the Congress and JD(S) have decided on G Parameshwara as the deputy chief minister of Karnataka.

Parameshwara, president of the Karnataka Pradesh Congress Committee
(KPCC), will take oath as deputy CM alongside chief minister-designate
and JD(S) leader H D Kumaraswamy in Bengaluru on Wednesday.

this picture shows that the employer is responsible for checking the equipment to make sure that the employee is safe and to reduce the risk of injury.
94) Classical Telugu

94) క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు

2629 Wed 23 May లెసన్

4 వర్డ్స్ లో అవగాహన బుద్ధుని బోధనలతో మేల్కొల్పింది
జాగ్రత్త వహించండి

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మంచి పాలన - అవగాహన మార్గంతో మేల్కొలిపి

తో మేల్కొలిపి ఒక బోధన నోబెల్ తత్వశాస్త్రం తుది లక్ష్యం వంటి విముక్తి
పూర్తి దారితీసింది ఎయిడ్ఫోల్డ్ మార్గం అనుసరించండి ఉంది.
అవగాహనతో మేల్కొలిపే వ్యక్తి అటువంటి గంభీరమైన ఆదర్శాలు మరియు ప్రజల యొక్క
సాంఘిక, ఆర్థిక మరియు రాజకీయ సంక్షేమాలను విస్మరిస్తూ ఉన్నత తాత్విక
ఆలోచనలలో మాత్రమే ఆసక్తి కలిగి ఉంటాడు.
తో మేల్కొలిపే ఒక అన్ని మానవులు పట్ల దయ మరియు కరుణ యొక్క అద్భుతమైన
రిపోజిటరీ మరియు మానవజాతి మాత్రమే కాకుండా ఇతర మానవులు కూడా ఆనందం చాలా
ఆసక్తి ఉంది. నైతిక మరియు ఆధ్యాత్మిక ఆధారంగా స్వచ్ఛమైన జీవితం ప్రముఖ
లేకుండా హ్యాపీ సాధ్యం కాదు

నేరాలను నిర్మూలించడానికి, ప్రజల యొక్క ఆర్థిక పరిస్థితి మెరుగుపడాలని వివరిస్తుంది. యజమాని
మరియు ఉద్యోగి మధ్య సంబంధం ప్రధానంగా తగినంత వేతనాలు, బహుమతులు మరియు
ప్రోత్సాహకాలను చెల్లించడం ద్వారా హృదయపూర్వకంగా చేయబడుతుంది.
(ప్రభుత్వాలు) ఈ వాస్తవాన్ని తీవ్రంగా పరిశీలి 0 చి, ప్రజలను స 0 తోష 0
గా, స 0 తోష 0 గా ఉ 0 చుకోవాలి, తద్వారా దేశం శాంతియుతంగా మరియు నేరారోపణగా
ఉ 0 టు 0 ది.
మేల్కొలిపే వ్యక్తి అహింసా మరియు శాంతిని బోధించడమే కాకుండా, యుద్ధం యొక్క
వ్యాప్తిని నివారించడానికి వ్యక్తిగతంగా యుద్దభూమికి వెళ్ళిన మొదటి మరియు
ఏకైక మత గురువు.
బుద్ధుడు రోహిణి యొక్క జలాల మీద యుద్ధం చేయబోతున్న సాకియా మరియు కొలియస్ల మధ్య ఉద్రిక్తతలను విస్తరించారు. దీవించిన
రాజు కూడా అజతాసత్ ను నిరాకరించాడు. బుద్ధుడు మంచి ప్రభుత్వం యొక్క
ప్రాముఖ్యత మరియు కనీస అవసరాలు గురించి చర్చించారు మరియు దేశంలో
అవినీతిపరులైన మరియు అన్యాయంగా ఉన్నప్పుడు దేశం అవినీతి, క్షీణత మరియు
అసంతృప్తి చెందింది.
అవినీతికి వ్యతిరేకంగా మాట్లాడిన అవగాహనతో మరియు ఒక ప్రభుత్వం మానవతావాద సూత్రాల ఆధారంగా ఎలా పని చేయాలో తెలుసుకోవాలి. అవగాహనతో
మేల్కొల్పబడిన ఒక వ్యక్తి ఇలా అన్నాడు, ‘ఒక దేశం యొక్క పాలకుడు కేవలం
మంచివాడు అయినప్పుడు, మంత్రులు కేవలం మంచివారిగా ఉంటారు;
మంత్రులు కేవలం మంచివారైనప్పుడు అధిక అధికారులు కేవలం మంచివారు అవుతారు; ఉన్నత అధికారులు కేవలం మరియు మంచిగా ఉన్నప్పుడు, ర్యాంక్ మరియు ఫైల్ కేవలం మంచివి అయ్యింది; ర్యాంకు
మరియు ఫైల్ కేవలం మంచివిగా మారినప్పుడు, ప్రజలు కేవలం మంచివారుగా ఉంటారు.
‘(అంకుత్తరా నికాయ) కాకవట్టి శిహనంద సుత్తలో, బుద్ధుడు దొంగతనం, అబద్దత,
హింస, ద్వేషం, క్రూరత్వం వంటి అనైతికత, నేరం,
పేదరికం నుండి. శిక్షల ద్వారా నేరాలను అణిచివేసేందుకు రాజులు మరియు ప్రభుత్వాలు ప్రయత్నించవచ్చు, కాని ఇది నేరాలను నిర్మూలించడానికి వ్యర్థం. కుటాదాంత సుత్తలో, బుద్ధుడు నేరాలను తగ్గించేందుకు శక్తిని బదులు ఆర్థిక అభివృద్ధిని సూచించారు. దేశం యొక్క ఆర్థిక పరిస్థితులను మెరుగుపరిచేందుకు దేశం యొక్క వనరులను ప్రభుత్వం ఉపయోగించాలి. ఇది
వ్యవసాయ మరియు గ్రామీణ అభివృద్ధికి, వ్యాపారవేత్తలకు మరియు వ్యాపారానికి
ఆర్థిక సహాయాన్ని అందించడానికి, కార్మికులకు మానవ గౌరవంతో మంచి జీవన
విధానాన్ని నిర్వహించడానికి తగిన వేతనాలను అందిస్తుంది. అవగాహనతో
మేల్కొల్పడం అనేది శాంతి మరియు హృదయపూర్వకత యొక్క నిర్వహణను సమర్ధంగా కలిగి
ఉంది, ఇది పూర్తిగా అవసరం
అభివృద్ధి కోసం మరియు దాని ప్రభుత్వం యొక్క తలలు అవినీతి మరియు అన్యాయం
మారింది ఒక దేశం అవినీతి మరియు సంతోషంగా మారింది ఎలా చూపించారు.
ఒక దేశం సంతోషంగా ఉండటానికి, అది మంచి మరియు కేవలం ప్రభుత్వాన్ని కలిగి ఉండాలి. ప్రభుత్వానికి ఈ రూపం ఎలా ఉద్భవించిందో ఆయన “టెన్ రాయల్ వర్చుల్స్” అనే తన సిఫారసులలో వివరించారు. (”దాసా-రాజా ధర్మ”). ఈ పది నియమాలు నేటికీ శాంతియుతంగా పాలించాలని కోరుకుంటున్న ఏ ప్రభుత్వం
అయినా దరఖాస్తు చేసుకోవచ్చు. ‘పది రాయల్ వర్చులు’ ఈ క్రింది విధంగా

డానా: ఉదారత, ఔదార్యం లేదా దాతృత్వం. దౌర్జన్యాలను ఇవ్వాల్సిన అవసరం ఉంది. ఇది తన ఆవశ్యకమైన విషయాల సంక్షేమాన్ని చూసుకోవటానికి రాజు (ప్రభుత్వం) యొక్క విధి. ఆదర్శ పాలకుడు కోరిక మరియు అటాచ్మెంట్ లో ఇవ్వడం లేకుండా తెలివిగా మరియు ఆస్తి వివేకం ఇవ్వాలి. మరో మాటలో చెప్పాలంటే, అతను తన స్థానమును గొప్పగా ఉపయోగించుకోవటానికి ప్రయత్నించకూడదు.

సిలా: నైతికత - అధిక నైతిక ప్రవర్తన. అతడు
కనీసం అయిదు సూత్రాలను గమనించి, తన ప్రజలకు ఒక ప్రకాశవంతమైన ఉదాహరణగా
ఉండటానికి ప్రైవేట్ మరియు ప్రజా జీవితంలో తనను తాను నిర్వహించాలి. ఈ ధర్మం
చాలా ముఖ్యమైనది, ఎందుకంటే పాలకుడు దానిని కట్టుబడి ఉంటే, కచ్చితంగా,
అప్పుడు లంచం మరియు అవినీతి
, హింస మరియు క్రమశిక్షణ స్వయంచాలకంగా దేశంలో తుడిచిపెట్టుకుపోతుంది.

కంఫర్ట్ Pariccaga: వారు ప్రజల మంచి కోసం ఉంటే త్యాగం చేయడం - వ్యక్తిగత పేరు మరియు కీర్తి; అవసరమైతే కూడా జీవితం. బహుమతులు మంజూరు చేయడం ద్వారా పాలకుడు మరింత సమర్థవంతమైన మరియు మరింత విశ్వసనీయమైన సేవకు సంబంధించిన విషయాలను స్ఫూర్తి చేస్తుంది.
అజ్జావ: నిజాయితీ మరియు సమగ్రత. అతను ఖచ్చితంగా సూటిగా ఉండాలి మరియు అతని ముగుస్తుంది సాధించడానికి ఏ వంకర లేదా అనుమానాస్పద మార్గాలను సహాయం తీసుకోకూడదు. అతను తన విధులను విడుదల చేయడంలో భయము లేదా అనుగ్రహము నుండి తప్పించుకొనవలెను. బుద్ధుడు ‘సిగలోవాడ సూటా’ లో ఒక స్తారానికి చెపుతాడు. ఒక వ్యక్తి
పక్షపాతం, ద్వేషం, భయము లేదా అజ్ఞానం చేయకుండా న్యాయం నిర్వహిస్తే, అతని
జనాదరణ వృద్ది చెందుతున్న చంద్రుడిలా పెరుగుతుంది “

మద్వావ: దయ లేదా సున్నితత్వం. పాలకుడు యొక్క యథార్థత కొన్నిసార్లు స్థిరత్వం అవసరమవుతుంది. కానీ ఇది దయ మరియు సున్నితత్వంతో స్వభావం కలిగి ఉండాలి. మరో మాటలో చెప్పాలంటే, ఒక పాలకుడు ఎక్కువగా కఠినమైన లేదా క్రూరంగా ఉండకూడదు.

తప: అలవాట్లలోని భావాలను మరియు కాఠిన్యాన్ని నివారించండి. ఇంద్రియ ఆనందాలపై ఆనందకరమైన ఆనందం, ఆదర్శవంతమైన చక్రవర్తి తన ఐదు భావాలను నియంత్రణలో ఉంచుతాడు. కొందరు పాలకులు వారి స్థానాన్ని, నైతిక ప్రవర్తనను ఉపయోగించుకోవచ్చు - ఇది మంచి చక్రవర్తిగా మారదు.

అకోదా: నాన్-ద్వేషం. పాలకుడు ఎవ్వరూ ఎటువంటి పగను భరించకూడదు. మనోవేదనలను ఆశ్రయి 0 చకు 0 డా ఆయన సహన 0 తో, ప్రేమతో చర్య తీసుకోవాలి.

అవిహిమ్సా: అహింసా. అతను
ఎవరికైనా హాని చేయకుండా ఉండటమే కాకుండా, శాంతిని ప్రోత్సహించడానికి మరియు
అవసరమైనప్పుడు అవసరమైన యుద్ధాన్ని నివారించడానికి కూడా అతను ప్రయత్నించాలి.
అతను ఒక ఆదర్శ పాలకుడు అంచనా నిశ్చయము జోక్యం లేదు కాలం అతను అత్యున్నత స్థాయికి అహింస సాధన చేయాలి.

ఖాంతి: సహనం మరియు సహనం. తన నిగ్రహాన్ని కోల్పోకుండా, పాలకుడు కష్టాలను మరియు అవమానాలను ఎదుర్కోవాల్సి ఉంటుంది. ఏ సందర్భంలో అతను భావోద్వేగాలకు ఇవ్వడం లేకుండా తనను తాను నిర్వహించగలగాలి. అతను అదే ఆత్మ మరియు శాంతము రెండు bouquets మరియు brickbats పొందలేరు ఉండాలి.

Avirodha: వ్యతిరేకత మరియు వ్యతిరేకత. పాలకుడు ప్రజల కోరికను వ్యతిరేకించకూడదు. అతను తన ప్రజలలో అమిత్ యొక్క ఆత్మ అభివృద్ధి చేయాలి. మరో మాటలో చెప్పాల 0 టే ఆయన తన ప్రజలకు అనుగుణ 0 గా పరిపాలి 0 చాలి.

మగధ రాజు రాజు అజతాసట్టు తన సార్వభౌమాధికారం కిందకు వజ్జీ భూభాగాన్ని ఆక్రమించాలని కోరుకున్నాడు. తన ముఖ్యమంత్రి వస్సకరని పంపడం ద్వారా, అవసరమైన సూచనలను పొందడానికి అవేక్నెస్తో మేల్కొల్పిన సలహాను ఆయన కోరారు. అవగాహన యొక్క అవగాహనతో మేల్కొల్పింది, వాజ్జీ పాలకులు అణగదొక్కకుండా
మరియు ఓడిపోయిన (సప్తా అపరానీయ ధాంమా) ఏడు ధ్యామాలకు కట్టుబడి వరకు

(i) రోజువారీ పాలనా వ్యవహారాల విషయ 0 లో చర్చి 0 చే విషయాల గురి 0 చి వారు క్రమ 0 గా కూటాలకు హాజరయ్యారు.

(ii) వారు కలుసుకున్నారు, బృందం గా పనిచేశారు మరియు చెదరగొట్టారు.

(iii) వారు ఖచ్చితంగా దేశం యొక్క చట్టాన్ని అనుసరించారు.

(iv) వారు పెద్దలకు విధేయులుగా ఉన్నారు.

(v) వారు స్త్రీ జాతీయులను గౌరవిస్తారు మరియు మహిళల అణచివేతను ఖండించారు.

(vi) వారు మతసంబంధమైన ఆచారాలను అనుసరించారు మరియు వారిని రక్షించారు.

(vii) వారు మతాచార్యులను గౌరవిస్తారు మరియు వాటిని పూజిస్తారు.

లిచ్చవిస్ సామ్రాజ్యం వాజ్జీ అని పిలువబడింది, మరియు అది పాలకుల సంఖ్యను
కలిగి ఉంది. రాజధాని వెసాలి లేదా విసాల్. పాలకులు మధ్య ఐక్యత వాజ్జీ రాజ్యం
యొక్క ఐక్యత మరియు సమగ్రత వెనుక ప్రధాన శక్తిగా ఉంది.

పాలకుల ఐక్యత మరియు ప్రవర్తన గురించి, దీవించిన మరొక సలహా:

- మంచి పాలకుడు నిష్పక్షపాతంగా వ్యవహరించాలి మరియు మరొక పక్షానికి
వ్యతిరేకంగా ఒక ప్రత్యేక సమూహాల మధ్య పక్షపాతంతో మరియు పక్షపాతం చూపకూడదు.

- ఒక మంచి పాలకుడు తన ప్రజలలో ఏ ఒక్కరికి అయినా ఏ విధమైన ద్వేషాన్ని కలిగి ఉండకూడదు.

- ఒక మంచి పాలకుడు చట్టం అమలులో ఎటువంటి భయం చూపించకూడదు, ఇది సరైనది అయితే.

- ఒక మంచి పాలకుడు అమలు చేయవలసిన చట్టం గురించి స్పష్టమైన అవగాహన కలిగి ఉండాలి. పాలకుడు చట్టం అమలు అధికారం కలిగి ఉన్నందున ఇది అమలు చేయరాదు. ఇది ఒక సహేతుక పద్ధతిలో మరియు సాధారణ భావంతో చేయాలి, కాకవట్టి సిహనద సుత్తను పేర్కొంది.

పన్హాలో ఇలా చెప్పబడింది: ‘ఒక వ్యక్తి, నిష్పక్షపాతము, అసమర్థమైన,
అనైతికమైన, అక్రమమైనది, అసంతృప్తికరమైనది, రాజ్యాధికారం లేనివాడు, రాజుగానీ
పాలకుడుగానీ అధికారంతో సింహాసనం చేసాడు.
వేర్వేరు శిక్షలకు లోబడి ఉండటం వలన, అతను పనికిరాని మరియు అనర్హులుగా
ఉండటం వలన, అతను సార్వభౌమాధికారం యొక్క స్థానములో తనను తాను న్యాయంగా
యొక్క అన్ని సామాజిక చట్టాల నైతిక నియమాలను మరియు ప్రాథమిక నియమాలను
ఉల్లంఘించి, అతిక్రమించేవారిలా, పాలకుడు సమానంగా శిక్షకు లోబడి ఉంటాడు;
అంతేగాక, తనను తాను దొంగిలించే పాలకుడు అయిన ప్రజలని దొంగిలించటానికి నిందలు వేయబడాలి.
అశోకుడు, ఈ సిద్ధాంతం యొక్క మెరిసే ఉదాహరణగా, జీవించి, ధర్మకు
ప్రకటిస్తానని మరియు తన ప్రజలను మరియు అన్ని మానవత్వానికి సేవలను
అందించాలని నిర్ణయించుకున్నాడు.
తన పొరుగువారికి తన అనాగరిక ఉద్దేశాలను ప్రకటించాడు, తన సౌహార్దకు వారిని
హామీ ఇచ్చాడు మరియు దూరపు రాజులకు శాశ్వత మరియు దురాక్రమణ సందేశాన్ని
నిజాయితీ, నిజాయితీ, కరుణ, దయ, అహింస, అహింసా, అన్నిటికోసం మర్యాదపూర్వక
ప్రవర్తన, మినహాయించని, స్వాధీనత మరియు జంతువులకు కాని గాయం యొక్క
సామాజిక-నైతిక ధర్మాలను ప్రోత్సహించాడు.
అతను మత స్వేచ్ఛ మరియు పరస్పర గౌరవాన్ని ప్రోత్సహించాడు. అతను గ్రామీణ ప్రజలకు ధర్మకు ప్రాయోజిత పర్యటనలు చేశాడు. అతను
పురుషులు మరియు జంతువుల ఆస్పత్రులు స్థాపించటం, ఔషధం సరఫరా, రోడ్సైడ్
చెట్లు మరియు తోటలకు, బావులు త్రవ్వడం, మరియు నీరు త్రాగుటకు లేక షెడ్లు
మరియు విశ్రాంతి గృహాల నిర్మాణం వంటి ప్రభుత్వ ప్రయోజనాల పనులను చేపట్టాడు.
అతను జంతువులకు క్రూరత్వాన్ని స్పష్టంగా నిషేధించాడు.

కొన్నిసార్లు అవేర్నెస్ తో మేల్కొలిపి ఒక రాజకీయ-సామాజిక సంస్కర్త మరియు ఎకనామిక్ ఎమాన్సిపేటర్గా చెప్పబడుతుంది. ఇతర
విషయాలతోపాటు, కుల వ్యవస్థను ఖండించారు, ప్రజల సమానత్వాన్ని గుర్తించారు,
సాంఘిక-ఆర్ధిక పరిస్థితులను మెరుగుపరిచే అవసరాన్ని గురించి మాట్లాడారు,
సంపన్నులు మరియు పేదల మధ్య సంపద మరింత సమానమైన పంపిణీ యొక్క ప్రాధాన్యతను
గుర్తించారు, మహిళల హోదాను పెంచింది, సిఫార్సు చేయబడింది
మరియు పరిపాలనలో మానవతావాదాన్ని చేర్చడం మరియు ఒక సమాజం అత్యాశ ద్వారా
నిర్వహించరాదని, ప్రజల కోసం పరిగణన మరియు కరుణతో వ్యవహరించాలని బోధించింది.
అవగాహన కల్పించడంతో ఈ విషాద సంఘటనలు చాలా ఎక్కువగా ఉంటాయి. దీంతో
దీవించబడినది, ఏ ఇతర సాంఘిక సంస్కర్త ముందుగానే లేదా ఇప్పటి నుండి ఏ ఇతర
సామాజిక సంస్కర్తను తీసుకురాలేదు, అంటే మానవ అనారోగ్యం యొక్క లోతైన మూలాలు
మానవ మనస్సులో.

అన్ని జీవులు బాగా సంతోషంగా ఉంటారు మరియు ఫైనల్ గోల్ గా ఎటర్నల్ బ్లిస్ యొక్క ఫలాలను పొందుతారు.

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93) Classical Tamil

93) செம்மொழி தமிழ்

2629 புதன் 23 மே

4 சொற்கள் விழிப்புணர்வு புத்தரின் கற்பித்தல் மூலம் ஒரு விழித்தெழு
கவனமாக இருங்கள்!

உங்கள் தாய் மொழியில் இந்த கூகுள் மொழிபெயர்ப்பை சரி செய்யுங்கள்…/good-governance-th…/
நல்ல ஆட்சி - விழிப்புணர்வு வழி மூலம் எழுந்திரு

கொண்ட விழிப்புணர்வு ஒரு போதனை உன்னத தத்துவம் விடுதலை முடிக்க
வழிவகுக்கும் எட்டு பாதையில் பின்பற்ற உள்ளது - இறுதி இலக்கு என நித்திய
விழிப்புணர்வு கொண்ட ஒரு விழிப்புணர்வு மக்களை சமூக, பொருளாதார மற்றும்
அரசியல் நலன்களை புறக்கணித்த உயர்ந்த தத்துவார்த்த சிந்தனைகளில் மட்டுமே
ஆர்வமாக உள்ளது என்பதை முடிவு செய்வது தவறானது.
ஒரு விழிப்புணர்வு இருந்தது அனைத்து மனிதர்கள் மீது கருணை மற்றும் இரக்கம்
ஒரு அற்புதமான களஞ்சியமாக மற்றும் மனிதகுலம் மட்டுமல்லாமல் மற்ற அனைத்து
உயிரினங்களில் மகிழ்ச்சியை மிகவும் ஆர்வமாக இருந்தது. ஒழுக்கம் மற்றும்
ஆன்மீக அடிப்படையில் ஒரு தூய வாழ்க்கை முன்னணி இல்லாமல் மகிழ்ச்சி
சாத்தியம் இல்லை
கோட்பாடும் இல்லை.

குற்றத்தை ஒழிப்பதற்காக மக்களுடைய பொருளாதார நிலை முன்னேற்றப்பட வேண்டும் என்று விளக்குகிறது. முதலாளிகளுக்கும்
ஊழியர்களுக்கும் இடையிலான உறவு முக்கியமாக போதுமான ஊதியங்கள், பரிசுகள்
மற்றும் ஊக்கத்தொகைகளை செலுத்துவதன் மூலம் நல்வாழ்வு செய்யப்பட வேண்டும்.
(அரசாங்கங்கள்) இந்த உண்மையை தீவிரமாக பரிசீலிக்க வேண்டும், மக்களை
மகிழ்ச்சியாகவும் திருப்தியுடனும் வைத்துக் கொள்ள வேண்டும், இதன் விளைவாக
நாடு அமைதியாகவும் குற்றமாகவும் இருக்கும்.
கொண்ட ஒரு விழிப்புணர்வு மட்டும் வன்முறை மற்றும் அமைதி
கற்றுக்கொடுக்கிறது மட்டும், அவர் ஒருவேளை போரில் வெடிப்பு தடுக்க
போர்க்களத்திற்கு சென்ற முதல் மற்றும் ஒரே சமய ஆசிரியராக இருந்தார்.
ரோஹினி நீரின் மீது போர் தொடுக்கப் போகிற சகுயாக்கள் மற்றும் கோலியர்கள் ஆகியோருக்கு இடையிலான பதட்டத்தை புத்தர் விலகினார். ஆசீர்வதிக்கப்பட்டவர்
கிங் அஜதாசத்தை கலைத்துள்ளார். புத்தர் ஒரு நல்ல அரசாங்கத்தின்
முக்கியத்துவத்தையும் முன் நிபந்தனைகளையும் விவாதித்தார் மற்றும்
அரசாங்கத்தின் தலைவர் ஊழல் மற்றும் அநீதி இழைக்கப்படும் போது நாட்டின்
ஊழல், சீரழிவு மற்றும் மகிழ்ச்சியற்றவராக எவ்வாறு தோன்றியது என்பதைக்
விழிப்புணர்வு ஒரு எழுச்சி ஊழல் எதிராக பேசினார் மற்றும் ஒரு அரசாங்கம் மனிதாபிமான கொள்கைகளை அடிப்படையாக எப்படி செயல்பட வேண்டும். ஒரு
விழிப்புணர்வு குறித்து விழித்தெழுந்து ஒருவர் இவ்வாறு சொன்னார்: ‘ஒரு
நாட்டின் ஆட்சியாளர் நன்மையும் நன்மையுமானால், மந்திரிகள் நன்மையடைவார்கள்;
அமைச்சர்கள் நியாயமானவர்கள், நல்லவர்கள் ஆகியோர் உயர்ந்தவர்கள்; உயர் அதிகாரிகள் சரியாகவும் நல்லவர்களாகவும் இருக்கும்போது, ​​ரேங்க் மற்றும் கோப்பை நல்லது; (ஆளுத்தாரா
நிகாயா) காக்காவட்டி சியனந்த சுத்தையில் புத்தர், திருட்டு, பொய்,
வன்முறை, வெறுப்பு, கொடூரம் போன்ற ஒழுக்கக்கேடு மற்றும் குற்றம், எழும்
என்று சொன்னார்.
வறுமையிலிருந்து. கிங்ஸ் மற்றும் அரசாங்கங்கள் தண்டனை மூலம் குற்றத்தை நசுக்க முயற்சி செய்யலாம், ஆனால் பலவந்தமாக குற்றங்களை ஒழிப்பதில் பயனற்றது. குடதந்தா சுத்தாவில், புத்தர் குற்றத்தை குறைப்பதற்கு பதிலாக பொருளாதார வளர்ச்சிக்கு பரிந்துரைத்தார். நாட்டின் பொருளாதார நிலைமைகளை மேம்படுத்துவதற்காக அரசாங்கம் நாட்டின் வளங்களை பயன்படுத்த வேண்டும். விவசாய
மற்றும் கிராமப்புற அபிவிருத்தியைத் தொடங்கவும், தொழிலதிபர்களுக்கும்
வணிகத்திற்கும் நிதியுதவி வழங்கவும், தொழிலாளர்கள் மனித கௌரவத்துடன்
கௌரவமான வாழ்வை தக்க வைத்துக் கொள்ள போதுமான ஊதியங்களை வழங்குவார்கள்.
விழிப்புணர்வை ஒரு விழிப்புணர்வு மற்றும் சமாதானத்தையும் பராமரிப்பையும்
வலியுறுத்துகிறது, இது முற்றிலும் அவசியமானது
வளர்ச்சிக்காகவும், அரசாங்கத்தின் தலைவர்கள் ஊழல் நிறைந்த மற்றும்
அநியாயமாக மாறியபோது ஒரு நாட்டினரின் ஊழல் மற்றும் மகிழ்ச்சியற்றதாக
ஆகிவிடக்கூடும் என்பதைக் காட்டியது.
ஒரு நாடு மகிழ்ச்சியாக இருக்க வேண்டும், அது ஒரு நல்ல மற்றும் நியாயமான அரசாங்கத்தைக் கொண்டிருக்க வேண்டும். இந்த அரசாங்கம் எப்படி உருவானது என்பது “பத்து ராயல் நல்லொழுக்கங்கள்” என்ற தலைப்பில் அவரது பரிந்துரைகளில் விரிவாக உள்ளது. (”தசா-ராஜா தாம்மா”). நாட்டை சமாதானமாக ஆட்சி செய்ய விரும்பும் எந்த அரசாங்கமும் இந்த பத்து
விதிகள் இன்றும் பயன்படுத்தப்படலாம். ‘பத்து ராயல் நல்லொழுக்கங்கள்’

டானா: தாராளவாத, தாராள மனப்பான்மை அல்லது தொண்டு. ஏழைகளுக்குத் துரோகம் செய்வது. அரசின் (அரசாங்க) கடமை அவரது அவசியமான பாடங்களின் நலனைக் கவனித்துக்கொள்வதாகும். சிறந்த
அரசர் செல்வத்தையும் சொத்துக்களையும் புத்திசாலித்தனமாகவும்
அர்ப்பணிப்புடனும் கொடுக்காமல் புத்திசாலித்தனமாகக் கொடுக்க வேண்டும்.
வேறு வார்த்தைகளில் சொல்வதானால், பணக்காரர் தனது நிலையைப் பயன்படுத்துவதற்கு முயற்சி செய்யக்கூடாது.

சீலா: அறநெறி - உயர் தார்மீக குணம். அவர்
குறைந்தபட்சம் ஐந்து அறிவுரைகளைக் கடைப்பிடித்து, தனிப்பட்ட மற்றும் பொது
வாழ்வில் தனது குடிமக்களுக்கு ஒரு பிரகாசமான உதாரணமாக நடந்து கொள்ள
வேண்டும்.இந்த நல்லொழுக்கம் மிகவும் முக்கியம், ஏனென்றால் ஆட்சியாளர் அதை
பின்பற்றுகிறார் என்றால், கண்டிப்பாக, பின்னர் லஞ்சமும் ஊழலும்
, வன்முறை மற்றும் ஒழுக்கமின்மை தானாக நாட்டில் வெளியே அழிக்கப்படும்.

ஆறுதல் Pariccaga: மக்கள் நல்லது என்றால் அவர்கள் தியாகங்களை செய்து - தனிப்பட்ட பெயர் மற்றும் புகழ்; தேவை என்றால் வாழ்க்கை கூட. பரிசுகளை வழங்குவதன் மூலம் ஆட்சியாளர் திறமையான மற்றும் அதிக விசுவாசமுள்ள சேவைக்கு பாடங்களைப் பங்கிடுகிறார்.

அஜ்ஜவா: நேர்மை மற்றும் நேர்மை. அவர்
முற்றிலும் நேர்மையானவராக இருக்க வேண்டும் மற்றும் அவரது முடிவை அடைவதற்கு
எந்தவித வக்கிரமான அல்லது சந்தேகத்திற்கிடமான வழிகளிலும் உதவக்கூடாது.
அவர் தனது கடமைகளை விடுவிப்பதில் பயம் அல்லது ஆதரவிலிருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட வேண்டும். புத்தர் “சிகலவாடா சுத்தா” வில் ஒரு ஸ்டான்ஸாவில் குறிப்பிடுகிறார். ஒரு
நபர் favoritism, வெறுப்பு, அச்சம் அல்லது அறியாமை ஆகியவற்றிற்கு
உட்படுத்தப்படாமலேயே நீதியை நிலைநாட்டியிருந்தால், அவருடைய புகழ் வளரும்
நிலா போன்றது “

மத்தவா: கருணை அல்லது சாந்தம். ஒரு ஆட்சியாளரின் நேர்மை சில சமயங்களில் உறுதியானது. ஆனால் இது இரக்கம் மற்றும் மென்மையுடனான மனநிலையுடன் இருக்க வேண்டும். வேறு வார்த்தைகளில் கூறுவதானால், ஒரு ஆட்சியாளர் கடுமையாக அல்லது கொடூரமானவராக இருக்கக்கூடாது.

தப்பா: பழக்கவழக்கங்கள் மற்றும் சிக்கன நடவடிக்கைகளைத் தடுத்தல். இன்பமான இன்பத்தில் துயரத்தை அனுபவித்து, ஒரு சிறந்த மன்னர் தனது ஐந்து உணர்வை கட்டுப்பாட்டில் வைத்திருக்கிறார். சில ஆட்சியாளர்கள் தங்களது நிலைப்பாட்டைப் பயன்படுத்தி, தார்மீக ஒழுக்க
நெறிகளைப் பயன்படுத்திக் கொள்ளலாம் - இது ஒரு நல்ல மன்னர் அல்ல.

அகோடா: வெறுப்பு இல்லை. ஆட்சியாளர் எவருக்கும் எதிராக எந்தவிதமான மனப்போக்கையும் கொண்டிருக்கக் கூடாது. மனக்குறைகளை வளர்ப்பது இல்லாமல் அவர் சகிப்புத்தன்மை மற்றும் அன்புடன் செயல்பட வேண்டும்.

அஹிம்ம: அஹிம்சை. அவர் யாரையும் பாதிக்காதது மட்டுமல்லாமல், சமாதானத்தை மேம்படுத்தவும் தேவையான போரைத் தடுக்கவும் முயற்சிக்க வேண்டும். ஒரு சிறந்த ஆட்சியாளரை எதிர்பார்க்கும் உறுதியுடன் குறுக்கிடாத வரை, அவர் அதிக அளவிலான அளவிற்கு வன்முறையைப் பின்பற்ற வேண்டும்.

காந்தி: பொறுமை மற்றும் சகிப்புத்தன்மை. அவரது கோபத்தை இழக்காமல், ஆட்சியாளர் கஷ்டங்களையும், அவமானங்களையும் தாங்கிக்கொள்ள முடியும். எந்தவொரு சந்தர்ப்பத்திலும் அவர் உணர்ச்சிகளைக் கொடுக்காமல் தன்னை நடத்திக் கொள்ள முடியும். அவர் அதே ஆவி மற்றும் சமநிலையில் இரு பூங்கொத்துகள் மற்றும் செங்கல்பட்டுகள் பெற முடியும்.

Avirodha: எதிர்ப்பும், விரோதமும். ஆட்சியாளர் மக்களுடைய விருப்பத்தை எதிர்க்கக்கூடாது. அவர் தம்முடைய குடிமக்களுக்கு இடையே உள்ள நல்லுணர்வை வளர்த்துக்கொள்ள வேண்டும். வேறு வார்த்தைகளில் சொன்னால், அவர் தம் மக்களுக்கு இசைவாக இருக்க வேண்டும்.

மகாத்மா மன்னர் அஜதாசத்து, தனது இறையாண்மையின்கீழ் கொண்டுவர வஜ்ஜி பிரதேசத்தை ஆக்கிரமிக்க விரும்பினார். விழிப்புணர்வை ஒரு விவேகமான அறிவுரையைப் பெறுவதற்காக தனது முதல் அமைச்சர் வஸகராவை அனுப்பி வைத்தார். விழிப்புணர்வின் அறிவுரையைப் பற்றி விழிப்புணர்வோடு, வஜ்ஜியின்
ஆட்சியாளர்களால் நசுக்கப்பட்டு, தோற்கடிக்க முடியாத ஏழு தாம்மாக்கள் (சப்தா
அபரிஷியான தர்மம்)

(i) அன்றாட நிர்வாகத்தின் சம்பந்தப்பட்ட காரியங்களை விவாதிக்க அவர்கள் வழக்கமான கூட்டங்களை நடத்தினர்.

(ii) அவர்கள் சந்தித்து, ஒரு குழுவாக பணிபுரிந்தனர் மற்றும் கலைக்கப்பட்டனர்.

(iii) அவர்கள் நாட்டின் சட்டத்தை கண்டிப்பாக பின்பற்றினர்.

(iv) அவர்கள் மூப்பர்களுக்குக் கீழ்ப்படிந்தனர்.

(v) அவர்கள் பெண்களை மதிப்பார்கள் மற்றும் பெண்கள் மீதான அடக்குமுறையை கண்டனம் செய்தனர்.

(vi) அவர்கள் மத வழிபாடுகளை பின்பற்றி அவர்களை பாதுகாத்தார்கள்.

(vii) அவர்கள் மதகுருமார்களை மதிப்பார்கள், அவர்களை பூஜிக்கின்றனர்.

வஜ்ஜீ எனப்படும் லிச்சாவின் இராச்சியமானது வஜ்ஜி என்றும்,
ஆட்சியாளர்களின் எண்ணிக்கையை உள்ளடக்கியதாகவும் இருந்தது. தலைநகரம் வெசலி
அல்லது விசாலா ஆகும். ஆட்சியாளர்கள் மத்தியில் ஒற்றுமை வாஜ்ஜி ராஜ்யத்தின்
ஒற்றுமை மற்றும் ஒற்றுமைக்கு பின்னால் முக்கிய சக்தியாக இருந்தது.

ஆட்சியாளர்களின் ஒற்றுமையையும் நடத்தையையும் பற்றி, ஆசீர்வதிக்கப்பட்டவர் மேலும் அறிவுறுத்தினார்:

- ஒரு நல்ல ஆட்சியாளர் பாரபட்சமின்றி செயல்பட வேண்டும் மற்றும் ஒரு சார்பான குழுக்களுக்கு இடையில் வேறுபாடு இருக்கக்கூடாது;

- ஒரு நல்ல ஆட்சியாளர் தனது குடிமக்களுக்கு எதிராக எவ்விதமான வெறுப்புணர்வைக் கொண்டிருக்கக்கூடாது.

- ஒரு நல்ல ஆட்சியாளர் நியாயப்படுத்தியிருந்தால் சட்டத்தை அமல்படுத்துவதில் எந்த பயமும் இல்லை.

- ஒரு நல்ல ஆட்சியாளர் சட்டத்தை நிறைவேற்றுவதற்கான தெளிவான புரிதலைக் கொண்டிருக்க வேண்டும். சட்டத்தை செயல்படுத்துவதற்கு ஆட்சியாளருக்கு அதிகாரம் உண்டு என்பதால் அது நடைமுறைப்படுத்தப்படக் கூடாது. இது ஒரு நியாயமான முறையில் செய்யப்பட வேண்டும் மற்றும் பொதுவான உணர்வுடன், Cakkavatti Sihananda சூட்டா கூறுகிறது.

பன்ஹாவில், அது கூறுகிறது: ‘தகுதியற்றவர், ஒழுக்கமற்றவர், ஒழுக்கமற்றவர்,
தகுதியற்றவர், தகுதியற்றவர், தகுதியற்றவர், தன்னைத்தானே அரசராகவோ அல்லது
ஆட்சியாளராகவோ ஆட்சி செய்தால், அவர் சித்திரவதை செய்யப்படுவார்,
பலவிதமான தண்டனைகளுக்கு உட்பட்டு, ஏனெனில், தகுதியற்றவராகவும்,
தகுதியற்றவராகவும், இறையாண்மைக்கு இடமில்லாமல் அவர் தன்னை நீதிமானாக
கோட்பாடுகளை மீறுவதும், மனிதகுலத்தின் அனைத்து சமூகச் சட்டங்களின்
அடிப்படை விதிகளை மீறுவதும், மற்றவர்களைப் போலவே ஆட்சியாளரும் தண்டனைக்கு
மேலும், பொதுமக்களின் கொள்ளைக்காரராக தன்னை நடத்துபவர் ஆட்சியாளராக இருப்பதை கண்டிக்க வேண்டும்.

கோட்பாட்டின் சிறப்பான உதாரணமாக அசோகர் பேரரசர் அசோகா வாழ்ந்து, தர்மத்தை
பிரசங்கிக்கவும், தனது குடிமக்களுக்கும், மனிதகுலத்திற்கும் சேவை செய்யவும்
அண்டை வீட்டாருக்கு தனது ஆக்கிரோஷமான நோக்கங்களை அறிவித்தார், அவர் தனது
நல்லெண்ணத்தை உறுதிப்படுத்தி தூதுவர்களை தனது தூதர் அனுப்பினார், அவரது
அமைதி மற்றும் ஆக்கிரமிப்பு இல்லாத செய்திகளை அனுப்பினார்.
உண்மைத்தன்மை, இரக்கம், இரக்கம், அஹிம்சை, அனைவருக்கும் கருத்தியல்
ரீதியிலான நடத்தை, அநீதி, அல்லாத கையகப்படுத்தல், மற்றும் விலங்குகள்
அல்லாத காயம் ஆகியவற்றின் சமூக-ஒழுக்க நல்லொழுக்கங்களின் ஆற்றல்மிக்க
நடைமுறைகளை அவர் ஊக்குவித்தார்.
அவர் ஒருவரின் மதத்திற்கான மத சுதந்திரம் மற்றும் பரஸ்பர மரியாதை ஆகியவற்றை ஊக்கப்படுத்தினார். அவர் கிராமப்புற மக்களுக்கு தர்மத்தை பிரசங்கிக்கின்றார். ஆண்களுக்கும்
கால்நடைகளுக்கும் மருத்துவ வசதிகளை உருவாக்கி, மருந்து அளித்தல், சாலையோர
மரங்கள் மற்றும் தோப்புகளை நடவு செய்தல், கிணறுகளை தோண்டி எடுப்பது,
நீர்ப்பாசனம் மற்றும் ஓய்வு இல்லங்கள் ஆகியவற்றை உருவாக்குதல் போன்ற பொது
பயன்பாட்டு வேலைகளை அவர் மேற்கொண்டார்.
அவர் விலங்குகளை கொடூரமாக வெளிப்படையாகத் தடைசெய்தார்.

சில நேரங்களில் விழிப்புணர்வு ஒரு விழிப்புணர்வு ஒரு அரசியல்-சமூக சீர்திருத்த மற்றும் பொருளாதார Emancipator என்று கூறப்படுகிறது. மற்றவற்றுடன்,
சாதி முறையை கண்டனம் செய்தது, மக்கள் சமத்துவத்தை உணர்ந்து,
சமூக-பொருளாதார நிலைமைகளை முன்னேற்ற வேண்டிய அவசியம் பற்றி பேசியது,
பணக்காரர்களிடமிருந்தும், ஏழைகளிடமிருந்தும் செல்வந்தர்களின் செல்வத்தை
மேலும் அதிகப்படுத்தியதன் முக்கியத்துவத்தை உணர்ந்து, பெண்களின் நிலையை
மற்றும் நிர்வாகத்தில் மனிதநேயத்தை இணைத்தல், மற்றும் ஒரு சமூகத்தை
பேராசையினால் நடத்தக்கூடாது என்று மக்களைக் கருத்தில் கொள்ள வேண்டும்.
மீறி, மனிதகுலத்திற்கு விழிப்புணர்வு அளிப்பதில் அதிக ஆர்வம் கொண்டவர்,
ஏனென்றால் ஆசீர்வதிக்கப்பட்ட ஒருவர், எந்த சமூக சீர்திருத்தக்காரர் முன்னர்
செய்திருந்தாலும், இதுவரை இல்லாத மனித மோசமான ஆழமான வேர்களைப் பெறுவதன்
மூலம் இது ஒரு கட்டத்தில் எடுக்கப்பட்டது.
மனித மனதில்.

எல்லா உயிரினங்களும் நன்றாகவும் மகிழ்ச்சியாகவும் இருக்கும் மற்றும் இறுதி இலக்கு என நித்திய பேரின்பத்தின் பலனை அடைவீர்கள்.

The “Nut” culture
Perfect example of what The fascist C(T)hief expected from the Rowdy
Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks (RSS) … Nut (character in a jatra)/ Do what is
told - culture!

The fascist’s dictates: “Selectivity has no place
in a Nut’s life. Do what is told. If told to break the head, practice
Sir mar Kramika with you Latti; told to hold meeting then meeting… For
instance some are told to go and work for politics that does not mean
that they have great interest or inspiration
for it. They don’t die for politics like fish without water. If they
are told to withdraw from politics then also there is no objection.
Their discretion is just not required.

Some of the SwayamSevaks work in politics. There they have to organise
according to the needs of work fopr gobbling the Master Key by the
Murderers of democratic institutions (Modi) by tampering the fraud EVMs,
processions etc., have to raise slogans. All these things have no place
in the work.

However, like the character in a play whatever role
has been assigned should be portrayed with best of capability. But
sometimes Swayam Sevaks go beyond the role assigned to a performer (nut)
as they develop over-zealousness in their hearts, to the extent that
they become useless for this work like modi yeddi. This is not good”

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The OSHA Fall Protection Equipment and Fall Clearance Calculations infographic explains OSHA’s fall arrest requirements and breaks down key calculations.
63) Classical Malayalam

63. ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം

2629 ബുധൻ 23 മേയ്

4 വാക്കുകളിൽ ബോധവുമായുള്ള ബുദ്ധന്റെ പഠിപ്പിക്കൽ കൊണ്ട് ഉണർന്നെഴുന്നേറ്റു
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നല്ല ഭരണം - ബോധവൽക്കരണ വഴി ഉണരുക

ഉണരുന്നവന്റെ ഉപദേശങ്ങൾ മഹത്തായ തത്ത്വചിന്ത, എയ്റ്റ്ഫോൾഡ് പാത
പിന്തുടർന്ന്, മോചനത്തിന്റെ പൂർത്തീകരണത്തിനായി നയിക്കുന്നു- അന്തിമ
ലക്ഷ്യം ആയി നിത്യ ബാഹുല്യം.
ബോധവൽക്കരിക്കപ്പെട്ട ഉണരുക എന്നത് ജനങ്ങളുടെ സാമൂഹിക, സാമ്പത്തിക,
രാഷ്ട്രീയ ക്ഷേമത്തെ അവഗണിക്കുന്ന ഉന്നതമായ ദാർശനിക ചിന്തകളിൽ മാത്രം
താത്പര്യം പ്രകടിപ്പിക്കുന്നതാണ്.
ഉണർവ്നേടുന്നത് ദയയും അനുകമ്പയും എന്ന മഹത്തായ ഒരു കലവറയാണ്. മാത്രമല്ല
മനുഷ്യവർഗത്തെ മാത്രമല്ല, മറ്റെല്ലാ ജീവികളുടെയും സന്തോഷത്തിൽ വളരെ
താല്പര്യപ്പെട്ടു. ധാർമ്മികവും ആത്മീയവുമായ അടിസ്ഥാനത്തിൽ ഒരു സമ്പൂർണ
ജീവിതം നയിക്കാതെ സന്തോഷം സാധ്യമല്ലായിരുന്നു.

കുറ്റകൃത്യങ്ങൾ നിർമാർജ്ജനം ചെയ്യണമെങ്കിൽ ജനങ്ങളുടെ സാമ്പത്തിക സ്ഥിതി മെച്ചപ്പെടുത്തണം. തൊഴിലുടമയും തൊഴിലാളിയും തമ്മിലുള്ള ബന്ധം പ്രധാനമായും ഉചിതമായ വേതനം, സമ്മാനങ്ങൾ, പ്രചോദനം എന്നിവയിലൂടെ നൽകുന്നതാണ്. രാജാക്കന്മാർ
(സർക്കാരുകൾ) ഈ വസ്തുതയെ ഗൗരവമായി പരിഗണിക്കുകയും ജനങ്ങളെ സന്തോഷത്തോടെയും
സംതൃപ്തരാക്കുകയും വേണം, അങ്ങനെ രാജ്യം സമാധാനവും കുറ്റകൃത്യവും
ഉണർന്നെഴുന്നയാൾ മാത്രമല്ല അഹിംസ, സമാധാനം പഠിപ്പിക്കുന്നത് മാത്രമല്ല,
യുദ്ധത്തിന്റെ പൊട്ടിപ്പുറപ്പെടുന്നത് തടയാൻ വ്യക്തിപരമായി
യുദ്ധഭൂമിയിലേക്ക് പോയ ആദ്യ മത വിശ്വാസിയാണ് അയാൾ.
രോഹിനിയുടെ ജലം യുദ്ധം ചെയ്യാൻ പോകുന്ന സഘ്യരും കോലിയക്കാരുമായുള്ള ബന്ധത്തെ ബുദ്ധൻ വിഭജിച്ചു. അനുഗ്രഹീതനായ
രാജാവ് അജാതസറ്റുവിൽ നിന്ന് പിന്തിരിയുകയും ചെയ്തു. ഒരു നല്ല
ഭരണകൂടത്തിന്റെ പ്രാധാന്യവും പ്രാധാന്യവും ബുദ്ധൻ വിശദീകരിച്ചു. ഭരണകൂടം
അഴിമതിയും അനീതിയും ആയിത്തീരുമ്പോൾ രാജ്യം അഴിമതി, അപകീർത്തി,
അസന്തുഷ്ടനാവാൻ ഇടയാക്കിയതെങ്ങനെ എന്ന് ബുദ്ധൻ വിശദീകരിച്ചു.
ബോധവൽക്കരണം കൊണ്ട് ഒരാൾ അഴിമതിക്കെതിരെ സംസാരിക്കുന്നു, ഒരു ഗവൺമെന്റ് എങ്ങനെ മാനുഷിക മൂല്യങ്ങൾ അടിസ്ഥാനമാക്കി പ്രവർത്തിക്കണം. ഉണർന്നു
കൊണ്ടിരിക്കുന്ന ഒരാൾ ഒരിക്കൽ ഇങ്ങനെ പറഞ്ഞു: ‘ഒരു രാജ്യത്തിന്റെ
ഭരണാധികാരി നീതിമാനും നല്ലവനും ആയിരിക്കുമ്പോൾ, മന്ത്രിമാർ നീതിയും
സദ്ഗുണവും ആയിത്തീരും;
മന്ത്രിമാർ നീതിയും നല്ലവനും ആയിരിക്കുമ്പോൾ, ഉന്നത ഉദ്യോഗസ്ഥർ നീതിമാന്മാരായിത്തീരുന്നു; ഉന്നത ഉദ്യോഗസ്ഥർ നീതിയും നല്ലവനും ആയിരിക്കുമ്പോൾ, റാങ്കും ഫയലുകളും നീതിമാന്മാരായിത്തീരുന്നു; റാങ്കും
ഫയലും തീർത്തും ശരിയാണ്, ആളുകൾ നീതിയും സത്തയും ആകുമ്പോൾ ‘(അംഗുറാര നികായ)
കക്കാവട്ടി സിയാനന്ദ സുത്താന്തത്തിൽ ബുദ്ധൻ പറഞ്ഞു, മോഷണം, കുറ്റകൃത്യം,
മോഷണം, അസഹിഷ്ണുത, അക്രമം, പക, ക്രൂരത,
ദാരിദ്ര്യത്തിൽ നിന്ന്. കുറ്റകൃത്യങ്ങളെ
ശിക്ഷയിലൂടെ അടിച്ചമർത്താൻ രാജാക്കന്മാരും ഭരണകൂടങ്ങളും ശ്രമിക്കാറുണ്ട്.
പക്ഷേ, കുറ്റകൃത്യങ്ങൾ ശക്തിപ്പെടുത്തുന്നതിലൂടെ അത് നിഷ്ഫലമായിത്തീരുന്നു.
കുത്തനെയുള്ള സുട്ടയിൽ, കുറ്റകൃത്യങ്ങൾ കുറയ്ക്കുന്നതിന് പകരം, ബലത്തെയാണ് സാമ്പത്തിക വികാസം സൂചിപ്പിച്ചത്. രാജ്യത്തെ സാമ്പത്തിക സ്ഥിതി മെച്ചപ്പെടുത്തുന്നതിന് ഗവൺമെൻറ് രാജ്യത്തിന്റെ വിഭവങ്ങൾ ഉപയോഗപ്പെടുത്തണം. കാർഷിക
ഗ്രാമീണ വികസനം, സംരംഭകര്ക്കും വ്യവസായത്തിനും സാമ്പത്തിക പിന്തുണ
നല്കുന്നതിനും തൊഴിലാളികള്ക്ക് മാന്യമായ മാന്യമായ മനുഷ്യജീവിതം
ഉറപ്പുവരുത്തുന്നതിനും മതിയായ വേതനം നല്കുന്നു. ബോധവത്ക്കരണത്തിലൂടെ
ഉണരുന്നതും സമാധാനവും ഉത്തേജകത്വവും സംരക്ഷിക്കാന് സഹായിക്കുകയും ചെയ്തു,
അത് അത്യന്താപേക്ഷിതമായിരുന്നു
വികസനത്തിനായി ഒരു രാജ്യം അഴിമതിയും അസന്തുഷ്ടവും ആയിത്തീരുകയും,
ഭരണകൂടത്തിന്റെ തലവന്മാർ അഴിമതിയും അനീതിയും ആയിത്തീരുമ്പോൾ അത് എങ്ങനെ
കാണപ്പെടുമെന്ന് കാണിച്ചു.
സന്തോഷമുള്ള ഒരു രാജ്യത്തിന്, അത് നല്ലതും നീതിപൂർവ്വവുമായ ഒരു സർക്കാരിന് ഉണ്ടായിരിക്കണം. നീതിയുടെ ഈ രൂപം എങ്ങനെയാണ് വികസിപ്പിക്കപ്പെട്ടത് എന്നത് “ടെൻ റോയൽ വെർച്വൽസ്” എന്ന പേരിൽ തന്റെ ശുപാർശകളിൽ വിശദമായതാണ്. (”ദസാ-രാജ ധർമ്മ”). രാജ്യത്ത് ശാന്തമായി ഭരിക്കാൻ ആഗ്രഹിക്കുന്ന ഏതെങ്കിലും ഗവൺമെൻറിനുപോലും ഈ
പത്ത് നിയമങ്ങൾ പ്രയോഗിക്കാൻ കഴിയും. ‘പത്തു റോയൽ ശ്രേഷ്ഠതകൾ’ താഴെ

ഡാനാ: ഉദാരത, ഔദാര്യം അല്ലെങ്കിൽ സ്നേഹം. ദാനധർമ്മങ്ങൾ (നൽകേണ്ടത്) ദരിദ്രൻമാർക്കും, അഗതികൾക്കും, അതിൻറെ കാര്യത്തിൽ പ്രവർത്തിക്കുന്നവർക്കും തന്റെ ആവശ്യമുള്ള വിഷയങ്ങളുടെ ക്ഷേമത്തെ നോക്കിക്കാണാൻ രാജാവ് (സർക്കാർ) ചുമതലയാകുന്നു. നല്ല ഭരണാധിപൻ സമ്പത്തും സ്വത്തുക്കളും ബുദ്ധിപരമായും സഹാനുഭൂതികളിലും കൊടുക്കരുതാത്തത് ജ്ഞാനപൂർവം നൽകണം. മറ്റൊരുതരത്തിൽ പറഞ്ഞാൽ, തന്റെ സ്ഥാനം പ്രയോജനപ്പെടുത്താൻ അവൻ ശ്രമിക്കരുത്.

സില: സദാചാരം - ഉയർന്ന ധാർമിക സ്വഭാവം. അവൻ
കുറഞ്ഞത് അഞ്ച് തത്ത്വങ്ങൾ പാലിക്കണം, തന്റെ പ്രജകൾക്ക്
പ്രീതിപ്പെടുത്തുന്ന ഒരു ഉദാഹരണമായിട്ടായിരിക്കണം, സ്വകാര്യവും
പൊതുജീവിതവുമായി സ്വയം പെരുമാറണം. ഈ ശ്രേഷ്ഠത വളരെ പ്രാധാന്യമർഹിക്കുന്നു,
കാരണം, ഭരണാധികാരി അത് അനുസരിക്കുന്നുവെങ്കിൽ, കർശനമായി, പിന്നെ കൈക്കൂലി,
, അക്രമം, അച്ചടക്കലംഘനം എന്നിവ സ്വയം രാജ്യത്ത് തുടച്ചുമാറ്റപ്പെടും.

ആശ്വാസം Pariccaga: അവർ ജനത്തിന്റെ നന്മ വേണ്ടി എങ്കിൽ ത്യാഗം, വ്യക്തിഗത പേര്, പ്രശസ്തി; വേണമെങ്കിൽ ജീവിതം പോലും. സമ്മാനങ്ങൾ അനുവദിച്ചുകൊണ്ട് ഭരണാധികാരി കൂടുതൽ പ്രാധാന്യമുള്ളതും കൂടുതൽ വിശ്വസ്തതയുള്ളതുമായ സേവനത്തിലേക്ക് ഇഴയുന്നു.

അജ്ജാവ: സത്യസന്ധതയും സമഗ്രതയും. അവൻ
തികച്ചും നേരുള്ളവൻ ആയിരിക്കണം, അവന്റെ ലക്ഷ്യങ്ങൾ നേടിയെടുക്കാൻ
ഏതെങ്കിലും വക്രമായ അല്ലെങ്കിൽ സംശയാസ്പദമായ മാർഗങ്ങളിലൂടെ ഒരിക്കലും സഹായം
അയാളുടെ കടമകൾ നിറവേറ്റുന്നതിൽ ഭയം കൂടാതെ അയാൾ സ്വതന്ത്രനായിരിക്കണം. ബുദ്ധൻ സാഗലോവതാ സുതത്തിലെ ഒരു ചരണത്തിൽ പറയുന്നുണ്ട്. ഒരു വ്യക്തിക്ക്
അധിക്ഷേപം, വിദ്വേഷം, ഭയം അല്ലെങ്കിൽ അജ്ഞത തുടങ്ങിയവയ്ക്ക് വിധേയനാകാതെ
നീതി നിലനിർത്തുന്നുവെങ്കിൽ അദ്ദേഹത്തിന്റെ ജനപ്രീതി വളർന്നുവരുന്ന
ചന്ദ്രനെ പോലെ വളരുന്നു “

മാദധ: ദയയോ സൌമ്യതയോ. ഒരു ഭരണാധികാരിയുടെ നേരുക്ക് ചിലപ്പോൾ ഉറപ്പ് ആവശ്യമായിരിക്കാം. എന്നാൽ ഇത് ദയയും സൗമ്യതയും ആയിരിക്കണം. മറ്റൊരു വിധത്തിൽ പറഞ്ഞാൽ ഒരു ഭരണാധികാരി പാടില്ല - ക്രൂരമോ ക്രൂരമോ.

തപ: ബുദ്ധി ശീലം, ബുദ്ധിമുട്ടുകൾ അതിശയകരമായ
സുഖാനുഭൂതിയിൽ കൌതുകം പ്രകടിപ്പിക്കുന്ന, ഒരു നല്ല രാജാവ്, തന്റെ അഞ്ച്
ഇന്ദ്രിയങ്ങളെ നിയന്ത്രണത്തിലാക്കി നിലനിർത്തുന്നു.
ചില ഭരണാധികാരികൾ അവരുടെ സ്ഥാനത്ത്, ധാർമിക പെരുമാറ്റരീതി ഉപയോഗിച്ചേക്കാം - ഇത് ഒരു നല്ല സാമ്രാജ്യമല്ല.

അക്കാദ: നോൺ-വെറുപ്പ്. ഭരണാധികാരി ആരെയെങ്കിലും പ്രതികരിക്കരുത്. പരാതികൾ അഭിവൃദ്ധിയില്ലെങ്കിൽ അവൻ സഹിഷ്ണുതയും സ്നേഹവുംകൊണ്ട് പ്രവർത്തിക്കേണ്ടതാണ്.

അവഹിംസ: അഹിംസ. മാത്രമല്ല, ആരെയും അപമാനിക്കാതിരിക്കാൻ മാത്രമല്ല, സമാധാനത്തെ ഉയർത്തിപ്പിടിക്കുകയും, യുദ്ധത്തെ തടയുകയും ചെയ്യണം. അനുയോജ്യമായ ഒരു ഭരണാധികാരിയുടെ പ്രതീക്ഷയുടെ ദൃഢനിശ്ചയത്തിൽ
ഇടപെടാതിരിക്കുന്നിടത്തോളം അഹിംസയിൽ ഏറ്റവും ഉയർന്ന അളവുവരെ അവൻ

ഖന്തി: ക്ഷമയും സഹിഷ്ണുതയും. മനസ്സിനെ നഷ്ടപ്പെടാതെ, ഭരണാധിപൻ കഷ്ടതകളും അപമാനങ്ങളും സഹിക്കേണ്ടിവരുമായിരുന്നു. ഏത് അവസരത്തിലും വികാരങ്ങളിൽ ഉൾപ്പെടാതെ സ്വയം പെരുമാറാൻ അവനു കഴിയണം. ഒരേ ആത്മാവിലും ശാന്തതയിലും പൂച്ചെണ്ടികളും ഇഷ്ടികകളും സ്വീകരിക്കാൻ അദ്ദേഹത്തിന് കഴിയണം.

അവരോദ: പ്രതിപക്ഷം, എതിർപ്പുമില്ലാത്തത്. ഭരണാധികാരി ജനങ്ങളുടെ ഇച്ഛാശക്തിയെ എതിർക്കരുത്. അവൻ തൻറെ പ്രജകളുടെ ഇടയിൽ സൌജന്യസ്നേഹം നട്ടുവളർത്തേണ്ടതുണ്ട്. മറ്റൊരു വിധത്തിൽ പറഞ്ഞാൽ അവൻ തൻറെ ജനത്തിനു ചേർച്ചയിൽ ഭരണം നടത്തണം.

മഗധരാജാവായ അജാതശാസുരാജാവ് വജ്ജി പ്രദേശത്തെ തന്റെ പരമാധികാരത്തിൻ കീഴിൽ കൊണ്ടുവരാൻ ആഗ്രഹിച്ചു. ബോധവൽക്കരണനൊപ്പം ഉണരുക എന്ന തന്റെ ഉപദേശം തേടിയ അദ്ദേഹം, മുഖ്യമന്ത്രിക്ക് വസിക്കര അയച്ചുകൊടുക്കണം. (സപ്താ അപരിഹാനിയ ധർമ്മ) പരാജയപ്പെടുത്തിയ ഏഴു ധർമ്മങ്ങളെ മുറുകെ
പിടിക്കുന്നതിനുമുൻപ് വജ്ജിയിലെ ഭരണാധികാരികളെ അടിച്ചമർത്താനും
പരാജയപ്പെടുത്താനും കഴിയില്ല എന്ന ബോധം സ്വീകരിച്ചു.

(i) ദൈനംദിന ഭരണം സംബന്ധിച്ച കാര്യങ്ങൾ ചർച്ച ചെയ്യാൻ അവർ പതിവായി യോഗങ്ങളിൽ പങ്കെടുത്തു.

(ii) അവർ ഒരു സംഘമായി അവർ കണ്ടു, പ്രവർത്തിക്കുകയും പിരിച്ചുവിടുകയും ചെയ്തു.

(iii) അവർ കർശനമായി രാജ്യത്തെ നിയമം പിന്തുടരുകയാണ്.

(iv) അവർ മൂപ്പന്മാർക്കു കീഴ്പെട്ടവരായിരുന്നു.

(അവർ) സ്ത്രീകളെ ബഹുമാനിക്കുകയും സ്ത്രീകളെ അടിച്ചമർത്തുകയും ചെയ്തു.

അവർ മതപരമായ ആചാരങ്ങൾ പിൻപറ്റി അവരെ സംരക്ഷിച്ചു.

അവർ വൈദികരെ ബഹുമാനിക്കുകയും പുരോഹിതനെ വിശുദ്ധമാക്കുകയും ചെയ്തു.

വാജ്ജി സാമ്രാജ്യം വജ്ജി എന്ന പേരിലാണ് അറിയപ്പെട്ടിരുന്നത്. ഇത്
ഭരണാധികാരികളുടെ എണ്ണം ആയിരുന്നു. തലസ്ഥാനം വെസലി അഥവാ വിസാല ആയിരുന്നു.
ഭരണാധികാരികളുടെ ഐക്യം വജ്ജി രാജ്യത്തിന്റെ ഐക്യം, സത്യസന്ധതയ്ക്ക് പിന്നിൽ
പ്രധാന ശക്തി ആയിരുന്നു.

ഭരണാധികാരികളുടെ ഐക്യം, സ്വഭാവത്തെക്കുറിച്ച്, അനുഗ്രഹിക്കപ്പെട്ടവർ ഇതിനെ കൂടുതൽ ഉപദേശം നൽകി:

- ഒരു നല്ല ഭരണാധികാരി പക്ഷപാതിപരമായി പ്രവർത്തിക്കണം, പക്ഷപാതം പാടില്ല,
ഒരു പ്രത്യേകവിഭാഗം തമ്മിൽ മറ്റൊന്നിൽ നിന്ന് വ്യത്യാസപ്പെടരുത്.

- ഒരു നല്ല ഭരണാധികാരി തന്റെ ഏതെങ്കിലും വിഷയത്തെതിരായി ഏതെങ്കിലും തരത്തിലുള്ള വെറുപ്പ് വളർത്തിയെടുക്കാൻ പാടില്ല.

- ഒരു നല്ല ഭരണാധികാരി നിയമനിർവ്വഹണത്തിലാണെങ്കിൽ, അത് ന്യായീകരിക്കാവുന്നതരത്തിൽ ഭയം കാണിക്കരുത്.

- ഒരു നല്ല ഭരണാധികാരി നടപ്പാക്കേണ്ടത് നിയമത്തെക്കുറിച്ചുള്ള വ്യക്തമായ ധാരണ ഉണ്ടായിരിക്കണം. നിയമം നടപ്പാക്കാനുള്ള അധികാരം ഭരണാധികാരിക്ക് ഉള്ളതുകൊണ്ടാണ് ഇത് നടപ്പിലാക്കാൻ പാടില്ല. ന്യായബോധത്തോടെയും സാമാന്യബോധത്തോടെയും ഇത് ചെയ്യണം. കക്കാവട്ടി സിയാനന്ദ സുട്ടാ പറയുന്നു.

പാൻഹയിൽ ഇങ്ങനെ പ്രസ്താവിക്കുന്നു: ‘അയോഗ്യൻ, അസാധാരണവും, അധാർമികവും,
അയോഗ്യവും, അയോഗ്യതയില്ലാത്തതും, രാജകുമാരിക്ക് അസാധാരണവുമായ ഒരു മനുഷ്യൻ,
തന്നെത്തന്നെ മഹത്തരമായ ഒരു രാജാവിനെ അല്ലെങ്കിൽ ഭരണാധികാരിയെ സിംഹാസനസ്ഥൻ
വിവിധ തരത്തിലുള്ള ശിക്ഷ വിധിക്കും. കാരണം, അവൻ നിഷ്പ്രയോജനവും
അയോഗ്യനുമായതിനാൽ, അവൻ പരമാധികാരത്തിന്റെ ആധിപത്യത്തിൽ സ്വയം
ന്യായീകരിക്കുകയും ചെയ്തിരിക്കുന്നു.
നിയമങ്ങൾ ലംഘിക്കുകയും മനുഷ്യവംശത്തിന്റെ എല്ലാ സാമൂഹിക നിയമങ്ങളുടെ
അടിസ്ഥാന നിയമങ്ങൾ ലംഘിക്കുകയും ചെയ്യുന്ന ഭരണാധികാരി ശിക്ഷാരീതിക്കും
മാത്രമല്ല, ജനക്കൂട്ടത്തിന്റെ കള്ളനെന്ന നിലയിൽ സ്വയം നിയന്ത്രിക്കുന്ന ഭരണാധികാരിയെ അപലപിക്കാനാണ്.

ചക്രവർത്തി, അശോകചക്രവർത്തി, ഈ തത്വത്തിന്റെ ഒരു ശോചനീയമായ മാതൃക,
ധർമ്മത്തെ ജീവിക്കുന്നതിനും ജീവിക്കാനും തന്റെ പ്രജകളെയും മനുഷ്യരാശിയെയും
സേവിക്കാനും തീരുമാനിച്ചു.
അയൽവാസികൾക്ക് അക്രമാസക്തമായ താൽപര്യങ്ങൾ പ്രഖ്യാപിച്ച അദ്ദേഹം തന്റെ
സുവിശേഷം ഉറപ്പുവരുത്തി, തന്റെ സമാധാന സന്ദേശങ്ങളും അരാജകത്വവും
ഉൾക്കൊള്ളുന്ന ദൂരദേശങ്ങളിലേക്ക് അയക്കുന്നു.
സത്യസന്ധത, അനുകമ്പ, കരുണാവതരണം, അഹിംസ, മാനവികത, പെരുമാറ്റം,
ഏറ്റെടുക്കൽ, മൃഗങ്ങൾക്ക് പരിക്കില്ലായ്മ തുടങ്ങിയവയുടെ സാമൂഹികവും
ധാർമ്മികവുമായ പുരോഗതിയെ അദ്ദേഹം പ്രോത്സാഹിപ്പിച്ചു.
മതസ്വാതന്ത്ര്യവും പരസ്പര ബഹുമാനവും പരസ്പരം സ്വീകരിക്കുന്നതിന് അദ്ദേഹം പ്രോത്സാഹിപ്പിച്ചു. നാടുമുഴുവൻ ഗ്രാമീണ ജനതയ്ക്ക് പ്രസംഗം നടത്തി. മനുഷ്യർക്കും
മൃഗങ്ങൾക്കും വേണ്ടി ആശുപത്രി സ്ഥാപിക്കുക, മരുന്നുകൾ വിതരണം ചെയ്യുക,
റോഡരികിലെ മരങ്ങൾ നട്ടുപിടിപ്പിക്കൽ, കിണറുകളെ കുഴിച്ചെടുക്കൽ, ജലസേചന
ഷെഡുകൾ, വിശ്രമമുറികൾ എന്നിവയുടെ നിർമ്മാണം തുടങ്ങിയ പൊതു ഉപയോഗ പദ്ധതികൾ
അദ്ദേഹം ഏറ്റെടുത്തു.
അവൻ മൃഗങ്ങളെ ക്രൂരമായി വിലക്കി.

ചിലപ്പോൾ ബോധവൽക്കരണത്തോടെ ഉണരുക എന്നത് ഒരു രാഷ്ട്രീയ-സാമൂഹ്യ പരിഷ്കരണവാദിയും സാമ്പത്തിക വിമോചകനും ആണെന്നാണ്. ജാതിവ്യവസ്ഥയെ
അപലപിക്കുകയും, സാമൂഹ്യ-സാമ്പത്തിക സാഹചര്യങ്ങൾ മെച്ചപ്പെടുത്തുകയും,
സമ്പന്നരുടെയും ദരിദ്രരുടെയും ഇടയിൽ സമ്പന്നരുടെ സമ്പന്നസമൃദ്ധി വിതരണം
ചെയ്യുന്നതിന്റെ പ്രാധാന്യം മനസ്സിലാക്കി, ജാതി വ്യവസ്ഥയെ അപലപിക്കുകയും,
സ്ത്രീകളുടെ പദവി ഉയർത്തുകയും ചെയ്തു.
ഭരണത്തിലും മാനവികതയുടെ ഒരു കൂട്ടിച്ചേർക്കൽ, ഒരു സമൂഹം അത്യാർത്തിയാൽ
പ്രവർത്തിക്കരുതെന്ന് ജനങ്ങളോടു പരിഗണനയും സഹാനുഭൂതിയോടെയും
പഠിപ്പിക്കണമെന്ന് പഠിപ്പിച്ചു.
മനുഷ്യവർഗത്തെ സംബന്ധിച്ച അവബോധത്തിന്റെ പങ്കാളിത്തത്തിൽ ഉണരുക എന്നത്
വളരെ വലുതാണ്, കാരണം അനുഗ്രഹിക്കപ്പെട്ട ഒരാൾ മുമ്പുതന്നെ അല്ലെങ്കിൽ
മറ്റേതൊരു സാമൂഹ്യപരിഷ്ക്കാരം ചെയ്തതിനുശേഷം, അതായത്, മനുഷ്യന്റെ അഗാധമായ
വേരുകൾ വഴി
മനുഷ്യ മനസ്സിൽ.

എല്ലാ ജീവികളും സുന്ദരവും സന്തുഷ്ടരുമായവരും അന്തിമ നന്മയുടെ അന്തിമ ലക്ഷണങ്ങളായ അന്തിമ ലക്ഷണമായിത്തീരുമായിരുന്നു.

98) Classical Urdu

2629 بدھ 23 مئی سبق

4 الفاظ میں بیداری کے بدھ کی تعلیمات سے بیدار ہوا
اچھا بنو!

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اچھی حکمرانی - بیداری ایک بیداری کے راستے کے ساتھ

کے ساتھ بیدار ایک کی تعلیمات عظیم فلسفہ کو آٹھ فیلڈ راہ پر قابو پانے کی
راہنمائی کرنا ہے تاکہ وہ آزادانہ طور پر نجات کو مکمل کریں.
یہ غلط ہے کہ یہ نتیجہ اخذ کرنا ہے کہ بیداری کے ساتھ اخلاقیات صرف اس طرح
کے بلند نظریات اور عوام کے سماجی، معاشی اور سیاسی فلاح و بہبود کی نظر
میں اعلی فلسفیانہ سوچ میں دلچسپی رکھتی ہے.
کے ساتھ بیداری ایک ہی سبھی چیزوں کی طرف رحم اور شفقت کا ایک شاندار
ذخیرہ تھا اور نہ صرف انسانیت بلکہ تمام مخلوقات کی خوشی میں بہت دلچسپی
رکھتی تھی. اخلاقی اور روحانی پر مبنی خالص زندگی کی قیادت کے بغیر ممکن
نہیں تھا.

یہ بتاتا ہے کہ جرم کو ختم کرنے کے لئے، لوگوں کی اقتصادی حالت بہتر بنانا چاہئے. آجر اور ملازم کے درمیان تعلقات کو بنیادی طور پر مناسب اجرت، تحائف اور تشویش کی ادائیگی کی طرف سے لازمی طور پر بنایا جانا چاہئے. بادشاہوں
(حکومتوں) کو یہ حقیقت سنجیدگی سے سنبھالنے اور لوگوں کو خوش اور اطمینان
رکھنا چاہئے، اس کے نتیجے میں ملک امن اور جرم کا آزاد ہو گا.
تشدد اور امن کو تعلیم دینے کے بارے میں بیداری ایک ہی نہ صرف نہ صرف،
بلکہ یہ ممکنہ طور پر پہلا اور صرف مذہبی استاد تھے جو جنگ کے خاتمے کو
روکنے کے لۓ ذاتی طور پر میدان جنگ میں گئے تھے.
بدھ نے سایہ اور کولییا کے درمیان کشیدگی کا خاتمہ کیا جو روہنی کے پانی پر جنگ کرنے کے بارے میں تھے. برکت
نے ایک بادشاہ کو بادشاہ اجاتاسٹ سے بھی محروم کردیا. بدھ نے ایک اچھی
حکومت کی اہمیت اور ضروریات پر تبادلہ خیال کیا اور دکھایا کہ کس طرح ملک
بدعنوانی اور ناخوشگوار ہوسکتی ہے.
بیداری کے ساتھ بیداری ایک بدعنوانی کے خلاف بات کی اور حکومت کو انسانی حقوق کے اصولوں کی بنیاد پر کیسے عمل کرنا چاہئے. بیداری کے ساتھ بیداری ایک بار ایک بار کہا، ‘جب ملک کا حکمران صرف اور اچھا ہے، وزراء صرف اور اچھے ہو جاتے ہیں؛ جب وزراء صرف اور اچھے ہیں، اعلی حکام صرف اور اچھے بن جاتے ہیں؛ جب اعلی حکام صرف اور اچھے ہیں تو، درجہ اور فائل صرف اور اچھی ہو گئی ہے؛ جب
درجہ اور فائل صرف اور اچھے بن جاتی ہے تو لوگ صرف اور اچھے بن جاتے ہیں.
‘’ (انگٹا نکایا) کوکواٹی سھانانڈا سوت میں، بدھ نے کہا کہ غیر اخلاقی اور
جرم، جیسے غلا، باطل، تشدد، نفرت، ظلم،
غربت سے بادشاہت
اور حکومتی اداروں کو سزا کے ذریعے جرم کو دبانے کی کوشش کر سکتی ہے، لیکن
یہ جرم کے ذریعے جرائم کو ختم کرنے کے لئے مستحکم ہے.
کوٹادانت سوٹ میں، بودھ نے جرم کو کم کرنے کے بجائے اقتصادی ترقی کی تجویز کی. حکومت ملک کے اقتصادی حالات کو بہتر بنانے کے لئے ملک کے وسائل کا استعمال کرنا چاہئے. یہ
زراعت اور دیہی ترقی پر منحصر ہے، تاجروں اور کاروباری اداروں کے لئے مالی
امداد فراہم کر سکتا ہے، کارکنوں کے لئے مناسب اجرت فراہم کرنے کے لئے
انسانی وقار کے ساتھ ایک مہذب زندگی برقرار رکھنے کے لئے. بیداری کے ساتھ
ایک ہی اخلاقی طور پر امن و امان کی بحالی کی بھی حمایت کرتا ہے، جو بالکل
ضروری تھا
ترقی کے لئے اور یہ پتہ چلا کہ ملک کس طرح خراب ہوسکتا ہے اور ناخوش
ہوسکتا ہے جب اس کی حکومت کے سربراہ فساد اور ظالم ہو جاتے ہیں.
ایک ملک خوش ہونے کے لۓ، یہ ایک اچھی اور صرف حکومت ہے. “حکومت کے اس فارم کو کس طرح تیار کیا گیا ہے اس کی اپنی سفارشات میں” دس رائل وارٹس “کے بارے میں تفصیلی ہے. (”داس - راجہ دھما”). یہ دس قوانین آج بھی کسی بھی حکومت کی طرف سے لاگو کیا جاسکتی ہے جو ملک
کو امن سے مستحکم کرنا چاہتا ہے. ‘دس رائل ویٹس’ مندرجہ ذیل ہیں:

دانا: آزادانہ، سخاوت یا صدقہ. محتاج کو زکوۃ دینا یہ ضروری ہے کہ وہ اپنے محتاج مضامین کی فلاح و بہبود کے لئے بادشاہ (حکومت) کا فرض کریں. مثالی حکمران کو شفا اور منسلک کرنے کے بغیر دانشورانہ اور جائیداد کو دور کرنا چاہئے. دوسرے الفاظ میں انہیں اپنی پوزیشن کے امیر بنانے کا استعمال نہیں کرنا چاہئے.

سیلا: اخلاقیات - ایک اعلی اخلاقی کردار. اسے
کم سے کم پانچ احکامات کا مشاہدہ کرنا چاہیے، اور اپنی ذاتی اور ذاتی
زندگی میں خود دونوں کو اپنے مضامین کے لئے چمکنا مثال بنانا چاہئے. یہ
فضیلت بہت اہم ہے، کیونکہ اگر حکمران اس کی تعمیل کرتا ہے، تو سختی سے،
رشوت اور بدعنوان
، ملک میں تشدد اور بے روزگاری خود کار طریقے سے ختم ہوجائے گی.

آرام پارککاگا: اگر وہ لوگوں کے نزدیک ہیں تو قربانی کرنا - ذاتی نام اور شہرت؛ اگر ضرورت ہو تو زندگی بھی. تحائف وغیرہ کے ذریعہ. حکمران مضامین کو زیادہ موثر اور زیادہ وفادار خدمت پر خرچ کرتے ہیں.
اججاو: ایمانداری اور سالمیت. وہ
بالکل سیدھا ہونا لازمی ہے اور اس کے اختتام کو حاصل کرنے کے لئے کسی بھی
کفر یا شکست کے ذریعہ کبھی بھی کبھی نہیں لے جانا چاہئے.
وہ اپنے فرائض کے مادہ میں خوف یا اس کے حق سے آزاد ہونا ضروری ہے. بدھ نے ‘سگالواڈا ساٹٹا’ میں ایک سٹینزا میں بیان کیا ہے اگر کوئی شخص
انصاف، نفرت، خوف یا جہالت کے بغیر انصاف کو برقرار رکھتا ہے تو اس کی
مقبولیت ویکسین چاند کی طرح بڑھ جاتی ہے “

مددوا: رحم یا ہمدردی. ایک حکمران کی صداقت کبھی کبھی مضبوطی کی ضرورت ہوتی ہے. لیکن یہ رحم اور ہمدردی کے ساتھ متوازن ہونا چاہئے. دوسرے الفاظ میں ایک حکمران نہیں ہونا چاہئے - سخت یا ظالمانہ.

تاپا: حدیثوں کی حدود اور عادات میں سادگی. جنسی خوشحالی میں زبردست غفلت، ایک مثالی بادشاہت نے اپنے پانچ سینوں کو کنٹرول کے تحت رکھتا ہے. کچھ حکمران اپنی پوزیشن، فلوٹ اخلاقی عمل کا استعمال کرتے ہوئے کر سکتے ہیں - یہ ایک اچھا بادشاہ بن نہیں رہا ہے.

اکھاڈو: غیر نفرت. حکمران کسی کے خلاف کوئی تعصب نہیں کرنا چاہئے. شکایتوں کو روکنے کے بغیر وہ غفلت اور محبت کے ساتھ عمل کرنا ضروری ہے.

Avihimsa: غیر تشدد. نہ صرف اس کو کسی کو نقصان پہنچانے سے انکار کرنا چاہیے بلکہ ضروری ہے جب وہ امن کو فروغ دینے اور جنگ کو روکنے کی کوشش کرنی چاہئے. اس سے زیادہ تر حد تک ممکن حد تک غیر تشدد کا ارتکاب کرنا ضروری ہے جب تک
کہ وہ کسی مثالی حکمران کی توقع کی مضبوطی سے مداخلت نہیں کرتا.

ختی: صبر اور رواداری. اس کے مزاج کو کھونے کے بغیر، حکمران کو مشکلات اور پریشان کرنے کے قابل ہونا چاہئے. کسی بھی موقع پر وہ اپنے جذبات کو دینے کے بغیر اپنے آپ کو کرنے کے قابل ہوسکتا ہے. وہ اسی روح میں اور مساوات کے ساتھ گلاب اور اینٹوں کے دونوں دونوں کو حاصل کرنے کے قابل ہونا چاہئے.

Avirodha: غیر مخالفت اور غیر دشمنی. حکمران لوگوں کی مرضی کی مخالفت نہیں کرنا چاہئے. اسے اپنے مضامین کے درمیان تعصب کی روح کو فروغ دینا چاہیے. دوسرے الفاظ میں وہ اپنے لوگوں کے ساتھ ہم آہنگی میں قائل کرنا چاہئے.

بادشاہ اججاسٹیو، مگداہ کا بادشاہ واججی علاقے پر حملہ کرنے کے لئے ان کی حاکمیت کے تحت لانا چاہتا تھا. انہوں نے وزراعلی ایک کے بارے میں مشورہ کے ساتھ اپنے وزیر اعلی واشکرہ کو بھیج کر اپنی ضروری ہدایات حاصل کرنے کی مشورہ طلب کی. بیداری کے مشورہ کے ساتھ بیداری ایک یہ تھا کہ لچیچس، واججی کے حکمرانوں
کو اس وقت تک تکلیف نہیں ملی جاسکتی جب تک کہ وہ سات ڈھالوں کو پورا نہ
کریں جسے شکست (سپاہی اپریانیاہ دھما)

(i) روزانہ انتظامیہ سے متعلق معاملات پر تبادلہ خیال کرنے کے لئے انہوں نے باقاعدگی سے اجلاس کیے.

(ii) انہوں نے ایک ٹیم کے طور پر ملاقات کی، کام کیا اور تقسیم کیا.

(iii) انہوں نے سختی سے ملک کے قانون کی پیروی کی.

(iv) وہ بزرگوں کے لئے مطمئن تھے.

(v) انہوں نے خواتین کی عزت کا احترام کیا اور خواتین کی ظلم کی مذمت کی.

(vi) انہوں نے مذہبی روایات کے مطابق اور ان کی حفاظت کی.

(vii) انہوں نے پادریوں کا احترام کیا اور انہیں انعقاد میں رکھا.

لچاوس کی بادشاہی وجیجی کی حیثیت سے مشہور تھی اور یہ حکمرانوں کی تعداد
میں شامل تھے. دارالحکومت ویسالی یا ویزا تھا. حکمرانوں میں اتحاد وجیجی
سلطنت کی اتحاد و استحکام کے پیچھے اہم قوت تھی.

حکمرانوں کے اتحاد اور رویے کے بارے میں، مبارک باد نے مزید کہا:

ایک اچھا حکمران غیر منصفانہ عمل کرنا چاہئے اور اس کے ساتھ کسی دوسرے کے
خلاف مضامین کے ایک مخصوص گروپ کے درمیان تعصب اور فرق نہیں ہونا چاہئے.

ایک اچھے حکمران کو اپنے مضامین کے خلاف نفرت کا کسی بھی شکل کو بند نہیں کرنا چاہئے.

اگر ایک مناسب حکمران قانون کے نفاذ میں کوئی بھی خوف نہیں دکھایا جائے تو، اگر یہ جائز ہے.

ایک اچھے حکمران کو نافذ کرنے کے لئے قانون کی واضح تفہیم ہونا ضروری ہے. یہ صرف نافذ نہیں ہونا چاہئے کیونکہ حکمران کو قانون نافذ کرنے کا اختیار ہے. یہ مناسب طریقے سے کیا جانا چاہئے اور عام احساس کے ساتھ، کواکاوٹی سیانانڈا سوٹ کہتے ہیں.

پانہا میں، یہ کہا جاتا ہے کہ: ‘اگر کوئی آدمی جو غیر منصفانہ، غیر مناسب،
غیر منصفانہ، غیر منصفانہ، بادشاہی کے قابل اور ناگزیر ہے، خود کو ایک
بادشاہ یا حکمران اعلی مقام پر لے لیا ہے، تو وہ تشدد کا سامنا کرنا پڑتا
کی طرف سے مختلف قسم کے عذاب کے تابع رہیں، کیونکہ ناجائز اور ناگزیر ہونے
کی وجہ سے، انہوں نے خود مختاری کی نشست میں اپنے آپ کو غیر منصفانہ طور
پر رکھا ہے.
دوسروں کی طرح جنہوں نے اخلاقی کوڈوں کی خلاف ورزی کرنے اور ان کی خلاف
ورزی کی اور انسانیت کے تمام سماجی قوانین کے بنیادی قوانین کو بھی مساوی
طور پر سزا دی ہے.
اور اس کے علاوہ، سنسر کرنے کے لئے حکمران ہے جو خود کو عوام کے غلاف کے طور پر چلاتا ہے.

اسوکو، اس اصول کی چمک مثال کے طور پر، ڈھما کے مطابق رہنا اور تبلیغ کرنے
اور اپنے مضامین اور تمام انسانیت کی خدمت کرنے کا حل کیا.
نے اپنے پڑوسیوں کے ساتھ اپنے غیر جارحانہ ارادے کا اعلان کیا، انہیں ان
کی نیکی سے نوازا اور دور دراز بادشاہوں کے سفیروں کو امن اور غیر جارحانہ
پیغام کے پیغام کو بھیجنے کا اعلان کیا.
نے ایمانداری، سچائی، رحم، عدم تشدد، غیر تشدد، تمام، غیر بہبود، غیر
جانبداری، غیر جانبداری، اور جانوروں کے لئے غیر چوٹ کی طرف سے مناسب رویہ
کی سماجی اخلاقی خصوصیات کی طاقتور عمل کو فروغ دیا.
انہوں نے مذہبی آزادی اور ایک دوسرے کی تخلیق کے لئے باہمی احترام کو فروغ دیا. وہ دورۂ و غریب دورے پر چلا گیا جہاں ڈھولوں نے دیہی لوگوں کو تبلیغ دی. انہوں
نے عوامی افادیت کے کاموں جیسے مردوں اور جانوروں کے لئے ہسپتالوں کی
بنیاد، دوا کی فراہمی، سڑک کے کنارے درختوں اور باغوں کی پودوں، کنواروں کی
کھدائی، اور پانی کے شیڈوں اور آرام کے گھروں کی تعمیر.
انہوں نے واضح طور پر جانوروں کو ظلم سے منع کیا.

کبھی کبھی بیداری سے بیداری ایک سیاسی - سماجی اصلاحات اور اقتصادی محاصرہ کہا جاتا ہے. دیگر
چیزوں کے علاوہ، ذات کے نظام کی مذمت کی، لوگوں کی مساوات کو تسلیم کیا،
سماجی و اقتصادی حالات کو بہتر بنانے کی ضرورت پر، امیر اور غریبوں کے
درمیان دولت کی منصفانہ تقسیم کی اہمیت کو تسلیم کیا، خواتین کی حیثیت کو
بڑھایا، سفارش کی.
اور انتظامیہ میں انسانیت کا شامل ہونا، اور یہ سکھایا کہ ایک معاشرہ لالچ
کے ذریعہ نہیں بلکہ لوگوں کے لئے توجہ اور رحم کے ساتھ چلایا جانا چاہئے.
سب کے باوجود، انسانیت کے بارے میں بیداری کی شراکت کے ساتھ بیداری ایک
بہت بڑا ہے کیونکہ برکت والا ایک ایسے موقع پر چلا گیا ہے جس سے پہلے کسی
دوسرے معاشرے میں اصلاحات نہیں کیا گیا ہے، یہ ہے کہ انسان کی بیماریوں کی
گہری جڑیں
انسانی دماغ میں.

تمام مخلوقات کو خوش اور خوش ہوں اور ابدی بلس کا پھل حتمی مقصد کے طور پر حاصل کریں.

Funny Beggar In Pakistan

66) Classical Marathi
66) शास्त्रीय मराठी
2629 बुध 23 मे पाठ

4 शब्दांत बुद्धांविषयी जागरुकतेने जागृत व्हा
सावध होऊ नका!

या भाषेचा वापर करुन आपल्या मातृभाषेत भाषांतर करा…/good-governance-th…/
सुशासन - जागरुकता मार्गाने जागृत व्हा

शिकवण जागृत करणारे एक श्रेष्ठ तत्त्वज्ञान आहे अष्टफूल पाथचे पालन करणे,
ज्यामुळे मुक्तीची पूर्तता होऊ शकते- अंतिम लक्ष्य म्हणून अनंत आनंद.
असा निष्कर्ष काढणे चुकीचे आहे की जागरुकता असलेले जागृत व्यक्ती केवळ अशा
उदात्त आलेले आदर्श आणि लोकशाहीच्या सामाजिक, आर्थिक आणि राजकीय
कल्याणासाठी दुर्लक्ष करणारा उच्च दार्शनिक विचार आहे.
जागृत करणे हा सर्व प्राण्यांवर दयाळूपणा आणि करुणेचा एक अद्भुत संग्रह
होता आणि केवळ मानवजातीलाच नव्हे तर अन्य सर्व प्राण्यांचे आनंद या विषयात
खूपच रस होता. नैतिक आणि आध्यात्मिक आधारावर शुद्ध जीवन न घेता आनंदी होणे
शक्य नव्हते.

स्पष्ट करते की गुन्हेगारी निर्मूलनासाठी लोकांच्या आर्थिक स्थिती सुधारणे आवश्यक आहे. नियोक्ता
आणि कर्मचारी यांच्यातील संबंध प्रामाणिकपणे पर्याप्त वेतन, भेटवस्तू आणि
प्रोत्साहन देऊन त्यांना सौहार्दा बनवायला पाहिजे.
राजे (सरकारे) या वस्तुस्थितीला गंभीर विचारात घेऊन लोक आनंदी आणि समाधानी ठेवतील, यामुळे देश शांत आणि गुन्हेगारी मुक्त होईल. जाणीवपूर्वक
जागृत करणारा केवळ अहिंसा आणि शांती यातून शिकवलेला नाही, ते कदाचित पहिले
आणि एकमात्र धार्मिक शिक्षक होते ज्यांनी युद्धाच्या प्रकोपापासून बचाव
करण्यासाठी स्वत: युद्धभूमीत गेला.
रोहिणीच्या पात्रावर युद्ध करणार्या शाक्य व कोलिया यांच्यातील बुद्धाचा विपरित तणाव धन्य
आशीर्वादाने राजा अजस्तुत्तु यांनाही विरोध केला. बुद्धाने एका चांगल्या
सरकारच्या महत्त्व आणि आवश्यक गोष्टींबद्दल चर्चा केली आणि हे दाखवून दिले
की भ्रष्ट, दुर्बल आणि दुर्दैवी कसे घडते, जेव्हा सरकारचे प्रमुख भ्रष्ट
आणि अन्यायकारक बनतात.
जागरुकतेने जागृत व्हा, भ्रष्टाचाराविरुद्ध आणि मानवीय तत्त्वांनुसार सरकारनं काय करायला हवं? जागरुकतेने जागृत व्हा, एकदा म्हटले होते, ‘जेव्हा देशाचा शासक योग्य आणि चांगला असतो, तेव्हा मंत्री चांगले व नीच बनतात; जेव्हा मंत्री चांगले आणि चांगले असतात तेव्हा उच्च अधिकारी सरळ आणि चांगले होतात. जेव्हा उच्च अधिकारी बरोबर आणि चांगल्या असतात, तेव्हा रँक आणि फाइल अगदी चांगल्या आणि चांगल्या होतात; जेव्हा
रँक आणि फाईल अगदीच चांगले आणि चांगले बनते तेव्हा लोक चांगले व नीच
बनतात. ‘(अंगुतारा निकिया) कक्कवट्टीसिहानंद सुत्तामध्ये, बुद्धांनी
सांगितले की अनैतिकता आणि गुन्हेगारी, जसे की चोरी, खोटेपणा, हिंसा, द्वेष,
क्रूरपणा, उद्भवू शकतात
गरिबीपासून राजे आणि सरकार शिक्षादंडाद्वारे गुन्हेगारी रोखण्याचा प्रयत्न करू शकतात, परंतु सक्तीने गुन्हेगारी निर्मूलन करणे व्यर्थ आहे. कुटदनंत सूतमध्ये, बुद्धाने अपराध कमी करण्यासाठी शक्तीऐवजी आर्थिक विकास सुचविला. देशाच्या आर्थिक परिस्थिती सुधारण्यासाठी सरकारने देशातील स्त्रोतांचा वापर करावा. तो
शेती आणि ग्रामीण विकासास सुरुवात करू शकेल, उद्योजक आणि व्यवसायासाठी
वित्तीय आधार प्रदान करेल, कामगारांना मानवी प्रतिष्ठेस सार्थक जीवन
जगण्यासाठी पुरेसे वेतन देईल. जागरुकता बाळगणार्या व्यक्तीला जागृत करून
शांतता आणि सौहार्दपूर्ण राखण्याची वारंवारता आवश्यक आहे.
विकासासाठी आणि त्याच्या सरकारचे प्रमुख भ्रष्ट आणि अन्यायकारक असताना एक
देश भ्रष्ट आणि दुःखी होऊ शकते कसे दर्शविले होते.
देशासाठी सुखी होण्यासाठी, त्यामध्ये एक चांगले आणि फक्त सरकार असणे आवश्यक आहे. फक्त सरकारचे हे कसे रूपांतर झाले आहे “10 रॉयल Virtues” नावाच्या त्याच्या शिफारसींमध्ये विस्तृत वर्णन केले आहे. (”दास-राजा धम्म”). हे दहा नियम देशावर शांततेत राज्य करण्याची इच्छा असलेल्या कोणत्याही
सरकारद्वारे आजही लागू करता येऊ शकतात. ‘दहा रॉयल गुणधर्म’ खालीलप्रमाणे

दाना: उदारता, औदार्य किंवा धर्मादाय गरजूंना दान देणं. आपल्या गरजू लोकांच्या कल्याणासाठी राजा (सरकार) चे कर्तव्य आहे. आदर्श राजाला वेदना आणि आत्मीयता न देता धन आणि संपत्ती सुज्ञपणे द्यावी. दुसऱ्या शब्दांत त्याने श्रीमंत होण्यासाठी आपल्या पदाचा वापर करू नये.

शिला: नैतिकता - एक उच्च नैतिक वर्ण त्याने
कमीतकमी पाच नियम पाळले पाहिजेत आणि स्वतःला खाजगी व सार्वजनिक जीवनात
आपल्या प्रजेला उज्ज्वल उदाहरण म्हणून वागणे आवश्यक आहे. हे गुणधर्म अतिशय
महत्वाचे आहेत, कारण, जर शासक त्याचे पालन करतो, कडकपणे, मग लाचखोरी व
भ्रष्टाचार करतो
, हिंसा आणि अनुशासनाने आपोआप देशात भ्रष्ट होणार आहे.

सांस्कृतिक पॅराकाकगा: लोकांच्या भल्यासाठी जर बलिदान केले तर - वैयक्तिक नाव आणि प्रसिद्धी; जरी जीवन आवश्यक असेल तर भेटवस्तू इत्यादिंद्वारे शासक या विषयावर अधिक कार्यक्षम व अधिक विश्वासू सेवेपर्यंत पोहोचवतात.

अजजाव: प्रामाणिकपणा आणि सचोटी. तो पूर्णपणे सरळ असावा आणि आपल्या संपत्ती साध्य करण्यासाठी कोणत्याही कुटिल किंवा संशयास्पद पद्धतींचा अवलंब न करु नये. त्याच्या कर्तव्यात पार पाडीत असताना त्याला भय किंवा अनुकंपा पासून मुक्त असावे बुध्द ‘सिगललोद सूत’ मधील एका श्लोकानुसार सांगतो जर एखाद्या व्यक्तीने
पक्षपाती, द्वेष, भीती किंवा अज्ञान यांच्या अधीन न राहता न्याय राखला तर
त्याची लोकप्रियता वाढत्या चंद्राप्रमाणे वाढते.

Maddava: दया किंवा सभ्यता शासकांचे सरळपणा कधीकधी खंबीरपणाची गरज पडते. परंतु हे दयाळूपणे आणि सौम्यतेने वागले पाहिजे. दुसर्या शब्दात सांगायचे तर शासक अनावश्यक किंवा क्रूर नसावा.

ताप: सवयींमधील भावनांना व तपस्याचे नियंत्रण संवेदनाहीनतेत आनंद उपभोगत असताना, एक आदर्श राजकुमार आपल्या पाच इंद्रियांवर नियंत्रण ठेवतो. काही राज्यकर्ते, त्यांच्या स्थितीचा वापर करून, नैतिक आचरणाचा फटका लावू शकतात - हे एक चांगले मोर्चेचे होत नाही

अक्ख: गैर-द्वेष. शासकला कोणाविषयीही राग नको. तक्रार निवारणासाठी त्याने सहनशीलता आणि प्रीतीसह कार्य केले पाहिजे.

अविहिमसा: अहिंसा कोणालाही त्रास देऊ नये एवढेच नव्हे तर आवश्यकतेनुसार युद्धाला हातभार लावण्याचा प्रयत्न करावा. अहिंसेची जास्तीत जास्त संभाव्य मर्यादेपर्यंत सराव करणे आवश्यक आहे कारण
तो आदर्श शासकांकडून अपेक्षित असलेल्या दृढतेमध्ये हस्तक्षेप करत नाही.

खंती: संयम व सहिष्णुता आपला राग न गमावता, शासक कठिण अपमान सहन करू शकेल. कुठल्याही प्रसंगी तो भावनांमध्ये न घेता स्वत: ची वर्तणूक करू शकेल. तो त्याच शुश्रुषात आणि शांतीपूर्वक दोन्ही पुष्पगुच्छ आणि ब्रिकेटस प्राप्त करण्यास सक्षम असावा.

अविरोध: गैर विरोधक आणि गैर-शत्रुत्व. शासकांनी लोकांच्या इच्छेला विरोध करू नये. त्याला आपल्या प्रजेतील सहानुभूतीची भावना विकसित करणे आवश्यक आहे. दुसऱ्या शब्दांत त्याने आपल्या लोकांशी सुसंगत राहावे.

मगधचा राजा, राजा अजातशत्तु आपल्या सार्वभौमत्वाच्या अधीन आणण्यासाठी वाजजाई प्रदेशावर आक्रमण करू इच्छित होता. त्यांनी जागरुक असलेल्या जागृत व्यक्तीची सल्ल्याची मागणी आपल्या मुख्यमंत्र्यांस पाठवून आवश्यक ती सूचना मिळविण्यासाठी केली. जाणीवपूर्वक जागृत करणारा जागृत करणारा असे होते की वाजपेयींचा पराभव
करणारे वाजलेले सात जणांना (सप्त अपरहानी धम्म) पराभूत करण्यासाठी
सातखमांचे पालन केले जात नाही तोपर्यंत लच्छवींना दडपला जाऊ शकले नाही.

(i) दैनंदिन प्रशासनाशी संबंधित विषयांवर चर्चा करण्यासाठी त्यांनी नियमित सभा घेतली.

(ii) ते भेटले, कार्य केले आणि एक संघ म्हणून उखडले

(iii) त्यांनी देशाच्या कायद्याचे कडकपणे पालन केले.

(iv) ते वडिलांच्या अधीन होते.

(v) त्यांनी स्त्रियांचा आदर केला आणि स्त्रियांच्या दडपशाहीची निंदा केली.

(vi) त्यांनी धार्मिक रीतिरिवाजांचे अनुकरण केले आणि त्यांना संरक्षित केले.

(vii) त्यांनी पाळकांचा आदर केला आणि त्यांना पूजेसाठी ठेवले.

लच्छवींच्या राज्याला वाजजी म्हणून ओळखले जात होते आणि त्यात शासकांची
संख्या होती. राजधानी ही वेसली किंवा विसाला होती. वाजवी साम्राज्याच्या
एकत्मता आणि अखंडतेच्या मागे सत्ता हा एक प्रमुख सत्ता होता.

शासकांच्या ऐक्य आणि वागणुकीबद्दल, आशीर्वादाने पुढे असे सुचवले:

- एका चांगल्या शासकाने निःपक्षपातीपणे वागणे आवश्यक आहे आणि त्याला
पक्षपाती नसावे आणि एका विशिष्ट विषयातील गटामध्ये दुसर्या विरूद्ध भेद
करणे गरजेचे आहे.

अशोक, या तत्त्वाचे एक आश्चर्यकारक उदाहरण, धर्माचे पालन व प्रचारासाठी
आणि आपल्या प्रजेची आणि सर्व मानवजातीची सेवा करण्याचा संकल्प केला.
आपल्या गैर-आक्रमक हेतू आपल्या शेजारींना घोषित केले आणि त्यांना
त्यांच्या सद्भावनाबद्दल आश्वस्त केले आणि शांततेत आणि अमानुषतेचा संदेश
घेऊन दूरच्या राजांना दूत पाठविला.
सच्चाई, करुणा, हितकरपणा, अहिंसा, सर्वांसाठी विचारशील वागणूक,
गैर-व्यर्थता, गैर निष्पावीता, आणि प्राण्यांना दुखापत झाल्याबद्दल
सामाजिक-नैतिक गुणांचे उत्साहपूर्ण सराव त्यांनी पुढे केले.
त्यांनी धार्मिक स्वातंत्र्य आणि एकमेकांच्या पंथांना आपापसांत आदर करण्यास प्रोत्साहन दिले. ग्रामीण लोकांपर्यंत धम्म चालवणारा नियोजित दौरा त्यांनी घेतला. त्यांनी
सार्वजनिक उपयोगिता, जसे की पुरुष आणि जनावरांसाठी दवाखाना उभारणे, औषध
पुरवठा करणे, रस्त्यालगतच्या झाडे लावण्यावर आणि ग्रोव्हस्, विहिरी खोदणे,
आणि पाणी शिर्डांचे बांधकाम आणि विश्राम गृह
त्यांनी प्राण्यांना क्रूरता करण्यास मनाई केली.

काहीवेळा जागरुकतेसह जागृत व्यक्तींना राजकीय-सामाजिक सुधारक आणि आर्थिक उत्थानक असे म्हटले जाते. इतर
गोष्टींबरोबरच, जात व्यवस्थेची दखल घेत, लोकांच्या समता ओळखली,
सामाजिक-आर्थिक परिस्थिती सुधारण्याच्या गरजेवर बोलले, श्रीमंत आणि गरीब
लोकांमधील संपत्तीचे न्याय्य वाटप करण्याच्या महत्त्व ओळखले, स्त्रियांचा
दर्जा वाढविला, शिफारस केली
आणि प्रशासनामध्ये मानवतेचा अंतर्भाव करणे, आणि असे शिकवले की समाजाला
लोभाने चालना नये, तर लोकांना विचार व करुणा वाटता कामा नये.
सर्व असूनही, मानवजातीला जागरूकतेने दिलेला योगदान खूपच जास्त आहे कारण
धन्य लोक एका क्षणी कामाला लागले ज्याने आधी किंवा पूर्वी कधीही केलेले
कोणतेही समाजसुधारक झाले नाही, म्हणजेच मानवी आजारांची सर्वात खोल मुळे
मानवी मनामध्ये

सर्व प्राणी सर्वत्र चांगले व आनंदी असतील आणि अंतिम लक्ष्य म्हणून चिरंतन आनंदाचे फळ प्राप्त होतील.

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10) Classical Bengali

10) ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা

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ভাল থাকুন সচেতন!

এই ম্যাগাজিন ব্যবহার করে আপনার গুগল অনুবাদটি সঠিক করুন…/good-governance-th…/
সুশাসন - সচেতনতার পথে এক জাগিয়ে তুলুন

সাথে জাগিয়ে তোলার উপদেশগুলি উত্তম দর্শনের উদ্দেশ্য হল অষ্টফোল্ড পাথের
অনুসরণ করা যা মুক্তিকে মুক্ত করার জন্য এগিয়ে আসে- শেষ গোল হিসেবে
আক্ষরিক আনন্দ।
এই সিদ্ধান্তে উপনীত হওয়া ভুল যে, সচেতনতার সাথে জাগরণ একমাত্র এই ধরনের
উজ্জ্বল আদর্শ এবং লোকেদের সামাজিক, অর্থনৈতিক ও রাজনৈতিক কল্যাণ উপেক্ষা
করে উচ্চতর দার্শনিক চিন্তাধারায় আগ্রহী।
সাথে জাগিয়ে তোলা একজন মানুষ সকল মানুষের প্রতি দয়া ও সহিষ্ণুতা এক
বিস্ময়কর সংগ্রহস্থল ছিল এবং মানবজাতির জন্য কিন্তু অন্যান্য সকল মানুষের
সুখের মধ্যেই এটি অত্যন্ত সুখের ছিল। নৈতিক ও আধ্যাত্মিক ভিত্তিক বিশুদ্ধ
জীবন ছাড়াও সুখ সম্ভব ছিল না

ব্যাখ্যা করে যে অপরাধ নির্মূল করার জন্য, জনগণের অর্থনৈতিক অবস্থার উন্নতি করা উচিত। নিয়োগকর্তা এবং কর্মচারীর মধ্যে সম্পর্ক প্রধানতঃ পর্যাপ্ত মজুরি, উপহার এবং প্রণোদনা প্রদানের মাধ্যমে আন্তরিকভাবে করা উচিত। রাজা
(সরকার) এই ঘটনাকে গুরুতর বিবেচনার মধ্যে নিয়ে যাওয়া উচিত এবং জনগণকে
সুখী ও সন্তুষ্ট রাখতে, যাতে করে দেশ শান্তিপূর্ণ ও অপরাধ মুক্ত হতে পারে।
সঙ্গে জাগরণ এক অহিংসা এবং শান্তি শেখান শুধুমাত্র না, তিনি সম্ভবত একটি
যুদ্ধ প্রাদুর্ভাব প্রতিরোধ করার জন্য ব্যক্তিগতভাবে যুদ্ধক্ষেত্র
গিয়েছিলাম যারা প্রথম এবং একমাত্র ধর্মীয় শিক্ষক ছিল।
রোহিণী জলের উপর যুদ্ধ চালিয়ে যাওয়ার জন্য যারা শক এবং কলিয়াসের মধ্যে বৌদ্ধ বিচ্ছিন্ন উত্তেজনা চাপিয়েছিলেন সুখী
এক রাজা অজসটাত্তুকে অসন্তুষ্ট করে। বুদ্ধ একটি ভাল সরকারের গুরুত্ব ও
প্রয়োজনীয়তা সম্পর্কে আলোচনা করেন এবং দেখান যে, সরকার প্রধান যখন
দুর্নীতিবাজ ও অপ্রীতিকর হয় তখন দেশের দুর্নীতিগ্রস্ত, দুর্বল এবং
অসন্তুষ্ট হতে পারে।
সচেতনতার সাথে একটিকে জাগিয়ে তুলুন দুর্নীতির বিরুদ্ধে এবং মানবতাবাদী নীতির উপর ভিত্তি করে সরকারকে কীভাবে কাজ করা উচিত। সচেতনতার সঙ্গে জাগরণ এক একবার বলেছিলেন, ‘যখন একজন দেশের শাসক ন্যায়পরায়ণ এবং ভাল, মন্ত্রী ঠিক এবং ভাল হয়ে যায়; যখন মন্ত্রীরা ন্যায়সঙ্গত এবং ভাল, উচ্চতর কর্মকর্তারা ঠিক ও ভাল হয়ে যায়; যখন উচ্চপদস্থ কর্মকর্তারা ঠিক এবং ভাল, র্যাঙ্ক এবং ফাইলটি ঠিক এবং ভাল হয়ে যায়; যখন
র্যাঙ্ক ও ফাইলটি ঠিক ও ভাল হয়ে যায়, তখন মানুষ ঠিক হয়ে যায়।
‘(অঞ্জুটার নিকায়া) কাকবতী সিনহানন্দ সুত্রায় বুদ্ধ বলেন যে চুরি,
মিথ্যা, সহিংসতা, ঘৃণা, নিষ্ঠুরতার মতো অনৈতিকতা ও অপরাধ সৃষ্টি হতে পারে
দারিদ্র্য থেকে রাজা এবং সরকার শাস্তি দ্বারা অপরাধকে দমন করার চেষ্টা করতে পারে, কিন্তু বল প্রয়োগের মাধ্যমে অপরাধ নির্মূল করা অসম্ভব। কুতাদান্ড সুত্রায়, বৌদ্ধ অপরাধকে কমিয়ে আনার পরিবর্তে অর্থনৈতিক উন্নয়নের প্রস্তাব দেন। দেশের অর্থনৈতিক অবস্থার উন্নয়নে সরকারকে দেশের সম্পদ ব্যবহার করতে হবে। এটি
কৃষি ও পল্লী উন্নয়নে কাজ করতে পারে, উদ্যোক্তাদের এবং ব্যবসার জন্য
আর্থিক সহায়তা প্রদান করে, শ্রমিকদের জন্য মানবিক মর্যাদা সহকারে একটি
ভালো জীবন বজায় রাখার জন্য পর্যাপ্ত মজুরি প্রদান করে। সচেতনতার সাথে এক
জাগিয়ে তোলার মাধ্যমে শান্তি ও সৌহার্দ্য রক্ষণাবেক্ষণের পক্ষে সর্বাত্মক
সমর্থন জানানো হয়, যা একেবারে অপরিহার্য ছিল
উন্নয়নের জন্য এবং দেখিয়েছে যে, তার সরকার যখন দুর্নীতিবাজ ও জঘন্য হয়ে
পড়ে তখন দেশ দুর্নীতিগ্রস্ত এবং অসন্তুষ্ট হয়ে উঠতে পারে।
একটি দেশের জন্য সুখী হতে, এটি একটি ভাল এবং শুধু সরকার থাকতে হবে। কীভাবে এই সরকার গঠন করা হয়েছে, তার সুপারিশে “দশটি রাজকীয় গুণাবলী” শিরোনামে বিস্তারিত বর্ণনা করা হয়েছে। (”দাস-রাজা ধম্ম”)। এই দশটি নিয়ম আজও যে কোন দেশের সরকার শান্তিপূর্ণভাবে দেশ শাসন করতে
চায় দ্বারা প্রয়োগ করা যেতে পারে। ‘দশটি রাজকীয় গুণাবলী’ নিম্নরূপ:

ডানা: উদারতা, উদারতা বা দাতব্য। দরিদ্রদের কাছে ভিক্ষা প্রদান এটি তার দরিদ্র প্রজাদের কল্যাণ সাধন করার জন্য রাজা (সরকার) এর দায়িত্ব। আদর্শ শাসককে তৃপ্তি এবং সংযুক্তি প্রদান না করেই সম্পদ ও সম্পত্তিকে বুদ্ধিমানতা প্রদান করা উচিত। অন্য কথায় তিনি সমৃদ্ধ তার অবস্থান ব্যবহার করার চেষ্টা করা উচিত নয়

Sila: নৈতিকতা - একটি উচ্চ নৈতিক চরিত্র তিনি
কমপক্ষে পাঁচটি প্রতারণা পালন করেন এবং নিজের প্রজাদের জন্য একটি উজ্জ্বল
দৃষ্টান্ত হতে ব্যক্তিগত ও প্রকাশ্য জীবনে উভয়টিই পালন করেন। এই গুণটি
খুবই গুরুত্বপূর্ণ কারণ, যদি শাসক তা মেনে চলে, কঠোরভাবে, তারপর ঘুষ এবং
, সহিংসতা এবং indiscipline শাখা স্বয়ংক্রিয়ভাবে দেশের মধ্যে wiped হবে।

Comfort Pariccaga: লোকেদের ভাল কাজের জন্য উত্সর্গীকৃত করা হলে - ব্যক্তিগত নাম এবং খ্যাতি; এমনকি জীবন প্রয়োজন হলে উপহার ইত্যাদির মাধ্যমে শাসক আরও দক্ষ এবং আরো অনুগত সেবা পেতে প্রজাদের ছড়িয়ে দেয়।

আজজওয়া: সততা ও সততা তিনি একেবারে সহজবোধ্য হতে হবে এবং তার শেষগুলি অর্জন করার জন্য কোন বদ্ধ বা সন্দিহান উপায়ে সমর্পণ করবেন না। তার কর্তব্য পালনের মধ্যে তাকে ভয় বা অনুগ্রহ থেকে মুক্ত হতে হবে। বুদ্ধ ‘সিগালোভাদা সুত’তে একটি শ্লোকের মধ্যে বলেন,’ যদি একজন ব্যক্তি
পক্ষপাতিত্ব, ঘৃণা, ভয় বা অজ্ঞতা না থাকা সত্বেও ন্যায়বিচার বজায় রাখে,
তার জনপ্রিয়তা বেড়ে ওঠা চাঁদের মতো ‘

Maddava: দয়া বা সৌজন্যতা একটি শাসক এর ন্যায়পরায়ণতা দৃঢ়তা প্রয়োজন হতে পারে। কিন্তু এই দয়া এবং নম্রতা সঙ্গে পোষাক করা উচিত। অন্য কথায় একটি শাসক বেশী হবে না - কঠোর বা নিষ্ঠুর।

Tapa: অভ্যাস মধ্যে ইন্দ্রিয় এবং কঠোরতা সীমাবদ্ধতা বুদ্ধিমান আনন্দে অহংকার দেখানো, একটি আদর্শ সম্রাট তার পাঁচটি ইন্দ্রিয় নিয়ন্ত্রণে রাখেন। কিছু শাসক, তাদের অবস্থান ব্যবহার করে, নৈতিক আচরণকে ফাঁদে ফেলতে পারে - এটি একটি ভালো রাজাদের হয়ে উঠছে না।

অকোদ্ধা: অ-ঘৃণা শাসককে কারো বিরুদ্ধে কোন তিক্ততা দেখা উচিত নয়। সহিংসতার আশংকা ছাড়া তিনি ধৈর্য এবং প্রেম সঙ্গে কাজ করতে হবে।

অভিহমঃ অহিংসা তিনি
শুধুমাত্র কাউকে ক্ষতিগ্রস্ত থেকে বিরত না হওয়া উচিত কিন্তু প্রয়োজনে
শান্তি বজায় রাখার এবং যুদ্ধকে রোধ করার চেষ্টা করা উচিত।
তিনি সর্বোচ্চ সম্ভাব্য পরিমাণে অহিংসা অনুশীলন করতে হবে যতদিন এটি একটি আদর্শ শাসকের প্রত্যাশিত দৃঢ়তার সাথে হস্তক্ষেপ করবে না।

খন্তি: ধৈর্য এবং সহনশীলতা তার গুনাহ ক্ষয় ছাড়াই, শাসক কঠোরতা এবং অপমান সহ্য করতে সক্ষম হওয়া উচিত। কোনও সময়ে তিনি আবেগ অনুভূতি ছাড়াই নিজেকে পরিচালনা করতে সক্ষম হবেন। তিনি একই আত্মা এবং সমতাবিজ্ঞান সহ উভয় bouquets এবং brickbats প্রাপ্ত করতে সক্ষম হওয়া উচিত।

অরিধঃ অ-বিরোধিতা ও অনাক্রম্যতা। শাসক জনগণের ইচ্ছার বিরোধিতা করবেন না। তিনি তাঁর প্রজাদের মধ্যে মিলনের আত্মা গড়ে তুলতে হবে। অন্য কথায় তিনি তাঁর লোকদের সাথে মিল রেখে শাসন করতে হবে।

মগধের রাজা রাজা অজসাত্ত্তু, তাঁর সার্বভৌমত্বের অধীনস্থ করার জন্য বাজাজি অঞ্চল আক্রমণ করিতে চেয়েছিলেন। তিনি প্রয়োজনীয় নির্দেশনা পেতে, তাঁর মুখ্যমন্ত্রী ভাসাকারা পাঠিয়ে সচেতনতার সঙ্গে জাগরণ একের পরামর্শ চাওয়া। সচেতনতা এর উপদেশ সঙ্গে জাগরণ এক ছিল যে Lakhchavis, Vajji শাসকদের
suppressed এবং পরাজিত না করা পর্যন্ত তারা সাত Dhhammas যা পরাজিত (Sapta
aparihaniya ধম্ম)

(i) তারা প্রতিদিনের প্রশাসনের সাথে সম্পর্কিত বিষয়গুলি নিয়ে আলোচনা করার জন্য নিয়মিত মিটিং করত।

(ii) তারা পূরণ, কাজ এবং একটি দল হিসাবে ছড়িয়ে।

(iii) তারা কঠোরভাবে দেশের আইন অনুসরণ করে।

(iv) তারা প্রাচীনদের কাছে বিনীত ছিল।

(5) তারা নারী-সম্প্রদায়ের প্রতি শ্রদ্ধাশীল এবং মহিলাদের নিপীড়ন নিন্দা করে।

(vi) তারা ধর্মীয় রীতিনীতি অনুসরণ করেছিল এবং তাদের রক্ষা করেছিল।

(vii) তারা পাদরীবাদের প্রতি শ্রদ্ধাশীল ছিলেন এবং তাদের পূজা করতেন।

লঞ্চভাষের রাজত্ব বাজী নামে পরিচিত ছিল এবং এটি শাসকদের সংখ্যাভুক্ত ছিল।
রাজধানী ছিল ভেসালী বা ভিসালা। শাসকদের মধ্যে ঐক্যটি ছিল বজাজি রাজ্যের
একতা ও সততার পিছনে প্রধান শক্তি।

একতা এবং শাসকদের আচরণ, ধন্য এক আরো পরামর্শ:

- একটি ভাল শাসক পক্ষপাতহীনভাবে কাজ করা উচিত এবং পক্ষপাতিত্ব করা উচিত
নয় এবং অন্যের বিরুদ্ধে একটি বিশেষ দলের বিষয়গুলির মধ্যে বৈষম্য করা

- একজন ভাল শাসক তার কোনও প্রজাদের বিরুদ্ধে কোনও ঘৃণা বা প্রতিবাদ করতে পারবে না।

- আইনের শাসন প্রয়োগে একজন ভাল শাসককে কোন ভয় দেখাতে হবে না, যদি এটি ন্যায়সঙ্গত হয়।

- একটি ভাল শাসককে অবশ্যই আইনটি পরিষ্কার করতে হবে যাতে এটি কার্যকর করা যায়। এটি প্রয়োগ করা উচিত না কারণ শাসক আইন প্রয়োগ করার ক্ষমতা আছে। এটি একটি যুক্তিসঙ্গতভাবে এবং সাধারণ জ্ঞান সঙ্গে করা আবশ্যক, বলেন, Ckkavatti Sihananda Sutta বলেন।

পান্হায় এটি বলা হয়েছে: ‘যদি একজন মানুষ, যিনি অযোগ্য, অযোগ্য, অনৈতিক,
অনুপযুক্ত, রাজত্বের অযোগ্য এবং অযোগ্য, নিজেকে মহান রাজা কর্তৃক শাসন করেন
বা শাসক হিসেবে গণ্য করেন, তবে তিনি নির্যাতনের শিকার হন।
মানুষের দ্বারা বিভিন্ন শাস্তি সাপেক্ষে, কারণ, অযোগ্য এবং অপ্রতুল, তিনি সার্বক্ষণীয়তার আসনে নিজেকে নির্বিচারে স্থাপন করেছেন। শাসক, অন্যদের মত যারা নৈতিক কোড এবং মানবজাতির সমস্ত সামাজিক আইন মৌলিক নিয়ম লঙ্ঘন এবং সীমাহীন, একইভাবে শাস্তি সাপেক্ষে; এবং এছাড়াও, নিন্দিত করা হয় শাসক যিনি জনসাধারণের একটি ডাকাত হিসাবে নিজেকে সঞ্চালিত হয়

অশোক, এই নীতির একটি চমকপ্রদ উদাহরণ, ধম্ম অনুযায়ী প্রচার ও প্রচার এবং
তাঁর প্রজাদের এবং সমস্ত মানবতার সেবা করার জন্য সংকল্পবদ্ধ।
তার প্রতিবেশীদের কাছে তার অ আক্রমণাত্মক অভিপ্রায় ঘোষণা করেন, তাদের
শুভেচ্ছা তাদের আশ্বাস এবং শান্তি ও অ আক্রমণের বার্তা সহকারে দূরবর্তী
রাজাদের দূত পাঠান।
সততা, সততা, করুণাময়, অনুরাগী, অহিংস, সকলের প্রতি সহানুভূতিশীল আচরণ,
অক্লান্ততা, অকণ্ঠা, এবং পশুদের জন্য অ-আঘাতজনিত সামাজিক-নৈতিক গুণাবলীর
উচ্ছৃঙ্খল অভ্যাসকে উন্নীত করেন।
তিনি ধর্মীয় স্বাধীনতা এবং একে অপরের ধর্মের প্রতি পারস্পরিক সম্মান উত্সাহিত করেছিলেন। তিনি ধম্মকে গ্রামাঞ্চলে প্রচারের সময় পর্যায়ক্রমে ভ্রমণ করেন। তিনি
জনসাধারণের ব্যবহার, যেমন পুরুষদের এবং পশুর জন্য হাসপাতাল প্রতিষ্ঠা,
রাস্তাঘাটের গাছপালা এবং শস্যক্ষেত্রের গাছপালা, কুণ্ডলী খনন, এবং পানি শাথ
এবং বিশ্রাম ঘর নির্মাণের কাজগুলি পরিচালনা করেন।
তিনি স্পষ্টভাবে পশুদের নিষ্ঠুরতা নিষিদ্ধ করেছেন।

কখনও কখনও সচেতনতার সাথে জাগিয়ে তোলা একজন রাজনীতিবিদ-সামাজিক সংস্কারক এবং অর্থনৈতিক ইমামতিক বলে মনে করা হয়। অন্যান্য
বিষয়গুলির মধ্যে, সম্প্রদায়ের সমতা স্বীকৃত, জাতি-রাষ্ট্রীয় অবস্থার
উন্নতির কথা বলে, ধনী ও দরিদ্রদের মধ্যে সম্পদ সমানভাবে সমানভাবে ভাগ করে
নেওয়া, নারীর অবস্থা উত্থাপিত করা, জাগতিক পদ্ধতিতে নিন্দা করা,
সরকার ও প্রশাসনে মানবতা প্রতিষ্ঠা, এবং শেখানো যে একটি সমাজ লোভ দ্বারা চালানো উচিত নয় কিন্তু মানুষের জন্য বিবেচনা এবং সমবেদনা এই
সব সত্ত্বেও, মানবজাতির সচেতনতার অবদান একের সাথে জাগিয়ে তুলুন, যেহেতু
আশীর্বাদপ্রাপ্ত ব্যক্তি এমন একটি সময়ে এসেছেন যে কোনও সমাজ সংস্কারক আগে
বা কখনো কখনো তা করা হয়েছে, অর্থাৎ, মানুষের অসুস্থদের গভীরতম শিকড়ে যা
যা পাওয়া যায়
মানুষের মনের মধ্যে

সব প্রাণীই সুখী এবং সুখী এবং চূড়ান্ত লক্ষ্য হিসাবে আধ্যাত্মিক সুখের ফল অর্জন করে।

- एक चांगला शासक आपल्या कोणत्याही विषयावर कोणत्याही प्रकारचा द्वेष करू नये.

- योग्य शासकाने कायद्याच्या अंमलबजावणीत काहीही भिती दाखवू नये, जर हे न्याय्य असेल तर.

- एक चांगला शासक जबरदस्तीने कायद्याची स्पष्ट समज असणे आवश्यक आहे. शासनात कायद्याची अंमलबजावणी करण्याचा अधिकार आहे म्हणून त्याला अंमलात आणू नये. कक्कवती सिहान्दान सुत्ता म्हणते, हे उचित रीतीने आणि सामान्य ज्ञानाने केले पाहिजे.

पन्हामध्ये असे म्हटले आहे: ‘जर अयोग्य, अनैतिक, अनैतिक, अनुचित, अक्षम्य
आणि राज्यशास्त्राचे अपात्र असणारा पुरुष, स्वतःला राजा किंवा श्रेष्ठ
अधिकाराने राज्य करणार आहे तर त्याला छळ करता येईल.
विविध शिक्षा ठोठावण्यात आल्या कारण, अयोग्य आणि अपात्र असण्याने, त्यांनी
स्वत: ला सार्वभौमत्वाच्या आसनावर अखंडपणे ठेवले आहे.
नैतिकतेचा भंग करणारे व मानवतांच्या सर्व सामाजिक नियमांचे मूलभूत
नियमांचे उल्लंघन करणार्यांप्रमाणेच शिक्षा म्हणून समान आहे;
आणि ज्यामुळे, तो खोटा समजला जातो जो स्वतःला सार्वजनिकरित्या लुटारू म्हणून चालवितो.

Buda em gesso com detalhes em dourado e vermelho! Excelente opção de decoração Altura: 26cm
75) Classical Punjabi

75) ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ

2629 ਬੁੱਧਵਾਰ 23 ਮਈ ਪਾਠ

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ਚੰਗੇ ਪ੍ਰਸ਼ਾਸਨ- ਜਾਗਰੂਕਤਾ ਨਾਲ ਇੱਕ ਨੂੰ ਜਾਗਰੂਕ ਕਰੋ

ਬਣੋ! ਦੇ ਉਪਦੇਸ਼ ਇਕ ਮਹਾਨ ਫ਼ਲਸਫ਼ਾ ਹੈ ਅਠ ਫੋਲਡ ਪਾਥ ਦੀ ਪਾਲਣਾ ਕਰਨਾ ਜਿਸ ਨਾਲ
ਮੁਕਤ ਮੁਕਤੀ ਨੂੰ ਪ੍ਰਾਪਤ ਹੁੰਦਾ ਹੈ- ਅਨਾਦਿ ਅਨੰਦ ਆਖਰੀ ਟੀਚਾ ਵਜੋਂ.
ਇਹ ਸਿੱਟਾ ਕੱਢਣਾ ਗ਼ਲਤ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਲੋਕਾਂ ਦੇ ਸਮਾਜਕ, ਆਰਥਿਕ ਅਤੇ ਰਾਜਨੀਤਿਕ ਕਲਿਆਣ ਦੀ
ਅਣਦੇਖੀ ਕਰਨ ਵਾਲੇ ਅਜਿਹੇ ਉੱਚੇ ਆਦਰਸ਼ ਵਿਚਾਰਾਂ ਅਤੇ ਉੱਚ ਦਾਰਸ਼ਨਿਕ ਵਿਚਾਰਾਂ ਵਿਚ
ਜਾਗਰੂਕਤਾ ਨਾਲ ਜਾਗਰੂਕਤਾ ਕੇਵਲ ਦਿਲਚਸਪੀ ਹੈ.
ਵਾਲਾ ਇਕ ਜਾਗਰੂਕਤਾ ਸਾਰੇ ਜੀਵਾਂ ਪ੍ਰਤੀ ਦਿਆਲਤਾ ਅਤੇ ਹਮਦਰਦੀ ਦਾ ਇਕ ਸ਼ਾਨਦਾਰ ਭੰਡਾਰ
ਸੀ ਅਤੇ ਨਾ ਸਿਰਫ ਮਨੁੱਖਤਾ ਦੀ ਖੁਸ਼ੀ ਵਿਚ ਅਤੇ ਹੋਰ ਸਾਰੇ ਜੀਵਾਂ ਦੀ ਖੁਸ਼ੀ ਵਿਚ
ਬਹੁਤ ਦਿਲਚਸਪੀ ਸੀ. ਨੈਤਿਕ ਅਤੇ ਅਧਿਆਤਮਿਕ ਤੇ ਨਿਰਭਰ ਕਰਦੇ ਹੋਏ ਸ਼ੁੱਧ ਜੀਵਨ ਦੀ
ਅਗਵਾਈ ਕੀਤੇ ਬਿਨਾਂ ਖੁਸ਼ ਹੋਣਾ ਸੰਭਵ ਨਹੀਂ ਸੀ

ਦੱਸਦਾ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਅਪਰਾਧ ਖ਼ਤਮ ਕਰਨ ਲਈ, ਲੋਕਾਂ ਦੀ ਆਰਥਿਕ ਹਾਲਤ ਸੁਧਾਰਨ ਦੀ ਲੋੜ ਹੈ. ਰੁਜ਼ਗਾਰਦਾਤਾ
ਅਤੇ ਕਰਮਚਾਰੀ ਦੇ ਵਿਚਕਾਰ ਸਬੰਧਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਮੁੱਖ ਤੌਰ ‘ਤੇ ਢੁਕਵੇਂ ਮਜ਼ਦੂਰਾਂ, ਤੋਹਫ਼ੇ
ਅਤੇ ਪ੍ਰੋਤਸਾਹਨ ਦੇ ਭੁਗਤਾਨ ਦੇ ਰਾਹੀਂ ਸੁਚਾਰੂ ਬਣਾਇਆ ਜਾਣਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ.
(ਸਰਕਾਰਾਂ) ਨੂੰ ਇਸ ਤੱਥ ਨੂੰ ਗੰਭੀਰਤਾ ਨਾਲ ਲੈਣਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਲੋਕਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਖੁਸ਼
ਅਤੇ ਸੰਤੁਸ਼ਟ ਰੱਖਣਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ, ਇਸ ਲਈ ਸਿੱਟੇ ਵਜੋਂ ਦੇਸ਼ ਸ਼ਾਂਤੀਪੂਰਨ ਅਤੇ ਅਪਰਾਧ
ਮੁਕਤ ਰਹੇਗਾ.
ਨਾਲ ਜਾਗਰੂਕ ਵਿਅਕਤੀ ਨਾ ਸਿਰਫ ਅਹਿੰਸਾ ਅਤੇ ਸ਼ਾਂਤੀ ਸਿਖਾਉਂਦਾ ਸੀ, ਉਹ ਸ਼ਾਇਦ ਪਹਿਲਾ
ਅਤੇ ਇਕੋ ਇਕ ਧਾਰਮਿਕ ਅਧਿਆਪਕ ਸੀ ਜੋ ਕਿਸੇ ਯੁੱਧ ਦੇ ਫੈਲਣ ਤੋਂ ਬਚਣ ਲਈ ਨਿੱਜੀ ਤੌਰ
‘ਤੇ ਜੰਗ ਲਈ ਗਿਆ ਸੀ.
ਸੱਤਾਯ ਅਤੇ ਕੋਲਯਿਆਂ ਵਿਚਕਾਰ ਬੁੱਢੇ ਫੈਲਣ ਵਾਲੇ ਤਣਾਅ ਜੋ ਰੋਹਿਣੀ ਦੇ ਪਾਣੀ ਉੱਤੇ ਜੰਗ ਲੜ ਰਹੇ ਸਨ. ਬਹਾਦੁਰ
ਨੇ ਰਾਜੇ ਅਜਾਸਾਸਟੂ ਨੂੰ ਵੀ ਖਾਰਜ ਕਰ ਦਿੱਤਾ. ਬੁੱਢੇ ਨੇ ਇਕ ਚੰਗੀ ਸਰਕਾਰ ਦੇ ਮਹੱਤਵ
ਅਤੇ ਪੂਰਤੀ ਦੀਆਂ ਲੋੜਾਂ ਬਾਰੇ ਚਰਚਾ ਕੀਤੀ ਅਤੇ ਇਹ ਦਰਸਾਇਆ ਕਿ ਕਿਵੇਂ ਸਰਕਾਰ
ਭ੍ਰਿਸ਼ਟ, ਪਤਿਤ ਅਤੇ ਨਾਖੁਸ਼ ਹੋ ਸਕਦੀ ਹੈ ਜਦੋਂ ਸਰਕਾਰ ਦਾ ਮੁਖੀ ਭ੍ਰਿਸ਼ਟ ਅਤੇ
ਬੇਈਮਾਨ ਬਣ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ.
ਜਾਗਰੂਕਤਾ ਨਾਲ ਇੱਕ ਨੂੰ ਜਾਗਰੂਕ ਕਰੋ ਭ੍ਰਿਸ਼ਟਾਚਾਰ ਵਿਰੁੱਧ ਅਤੇ ਮਨੁੱਖਤਾਵਾਦੀ ਸਿਧਾਂਤਾਂ ਦੇ ਆਧਾਰ ਤੇ ਇੱਕ ਸਰਕਾਰ ਨੂੰ ਕਿਵੇਂ ਕੰਮ ਕਰਨਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ? ਜਾਗਰੂਕ ਵਿਅਕਤੀ ਨਾਲ ਜਾਗਰੂਕਤਾ ਇਕ ਵਾਰੀ ਕਹਿ ਚੁੱਕੀ ਸੀ, ‘ਜਦੋਂ ਦੇਸ਼ ਦਾ ਸ਼ਾਸਕ ਸਹੀ ਅਤੇ ਚੰਗਾ ਹੁੰਦਾ ਹੈ, ਤਾਂ ਮੰਤਰੀ ਚੰਗੇ ਅਤੇ ਚੰਗੇ ਹੁੰਦੇ ਹਨ; ਜਦੋਂ ਮੰਤਰੀ ਚੰਗੇ ਅਤੇ ਚੰਗੇ ਹੁੰਦੇ ਹਨ, ਉੱਚ ਅਧਿਕਾਰੀ ਬਣਦੇ ਹਨ ਅਤੇ ਚੰਗੇ ਹੁੰਦੇ ਹਨ; ਜਦੋਂ ਉੱਚ ਅਧਿਕਾਰੀ ਕੇਵਲ ਅਤੇ ਚੰਗੇ ਹੁੰਦੇ ਹਨ, ਰੈਂਕ ਅਤੇ ਫਾਈਲ ਸਹੀ ਅਤੇ ਚੰਗੇ ਬਣ ਜਾਂਦੀ ਹੈ; ਜਦੋਂ
ਦਰਜੇ ਅਤੇ ਫ਼ੈਸਲੇ ਸਹੀ ਅਤੇ ਚੰਗੇ ਬਣ ਜਾਂਦੇ ਹਨ, ਲੋਕ ਬੜੇ ਚੰਗੇ ਅਤੇ ਚੰਗੇ ਬਣ
ਜਾਂਦੇ ਹਨ. “(ਅੰਗਤੂਰਾ ਨਿਕਿਆ) ਚੱਕਵਾਵਤੀ ਸਿਹਿਨੰਦ ਸੁਤ ਵਿੱਚ, ਬੁਧ ਨੇ ਕਿਹਾ ਸੀ ਕਿ
ਅਨੈਤਿਕਤਾ ਅਤੇ ਅਪਰਾਧ, ਜਿਵੇਂ ਕਿ ਚੋਰੀ, ਝੂਠ, ਹਿੰਸਾ, ਨਫ਼ਰਤ, ਬੇਰਹਿਮੀ, ਪੈਦਾ ਹੋ
ਸਕਦਾ ਹੈ
ਗਰੀਬੀ ਤੋਂ. ਰਾਜਿਆਂ ਅਤੇ ਸਰਕਾਰਾਂ ਸਜ਼ਾ ਦੁਆਰਾ ਅਪਰਾਧ ਨੂੰ ਰੋਕਣ ਦੀ ਕੋਸ਼ਿਸ਼ ਕਰ ਸਕਦੀਆਂ ਹਨ, ਪਰ ਤਾਕਤ ਦੁਆਰਾ ਜੁਰਮ ਨੂੰ ਖ਼ਤਮ ਕਰਨ ਲਈ ਇਹ ਵਿਅਰਥ ਹੈ. ਕੁਟਦੰਟਾ ਸੁਤਾ ਵਿਚ, ਬੁੱਧ ਨੇ ਅਪਰਾਧ ਨੂੰ ਘਟਾਉਣ ਲਈ ਤਾਕਤ ਦੀ ਬਜਾਏ ਆਰਥਿਕ ਵਿਕਾਸ ਦਾ ਸੁਝਾਅ ਦਿੱਤਾ. ਸਰਕਾਰ ਨੂੰ ਦੇਸ਼ ਦੇ ਆਰਥਿਕ ਹਾਲਾਤ ਨੂੰ ਸੁਧਾਰਨ ਲਈ ਦੇਸ਼ ਦੇ ਸਰੋਤਾਂ ਦੀ ਵਰਤੋਂ ਕਰਨੀ ਚਾਹੀਦੀ ਹੈ. ਇਹ
ਖੇਤੀਬਾੜੀ ਅਤੇ ਪੇਂਡੂ ਵਿਕਾਸ ‘ਤੇ ਕੰਮ ਸ਼ੁਰੂ ਕਰ ਸਕਦਾ ਹੈ, ਉਦਮੀ ਅਤੇ ਵਪਾਰ ਲਈ
ਵਿੱਤੀ ਸਹਾਇਤਾ ਪ੍ਰਦਾਨ ਕਰ ਸਕਦਾ ਹੈ, ਕਰਮਚਾਰੀਆਂ ਲਈ ਮਨੁੱਖੀ ਮਾਣ ਦੇ ਨਾਲ ਇਕ ਵਧੀਆ
ਜ਼ਿੰਦਗੀ ਨੂੰ ਕਾਇਮ ਰੱਖਣ ਲਈ ਢੁਕਵੀਂ ਤਨਖਾਹ ਮੁਹੱਈਆ ਕਰ ਸਕਦਾ ਹੈ. ਜਾਗਰੂਕਤਾ ਨਾਲ
ਇੱਕ ਨੂੰ ਜਾਗਰੂਕ ਕਰਨ ਨਾਲ ਵੀ ਸ਼ਾਂਤੀ ਅਤੇ ਸਦਭਾਵਨਾ ਦੇ ਰੱਖ-ਰਖਾਓ ਦੀ ਵਕਾਲਤ ਕੀਤੀ
ਗਈ, ਜੋ ਬਿਲਕੁਲ ਜ਼ਰੂਰੀ ਸੀ
ਵਿਕਾਸ ਲਈ ਅਤੇ ਦਿਖਾਇਆ ਗਿਆ ਸੀ ਕਿ ਕਿਵੇਂ ਇਕ ਦੇਸ਼ ਭ੍ਰਿਸ਼ਟ ਤੇ ਨਾਖੁਸ਼ ਹੋ ਸਕਦਾ
ਹੈ ਜਦੋਂ ਉਸ ਦੀ ਸਰਕਾਰ ਦੇ ਮੁਖੀ ਭ੍ਰਿਸ਼ਟ ਅਤੇ ਬੇਈਮਾਨ ਬਣ ਜਾਂਦੇ ਹਨ.
ਇੱਕ ਦੇਸ਼ ਖੁਸ਼ ਰਹਿਣ ਲਈ, ਇਸ ਵਿੱਚ ਇੱਕ ਚੰਗਾ ਅਤੇ ਨਿਰਪੱਖ ਸਰਕਾਰ ਹੋਣਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ. ਕੇਵਲ ਸਰਕਾਰ ਦਾ ਇਹ ਰੂਪ ਕਿਵੇਂ ਉੱਭਰਿਆ ਹੈ, ਉਸਦੇ ਵੇਰਵੇ “ਵੇਰਵੇ ਵਿੱਚ ਦਸ ਰਾਇਲ ਗੁਣ” ਵਿੱਚ ਦਿੱਤੇ ਗਏ ਹਨ. (”ਦਾਸ-ਰਾਜਾ ਧਾਮਾ”) ਇਹ ਦਸ ਨਿਯਮ ਅੱਜ ਵੀ ਕਿਸੇ ਵੀ ਸਰਕਾਰ ਦੁਆਰਾ ਲਾਗੂ ਕੀਤੇ ਜਾ ਸਕਦੇ ਹਨ ਜੋ ਦੇਸ਼ ਨੂੰ
ਸ਼ਾਂਤੀਪੂਰਵਕ ਰਾਜ ਕਰਨ ਦੀ ਇੱਛਾ ਰੱਖਦੇ ਹਨ. ‘ਟੇਨ ਰਾਇਲ ਗੁਣ’ ਇਸ ਪ੍ਰਕਾਰ ਹਨ:

ਦਾਾਨਾ: ਖੁੱਲ੍ਹ-ਦਿਲੀ, ਉਦਾਰਤਾ ਜਾਂ ਦਾਨ ਲੋੜਵੰਦਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਦਾਨ ਦੇਣ ਤੋਂ. ਇਹ ਰਾਜਾ (ਸਰਕਾਰ) ਦਾ ਫਰਜ਼ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਉਹ ਆਪਣੇ ਲੋੜਵੰਦ ਲੋਕਾਂ ਦੇ ਕਲਿਆਣ ਦੀ ਦੇਖਭਾਲ ਕਰੇ. ਆਦਰਸ਼ ਸ਼ਾਸਕ ਨੂੰ ਲਾਲਚ ਅਤੇ ਨੱਥੀ ਕਰਨ ਤੋਂ ਬਿਨਾਂ ਅਮੀਰ ਅਤੇ ਦੌਲਤ ਨੂੰ ਦੂਰ ਕਰਨਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ. ਦੂਜੇ ਸ਼ਬਦਾਂ ਵਿਚ ਉਸ ਨੂੰ ਅਮੀਰ ਬਣਨ ਦੀ ਕੋਸ਼ਿਸ਼ ਨਹੀਂ ਕਰਨੀ ਚਾਹੀਦੀ.

ਸੀਲਾ: ਨੈਤਿਕਤਾ - ਇੱਕ ਉੱਚ ਨੈਤਿਕ ਪਾਤਰ ਉਸ
ਨੂੰ ਘੱਟੋ ਘੱਟ ਪੰਜ ਵਿਧਾਨਾਂ ਦਾ ਨਿਰੀਖਣ ਕਰਨਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਆਪਣੀਆਂ ਨਿੱਜੀ ਅਤੇ
ਜਨਤਕ ਜੀਵਨ ਵਿੱਚ ਆਪਣੇ ਆਪ ਨੂੰ ਉਸ ਦੇ ਲੋਕਾਂ ਲਈ ਇੱਕ ਸ਼ਾਨਦਾਰ ਉਦਾਹਰਨ ਵਜੋਂ ਪੇਸ਼
ਕਰਨਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ. ਇਹ ਗੁਣ ਬਹੁਤ ਮਹੱਤਵਪੂਰਨ ਹੈ, ਕਿਉਂਕਿ, ਜੇਕਰ ਸ਼ਾਸਕ ਇਸ ਦੀ ਪਾਲਣਾ
ਕਰਦਾ ਹੈ, ਸਖ਼ਤੀ ਨਾਲ, ਤਦ ਰਿਸ਼ਵਤਖੋਰੀ ਅਤੇ ਭ੍ਰਿਸ਼ਟਾਚਾਰ
, ਦੇਸ਼ ਵਿੱਚ ਹਿੰਸਾ ਅਤੇ ਅਨੁਸ਼ਾਸਨਹੀਨਤਾ ਆਪਣੇ-ਆਪ ਖ਼ਤਮ ਹੋ ਜਾਵੇਗੀ.

Comfort Pariccaga: ਕੁਰਬਾਨੀਆਂ ਕਰਨਾ ਜੇ ਉਹ ਲੋਕਾਂ ਦੇ ਭਲੇ ਲਈ ਹਨ - ਨਿੱਜੀ ਨਾਮ ਅਤੇ ਪ੍ਰਸਿੱਧੀ; ਇੱਥੋਂ ਤੱਕ ਕਿ ਜੀਵਨ ਦੀ ਲੋੜ ਵੀ ਹੋ ਸਕਦੀ ਹੈ. ਤੋਹਫ਼ਿਆਂ ਨੂੰ ਗ੍ਰਾਂਟਾਂ ਦੇਣ ਦੁਆਰਾ. ਸ਼ਾਸਕ ਜਿਆਦਾਤਰ ਕੁਸ਼ਲ ਅਤੇ ਹੋਰ ਵਫ਼ਾਦਾਰ ਸੇਵਾ ਲਈ ਪ੍ਰੇਰਿਤ ਕਰਦੇ ਹਨ.

ਅਜਜਵ: ਈਮਾਨਦਾਰੀ ਅਤੇ ਪੂਰਨਤਾ. ਉਹ
ਪੂਰੀ ਤਰਾਂ ਸਿੱਧਾ ਹੋਣਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਕਦੇ ਵੀ ਆਪਣੇ ਅੰਤ ਪ੍ਰਾਪਤ ਕਰਨ ਲਈ ਕਿਸੇ
ਵੀ ਵਿਵਹਾਰਕ ਜਾਂ ਸੰਵੇਦਨਸ਼ੀਲ ਸਾਧਨਾਂ ਦਾ ਸਹਾਰਾ ਨਹੀਂ ਲੈਣਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ.
ਉਸ ਨੂੰ ਆਪਣੇ ਕਰਤੱਵਾਂ ਦੇ ਨਿਕਾਸ ਵਿਚ ਡਰ ਜਾਂ ਪੱਖ ਤੋਂ ਮੁਕਤ ਹੋਣਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ. ‘ਸਿਗਲਾਓਵਡਾ ਸੁਤਾ’ ਵਿਚ ਇਕ ਸ਼ਬਦ ਵਿਚ ਬੁੱਤਾ ਕਿਹਾ ਗਿਆ ਹੈ ਜੇ ਕਿਸੇ ਵਿਅਕਤੀ ਨੂੰ
ਪੱਖਪਾਤ, ਨਫ਼ਰਤ, ਡਰ ਜਾਂ ਅਗਾਊਤਾ ਦੇ ਅਧੀਨ ਨਿਆਂ ਨਹੀਂ ਮਿਲਦਾ, ਉਸਦੀ ਪ੍ਰਸਿੱਧੀ ਵਧਦੀ
ਹੋਈ ਚੰਦ ਵਾਂਗ ਹੁੰਦੀ ਹੈ.

ਮਦਦਾਵ: ਦਿਆਲਤਾ ਜਾਂ ਕੋਮਲਤਾ. ਕਿਸੇ ਸ਼ਾਸਕ ਦੀ ਨੇਕਨਾਮੀ ਨੂੰ ਕਈ ਵਾਰੀ ਮਜ਼ਬੂਤੀ ਦੀ ਜ਼ਰੂਰਤ ਪੈਂਦੀ ਹੈ. ਪਰ ਇਹ ਦਿਆਲਤਾ ਅਤੇ ਕੋਮਲਤਾ ਨਾਲ ਸੁਸਤ ਹੋਣਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ. ਦੂਜੇ ਸ਼ਬਦਾਂ ਵਿਚ ਇਕ ਸ਼ਾਸਕ ਨੂੰ ਵੱਧ ਕਠੋਰ ਜਾਂ ਜ਼ਾਲਮ ਨਹੀਂ ਹੋਣਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ.

ਤਪਾ: ਆਦਤਾਂ ਵਿਚ ਸੰਵੇਦਨਾਵਾਂ ਅਤੇ ਤਪੱਸਿਆ ਦੀ ਰੋਕਥਾਮ ਅਕਲਮੰਦ ਸੁੱਖਾਂ ਵਿਚ ਭੜਕਾਉਣਾ, ਇਕ ਆਦਰਸ਼ ਬਾਦਸ਼ਾਹ ਆਪਣੀ ਪੰਜ ਇੰਦਰੀਆਂ ਨੂੰ ਕੰਟਰੋਲ ਵਿਚ ਰੱਖਦਾ ਹੈ. ਕੁਝ ਸ਼ਾਸਕ ਆਪਣੀ ਸਥਿਤੀ ਦਾ ਇਸਤੇਮਾਲ ਕਰ ਸਕਦੇ ਹਨ, ਅਤੇ ਨੈਤਿਕ ਚਾਲ-ਚਲਣ ਵਿਚ ਫਸ ਸਕਦੇ ਹਨ - ਇਹ ਇਕ ਚੰਗੇ ਰਾਜਕੁਮਾਰ ਦੀ ਤਰ੍ਹਾਂ ਨਹੀਂ ਹੋ ਰਿਹਾ ਹੈ

ਅਕੋਡਹਾ: ਗੈਰ-ਨਫ਼ਰਤ. ਸ਼ਾਸਕ ਨੂੰ ਕਿਸੇ ਦੇ ਖਿਲਾਫ ਕੋਈ ਵੀ ਸ਼ਿਕਾਇਤ ਨਹੀਂ ਕਰਨੀ ਚਾਹੀਦੀ. ਸ਼ਿਕਾਇਤਾਂ ਸੁਣਨ ਤੋਂ ਬਗੈਰ ਉਹਨਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਸਬਰ ਅਤੇ ਪਿਆਰ ਨਾਲ ਕੰਮ ਕਰਨਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ.

ਅਵਿਹਿਮਾ: ਅਹਿੰਸਾ ਉਸ
ਨੂੰ ਨਾ ਸਿਰਫ ਕਿਸੇ ਨੂੰ ਨੁਕਸਾਨ ਪਹੁੰਚਾਉਣ ਤੋਂ ਬਚਣਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ ਬਲਕਿ ਉਸ ਨੂੰ
ਸ਼ਾਂਤੀ ਵਧਾਉਣ ਅਤੇ ਜੰਗ ਨੂੰ ਰੋਕਣ ਦੀ ਵੀ ਕੋਸ਼ਿਸ਼ ਕਰਨੀ ਚਾਹੀਦੀ ਹੈ, ਜਦੋਂ ਜ਼ਰੂਰਤ
ਪੈਣ ‘ਤੇ.
ਉਸ ਨੂੰ ਅਹਿੰਸਾ ਨੂੰ ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਵੱਧ ਸੰਭਵ ਹੱਦ ਤੱਕ ਅਭਿਆਸ ਕਰਨਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ ਜਦੋਂ
ਤੱਕ ਇਹ ਆਦਰਸ਼ ਸ਼ਾਸਕ ਦੀ ਉਮੀਦ ਵਾਲੀ ਦ੍ਰਿੜਤਾ ਵਿੱਚ ਦਖ਼ਲ ਨਹੀਂ ਦਿੰਦਾ.

ਖੰਤੀ: ਸਬਰ ਅਤੇ ਸਹਿਣਸ਼ੀਲਤਾ ਆਪਣਾ ਗੁੱਸਾ ਗੁਆਏ ਬਿਨਾਂ, ਸ਼ਾਸਕ ਨੂੰ ਮੁਸ਼ਕਲਾਂ ਅਤੇ ਬੇਇੱਜ਼ਤੀ ਸਹਿਣ ਦੇ ਯੋਗ ਹੋਣਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ. ਕਿਸੇ ਵੀ ਮੌਕੇ ‘ਤੇ ਉਹ ਭਾਵਨਾਵਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਭੁਲਣ ਤੋਂ ਬਗੈਰ ਆਪਣੇ ਆਪ ਨੂੰ ਪੇਸ਼ ਕਰਨ ਦੇ ਯੋਗ ਹੋਣਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ. ਉਸ ਨੂੰ ਇੱਕੋ ਜਿਹੇ ਅਤੇ ਗੁੰਬਦਾਂ ਅਤੇ ਇੱਟਬੱਟਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਇੱਕੋ ਭਾਵਨਾ ਨਾਲ ਪ੍ਰਾਪਤ ਕਰਨ ਦੇ ਯੋਗ ਹੋਣਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਸਮਾਨਤਾ ਨਾਲ.

ਅਵਰੋਧਨ: ​​ਗੈਰ-ਵਿਰੋਧ ਅਤੇ ਗੈਰ ਦੁਸ਼ਮਣੀ. ਸ਼ਾਸਕ ਨੂੰ ਲੋਕਾਂ ਦੀ ਮਰਜ਼ੀ ਦਾ ਵਿਰੋਧ ਕਰਨਾ ਨਹੀਂ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ. ਉਸ ਨੂੰ ਆਪਣੀ ਪਰਜਾ ਦੇ ਵਿੱਚ ਸਦਭਾਵਨਾ ਦੀ ਭਾਵਨਾ ਪੈਦਾ ਕਰਨੀ ਚਾਹੀਦੀ ਹੈ. ਦੂਜੇ ਸ਼ਬਦਾਂ ਵਿਚ ਉਹ ਆਪਣੇ ਲੋਕਾਂ ਦੇ ਅਨੁਸਾਰ ਰਾਜ ਕਰਨਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ

ਮਗਧ ਦੇ ਰਾਜਾ ਰਾਜਾ ਅਜਾਸਾਸਟੂ ਨੇ ਆਪਣੀ ਪ੍ਰਭੂਸੱਤਾ ਦੇ ਅਧੀਨ ਇਸ ਨੂੰ ਲਿਆਉਣ ਲਈ ਵਾਜਜੀ ਇਲਾਕੇ ਉੱਤੇ ਹਮਲਾ ਕਰਨਾ ਚਾਹੁੰਦਾ ਸੀ. ਉਸ ਨੇ ਜਾਗਰੂਕਤਾ ਨਾਲ ਜਾਗਰੂਕ ਵਿਅਕਤੀ ਦੀ ਸਲਾਹ ਮੰਗੀ ਤਾਂ ਕਿ ਉਸ ਦੇ ਮੁੱਖ ਮੰਤਰੀ ਵਸਾਕੇਰਾ ਨੂੰ ਜ਼ਰੂਰੀ ਨਿਰਦੇਸ਼ ਪ੍ਰਾਪਤ ਕਰਨ ਲਈ ਭੇਜਿਆ ਜਾਵੇ. ਜਾਗਰੂਕਤਾ ਦੀ ਸਲਾਹ ਨਾਲ ਜਾਗਰੂਕਤਾ ਇਹ ਸੀ ਕਿ ਲਖਵੀਵਿਸ, ਵਾਜਜੀ ਦੇ ਸ਼ਾਸਕਾਂ ਨੂੰ
ਦਬਾਇਆ ਨਹੀਂ ਜਾ ਸਕਦਾ ਅਤੇ ਜਦੋਂ ਤੱਕ ਉਹ ਸੱਤ ਧਮਮਾਂ ਦਾ ਪਾਲਣ ਨਾ ਕਰ ਸਕੇ ਜੋ ਹਾਰਨ
ਲਈ ਯੋਗ ਨਹੀਂ ਸਨ (ਸੱਪ ਅਪਾਰੀਯਾਨੀ ਧੱਮ)

(i) ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਨੇ ਰੋਜ਼ਾਨਾ ਪ੍ਰਬੰਧਨ ਸੰਬੰਧੀ ਮਾਮਲਿਆਂ ‘ਤੇ ਚਰਚਾ ਕਰਨ ਲਈ ਨਿਯਮਤ ਮੀਟਿੰਗਾਂ ਕੀਤੀਆਂ.

(ii) ਉਹ ਮਿਲੀਆਂ, ਕੰਮ ਕੀਤੀਆਂ ਅਤੇ ਇਕ ਟੀਮ ਦੇ ਰੂਪ ਵਿਚ ਖਿਲਰ ਗਏ.

(iii) ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਨੇ ਦੇਸ਼ ਦੇ ਕਾਨੂੰਨ ਦੀ ਸਖਤੀ ਨਾਲ ਪਾਲਣਾ ਕੀਤੀ.

(iv) ਉਹ ਬਜ਼ੁਰਗਾਂ ਦੇ ਅਧੀਨ ਸਨ.

(v) ਉਹ ਔਰਤਾਂ-ਔਰਤਾਂ ਦੀ ਇੱਜ਼ਤ ਕਰਦੇ ਸਨ ਅਤੇ ਔਰਤਾਂ ਦੇ ਜੁਲਮ ਦੀ ਨਿੰਦਾ ਕਰਦੇ ਸਨ.

(vi) ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਨੇ ਧਾਰਮਿਕ ਰੀਤੀ-ਰਿਵਾਜਾਂ ਦੀ ਪਾਲਣਾ ਕੀਤੀ ਅਤੇ ਉਹਨਾਂ ਦੀ ਰੱਖਿਆ ਕੀਤੀ.

(vii) ਉਹ ਪਾਦਰੀਆਂ ਦਾ ਸਤਿਕਾਰ ਕਰਦੇ ਸਨ ਅਤੇ ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਪੂਜਾ ਕਰਦੇ ਸਨ.

ਲਖਵੀਵੀਆਂ ਦੇ ਰਾਜ ਨੂੰ ਵਾਜਜੀ ਦੇ ਨਾਂ ਨਾਲ ਜਾਣਿਆ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਸੀ ਅਤੇ ਇਸ ਵਿਚ ਬਹੁਤ
ਸਾਰੇ ਹਾਕਮਾਂ ਦਾ ਰਾਜ ਸੀ. ਰਾਜਧਾਨੀ ਵੈੱਸਾਲੀ ਜਾਂ ਵਿਸਾਵਾਲਾ ਸੀ. ਸ਼ਾਸਕਾਂ ਵਿਚ ਏਕਤਾ
ਵਾਜਜੀ ਰਾਜ ਦੀ ਏਕਤਾ ਅਤੇ ਅਖੰਡਤਾ ਦੀ ਮੁੱਖ ਸ਼ਕਤੀ ਸੀ.

ਸ਼ਾਸਕਾਂ ਦੇ ਏਕਤਾ ਅਤੇ ਰਵੱਈਏ ਦੇ ਬਾਰੇ ਵਿੱਚ, ਧੰਨ ਧੰਨ ਇੱਕ ਹੋਰ ਸਲਾਹ ਦਿੱਤੀ:

- ਇੱਕ ਚੰਗੇ ਰਾਜਪਾਲ ਨੂੰ ਨਿਰਪੱਖਤਾ ਨਾਲ ਕੰਮ ਕਰਨਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਪੱਖਪਾਤੀ ਨਹੀਂ
ਹੋਣਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਅਤੇ ਕਿਸੇ ਖਾਸ ਸਮੂਹ ਦੇ ਵਰਗਾਂ ਵਿਚਕਾਰ ਕਿਸੇ ਹੋਰ ਦੇ ਵਿਰੁੱਧ ਵਿਤਕਰਾ
ਕਰਨਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ.

- ਇੱਕ ਚੰਗਾ ਸ਼ਾਸਕ ਨੂੰ ਉਸ ਦੀ ਕਿਸੇ ਵੀ ਵਿਸ਼ੇ ਦੇ ਵਿਰੁੱਧ ਨਫ਼ਰਤ ਦਾ ਕੋਈ ਰੂਪ ਨਹੀਂ ਰੱਖਣਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ.

- ਇੱਕ ਚੰਗਾ ਸ਼ਾਸਕ ਨੂੰ ਕਾਨੂੰਨ ਲਾਗੂ ਕਰਨ ਵਿੱਚ ਕੋਈ ਡਰ ਨਹੀਂ ਦਿਖਾਉਣਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ, ਜੇ ਇਹ ਸਹੀ ਹੈ.

- ਇਕ ਚੰਗੇ ਸ਼ਾਸਕ ਨੂੰ ਲਾਜ਼ਮੀ ਤੌਰ ‘ਤੇ ਕਾਨੂੰਨ ਦੀ ਸਪੱਸ਼ਟ ਸਮਝ ਹਾਸਲ ਕਰਨੀ ਚਾਹੀਦੀ ਹੈ. ਇਸ ਨੂੰ ਲਾਗੂ ਨਹੀਂ ਕਰਨਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਕਿਉਂਕਿ ਸ਼ਾਸਕ ਕੋਲ ਕਾਨੂੰਨ ਨੂੰ ਲਾਗੂ ਕਰਨ ਦਾ ਅਧਿਕਾਰ ਹੈ. ਇਸ ਨੂੰ ਜਾਇਜ਼ ਢੰਗ ਨਾਲ ਅਤੇ ਆਮ ਭਾਵਨਾ ਨਾਲ ਕੀਤਾ ਜਾਣਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ, ਕਕਵਾਵਤੀ ਸਿਹਨੰਦ ਸੁਤਾ ਕਹਿੰਦਾ ਹੈ

ਪਾਂਹਾ ਵਿਚ ਇਹ ਕਿਹਾ ਗਿਆ ਹੈ: ‘ਜੇ ਇਕ ਆਦਮੀ ਅਯੋਗ, ਅਯੋਗ, ਅਨੈਤਿਕ, ਅਣਉਚਿਤ,
ਅਸਮਰੱਥ ਅਤੇ ਰਾਜ ਦੇ ਯੋਗ ਨਹੀਂ ਹੈ, ਤਾਂ ਉਸ ਨੇ ਆਪਣੇ ਆਪ ਨੂੰ ਰਾਜਾ ਜਾਂ ਸ਼ਾਸਕ ਵਜੋਂ
ਇਕ ਮਹਾਨ ਸ਼ਾਸਕ ਨਿਯੁਕਤ ਕਰ ਦਿੱਤਾ ਹੈ, ਉਸ ਨੂੰ ਤਸੀਹੇ ਦਿੱਤੇ ਜਾ ਰਹੇ ਹਨ.
ਦੁਆਰਾ ਵੱਖ ਵੱਖ ਸਜਾਵਾਂ ਦੇ ਅਧੀਨ ਹੋਕੇ, ਕਿਉਂਕਿ ਉਹ ਅਯੋਗ ਅਤੇ ਅਯੋਗ ਹਨ, ਉਸਨੇ
ਆਪਣੇ ਆਪ ਨੂੰ ਪ੍ਰਭੂਸੱਤਾ ਦੀ ਸੀਟ ਵਿੱਚ ਨਿਰਪੱਖਤਾ ਨਾਲ ਰੱਖਿਆ ਹੈ.
ਹੋਰਨਾਂ ਵਰਗੇ ਜੋ ਨੈਤਿਕ ਨਿਯਮਾਂ ਦਾ ਉਲੰਘਣ ਕਰਦੇ ਹਨ ਅਤੇ ਮਨੁੱਖਤਾ ਦੇ ਸਾਰੇ ਸਮਾਜਿਕ
ਨਿਯਮਾਂ ਦੇ ਬੁਨਿਆਦੀ ਨਿਯਮਾਂ ਦਾ ਉਲੰਘਣ ਕਰਦੇ ਹਨ, ਸਜ਼ਾ ਦੇ ਬਰਾਬਰ ਵੀ ਹਨ;
ਅਤੇ ਇਸ ਤੋਂ ਇਲਾਵਾ, ਇਹ ਨਿੰਦਿਆ ਕਰਨ ਵਾਲਾ ਸ਼ਾਸਕ ਹੈ ਜੋ ਆਪਣੇ ਆਪ ਨੂੰ ਜਨਤਾ ਦੀ ਲੁਟੇਰਾ ਵਜੋਂ ਚਲਾਉਂਦਾ ਹੈ.

ਅਸ਼ੋਕਾ, ਇਸ ਸਿਧਾਂਤ ਦੀ ਇੱਕ ਸ਼ਾਨਦਾਰ ਉਦਾਹਰਨ, ਦਮ ਦੇ ਅਨੁਸਾਰ ਰਹਿਣ ਅਤੇ ਪ੍ਰਚਾਰ
ਕਰਨ ਅਤੇ ਆਪਣੀ ਪਰਜਾ ਅਤੇ ਹਰ ਮਨੁੱਖਤਾ ਦੀ ਸੇਵਾ ਕਰਨ ਦਾ ਫ਼ੈਸਲਾ ਕੀਤਾ.
ਆਪਣੇ ਗੈਰ-ਹਮਲਾਵਰ ਇਰਾਦਿਆਂ ਨੂੰ ਆਪਣੇ ਗੁਆਂਢੀਆਂ ਨੂੰ ਘੋਸ਼ਿਤ ਕੀਤਾ ਅਤੇ ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ
ਨੂੰ ਆਪਣੀ ਸਦਭਾਵਨਾ ਦਾ ਭਰੋਸਾ ਦਿਵਾਇਆ ਅਤੇ ਸ਼ਾਂਤੀ ਅਤੇ ਗ਼ੈਰ-ਅਤਿਆਚਾਰ ਦੇ ਸੰਦੇਸ਼
ਦੇ ਪ੍ਰਭਾਵ ਵਾਲੇ ਦੂਰ-ਦੁਰਾਡੇ ਰਾਜਿਆਂ ਨੂੰ ਦੂਤ ਭੇਜੇ.
ਨੇ ਈਮਾਨਦਾਰੀ, ਸਚਾਈ, ਦਇਆ, ਉਦਾਰਤਾ, ਅਹਿੰਸਾ, ਸਭਨਾਂ ਪ੍ਰਤੀ ਸੰਵੇਦੀ ਵਿਵਹਾਰ,
ਗੈਰ-ਬੇਤਰਤੀਬੀ, ਗੈਰ-ਪ੍ਰਾਪਤੀ ਅਤੇ ਜਾਨਵਰਾਂ ਲਈ ਗੈਰ-ਸੱਟ ਦੇ ਸਮਾਜਿਕ-ਨੈਤਿਕ ਗੁਣਾਂ
ਦੀ ਊਰਜਾਤਮਕ ਅਭਿਆਸ ਨੂੰ ਉਤਸ਼ਾਹਿਤ ਕੀਤਾ.
ਉਸ ਨੇ ਧਾਰਮਿਕ ਆਜ਼ਾਦੀ ਅਤੇ ਇੱਕ ਦੂਜੇ ਦੇ ਧਰਮ ਪ੍ਰਤੀ ਆਪਸੀ ਸਤਿਕਾਰ ਨੂੰ ਉਤਸ਼ਾਹਿਤ ਕੀਤਾ. ਉਹ ਧਾਮਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਦਿਹਾਤੀ ਲੋਕਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਪ੍ਰਚਾਰ ਕਰਨ ਸਮੇਂ ਦੇ ਦੌਰਿਆਂ ‘ਤੇ ਗਿਆ. ਉਸਨੇ
ਜਨਤਕ ਉਪਯੋਗੀ ਦੇ ਕੰਮ ਕੀਤੇ, ਜਿਵੇਂ ਕਿ ਪੁਰਸ਼ਾਂ ਅਤੇ ਪਸ਼ੂਆਂ ਲਈ ਹਸਪਤਾਲਾਂ ਦੀ
ਸਥਾਪਨਾ, ਦਵਾਈਆਂ ਦੀ ਸਪਲਾਈ, ਸੜਕ ਦੇ ਦਰੱਖਤ ਦੇ ਦਰੱਖਤ ਲਗਾਉਣ ਅਤੇ ਛੱਤਾਂ ਦੇ ਬੂਟੇ
ਲਗਾਉਣ, ਖੂਹਾਂ ਦੀ ਖੁਦਾਈ ਅਤੇ ਪਾਣੀ ਦੇ ਸ਼ੈਡ ਅਤੇ ਆਰਾਮ ਘਰ ਬਣਾਉਣ ਦਾ ਕੰਮ.
ਉਸਨੇ ਜਾਨਵਰਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਜ਼ੁਲਮ ਕਰਨ ਲਈ ਸਪੱਸ਼ਟ ਤੌਰ ‘ਤੇ ਮਨ੍ਹਾ ਕੀਤਾ ਹੈ.

ਕਦੇ-ਕਦੇ ਜਾਗਰੂਕਤਾ ਨਾਲ ਜਾਗਰੂਕਤਾ ਨੂੰ ਸਿਆਸੀ-ਸਮਾਜ ਸੁਧਾਰਕ ਅਤੇ ਆਰਥਕ ਪਰਚਾਰਕ ਕਿਹਾ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ. ਦੂਜੀਆਂ
ਚੀਜਾਂ ਦੇ ਵਿੱਚ, ਜਾਤ ਪ੍ਰਣਾਲੀ ਦੀ ਨਿੰਦਾ ਕੀਤੀ, ਲੋਕਾਂ ਦੀ ਸਮਾਨਤਾ ਨੂੰ ਮਾਨਤਾ
ਦਿੱਤੀ ਗਈ, ਸਮਾਜਿਕ-ਆਰਥਿਕ ਹਾਲਤਾਂ ਵਿੱਚ ਸੁਧਾਰ ਕਰਨ ਦੀ ਜ਼ਰੂਰਤ ‘ਤੇ ਚਰਚਾ ਕੀਤੀ ਗਈ,
ਅਮੀਰਾਂ ਅਤੇ ਗਰੀਬਾਂ ਵਿੱਚ ਧਨ ਦੀ ਇੱਕ ਹੋਰ ਬਰਾਬਰ ਵੰਡਣ ਦੀ ਮਹੱਤਤਾ ਨੂੰ ਮਾਨਤਾ
ਦਿੱਤੀ ਗਈ, ਜਿਸ ਨਾਲ ਔਰਤਾਂ ਦੀ ਸਿਫਾਰਸ਼ ਕੀਤੀ ਗਈ,
ਅਤੇ ਪ੍ਰਸ਼ਾਸਨ ਵਿਚ ਮਨੁੱਖਤਾਵਾਦ ਦੀ ਸਥਾਪਨਾ, ਅਤੇ ਸਿਖਾਇਆ ਕਿ ਸਮਾਜ ਨੂੰ ਲੋਭ ਦੁਆਰਾ
ਨਹੀਂ ਚਲਾਉਣਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਪਰ ਲੋਕਾਂ ਦੇ ਵਿਚਾਰ ਅਤੇ ਹਮਦਰਦੀ ਨਾਲ.
ਸਾਰੇ ਦੇ ਬਾਵਜੂਦ, ਮਨੁੱਖਤਾ ਲਈ ਜਾਗਰੂਕਤਾ ਦਾ ਯੋਗਦਾਨ ਬਹੁਤ ਜਿਆਦਾ ਹੈ, ਕਿਉਂਕਿ ਇਕ
ਬਖਸ਼ਿਸ਼ ਵਾਲਾ ਵਿਅਕਤੀ ਉਸ ਸਮੇਂ ਤੋਂ ਪਹਿਲਾਂ ਕਿਸੇ ਹੋਰ ਸਮਾਜ ਸੁਧਾਰਕ ਨੂੰ ਨਹੀਂ ਸੀ
ਕਰ ਰਿਹਾ, ਜੋ ਕਿ ਮਨੁੱਖੀ ਬੀਮਾਰੀਆਂ ਦੇ ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਡੂੰਘੇ ਜੜ੍ਹਾਂ ਤੇ ਜਾ ਰਿਹਾ ਹੈ.
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ਸਾਰੇ ਜੀਵ ਚੰਗੇ ਅਤੇ ਖੁਸ਼ ਹੋ ਸਕਦੇ ਹਨ ਅਤੇ ਅਨਾਦਿ ਬਖਸ਼ਿਸ਼ ਦੇ ਫਲ ਨੂੰ ਅੰਤਿਮ ਉਦੇਸ਼ ਵਜੋਂ ਪ੍ਰਾਪਤ ਕਰ ਸਕਦੇ ਹਨ.

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ગુડ ગવર્નન્સ- જાગૃતિ માર્ગ સાથે એક જાગૃત કરો

સાથે જાગૃત એકની ઉપદેશ ઉમદા તત્વજ્ઞાન એઇટ્ફોલ્ડ પાથને અનુસરવાનું છે, જે
મુક્તિને પૂર્ણ કરવા તરફ દોરી જાય છે- અંતિમ ગોલ તરીકે શાશ્વત આનંદ.
એ નિષ્કર્ષમાં ખોટું છે કે જાગૃતતાની સાથે જાગૃત એક માત્ર આવા મહાન આદર્શો
અને લોકોના સામાજિક, આર્થિક અને રાજકીય કલ્યાણની અવગણના કરતા ઉચ્ચ
દાર્શનિક વિચારમાં રસ ધરાવે છે.
સાથે જાગૃત એક તમામ માણસો પ્રત્યે દયા અને કરુણાની અદભૂત રીપોઝીટરી હતી
અને ન માત્ર માનવજાતની સુખમાં અને અન્ય તમામ માણસોની ખુશીમાં ખૂબ જ રસ
ધરાવતી હતી. નૈતિક અને આધ્યાત્મિક આધારે શુદ્ધ જીવનની આગેવાની વગર આનંદ
શક્ય ન હતો

સમજાવે છે કે અપરાધને નાબૂદ કરવા માટે, લોકોની આર્થિક સ્થિતિ સુધારી લેવી જોઈએ. એમ્પ્લોયર અને કર્મચારી વચ્ચેનો સંબંધ મુખ્યત્વે પર્યાપ્ત વેતન, ભેટો અને પ્રોત્સાહનોની ચુકવણી દ્વારા સૌમ્ય બનવું જોઈએ. રાજાઓ (સરકારો) આ હકીકતને ગંભીરતાથી લેવી જોઈએ અને લોકોને સુખી અને સંતોષ આપવી જોઇએ, જેથી પરિણામે દેશ શાંતિપૂર્ણ અને ગુનાહિત હશે. જાગૃતતા
સાથે જાગૃત એક જ અહિંસા અને શાંતિ શીખવે છે તે નહીં, તે કદાચ પ્રથમ અને
એકમાત્ર ધાર્મિક શિક્ષક હતા જે યુદ્ધના પ્રારંભને રોકવા માટે વ્યક્તિગત
રીતે યુદ્ધભૂમિમાં ગયા હતા.
રોહિણીના પાણી ઉપર યુદ્ધ કરવાના આશયથી શક્તાઓ અને કોલીયા વચ્ચે બુદ્ધનો ફેલાતો તણાવ
આશીર્વાદથી રાજા અજશતાત્તુને પણ વિખેરી નાખવામાં આવ્યું હતું. બુદ્ધે એક
સારી સરકારની મહત્વ અને પૂર્વજરૂરીયાતો અંગે ચર્ચા કરી હતી અને બતાવ્યું કે
કેવી રીતે દેશ ભ્રષ્ટ, પતિત અને નાખુશ બની શકે છે જ્યારે સરકારના વડા
ભ્રષ્ટ અને અન્યાયી બની જાય છે.
જાગરૂકતા સાથે જાગૃત થવું, ભ્રષ્ટાચાર સામે અને માનવતાવાદી સિદ્ધાંતો પર આધારીત સરકાર કેવી રીતે વર્તવું જોઈએ તે અંગે વાત કરી હતી. જાગૃતિ સાથે જાગૃત એક વાર કહ્યું હતું કે, ‘જ્યારે દેશના શાસક ન્યાયી અને સારા હોય ત્યારે મંત્રીઓ બરોબર અને સારા બન્યા; જ્યારે મંત્રીઓ ન્યાયી અને સારા છે, ઉચ્ચ અધિકારીઓ બરોબર અને સારા બન્યા; જ્યારે ઉચ્ચ અધિકારીઓ માત્ર અને સારા છે, ક્રમ અને ફાઈલ માત્ર અને સારા બની; જ્યારે
ક્રમ અને ફાઈલ બરોબર અને સારા બન્યા, લોકો બરોબર અને સારા બન્યા.
‘(અંગુતરા નિકાયા) કક્વવતિ સિહાનંદ સુત્તમાં, બુદ્ધે કહ્યું હતું કે
અનૈતિકતા અને અપરાધ, જેમ કે ચોરી, અસત્ય, હિંસા, ધિક્કાર, ક્રૂરતા, ઊભી થઈ
શકે છે
ગરીબીથી કિંગ્સ અને સરકાર સજા દ્વારા ગુનો દબાવી દેવાનો પ્રયત્ન કરી શકે છે, પરંતુ બળ દ્વારા ગુનાઓને નાબૂદ કરવા તે નિરર્થક છે. કુતાદાંતા સુત્તમાં, ગુનાને ઘટાડવા માટે બુદ્ધે બળના બદલે આર્થિક વિકાસને સૂચવ્યું હતું. દેશના આર્થિક પરિસ્થિતિઓમાં સુધારો કરવા માટે સરકારે દેશના સંસાધનોનો ઉપયોગ કરવો જોઈએ. તે
કૃષિ અને ગ્રામીણ વિકાસ પર નજર કરી શકે છે, સાહસિકો અને વ્યવસાય માટે
નાણાંકીય સહાય પૂરી પાડી શકે છે, કર્મચારીઓને માનવ ગૌરવ સાથે યોગ્ય જીવન
જાળવી રાખવા માટે પૂરતા પ્રમાણમાં વેતન પૂરું પાડે છે. જાગરૂકતા સાથે એકને
જાગૃત કરીને શાંતિ અને સદ્ભાવના જાળવવાની તરફેણ કરી હતી, જે સંપૂર્ણપણે
આવશ્યક હતું
વિકાસ માટે અને બતાવ્યું કે કેવી રીતે એક દેશ ભ્રષ્ટ અને નાખુશ બની શકે છે
જ્યારે તેની સરકારના વડાઓ ભ્રષ્ટ અને અન્યાયી બની જાય છે.
એક દેશ સુખી થવા માટે, તે એક સારા અને માત્ર સરકારી જ હોવો જોઈએ. ફક્ત સરકારનું આ સ્વરૂપ કેવી રીતે વિકસિત થયું તે “ટેન રોયલ વર્ચ્યુઝ” નામના ભલામણોમાં વિસ્તૃત છે. (”દાસ-રાજા ધમ્મા”) આ દસ નિયમો આજે કોઈપણ સરકાર દ્વારા લાગુ પાડી શકાય છે જે દેશને
શાંતિપૂર્ણ રીતે શાસન કરવાની ઇચ્છા ધરાવે છે. ‘ટેન રોયલ વર્ચ્યુ’ નીચે
પ્રમાણે છે:

ડાના: ઉદારતા, ઉદારતા અથવા દાન જરૂરિયાતમંદોને દાન આપવું. તે પોતાના જરૂરિયાતમંદ વિષયોના કલ્યાણ માટે રાજા (સરકાર) ની ફરજ છે. આદર્શ શાસકને તૃષ્ણા અને જોડાણમાં આપ્યા વિના સંપત્તિ અને સંપત્તિને કુશળ રીતે દૂર કરવી જોઈએ. બીજા શબ્દોમાં કહીએ તો, તેમણે પોતાની સ્થિતિનો ઉપયોગ કરવા સમૃદ્ધ બનવાનો પ્રયત્ન ન કરવો જોઈએ.

શીલા: નૈતિકતા - એક ઉચ્ચ નૈતિક પાત્ર તેમણે
ઓછામાં ઓછા પાંચ ઉપદેશોનું પાલન કરવું જોઈએ, અને પોતાની જાતને અંગત અને
જાહેર જીવનમાં પોતાના વિષયોમાં ચમકાવતું ઉદાહરણ તરીકે રાખવું જોઈએ. આ
સદ્ગુણ ખૂબ મહત્વનું છે, કારણ કે, જો શાસક તેને પાલન કરે છે, સખત રીતે, પછી
લાંચ અને ભ્રષ્ટાચાર
, દેશમાં હિંસા અને ગેરસમજનો આપમેળે નાશ થશે.

Comfort Pariccaga: બલિદાનો બનાવી જો તેઓ લોકોના સારા માટે હોય - વ્યક્તિગત નામ અને ખ્યાતિ; જો જરૂરી હોય તો પણ જીવન. ભેટો વગેરે દ્વારા મંજૂર. શાસક વિષયોને વધુ કાર્યક્ષમ અને વધુ વફાદાર સેવા તરફ આગળ વધે છે.

અજજવા: પ્રમાણિકતા અને પ્રામાણિકતા તે સંપૂર્ણપણે સીધું જ હોવું જોઈએ અને તેના અંત મેળવવા માટે કોઈપણ કુટિલ અથવા શંકાસ્પદ સાધનોને આશ્રય નહીં લેવો જોઈએ. તેમની ફરજોના વિસર્જનમાં તેમને ભય અથવા તરફેણથી મુક્ત હોવું જોઈએ. બુદ્ધે ‘સિગોલોવદ સુત્ત’ શબ્દનો શબ્દ લખ્યો છે જો કોઈ વ્યક્તિ પક્ષપાત,
તિરસ્કાર, ભય અથવા અજ્ઞાનતા વગર ન્યાય જાળવી રાખે છે, તો તેની લોકપ્રિયતા
વધતો ચંદ્ર જેવા વધે છે “

મડ્ડાવા: દયા અથવા નમ્રતા એક શાસકની પ્રામાણિકતાને કેટલીકવાર નિશ્ચયની જરૂર પડે છે. પરંતુ આ દયા અને સૌમ્યતા સાથે તંદુરસ્ત થવું જોઈએ. બીજા શબ્દોમાં કહીએ તો, શાસક વધારે ન હોવો જોઇએ - કડક અથવા ક્રૂર.

તપ: ધુમ્રપાનમાં ઇન્દ્રિયો અને આત્મસંયમની સંમતિ. વિષયાસક્ત સુખમાં અનહદ ભોગ બનવું, એક આદર્શ શાસક તેના પાંચ ઇન્દ્રિયોને નિયંત્રણમાં રાખે છે. કેટલાક શાસકો, તેમની સ્થિતિનો ઉપયોગ કરી શકે છે, નૈતિક વર્તણૂંકને ધિક્કારે છે - આ એક સારા શાસકથી બનતું નથી

અક્કડ: બિન-તિરસ્કાર શાસકને કોઈની સામે કોઈ રોષ નહીં રાખવું જોઈએ. ફરિયાદોને રોકવા વગર તેમણે માયાળુ અને પ્રેમ સાથે કાર્ય કરવું જોઈએ.

અવિહિંસા: અહિંસા તેણે કોઈને નુકસાન પહોંચાડવું જ જોઈએ નહીં પરંતુ જરૂરીયાત મુજબ યુદ્ધને રોકવા અને યુદ્ધને અટકાવવાનો પણ પ્રયાસ કરવો જોઈએ. તેણે ઉચ્ચતમ શક્ય અંશે અહિંસાને પ્રેક્ટિસ કરવું જોઈએ, જ્યાં સુધી તે એક આદર્શ શાસકની અપેક્ષા રાખવામાં નિષ્ફળ રહે.

ખંતિ: ધીરજ અને સહિષ્ણુતા તેનો ગુસ્સો ગુમાવ્યા વિના, શાસક મુશ્કેલીઓ અને અપમાન સહન કરવા સમર્થ હોવા જોઈએ. કોઈ પણ પ્રસંગે તે લાગણીઓ ન આપ્યા વગર પોતાને ચલાવી શકશે. તે જ ભાવના અને સમભાવે બન્ને bouquets અને ઈંટના પ્રાપ્ત કરવા માટે સક્ષમ હોવા જોઈએ

અવિરોધા: બિન-વિરોધી અને બિન-દુશ્મની. શાસક લોકોની ઇચ્છાનો વિરોધ ન કરે. તેમણે તેમના પ્રજા વચ્ચે મિત્રતા ની ભાવના ખેડવા જ જોઈએ. બીજા શબ્દોમાં કહીએ તો તેણે તેના લોકોની સુમેળમાં શાસન કરવું જોઈએ.

મગધના રાજા રાજા અજાતત્તુ, તેમના સાર્વભૌમત્વ હેઠળ લાવવા માટે વાજજી પ્રદેશ પર આક્રમણ કરવા માગતા હતા. તેમણે આવશ્યક સૂચનાઓ મેળવવા માટે તેમના મુખ્ય મંત્રી વશકારાને મોકલીને જાગૃતિ સાથેની જાગૃતિની સલાહ માંગી. જાગૃતતાની જાગૃતિની સલાહ એ હતી કે લચીવિસ, વજ્જીના શાસકોને દબાવી શકાશે
નહીં અને જ્યાં સુધી તેઓ સાત ધમામને વળગી રહેતાં ન હતા (સપ્ત અપરિહનીયા

(i) તેઓ રોજિંદા વહીવટ સંબંધિત બાબતો પર ચર્ચા કરવા માટે નિયમિત સભાઓ યોજી હતી.

(ii) તેઓ મળ્યા, કામ કર્યું અને એક ટીમ તરીકે વિખેરાઇ.

(iii) તેઓએ દેશના કાયદાનું પાલન કર્યું.

(iv) તેઓ વડીલોની આજ્ઞાધીન હતા.

(v) તેમણે મહિલા-લોકનો આદર કર્યો અને મહિલાઓના જુલમની નિંદા કરી.

(vi) તેઓ ધાર્મિક રિવાજોને અનુસર્યા અને તેમને સુરક્ષિત કર્યા.

(vii) તેઓ પાદરીઓનું આદર કરતા હતા અને તેમને પૂજામાં રાખ્યા હતા.

લચીવિસનું રાજ્ય વાજજી તરીકે જાણીતું હતું અને તે શાસકોની સંખ્યાના
બનેલું હતું. રાજધાની વેસાલી અથવા વિશાલા હતી. શાસકો વચ્ચે એકતા વાજજી
સામ્રાજ્યની એકતા અને સંકલનની પાછળ મુખ્ય બળ હતી.

શાસકોની એકતા અને વર્તન અંગે, આશીર્વાદથી આગળ સલાહ આપી:

- એક સારા શાસકને નિષ્પક્ષપાત રીતે વર્તવું જોઈએ અને બીજા સામે વિષયોના એક ખાસ જૂથ વચ્ચે પક્ષપાત અને ભેદભાવ ન કરવો જોઈએ.

- એક સારા શાસકને તેના કોઈ પણ પ્રજા સામે તિરસ્કાર ન કરવો જોઈએ.

- એક સારા શાસક કાયદાની અમલબજાવણીમાં કોઈ ડર બતાવવો જોઈએ, જો તે ન્યાયસંગત છે.

- એક સારા શાસકને લાગુ કરવા માટે કાયદાનું સ્પષ્ટ સમજ હોવું આવશ્યક છે. તેનો અમલ કરવો જોઇએ નહીં કારણ કે શાસક પાસે કાયદાને અમલ કરવાની સત્તા છે. તે યોગ્ય રીતે અને સામાન્ય અર્થમાં થવું જોઈએ, કક્કુવટી સિહાનંદ સુત્તા જણાવે છે

પેહ્હામાં, તે કહે છે: ‘જો કોઈ માણસ, જે અયોગ્ય, અસમર્થ, અનૈતિક, અયોગ્ય,
અસમર્થ અને રાજાના અયોગ્ય છે, તેણે પોતાની જાતને રાજા તરીકે અથવા મહાન
અધિકારી સાથે શાસન કરાવ્યું હોય, તો તેને યાતનાઓ આપવામાં આવે છે,
દ્વારા વિવિધ પ્રકારની સજાને પાત્ર છે, કારણ કે, તે અયોગ્ય અને અયોગ્ય છે,
તેમણે પોતાની જાતને સાર્વભૌમત્વની સીટમાં અન-પ્રામાણિક રાખી છે.
અન્ય લોકો જેમ કે નૈતિક નિયમોનું ઉલ્લંઘન કરે છે અને ઉલ્લંઘન કરે છે અને
માનવજાતિના તમામ સામાજિક કાયદાના મૂળભૂત નિયમો સમાન સજાને પાત્ર છે;
અને વધુમાં, નકારાય તે શાસક છે જે જાહેર જનતાના લૂંટારા તરીકે પોતાને ચલાવે છે.

અશોક, આ સિદ્ધાંતનું એક ચમકતું ઉદાહરણ, ધ્વમાના પ્રચાર અને પ્રચાર અને
તેના પ્રજા અને સર્વ માનવતાને સેવા આપવાનો નિર્ણય કર્યો.
પોતાના બિન-આક્રમક ઇરાદાને પોતાના પડોશીઓને જાહેર કર્યાં, તેમને તેમની
શુભેચ્છા આપવાની ખાતરી આપી અને શાંતિ અને બિન-આક્રમણના સંદેશાના સંદેશા
સાથેના દૂરના રાજાઓને દૂત મોકલ્યા.
પ્રામાણિકતા, સત્યનિષ્ઠા, કરુણા, ઉદારતા, અહિંસા, તમામ પ્રત્યે ગંભીર
વર્તન, બિન-અવિચારીપણું, બિન-હસ્તાંતરણ અને પ્રાણીઓને બિન-ઈજાના
સામાજિક-નૈતિક ગુણોની ઊર્જાની પ્રથાને પ્રોત્સાહન આપ્યું.
તેમણે એકબીજાના પંથ માટે ધાર્મિક સ્વતંત્રતા અને પરસ્પર આદરને પ્રોત્સાહન આપ્યું. તેમણે ગ્રામ્ય લોકો માટે ધમ્માનું પ્રચાર કરતા સામયિક પ્રવાસ પર ગયા. તેમણે
પબ્લિક યુટિલિટીની કામગીરી હાથ ધરી, જેમ કે પુરુષો અને પ્રાણીઓ માટે
હોસ્પિટલોની સ્થાપના, દવા પૂરી પાડતી, રસ્તાની એકતરફ વૃક્ષો અને ગ્રુવ્સનું
વાવેતર, કુવાઓની ઉત્ખનન, અને પાણીના શેડ અને આરામના મકાનોનું બાંધકામ.
તેમણે સ્પષ્ટપણે પ્રાણીઓને ક્રૂરતાનો ઈનકાર કર્યો છે.

ક્યારેક જાગરૂકતા સાથે જાગૃત એક રાજકીય-સામાજિક સુધારક અને આર્થિક ઇમાનીપક કહેવાય છે. અન્ય
વસ્તુઓ પૈકી, જાતિ પ્રણાલીની નિંદા, લોકોની સમાનતાને માન્યતા આપી,
સામાજિક-આર્થિક સ્થિતિ સુધારવા માટેની જરૂરિયાત અંગે વાત કરી, સમૃદ્ધ અને
ગરીબો વચ્ચે સંપત્તિના વધુ ન્યાયપૂર્ણ વિતરણના મહત્વને માન્યતા આપી,
સ્ત્રીઓની સ્થિતિ ઉભી કરી, ભલામણ કરી
અને વહીવટીતંત્રમાં માનવવાદનો સમાવેશ, અને શીખવ્યું કે સમાજને લોભ દ્વારા
ચલાવવા જોઇએ નહીં પરંતુ લોકો માટે વિચારણા અને કરુણાથી.

બધાં હોવા છતાં, માનવજાતમાં જાગરૂકતાના યોગદાનથી જાગૃત થવું બહુ જ વધારે
છે કારણ કે આશીર્વાદથી એક બિંદુએ ઉપડ્યું હતું કે જે પહેલાં અથવા અત્યાર
સુધી કોઈ અન્ય સમાજ સુધારક કર્યું ન હતું, એટલે કે માનવ બીમારીના સૌથી ઊંડો
મૂળમાં જવું.
માનવ મનમાં

બધા જીવો સુખી અને અંતિમ ગોલ તરીકે શાશ્વત આનંદનાં ફળ પ્રાપ્ત કરી શકે છે.

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68) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)
68), Classical မြန်မာ (ဗမာ)

2629 ဗုဒ္ဓဟူးနေ့မေလ 23 သင်ခန်းစာ

4 စကားထဲမှာပွားဗုဒ္ဓရဲ့သွန်သင်ချက်နဲ့တစ်ခုမှာနိုး
ကောင်းမွန်သောစိတ်ကို Be ပါနဲ့!

သုံးပြီးသင့်ရဲ့မိခင်ဘာသာစကား၌ဤ Google ကဘာသာပြန်စာပေပြင်ပေး…/good-governance-th…/

Bliss emancipation- ဖြည့်စွက်ရန်ဦးဆောင်သည့် Eightfold Path



ရာဇဝတ်မှုပပျောက်ရေးနိုင်ရန်အတွက်, လူများများ၏စီးပွားရေးအခွအေနေတိုးတက်လာသင့်ကြောင်းရှင်းပြသည်။ အလုပ်ရှင်နှင့်အလုပ်သမားအကြားဆက်ဆံရေးလုံလောက်သောလုပ်ခ,

(အစိုးရများ), အလေးအနက်ထည့်သွင်းစဉ်းစားသို့ဤအချက်ကို ယူ. ပျော်ရွှင်နဲ့
content ကိုလူများကိုစောင့်ရှောက်သင့်ပါတယ်။
ဗုဒ္ဓဟာ Sakyas နှင့် Rohini ရာရေကူးစစ်မှုအကြောင်းသူ Koliyas အကြားတင်းမာမှု diffused ။ မင်္ဂလာဦးတည်းလည်းဘုရင်က

ဝန်ကြီးများရုံနှင့်ကောင်းမွန်သောဖြစ်လာ ‘’ ဟုပြောသည် အဆိုပါဝန်ကြီးများရုံနှင့်ကောင်းမွန်သောများမှာသောအခါ, အဆင့်မြင့်အရာရှိများရုံနှင့်ကောင်းမွန်သောဖြစ်လာ; အဆင့်မြင့်အရာရှိများရုံနှင့်ကောင်းမွန်သောများမှာသောအခါ, ရာထူးနှင့် file ကိုဖွင့်ဖြစ်လာနှင့်ကောင်းမွန်သော; ရာထူးနှင့်
file ကိုဖွင့်ခြင်းနှင့်ကောင်းသောဖြစ်လာသည့်အခါ,
လူများရုံနှင့်ကောင်းမွန်သောဖြစ်လာသည်။ ‘(Anguttara Nikaya) တွင်
Cakkavatti Sihananda သုတ်မှာဗုဒ္ဓထိုကဲ့သို့သောခိုးမှု, မုသာ,
အကြမ်းဖက်မှု, မုန်းတီးမှု, ရက်စက်မှု,
ဆင်းရဲမွဲတေမှုကနေ။ ဓမ္မရာဇဝင်နှင့်အစိုးရများပြစ်ဒဏ်မှတစ်ဆင့်ရာဇဝတ်မှုဖိနှိပ်ဖို့ကြိုးစားပေမည်,
အဆိုပါ Kutadanta သုတ်မှာဗုဒ္ဓရာဇဝတ်မှုလျှော့ချဖို့အစားအင်အားစီးပွားရေးဖွံ့ဖြိုးတိုးတက်မှုအကြံပြုသည်။ အစိုးရကတိုင်းပြည်များ၏စီးပွားရေးအခြေအနေများတိုးတက်စေရန်တိုင်းပြည်၏သယံဇာတများကိုအသုံးပြုသင့်ပါတယ်။ ဒါဟာစိုက်ပျိုးရေးနှင့်ကျေးလက်ဒေသဖွံ့ဖြိုးရေးအပေါ်စတင်လုပ်ငန်းရှင်များနှင့်စီးပွားရေးမှငွေကြေးထောက်ပံ့မှုများကိုပေးစွမ်းအလုပ်သမားများကိုလူ့
ပျော်ရွှင်စေမယ့်တိုင်းပြည်သည်အကောင်းတစ်ဦးနှင့်အဖွင့်အစိုးရရှိရမည်။ ကိုယ့်အစိုးရ၏ဤပုံစံကိုပြောင်းလဲနေသည်ပုံ “ဆယ်ပါးတော်ဝင်သီလ” ဆိုတဲ့ကသူ့ထောက်ခံချက်အတွက်အသေးစိတ်ဖြစ်ပါတယ်။ ( “ဘောက်-Raja ဓမ္မ”) ။ ဤရွေ့ကားတကျိပ်စည်းမျဉ်းစည်းကမ်းတွေကိုအောက်ပါအတိုင်း peacefully.The ‘’
ဆယ်ပါးတော်ဝင်သီလ ‘’

ဒါန: စွန့်ကြဲ, ရက်ရောမှုသို့မဟုတ်ချစ်ခြင်းမေတ္တာကို။ အဆိုပါငတ်မွတ်သောသူမှကွာဆွမ်းများပေးခြင်း။ ဒါဟာသူ့ငတ်မွတ်သောသူတို့ကိုဘာသာရပ်များများ၏သက်သာချောင်ချိရေးအပြီးကြည့်ရှုရန်အရှငျဘုရငျကို (အစိုးရ) ၏တာဝန်ဖြစ်ပါသည်။ အဆိုပါစံပြအုပ်စိုးသောမင်းကိုအမြော်အမြင်ရှိရှိတဏှာနှင့်ပူးတွဲမှုအတွက်ပေးခြင်းမရှိဘဲဥစ္စာဓနနှင့်ပစ္စည်းဥစ္စာပိုင်ဆိုင်မှုကွာပေးသင့်ပါတယ်။

သီလ: စာရိတ္တ - မြင့်မားသောကိုယ်ကျင့်တရားဇာတ်ကောင်။ သူအုပ်စိုးသောမင်းကိုလာဘ်ပေးလာဘ်ယူမှုများနှင့်အကျင့်ပျက်ခြစားမှုတင်းကြပ်စွာဖြစ်လျှင်,
သူ၏ subjects.This
, အကြမ်းဖက်မှုနှင့် indiscipline အလိုအလျှောက်တိုင်းပြည်ထဲကသုတ်မည်ဖြစ်သည်။

နှစ်သိမ့် Pariccaga: သူတို့လူမျိုး၏ကောငျးကြိုးအတှကျလျှင်ယဇျပူဇျော Making - ပုဂ္ဂိုလ်ရေးအမည်နှင့်ကျော်ကြားမှု; ပင်ဘဝဖြစ်ထားဖို့လိုပါလျှင်။ စသည်တို့ကိုလက်ဆောင်တွေ၏ထောက်ပံ့ငွေအားဖြင့်အုပ်စိုးသောမင်းကိုပိုပြီးထိရောက်နှင့်ပိုပြီးသစ္စာစောင့်သိဝန်ဆောင်မှုအပေါ်ဘာသာရပ်များနေမှု။
Ajjava: ရိုးသားမှု, သမာဓိ။ သူကလုံးဝရိုးဖြစ်ရမည်နှင့်သူ၏ကြီးစွန်းအောင်မြင်ရန်မဆိုကောက်သို့မဟုတ်သံသယနည်းလမ်းများမှပြန်လည်ကုယူဘယ်တော့မှရမည်ဖြစ်သည်။ သူကသူ့လုပ်ငန်းတာဝန်များ၏ဥတုအတွက်ကြောက်ရွံ့သောသဘောသည်သို့မဟုတ်မျက်နှာသာထံမှအခမဲ့ဖြစ်ရမည်။ Sigalovada သုတ္တန် “ပုဂ္ဂိုလ်တစ်ဦးမျက်နှာကို,
သူ့ကျော်ကြားမှုအတွက်လဆန်းလနဲ့တူကြီးထွားလာ ‘”

Maddava: ကြင်နာမှုသို့မဟုတ်နူးညံ့သိမ်မွေ့။ တစ်ဦးကအစိုးရသောမင်း၏အဖြောင့်မတ်တခါတရံကုမ္ပဏီများလိုအပ်နိုင်ပါသည်။ ဒါပေမဲ့ဒီကြင်နာမှုနှင့်နူးညံ့သိမ်မွေ့နှင့်အတူစနစ်ဖြစ်ပြီးရပါမည်။ ကြမ်းတမ်းသို့မဟုတ်ရက်စက်ကြမ်းကြုတ် - တစ်နည်းအားဖြင့်တစ်ဦးကိုအစိုးရသောမင်းအပေါ်မဖြစ်သင့်ပါတယ်။

Tapas: အလေ့အထအတွက်အာရုံနှင့်ခြိုးခြံခြွေ၏တွေဆက်ရှိနေ။ ကာမဂုဏ်အပျော်အပါးအတွက်အလိုလိုကျလှနျးခွငျး Shunning တစ်ခုစံပြဧကရာဇ်ထိန်းချုပ်မှုအောက်မှာကသူ၏ငါးအာရုံစောင့်ရှောက်။ တချို့ကမင်းအရာရှိ, သူတို့ရဲ့အနေအထားကိုသုံးပြီးကိုယ်ကျင့်တရားကငျြ့ကိုမထီမဲ့မွစေခြင်းငှါ - ဤကောင်းတစ်ဦးဧကရာဇ်၏ဖြစ်လာမပေးပါ။

Akkodha: က Non-မုန်းတီးမှု။ အစိုးရသောမင်းဘယ်သူ့ကိုမှဆန့်ကျင်ခြင်းမရှိငြိုးသငျ့သညျ။ မကျေနပ်မှုသိုမရှိရင်သူသည်းခံနှင့်ချစ်ခြင်းနှင့်အတူပြုမူရပေမည်။

Avihimsa: အကြမ်းမဖက်။ သူကဘယ်သူ့ကိုမှထိခိုက်မှရှောင်ကြဉ်သင့်ပါတယ်ဒါပေမဲ့သူလည်းလာသောအခါလိုအပ်သောငြိမ်းချမ်းရေးမြှင့်တင်ရန်နှင့်စစ်ကိုတားဆီးဖို့ကြိုးစားသင့်တယ်မသာ။

Khanty: စိတျရှညျနဲ့သည်းခံစိတ်။ မိမိအဒေါသဆုံးရှုံးမရှိရင်အုပျအခကျအခဲမြားနှငျ့ကဲ့ရဲ့ချီပင့်နိုင်ရပါမည်။ မည်သည့်အခါသမယမှာတော့သူစိတ်ခံစားမှုအတွက်ပေးခြင်းမရှိဘဲကိုယ်တော်တိုင်လုပ်ဆောင်သွားရန်နိုင်ဖြစ်သင့်သည်။ သူကစိတ်သဘောချင်းတူနှင့်ဥပေက္ခာသမ္နှင့်အတူပန်းစည်းများနှင့် brickbats နှစ်ဦးစလုံးခံယူနိုင်ဖြစ်သင့်သည်။

Avirodha: မဟုတ်သော - အတိုက်အခံနဲ့မဟုတ်သောငွိုး။ အစိုးရသောမင်းသည်လူများ၏အလိုတော်ကိုဆီးတားသင့်ပါဘူး။ သူကသူ့ဘာသာရပ်များအကြားတွင်ချစ်ကြည်ရင်းနှီးမှု၏ဝိညာဉ်ကိုပွုစုပြိုးထောရပါမည်။ တစ်နည်းအားဖြင့်မိမိလူမျိုးနဲ့အညီအုပ်ချုပ်သင့်တယ်။

ရှငျဘုရငျ Ajatasattu, Magadha ရှင်ဘုရင်၏အကသူ၏အချုပ်အခြာအာဏာအောက်တွင်ဆောင်ခဲ့နိုင်ရန်အတွက် Vajji ပိုင်နက်ကျူးကျော်ချင်တယ်။ သူကလိုအပ်သောညွှန်ကြားချက်များရရှိရန်,
မိမိဦးစီးချုပ်ဝန်ကြီး Vassakara
(Sapta aparihaniya ဓမ္မ) ကိုလိုက်နာသည်အထိ Lichchavis, Vajji

(ဈ) ထိုသူတို့သည်နေ့-to-နေ့ကအုပ်ချုပ်မှုနှငျ့ပတျသကျသောကိစ္စရပ်များဆွေးနွေးရန်ပုံမှန်အစည်းအဝေးများကျင်းပခဲ့တယ်။

(ii) သူတို့က, တွေ့ဆုံခဲ့ပြီးအလုပ်လုပ်ခဲ့နှင့်အဖွဲ့တစ်ဖွဲ့အဖြစ်လူစုခွဲ။

(iii) သူတို့ကတင်းကြပ်စွာတိုင်းပြည်၏တရားနောက်သို့လိုက်ကြ၏။

(ဃ) သူတို့ကအကွီးအကဲမြားမှလကျအောကျခံရှိကြ၏။

(v) သူတို့မိန်းမများ-ရိုးရာလေးစားနှင့်အမျိုးသမီးများ၏ဖိနှိပ်မှုပြစ်တင်ရှုတ်ချလိုက်ပါတယ်။

(vi) သူတို့ကဘာသာရေးဓလေ့ထုံးစံနောက်တော်သို့လိုက်နဲ့သူတို့ကိုကာကွယ်ပေးခဲ့တယ်။

(VII) သူတို့ဓမ္မဆရာလေးစားကြည်ညိုလေးမြတ်အတွက်သူတို့ကိုကျင်းပခဲ့တယ်။

Lichchavis ၏နိုငျငံတျော Vajji အဖြစ်လူသိများခဲ့ပါတယ်ကြောင့် rulers.The
မြို့တော်အရေအတွက်ဖြင့်ဖွဲ့စည်းဖြစ်ကြောင်းကိုမင်းများတို့သည်အကြား Vesali
သို့မဟုတ် Visala.The စည်းလုံးညီညွတ်ရေးအတွက် Vajji

အစိုးရသောမင်းတို့များ၏စည်းလုံးညီညွတ်မှု & အပြုအမူနှင့်စပ်လျဉ်းမင်္ဂလာတစျခုထပ်မံအကြံပြု:

- A ကောင်းဆုံးအုပ်စိုးသောမင်းကိုသမာသမတ်ပြုမူသင့်တယ်နှင့် biased

- A ကောင်းဆုံးကိုအစိုးရသောမင်းသည်သူ၏ဘာသာရပ်များမဆိုဆန့်ကျင်မုန်းတီးမှုမဆိုပုံစံအထဲ၌တည်မပေးသင့်ပါတယ်။

- ကတရားမျှတလျှင် A ကောင်းဆုံးကိုအုပ်စိုးသောမင်း, ပညတ်တရား၏ဘက်တော်သားအတွက်သမျှမကြောက်ကြပြသသင့်ပါတယ်။

- A ကောင်းဆုံးအုပ်စိုးသောမင်းကိုပြဌာန်းခံရဖို့ပညတ်တရား၏ရှင်းလင်းပြတ်သားတဲ့နားလည်မှုကိုသိမ်းယူရကြမည်။ ဒါဟာအစိုးရသောမင်းကျင့်တရားနှင့်ပြဋ္ဌာန်းရန်ဖို့အခွင့်အာဏာရှိပါတယ်လို့ပြဌာန်းမပေးသင့်ပါဘူး။ ဒါဟာကျိုးကြောင်းဆီလျော်ထုံးစံနှင့်ဘုံအသိနှင့်အတူအမှုကိုပြုရပါမည်, Cakkavatti Sihananda သုတ်ကဖော်ပြသည်။

Milinda Panha မှာ, ဖော်ပြအပ်ပါသည်: ‘မငျးရိုကျ၏,
မသင့်တော်သောအရည်အချင်းမပြည့်, အကျင့်ပျက်, မလျော်ကန်,
သူရန်, ညှဉ်းပန်းနှိပ်စက်ခံရဖို့ဘာသာရပ်ဖြစ်ပါသည်
un-တရားသဖြင့်ကိုယ်တော်တိုင်ထားရှိထားပြီး, ဘာဖြစ်လို့လဲဆိုတော့,
ကိုယ်ကျင့်တရား codes
နှင့်ထိုမှတပါး, censured ခံရဖို့လူထုတစ်ဦးဓားပြကဲ့သို့မိမိကိုမိမိပြုလုပ်သူအကဲအမှူးသည်။


မိမိအိမ်နီးချင်းများကသူ့ကို non-ရန်လိုရည်ရွယ်ချက်ကြေညာခဲ့ပါတယ်။ သူဟာရိုးသားမှု,
နျကနျကွောငျး, သနားခြင်းကရုဏာစိတ်, စေတနာ, ရှိသမျှတို့, Non-သာမန်ထက်,
မဟုတ်သောသိမ်းယူမှုနှင့်တိရိစ္ဆာန်များမှ Non-ဒဏ်ရာဆီသို့ဦးတည်သည်
သူကဘာသာရေးလွတ်လပ်ခွင့်နှင့်ရဲ့တစ်ဦးချင်းစီကတခြားအယူဝါဒများအတွက်အပြန်အလှန်လေးစားမှုအားပေးတယ်။ သူကကျေးလက်နေလူဦးဓမ္မတရားကိုဟောသည် Periodic ခရီးစဉ်အပေါ်သွား၏။ သူကဆေးပညာ,

utility ကို၏အကျင့်, ပါသည်။ သူကဖော်ပြတိရိစ္ဆာန်များမှရက်စက်မှုတားမွစျ။

တခါတရံမှာပွားနှင့်အတူနိုးထတစ်ခုမှာတစ်ဦးနိုင်ငံရေး-လူမှုပြုပြင်ပြောင်းလဲရေးသမားနှင့်စီးပွားရေးလွတ်မြောက်ခြင်းဖြစ်ဟုဆိုသည်။ အခြားအမှုအရာတို့ကိုများထဲတွင်လူများ၏တန်းတူရေးအသိအမှတ်ပြုသည်ဇာတ်စနစ်ကပြစ်တင်ရှုတ်ချ,

အကြံပြု, အမျိုးသမီးများ၏ status ကြီးပြင်း အစိုးရနဲ့အုပ်ချုပ်ရေးလူ့များ၏ပေါင်းစပ်ဖွဲ့စည်းခြင်းနှင့်လူ့အဖွဲ့အစည်းလောဘအားဖြင့်ပေမယ့်လူများအတွက်ထည့်သွင်းစဉ်းစားခြင်းနှင့်ကရုဏာနှင့်
run မရသင့်ကြောင်းသင်ပေးတယ်။

သာ. ကြီးမြတ်သည် လူ့စိတျထဲမှာ။

အားလုံးသတ္တဝါတွေကောင်းစွာ & ပျော်ရွှင်ဖြစ်နဲ့နောက်ဆုံးရည်မှန်းချက်အဖြစ်ထာဝရ Bliss ၏အသီးအပွမှီနိုင်ပါစေ။


69) Classical Nepali

69) शास्त्रीय नेपाली
2629 बुध 23 मई पाठ

जागिरको एक बुद्धको बुबाको साथ 4 शब्दहरु
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असल शासन - जागरूकता एक जागरण तरिका संग

संग जागृत एक को शिक्षा महानगरीय दर्शन को Eightfold पथ को पालन गर्न को
लागि अग्रणी मुक्तता पूर्णता को रूप मा अग्रणी - अनन्त ब्लाइस को रूप मा।
यो गलत छ कि अन्तर्वार्ता संग जागृत एकमात्र मात्र यो उच्चस्तरीय
आदर्शहरुमा रुचि छ र मानिसहरूको सामाजिक, आर्थिक र राजनीतिक कल्याणलाई
बेवास्ता गर्न उच्च दार्शनिक विचार।
संग जागृत एक सबै दयालुहरूको लागि दया र दया को एक अद्भुत भण्डार थियो र
केवल मानिसजाति तर सबै अन्य प्राणीहरु को खुशी मा पनि चासो थिएन .हामी एक
नैतिक र आध्यात्मिक आधार मा शुद्ध जीवन बिना बिना सम्भव थिएन

अपराधलाई हटाउनको लागि बताउँछ, मानिसहरूको आर्थिक अवस्था सुधार गर्न सकिन्छ। नियोक्ता र कर्मचारी बीचको सम्बन्धलाई मुख्य रूपले पर्याप्त वेतन, वरदान र प्रोत्साहनको भुक्तानी द्वारा क्रमबद्ध गरिएको हुनुपर्छ। राजाहरू
(सरकारहरू) यो तथ्यलाई गम्भीर विचारमा राख्नुपर्छ र मानिसलाई खुसी र
सन्तुलित बनाउनुपर्छ, त्यसकारण यसैले देश शान्तिपूर्ण र अपराध मुक्त हुनेछ।
र शान्ति सिकाउने जागरणको साथ जागृत एकमात्र न केवल गरे, उनी सम्भवतः
पहिलो र मात्र धार्मिक शिक्षक थिए जुन युद्धको प्रकोपलाई रोक्नको लागि
व्यक्तिगत रूपमा युद्धक्षेत्रमा गए।
बुद्धले स्यायस र कोलियासहरू बीचको रोचक तनावलाई रोहितिनीको पानीमा युद्ध गर्न थालेको थियो। आशीर्वादीले
पनि राजा अजतसट्टूलाई पराजित गरे। बुद्धले राम्रो सरकारको महत्त्व र
पूर्वाधारलाई छलफल गरे र देशलाई भ्रष्ट हुन कसरी देखाए, विद्रोह र दुखी
हुँदा सरकारको भ्रष्टाचार र अन्याय हुन सक्छ।
जागरूकता संग जागृत एक भ्रष्टाचार विरुद्ध र सरकार कसरी मानवीय सिद्धान्तहरूको आधारमा कार्य गर्ने कुरा गरे। जागरूकता संग जागृत एक पल्ट एक पल्ट भन्यो, ‘जब एक देश को शासक बस र राम्रो छ, मन्त्रीहरु बस र राम्रो भए; जब मन्त्रीहरू बस र राम्रो हुन्छन्, उच्च अधिकारीहरू मात्र र राम्रो हुन्छन्; जब उच्च अधिकारीहरू मात्र र राम्रो छन्, श्रेणी र फाईल बस र राम्रो भए; जब
रिक्सा र फाईल बस र राम्रो हुन्छ, मान्छे मान्छे र राम्रो हुन्छ। “(अंगुका
निकया) कोककावती सिहानन्द्ठा सुतामा, बुद्धले भने कि अनैतिकता र अपराध,
जस्तै चोरी, झूटो, हिंसा, घृणा, क्रूरता उत्पन्न हुन सक्छ
गरिबी बाट। राजाहरू र सरकारहरूले सजायको कारण अपराधलाई रोक्न प्रयास गर्न सक्छन्, तर यो बलद्वारा अपराध हटाउन बेकार छ। कुतदांता सुतामा, बुद्धले अपराधलाई कम गर्न बलियो बनाउन आर्थिक विकासको सुझाव दिए। सरकार देशको आर्थिक अवस्था सुधार गर्न देशको स्रोतहरू प्रयोग गर्नुपर्छ। यो
कृषि र ग्रामीण विकासमा लाग्न सक्छ, उद्यमीहरु र व्यवसायको लागि वित्तीय
सहयोग प्रदान गर्न, श्रमिकहरुको लागि पर्याप्त वेतन प्रदान गर्न को लागि
मानव सम्मान संग एक सभ्य जीवन को बनाए राखन। जागरूकता संग एक जागरण मा पनि
शान्ति र निरन्तरता को रखरखाव को समर्थन को लागि, जो बिल्कुल आवश्यक थियो
आध्यात्मिक विकासको लागि र एक देश भ्रष्ट हुन सक्छ र कसरी दुख्न सक्छ जब सरकारको प्रमुख भ्रष्ट र अन्याय हुन सक्छ। एक देश खुसी हुन, यो एक राम्रो र बस सरकार हुनुपर्छ। कसरी सरकारको यो फारम विकसित भएको छ उनको हकदार “दस रयल वर्ट्स” मा सिफारिसमा विस्तृत छ। (”दास-राजा धम्म”)। यी दस नियमहरू आज पनि लागू गर्न सकिन्छ जुन कुनै पनि सरकारले जुन देशलाई
शान्तिपूर्ण बनाउन चाहन्छन्। ‘दस रयल वर्ट्स’ निम्नानुसार छन्:

दाना: उदारता, उदारता वा दान। खाँचोमा परेकाहरूलाई सताउने। यो राजा (सरकार) को आफ्नो आवश्यक आवश्यक विषयहरूको कल्याण को लागी यो जिम्मेवारी हो। आदर्श शासकलाई बुद्धिमानी र उत्तेजित गर्न बिना बुद्धिमान र सम्पत्ति त्याग्नु पर्छ। अर्को शब्दमा उसले आफ्नो स्थितिको धनी बनाउन प्रयोग गर्ने प्रयास गर्नुपर्दैन।

सिला: नैतिकता - एक उच्च नैतिक चरित्र। उनीहरूलाई
कम्तीमा पाँच पछाडि निरीक्षण गर्न अनि व्यक्तिगत र सार्वजनिक जीवनमा
उनीहरूको विषयको लागि चमकदार उदाहरण बन्न आवश्यक छ। यो गुण धेरै
महत्त्वपूर्ण छ, किनभने, शासकले यसलाई पालन गर्दछ, कडा रूपमा, रिश्वत र
, हिंसा र निस्क्रियता देशमा स्वचालित रूपमा नष्ट हुनेछ।

आराम Pariccaga: यदि तिनीहरूले मान्छे को राम्रो लागि बलिदान बनाउनु - व्यक्तिगत नाम र प्रसिद्धि; जीवन चाहिन्छ भने आवश्अजजवा: ईमानदारी र सत्यता। उहाँ पूर्ण सीधा हुनुपर्छ अनि कुनै पनि कष्ट वा संदिग्ध माध्यमहरू को लागी कहिल्यै नबिर्सनु पर्दछ। उनी डरलाग्दो वा आफ्नो कर्तव्यको निर्वहनमा मुक्त हुनु पर्छ। बुद्धले स्टान्जामा ‘सिगलोभडा सुत्टा’ भन्छ भने यदि व्यक्तिले पक्षपात,
घृणित, डर वा अज्ञानताको अधीनमा न्याय कोयम राख्दछ भने तिनको लोकप्रियताले
वेपिंग चन्द्रमा जस्तो “

माधव: दया या कृपापन। एक शासकको धर्मीताले कहिलेकाहीं दृढताको आवश्यकता पर्दछ। तर यो दया र दयालुपन संग स्वभाव हुनुपर्छ। अर्को शब्दमा एक शासक भन्दा बढी हुँदैन - कठोर वा क्रूर।

तापा: इन्द्रको बिरुवा र बानीमा बिसाउने। कामुक मनोरञ्जनमा अभिनय भ्रामक, एक आदर्श राजाले आफ्नो पाँच इन्द्रलाई नियन्त्रणमा राख्छ। केही शासकहरूले आफ्नो स्थान प्रयोग गरेर नैतिक आचरण गर्न सक्छन् - यो एक राम्रो राजाको होइन।

अकोहो: गैर-घृणा। शासकले कसैको विरुद्ध कुनै दयालु हुनुपर्दैन। दुर्व्यवहारलाई रोक्न उहाँले रोक्न र प्रेमको साथ कार्य गर्नु पर्छ।

Avihimsa: अहिंसा। न केवल उसले कसैलाई हानिकारक बनाउनु पर्छ तर आवश्यक पर्दा पनि उसले शान्तिलाई प्रवर्द्धन र युद्ध रोक्न प्रयास गर्नुपर्छ। उहाँले गैर हिंसा उच्चतम सम्भावित हदसम्म अभ्यास गर्नु पर्छ जब सम्म यो एक आदर्श शासक को अपेक्षा दृढता संग हस्तक्षेप गर्दैन।

खाटी: धैर्य र सहनशीलता। आफ्नो स्वाद गुमाउनु हुँदैन, शासकले कठोर र अपमानित हुन सक्दछन्। कुनै पनि अवसरमा उसले भावनाहरूलाई दिईरहेछ आफैलाई आचरण गर्न सक्षम हुनुपर्छ। उहाँले समान आत्मा र समानता संग दुवै गुलाब र ईंटब्याट प्राप्त गर्न सक्षम हुनु पर्छ।

Avirodha: गैर विरोध र गैर दुश्मन। शासकले मानिसहरूको इच्छाको विरोध गर्दैनन्। उसले आफ्ना प्रजाहरू बीचको इमानदारीको आत्मा खेती गर्नु पर्छ। अर्को शब्दमा उसले उहाँका जनहरूको साथमा शासन गर्नुपर्छ।

राजा अजातासुट्टू, मगध राजा यो आफ्नो सार्वभौमिकता अन्तर्गत ल्याउन वाजजी क्षेत्रमा आक्रमण गर्न चाहन्थे। उहाँले आफ्नो मुख्यमंत्री वासाकारा पठाएर जागरूकता संग जागृत वन को सल्लाह खोज्नु आवश्यक निर्देशहरू प्राप्त गर्न। जागरूकताको सल्लाहको साथ जागरण एक थियो कि लिचिभिस, वाजका शासकहरूले दबाब
र पराजित गर्न सक्दैनन् जब सम्म उनी सात धम्मका थिए जुन हार (सप्त
अर्पणानिया धम्म) को लागी अनुकूल थिएनन्।

(i) उनीहरूले नियमित बैठकमा दिनदिनै प्रशासनको सम्बन्धमा छलफल गर्न छलफल गरे।

(ii) तिनीहरूले भेट्टाए, काम गरे र एक दलको रूपमा फैलियो।

(iii) उनीहरूले देशको कानूनलाई कडा रूपमा पछ्याए।

(iv) तिनीहरू एल्डरहरूलाई आज्ञाकारी थिए।

(v) उनीहरूले महिला-लोक आदर गरे र महिलाहरूको दण्डको निन्दा गरे।

(vi) तिनीहरूले धार्मिक परम्पराहरू पछ्याए र तिनीहरूलाई सुरक्षित गरे।

(vii) उनीहरू पादरीहरूको सम्मान गरे र उनीहरूलाई पूजामा राखे।

लिचीव को राज्य वाजजी को रूप मा जानिन्छ र यसमा शासकहरु लाई संख्या मा
शामिल थियो। राजधानी Vesali या Visala थियो। शासकहरु को बीच एकता वाज राज्य
को एकता र अखंडता को पछि मुख्य बल थियो।

शासकहरूको एकता र व्यवहारबारे धन्यभागीले यस्तो सल्लाह दिए:

- एक असल शासकले निष्पक्ष कार्य गर्नु पर्छ र पक्षपातपूर्ण हुनु हुँदैन र
एक विशेष समूहको बीचमा अर्को विरुद्धको भेदभाव गर्नु हुँदैन।

- एक असल शासकले आफ्नो कुनै पनि विषयको विरुद्ध कुनै पनि घृणित पक्षलाई रोक्न हुँदैन।

- एक असल शासकले यो न्यायसंगत छ भने कानूनको प्रवर्तनमा कुनै डर देखाउनुपर्दैन।

- एक असल शासकले कानून लागू गर्न को लागी स्पष्ट बुझ्नको लागी हुनुपर्छ। यो केवल लागू गर्न हुँदैन किनकि शासकलाई कानून लागू गर्ने अधिकार छ। यो व्यावहारिक तरिकामा हुनुपर्छ र सामान्य अर्थको साथ, ककवती सिहानान्डा सुता बताउँछ।

पानमा यो भनिएको छ: ‘यदि एक व्यक्ति, जो अपमानजनक छ, असहज, अनैतिक,
अनुचित, साम्राज्यको अयोग्य र अयोग्य छ भने, आफैले राजा वा शासकलाई उच्च
अख्तियारले पराजित गरिसकेको छ।
द्वारा विभिन्न सजायको अधीनमा रहनुहोस्, किनभने अयोग्य अनि अयोग्य छ,
उहाँले आफूलाई सार्वभौमिकताको सीटमा अन-धर्मी राख्नुभएको छ।
जो नैतिक कोडहरूको उल्लङ्घन र अपराध गर्ने र मानवजातिको सबै सामाजिक
कानुनको आधारभूत नियमहरू उल्लङ्घन गर्दछ, समानतः सजायको विषय हो;
र थप, घृणित हुन शासक हो जसले आफैलाई जनताको चोरको रूपमा सञ्चालन गर्दछ।
यक छ। उपहारको अनुदानद्वारा। शासकले विषयहरूलाई अधिक कुशल र अधिक वफादारी सेवामा उत्प्रेरित गर्छ।

अशोक, यस सिद्धान्त को एक चमकदार उदाहरण को अनुसार, धुमा को अनुसार जीवित र
प्रचार गरे र उनको विषय र सबै मानवता को सेवा गर्न को लागि हल गरे।
आफ्नो छिमेकीहरूलाई आफ्नो गैर-आक्रामक इरादा घोषित गरे, उनीहरूको सद्भावको
आश्वासन र शान्ति र गैर आक्रामकताको सन्देश बाँडेर टाढा राजाहरूलाई
दूतावास पठाउँछन्।
ईमानदारी, सत्यता, दया, बेपत्ता, गैर हिंसा, सबै, गैर अपव्यय, गैर
अधिग्रहण, र जनावरहरूमा गैर चोटको प्रति उचित व्यवहारको सामाजिक-नैतिक
गुणहरूको प्रवर्द्धन प्रवर्द्धन प्रवर्द्धन गर्नुभयो।
उहाँले धार्मिक स्वतन्त्रता र एकअर्काको सृष्टिको लागि पारस्परिक सम्मानलाई प्रोत्साहन दिनुभयो। उहाँ आवधिक यात्राहरूमा धुमालाई ग्रामीण जनतालाई प्रचार गर्दै गए। उहाँले
सार्वजनिक उपयोगका कामहरू जस्तै पुरुष र जनावरहरूको लागि अस्पतालहरूको
स्थापना, औषधीको आपूर्ति, सडकको पेड र पेटी रोपण, कुखुराको खुवाउने, र शेड र
आरामको घर निर्माण गर्ने।
उहाँले स्पष्ट रूपमा जनावरहरूलाई क्रूरताबाट निषेध गर्नुभयो।

कहिलेकाहीँ जागरूकता संग जागृत एक एक राजनीतिक-सामाजिक सुधारकर्ता र आर्थिक मुक्तिदाता भनिएको छ। अन्य
चीजहरूको बीचमा, मानिसहरूको समानताको रूपमा मान्यता प्राप्त जाति
व्यवस्थालाई दोषी ठहरायो, सामाजिक-आर्थिक परिस्थितिलाई सुधार गर्नको लागि
बोलाइयो, धनी र गरीबहरू बीचको सम्पत्तिको समान वितरणको महत्त्वलाई मान्यता
दिईयो, सिफारिस गरिएका महिलाहरु
सरकार र प्रशासनमा मानववादको समावेशीकरण, र सिकाउनुभयो कि एक समाज लालच द्वारा संचालित छैन तर मान्छे को लागि ध्यान र दया संग। यी
सबै बाहेक, मानिसजातिको लागि जागरूकताको सहयोगको साथ जागृत एक एकदम ठूलो छ
किनकि धन्यबाद एक कुरामा बन्द भएको छ जुन अरु सामाजिक सुधारकर्ता पहिले
देखि नै वा पछि नगर्नु भएको छ, यो मानव रोगको गहिरो जड सम्म जान्छ
मानव मनमा।

सबै प्राणीहरू राम्ररी र आनन्दित हुन र अनन्त ब्लाइसको फलको अन्तिम लक्ष्यको रूपमा प्राप्त गर्न सक्छ।

Stunning 40 Fresh and Beautiful Front Yard Landscaping Ideas #LandscapingIdeas #landscapefrontyardflowers
84) Classical Sinhala

සම්භාව්ය සිංහල

2629 සති 23 මැයි පාඩම්

බුද්ධිමත් ඉගැන්වීම් 4 කින් යුක්තව පිබිදෙව්
හොඳ අවබෝධයකින් කටයුතු කරන්න!

ඔබගේ මෙම ගූගල් පරිවර්තනය ඔබේ මව්භාෂාව තුළ නිවැරදි කිරීම…/good-governance-th…/
යහපාලනය-පිබිදුණු අයව දැනුවත් කිරීමේ මාර්ගයක්

පිබිදීමක් ඇති අයගේ ඉගැන්වීම් උතුම් දර්ශනය වන්නේ අෂ්ටාංගික මාර්ගය සම්පූර්ණ කිරීම සඳහා වූ අෂ්ටාංගික මාර්ගයයි. එහෙත්
පිබිදුණු පුද්ගලයා දැනුවත් කිරීම එවන් උද්යෝගිමත් පරමාදර්ශයන්ට සහ ජනතාවගේ
සමාජ, ආර්ථික හා දේශපාලන සුභසාධනය නොසලකා හරිමින් දාර්ශනික සිතුවිල්ලක්
පමණක් බව නිගමනය කිරීමට වැරදියි.
සහිතව දැනුවත් කිරීම යනු සියලු වර්ගයන්ට කරුණාව හා දයානුකම්පාව පිළිබඳ
පුදුමාකාර ගබඩාවකි. මනුෂ්ය වර්ගයා පමණක් නොව අනෙකුත් සියලු සිත් සතුටු
කිරීමටද ඉමහත් උනන්දුවක් දැක්වීය.

අපරාධ මර්දනය කිරීම සඳහා ජනතාවගේ ආර්ථික තත්ත්වය දියුණු කළ යුතු බව පැහැදිලි කරයි. සේවායෝජකයා හා සේවකයා අතර ඇති සම්බන්ධතාවයන් සැලකිය යුතු ලෙස ප්රමාණවත් වැටුප්, දීමනා සහ දිරි දීමනා ගෙවිය යුතුය. රජවරු මෙම කාරණය බරපතළ ලෙස සලකා බැලිය යුතු අතර, ජනතාව සන්තෝෂයෙන් හා තෘප්තිමත් කළ යුතුය. ඒ නිසා රට සාමකාමී සහ අපරාධකාරී වනු ඇත. ප්රචලිතව
සිටින පිබිදුණු තැනැත්තා පමණක් නොව ප්රචණ්ඩත්වය හා සාමය උගන්වන්නේ ඔහු
පමණක් නොව යුද්ධයක් පැතිරීම වැළැක්වීම සඳහා ඔහු පෞද්ගලිකවම සටන් බිමට ගිය
පළමු හා එකම ආගමික ගුරුවරයා විය හැකිය.
රෝහිණී මුහුදු තීරයට එරෙහිව යුද්ධ කිරීමට සූදානම් වූ ශාක්යයන් සහ කොලියස් අතර බුදුන් දුර්වල විය. රජතුමා
අජාටාස්ට්ටු රජතුමා විසිනි. බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේ රජතුමාගේ දූෂිත හා
අයුක්තිසහගත ලෙස පිරිහෙන රටක් දූෂිත, පිරිහුණ සහ අසතුටෙන් පත්විය හැකි
අන්දම පිළිබඳ යහපත් රජයක් සහ පූර්ව නිපුණතා පිළිබඳව සාකච්ඡා කළේය.
දැනුවත්භාවය ඇතිව පිබිදුණු පුද්ගලයෙක් දූෂණයට එරෙහිව කතා කළ අතර, මානුෂීය මූලධර්ම මත පදනම්ව රජය ක්රියා කළ යුතු ආකාරය ගැන කතා කළේය. පිබිදුණු අය දැනුවත් කළ විට, ‘රටේ පාලකයෙක් සාධාරණයි, හොඳයි, ඇමතිවරු සාධාරණයි, හොඳයි. ඇමතිවරු සාධාරණයි, හොඳයි, ඉහල නිලධාරීන් සාධාරණයි, හොඳයි. උසස් නිලධාරීන් සාධාරණ හා හොඳ නම්, ශ්රේෂ්ඨාධිකරණය සාධාරණ හා හොඳ ය; ශ්රේෂ්ඨ
හා සාධාරණ යුගයක් සාධාරණයි, හොඳයි, ජනතාව සාධාරණ හා හොඳයි. ‘(අගුටුටාර
නිකාය) කැකට්ටේ සිහනාද සූත්රයේ දී බුදුන් ප්රකාශ කළේ සොරකම, අපරාධය,
ප්රචණ්ඩත්වය, වෛරය, කුරිරුත්වය වැනි පිළිකුල් සහගත ක්රියාවන්
දරිද්රතාවයෙන්. අපරාධ
සහ අපරාධ මගින් ආණ්ඩුවලින් දඬුවම් මගින් අපරාධ මර්දනය කිරීමට උත්සාහ කළත්,
අපරාධ මගින් අපරාධ මගින් මුලිනුපුටා දැමීම නිෂ්ඵල ය.
කුටැඩන්ත සූත්රයේ දී, බුදුන්ට සාපේක්ෂව අඩු කිරීමට බල කිරීම වෙනුවට ආර්ථික සංවර්ධන යෝජනා කලේය. රටේ ආර්ථික තත්ත්වය වැඩිදියුණු කිරීම සඳහා රජය සතු සම්පත් භාවිතා කළ යුතුය. එය
කෘෂිකාර්මික හා ග්රාමීය සංවර්ධනයට යොමු විය හැකිය. ව්යවසායකයින්ට හා
ව්යාපාරවලට මූල්යමය ආධාර සැපයීමටත්, මානව ගෞරවය සහිත යහපත් ජීවිතයක් පවත්වා
ගැනීමටත් කම්කරුවන්ට ප්රමාණවත් වැටුපක් සැපයිය යුතුය. පිබිදීමක් ඇතිව
පිබිදීමක් ඇතිව, සාමය හා සුහදශීලිත්වය පවත්වා ගැනීම අත්යවශ්ය විය
ආධ්යාත්මික සංවර්ධනය උදෙසා රටක් දූෂිත හා අයුක්තිසහගතව සිටින රටක් දූෂිත සහ අසතුටට පත්විය හැකි ආකාරය පෙන්වා දුන්නේය. රටක් සන්තර්පනය කිරීමට නම්, එය හොඳ සහ සාධාරණ ආණ්ඩුවක් තිබිය යුතුය. සාධාරණ ආණ්ඩුවක මෙම ආකෘතිය විකාශනය කර ඇති ආකාරය “ඔහුගේ රාජකීය කල්ලි” යනුවෙන් නිර්දේශ කර ඇත. (”දස රාජා ධම්ම”). සාමකාමීව රට පාලනය කිරීමට කැමති ඕනෑම රජයක් මගින් මෙම නීති දහය යොදා ගත හැකි ය.

Dana: ලිබරල්භාවය, ත්යාගශීලීත්වය හෝ පුණ්යායතනය. දුප්පත් අයට දානය කිරීම. රජතුමාගේ (රජයට) රාජකාරිය තම සුභ සිද්ධිය පිළිබඳ සුභ සාධනය බලා ගැනීමයි. පරිපූර්ණ පාලකයෙකු තණ්හා හා බැඳීම් නොසලකා හැර, ධනය හා දේපල ප්රඥාව ලබා දිය යුතුය. වෙනත් වචනවලින් කිවහොත් ඔහු පොහොසත් වීමට උත්සාහ නොකළ යුතුය.

සීලා: සදාචාරය - ඉහළ සදාචාර චරිතයක්. ඔහු
අවම වශයෙන් පහම පරිච්ඡේදයන් නිරීක්ෂණය කළ යුතු අතර, පෞද්ගලිකව හා පොදු
ජීවිතයේ දී තම විෂයයන් සඳහා හොඳ උදාහරණයක් ලෙස කටයුතු කළ යුතුය. මෙම ගුණධරය
ඉතා වැදගත් ය, පාලකයා එය අනුගමනය කරන්නේ නම්, දැඩි ලෙස, අල්ලස් හා දූෂණය
, හිංසනය සහ අවිශ්වාසය රට තුළ ස්වයංක්රීයව අතුගා දැමෙනු ඇත.

ස්මාර්ට් පටිච්චාගෝ: ජනතාවගේ යහපත උදෙසා නම් පරිත්යාගයන් කරන්නේ නම් - පෞද්ගලික නාමය සහ කීර්තිය; අවශ්ය නම් ජීවිතයේ පවා. තෑගි ප්රදානය කිරීමෙනි. පාලකයා වඩා කාර්යක්ෂම හා වඩා පක්ෂපාත සේවාවක් සඳහා විෂයයන් යොමු කරයි.
අජවා: අවංකත්වය සහ අඛණ්ඩතාව. ඔහු කෙළින්ම සරල විය යුතු අතර, ඔහුගේ අරමුණු සාක්ෂාත් කර ගැනීම සඳහා උමතු වූ හෝ සැක සහිත මාධ්යයන් කිසිවිටෙකත් නොකළ යුතුය. ඔහුගේ රාජකාරි ඉටු කිරීමේදී ඔහු බිය හෝ කරුණාවෙන් නිදහස් විය යුතුය. බුද්ධාගම සූත්රයේ පට්ටියක් තුළ බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේ ප්රකාශ කරයි. යම්
පුද්ගලයෙකු ෆැසිස්ට්වාදයට යටත් නොවී, වෛරය, බියෙන් හෝ අඥානකමට යටත් නොවී
නම්, ඔහුගේ ජනප්රියත්වය “

මද්දෙවාව: කරුණාවන්තකම හෝ මෘදුකම. පාලකයෙකුගේ ධර්මිෂ්ඨකම ඇතැම්විට ස්ථිරව සිටිය යුතුය. නමුත් මෙය කාරුණික හා මෘදු ලෙස කල් දැමිය යුතුය. වෙනත් වචනවලින් කියනවා නම් පාලකයෙක් අවසන් විය යුතු නැත - දරුණු හෝ කුරිරු ය.

ටපා: පුරුදුවලදී සංවේදී හා කප්පාදු සීමා කිරීම. ශාරීරික මනෝභාවයන් තුළ හිරිහැර කිරීම, කදිම මොනාකාරය ඔහුගේ මනස පහ පාලනය කරයි. සමහර පාලකයන් ඔවුන්ගේ තත්වය යොදාගනිමින්, නරක සදාචාරාත්මක හැසිරීමක යෙදිය හැකිය - මෙය හොඳ රාජාණ්ඩුවක් බවට පත් නොවේ.

අක්කොඩා: වෛරයෙන් තොරයි. පාලකයෙක් කාටවත් නොකියන්න ඕනෑ. දුක්ගැනවිලි නොසලකා හැරියත්, ඔහු ඉවසීමෙන් හා ප්රේමයෙන් කටයුතු කළ යුතුය.

අවිහිම්සා: නොසැලකිලිමත්කම. ඕනෑම කෙනෙකුට හානියක් නොකරනවා පමණක් නොව, සාමය ප්රවර්ධනය කිරීමට අවශ්ය වන විටත් අවශ්ය වන විටත් එය වළක්වා ගත යුතුය. පරිපූර්ණ පාලකයෙකුගෙන් අපේක්ෂා කරන ස්ථිරත්වය මැදිහත් නොවී සිටීමට හැකි තාක් දුරට ඔහු ප්රචණ්ඩත්වය නොසලකා හැරිය යුතුය.

ඛන්ටි: ඉවසීම සහ ඉවසීම. තම කෝපය නැති කර නොගෙන, පාලකයාට දුෂ්කරතා සහ අපහාසයන් දරාගත යුතුය. ඕනෑම අවස්ථාවක හැඟීම්වලට ඉඩ නොදී තමන් හැසිරීමට ඔහුට හැකි විය යුතුය. ඒ හා සමානම ආකාරයකින් බුකට් හා ගඩොල් බක්කි ලබා ගැනීමට ඔහුට හැකි විය යුතුය.

ගුවන් තොටුපල: විපක්ෂ නොවන සහ සතුරුකම. පාලකයෝ ජනතාවගේ කැමැත්තට විරුද්ධ නොවිය යුතුය. ඔහුගේ විෂයයන් අතර සමබර ආත්මය වර්ධනය කරගත යුතුය. වෙනත් වචනවලින් කියනවා නම් ඔහු තම ජනතාව සමග එකඟ විය යුතුය.

මැග්ඩේ රජු රජ වූ අජාටසත්තු රජතුමාගේ පරමාධිපත්යය යටතට ගෙන ඒම සඳහා වජි දේශය ආක්රමණය කිරීමට අවශ්ය විය. අවශ්ය උපදෙස් ලබා ගැනීම සඳහා ඔහුගේ ප්රධාන අමාත්ය වාසාරාකාර මහතා යැවීමෙන් ඔහු අවතැන්වූවන්ගේ උපදෙස් ලබා ගත්තේය. පිබිදීමක් සහිතව පිබිදුණු අයගේ අවවාදය වූයේ, වජිගේ පාලකයින් වූ ලචකාවිස්
පරාජය කිරීමට හිතකර නොසිටි ධම්මස් හත්වලට අනුකූල වන තුරු වෑයම් කර පරාජය කළ
නොහැකිය (සප්ත aparihaniya ධම්ම)

(i) එදිනෙදා පරිපාලනය සම්බන්ධ කාරණා සාකච්ඡා කිරීම සඳහා ඔවුන් විධිමත් රැස්වීම් පැවැත්වූහ.

(ii) ඔවුන් කණ්ඩායමක් ලෙස හමු වූ, වැඩ කර විසුරුවා හරින ලදී.

(iii) රටෙහි නීතිය ඔවුන් දැඩි ලෙස අනුගමනය කළහ.

(iv) ඔවුන් වැඩිමහල්ලන්ට යටත් විය.

(v) ඔවුන් කාන්තාවන්ට ගරු කරන අතර කාන්තා හිංසනය හෙළා දුටුවෝය.

(vi) ඔවුහු ආගමික චාරිත්ර අනුගමනය කළහ.

(vii) පූජකයන්ට ගරු කළ අතර ඔවුන්ව ගෞරවයෙන් සැලකුවේය.

ලිබ්වාවිස් රාජධානිය වජි ලෙස හැඳින්වූ අතර පාලකයෝ ගණනක් විය. ප්රධාන නගරය
වූයේ වෙසාලි හෝ වීසාලාය. පාලකයන් අතර එක්සත්කම වජ්ජි රාජධානියේ එක්සත්කම
හා ඒකීයභාවය පිටුපස ප්රධාන බලවේගය විය.

පාලකයන්ගේ එකමුතුව හා හැසිරීම ගැන, ආශිර්වාද කළ තැනැත්තා තවදුරටත් උපදෙස් දෙයි:

- හොඳ පාලකයෙක් අපක්ෂපාතීව ක්රියා කළ යුතු අතර, තවත් එක් පුද්ගලයෙකුට එරෙහිව එක් විශේෂිත සමූහයක් අතර වෙනස්කම් කිරීම නොකළ යුතුය.

- හොඳ පාලකයෙකු තම යටත් වැසියන්ට වෛර නොකළ යුතු ය.

- හොඳ පාලකයෙකු නීතියේ විධිවිධාන ක්රියාත්මක කිරීමේ දී කුමක් හෝ බියක් දක්වන්නේ නැත, එය යුක්තිසහගත නම්.

- හොඳ පාලකයෙකු නීතිය ක්රියාත්මක කිරීම සඳහා පැහැදිලි අවබෝධයක් තිබිය යුතුය. නීතිය ක්රියාත්මක කිරීමට පාලකයාට බලය ඇති නිසා පමණක් එය ක්රියාත්මක නොකළ යුතුය. එය සාධාරණ ආකාරයකින් හා සාමාන්ය බුද්ධියකින් යුතුව සිදු කළ යුතු ය, කැකට්ටේ සිහනාද සූත්රය ප්රකාශ කරයි.

පහන්හි සඳහන් වන්නේ, ‘නුසුදුසු, නුසුදුසු, දුරාචාරී, නුසුදුසු, නුසුදුසු
හා නුසුදුසු මිනිසෙකු නම්, ඔහු බලසම්පන්න රජෙකු හෝ පාලකයෙකු බවට පත් කර
තිබේ නම් ඔහු වධබන්ධනයට ලක් කරනු ඇත
විසින් විවිධාකාර දඬුවම්වලට යටත්වනු ඇත. මන්ද, නුසුදුසු හා නුසුදුසු
පුද්ගලයෙකු වීම නිසා, ඔහු ස්වෛරීභාවයෙහි ධර්මිෂ්ඨකමේ නොසෑහේ තබා ඇත.
සියලු සමාජ නීතිවල සදාචාර සංග්රහ හා නීති රීති උල්ලංඝනය කරන හා අනිසි ලෙස
පාලනය කරන පාලකයා වැනි පාලකයෙකු ද එක හා සමානව දඬුවමට යටත් වේ.
එපමනක් නොව, මහජනතාව කොල්ලකරුවෙකු ලෙස හැසිරෙන පාලකයෙකු වන්නේය.
මූලධර්මය පිළිබඳ කදිම නිදසුනක් වන අශෝක අධිරාජයා ධර්මය අනුව ධර්මය දේශනා
කිරීම සහ ඔහුගේ යටත් වැසියන් සහ සියලු මනුෂ්යත්වයට සේවය කිරීමට තීරණය කළේය.
අසල්වැසියන්ට තම ආක්රමණශීලී අභිලාෂයන් ප්රකාශ කරමින් ඔහු සිය හිතවතුන්ට
සහතික කොට, සාමය සහ ආක්රමණික නොවන පණිවුඩ සහිත දුර ඈත රජුන් වෙත යැවී ය.
සත්යතාව, දයානුකම්පාව, කරුණාවන්තකම, නොසලකා හැරීම, සියල්ලන් කෙරෙහි
සැලකිලිමත් හැසිරීමක්, අසංවිධානාත්මක, නොගැලපීම්, හා සතුන්ට හානිකර නොවන
සමාජයේ සදාචාරාත්මක ගුණාංග ප්රවර්ධනය කිරීම ඔහු ප්රවර්ධනය කළේය.
ඔහු එකිනෙකාගේ ඇදහීම සඳහා ආගමික නිදහස සහ අන්යෝන්ය ගෞරවය දිරිමත් කළේය. ධර්ම දේශනා කරමින් ග්රාමීය ජනතාව වෙත කාලාන්තර චාරිකාවල නිරත විය. ඔහු
මිනිසුන් සහ සතුන් සඳහා රෝහල් පිහිටුවීම, ඖෂධ සැපයීම, පැත්තේ ගස් හා වතුවල
සිටුවීම, ළිං කැණීම, ජලය දැමීමේ ශාලා සහ විවේක ගෙවල් ඉදිකිරීම වැනි පොදු
සේවා කාර්යයන් සිදු කළේය.
උන් වහන්සේ කුරිරු අයට සත්වයන්ට තහනම් කළේය.

සමහර විට පිබිදුණු අයව දැනුවත් කිරීම දේශපාලන සහ සමාජ ප්රතිසංස්කරණවාදීන් වන අතර ආර්ථික අධිරාජ්යවාදියෙකු යැයි කියනු ලැබේ. අනෙක්
කාරණා අතර, කුල ක්රමය, ජනතාවගේ සමානාත්මතාවය පිළිගත්, සමාජ-ආර්ථික තත්වයන්
වැඩිදියුණු කිරීමේ අවශ්යතාවය පිළිබඳව, පොහොසතුන් හා දුගීන් අතර ධනය අතර
සාධාරණ ලෙස බෙදී යාමේ වැදගත්කම හඳුනාගත් කාන්තාවන්, කාන්තාවන්ගේ තත්ත්වය
ඉහළ නැංවීය.
පාලනය හා පරිපාලනය සංස්ථාපනය කිරීම, සමාජයට තණ්හාව විසින් පාලනය නොකළ යුතු
බවත් ජනතාව සඳහා සැලකිල්ල සහ අනුකම්පාව අනුගමනය කළ යුතු බවත්ය.
සියලු දේ තිබියදීත්, පිබිදුණු පුද්ගලයා මානව වර්ගයා පිළිබඳ දැනුවත්භාවය
ඇති දායකත්වය වැඩි ය. ආශීර්වාද ලත් පුද්ගලයා මීට පෙර හෝ අන් කවර කලෙකවත්
සමාජ ප්රතිසංස්කරණවාදීන් විසින් ඉටු නොකළ මොහොතේ දී, එනම් මිනිසාගේ ගැඹුරට
මුල් බැසගත්
මිනිස් මනසේ.

සියලු සත්වයන් සතුටුදායක හා සන්තෘප්තිමත් වන අතර සදාකාලික බ්ලඩ්ස්ගේ ඵල අවසන් ඉලක්කය වනු ඇත.

60 Airline Logos Design
83) Classical Sindhi

83) Classical Sindhi

2629 ايم اي 23 مئي ايم ڊي

ٻڏل هڪ ڌيان ڌيان سان گڏ 4 لفظن جي درس سان
ڇا توهان کي چڱيء ريت ڏيو!

هن کي گوگل جو ترجمو توهان جي مادري زبان ۾ درست ڪيو…/good-governance-th…/
سٺائي حڪومتداري-بي ايمانداري طريقي سان هڪجهڙا

جي تعليم حاصل ڪرڻ سان گڏوگڏ عظيم فلسفو آيٽ فولڊ پاٿ جي پيروي ڪرڻ آهي،
مڪمل طور تي آزاديء واري بلندي کي حتمي گول جي حيثيت سان.
اهو غلط آهي ته اهو نتيجو اهو ٿي چڪو آهي ته بي جان هڪ شعور سان صرف اهڙن
نظرين نظرين ۽ عوام جي سماجي، معاشي ۽ سياسي فلاح و غارت جي نظرانداز ڪرڻ
واري فلسفيڪ سوچ ۾ دلچسپي رکي ٿو.
سان بيهڻ وارو مهربانيء جو هڪ شاندار مخزن ۽ سڀني مخلوقات جي رحم ۽
خوشحالي هئي، نه رڳو انسان ذات جي خوشيء ۾ دلچسپي هئي، ٻين سڀني کان به
وڌيڪ خوشگوار آهي، اخلاقي ۽ روحاني طور تي

جن کي ڏوهن جي خاتمي لاء، عوام جي اقتصادي حالت کي بهتر بنائڻ گهرجي. ملازمت ۽ ملازم جي وچ ۾ تعلق لازمي طور تي مناسب اجائي، تحفا ۽ تشخيص جي ادائيگي سان ترتيب ڏيڻ گهرجي. بادشاهن
(حڪومتن) کي هن حقيقت کي سنجيدگي سان غور ۾ رکڻ گهرجي ۽ ماڻهن کي خوش ۽
اطمينان رکي، انهي جي نتيجي ۾ ملڪ امن ۽ ڏوهار آزاد ٿي ويندو.
رڳو ھڪڙي خبرداري سان بيھڪ وارو ھڪڙو غیر تشدد ۽ امن سان، ھو ھڪڙو ئي ۽
صرف ديني استاد ھو، جيڪو ذاتي طور تي جنگ جي ميدان کي روڪڻ لاء جنگ جي
ميدان ۾ ويو.
مهاتما ٻڌ Sakyas ۽ ڪالييا جي وچ ۾ ڪاوڙ وچ ۾ تڪرار تڪرار جو سبب ڏسڻ ۾ اچي ٿو. برڪت
هڪ بادشاهه پڻ اججازت سنگھ جي پڻ ٻڌل آهي ۽ هڪ سٺو حڪومت جي ضرورت آهي. هن
ڏيکاري ته ملڪ ڪيئن خراب ٿي سگهي ٿي، جڏهن ته حڪومت بدعنوان ۽ ناانصافي
ٿيندي، جڏهن حڪومت حڪومت کي خراب ۽ ناانصافي بڻجي ٿي.
هوشيار هڪ سان آگاهي فساد جي خلاف ڳالهايو ۽ حڪومت ڪيئن انساني حقن جي بنياد تي ڪم ڪيو وڃي. ھڪڙي وڏي ڌيان سان بيھڪ ھڪڙي چيو، ‘جڏھن ملڪ جو حاڪم بس ۽ سٺي آھي، وزيرن کي صرف ۽ سٺو بنائي. جڏهن وزيرن کي چڱائي ۽ سٺيون آهن، اعلي عملدار بس ۽ سٺو بڻجي وڃن ٿا. جڏهن اعلي عملدار بس ۽ سٺا آهن، درجو ۽ سٺي رينج ۽ فائيل بڻجي وئي آهي. جڏهن
جو درجو ۽ فائيل صرف هئڻ ۽ سٺو بڻجي ويو، ماڻهو ماڻهو صرف ۽ سٺو بڻجي ويا.
“(انگتر نيکايا) ڪڪاوهتي سهانانڌي سوت ۾، Buddha چيو ته غير اخلاقي ۽ جرم،
جهڙوڪ غلا، ڪوڙ، تشدد، نفرت، ظلم،
غربت کان. بادشاهن ۽ حڪومتن کي عذاب جي ذريعي جرم کي منهن ڏيڻ جي ڪوشش ڪري سگهي ٿي، پر طاقت جي ذريعي ڏوهن جي خاتمي لاء فضول آهي. ڪوٽاتاتا سوت ۾، بھوت کي جرم جي گھٽائڻ جي بدران اقتصادي ترقي جي تجويز ڏني. حڪومت ملڪ جي معاشي حالتن کي بهتر بڻائڻ لاء ملڪ جي وسيلن کي استعمال ڪرڻ گهرجي. اهو
زرعي ۽ ڳوٺاڻن جي ترقي تي سهڪار ڪري سگهي ٿو، انٽرپرينيوئرز ۽ ڪاروبار کي
مالي مدد فراهم ڪري، مزدور جي لاء مناسب وقف کي برقرار رکڻ لاء، انساني حقن
جي حوالي سان هڪ رهنمائي زندگي کي برقرار رکڻ.
روحاني ترقي لاء ۽ ڏيکاري ٿي ته هڪ ملڪ خراب ٿي سگهي ٿو ۽ ناخوش ٿي سگهي ٿي جڏهن ته حڪومت جي سربراه فاسد ۽ ظالم ٿي. ملڪ لاء خوش ٿيڻ لاء، اهو سٺو ۽ صرف حڪومت هجڻ گهرجي. ڪئين حڪومت جو اهو فارم ڪيئن وڌايو ويو آهي انهن جي تجويز ڪيل “ڏهه رائل ويٽس” ۾ تفصيلي تفصيلي آهي. (”دسا راجا راجا”). اهي ڏهن قاعدن اڄ به ڪنهن به حڪومت طرفان لاڳو ڪري سگهن ٿا جيڪي ملڪ ۾ امن امان جي خواهش ڪن ٿا. ڏهه رائل ويڪريون هيٺ ڏنل آهن:

دانو: آزاديء، سخاوت يا خيرات. هن کي محتاج سان خيرات ڏنا. اهو بادشاهي جو فرض آهي (حڪومت) پنهنجي محتاج مضامين جي ڀلائي جي نظر ۾. مثالي حڪمران کي شفا ڏيڻ ۽ منسلڪ ڪرڻ کان بغير مال ۽ مال ملڪيت کي ڇڏڻ گهرجي. ٻين لفظن ۾ هن کي پنهنجي پوزيشن جي شتمني استعمال ڪرڻ جي ڪوشش نه ڪرڻ گهرجي.

سوراخ: ماڻهوء کي هڪ عظيم اخلاقي ڪردار آهي. هن
کي گهٽ ۾ گهٽ پنجن پگھارن جو مشورو وٺڻ گهرجي ۽ پاڻ کي ذاتي ۽ عام زندگيء ۾
پنهنجن موضوعن لاء چمڪندڙ مثال هجڻ گهرجي. هيء فضيلت تمام ضروري آهي،
ڇاڪاڻ ته حڪمران ان جي پيروي ڪري، سختي سان وري رشوت ۽ فساد
، ملڪ ۾ تشدد ۽ انڊسسوپ لائين خودڪار طور تي ختم ٿي ويندا.

آرام پائيڪوڪگا: اهي ماڻهو جي چڱائي لاء اهي قرباني ڪن ٿا - ذاتي نالو ۽ فام؛ زندگي جي ضرورت هجي ها. تحفن جي رقم جي ذريعي. حاڪم حڪمرانن کي وڌيڪ موثر ۽ وڌيڪ وفادار خدمت تي چڙهي ٿو.

اججو: ايمانداري ۽ صداقت. هن کي بلڪل صحيح هجڻ گهرجي ۽ هن کي ختم ٿيڻ لاء ڪابه شڪايت يا شڪايت طريقي سان ڪڏهن به رسوخ نه هجڻ گهرجي. هن کان ڊڄڻ يا پنهنجي فرائض جي خارج ٿيڻ کان آزاد ٿيڻ گهرجي. مهاتما ٻڌ جي هڪ اسٽاج ۾ “سگاولواڊا سوٽي” ۾ جيڪڏهن جيڪڏهن ڪو شخص انصاف،
نفرت، خوف، يا بيخبري جي تابع نه رهندي آهي، ته سندس مقبوليت وائيس چنڊ
وانگر وڌندي آهي “

مدد: احسان يا خوشحالي. هڪ حڪمران جي بيماري ڪڏهن ڪڏهن صبر جي ضرورت آهي. پر هن سان احسان ۽ خوشحالي سان مزاج ڪرڻ گهرجي. ٻين لفظن ۾ هڪ حڪمران ختم ٿيڻ گهرجي - سخت يا ظالم.

Tapa: حسيت جي عيوض ۽ عادات ۾ سادگي. سنسڪرت جي خوشحالي ۾ چمڪندڙ اندريون، هڪ مثالي بادشاه سندس پنج حرف ڪنٽرول هيٺ رکي ٿو. ڪجهه حڪمرانن شايد، انهن جي پوزيشن کي استعمال ڪري، اخلاقي اخلاق جو شعور - هي سٺو بادشاهي نه هوندو.

اکڪوه: غير نفرت. حڪمران ڪنهن جي خلاف ڪو گنجائش نه کڻڻ گهرجي. بغير کي روڪڻ کان سواء هن کي بي شڪر ۽ پيار سان عمل ڪرڻ گهرجي.

Avihimsa: عدم تشدد. نه رڳو هن کي ڪنهن کي نقصان کان بچائڻ گهرجي پر هن کي ضروري هجي ته امن جي فروغ ۽ جنگ کي روڪڻ گهرجي. هن کي غير تشدد جي لحاظ کان تمام ممڪن حد تائين وڌائڻ گهرجي، ايتري قدر جو هڪ مثالي حڪمران جي توفيق سان مداخلت نه ڪندو آهي.

ختي: صبر ۽ رواداري. پنهنجي مزاج کي گم ڪرڻ کان سواء حڪمران کي سختي ۽ گاريون کڻڻ جي قابل آهي. ڪنهن به موقعي تي هن کي جذبات ۾ بغير ڪنهن کي پهچائڻ جي قابل ناهي. هن کي ساڳئي روح ۾ گلاب ۽ دنگا ٻٽ حاصل ڪرڻ جي قابل هوندو ۽ متفقيت سان.

ايروروه: غير مخالفت ۽ غير دشمني. حڪمران ماڻهن جي ماڻهن جي مخالفت نه ڪرڻ گهرجي. هن پنهنجي مضامين جي وچ ۾ ايمامي جو روح پيدا ڪرڻ گهرجي. ٻين لفظن ۾ هن کي پنهنجي قوم سان هم آهنگ ڪرڻ گهرجي.

بادشاهه اججاستا، مگڌا جو بادشاهه چاهيندو هو ان کي اقتدار جي تحت لائڻ لاء وجيجي سڏجي ٿو. هن پنهنجي اعلي وزير واساسار کي موڪلي، ڄاڻايل ڄاڻ حاصل ڪرڻ لاء شعور رکندڙ ايجاد ون جي صلاح ڪئي. آگاهي جي نصيحت سان بيدار هڪڙي ڳالهه اها هئي ته لچيچين، وجيجي حڪمرانن
کي دٻاء نه ٿي سگهيو ۽ ان کي شڪست ڏئي نه سگھندي جڏهن انهن کي ست ڌرمن جو
مقابلو نه ڪيو ويو، جن کي شڪست (سپاهي معافيهما ڌما)

(i) انهن ڏينهن جي انتظامي معاملن بابت معاملن بابت بحث ڪرڻ لاء باقاعده ملاقاتون ڪيون ويون آهن.

(ii) اهي ملاقات، ڪم ​​ڪري ۽ هڪ ٽيم طور تي منتشر ٿيا.

(iii) انهن ملڪ جي قانون کي سختي سان پيروي ڪيو.

iv) اهي بزرگن لاء مطمئن هئا.

(v) انهن عورتن جي عزت ڪئي ۽ عورتن جي ظلم جي مذمت ڪئي.

(vi) انهن مذهبي رواج جي پٺيان ۽ انهن کي محفوظ ڪيو.

(vii) انھن پادرين جو احترام ڪيو ۽ انھن جي تعظيم ۾ رکيل آھن.

لچاوس جي بادشاهي وجيجي طور سڃاتو ويندو هو ۽ ان ۾ حڪمرانن جو تعداد شامل
هو. راجڌاني ويسالي يا ويزا هو. حڪمرانن جي وچ ۾ وجيجي سلطنت جي وحدت ۽
ايمانداري جي پويان حڪمران هو.

حڪمرانن جي وحدت ۽ رويي بابت، برڪت واري هڪ وڌيڪ صلاح ڪئي:

- چڱو حڪمران غير منصفانه عمل ڪيو وڃي ۽ باضابطه ۽ هڪ ٻئي جي خلاف هڪ فرد جي هڪ گروپ جي وچ ۾ فرق نه هجڻ گهرجي.

هڪ سٺو حڪمران پنهنجي ڪنهن به مضامين خلاف نفرت جو ڪو روپ نه هئڻ گهرجي.

- چڱو حڪمران، جيڪو قانون جي نافذ ڪرڻ ۾ ڪوبه ڊپ نه ڏيکارڻ گهرجي، جيڪڏهن اهو صحيح آهي.

- سٺو حاڪم هجڻ لازمي آهي ته قانون جو واضح واضح سمجهي وڃي. ان کي صرف لاڳو نه ڪيو وڃي ڇاڪاڻ ته حڪمران کي قانون نافذ ڪرڻ جو اختيار آهي. اهو صحيح طريقو سان ٿيڻ گهرجي ۽ عام احساس سان، ڪڪاوهٽي سيهانان سوتا چيو ويندو آهي.

پان ۾، اهو به چيو ويندو آهي: ‘جيڪڏهن انسان جو غير منصفانه، غير مناسب،
غير اخلاقي، غير منصفانه، بادشاهي جي قابل ۽ قابل، پاڻ کي هڪ بادشاهه يا
حاڪم آهي، پاڻ کي زبردستي اختيار ڪيو آهي،
عوام طرفان سزا ڏيڻ جي لحاظ کان، ناجائز ۽ ناگزير طور تي، هن پنهنجي خودمختياري جي سيٽ ۾ پاڻ کي اڻ سڌريل رکيا آهن. حڪمران،
ٻين جيان ڪندڙ جيڪي حد کان لنگهندڙ اخلاقي قاعدن ۽ انسان جي سڀني سماج جي
بنيادي اصولن جي بنيادي اصولن جي برابر آهن، انهن کي سزا ڏيڻ جي تابع آهي.
۽ وڌيڪ، سنسڪرت ٿيڻ وارو حڪمران آهي جيڪو پاڻ کي عوام جي غلبي وانگر ٺاهيندو آهي.

هن اصول جو هڪ چمڪندڙ مثال شهنشاهه اسوڪو، ڈھاما جي مطابق رهي ۽ تبليغ ڪرڻ ۽ پنهنجي مضامين ۽ سڀني انسانيت جي خدمت ڪرڻ جو حل ڪيو. هن
پنهنجي پاڙيسري سان پنهنجي غير جارحيت ارادن جو اعلان ڪيو، ان کي پنهنجي
خيراري جي يقين ڏياري ۽ امن ۽ غير جارحتي پيغام جي پيغام کي دور دراز
بادشاهن کي سفير موڪلي.
پنهنجي ايمانداري طريقي سان ايمانداري، سچائي، شفقت، بيدار، غير تشدد تي،
سڀني، غير غدار، غير جانبداري، غير جانبدار ۽ غير جانورن جي زخم لاء رويي
جي رويي جي صلاحيت کي وڌايو.
هن مذهبي آزادي ۽ پاڻ ۾ هڪٻئي جي عزت لاء عزت جي حوصلا افزائي ڪئي. هو دؤر واري دور ۾ گذريا ته سمم جي ڳوٺاڻن ماڻهن کي تبليغ ڪندا هئا. هن
عوامي ڀلائي جو ڪم جاري ڪيو جيئن انسان ۽ جانورن جي اسپتالن کي، دوا جي
فراهمي، روڊ جي ڀرسان وڻن جي وڻن ۽ گوڙن، کوٽ جي کوٽڻ، ۽ پاڻي جي وينج ۽
آرام جي گهر تعمير ڪرڻ.
هن چيو ته واضح طور تي جانورن کي بي رحم ڪرڻ کان روڪيو.

ڪڏهن ڪڏهن هوشيار سان بيهڻ وارو هڪ کي سياسي-سماجي اصلاح پسند ۽ اقتصادي امتيازي چئبو آهي. ٻين
شين جي وچ ۾، ذات جي برابري کي سڃاڻي، ذات جي حيثيت کي تسليم ڪيو، سماجي ۽
اقتصادي حالتن کي بهتر بڻائڻ جي ضرورت تي، امت ۽ غريب وچ ۾ مال جي برابر
تقسيم جي اهميت کي تسليم ڪيو
حڪومت ۽ انتظاميه ۾ انسانيت کي شامل ڪرڻ، ۽ انهي کي سيکاريو ته هڪ سماج لالچ جي ذريعي نه هلن، پر ماڻهن لاء غور ۽ رحم سان. هنن
سڀني جي باوجود، انسانن لاء شعور جي سهڪار سان بيڪ اپ هڪ تمام وڏو آهي
ڇاڪاڻ ته برڪت وارو هڪ اهڙو موقعو آهي جنهن ۾ ڪنهن ٻئي سماجي سڌارڪ کان اڳ
يا اڃا تائين نه ڪيو ويو آهي، جيڪا انساني بيمار جي گهڙي جڙڙن جي ڪري
انساني دماغ ۾.

سڀني مخلوقن سان گڏ خوش ۽ خوش ٿيو ۽ ابدي بلائن جا ميوا حاصل ڪرڻ لاء فائنل گول جي حيثيت رکن ٿا.

Educational infographic : Educational infographic & data visualisation   Educational infographic & data vi

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2628 Tue 22 May LESSON Awakened One With Awareness Buddha’s Teachings in 4 Words Do Good Be Mindful ! There is a terrific free tool out there — the Digital Pali Reader (SourceForge has a copy) — that has the entire canon in Pali. Load it up, load up a sutta, click on a word, and it will offer definitions and a tiny little “c” near the word will provide conjugations. I recommend this more than I can express. If you really want to dig into the Tipitaka, there is no better way than comparing translations, and checking out the various meanings of the words you question in the Pali. Introduction to SuttaCentral The Buddha’s words Where to begin Tipiṭaka—the three baskets Monastic Law Abhidhamma Why we read: tell us why you read suttas SuttaCentral—a new beginning Index of Subjects
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2628 Tue 22  May  LESSON

Awakened One With Awareness Buddha’s Teachings in 4 Words
Do Good Be Mindful !

There is a terrific free tool out
there — the Digital Pali Reader (SourceForge has a copy) — that has the
entire canon in Pali. Load it up, load up a sutta, click on a word, and
it will offer definitions and a tiny little “c” near the word will
provide conjugations. I recommend this more than I can express. If you
really want to dig into the Tipitaka, there is no better way than
comparing translations, and checking out the various meanings of the
words you question in the Pali.

Introduction to SuttaCentral
The Buddha’s words

Where to begin

Tipiṭaka—the three baskets

Monastic Law


Why we read: tell us why you read suttas

SuttaCentral—a new beginning

Index of Subjects

in 23) Classical English,
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Anguttara Nikaya

5 nikayas
Digha Nikaya
Majjhima Nikaya
Samyutta Nikaya
Anguttara Nikaya

To get an overview of what the Buddha
taught. Many of the lessons in the Tipitaka overlap between nikayas,
and a general understanding of Buddhism can be obtained by purchasing
just one of these books, or by getting an anthology like In the Buddha’s
Words by Bhikkhu Bodhi.

In the Buddha’s Words is, arguably, the
best anthology of the Tipitaka available. It features lucid translations
of the most important suttas needed for awakenment.

Read a nikaya from beginning
to end, with only some of the repetitions removed,
The Majjhima Nikaya

It’s the most balanced of the 5
The suttas aren’t too short or too long, and most of the
Buddha’s principal teachings on loving-kindness, meditation, and nibanna
can be found here. The online audio series A Systematic Study of the
Majjhima Nikaya compliments

But be warned:
Nikayas aren’t easy to get through. If you’re new to the Tipitaka, I
suggest purchasing an anthology first, or reading through the suttas
that are freely available on Access to Insight.

There are three baskets, and a great deal has been translated into English.

If you start with the suttas — when you get through all of those , the
second basket is the monastic code (the Vinaya) and it is already fully
translated into English, so you can work through that. Then at least the
major works of the third basket, the commentaries, have also been
translated so you can work on those. If you still want all the rest,
you’ll be well-prepared to translate them yourself. But I suspect you’ll
find most of what you need within the suttas.

There is a terrific free tool out
there — the Digital Pali Reader (SourceForge has a copy) — that has the
entire canon in Pali. Load it up, load up a sutta, click on a word, and
it will offer definitions and a tiny little “c” near the word will
provide conjugations. I recommend this more than I can express. If you
really want to dig into the Tipitaka, there is no better way than
comparing translations, and checking out the various meanings of the
words you question in the Pali.

One thing about the use of
language in the Buddha’s time (maybe it is even still true in India) is
that his culture accepted that any single word could have many meanings
and rather than doing as we do and confining meaning to one — saying
“but I only meant definition #3” — they tend to work with all the
meanings simultaneously. It provides quite a workout for the mind! This
is why looking up the words provides a richness you’ll never get from
reading translations.

Pali Canon is huge. And since it’s a language which has not been in
active use for centuries it’s hard to determine the exact meaning of
some words. The interest of western academics in the Pali Canon is
relatively recent and does not date some 2000 years back to the times of
the much more investigated Greek scriptures. There are some places, 

being one of them, which cover many suttas.

This is a common view from people coming from a background where belief
in a holy book is a huge part of the belief system. When you get a
little knowledgeable about the Buddhist suttas you find that Gautama
Buddha very often referred to common knowledge and the natural way of
things. Since we are born we are subject to illness, ageing, old age and
death. That’s something we can all observe in our life.
Or he would
point to a fire and ask: where does the flame go when it goes out? Does
it go west, east, south, north? Or maybe up or down? With such a
statement he would indicate that a question with the wrong formulation
would not give the desired answer.

If you get to know Buddhist
culture and background you will find that there is not a single person
claiming enlightenment based only on reading the Pali Canon. Sometimes
insight might rise while reading in it, yet the core of Buddhism is
practice, doing. And this is a frequently recurring theme in the suttas.
We see Gautama Buddha stressing time after time to stop certain
lifestyles, to cultivate other lifestyles, to stop bad behaviour, to
start good behaviour. And once doing this results in a less stressful
life, he would provide basic instructions into meditation.

this meditation, often thought to be meditation on the breath, is
something which is less explained in the suttas. This is not because
it’s very obvious, it’s because there are several ways of meditating and
each has different benefits. The core meditation is body contemplation,
the instructions given to monks who are send of on their own: hair on
the head, hair on the body, teeth, nails and skin. Yet unfortunate
events showed that not all monks could handle the mental pressure that’s
involved in such meditation and to counter the disturbance it caused
instructions on meditation on the breath were given because of it’s
calming effects.

In the end, all knowledge you need to acquire is
already inside you, in this body, in this mind, in the thoughts that
rise, in the feelings that keep appearing. It’s the same story over and
over: something starts and with that the process of ending starts. When
we breath in, we cannot breath out at the same time. The start of one
means that the other one has to end. And when we breath in, we know we
have to breath out at a certain point. Without the process of breathing
in followed by breathing out, over and over, we cannot survive. And we
can find this process all over in our body and mind.

The Pali Canon does not provide the answer, the answer is found in
practice and focus on the components of self. And you carry these along
your entire life.
The ‘opinion’ of the Buddha is not important, one
of his close followers remarks in a sutta when asked about his viewpoint
that he knows that viewpoints are stressful and that this knowledge is
sufficient for him. We find something similar with certain teachings,
one person asking questions is not answered, another asking a slightly
different question receives a detailed explanation. The skill and
knowledge of the questioner is taken into consideration while answering.

Decades ago I learned something that’s still of great value to me: you
cannot trust a single translation of ‘holy scriptures’. Either you learn
the language yourself and dig in (I did that with biblical greek) or
you take several translations which will show you the similarities and
differences in the translation of the word, indicating that on some
words there is agreement and on other there is none. It will also show
you a bit of the dogmatic interpretations of some translators. Being
bi-langual is an even greater advantage, you can read the interpretation
in two languages which might reveal nuances not present in a single
Doing this with the Pali Canon is almost madness. Remember, it’s huge.
But it’s not needed. Take one or two suttas, get to understand them in
any way and see if they point to the body or mind. If so, the sutta can
be used as a guide in practice, which has the highest priority.

As last remark: there is a firefox (browser) plugin that offers the Pali
canon with a huge dictionary. You’d have to translate yourself, yet
it’s one of the closest ways you can get to the actual words in the Pali
Canon. Yet without understanding context on living conditions and
religious beliefs some 2500 years ago in Nepal and India you are bound
to make mistakes on interpretation.

Western culture’s interest in the Pali canon only goes back to the late
19th century. Recall that it took hundreds of years for the transmission
of Buddhism into China; consider Xuanzang’s efforts at translation - it
took him the rest of his life and continued on with his disciples. Good
translation requires a rare combination of rigorous scholarship, strong
grasp of Pali, ability to write well in English, and time.

Consider the size of of the Tipitaka - several bookshelves!!! Consider
the obstacles in publishing something that, especially before computers.

Less interested
in the Vinaya (rules for monastics) or the Abidharma (commentaries).
That leaves the Suttas (sutra). Various sutras, including multiple
English translations of the same text in Pali, are on Access to Insight.
For published books, I’d go with works by @Bhikkhu Bodhi.

to start? I highly recommend Bhikkhu Bodhi’s anthology In the Buddha’s
Words, and then choose a translation of the Dhammapada. Once you’ve got a
good grasp on Buddhist concepts and terminology, get Bhikkhu Bodhi’s
other translations (with his associated lectures available online as
audio or video) or get another anthology, Handful of Leaves by
Thannisaro Bhikkhu.

So in this
case, Kalamas, don’t go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by
scripture, by logical deduction, by inference, by analogies, by
agreement through pondering views, by probability, or by the thought,
‘This contemplative is our teacher.’

- from Kalama Sutta: To the Kalamas, with translator’s associated essay at…/thani…/lostinquotation.html

First, if you are really seriously concerned with the quality of the
translations, you should learn Pali.

Seriously, without
the necessary cultural and historical context, it is a fool’s errand to
think you can interpret the Pali Canon on your own.

living well, day to day, according to Buddhism, does not require
intimate knowledge of the Tipitaka. Follow the first five precepts, and
obey Jesus’ second commandment (Love your neighbor as yourself.), and
you are covered from a behavioral standpoint.

All the rest isn’t
anything more than a dry intellectual exercise unless you meditate. And
there are online and remote resources available for training in

There is a lot of repetition in the Pali
Canon. By the time you have exhausted the parts of the Canon that have
already been translated, if you are still into it, I expect you will be
good and ready to learn Pali for yourself.
It’s as simple as reading everything you can find. Apply analytical meditation and debate. Decide for yourself.

Early Buddhist texts, translations, and parallels
The wisdom of the Buddha has been preserved in a vast ocean of ancient texts.
Many of these scriptures have now been translated into the world’s languages.

SuttaCentral brings these together and makes them freely available.
Setting aside the boundaries of language and tradition, we let the Buddha speak for himself.
The Buddha’s words
If you know you’re a fool, you’re wise at least to that extent.
A disciplined mind brings happiness.
All conditions are impermanent.
Be my heirs in spiritual things, not heirs of material things
You are the ones who must do the work; the Buddhas only point the way
I shall strive to let go of all attachments.
I do not see a single thing that’s as quick to change as the mind
Ever mindful, see the world as empty. Then the King of Death won’t find you.
May all beings be happy!
Though a man might conquer a million enemies in battle, the supreme victor is the one who conquers himself.

Dhammapada: The Buddha’s Path of Wisdom
Dhammapada Dhp
Dhp 1

The Pali version of this famous text, consisting of 423 verses
organized into memorable themes. It is the most widely read of the early
texts, and has been translated many times into many languages. Versions
of this text are found in Chinese, Tibetan, and several Indic
languages, attesting to its timeless, universal appeal.

Niraya Vagga
Dhp 306–319
Nāga Vagga
Dhp 320–333
Taṇhā Vagga
Dhp 334–359
Bhikkhu Vagga
Dhp 360–382
Brāhmaṇa Vagga
Dhp 383–423
Magga Vagga
Dhp 273–289
Pakiṇṇaka Vagga
Dhp 290–305

Early Buddhist texts and modern translations. Suttas (sutras) from the…

What’s here
SuttaCentral contains early Buddhist texts, known as the Tipiṭaka or
“Three Baskets”. This is a large collection of teachings attributed to
the Buddha or his earliest disciples, who were teaching in India around
2500 years ago. They are regarded as sacred canon in all schools of
Buddhism. You can find all of our texts through the sidebar menu on the

Introduction to SuttaCentral
The Buddha’s words

SuttaCentral contains early Buddhist texts, known as the Tipiṭaka or
“Three Baskets”. This is a large collection of teachings attributed to
the Buddha or his earliest disciples, who were teaching in India around
2500 years ago. They are regarded as sacred canon in all schools of

There are several Buddhist traditions, and each has
passed down a set of scriptures from ancient times. SuttaCentral is
specially focused on the scriptures of the earliest period of Buddhism,
and hosts texts in over thirty languages. We believe this is the largest
collection of early Buddhist texts ever made.

SuttaCentral hosts
the texts in orginal languages, translations in modern languages, and
extensive sets of parallels that show the relationship between them all.
Cover and binding to a Burmese manuscript on the Life of Buddha in red
tooled leather with text in gold letters. Burma, late 19th century.

What are these texts about? The Buddha’s overriding concern was with
freedom from suffering. The teachings cover a wide range of topics,
including ethics, meditation, family life, renunciation, the nature of
wisdom and true understanding, and the path to peace.

teachings show how to live well so as to be free of suffering. They
teach non-violence and compassion, and emphasize the value of the
spiritual over the material. Many discourses discuss meditation, while
others are concerned with ethics, or with a rational and clear
understanding of the world as perceived. They show the Buddha engaging
with people from all walks of life and discussing a diverse range of
topics. But he said that all of his words have one taste, the taste of

While there are plenty of summaries and interpretations
of his teaching, there’s nothing quite like encountering it in his own
words. The early texts depict the Buddha in a vivid and diverse range of
contexts, speaking with monastics, ascetics, criminals, kings,
businessmen, lepers, prostitutes, paupers, wives, skeptics, friends, and
enemies. It’s not just what he says, but the way he deals with this
spectrum of humanity, always with kindness, clarity, dignity, and

Fragment of Gandhari manuscript on birch
bark, acquired by University of Washington. Afghanistan, circa 1st or
2nd century CE. Buddhist texts are traditionally classified as the
“Three Baskets”, spelled tipiṭaka in Pali or tripiṭaka in Sanskrit.
These are:

Discourses: Sutta in Pali, sūtra in Sanskrit.
These are the primary texts, consisting of records of teachings or
conversations by the Buddha or his disciples, and arranged by litarary
style or subject matter.
Monastic Law: Vinaya in both Pali and
Sanskrit. These contain the famous list of rules for monks and nuns
(pātimokkha). But they are much more than that, including many details
of community life, and a multitude of stories about life in ancient
Abhidhamma: Spelled abhidharma in Sanskrit. Abhidhamma
texts are systematic summaries and analyses of the teachings drawn from
the earlier discourses.

Each Buddhist tradition has passed down
separate collections for well over a thousand years. Yet when we look at
the Discourses and the Monastic Law, in all major features, and many
minor details, they are similar or identical. Since the 19th century, a
series of scholars have noted these correspondences and compiled them.

Most of the early texts have been digitized. For the history of this
process, see the article Digital Input of Buddhist Texts by Lewis
Lancaster in the Encyclopedia of Buddhism. In addition, translations
have been produced in multiple languages, mostly focusing on the
better-known texts of the Pali discourses.

SuttaCentral draws on this long history to present three main kinds of content.

Original texts: SuttaCentral presents the original texts in the original languages, including:
The Pali canon (or Tipiṭaka) of the Theravāda school. Our text
is the Mahāsaṅgīti edition of the Sixth Council recension.
The early Āgama and Vinaya texts from the Taishō edition of the Chinese canon. For our digital source we rely on CBETA.
A much smaller range of early texts from the Tibetan Kangyur.
Such fragments and chance findings as are available in Sanskrit, Gandhārī, and other Indic languages.
Translations: We have gathered translations of early texts in over
thirty modern languages. Notable English translations include classic
works by Bhikkhu Bodhi, new English translations of Chinese Saṁyukta
Āgama texts by Bhikkhu Anālayo, and fresh translations from the Tibetan
Upāyikā by Bhikkhuni Dhammadinnā. In addition, we are developing our own
sets of new translations, in the belief that complete, accurate, and
easy to read modern translations should be freely available for
everyone. We have published an entirely new translation of the four Pali
nikāyas by Bhikkhu Sujato, which is the first complete and consistent
English translation of these core texts. And Bhikkhu Brahmāli is
producing a much-needed modern and accurate translation of the Pali
Parallels: The foundation of SuttaCentral is our sets of
parallels. These detail tens of thousands of cases where texts in
different collections or languages correspond with each other. The
existence of these parallels shows the connections between of the
scriptures underlying all Buddhist traditions, a connection that harks
back to the Buddha himself.


representation of relationships for DN 20 Suttas aren’t independent
entities. They form a vast interconnected web of teachings. Often the
key to understanding one passage lies in a different text. In this way,
the Buddhist canons are a little like the internet, with individual
pages connected by a web of hidden links.

Most suttas appear in
very similar form in more than one collection. We use “parallel” for
variant texts that appear to be descended from a common ancestor. Often
the texts are so close that this identification is simple. Sometimes,
however, there is a less close relationship between two given texts. In
such cases we indicate a “resembling parallel”. This doesn’t imply any
particular kind of relationship between the resembling parallel and the
basic text. It simply suggests that if you are studying the basic text,
you might want to look at the resembling parallel, too. For a detailed
discussion, see our page on Methodology.

It is no trivial matter
to discern what texts should be regarded as parallel. Texts often agree
in many details, and disagree in others. When does a text stop being a
full parallel and start being a resembling parallel? And when does it
become merely a text that bears certain similar features? There are no
black and white answers to such questions. Rather, making these
identifications draws on the accumulated learning and experience of a
succession of scholars. Inevitably there will be disagreements in
detail; yet in the main, there is a broad consensus as to what
constitutes a parallel. Ultimately, the important point is that these
identifications help the student to study and learn from related texts
in diverse collections.
Finding Your Way Around

The Buddhist
canons have been organized and maintained as highly structured bodies of
literature, and this complex hierarchy can be intimidating. We’ve tried
to present our material in a way that will be convenient for both
experts and beginners. Let’s review how Buddhist texts are organized.
Then we’ll see how this is implemented in SuttaCentral.
How the Tipiṭaka is organized

We have already mentioned the overarching concept of the Tipiṭaka. Now
let’s look at the sublevels of the structure. For simplicity, we’ll
focus mainly on the Pali canon.

The Pali Discourses
are grouped in five main nikāyas or “divisions”. These are not organized
by content, but by literary form. The first two—Long and Middle—are
organized by length, the Saṁyutta or “Linked” division is organized by
topic, and the Aṅguttara or “Numbered” division is organized by
numerical sets. These four collections are synoptic; they constitute one
largely unified body of text and doctrine, organized mainly for the
convenience of the reciters who memorized it.

The fifth nikāya is
a rather different kind of collection. The core of it is a set of early
texts that are mostly verse. To this was added a series of later texts
of very different kinds, showing that this section was considered more
open and flexible.
Intermediate levels

The Pali texts have a
rather bewildering range of terms for intermediate levels of text
structure, corresponding to what we might call a “part” or a “chapter”.
Sometimes these sections are crucial for making sense of a text. For
example, the saṁyutta is used in the Saṁyutta Nikāya for groups of
discourses on the same topic, and the nipāta is used in the Aṅguttara
Nikāya for groups of discourses with the same number of items. In the
Vinaya, the khandhaka is likewise an essential structural feature.
Elsewhere, however, we find structures of less importance, such as the
pannāsa or group of fifty discourses. Originally these may have helped
organize the texts into manuscripts, but these days they are retained
for historical purposes.

The smallest level of
organization is the vagga, usually translated “chapter” but in fact a
set of (usually) ten discourses or other texts. Vaggas may gather texts
sorted by a meaningful theme. For example, the “Chapter on Kings” of the
Middle Discourses contains ten discussions involving kings. In many
cases, however, the vagga is merely a structural convention, and is
simply named after its first discourse.

The main
navigation is through the sidebar, which is available on every page.
This lists all the collections with their various subdivisions. You can
go directly to a full collection such as a nikāya, or else drill down to
the precise group that you want.

For the four
main nikāyas, we’ve grouped the Chinese Āgamas together with their Pali
parallels. Note that in the Chinese canon, as well as a main full Āgama,
there’s usually some extra material; either individually translated
suttas, or partial collections.

In the “Minor” section, as well
as the eponymous Khuddaka Nikāya in Pali, we include similar material in
Chinese and Sanskrit. These are mostly Dhammapada-style texts.

Under “Other” we include the relatively small quantity of material in
Tibetan, Sanskrit, and other ancient Indic languages. In many cases, it
might be possible to classify this material under one of the five
nikāyas. However, the identification is complex and uncertain, so we
simply leave it here.
Monastic Code

Unlike the Discourses,
for the Vinaya texts we almost always have a clear sectarian
affiliation. We therefore use this as the primary means of

All the Vinayas have a similar structure.

Bhikkhu and Bhikkhunī Vibhaṅga: rules for monks and nuns, together with explanations and commentary.
Khandhakas: This section, named and organized somewhat differently
in the various versions, deals with monastic procedures and lifestyle.
Supplements: Most Vinayas include some kind of supplement or summary, such as the Parivāra in Pali.

The organization and names of these sections vary, and we follow the sequence found in each text.

The relatively few Abhidhamma texts are organized by school and
language. Note that abhidhamma is a generic term, and is applied to many
later treatises as well. Here we only include canonical texts.
Sutta card list

When you click a link in the sidebar, it opens a list of the
corresponding texts, organized as a list of “cards”. Each card contains a
complex of information about the relevant text, including references,
description, and links to texts and translations. Click on the expander
to see the parallels.

A list may be any level of the hierarchy, such as a nikāya, a vagga, etc. You can navigate these at your convenience.
Text pages

You can read the original texts or translations. For original texts, a
variety of helpful tools such as dictionary lookup, text-critical
highlighting, and so on, is available.

We are moving to a new
system based on segmented texts. Not all our texts work this way, but
where they do, you can view the text and translation side by side.

Early Buddhist texts and modern translations. Suttas (sutras) from the…
Where to begin
There are thousands of early Buddhist texts, and they’re not organized
for easy reading. But here’s the good news: you are not alone. We’ve
been down this road ourselves, and have tried to make it a little easier
for you. Here are some things you can try.
Getting Started

When it comes to reading suttas, there are as many approaches as there
are readers. The single most helpful thing to understand the suttas is a
good teacher. As it says in the Boat Sutta (Snp 2.8):

Like one who has embarked on a strong boat,
complete with oars and rudder,
a person wise and skilled in means
can bring many others across.

Here we’ll offer a few tips and resources which might be helpful for people taking their first steps.
Good habits

Here are some reflective pieces about developing a regular practice of reading suttas.

How to Read the Suttas: Words of experience by Bhante Sujato.
Befriending the Suttas: A classic guide found on the original sutta site, Access to Insight.
Reading Faithfully: A website devoted to supporting a deeper, more emotional connection with the suttas.
Guidelines for Sutta Reading: The Sacred Mountain Sangha offers
guidelines for contemplative sutta reading in a group and on your own,
with instruction from Peter Woods.

Structured courses and guides

Some people prefer a more free-flowing, inuitive approach, but for others, a well structured course is just right.

Buddhist Life/Buddhist Path: Bhikkhu Cintita has put together this
comprehensive introduction based on many years’ experience of teaching
courses on the early texts. It’s divided into two books: Buddhist Life
for the foundational teachings and Buddhist Path for systematic training
in the higher path leading to awakening. Each book can be studied
independently and in either order.
In the Buddha’s Words:
Bhikkhu Bodhi presents selected discourses of the Buddha from the Pali
Canon, the earliest record of what the Buddha taught. Divided into ten
thematic chapters, In the Buddha’s Words reveals the full scope of the
Buddha’s discourses, from family life and marriage to renunciation and
the path of insight. A concise, informative introduction precedes each
chapter, guiding the reader toward a deeper understanding of the texts
that follow. The readings and introductions may be found on
SuttaCentral’s forum here.
Guide To Tipitaka: Sayagyi U Ko Lay’s
classic survey of the entire Pali canon. This gives a descriptive
overview from a Theravada perspective, summarizing each section and many
individual texts. It’s especially handy if you encounter a new book in
the canon and want to learn some more about it.
The Sutta
Discovery Series: For many years, senior teacher Piya Tan has been
giving sutta classes with detailed notes, translating texts himself from
the Pali. This invaluable resource is entirely available online.

Listen to the suttas

There’s a range of sources providing audio and/or video for the suttas, including readings, classes, and vlogs.

5 Funny Buddhist Suttas That Have a Great Message: Mindah-Lee Kumar
(aka “The Enthusiastic Buddhist”) shows how the Buddha used humor to
make a point.
BSWA sutta classes: For many years, the monks and
nuns of Bodhinyana and Dhammasara, including Ajahn Brahm, have been
giving sutta classes. They’re available on Youtube.
forum: Our forum is a place where anyone can upload or link to
resources on the suttas. There are plenty of readings, chanting, and

Join a reading group

There are many reading
groups for suttas, both local and online. A journey is always best if
you’ve got others to share it with.

We won’t link to any here, as
they tend to be local and transient. But ask around your local centers
or social media, or on our forum, and chances are you’ll find something.
If there’s nothing in your area, why not start a group yourself?
Discuss & Discover, SuttaCentral’s forum

We’ve built a vibrant, diverse community of folks interested in the
suttas. You’re welcome to ask questions, read essays, and join the
conversation here.
Just jump in

Sure, a structured course is a
good way to get an overview of the teachings. But life isn’t
structured. The Buddha didn’t teach everything from A–Z, he responded to
the needs of those he was with. Sometimes the things we learn most from
are random; a phrase we happen to overhear, or a word that comes at
just the right time.

So why not just try a random sutta? Or search to see what the Buddha had to say about cats?
Read them all

There are a lot of suttas. But not that many. A few years of a regular
reading habit and you should be able to read all the suttas in
translation. Why not?

Early Buddhist texts and modern translations. Suttas (sutras) from the…

Tipiṭaka—the three baskets
Sixteen gilt and lacquer leaves with two gilt and lacquer book covers.
Wood coated with lacquer, twelve lines to each leaf written in Pali
script in black lacquer, the text interspersed and bordered with
undulating floral and vegetal motifs in gold on an orange ground. Burma,
19th century. 16 x 63 cm.
These are our primary
sources for understanding what the Buddha taught. They record the
Buddha’s teachings and conversations on specific occasions with a
diverse range of people. Discourses are called sutta in Pali, which is
spelled sūtra in Sanskrit.


Bhikkhu Sujato

The Early Schools of Buddhism
Canonicity of the Suttas
Suttas in the Buddhist Traditions
Modern Reform and Postmodern Criticism

The most important body of sacred scripture in Buddhism is the
Suttapiṭaka, the “basket of discourses”. This collection contains the
teachings of the Buddha and his disciples, as collected and transmitted
by the schools of early Buddhism. This is the well-spring of Dhamma,
from which the teachings and practices of the many schools of Buddhism
are drawn.

The term sutta in Pali or sūtra in Sanskrit is used
quite liberally in the Buddhist traditions and may include a range of
later texts. However, we only consider the earliest of these, which are
the texts included in the Suttapiṭaka of the Pali canon, and the various
corresponding collections and texts in other languages. Not all of
these texts stem from the very earliest period, but we aim to be
inclusive, so as to not miss any of the early scriptures. Generally
speaking, they represent the first few centuries of Buddhist texts, with
a special emphasis on those that may be plausibly attributed to the
historical Buddha and his immediate disciples. Later texts such as the
Mahāyāna sūtras fall outside our scope, except in cases where they quote
from the early texts.

SuttaCentral includes almost all of the
scriptures of this period. Exceptions include such things as certain
manuscripts that are unpublished or unavailable, or too fragmentary, and
some passages or quotes found in later texts and commentaries in
Chinese and Tibetan.

This article is a general overview, and more
specific details may be found on the pages for each collection. Please
note that this article deals with the history and nature of the textual
collections, not with the content and themes.

Buddha lived around the 5th century BCE, and lived and taught in the
nations of the Ganges plain in northern India, especially the regions
known today as Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. He had a long career, and was
said to have taught for forty-five years. The canonical Vinaya texts
relate how, after his passing towards the end of the 5th century BCE,
the Buddha’s followers, led by his closest disciple, Ānanda, collected
his teachings at the great First Council in Rājagaha (modern Rajgir),
ensuring their survival until today.

There are several different
accounts of the First Council, and they vary somewhat in the details of
the texts recited there. But it seems likely that the main content was
similar to what is included today in the four main nikāyas, as well as
the six early books of the Khuddaka, together with the early portions of
the Vinaya. These are sometimes referred to as the Early Buddhist Texts
(EBTs). It’s not the case that everything recited at the Council was
identical with what we have today. Even the traditions acknowledge that
there were additions. However, it seems reasonable to accept that the
bulk of the content of these texts stems from this time. The main
changes were in structure and arrangement, while changes to content were
limited and readily identifiable.

The texts would have
originally been in a Prākrit, that is, a dialect of Middle Indo-Aryan
closely related to Sanskrit. The exact form of Prākrit is unknown, and
indeed it may not have been entirely standardized, since monastics from
the earliest times were using different dialects. Indications in the
Pali texts suggest that they were derived from an earlier version in
Māgadhī, that is, the language of the kingdom of Magadha. It appears
that they were standardized in later centuries to a dialect similar to
that used widely across central India for inscriptions, with a partial
Sanskritization. Nevertheless, these languages differ mostly in
phonology, and apart from a few edge cases, changes from one form to
another do not affect the meaning.

For many
years, the texts were passed down in an oral form. This was organized
with groups of reciters, all reciting together the same text to ensure
accuracy. We are often skeptical that an oral tradition can maintain
texts accurately for a long time. This is our cultural bias, since all
we’ve known are written texts. But oral transmission was normal in
ancient India. The brahmanical Ṛg Veda, for example, was passed down in
letter-perfect form for hundreds, maybe thousands, of years before being
written down. No matter what the medium of transmission—oral, written,
or digital—corruptions and changes can creep in. The most important
thing in maintaining accuracy is not the medium, but the care and
dedication of the people doing the work. The Buddhist texts, through the
use of such devices as repetition, are highly optimized for reliable
transmission of doctrine.

The Sri Lankan historical chronicles
record that in 29 BCE, to guard against upheaval in the country, the
Pali canon was written down in the Aluvihare Rock Temple. While we don’t
have historical records for the mainland, it seems safe to assume that
texts there were written down around the same period. Indeed, a range of
Buddhist manuscripts from northern regions have been found dating from
the early centuries CE, one of which has been carbon dated to around 75

Due to the materials and climate, no such early manuscripts
of the Pali canon have survived. There are a few earlier passages in
inscriptions and the like, but the bulk of our Pali texts come from
manuscripts that have been recopied in the past few centuries.

The Chinese texts originate from manuscripts of various schools that
were taken to China and translated there by teams of monks. Each
collection has a different origin, and due to the meticulous records of
the Chinese canon, the translators and dates of these are usually well
known. Most of the early Buddhist discourses were translated around the
5th century CE, though some were earlier and some later than this. It is
not always possible to determine exactly what the original language of
the manuscripts was, but in many cases it was probably Sanskrit.
However, a variety of other Indic languages such as Gandhārī or Buddhist
Hybrid Sanskrit may have been used.

Likewise, the early texts found in Tibetan stem from Sanskrit texts that were translated in Tibet over millenium ago.

None of the modern forms of Buddhism normally use Sanskrit texts, as
the northern schools preserved only the translations. The texts in
Sanskrit and other early Indic dialects stem from a range of fortuitous
finds in the past century. Certain Sanskrit texts were discovered in
ancient manuscripts in Nepal and Tibet, where they had lain mostly
untouched since being brought from India nearly a thousand years ago.
Several finds have unearthed more texts. Manuscripts from Gilgit and
elsewhere in central Asia, Afghanistan, and Pakistan contain suttas in
several different languages, ranging from extensive texts to tiny scraps
containing only a few letters. Some were recovered from proper
archaeological research, but other manuscripts simply appeared on the
black market and their origin can only be guessed at. These manuscripts
represent the spectrum of Buddhist literature of the time, including
early suttas, Vinaya, Abhidhamma, legends, Mahāyāna texts, and
commentaries. Here we are only concerned with the early sutta material.

Such texts are sometimes called the “Dead Sea Scrolls” of Buddhism, but
this is misleading. While the Dead Sea Scrolls contained new texts
indicating a radically different perspective on early Christianity,
these Buddhist suttas are almost always minor variations on what we find
in the Pali canon. They serve to indicate the spread and diversity of
Buddhism, and offer clarification on many points of history and detail,
but they do not radically revise our understanding of the teachings.
The Early Schools of Buddhism

The century after the Buddha passed away witnessed a transformation in
Indian political history. The 16 nations of the Buddha’s time were
amalgamated by the superior force of the Magadhan kingdom, which became
an empire encompassing most of the Indian mainland. At the same time,
the invasion by Alexander the Great established Greek kingdoms in the
north-west, initiating an era of international trade.

Buddhist community, sponsored by kings such as Aśoka, took full
advantage of these favorable conditions to spread the Dhamma over the
Indian subcontinent and further. Less than two centuries after the
Buddha’s passing, Buddhist communities were thriving in regions as
far-flung as Sri Lanka and Afghanistan.

But with this growth came
new challenges. The community began to diverge, driven primarily by
distance, but also by doctrinal disagreements and personality clashes.
Soon there were, according to the traditional reckoning, “eighteen”
schools. This is just a conventional number, and there were really four
or five major groups of schools, with many regional branches.

Each of these schools would have preserved a scriptural collection.
Today we have only a small selection of these. Nevertheless, though much
is lost, we do have enough to get a reasonable idea of the similarities
and differences. Note that, unlike the Vinaya texts, it is sometimes
difficult to determine the school affiliation of a sutta collection.

For the purposes of the Discourses, the following schools are most important.

Theravāda: More precisely known as the Mahāvihāravāsins, the
“Dwellers in the Great Monastery (at Anurādhapura)”, this group was
established in Sri Lanka by Aśoka’s son, Mahinda. They passed down the
collection known as the Pali Tipiṭaka, or Pali Canon. The collection
retains the characteristics of its mainland origin, possibly from
Avanti, and few changes were made on the island. This school exclusively
used Pali for its canonical texts.
Sarvāstivāda: This was an
influential school, or group of schools, mostly based in the north-west
of India. We possess an extensive range of their Discourses—a Majjhima, a
Saṁyutta, most of a Dīgha, and several partial collections. The bulk of
the extant sutta texts in Sanskrit, Chinese, and Tibetan hail from this
school, or one of their branches such as the Mūlasarvāstivāda. Their
distinctive doctrine was that all phenomena in some sense “exist” in the
past, present, and future. However, like all sectarian doctrines, this
made little to no impact on their canonical texts. Their texts were
passed down mainly in Sanskrit, and sometimes in a sanskritized Prākrit.
Dharmaguptaka: A school doctrinally almost indistinguishable from
the Theravāda, but based in Gandhāra, in modern Pakistan and
Afghanistan. They mainly used the language we call Gandhārī, and we
possess a Dharmapada and some suttas in the original. The Dīrghāgama in
Chinese (DA) is believed to have been translated from a text of this
Mahāsaṅghika: Some texts in Hybrid Sanskrit are from
this school, and the Ekottarikāgama (EA) in Chinese is sometimes
attributed to them, though this is unclear.

Of these, only the
Theravāda still exists as a school today, with an unbroken history of
transmission of an entire collection in the original language. In
addition, there is a complete set of commentaries for all the texts. For
these reasons, the Pali collection has been, and will continue to be,
the primary source for the early Buddhist teachings.

For the
rest, we have collections and fragments that were preserved primarily in
Chinese translation, and to a lesser extent in Tibetan. The few texts
in Sanskrit and other early Indic languages stem from chance finds;
thousand year-old manuscripts preserved in mountain monasteries in Tibet
or Nepal, or even older texts dug up from the sands of Central Asia.
These texts are much less complete than the Pali, have been little
studied, and pose a range of difficult linguistic and practical
problems. Nevertheless, they have a unique value in offering an
alternate source for checking and comparing the Pali texts.

unanimous opinion of the scholars who have studied these texts is that
they are mostly consistent in doctrine and content, and differ mainly in
arrangement and organization. While it is true that the differences are
not small, and it is hard to generalize, it is clear that the early
community saw their main task to preserve verbatim the words of the
Buddha, especially the essential teachings, a task that they took very

In the Buddha’s forty-five years of
teaching, he was mainly concerned to address the person or people he was
with, to appease their suffering. Thus he was not concerned with
creating a overarching canon of his teachings. However, he did give some
indications of a broader system of classifying the teachings. Sometimes
he mentioned certain doctrinal formulations as the central content of
his teachings—the four noble truths, or the sets of teachings on
practice that came to be known as the bodhipakkhiyā dhammā, the “things
leading to awakening”. These sets of doctrines form the backbone of the
Saṁyutta Nikāya. He also mentioned an organization by literary style,
known as the aṅgas or “branches”. While the Pali texts mention nine
aṅgas, the northern texts typically mention twelve, and there is some
indication that originally there may have been only three or four.

Regardless of how the texts were organized in the Buddha’s life, early
on the schools reorganized the texts in the system of nikāyas or āgamas
as we have them today. (The term nikāya, a “collection” or “group”, is
preferred in the Theravādin context, while the northern tradition
usually used āgama, which has the sense of a “tradition” or
“transmission”; however, these usages are not specific and may be used
in any tradition.) This reorganization may well have started from the
First Council, or at any rate, not much later. The primary motive was to
arrange the collection into more manageable sections in order to
facilitate memorization. The nikāyas were not absolute or fixed
categories, but standards or templates which the different branches
implemented in their own way.

Each of the schools seems to have
had main four nikāyas. The sequence of these is not fixed. The form
adopted on SuttaCentral is the well-known sequence as used in the Pali
tradition. In other schools, as implied by the accounts of the First
Council, the collections were in different orders, such as placing the
Saṁyutta first. Note that in the Chinese canon, the editors of the
Taishō edition rearranged their material under the influence of the Pali
canon to adopt the same sequence.

Each of the nikāyas includes
material that was edited and arranged, and sometimes added to, over a
period of time. While each collection contains some unique texts, for
the most part the differences in the number of discourses is simply due
to the fact that a given discourse may be assigned a different place in
different collections.

Long: A collection of the “long”
discourses. The Dīgha has more elaborate literary ambitions than the
remaining texts, and one of its aims seems to have been the conversion
of brahmins, an educated class used to sophisticated literature. The
Pali Dīgha Nikāya (DN) has 34 discourses, the Chinese (Dharmagupta)
Dīrghāgama (DA) has 30. An old Sanskrit manuscript of the
Sarvāstivādins, largely unpublished, indicates that their collection
contained 47 discourses. In addition, there are a number of individual
Dīrgha discourses preserved in Chinese translation.
Middle: The
Majjhima contains a group of “middle length” discourses, 152 in Pali
(MN), and 222 in the Chinese Sarvāstivāda version (MA). As with the
Dīgha, there are a number of independent discourses in Chinese, too. The
Majjhima contains a wide range of discourses on diverse topics, with an
emphasis on dialogue and discussion.
Linked: The “linked” or
“connected” discourses consists of a large number of smaller discourses
organized mostly by topic, but also sometimes by the person who is
involved. Here we find large collections of discourses on such key
Buddhist topics as dependent origination, the five aggregates, the four
noble truths, and the eightfold noble path. We have the Saṁyutta Nikāya
(SN) in Pali, and a comparable Saṁyuktāgama of the Sarvāstivādins in
Chinese translation (SA). In Chinese we also find two smaller,
incomplete translations. In addition, there are a significant number of
Saṁyutta style texts in Tibetan and Sanskrit.
Numbered: The
“numbered” or “numerical” discourses are usually known as Aṅguttara
Nikāya in Pali. However, the Pali tradition also knows the form Ekottara
(“one-up” or “incremental”), and this is the form usually found in the
northern collections. These collections organize texts in numbered sets,
from one to eleven. Compared to the other nikāyas, they are more
oriented to the lay community. The Ekottarikāgama (EA) in Chinese is a
highly unusual text, which features a range of variations within itself
when it comes even to basic doctrines. It shares considerably less in
common with the Pali Aṅguttara than the other collections do with their
counterparts. In addition, there is a partial Ekottarikāgama in Chinese,
as well as a variety of individual discourses and fragments in Chinese
and Sanskrit.

The four nikāyas in Pali are a highly integrated
corpus of texts, and we continually find passages, teachings, and
phrases that are shared throughout. It is possible to discern
differences in emphasis and orientation between them, but this should
not obscure the fact that the bulk of the main doctrines are shared.
Lacking complete sets of āgamas from other schools, it is hard to know
for sure that their collections were similarly integrated, but it seems
likely that this was the case.

Early discourses that were not
included in the nikāyas were gathered by the Pali tradition into their
Khuddaka or “minor” collection. It’s not entirely clear why these
weren’t simply included in the four nikāyas; originally it may have
simply been a matter of organizational convenience. The Pali has six
works in the Khuddaka that are considered to belong to the early period.
These mostly consist of verse, with some narrative and doctrinal
material in prose.

Sutta Nipāta

While these texts are considered early, they are on the whole probably a
little later than the main nikāyas. Certain chapters of the Sutta
Nipāta have often been regarded as an especially early and authentic
portion of the canon, but this should not be over-interpreted. Other
parts of the Sutta Nipāta are clearly late. And there is nothing in the
early portions to indicate that they are earlier than the bulk of the
prose discourses.

The collection seems to have been considered an
open one until quite a late date. The Burmese recension of the Pali
canon even includes the Milindapañha, a text that could not have been
written less than three hundred years after the Buddha’s passing.

It is unclear whether each school had its own version of the Khuddaka.
However, many of these texts, especially the Dhammapada, have
counterparts in the northern collections. It seems likely that despite
differences in organization, each school would have had some collection
loosely corresponding to the Khuddaka.

The remaining texts in the
Khuddaka were added later. In style and content, they represent a
striking shift from the early texts. They indicate different
developments within the Buddhist community in the centuries following
the Buddha. These later texts include the extensive collections of
Jātaka tales, found in Pali and other traditions. Note that in the Pali
tradition, only the verses are canoncial, while the stories themselves
are found in the commentary.
Canonicity of the Suttas

early Discourses are regarded as canonical in all schools of Buddhism.
They are considered to be Buddhavacana, the “words of the Buddha”, and
are revered as sacred scripture. Each school, of course, accepts other
texts as canonical also; but the Discourses, together with the Vinayas,
are the main areas of overlap between the schools.

This general
picture, however, gets more complicated when we try to pin down the
details. While the Discourses are largely similar in each canon, they
are not identical. Each of the three main schools maintains its own
distinct canons: the Theravāda of South and Southeast Asia have their
texts in Pali; Buddhists of Central Asia use Tibetan; and in East Asia
the canon is in Chinese. A full set of nikāyas are in Pali; extensive
collections are found in Chinese; and limited selections are found in
Tibetan. The Sanskrit and other early Indic texts are not part of any
formal canon, but the texts are nevertheless canonical in the sense that
they are recognized as being the same as the texts in the canon.

So while we can say that the early Discourses are in principle
considered canonical generally, for practical purposes each of the
schools has a specific set of early Discourses found in their own canon.
Suttas in the Buddhist Traditions

In traditional Buddhist education, the Discourses have usually not been
directly taught. Rather, the teachings and principles found in the
Discourses have been assimilated and organized in later texts, which
became the medium of education. In the Theravāda, Discourses were until
recently passed down in Pali, and so were only accessible to those,
usually monks, who learned Pali. And not all those who learned Pali
would study the Discourses. It seems that teaching was for practical
purposes handed down in local monastic traditions, based on handbooks
and sets of notes and commentaries. Before modern times, it would have
been rare to find any but the largest monasteries that actually
possessed a full set of the Tipiṭaka. Today, printed sets of the canon
are widely available in both Pali and translation; but they are still
often left in a locked cabinet on the shrine, unread.

For the
most part, Buddhists might be familiar with a small set of popular
discourses. These would include such texts as the Dhammacakkappavattana
Sutta—the famous first sermon of the Buddha—and some short texts used
for protection chanting and as the basis of sermons for the laity, such
as the Maṅgala, Ratana, and Metta Suttas.

Apart from scholars,
most Theravāda Buddhists do not clearly distinguish early Discourses
from other sacred texts. The word sutta can mean simply “sacred
scripture” and may even be used for such things as magic formulas and
the like. While Buddhists are generally aware that there is such a thing
as the Tipiṭaka that contains the words of the Buddha, only educated
Buddhists have a clear idea of the contents. There is no tradition in
Buddhism comparable to the Bible readings of the Christian Mass, and so
no standard way of communicating the contents of the texts directly to
the people.

In some Buddhist traditions, it is considered
mandatory for ordained monks to memorize and study closely certain
portions of the ancient texts. Sri Lankan monks, for example, memorize
the Dhammapada. However, this is not the case in Thailand, for example,
where there is no education requirement for monks. Even in the nine
years of the formal Dhamma study curriculum in Thailand, the canonical
Discourses are not studied, as they are considered too sacred.

East Asian Buddhism, traditional education focused on the Mahāyāna
sutras and the texts of the Chinese masters, and there is little
evidence that the early discourses were widely studied. It is sometimes
said that the translation style of the āgamas compares poorly with the
more elegant diction of the Mahāyāna translations by Xuanzang and other
masters. And the early discourses are, of course, not organized for easy
reading and study.

Tibetan Buddhism includes study of early
Buddhist schools as part of its regular curriculum. However, this refers
to the Abhidhamma doctrines of the later schools. A reasonable grasp of
the early Buddhist texts is, nevertheless, possible to achieve in
Tibetan. Even though full āgama texts are lacking, substantial passages
from the early texts are found in the Upāyika, which is a compilation of
passages referred to in the Abhidharmakoṣa, and in other scattered
Modern Reform and Postmodern Criticism

From the middle
of the 19th Century, European and Asian scholars began to study the
Buddhist texts on historical grounds. Whereas traditional scholarship
remained within each school, interpreting them within their local
contexts, the new scholarship aimed to locate the texts in historical
time and place. This approach was both critical—in the sense of being
skeptical of traditional claims to authority, and requiring evidence to
support claims—and constructive, in the sense that it aimed to build a
coherent and meaningful historical picture in which to understand the

Modernity brought a range of new techniques and achievements. These include:

Comparative study of the previously isolated scriptures in Chinese,
Pali, Tibetan, and Sanskrit revealed both similarities and differences.
Based on the accounts of Chinese pilgrims, archaeologists unearthed
a series of ancient sites in India, proving that familiar sutta
locations like Sāvatthī or Rājagaha were real places.
of Buddhist scriptures with Hindu and Jaina texts allowed for a better
understanding of the cultural forces active in the Buddha’s time.
Application of text-critical methods established the historical and
doctrinal evolution of the Buddhist texts and their relation to one
The Aśokan pillars and inscriptions were discovered and
deciphered, allowing for a proper historical understanding of this
seminal Buddhist monarch.
There was a new emphasis on the early Discourses as the historical source for the Buddha’s teachings.

Modernist developments such as these are not confined to Western
scholarship, but have been conducted in conjunction with textual and
practical reforms throughout Asian Buddhism. Each of the traditions of
Asian Buddhism has participated in and applied these developments in
diverse ways. Some examples include:

In Theravāda, the Fifth and Sixth Councils reasserted the centrality of the Pali canon.
Translations of the Pali canon have been made into modern Asian
languages and widely distributed across the Buddhist world, along with
English translations.
The reformist Buddhism of King Mongkut in
19th Century Thailand was largely inspired by modernist ideas of textual
and disciplinary reform.
Modern approaches to meditation were
developed based on Pali texts. The Burmese vipassanā schools took the
Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta as their core text, making this the single most
influential text in the modern practice of meditation. In Thailand,
reform movements such as the Forest Tradition, or Ajahn Buddhadāsa’s
explicitly sutta-based approach, rejected traditional contemplative
practices based on magical invocations, and advocated a return to the
body-focused and grounded mindfulness practices of the early suttas.
The hugely influential Taishō edition of the Chinese canon was
developed by Japanese scholars who had studied text-critical techniques
in Germany. They rearranged the canon to put the āgamas in pride of
place at the start of the collection, in the sequence found in the Pali.
They also included limited information on Pali parallels.
empirical and rational strands of the early texts were emphasized,
arguing for an essential compatibility with modern science. This
provided the basis for the later application of scientific method to
mindfulness meditation, which has proved crucial to the global
acceptance of meditation as an evidence-based approach to happiness,
stress relief, and psychological wellness.

It remains the case
that direct study of the suttas is a minority practice. However, across
Asia we find popular reform movements that emphasize the central
importance of the suttas. Sutta study is most popular in Sri Lanka,
where there is a proliferation of teachers and movements advocating a
return to the suttas. The hugely popular monk Venerable Kiribathgoda
Gnanananda Thero is controversial for his insistence on treating the
suttas as the primary sources of Dhamma. In Thailand, the Buddhavacana
movement of Ajahn Kukrit Sotthibalo is changing the face of contemporary
Thailand, bringing many people to read the suttas for the first time.
In Taiwan, similarly, the recently deceased master Yin Shun emphasized
the historical primacy of the early texts, arguing that there was an
essential continuity between them and early Mahāyāna. And in countries
outside the regions of traditional Buddhism, teachers such as Ajahn
Brahm, Bhikkhu Bodhi, and many others advocate the teachings of the

Since the 1980s, such modernist reforms have come under
postmodern criticism, mostly from American scholars who specialize in
later forms of Buddhism. These criticisms aim to dislodge the modernist
consensus, arguing that we have no real way of knowing what the Buddha
taught, or the provenance of the Pali and other texts. A variety of
specific arguments attempt to refute key claims of the modernists, such
as the idea that the Buddha’s teaching was essentially rational. These
arguments have been repeatedly criticized by experts in the field. The
postmodern approach has yet to produce constructive results comparable
to those of modernism.

One of the most concrete
outcomes of the modernist reforms has been the availability of
translations of the early texts. Until now, almost all such translations
have been from the Pali canon. But a few translations from the Chinese,
Tibetan, and Sanskrit texts are now starting to appear.

began in Europe with isolated translations such as Viggo Fausböll’s
translation of the Dhammapada in 1855 and the Sutta Nipāta in 1881.
Under the leadership of T.W. Rhys Davids, the Pali Text Society, founded
in 1881, undertook the task of translating the entire canon into
English. These translations were groundbreaking, but have for the most
part been replaced by a more modern and accurate generation of
translations by scholars such as Bhikkhu Bodhi. We include some of the
older translations on SuttaCentral, but for the most part they are
primarily of historical interest, since not only is the language
archaic, but they contain many errors.

Major translations from
the Pali have also been made into Thai, Sinhala, Burmese, Cambodian,
Vietnamese, Japanese, Hindi, and most recently Bangla. Most of these
have been digitized and are available on SuttaCentral. However, we are
still looking forward to including the Bangla and Cambodian
translations, and the Japanese translation, though in the public domain,
is unavailable due to the actions of the publisher.

It’s not
always possible to easily find out the translation methods and
approaches of these different editions. However, my understanding is
that the above translations were all made directly from the Pali. In
addition to this, there have been many secondary translations made from
the English translations. Most of the remaining translations in
SuttaCentral fall into this category, though not all. Some translations,
for instance, in German or Norwegian, have been made directly from the

The new set of translations made from the Pali for
SuttaCentral by myself and Bhante Brahmali build on this tradition. They
aim to provide accurate, clear, and idiomatic translations of the early
texts in Pali.

Early Buddhist texts and modern translations. Suttas (sutras) from the…

Monastic Law
The texts on Monastic Law (vinaya) detail the lifestyle, rules, and
procedures for Buddhist monks and nuns. They provide the guidelines for
Buddhist monastics to this day, and in addition, paint a detailed and
vivid picture of everyday life in ancient India.
The Monastic Law

Bhikkhu Brahmali

Textual Transmission and the Schools
Modern Perspectives
References and Further Reading

The Vinaya Piṭaka, “The Basket of Monastic Law,” contains the rules
that are binding on monastics and the regulations that apply to monastic
communities. The Monastic Law is available in more recensions than any
other part of the Tipiṭaka. There is a full version in Pali, and four
complete versions extant in Chinese translation, all belonging to
different schools of early Buddhism: Mahāsāṅghika, Dharmaguptaka,
Mahīśāsaka, and Sarvāstivāda. The Chinese Tipiṭaka also preserves other
Vinaya related texts, such as an independent bhikkhu pātimokkha of the
Kāśyapīya School and several more or less school-specific Vinaya texts.
The Vinaya of the Mūlasarvāstivāda school exists in three versions: a
complete text in Tibetan translation, a mostly complete version in
Chinese, and substantial portions in Sanskrit. There are also several
Vinaya texts, as well as a large number of fragments, in Sanskrit and
other Indic languages, mostly of Mahāsāṅghika, Sarvāstivāda, and
Mūlasarvāstivāda provenance.

The word vinaya, here
translated as “Monastic Law,” originally probably meant “training,” as
can be seen from its usage in the Sutta Piṭaka, “the Basket of
Discourses.” In this sense it complements the Dhamma, the doctrine or
teaching, which provides the instructions on how the training is to be
achieved. The compound dhamma-vinaya is a common one in the earliest
literature and might be rendered as “theory and practice.” Gradually the
meaning shifted to refer to the rules of conduct instead, thus
referring to the training in a narrower sense. Although the former usage
is more common in the suttas, it is this latter usage of vinaya which
has become the dominant one and which has prevailed to the present day.

The Monastic Law developed over a period of several centuries after the
Buddha’s passing away. Yet given the close agreement on some of the
most fundamental aspects of the Vinaya across all surviving scriptures,
it seems likely that the earliest parts originated in the lifetime of
the Buddha. This includes the rules of conduct binding on all monastics,
known as the pātimokkha, and several of the most important procedures
that regulate the proper functioning of the monastic communities. It is
only these parts of the Vinaya that are part of the Early Buddhist Texts
in the strictest sense.

Around this kernel the Vinaya gradually
expanded. Over time, the pātimokkha rules gained a canonical commentary
that included origin stories, word analyses, detailed permutation series
on the applicability of the rules, non-offense clauses, and case
studies. For the rest of the Vinaya, known as the Khandhakas, the
expansion was less structured, with minor rules, stories, and procedures
apparently being added as the need arose. It has been shown by
Frauwallner (1956) that, despite a significant common core, many of the
details of this part of the Vinaya vary between the schools.

exact cut-off point after which no new material was added to the
Canonical Vinaya is impossible to pin down and it would have varied from
school to school. On linguistic grounds, it seems likely that the
majority of additions to the Pali Vinaya, with the exception of the
Parivāra, were done prior to its arrival in Sri Lanka in the third
century BCE. After this point new material was added to the commentarial
literature, which, despite its likely origin in the mainland, was
greatly expanded and developed in Sri Lanka.

The Vinaya was not
established as part of an overall plan to provide the monastic community
with a legal structure, but was laid down rule by rule in response to
problems as they arose in the monastic Order. It is the Dhamma, the
teaching, that guided the laying down of the Vinaya, and the Vinaya is
subsidiary to and bound up with the broader concerns of the proper
practice of the Buddhist path. A large number of rules were laid down in
response the lay people’s criticism of the monastic Order.
Textual Transmission and the Schools

The number of extant Vinaya texts is quite large and the process of
transmission and translation into various Indic languages and especially
into Chinese and Tibetan is quite complex. In what follows I give an
outline of how the main Vinaya texts were transmitted to China and

The first split in the monastic Order occurred between the
Mahāsāṅghikas and the Sthaviras, very roughly around 200 BCE. Each of
these branches subsequently split into a number of sub-schools. Of the
six complete Vinayas still extant, only one belongs to the Mahāsāṅghika
group and the remaining five to sub-schools of the Sthaviras. We should
therefore expect to find shared qualities between the Vinayas of the
Sthavira schools that are lacking in the Mahāsāṅghika Vinaya. Indeed,
the Khandhakas of the Mahāsāṅghika Vinaya are structured differently
from those of all the other Vinayas.

The sub-schools of the
Sthavira branch for which we still have complete Vinayas fall into two
sub-groups: the Sarvāstivāda and the Mūlasarvāstivāda on the one hand,
and the Dharmaguptaka, the Mahīśāsaka, and the Theravāda on the other.
First the Sarvāstivādins split from the rest of the Sthaviras. Over time
the Mūlasarvāstivāda emerged as a sub-school of the Sarvāstivāda, and
for this reason the Vinayas of these two schools share certain
characteristics (Frauwallner, 1956: 194). After the Sarvāstivādin split,
the remainder of the Sthaviras divided further, including into the
Dharmaguptaka, the Mahīśāsaka, and the Theravāda. Yet these three
schools were probably no more than regional variations of each other
(Sujato, 2012: 102) and consequently their Vinayas have much in common
(Frauwallner, 1956: 181).

Apart from the Theravāda Vinaya, the following are the main Canonical Vinayas still extant:

A complete Mahāsāṅghika Vinaya, found in the Chinese Tipiṭaka at T
1425, was translated into Chinese by Faxian and Buddhabhadra in 416-418
CE. Although its section of Khandhakas is structured differently from
that of the other schools, the content appears to largely overlap.
Further study is required to clarify the degree of divergence.
Substantial parts of this Vinaya has also been preserved in Buddhist
Hybrid Sanskrit, including the Mahāvastu, a large work mostly concerned
with the biography of the Buddha, as well as the Suttavibhaṅga for the
nuns and the monks’ pātimokkha.
A complete Sarvāstivāda Vinaya
is preserved in Chinese at T 1435, translated by Kumārajīva in 404-409
CE. There are also a number of surviving fragments in Sanskrit.
full translation of the Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinaya into Tibetan, found in
the Kanjur at D 1-7/P 1030-1036, was completed in first decade of 9th
century CE by Jinamitra of Kashmir and various others. There is a
version of this Vinaya in Chinese at T 1441-1457, largely translated by
Yijing in 703-710 CE. This translation is incomplete and full of gaps
(Frauwallner, 1956: 195). In addition to this, approximately 80 percent
of the Khandhakas exist in Sanskrit (Clarke, 2015: 75).
from a few fragments in Sanskrit and Gāndhārī, a full Dharmaguptaka
Vinaya is only preserved in Chinese at T 1428, translated by Buddhayaśas
and Zhu Fonian in 410-412 CE. Of all the extant Vinayas, this is the
one normally regarded as closest to the Theravāda Vinaya (Clarke, 2015:
The Mahīśāsaka Vinaya is only extant in Chinese at T 1421,
translated by Buddhajīva from Kashmir and others in 423-424 CE from a
manuscript brought from Sri Lanka by Faxian. According to Frauwallner
(1956: 183-84), this Vinaya is full of gaps. It is closely related to
the Dharmaguptaka Vinaya (Frauwallner, 1956: 181).
Apart from
the full Vinayas listed above, there are a variety of Canonical Vinaya
texts and fragments in different languages. One significant text is the
monks’ pātimokkha of the Kāśyapīya School, available at T 1460 and
translated into Chinese by Gautama Prajñāruci in 543 CE.


The Vinaya Piṭaka is divided into two main parts: the Suttavibhaṅga,
“The Analysis of the Rules,” and The Khandhakas, “the Chapters.” The
individual schools sometimes have additional texts, such as the
Parivāra, “The Compendium,” belonging to the Theravāda tradition, and
the Uttaragrantha belonging to the Mūlasarvāstivādins.

Suttavibhaṅga means “Analysis of the sutta.” Sutta here does not refer
to the discourses, but rather to the pātimokkha rules as a complete set.

The Suttavibhaṅga consists of the pātimokkha rules embedded in a
commentary that analyses each rule in detail. The Suttavibhaṅga is
divided into two parts, the 227 rules for the monks and the 311 rules
for the nuns. The majority of rules are the same for the two Orders, but
130 rules are specific to the nuns and 46 specific to the monks. The
greater number of rules for the nuns is in large part due to the
subdivision of individual monks’ rules into multiple rules for the nuns
and to the fact that the nuns have rules in their pātimokkha that the
monks have in the Khandhakas.

The rules are categorised according
to the penalty incurred for breaching them. The heaviest penalty,
expulsion from the monastic Order, is incurred only for conduct that is
fundamentally opposed to monastic life, such a sexual intercourse or
murder. There are 4 such rules for the monks and 8 for the nuns. The
second heaviest penalty consists of a period of suspension and probation
during which time one is not a full member of the monastic Order. There
are 13 such rules for the monks and 17 for the nuns. The vast majority
of offenses, however, are cleared simply by confession. These rules are
subdivided into a number of categories dependent on factors such as the
severity of the breach, the sort of confession that is required, and
additional requirements such as relinquishment of wrongly acquired
requisites. The last seven rules of the Suttavibhaṅga are principles for
resolving “legal” issues. Most of the material connected with these
principles is now found in the Khandhakas.

Within the
Suttavibhaṅga, each rule is largely self-contained and forms its own
subsection. These sections begin with one or more origin stories that
relate the incident that led the Buddha to lay down a particular rule.
Many of these are no more than brief accounts of a stereotypical monk or
nun who is simply stated to have done something inappropriate. A few
are elaborate narratives that may include sub-rules or important
procedures for the monastic Order, and occasionally even sutta-type
material or Jātaka-type stories. The majority of origin stories fall
somewhere in between these two extremes.

Following the origin
story is the actual rule. In a number of cases the original rule is
later amended by the Buddha, sometimes several times, before it reaches
its final form. The rule is then analysed in detail in a word
commentary, in which each significant word of the rule is defined. These
definitions range from merely supplying a synonym to large sections
with a detailed exposition. The word commentary is always technical in

After the word commentary, many rules are further
analysed as to their applicability given a number of general scenarios.
These section normally take the form of a permutation series in which a
certain number of factors are varied in all possible combinations with
each other. These sections, too, are highly technical.

Next comes
a non-offense clause, which sets out important exemptions for each
rule. The non-offense clause is sometimes followed by a set of case
studies. These concern specific instances where a monastic acts in such a
way that it is not clear-cut whether they have committed an offense.
The incident is related and the Buddha then decides on the matter. This
section is similar in content to the origin stories. Only the first nine
rules of the monks’ pātimokkha have this section.

study of the various pātimokkhas makes it clear that these texts in
large part go back to the pre-sectarian period of Buddhism (Pachow,
2000). As for the rest of the material in the Suttavibhaṅga, academics
normally consider this material to be significantly younger than the
pātimokkha rules (v. Hinüber, 2000: 13f), but it is nevertheless likely
that some of it goes back to the earliest period (Pachow, 2000: 14ff).
In the absence of more detailed research, it seems prudent to regard the
pātimokkha as the only part of the Suttavibhaṅga that belongs to the
Early Buddhist Texts.

But even this overstates the case, for it
is clear that not even all the pātimokkha rules belong to the earliest
period (Pachow, 2000). This is true of many, perhaps all, of the most
minor rules of the monks’ pātimokkha, the sekhiyas, but especially of
the rules for the nuns, many of which vary considerably between the
different schools, making it likely that they stem from the sectarian

The other main part of the Vinaya, the
Khandhakas, is a group of sections that each discuss a major area of
monastic law, such as a section on ordination, several sections on
allowable requisites, and a number of sections that deal with technical
matters. The Theravāda Khandhakas is a set of 22 sections, all of which
are matched by equivalent sections in the other existing Vinaya
recensions, with the partial exception of the Mahāsāṅghikas. The
Khandhakas of the Mahāsāṅghikas, although containing much of the same
material as the other Vinaya recensions, are structured differently.
There is as yet no scholarly consensus as to why this is the case and
what might be the implications for the historical evolution of the

The Khandhakas lack the close unifying principle
found in the Suttavibhaṅga, which, as we have seen, is organised as a
commentary and analysis of the pātimokkha rules. This makes the
Khandhakas less integrated and more diverse than the Suttavibhaṅga.

In place of the rigid structure of the Suttavibhaṅga, the Khandhakas
are loosely structured around the life story of the Buddha. After the
Buddha’s awakening, he set out to teach others about his discovery. As
he started to gain a monastic following, the need for rules and
procedures gradually arose. This need continued throughout the Buddha’s
life. It is this process that furnishes the framework for the Khandhakas
as a whole.

The “biography” of the Buddha is in fact largely
considered part of the Vinaya in all Buddhist schools. (Some schools
even include their version of the Mahāparinibbāna Sutta in the Vinaya,
rather than among the suttas, as with the Theravādins.) The Khandhakas
show ordinary interactions of the Buddha with monastics and lay people,
and we get a glimpse of the Buddha as real person, not just as the
distant teacher and leader of a large religious organisation. We see him
walking around the Ganges plain, meeting a variety of people. We see
him in close contact with his monastic disciples, criticising their
misdeeds, but also praising them when they get it right. The touching
story of the Buddha and Ven. Ānanda cleaning up a monk suffering from
dysentery is found in the Khandhakas. This close and almost personal
view of the Buddha is one factor that makes the Khandhakas a
particularly interesting collection.

One of the main functions of
the Khandhakas is to present the procedures by which the monastic
Orders conduct their business. These include the ordination procedure
and the uposatha ceremony, but also a number of other procedures that
enable the Orders to function properly. These procedures are governed by
precise rules, especially regarding democratic participation and
decentralised decision making. They allow for effective and harmonious
dispatch of monastic business.

The Khandhakas include a large
number of minor rules not found in the pātimokkha. These rules are
diverse, but can broadly be summarised as prohibiting luxuries and
sensual behaviour, both of which are incompatible with the renunciant

The Khandhakas also include background stories of some of
the Buddha’s most well-known lay disciples, such as Anāthapiṇḍika,
Visākhā, and Jīvaka. There are also stories about monastic disciples,
such as the remarkable story of Pilindavaccha, the inspiring stories of
Soṇa Kolivisa and Soṇa Kuṭikaṇṇa, as well as the downfall of Devadatta.
Then there are several Jātaka-type stories, some of which are also found
in the Jātaka collection. On top of this, each section often has its
own origin story, similar to those found in the Suttavibhaṅga. But apart
from the origin stories, the Khandhakas lack the detailed exegetical
material found in the Suttavibhaṅga.

The third last chapter of
the Khandhakas deals with rules and procedures that are specific to the
nuns, including their ordination procedure. Unless specifically stated
or implied, the rest of Khandhakas are equally valid for both Orders.

The Khandhakas end with a description of the first saṅgīti, the first
“communal recitation” of the teachings after the Buddha’s passing away,
as well as the famous Vesālī affair, sometimes known as the Second
Council, where the Order with difficulty resolved a disagreement over
issues of Vinaya. The Vesālī affair is said to have happened around one
hundred years after the Buddha passed away. It is around this time that
sectarian tendencies are starting to form in the monastic Order, and
this is roughly the cut-of-point for the common heritage of all
Other Texts

The Theravāda tradition includes the
Parivāra in its Vinaya Piṭaka. Oskar von Hinüber (2000: 22) suggests it
was completed no later than the first century AD. The Parivāra is an
analytical summary of the first two parts of the Vinaya. In style and
method it is sometimes compared to the Abhidhamma.

Other schools,
too, have Vinaya summaries and addenda that may or may not share
material with the Parivāra. Because of a lack of research, not much is
known about these texts. It seems clear, however, that none of them is
part of the Early Buddhist Texts.
Modern Perspectives

Most of
the early schools of Buddhism have long since disappeared, but three
Vinaya traditions are still alive: the Dharmaguptaka, practiced in East
Asia, including China and Korea; the Mūlasarvāstivāda, practiced in
Tibet and Mongolia; and the Theravāda, practiced in South and Southeast

In practice, it is rare for monastics to follow all the
stipulations of their chosen Vinaya lineage. For instance, although the
use of money is prohibited by the pātimokkha rules of all schools, it is
nevertheless used by the vast majority of monastics. The extent to
which the rules are followed varies enormously, but most monastic do at
least follow the most important rules, that is, the rules entailing
expulsion and those entailing suspension. A similar situation holds for
the procedures that govern the Orders. Sometimes they are practiced to
the letter, such as most ordination ceremonies in the Theravāda
tradition. At other times the procedures are misinterpreted or simply
disregarded, such as the procedures for choosing the officials of the

Over the course of Buddhist history, there have been
periodic reform movements and irregular attempts at purifying the
monastic Order. Typically the Order gradually degenerates until a
charismatic leader starts a reform movement aimed at the proper practice
of the Buddhist path, including the Vinaya. These reform movement
sometimes manifest as “forest traditions,” whereby monastics establish
forest monasteries in conformity with the ideals of early Buddhism. Over
the last three decades, one controversial and ongoing reform has been
the reestablishment of an Order of nuns, bhikkhunīs, in the Theravāda

Another important component of the
monastic Vinaya is the vast commentarial literature that has gradually
evolved over the centuries and millennia, and continues to do so to the
present day. All three of the living Vinaya traditions have such a
commentarial literature.

The commentarial literature begins with
the Suttavibhaṅga, which, although it is now part of the Canon, is an
early commentary on the pātimokkha rules. Next we have other Canonical
commentaries or summaries, such as the Parivāra of the Theravādins.
Beyond these, we come to the commentaries proper, the atthakathās, “The
Discussion on Meaning.”

The most important non-canonical
commentary on the Theravādin Vinaya Piṭaka is the Samantapāsādikā,
composed in Sri Lanka by Buddhaghosa in the fifth century CE based on
pre-existing commentaries that probably originated in India. There is
also another important commentary from this period, the Kaṅkhāvitaraṇī,
also composed by Buddhaghosa. The next layer of commentaries are the
ṭīkās, the sub-commentaries, of which there are over a dozen, including
highly specialised literature, such as handbooks on monastery boundaries
(sīmās). Ṭīkās continue to be composed to the present day. The extent
to which the Canonical Vinaya needs to be interpreted in line with this
commentarial tradition is typically controversial, and practices vary

To navigate this vast literature, many Theravāda
monasteries rely on modern summaries for their practice of the Vinaya.
Examples include the Vinayamukha in Thai and Ajahn Ṭhānissaro’s The
Buddhist Monastic Code in English.

In addition to the above, most
Theravāda monasteries follow a number of rules that are more informal
in nature. These include rules used to distinguish individual sects
(nikāyas), such as rules on the style of robes and on the manner of
wearing them. Then there are rules that pertain to particular teacher
traditions, such as those that often form around especially charismatic
and famous teachers. The final set of rules are those laid down at
individual monasteries. These regulate the daily schedule and other
aspects of monastic life that are monastery specific. Although all these
rules are sometimes called Vinaya and therefore assumed to stem from
the Vinaya Piṭaka or at least the commentaries, in reality few of them
have any Canonical basis.
References and Further Reading

Clarke, Shayne; Vinaya Mātṛikā – Mother of the Monastic Codes, or just
Another Set of Lists?; Indo-Iranian Journal 47: 77–120, 2004
Clarke, Shayne; Vinayas; in Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Buddhism; Leiden, 2015; vol. I, pp. 60-87.
Frauwallner, Erich; The Earliest Vinaya and the Beginnings of Buddhist Literature; Rome, 1956
v. Hinüber, Oskar; A Handbook of Pāli Literature; Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, 2000
Kabilsingh, Chatsumarn (trans.); The Bhikkhunī Patimokkha of the Six Schools; Bangkok, 1991
Norman, K.R.; Pāli Literature; Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 1983
Ñāṇatusita, Bhikkhu; A Translation and Analysis of the Pātimokkha; Kandy, 2008
Pachow, W; A Comparative Study of the Prātimokṣa; Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 2000
Sujato, Bhikkhu; Sects and Sectarianism; Santipada, 2012
Sujato, Bhikkhu; Bhikkhunī Vinaya Studies; Santipada, 2009

Early Buddhist texts and modern translations. Suttas (sutras) from the…

Abhidhamma texts are systematic summaries and analyses of the teachings
drawn from the earlier discourses. The Abhidhamma (spelled abhidharma
in Sanskrit) is somewhat later than the Discourses and Vinaya.


Bhikkhu Sujato

The Books of the Theravāda Abhidhamma
The Books of the Sarvāstivāda Abhidhamma
The Dharmaguptaka Śāripūtrābhidharma
Abhidhamma in Buddhist Traditions

The Abhidhamma Piṭaka is the last of the three piṭakas (or “baskets”)
in the canons of the early Buddhist schools. It takes the terms and
ideas found in the Discourses, and organizes and analyzes them

There is a complete set of seven canonical
Abhidhamma books in Pali, belonging to the Theravāda school. In
addition, there is a complete set of seven (different) canonical texts
of the Sarvāstivāda school preserved in Chinese translation, a major
treatise of the Dharmaguptaka school in Chinese, and some smaller
Sanskrit portions. As is the case with the Discourses, the Pali texts
have received the most study and attention.

Unlike the Suttas and
Vinaya, the Abhidhamma texts of the different schools are not closely
related. It seems likely, in fact, that these were some of the formative
texts in establishing the different schools. Nevertheless, Erich
Frauwallner in his Studies in Abhidharma Literature and the Origins of
Buddhist Philosophical Systems (1996) has identified certain core
features of Abhidhamma that are common between the traditions. This
notably includes the Pali Vibhaṅga, the Sarvāstivāda Dharmaskandha, and
the Dharmaguptaka Śāripūtrābhidharmaśastra. These texts all include a
common core, which is ultimately derived from the Saṁyutta Nikāya.

Despite their differences, however, it would be a mistake to see the
canonical Abhidhamma texts as presenting strongly sectarian positions.
Apart from the polemical works such as the Kathāvatthu, for the most
part they focus on presenting the central ideas of the Dhamma in
different ways.

The word abhidhamma is found
occasionally in the early texts, usually alongside the parallel term
abhivinaya. There is, of course, no body of texts called the abhivinaya,
and these early uses of abhidhamma don’t refer to settled texts such as
exist today. Rather, in this kind of context the prefix abhi- is
comparable to the English “meta-” in the sense of “about the Dhamma,
about the Vinaya”, and refers to discussions and conversations about the
teachings. Such conversations would have, over time, been remembered
and shared, and evolved gradually into the formalistic treatises of the

The traditions vary in how they see the origin
of the Abhidhamma. The Chinese and Tibetan traditions typically ascribe
each Abhidhamma book to a disciple of the Buddha. However, certain of
the Vinaya accounts of the First Council include the Abhidhamma, and
thus assume that it was present at the time of the Buddha’s passing. The
Theravāda tradition also holds that the texts (with the exception of
the Kathāvatthu) were spoken by the Buddha. This is mentioned in the
late canononical Parivāra (sabba­sat­tuttamo sīho, piṭake tīṇi desayi,
Pvr 3#5) and the paracanonical Milindapañha (tepiṭakaṃ buddhavacanaṃ,
Mil 2#55), which both date from about three to four hundred years after
the Buddha passed away. The Theravādin commentaries were later to claim
that the Buddha taught the seven books of the Abhidhamma Piṭaka to the
deities in the Tāvatiṁsa heaven, headed by his mother. Venerable
Sāriputta subsequently learned them and conveyed them to his students.

The long-standing consensus among historical scholars is that the books
of the Abhidhamma were compiled in the centuries after the Buddha. It
is not possible to determine definite dates. However, it is likely that
the common core of the Vibhaṅga/Dharmaskandha/Śāripūtrābhidharmaśastra
predates the separation between these traditions, which happened around
the time of King Ashoka in about 250 BCE, less than two centuries after
the Buddha’s death. But the bulk of the content must have been developed
after this time. A number of details, such as the fact that the works
were accepted as canonical in the Milinda, around 100 BCE, suggests that
they were completed before this time. So a range of 300 BCE–100 BCE for
the composition of the canonical Abhidhamma texts seems reasonable.

While the belief that the books were composed by immediate students of
the Buddha is untenable, it does point to something in how they might
have developed. The major disciples would have established teaching
lineages, or styles of learning, that reflected the specialties of the
different masters. Over time, the explanations of various teachers
became systematized and codified. The actual books as they exist today,
however, are the products of schools, composed under the guidance of
leading monks.
The Books of the Theravāda Abhidhamma

For the
most part, the long and complex texts of the Theravāda Abhidhamma are
concerned with analyzing and classifying material, not with explaining
it. Presumably they would have been taught by experienced teachers in
monasteries, who would have drawn out, explained, and illustrated the
abstruse texts. Eventually such explanations were codified and recorded
in the Pali commentaries.

While they introduced a number of new
terms and methods, the canonical Abhidhamma texts are doctrinally
conservative. Many of the concepts familiar from later Abhidhamma are
not found—ultimate vs. conventional truth, mind moments, kalāpas, the
idea that each phenomena is defined by its sabhāva or indvidual essence.
While some new terms are found, for the most part they seem to have
been introduced in order to clarify and disambiguate the terminology,
and weren’t intended to convey specific new concepts. That is not to say
that there are no new ideas, just that they play a fairly minor role

The Dhammasaṅgaṇī (Enumeration of
Phenomena) is built on the idea of a mātikā, a list of contents or
matrix. A mātikā acts as a simple instance of a template that is applied
and transformed in ever more complex forms throughout the work. The
Dhammasaṅgaṇī mātikās list sets of phenomena (dhammas). Most of these
are doctrinal terms familiar from the suttas, although some are
specialized Abhidhamma terms. The Dhammasaṅgaṇī starts with three
mātikās. The first classifies dhammas into 22 sets of three (tika), and
the next two use sets of two (duka), 100 pairs for Abhidhamma terms, and
42 for Sutta terms.

The first of the triple sets is the
momentous group: wholesome, unwholesome, and undetermined. This serves
as a framework for classifying all the various phenomena. While it seems
simple enough, even this detail was controversial, as some schools
rejected the existence of the undetermined, or morally neutral,

The Vibhaṅga (Book of Analysis) consists
of 18 chapters arranged by topic. The list of topics is closely related
to the Saṁyutta Nikāya—aggregates, senses, dependent origination, etc.
Most of the chapters have a threefold structure.

according to the suttas: this quotes a key passage from the suttas on
the relevant topic and offers a modest analysis.
Analysis according to the Abhidhamma: applies the sets of synonyms and terms as developed in the Dhammasaṅgaṇī.
Catechism: tests the student’s knowledge with systematic questioning.

A few sections, such as Vb 18 Dhammahadaya, do not fit this system. They may have originated as independent treatises.

The Dhātukathā (Discussion of Elements) shows how the Dhammasaṅgaṇī
mātikās relate to the 5 aggregates, 12 bases and 18 elements. It is
organized according to fourteen methods.

Puggalapaññatti (Designation of Persons) departs from the strictly
phenomenological approach of most Abhidhamma texts to present a
compendium of passages relating to different kinds of individual. These
are set out in a mātikā that lists kinds of individuals numerically
organized from one to ten. As suggested by the numerical arrangement,
these terms are mostly derived from the Aṅguttara Nikāya, with modest
changes in wording. The main concern is to classify personal or
psychological tendencies as they relate to the development of the
Buddhist path.

The Kathāvatthu (Points of
Controversy) is a collection of over 200 discussions on points of
interpretation of Buddhist doctrine. These consist of a debate between
unnamed protagonists. Each relies either on logic or quotations from the
suttas to support their arguments. Some of the discussions concern
central problems in Buddhist philosophy, such as the nature of not-self,
or the problem of continuity and impermanence. Many, however, are very

While the text does not identify the points of view, most
of them may be identified with the doctrines held by various Buddhist
schools. Note that none of the controverted points deal with
Brahmanical, Jaina, or other non-Buddhist views. Nor are there any
significant differences in the suttas referred to; each debater assumes
that they share a common sutta basis.

The Kathāvatthu is the only
book of the Abhidhamma ascribed by the Theravāda to a specific author,
Moggaliputtatissa, a senior monk at the time of King Ashoka. The core of
the work probably formed then, but it grew substantially over time. One
or two of the core discussions appear to share a common basis with the

The Yamaka (Pairs) consists of ten
chapters on different topics, starting with the roots of wholesome or
unwholesome conduct. It applies a series of pairs of questions, with the
object of fully determining the scope of application of terms. For
example, are all instances of rūpa (form, physical phenomena) included
in the aggregate of form (rūpakkhandha)? No, because there are idiomatic
uses of rūpa such as evarūpa (“of such a sort”). But are all instances
of the aggregate of form included in rūpa? Yes.

Paṭṭhāna (Conditional Relations) sets out a simple mātikā listing 24
kinds of condition. The first is the “root condition” (hetupaccayo),
dealing with how acts are caused by the unwholesome roots of greed,
hate, and delusion, or their opposites. This mātikā is then applied to
the mātikās of Dhammasaṅgaṇī, creating a bewildering complexity of
possible combinations. The Paṭṭhāna is always heavily abbreviated, but
if it were to be fully spelled out, it would probably be the largest
book ever created, with many billions of combinations.

Dhammasaṅgaṇī and the Paṭṭhāna bookend the Abhidhamma collection, the
first dealing with phenomena, the latter with their relations. While
method and the details have expanded considerably, the approach can be
seen as a detailed application of the underlying principles of dependent
The Books of the Sarvāstivāda Abhidhamma

many, perhaps all, of the “eighteen” early schools would have had
Abhidhamma texts of some sort, none were as famous as the Sarvāstivāda.
The canonical texts mentioned here were supplemented or supplanted by
the massively influential treatise Mahāvibhāṣa, which established the
Sarvāstivāda as the Abhidhamma school par excellence. Even when later
works such as Vasubandhu’s Abhidharmakoṣa or Nāgārjuna’s
Mūlamadhyamakakārikā critiqued the Sarvāstivādin philosophy, they were
still working with the framework of ideas and terms established by the
school, and based originally on these canonical texts. Accordingly,
while the Abhidhamma texts of most schools have disappeared, these texts
were taken to China and preserved there in translation. In addition,
there are some passages found in Sanskrit fragments and Tibetan texts.

The originals of all these Sarvāstivāda works were in Sanskrit.

Regarded as one of the earliest of the Abhidhamma books, this is
essentially a commentary on the Sarvāstivādin version of the Saṅgīti
Sutta (DN 33). It was composed by Mahākausthila (according to the
Sanskrit and Tibetan sources) or Śāriputra (according to the Chinese
sources). The Chinese recension was translated by Xuanzang.

As noted above, this text appears to share a common origin with the
Vibhaṅga of the Pali tradition. It is maintained today in a complete
Chinese and partial Sanskrit version. Compared to the Vibhaṅga, the
method appears to be less formalized and more discursive, quoting a
range of sutta passages. It was composed by Śāriputra (according to the
Sanskrit and Tibetan sources) or Maudgalyāyana (according to Chinese
sources). The Chinese edition was translated by Xuanzang.

This consists of a series of questions and answers on points of
doctrine based on a mātikā, supported by sutta quotes. It was said to be
composed by either Maudgalyāyana or Mahākatyāyana. The Chinese
translation is by Dharmarakṣita.

Composed by Purna
(according to Sanskrit and Tibetan sources), or Vasumitra (according to
Chinese sources). It was translated into Chinese by Xuanzang. The
Dhātukāya bears some similarity to the Pali Dhātukathā, although it uses
a different mātikā.

This is a counterpart of the
Pali Kathāvatthu, and may share a common historical basis. The text
mentions the Theravādin Moggaliputtatissa, author of the Kathāvatthu, as
an opponent in the debate on the key Sarvāstivāda doctrine that all
phenomena exist in the past, future, and present. The text discusses far
fewer points than the Kathāvatthu, however. It was composed by
Devasarman and translated into Chinese by Xuanzang.

Composed by Vasumitra, and translated by Xuanzang (T 1542), with
another partial translation by Gunabhadra and Bodhiyasa at T 1541. This
was a central Abhidharma treatise, which influenced even
non-Sarvāstivādin texts such as the Mahāprajñapāramītopadeśa.

Composed by Kātyāyanīputra and translated into Chinese by Xuanzang at T
1544. It also appears translated by Saṅghadeva and Zhu-fo-nian under
the name 阿毘曇八犍度論 at T 1543. The largest of the Sarvāstivādin Abhidhamma
books, this formed the basis for the later Sarvāstivāda treatises, and
hence the modern study of Abhidharma especially in Tibetan Buddhism.
The Dharmaguptaka Śāripūtrābhidharma

The only extant work of the Dharmaguptaka Abhidhamma, this was
translated into Chinese by Dharmayaśas and Dharmagupta. It shares some
content with the Vibhaṅga and Dharmaskandha, and other details with
other texts. Whereas the other schools maintained multiple Abhidhamma
texts, this single text covers much of the same ground, and seems to
contain the entire Abhidhamma system of the Dharmaguptakas.
Abhidhamma in Buddhist Traditions

Throughout the years, the study of Abhidhamma has been held in high
esteem by the Buddhist traditions. The Theravāda tradition developed a
series of commentaries and treatises explaining the ideas of the
Abhidhamma and extending them further. This is a living tradition, which
boasts an unbroken series of publications down to modern times. Today,
Abhidhamma study is specially emphasized in Burmese Buddhism, although
it remains active in all Theravāda regions. Tibetan Buddhism likewise
strongly emphasizes study of the Abhidharma, based mostly on
Sarvāstivādin sources. In all regions, however, contemporary Abhidhamma
study primarily relies on later treatises, and the canonical texts are
usually not directly studied in depth.

As well as study,
Abhidhamma has been a formative influence on several modern schools of
meditation. In particular, the Burmese meditation schools, including
Mahasi, Goenka, and Pa Auk, all rely closely on Abhidhamma concepts.

Perhaps unexpectedly, Abhidhamma is not restricted to monastic or
scholarly circles. It is frequently taught to or by lay people, and is
popular throughout Southeast Asia. In addition, Abhidhamma mātikās may
form the basis for ceremonial recitation. In Thailand, the Dhammasaṅgaṇī
tikamātikā and the 24 conditions of the Paṭṭhāna are used as funeral

The Abhidhamma itself is a critical system,
developed to clarify understanding of fundamental concepts and
relations. Underlying this project is the assumption that such
clarification is needed, which implies that not everyone understands
things the same way. This critical aspect comes to the fore in works
such as the Kathāvatthu, which showcases the rational methods of
clarifying doctrines.

Some, such as the historical Sautrāntikas,
criticized the Abhidhamma project itself, claiming it deviated from the
suttas. It is not clear whether all early schools actually had an
Abhidhamma Piṭaka. However, they all must have had some comparable works
of analysis and explanation.

Criticism of Abhidhamma was a
foundation of the Mahāyāna. Mahāyāna sutras criticize both specific
details of Abhidhamma doctrines—such as the notion that each phenomenon
is defined by its individual essence—and the overall direction of the
Abhidhamma schools, alleging that its followers waste time debating
trivia rather than understanding the profundity of the teaching.
Nevertheless, Mahāyāna texts developed their own forms of Abhidhamma,
and study of Abhidhamma is a core part of many Mahāyāna curricula to
this day.

Criticism is also found in the Theravāda commentaries,
which record challenges of the authenticity of the Abhidhamma. However,
most of the debate in the schools concerns the interpretation of
Abhidhamma, not the validity of the project itself.

This critical
tradition continues in the present day. Within the Tibetan Buddhist
education system, Abhidharma texts and concepts are studied, and
considered in light of the critiques by the Sautrāntikas and
Mahāyānists. And while some Theravādins maintain that it is essential to
study Abhidhamma, others claim that key Abhidhamma ideas depart from
the suttas, and that study of the Abhidhamma is unnecessary.

Early Buddhist texts and modern translations. Suttas (sutras) from the……/6747

Why we read
I read the Suttas for the Dhamma, the words and the teachings of the
historical Buddha and his monks and nuns. Reading these ancient and
sometimes complex Suttas is like mining for gold; with a bit of effort,
we can extract all of the wisdom and beauty of the Buddha’s pragmatic
and elegant teachings, all designed to lead us away from suffering and
onto a path of awakening.

Why we read: tell us why you read suttas

No teacher or book has been as helpful to me as exploring the suttas.
The more I read the suttas the clearer the path becomes. They give me
inspiration, motivation and joy. Much gratitude to the Sangha over time
for preserving them and to the modern translators to make them
accessible to us. :pray: (just another lay follower somewhere on dear
planet Earth)

Reading the suttas allowed me to get to
know the Buddha and appreciate the universal and timeless quality of
his teachings. Before reading the suttas I only understood the power of
the Dhamma and the Sangha. With the suttas I feel fully connected with
the triple-gem.
Pasanna, anagarika, Australian

When I
first became interested in Buddhism, I read a lot of meditation and
dhamma books. I knew I should go to the source and read from the suttas
but I thought “Ugh, this is going to be boring!”

I picked up the
Majjhima Nikaya on retreat and started reading and I couldn’t believe it
- I was immediately laughing and tearing up, nodding my head and
smiling with recognition - something about these words struck right to
the heart. I ended up finishing the whole book in a month. Since then,
the suttas have continued to be an invaluable source of wisdom,
inspiration and guidance, a true companion on this path.
Cara, Australia

Because they’re the roadmap to awakening.
James, United States

The fact that they are the primary sources for early Buddhist history
makes them indispensable. Ongoing familiarity with the Suttas helps
people engage critical thinking about Buddhism in general while they
continue studying related secondary sources & developing their

In the west we throw the word
“dharma” around as if it has a casual or ambiguous meaning. I read the
Suttas for the Dhamma, the words and the teachings of the historical
Buddha and his monks and nuns. Reading these ancient and sometimes
complex Suttas is like mining for gold; with a bit of effort, we can
extract all of the wisdom and beauty of the Buddha’s pragmatic and
elegant teachings, all designed to lead us away from suffering and onto a
path of awakening.

Michael, Anagarika and Attorney, Wisconsin, USA and Chiang Mai, Thailand.

I had meditated but wanted to get a better understanding of the core
teachings and psychology of the Buddha- reading the suttas were
immensely helpful for me in this. Matheesha, psychiatrist, UK

Reading Suttas is the only way to understand the teaching of the Buddha
and it is the only way someone serious about reaching Nibbana in this
very life, can do so.

Nimal, Vancouver, Canada.

When I first began to investigate Buddhist practice, it was through
sitting with groups which were locally available to me…the NKT, the
Order of Buddhist Contemplatives (Soto Zen), Samatha Trust and Amida
Pureland. Quite a mixed bag! At the same time, I would haunt ESangha
looking for voices (contributions), which seemed resonant with my
nascent ideas about what a Lay Buddhist practice might be, and how it
might be nurtured.
Most former interests and practices, fell away as a consequence. Not this…not this. :slight_smile:
I began to find an increasing sustenance in the sutta references which
were thrown up serendipitously on ESanga, by people I learned to see as
sincere and ardent practitioners. As a consequence, I printed the suttas
and filed away these hard copies for later reference. I’m not sure how
representative this miscellany of suttas are of the Dhamma, but I kept
them because they moved and inspired me when I read them.
They still do. Marie U.K.

I initially started reading the suttas after listening to some Dhamma
talks online. I had no interest in becoming a Buddhist, but was
certainly willing to listen to anything that made sense. However, such
is my orientation that I couldn’t go all that far with the talks without
knowing what they were based on.

I found the Sati­paṭṭhā­na
Sutta, wasn’t especially taken and thought “oh my, well that’s a whole
lot of charnel ground; what’s a charnel ground?” Somehow, between that
and perhaps the next ten suttas I read, an incredible, joyful love for
them arose and I’ve no idea how it happened. I can at least say it is
connected to the fact that the suttas offer the most accurate and
elegant description of my experience of life and the mechanisms that
appear to underpin it that I’ve come across. This, in turn, inspires a
gleeful hope that the prescription they contain is worth taking. Also,
some of them are excellently funny.

I’ve been
thinking about this, and can’t come up with a single, compact answer.
But I would say my interest in the suttas has evolved. Originally, by
main focus was probably on doctrine. But once my grasp of doctrine
matured, my aims in reading the suttas moved more and more toward

I also am interested in the suttas a pure history,
and see the suttas as clues in a mystery story - the mystery story of
ancient, pre-literate India and its complex spiritual, social and
philosophical culture. I feel a strong attraction to the figure of the
Buddha, but also find that figure enigmatic. I don’t think I really know
who he was, and what he was attempting to do. On the one hand, the
suttas seem to tell us a lot about the Buddha. But on the other hand,
what they tell us is filtered through many layers of transmission that
are obscure to us, an the Buddha is seen through a glass darkly.

Because no one other than the Buddha has said that to come to be is
misery and then taught a way to bring it to an end. I can’t remember
what joy or happiness feels like, but the suttas give me solace.

Sujith, India.

I first started reading the Suttas because I’d heard they were the
source of Buddhism and I wanted to get closer to the Buddha. I didn’t
find happiness in the Suttas straightaway. I read them out of faith. Out
of faith in my contemporary teachers and because I think I had some
“natural faith” in the Buddha conditioned into me somewhere along the
line. I read them even though I didn’t get them - at all. I just had
this faith that one day, it would make a difference that I perservered.

Sutta classes helped so much. To have amazing teachers teach directly
from Suttas, and encourage discussion and questioning, to go on the odd
Sutta Retreat when I could and to read what well practising scholars
have written; all these things made the most enormous difference to my
experiences with the Suttas. I would have floundered for a very long
time without all of these.

As time went on, I wanted to
understand the Buddha’s Dhamma better and became increasingly interested
in where this Teaching corresponded to what contemporary teachers said,
and where it didn’t.

But then I began to find delight in the
Suttas. When you begin to find delight in the Suttas, you begin to
suspect that you’ve stumbled upon a deeply delightful Path, one that
leads to greater understanding and peace.

At some point during
the last 20 odd years, I sort of, respectfully and rather seriously,
“fell in love” with the Buddha. So, really, I am still reading the
suttas to g

this is the next in a series of articles where I get you, our beloved
Discoursers, to help make SC better. 🙏 I’m wanting to include on our
Home page some testimonials or nice words by people as to why they read
the suttas. The idea is simply to communicate in a simple and friendly
way what …

SuttaCentral—a new beginning
We’re proud to share with you the new SuttaCentral. The team has been
working on it for over two years, and we think it’s something special.
The new site features an entirely new translation of the four Pali
nikāyas, prepared specially for SuttaCentral by Bhante Sujato. And the
whole site has been re-built to be faster, clearer, and more flexible.

SuttaCentral 2018

Welcome to the next generation of SuttaCentral! Our site has gone
through a lot of changes since our humble beginnings in 2005. Here’s
what’s new.

The new site features a new translation of the four
Pali nikāyas, prepared for SuttaCentral by Bhante Sujato. It’s a warm
and lucid text, with an emphasis on accuracy and clarity. We believe
it’s the first ever complete, consistent, and unified translation of the
four nikāyas in any European language. SuttaCentral is proud to make it
freely available without any copyright restrictions.

The sutta
translations are accompanied by an ongoing translation of the Pali
Vinaya by Bhante Brahmali. The classic Vinaya translation by I.B. Horner
has long been in need of an update. Bhante Brahmali’s new translation
is clear and accessible, and stems from his long experience not only
with Pali and the texts, but with living in a community that runs
according to the Vinaya. This new translation is being progressively
introduced to the site.

Both these new translations are being
implemented on a segmented basis. That means that each segment of the
Pali text is matched with the corresponding translation. This allows us
to display the original texts with translation segment by segment. It
also gives us a way of reliably and consistently referencing the Pali
text at a granular level, something that has never before been possible.
These segmented texts use a software called Pootle which is designed to
make translator’s jobs easier. They’re intended, not just as
stand-alone translations, but as the basis for a new generation of
translations into other languages.

We’ve also completely rebuilt the site. All the old features are still here, but there’s lots that’s new.

Open and inviting design, based on clear, considered, and familiar patterns.
Side menu offers more detailed and flexible navigation. For the
first time, our site navigation accurately reflects the traditional
hierarchical structure of the texts.
Descriptive summaries explain the texts and categories.
Parallels show the relationships between texts more clearly.
Thousands more parallels and connections.
We now support multiple translations in the same language.
The site is internationalized, so you can view it in a variety of languages. We’ll support more languages over time.
Cutting-edge Progressive Web App technologies make the site
available offline on supported systems. This is ideal for people out of
internet range, or who have limited data plans.
The translation
software is integrated with the site, making it not just a place for
presenting texts, but a publishing platform for translating suttas.

Early Buddhist texts and modern translations. Suttas (sutras) from the…

Index of Subjects

This is a modified version of the General Index of subjects from Access to Insight. We adapt this useful resource with gratitude. Changes include:

  • Removing all later texts and references, retaining only references directly to the early texts.
  • In
    a few cases, terminology and definitions have been changed, corrected,
    or deleted. However, the bulk of the content is identical.
  • HTML structure is modified.
  • Diacritical marks have added.
  • Links go to SuttaCentral.
  • In most cases, Access to Insight and SuttaCentral
    use the same reference conventions. However, in a few cases they
    differ; for example Sutta Nipāta is Sn in Access to Insight and Snp in
    SuttaCentral. In such cases the references have been changed to
    SuttaCentral’s system.

The caveat expressed by the author of the original index still apply:

is not an exhaustive index: not every text is indexed here, nor have I
included references to each and every occurrence of a given topic in the
texts. Nevertheless, I hope you find it helpful in steering you in the
right direction.

In addition, note the following:

  • References only include the Pali texts.
  • A tilde (~) stands for the head-word in a given entry.


determination, resolution
Four determinations: MN 140
drawbacks, dangers. See also Gradual instruction.
~ of feeling: MN 13
~ of form: MN 13
~ of sensuality: MN 13, MN 14, MN 54, SN 1.20, Iti 95
~ of clingable phenomena: SN 12.52
~ of aging, illness, and death: AN 3.62, AN 4.252
~ of supranormal powers: DN 11
~ of unskillful thoughts: MN 20
~ of unskillful conduct: AN 2.18
As one of ten perceptions: AN 10.60
See also Speech.
Making oneself easy to admonish: MN 21
The Buddha’s strong words to his son Rahula: MN 61
What to do if someone just won’t listen to reason: AN 4.111
See also Death; Divine messengers; Illness; four noble truths.
The Buddha spits on ~: SN 48.41
Description of ~: MN 9
Understanding of ~ as a basis for Right View: MN 9
“Aging” chapter 11 in Dhammapada (Dhp 146–156)
Effects of ~ on the body: Thig 13.1
How to train yourself when your body is old and decrepit: SN 22
You’re never too old to realize the Dhamma: Thig 5.8
Age is no measure of wisdom: SN 3.1
Advice to two aging brahmans: AN 3.51, AN 3.52
mindfulness of breathing
The Buddha’s principal teaching on ~: MN 118
How ~ leads to Awakening: SN 54.13
~ should be developed no matter how far along you are in your meditation practice: SN 54.8
As one of the ten Recollections: See Recollections, ten.
As one of the ten Perceptions: AN 10.60
As a method of subduing lust: SN 8.4
As a method of subduing annoying thoughts: Iti 85
Five qualities a practitioner of ~ should develop: AN 5.96, AN 5.97, AN 5.98
not-self. See also Tilakkhaṇa (three characteristics of existence)
Reflection on ~ as a basis for insight: SN 22.59
Identifying the five khandhas as “self” is the cause of affliction: SN 22.1
As one of seven perceptions: AN 7.46
As one of ten perceptions: AN 10.60
Relation of ~ to dependent origination: DN 15
Contemplation of the six senses in terms of ~: MN 148
Not understanding ~ is like being a dog tied to a post: SN 22.99
See also Conflict; Ill-will (vyāpāda); Kilesa (defilements); Khanti (patience); Mettā (love); Nīvaraṇa (hindrances); War.
As the only thing that’s good to kill: SN 1.71
What to do if someone is angry with you: SN 7.2, SN 11.4
What to do when ~ arises: Thag 6.12
The best response to ~ (a debate between two deities): SN 11.5
~ can carve into you like an inscription in stone: AN 3.130
~ can never be conquered with more ~: SN 11.4, Dhp 3
“Anger” chapter 17 in Dhammapada (Dhp 221–234)
The dangers of giving in to ~: AN 7.60
Impermanence. See also Tilakkhaṇa (three characteristics of existence)
As one of seven perceptions: AN 7.46
As one of ten perceptions: AN 10.60
Ponder ~ constantly: Thag 1.111
Contemplate ~ to overcome ignorance: Iti 85
Everything in the world is subject to disintegration: SN 35.82
underlying tendency
Seven ~: AN 7.11; AN 7.12
Three ~ in relationship to pleasant, painful, and neutral feeling: MN 44; MN 148; SN 36.6
With the end of the categories of objectification, the ~ come to an end: MN 18
See Recollections, ten.
path to deprivation
Advice to laity on how to avoid the ~: AN 8.54, DN 31
heedfulness, diligence
Defined: SN 35.97, SN 48.56
Difference between ~ and its opposite: SN 35.97
~ is the foremost skillful quality (ten similes): AN 10.15
As the one quality that can provide security: SN 3.17
What constitutes living with ~: