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2632 Sat 26 May LESSON Awakened One With Awareness Buddha’s Teachings in 4 Words Do Good Be Mindful ! For full explanation Please visit: Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University and related NEWS through 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
in
 105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES From: http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org Translate this Google Translation in your mother tongue using https://translate.google.com That is your LESSON Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com http://www.palicanon.org/ Pali Canon Online The Original Words of the Buddha The Origin of the Pali Canon When the BJP (Brashtachar Jiyadha Psychopaths) is continuing after the Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) tampered the fraud EVMs to gobble the Master Key and bluffed to the world that Rs 15 Lakhs will be deposited in every citizens’ bank accounts, promised to create 2 crore jobs, and so on why will not the 99.9% Sarvajan Samaj capture power in 2019 and Karnataka continue to rule the state with their whole hearted support ? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TTCELogeXhU&t=24s http://home.nethere.net/dspa…/Narada/26-Brahmana%20Vagga.htm 11. Na jañàhi na gottena na jaccà hoti bràhmauo Yamhi saccañ ca dhammo ca so sucã so ca bràhmauo. 393. PURE IS HE WHO IS TRUTHFUL AND RIGHTEOUS 11. Not by matted hair, nor by family, nor by birth does one become a bràhmaua. But in whom there exist both truth 19 and righteousness, 20 pure is he, a bràhmaua is he. 393. Story A brahmin by birth approached the Buddha and requested Him to address him as “bràhmaua” just as the monks were addressed. Thereupon the Buddha uttered this verse. in 23) Classical English, 44) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik, 45) Classical Irish- Indinéisis Clasaiceach, 45) Classical Irish 45) Indinéisis Clasaiceach, 47) Classical Japanese 47)古典的な日本語48) Classical Javanese 48) Klasik Jawa, 49) Classical Kannada 49) ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ, 50) Classical Kazakh 50) Классикалық қазақ
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Posted by: site admin @ 9:38 pm

2632 Sat  26  May  LESSON

Awakened One With Awareness Buddha’s Teachings in 4 Words
Do Good Be Mindful !

For full explanation

Please visit:
Analytic
Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University and
related NEWS through 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 
in
 105 CLASSICAL
LANGUAGES
From:
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

Translate this Google Translation in your mother tongue using
https://translate.google.com

That is your LESSON

Email:
buddhasaid2us@gmail.com

http://www.palicanon.org/
Pali Canon Online

The Original Words of the Buddha
The Origin of the Pali Canon


When
the BJP (Brashtachar Jiyadha Psychopaths) is continuing after the
Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) tampered the fraud EVMs to
gobble the Master Key and bluffed to the world that Rs 15 Lakhs will be
deposited in every citizens’ bank accounts, promised to create 2 crore
jobs, and so on why will not the 99.9% Sarvajan Samaj capture power in
2019 and Karnataka continue to rule the state with their whole hearted
support ?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TTCELogeXhU&t=24s
http://home.nethere.net/dspa…/Narada/26-Brahmana%20Vagga.htm

11. Na jañàhi na gottena
na jaccà hoti bràhmauo
Yamhi saccañ ca dhammo ca
so sucã so ca bràhmauo. 393.

PURE IS HE WHO IS TRUTHFUL AND RIGHTEOUS

11.
Not by matted hair, nor by family, nor by birth does one become a
bràhmaua. But in whom there exist both truth 19 and righteousness, 20
pure is he, a bràhmaua is he. 393.

Story

A brahmin by
birth approached the Buddha and requested Him to address him as
“bràhmaua” just as the monks were addressed. Thereupon the Buddha
uttered this verse.
in  23) Classical English,

44) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,

45) Classical Irish-
Indinéisis Clasaiceach,
45) Classical Irish

45) Indinéisis Clasaiceach,
47) Classical Japanese

47)古典的な日本語48) Classical Javanese

48) Klasik Jawa,
49) Classical Kannada

49) ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,
50) Classical Kazakh
50) Классикалық қазақ


https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=WuwfgXmqFZk
Brahamana Vagga - The Brahmana.wmv


We have to carry out the mission of the great Political Reformer Manyavar Kanshiram Ji.
Concentrate
on exposing the just 0.1% intolerant, cunning, crooked, number one
terrorists of the world, violent, militant, ever shooting, lynching,
lunatic, mentally retarded, rapists chitpavan brahmins who are
foreigners belonging to Bene Israeli Paradesis.
They have gobble the
Master Key by tampering the Fraud EVMs for their one of the avathars BJP
( Brashtachar Jiyadha Psychopaths ) headed by Murderer of democratic
institutions (Modi). If Ballot Papers are used in elections the BJP will
get less than 0.1% votes.
BJP is in Clear Majority ONLY in 10 state assemblies out of 29.

On the Other Hand BJP has:

ZERO Seats in Sikkim
ZERO Seats in Mizoram and
ZERO Seats in Tamilnadu.

9 out of 294 seats in Andhra,
1 out Of 140 in Kerala,
3 out of 117 in Punjab,
3 out of 294 in WB,
5 out of 119 in Telangana,
3 out of 70 in Delhi,
10 out of 147 in Orissa
12 out of 60 in Nagaland

Also In states where BJP is Part of Ruling coalition it has got
2 out of 60 in Meghalaya
53 out of 243 in Bihar
25 out of 87 in J&K
13 out of 40 seats in Goa.

Summing
up all figures,what we get is that out of total 4139 Assembly Seats all
over the country,BJP have 1516 along which 950 of BJP MLAs come from 6
states such as Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, UP, MP, Rajasthan.

So the fact about Saffronization of the country is more of a hype…!! 😂😉😂

Just publicity and propaganda…!!

The
ex CJI ( Crooked Cheat Cunning Corrupt In (justice)) Sathasivam
committed a grave error of judgement by ordering that the EVMs must be
replaced in a phased manner, the fact replacement itself being a clear
proof that the EVMs could be tampered to negate the Universal Adult
Franchise guaranteed by our Marvelous Modern Constitution. The ex CEC
(Corrupt, Cunning Cheat Evil Commisson ) suggested to replace the fraud
EVMs in a phased manner because it cost Rs 1600 crore at that time to
replace the entire EVMs. Now it costs more than Rs 5000 crore to replace
the entire EVMs says Modi just to continue to loot the country with
these fraud EVMs. All of them must be punished for practising hatred,
anger, jealousy , delusion which are defilement of the mind requiring
treatment in mental asylums for their madness with Insight Meditation as
cure until their defilement of mind is cleared.
Dissolve the Central Government and go for fresh polls with Ballot Papers is the only solution.

The
software and its source code of the EVMs are not made available to the
voters and candidates in this democratic country. If that is available
then it can be proved that the EVMs can be tampered. Again the CJI order
that the EVMs must be replaced in a phased manner itself proved that
the EVMs can be tampered. If not how does the question of replacement in
a phased manner arise.

The 0.1% chitpavan brahmins are
terrorists unlike the other Brahmins like Satish Chandra Mishra and many
other good Brahmins who are Arahaths, Nobles, Arias etc., ad mentioned
in the Brahana Vagga mentioned by the Buddha the Awakened One with Aware
ness in Dhammapada.The chitpavan brahmins are from Bene Israeli who are
foreigners, outsiders and paradesis.With lots of hatred, anger,
jealousy , delusion which are defilement of the mind they must not be
rulers.

Bràhmaua Vagga 1
The Bràhmaua
(Text and Translation by Ven. Nàrada)

1. Chinda sotam parakkamma
kàme panuda bràhmaua
Saïkhàrànam khayamñatvà
akataññu’ si bràhmaua. 383.

BE A KNOWER OF THE UNCREATED

1.
Strive and cleave the stream. 2 Discard, O bràhmaua, sense-desires.
Knowing the destruction of conditioned things, be, O bràhmaua, a knower
of the Unmade 3 (Nibbàna). 383.

Story

A devotee, persuaded
by his great faith, used to give alms in his house to the monks
addressing them, “O Arahants”. The monks in their modesty resented his
form of address and discontinued their visits to his house. The devotee
was sad and he went to the Buddha to inquire why the monks had ceased to
accept his alms. The monks explained the matter. The Buddha said that
the devotee had used that form of address only out of respect and that
they should try to become Arahants by cleaving the stream of craving.

2. Yadà dvayesu dhammesu
pàragu hoti bràhmauo
Atha’ ssa sabbe samyogà
attham gacchanti jànato. 384.

CULTIVATE CONCENTRATION AND INSIGHT

2. When in two states 4 a bràhmaua goes to the Farther Shore, 5 then all the fetters of that “one who knows” pass away. 384.

Story

Knowing
that some monks who had come to visit the Buddha from very far away
were ripe to realize Nibbàna, the Venerable Sàriputta approached the
Buddha, and questioned Him about the two states which the Buddha always
used to commend. In reply the Buddha uttered this verse.

3. Yassa pàram apàram và
pàràpàram na vijjati
Vãtaddaram visamyuttam
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 385.

THE UNBOUND PERSON IS A BRâHMAöA

3.
For whom there exists neither the hither 6 nor the farther shore, nor
both the hither and the farther shore, 7 he who is undistressed and
unbound, 8 - him I call a bràhmaua. 385.

Story

Màra,
disguised as a man, approached the Buddha and questioned Him about the
farther shore. The Buddha, recognising him, dismissed him saying that he
had nothing to do with the farther shore and uttered this verse.

4. Jhàyim virajam àsãnam
katakiccam anàsavam
Uttamattham anuppattam
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 386.

HE WHO IS MEDITATIVE AND PURE IS A BRâHMAöA

4.
He who is meditative, 9 stainless and secluded, 10 he who has done his
duty and is free from corruptions, 11 he who has attained the Highest
Goal 12 - him I call a bràhmaua. 386.

Story

A brahmin
noted that the Buddha used to address His monks as “bràhmaua”, and he
thought that he too was entitled to the same form of address as he was a
brahmin by birth. He questioned the Buddha about the matter. The Buddha
replied that one did not become a bràhmaua by birth but by attaining
his highest goal.

5. Divà tapati àdicco
rattim obhàti candimà
Sannaddho khattiyo tapati
jhàyã tapati bràhmauo
Atha sabbam ahorattim
buddho tapati tejasà. 387.

THE BUDDHA SHINES THROUGHOUT DAY AND NIGHT

5.
The sun shines by day; the moon is radiant by night. Armoured shines
the warrior king. 13 Meditating the bràhmaua 14 shines. But all day and
night the Buddha 15 shines in glory. 387.

Story

The
Venerable Ananda perceived a king in all his glory, a meditative monk
seated in the hall, and the setting sun and the rising moon. Then he
beheld the Buddha outshining them all in glory. When he mentioned his
impressions of the different sights to the Buddha He uttered this verse.

6. Bàhitapàpo’ti bràhmauo
samacariyà samauo’ ti vuccati
Pabbàjay’ attano malam
tasmà pabbajito’ ti vuccati. 388.

HE IS HOLY WHO HAS DISCARDED ALL EVIL

6.
Because he has discarded evil, he is called a bràhmaua; because he
lives in peace, 16 he is called a samana; because he gives up the
impurities, he is called a pabbajita - recluse. 388.

Story

An
ascetic of an alien sect approached the Buddha and requested Him to
address Him as “pabbajita” - recluse. In reply the Buddha uttered this
verse.

7. Na bràhmauassa pahareyya
n’ ássa muñcetha bràhmauo
Dhã bràhmauassa hantàram
tato dhã yassa muñcati. 389.
8. Na bràhmauass’ etadakiñci seyyo
yadà nisedho manaso piyehi
Yato yato himsamano nivattati
tato tato sammatimeva dukkham. 390.

HARM NOT AN ARAHANT

7.
One should not strike a bràhmaua, 17 nor should a bràhmaua vent (his
wrath) on one who has struck him. Shame on him who strikes a bràhmaua!
More shame on him who gives vent (to his wrath)! 389.

AN ARAHANT DOES NOT RETALIATE

8.
Unto a bràhmaua that (non-retaliation) is of no small advantage. When
the mind is weaned from things dear, whenever the intent to harm ceases,
then and then only doth sorrow subside. 390.

Story

Once a
certain brahmin struck the Venerable Sàriputta to test his patience.
The latter did not get angry. Instead of retaliating, he pardoned him
and also ate food in his house. Praising the Venerable Sàriputta for his
outstanding patience, the Buddha explained the attitude of a real
bràhmaua (Arahant).

9. Yassa kàyena vàcàya
manasà natthi dukkatam
Samvutam tãhi ñhànehi
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 391.

HE IS A TRUE BRâHMAöA WHO IS WELL-RESTRAINED

9. He that does no evil through body, speech or mind, who is restrained in these three respects - him I call a bràhmaua. 391.

Story

Some
nuns would not observe the vinaya ceremonies with the Venerable Mahà
Pajàpati Gotami since they doubted her authenticity as a bhikkhunã
(nun). The Buddha explained matters and remarked that no doubts should
be entertained with regard to a Passionless One who is restrained in the
three doors (i.e., body, speech and mind).

10. Yamhà dhammam vijàneyya
sammàsambuddhadesitam
Sakkaccam tam namasseyya
aggihuttam’va bràhmauo. 392.

HONOUR TO WHOM HONOUR IS DUE

10.
If from anybody one should understand the doctrine preached by the
Fully Enlightened One, devoutly should one reverence him, as a brahmin
reveres the sacrificial fire. 392.

Story

The Venerable
Sàriputta, in reverencing his first teacher, the Venerable Assaji, from
whom he had learnt the Dhamma, used to turn in the direction of Assaji’s
abode. Some monks misconstrued his action and reported to the Buddha
that Sàriputta was reverencing the cardinal points. 18 The Buddha
defended him and explained the attitude of a pupil towards his teacher.

11. Na jañàhi na gottena
na jaccà hoti bràhmauo
Yamhi saccañ ca dhammo ca
so sucã so ca bràhmauo. 393.

PURE IS HE WHO IS TRUTHFUL AND RIGHTEOUS

11.
Not by matted hair, nor by family, nor by birth does one become a
bràhmaua. But in whom there exist both truth 19 and righteousness, 20
pure is he, a bràhmaua is he. 393.

Story

A brahmin by
birth approached the Buddha and requested Him to address him as
“bràhmaua” just as the monks were addressed. Thereupon the Buddha
uttered this verse.

12. Kim te jañàhi dummedha
kim te ajinasàñiyà
Abbhantaram te gahauam
bàhiram parimajjasi. 394.

BE PURE WITHIN

12.
What is the use of your matted hair, O witless man? What is the use of
your antelope skin garment? Within, you are full of passions; without,
you embellish yourself. 21 394.

Story

The Buddha uttered this verse in connection with an ascetic who attempted to kill a lizard.

13. Pamsukuladharam jantum
kisam dhamanisanthatam
Ekam vanasmim jhàyantam
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 395.

WHO MEDITATES ALONE IN THE FOREST IS A BRâHMAöA

13.
The person who wears dust-heap robes, 22 who is lean, whose veins stand
out, who meditates alone in the forest - him I call a bràhmaua. 395.

Story

The
Venerable Kisà Gotamã, who was meditating alone in the forest, wearing
dust-heap robes, came through the air to salute the Buddha. Seeing
Sakka, King of the gods, she turned back after saluting. Sakka wished to
know who she was. The Buddha uttered this verse in reply.

14. Na c’áham bràhmauam brumi
yonijam mattisambhavam
Bhovàdi nàma so hoti
sa ce hoti sakiñcano
Akiñcanam anàdànam
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 396.

THE NON-POSSESSIVE AND THE NON-ATTACHED PERSON IS A BRâHMAöA

14.
I do not call him a bràhmaua merely because he is born of a (brahmin)
womb or sprung from a (brahmin) mother. He is merely a “Dear-addresser”,
23 if he be with impediments. He who is free from impediments, free
from clinging - him I call a bràhmaua. 396.

Story

A brahmin by birth wished the Buddha to address him as “bràhmaua”. The Buddha uttered this verse in reply.

15. Sabbasaññojanam chetvà
yo ve na paritassati
Saïgàtigam visamyuttam
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 397.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO HAS DESTROYED ALL FETTERS

15. He who has cut off all fetters, who trembles not, who has gone beyond ties, who is unbound - him I call a bràhmaua. 397.

Story

The
Buddha uttered this verse when the monks reported to the Buddha that
the Venerable Uggasena, an Arahant, claimed that he had no fear.

16. Chetvà naddhim varattañ ca
sandàmam sahanukkamam
Ukkhittapaëigham buddham
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 398.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO HAS NO HATRED

16.
He who has cut the strap (hatred), the thong (craving), and the rope
(heresies), together with the appendages (latent tendencies), who has
thrown up the cross-bar (ignorance), who is enlightened 24 (Buddha) -
him I call a bràhmaua. 398.

Story

Two persons arguing
about the comparative strength of their oxen tested them by loading
their carts with sand and forcing the oxen to draw them. The carts would
not stir an inch but instead the thongs and straps broke. The monks saw
this and mentioned it to the Buddha. Thereupon He advised the monks to
destroy the thongs and straps in their own minds.

17. Akkosam vadhabandhañ ca
aduññho yo titikkhati
Khantibalam balàuãkam
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 399.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO IS PATIENT

17.
He who, without anger, endures reproach, flogging and punishments,
whose power and potent army is patience - him I call a bràhmaua. 399.

Story

A
certain wife used to ejaculate words of praise to the Buddha whenever
the slightest mishap occurred. Her husband objected to her habit but she
persisted. The provoked husband went to the Buddha and angrily put some
questions to the Buddha. Hearing His reply, which was marked by great
patience, the irate husband became a convert and entered the Order. His
brothers came and abused the Buddha for converting him. The Buddha
patiently endured their reproach and preached to them. They were also
converted. When the monks extolled His patience the Buddha uttered this
verse.

18. Akkodhanam vatavantam
sãlavantam anussutam
Dantam antimasàrãram
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 400.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO IS NOT WRATHFUL

18.
He who is not wrathful, but is dutiful, 25 virtuous, free from craving,
self-controlled and bears his final body, 26 - him I call a bràhmaua.
400.

Story

The Venerable Sàriputta was reviled by his own
mother as she resented his taking of the monastic life, but he was
patient. Hearing of his patience, the Buddha uttered this verse in
praise of him.

19. Vàripokkharapatt’ eva
àragger’ iva sàsapo
Yo na limpati kàmesu
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 401.

HE IS A BRâHMAöA WHO CLINGS NOT TO SENSUAL PLEASURES

19.
Like water on a lotus leaf, like a mustard seed on the point of a
needle, he who clings not to sensual pleasures - him I call a bràhmaua.
401.

Story

When an Arahant bhikkhunã was raped by a former
suitor of hers the monks began wondering whether Arahants are
susceptible to sensual pleasures. The Buddha explained that Arahants are
not so susceptible.

20. Yo dukkhassa pajànàti
idh’ eva khayam attano
Pannabhàram visamyuttam
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 402.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO HAS LAID THE BURDEN ASIDE

20.
He who realizes here in this world the destruction of his sorrow, who
has laid the burden 27 aside and is emancipated, 28 - him I call a
bràhmaua. 402.

Story

Before the promulgation of the rule
with regard to the ordination of slaves, a slave belonging to a brahmin
ran away and entered the Order. Soon he attained Arahantship. The
brahmin, seeing him when he went in quest of alms, held him by the hem
of his robe. The Buddha remarked that the slave had laid the burden
aside and uttered this verse.

21. Gambhãrapaññam medhàvim
maggámaggassa kovidam
Uttamattham anuppattam
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 403.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO HAS REACHED HIS ULTIMATE GOAL

21.
He whose knowledge is deep, who is wise, who is skilled in the right
and wrong way, 29 who has reached the highest goal - him I call a
bràhmaua. 403.

Story

The Venerable Khemà bhikkhunã came to
pay her respects to the Buddha and seeing Sakka King of the gods,
saluted the Buddha and turned back. Sakka inquired of the Buddha who she
was. The Buddha answered that she was a daughter of His who was very
wise.

22. Asamsaññham gahaññhehi
anàgàrehi c’ubhayam
Anokasàrim appiccham
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 404.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO HAS NO INTIMACY WITH ANY

22.
He who is not intimate either with householders or with the homeless
ones, who wanders without an abode, who is without desires - him I call a
bràhmaua. 404.

Story

Once a monk was dwelling in a cave. A
goddess, who had her abode in the cave, made a false accusation against
him in order to drive him away. The monk was not angered; on the
contrary her words induced him to attain Arahantship. Later, he went to
see the Buddha and mentioned the whole incident. The Buddha thereupon
uttered this verse.

23. Nidhàya daudam bhutesu
tasesu thàvaresu ca
Yo na hanti na ghàteti
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 405.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO IS ABSOLUTELY HARMLESS

23.
He who has laid aside the cudgel in his dealings with beings, 30
whether feeble or strong, who neither harms nor kills - him I call a
bràhmaua. 405.

Story

A monk, who had attained Arahantship
while dwelling in a forest, was on his way to see the Buddha. A woman
who had quarrelled with her husband entered the same forest desiring to
return to her parents’ home. The husband, finding his wife missing,
entered the forest in search of her. He saw the woman following the
Arahant. The husband, suspecting the Arahant, beat him soundly in spite
of the pleadings of his wife, who vouched for his innocence. Later, the
Arahant saw the Buddha and mentioned the whole incident. Thereupon the
Buddha uttered this verse.

24. Aviruddham viruddhesu
attadaudesu nibbutam
Sàdànesu anàdànam
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 406.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO IS FRIENDLY AMONGST THE HOSTILE

24.
He who is friendly amongst the hostile, who is peaceful amongst the
violent, who is unattached amongst the attached, 31 - him I call a
bràhmaua. 406.

Story

A female devotee expressed her desire
to offer food at her house to five monks. Accordingly five Arahant
novices went to her house for alms as invited. But as she desired to
have five elderly bràhmauas (monks), she did not offer alms to the
novices. Later she was convinced of their greatness, for although they
were not served first they were not angry. The Buddha, hearing their
story, uttered this verse.

25. Yassa ràgo ca doso ca
màno makkho ca pàtito
Sàsapor’ iva àraggà
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 407.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO HAS DISCARDED ALL PASSIONS

25.
In whom lust, hatred, pride, detraction are fallen off like a mustard
seed from the point of a needle - him I call a bràhmaua. 407.

Story

An
Arahant advised his brother monk to leave the Order as he could not
memorise a single verse even after four months. The monks thought that
the Arahant had done so in anger. The Buddha explained that Arahants
have no passions and that the Arahant concerned had been actuated by
reverence for the Dhamma. 32

26. Akakkasam viññàpanim
giram saccam udãraye
Yàya n’ ábhisaje kañci
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 408.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO GIVES OFFENCE TO NONE

26. He who utters gentle, instructive, true words, who by his speech gives offence to none - him I call a bràhmaua. 408.

Story

An
Arahant was in the habit of addressing others with an epithet employed
only in addressing outcastes. The monks took objection to his form of
address and mentioned it to the Buddha. Thereupon the Buddha explained
that the Arahant had not done so with evil intent but through force of
habit from past lives, and on that occasion He uttered this verse.

27. Yo’dha dãgham va rassam và
auum thulam subhásubham
Loke adinnam nádiyati
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 409.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO STEALS NOT

27.
He who in this world takes nothing that is not given, be it long or
short, small or great, fair or foul - him I call a bràhmaua. 409.

Story

An
Arahant mistaking a cloth lying on the ground for one abandoned by the
owner, took it. The owner saw it and accused him of theft. The Arahant
explained that he had not taken it with thievish intent and returned it.
He told the other monks about the incident. The monks made fun of him.
The Buddha explained that Arahants do not steal anything from others.

28. âsà yassa na vijjanti
asmim loke paramhi ca
Niràsayam visamyuttam
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 410.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO IS DESIRELESS

28.
He who has no longings, pertaining to this world or to the next, who is
desireless and emancipated - him I call a bràhmaua. 410.

Story

The
Venerable Sàriputta, at the termination of a rainy season which he had
spent in a certain place with many other monks, advised them to bring
the robes presented to the young monks and novices and went to see the
Buddha. The monks, misconstruing his words, thought that he still
harboured desires. The Buddha explained the attitude of the Venerable
Sàriputta.

29. Yassálayà na vijjanti
aññàya akathamkathã
Amatogadham anuppattam
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 411.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO HAS NO LONGINGS

29.
He who has no longings, who, through knowledge, is free from doubts,
who has gained a firm footing in the Deathless (Nibbàna) - him I call a
bràhmaua. 411.

Story

The story is similar to the preceding one. This time the accusation was made against the Venerable Moggallàna.

30. Yo’dha puññañ ca pàpañ ca
ubho saïgam upaccagà
Asokam virajam suddham
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 412.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO HAS TRANSCENDED GOOD AND EVIL

30.
Herein he who has transcended both good and bad and the ties 33 as
well, who is sorrowless, stainless, and pure - him I call a bràhmaua.
412.

Story

When the monks spoke in admiration of the great
merit of the Venerable Revata the Buddha mentioned that he was beyond
both good and evil.

31. Candam’ va vimalam suddham
vippasannam anàvilam
Nandãbhavaparikkhãuam
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 413.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO IS PURE

31.
He who is spotless as the moon, who is pure, serene, and unperturbed,
34 who has destroyed craving for becoming - him I call a bràhmaua. 413.

Story

Owing
to a meritorious act in a past birth a person possessed a light like
unto the moon’s disc, issuing from his navel. When he came to the
presence of the Buddha it disappeared. He wished to know from the Buddha
the cause of its disappearance. The Buddha promised to answer if he
would enter the Order. Later, he became a monk and attained Arahantship.
Thereupon the Buddha uttered this verse.

32. Yo imam paëipatham duggam
samsàram moham accagà
Tiuuo pàragato jhàyã
anejo akathamkathã
Anupàdàya nibbuto
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 414.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO CLINGS TO NAUGHT

32.
He who has passed beyond this quagmire, 35 this difficult path, 36 the
ocean of life (samsàra), and delusion, 37 who has crossed 38 and gone
beyond, who is meditative, free from craving and doubts, who, clinging
to naught, has attained Nibbàna - him I call a bràhmaua. 414.

Story

This verse was uttered by the Buddha in connection with Arahant Sãvalã, who had to suffer long in the mother’s womb.

33. Yo’ dha kàme pahatvàna
anàgàro paribbaje
Kàmabhavaparikkhãuam
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 415.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO HAS GIVEN UP SENSE-DESIRES

33.
He who in this world giving up sense-desires, would renounce worldly
life and become a homeless one, he who has destroyed sense-desires and
becoming - him I call a bràhmaua. 415.

Story

A courtesan
tried to tempt a young monk who belonged to a wealthy family but failed.
Praising him, the Buddha uttered this verse.

34. Yo’ dha tauham pahatvàna
anàgàro paribbaje
Tauhàbhavaparikkhãuam
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 416.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO HAS GIVEN UP CRAVING

34.
He who in this world giving up craving, would renounce worldly life and
become a homeless one, he who has destroyed craving and becoming - him I
call a bràhmaua. 416.

Story

A wealthy man retired from
the world and attained Arahantship. The Buddha uttered this verse to
show that the man no longer had any longing for wealth or wife.

35. Hitvà mànusakam yogam
dibbam yogam upaccagà
Sabbayogavisamyuttam
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 417.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO HAS DISCARDED ALL BONDS

35.
He who, discarding human ties and transcending celestial ties, is
completely delivered from all ties - him I call a bràhmaua. 417.

Story

A
monk, who had once been a dancer, said, when questioned by the other
monks, that he had no more longing for dancing. Commenting on his change
of life and his attainment to Arahantship, the Buddha uttered this
verse.

36. Hitvà ratiñ ca aratiñ ca
sãtibhutam nirupadhim
Sabbalokàbhibhum vãram
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 418.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO HAS GIVEN UP LIKES AND DISLIKES

36.
He who has given up likes 39 and dislikes, 40 who is cooled and is
without defilements, 41 who has conquered the world 42 and is strenuous -
him I call a bràhmaua. 418.

Story

The story is similar to the preceding one.

37. Cutim yo vedi sattànam
upapattiñ ca sabbaso
Asattam sugatam buddham
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 419.
38. Yassa gatim na jànanti
devà gandhabbamànusà
Khãuàsavam arahantam
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 420.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO IS NOT ATTACHED

37.
He who in every way knows the death and rebirth of beings, who is
non-attached, well-gone, 43 and enlightened, 44 - him I call a bràhmaua.
419.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO IS AN ARAHANT

38. He whose
destiny neither gods nor gandhabbas 45 nor men know, who has destroyed
all corruptions, and is far removed from passions (Arahant) - him I call
a bràhmaua. 420.

Story

A man, named Vangãsa, was able to
divine where a dead person had been reborn by tapping at the skull of
the dead. Once he came to the Buddha and succeeded in divining the place
and state of rebirth of several but failed in the case of an Arahant.
He wished to know from the Buddha by what charm he would be able to tell
the destiny of such persons. The Buddha replied that He would teach him
the charm if he would enter the Order. With the object of learning the
charm he became a monk. But before long he attained Arahantship. With
reference to him the Buddha uttered these verses.

39. Yassa pure ca pacchà ca
majjhe ca natthi kiñcanam
Akiñcanam anàdànam
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 421.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO YEARNS FOR NAUGHT

39.
He who has no clinging to Aggregates that are past, future, or present,
who is without clinging and grasping - him I call a bràhmaua. 421.

Story

A
very devout young wife, with the permission of her husband (who had
attained Anàgàmi, the third stage of Sainthood), became a nun and
attained Arahantship. One day the husband approached her and put some
difficult questions on the Dhamma with the object of testing her. She
answered all the questions. When she was questioned on points beyond her
scope she referred her husband to the Buddha. Hearing the answers given
by the nun, the Buddha applauded her and uttered this verse.

40. Usabham pavaram vãram
mahesim vijitàvinam
Anejam nahàtakam Buddham
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 422.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO IS ENLIGHTENED

40.
The fearless, 46 the noble, the hero, the great sage, 47 the conqueror,
48 the desireless, the cleanser 49 (of defilements), the enlightened,
50 - him I call a bràhmaua. 422.

Story

This verse was uttered by the Buddha in connection with the fearlessness of the Venerable Angulimàla.

41. Pubbenivàsam yo vedã
saggápàyañ ca passati
Atho jàtikkhayam patto
abhiññàvosito muni
Sabbavositavosànam
tam aham brumi bràhmauam. 423.

A BRâHMAöA IS HE WHO HAS PERFECTED HIMSELF

41.
That sage who knows his former abodes, who sees the blissful 51 and the
woeful states, 52 who has reached the end of births, 53 who, with
superior wisdom, has perfected himself, 54 who has completed 55 (the
holy life), and reached the end of all passions - him I call a bràhmaua.
423.

Story

Once the Buddha was suffering from a rheumatic
pain. A devotee prepared for Him some hot water for a bath. When the
Buddha was cured of the pain he came to the Buddha and wished to know to
what kind of person a gift should be given if it is to yield abundant
fruit. In reply the Buddha uttered this verse.

THE END

End Notes

1
Though a racial term here it is applied either to a Buddha or an
Arahant - to one who has completed the Way and has won Enlightenment.

2 Sotam - stream of craving.

3 Nibbàna is not made of anything. It is unconditioned.

4 Concentration (samatha) and Insight (vipassanà).

5 That is, in acquiring higher intellect (abhiññà).

6 Pàram - the six personal sense-fields; apàram - the six external sense-fields.

7 Not grasping anything as “me” and “mine”.

8 Not connected with the passions.

9 He who practises concentration (samatha) and insight (vipassanà).

10 âsãnam, living alone in the forest.

11 By realizing the four Truths and eradicating the fetters.

12 That is, Nibbàna.

13 Here Khattiya refers to a king.

14 That is, an Arahant.

15
The Buddha eclipses immorality by the power of morality (sãla), vice by
the power of virtue (guua), ignorance by the power of wisdom (paññà),
demerit by the power of merit (puñña), unrighteousness by the power of
righteousness (dhamma). (Commentary).

16 Having subdued all evil.

17 Here bràhmaua is used in the sense of an Arahant.

18
The adherents of certain cults worshipped the four cardinal points, the
zenith and the nadir, e.g., Sigàla (of the Sigàlovàda Sutta).

19 The realization of the four Noble Truths.

20 Here Dhamma refers to the nine supramundane States - the four Paths, the four Fruits, and Nibbàna.

21 With the paraphernalia of the ascetics.

22 Robes made of cast-off rags.

23
Bho is a familiar form of address which even the Buddha used in
addressing laymen. The term Bho-vàdi is applied to the Buddha as well.

24 Who has understood the four Noble Truths.

25 Devoted to religious austerity.

26 “Final body” because he, having destroyed the passions, would be reborn no more.

27 The burden of the Aggregates.

28 From all defilements.

29 Who knows the way to the woeful states, to the blissful states, and to Nibbàna.

30 Literally, towards beings.

31 Those who are attached to the Aggregates.

32 See v. 25.

33 Lust, hatred, delusion, pride, and false views.

34 Undisturbed by defilements.

35 Of lust and so forth.

36 Of passions.

37 That which veils the four Noble Truths.

38 The four floods - namely: sense-desires, becoming, false views, and ignorance.

39 That is, attachment to sense-desires.

40 Arati = dislike for forest life. (Commentary)

41
Upadhi - there are four kinds of upadhi - namely: the aggregates
(khandha), the passions (kilesa), volitional activities (abhisaïkàra),
and sense-desires (kàma).

42 That is, the world of Aggregates.

43 Sugatam = well-gone in practice, that is, to Nibbàna.

44 Buddham = he who has understood the four Noble Truths.

45 A class of celestial beings.

46 Usabham, fearless as a bull.

47 Mahesim, seeker of higher morality, concentration, and wisdom.

48 Vijitàvinam, the conqueror of passions.

49 Nahàtakam, he who has washed away all impurities.

50 Buddham, he who has understood the four Noble Truths.

51 Sagga, the six heavenly realms, the sixteen Rupa Realms, and the four Arupa Realms.

52 Apàya, the four woeful states.

53 Jàtikkhayam, i.e., Arahantship.

54
Abhiññàvosito, i.e., reached the culmination by comprehending that
which should be comprehended, by discarding that which should be
discarded, by realizing that which should be realized, and by developing
that which should be developed. (Commentary)

55
Sabbavositavosànam, i.e., having lived the Holy Life which culminates in
wisdom pertaining to the Path of Arahantship, the end of all passions.
home.nethere.net
Dhammapada 26: Brahmana Vagga - Text & Translation by Ven Narada
1. Chinda sotam parakkamma kàme panuda bràhmaua Saïkhàrànam khayamñatvà akataññu’ si bràhmaua. 383.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2gL6KQyaTY0
Cadre Camp, Madhya Pradesh, India, 1997

Saheb Kanshi Ram
Published on Dec 20, 2014
Cadre Camp, Madhya Pradesh, India, 1997

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जय भीम जय भारत

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23) Classical English
2632 Sat  26  May  LESSON

Awakened One With Awareness Buddha’s Teachings in 5 Words
Always Do Good Be Mindful !

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Pali Canon Online

The Original Words of the Buddha
The Origin of the Pali Canon

‘Suppose
a monk were to say: “Friends, I heard and received this from the Lord’s
own lips: this is the Dhamma, this is the discipline, this is the
Master’s teaching”, then, monks, you should neither approve nor
disapprove his words. Then, without approving or disapproving, his words
and ex­pressions should be carefully noted and compared with the Suttas
and reviewed in the light of the discipline. If they, on such
comparison and review, are found not to conform to the Suttas or the
discipline, the conclusion must be: “Assuredly this is not the word of
the Buddha, it has been wrongly un­derstood by this monk”, and the
matter is to be rejected. But where on such comparison and review they
are found to con­form to the Suttas or the discipline, the conclusion
must be: “Assuredly this is the word of the Buddha, it has been rightly
understood by this monk.”

- DN 16 Mahāparinibbāna Sutta - The Great Passing, The Buddha’s Last Days
The
authentic teachings of Gotama the Buddha have been preserved and handed
down to us and are to be found in the Tipiṭaka. The Pāli word,
‘Tipiṭaka’, literally means ‘the three baskets’ (ti=three +
piṭaka=collections of scriptures). All of the Buddha’s teachings were
divided into three parts.

1. The first part is known as the Vinaya Piṭaka and it contains all the rules which Buddha laid down for monks and nuns.
2. The second part is called the Suttaṅta Piṭaka and it contains the Discourses.
3. The third part is known as the Abhidhamma Piṭaka and comprises the psycho-ethical teachings of the Buddha.

It
is known, that whenever the Buddha gave a discourse to his ordained
disciples or lay-followers or prescribed a monastic rule in the course
of his forty-five year ministry, those of his devoted and learned monks,
then present would immediately commit his teachings word for word to
memory. Thus the Buddha’s words were preserved accurately and were in
due course passed down orally from teacher to pupil. Some of the monks
who had heard the Buddha preach in person were Arahants, and so by
definition, ‘pure ones’ free from passion, ill-will and delusion and
therefore, was without doubt capable of retaining, perfectly the
Buddha’s words. Thus they ensured that the Buddha’s teachings would be
preserved faithfully for posterity.

Even those devoted monks who
had not yet attained Arahantahood but had reached the first three stages
of sainthood and had powerful, retentive memories could also call to
mind word for word what the Buddha had preached and so could be worthy
custodians of the Buddha’s teachings. One such monk was Ānanda, the
chosen attendant and constant companion of the Buddha during the last
twenty-five years of the his life. Ānanda was highly intelligent and
gifted with the ability to remember whatever he had heard. Indeed, it
was his express wish that the Buddha always relate all of his discourses
to him and although he was not yet an Arahanta he deliberately
committed to memory word for word all the Buddha’s sermons with which he
exhorted monks, nuns and his lay followers. The combined efforts of
these gifted and devoted monks made it possible for the Dhamma and
Vinaya, as taught by the Buddha to be preserved in its original state.

The
Pāli Tipiṭaka and its allied literature exists as a result of the
Buddha’s discovery of the noble and liberating path of the pure Dhamma.
This path enables all those who follow it to lead a peaceful and happy
life. Indeed, in this day and age we are fortunate to have the authentic
teachings of the Buddha preserved for future generations through the
conscientious and concerted efforts of his ordained disciples down
through the ages. The Buddha had said to his disciples that when he was
no longer amongst them, that it was essential that the Saṅgha should
come together for the purpose of collectively reciting the Dhamma,
precisely as he had taught it. In compliance with this instruction the
first Elders duly called a council and systematically ordered all the
Buddha’s discourses and monastic rules and then faithfully recited them
word for word in concert.

The
teachings contained in the Tipiṭaka are also known as the Doctrine of
the Elders [Theravāda]. These discourses number several hundred and have
always been recited word for word ever since the First Council was
convened. Subsequently, more Councils have been called for a number of
reasons but at every one of them the entire body of the Buddha’s
teaching has always been recited by the Saṅgha participants, in concert
and word for word. The first council took place three months after the
Buddha’s attainment of Mahāparinibbāṇa and was followed by five more,
two of which were convened in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
These collective recitations which were performed by the monks at all
these Dhamma Councils are known as the ‘Dhamma Saṅgītis’, the Dhamma
Recitations. They are so designated because of the precedent set at the
First Dhamma Council, when all the Teachings were recited first by an
Elder of the Saṅgha and then chanted once again in chorus by all of the
monks attending the assembly. The recitation was judged to have been
authentic, when and only when, it had been approved unanimously by the
members of the Council. What follows is a brief history of the Six
Councils.

The First Council

King Ajātasattu sponsored the
First Council. It was convened in 544 B.C. in the Sattapaāāī Cave
situated outside Rājagaha three months after the Buddha had passed away.
A detailed account of this historic meeting can be found in the
Cūllavagga of the Vinaya Piṭaka. According to this record the incident
which prompted the Elder Mahākassapa to call this meeting was his
hearing a disparaging remark about the strict rule of life for monks.
This is what happened. The monk Subhadda, a former barber, who had
ordained late in life, upon hearing that the Buddha had expired, voiced
his resentment at having to abide by all the rules for monks laid down
by the Buddha. Many monks lamented the passing of the Buddha and were
deeply grieved. However, the Elder Mahākassapa heard Subhadda say:
‘’Enough your Reverences, do not grieve, do not lament. We are well rid
of this great recluse (the Buddha). We were tormented when he said,
‘this is allowable to you, this is not allowable to you’ but now we will
be able to do as we like and we will not have to do what we do not
like'’. Mahākassapa was alarmed by his remark and feared that the Dhamma
and the Vinaya might be corrupted and not survive intact if other monks
were to behave like Subhadda and interpret the Dhamma and the Vinaya
rules as they pleased. To avoid this he decided that the Dhamma must be
preserved and protected. To this end after gaining the Saṅgha’s approval
he called to council five hundred Arahants. Ānanda was to be included
in this provided he attained Arahanthood by the time the council
convened. With the Elder Mahākassapa presiding, the five-hundred Arahant
monks met in council during the rainy season. The first thing
Mahākassapa did was to question the foremost expert on the Vinaya of the
day, Venerable Upāli on particulars of the monastic rule. This monk was
well qualified for the task as the Buddha had taught him the whole of
the Vinaya himself. First of all the Elder Mahākassapa asked him
specifically about the ruling on the first offense [pārājika], with
regard to the subject, the occasion, the individual introduced, the
proclamation, the repetition of the proclamation, the offense and the
case of non-offense. Upāli gave knowledgeable and adequate answers and
his remarks met with the unanimous approval of the presiding Saṅgha.
Thus the Vinaya was formally approved.

The Elder Mahākassapa then
turned his attention to Ānanda in virtue of his reputable expertise in
all matters connected with the Dhamma. Happily, the night before the
Council was to meet, Ānanda had attained Arahantship and joined the
Council. The Elder Mahākassapa, therefore, was able to question him at
length with complete confidence about the Dhamma with specific reference
to the Buddha’s sermons. This interrogation on the Dhamma sought to
verify the place where all the discourses were first preached and the
person to whom they had been addressed. Ānanda, aided by his
word-perfect memory was able to answer accurately and so the Discourses
met with the unanimous approval of the Saṅgha. The First Council also
gave its official seal of approval for the closure of the chapter on the
minor and lesser rules, and approval for their observance. It took the
monks seven months to recite the whole of the Vinaya and the Dhamma and
those monks sufficiently endowed with good memories retained all that
had been recited. This historic first council came to be known as the
Paācasatika because five-hundred fully enlightened Arahants had taken
part in it.

The Second Council

The
Second Council was called one hundred years after the Buddha’s
Parinibbāṇa in order to settle a serious dispute over the ‘ten points’.
This is a reference to some monks breaking of ten minor rules. they were
given to:

1. Storing salt in a horn.
2. Eating after midday.
3. Eating once and then going again to a village for alms.
4. Holding the Uposatha Ceremony with monks dwelling in the same locality.
5. Carrying out official acts when the assembly was incomplete.
6. Following a certain practice because it was done by one’s tutor or teacher.
7. Eating sour milk after one had his midday meal.
8. Consuming strong drink before it had been fermented.
9. Using a rug which was not the proper size.
10. Using gold and silver.

Their
misdeeds became an issue and caused a major controversy as breaking
these rules was thought to contradict the Buddha’s original teachings.
King Kāḷāsoka was the Second Council’s patron and the meeting took place
at Vesāli due to the following circumstances. One day, whilst visiting
the Mahāvana Grove at Veāsli, the Elder Yasa came to know that a large
group of monks known as the Vajjians were infringing the rule which
prohibited monk’s accepting gold and silver by openly asking for it from
their lay devotees. He immediately criticized their behavior and their
response was to offer him a share of their illegal gains in the hope
that he would be won over. The Elder Yasa, however declined and scorned
their behavior. The monks immediately sued him with a formal action of
reconciliation, accusing him of having blamed their lay devotees. The
Elder Yasa accordingly reconciled himself with the lay devotees, but at
the same time, convinced them that the Vijjian monks had done wrong by
quoting the Buddha’s pronouncement on the prohibition against accepting
or soliciting for gold and silver. The laymen immediately expressed
their support for the Elder Yasa and declared the Vajjian monks to the
wrong-doers and heretics, saying ‘’the Elder Yasa alone is the real monk
and Sākyan son. All the others are not monks, not Sākyan sons'’.

The
Stubborn and unrepentant Vajjian monks then moved to suspend the
Venerable Yasa Thera without the approval of the rest of the Saṅgha when
they came to know of the outcome of his meeting with their lay
devotees. The Elder Yasa, however escaped their censure and went in
search of support from monks elsewhere, who upheld his orthodox views on
the Vinaya. Sixty forest dwelling monks from Pāvā and eighty monks from
the southern regions of Avanti who were of the same view, offered to
help him to check the corruption of the Vinaya. Together they decided to
go to Soreyya to consult the Venerable Revata as he was a highly
revered monk and an expert in the Dhamma and the Vinaya. As soon as the
Vajjian monks came to know this they also sought the Venerable Revata’s
support by offering him the four requisites which he promptly refused.
These monks then sought to use the same means to win over the Venerable
Revata’s attendant, the Venerable Uttara. At first he too, rightly
declined their offer but they craftily persuaded him to accept their
offer, saying that when the requisites meant for the Buddha were not
accepted by him, Ānanda would be asked to accept them and would often
agree to do so. Uttara changed his mind and accepted the requisites.
Urged on by them he then agreed to go and persuade the Venerable Revata
to declare that the Vajjian monks were indeed speakers of the Truth and
upholders of the Dhamma. The Venerable Revata saw through their ruse and
refused to support them. He then dismissed Uttara. In order to settle
the matter once and for all, the Venerable Revata advised that a council
should be called at Vāḷikārāma with himself asking questions on the ten
offenses of the most senior of the Elders of the day, the Thera
Sabbjakāmi. Once his opinion was given it was to be heard by a committee
of eight monks, and its validity decided by their vote. The eight monks
called to judge the matter were the Venerables Sabbakāmi, saḷha,
Khujjasobhita and Vāsabhagāmika, from the East and four monks from the
West, the Venerables Revata, Sambhuta-Sāṇavāsī, Yasa and Sumana. They
thoroughly debated the matter with Revata as the questioner and
sabbakāmī answering his questions. After the debate was heard the eight
monks decided against the Vajjian monks and their verdict was announced
to the assembly. Afterwards seven-hundred monks recited the Dhamma and
Vinaya and this recital came to be known as the Sattasatī because
seven-hundred monks had taken part in it. This historic council is also
called, the Yasatthera Sangīti because of the major role the Elder Yasa
played in it and his zeal for safeguarding the Vinaya. The Vajjian monks
categorically refused to accept the Council’s decision and in defiance
called a council of there own which was called the Mahāsaṅgiti.

The Third Council

The
Third Council was held primarily to rid the Saṅgha of corruption and
bogus monks who held heretical views. The Council was convened in 326
B.C. At Asokārāma in Paṭaliputta under the patronage of Emperor Asoka.
It was presided over by the Elder Moggaliputta Tissa and one thousand
monks participated in this Council. Tradition has it that Asoka had won
his throne through shedding the blood of all his father’s son’s save his
own brother, Tissa Kumāra who eventually got ordained and achieved
Arahantship.

Asoka was crowned in the two hundred and eighteenth
year after the Buddha’s Mahaparinibbāna. At first he paid only token
homage to the Dhamma and the Saṅgha and also supported members of other
religious sects as his father had done before him. However, all this
changed when he met the pious novice-monk Nigrodha who preached him the
Appamāda-vagga. Thereafter he ceased supporting other religious groups
and his interest in and devotion to the Dhamma deepened. He used his
enormous wealth to build, it is said, eighty-four thousand pagodas and
vihāras and to lavishly support the Bhikkhus with the four requisites.
His son Mahinda and his daughter Saṅghamittā were ordained and admitted
to the Saṅgha. Eventually, his generosity was to cause serious problems
within the Saṅgha. In time the order was infiltrated by many unworthy
men, holding heretical views and who were attracted to the order because
of the Emperor’s generous support and costly offerings of food,
clothing, shelter and medicine. Large numbers of faithless, greedy men
espousing wrong views tried to join the order but were deemed unfit for
ordination. Despite this they seized the chance to exploit the Emperor’s
generosity for their own ends and donned robes and joined the order
without having been ordained properly. Consequently, respect for the
Saṅgha diminished. When this came to light some of the genuine monks
refused to hold the prescribed purification or Uposatha ceremony in the
company of the corrupt, heretical monks.

When the Emperor heard
about this he sought to rectify the situation and dispatched one of his
ministers to the monks with the command that they perform the ceremony.
However, the Emperor had given the minister no specific orders as to
what means were to be used to carry out his command. The monks refused
to obey and hold the ceremony in the company of their false and
‘thieving’ companions [theyyasinivāsaka]. In desperation the angry
minister advanced down the line of seated monks and drawing his sword,
beheaded all of them one after the other until he came to the King’s
brother, Tissa who had been ordained. The horrified minister stopped the
slaughter and fled the hall and reported back to the Emperor Asoka was
deeply grieved and upset by what had happened and blamed himself for the
killings. He sought Thera Moggaliputta Tissa’s counsel. He proposed
that the heretical monks be expelled from the order and a third Council
be convened immediately. So it was that in the seventeenth year of the
Emperor’s reign the Third Council was called. Thera Moggaliputta Tissa
headed the proceedings and chose one thousand monks from the sixty
thousand participants for the traditional recitation of the Dhamma and
the Vinaya, which went on for nine months. The Emperor, himself
questioned monks from a number of monasteries about the teachings of the
Buddha. Those who held wrong views were exposed and expelled from the
Saṅgha immediately. In this way the Bhikkhu Saṅgha was purged of
heretics and bogus bhikkhus.
This council achieved a number of other
important things as well. The Elder Moggaliputta Tissa, in order to
refute a number of heresies and ensure the Dhamma was kept pure,
complied a book during the council called the Kathāvatthu. This book
consists of twenty-three chapters, and is a collection of discussion
(kathā) and refutations of the heretical views held by various sects on
matters philosophical. It is the fifth of the seven books of the
Abhidhamma Piṭaka. The members of the Council also gave a royal seal of
approval to the doctrine of the Buddha, naming it the Vibhajjavāda, the
Doctrine of Analysis. It is identical with the approved Theravāda
doctrine. One of the most significant achievements of this Dhamma
assembly and one which was to bear fruit for centuries to come, was the
Emperor’s sending forth of monks, well versed in the Buddha’s Dhamma and
Vinaya who could recite all of it by heart, to teach it in nine
different countries. These Dhammadūta monks included the Venerable
Majjhantika Thera who went to Kashmir and Gandhāra. He was asked to
preach the Dhamma and establish an order of monks there. The Venerable
Mahādeva was sent to Mahinsakamaṇḍaḷa (modern Mysore) and the Venerable
Rakkhita Thera was dispatched to Vanavāsī (northern Kanara in the south
of India.) The Venerable Yonaka Dhammarakkhita Thera was sent to Upper
Aparantaka (northern Gujarat, Kathiawar, Kutch and Sindh].

The
Venerable Mahārakkhita Thera went to Yonaka-loka (the land of the
lonians, Bactrians and the Greeks.) The Venerable Majjhima Thera went to
Himavanta (the place adjoining the Himalayas.) The Venerable Soṇa and
the Venerable Uttara were sent to Suvaṇṇabhūmi [now Myanmar]. The
Venerable Mahinda Thera, The Venerable Ittiya Thera, the Venerable
Uttiya Thera, the Venerable Sambala Thera and the Venerable Bhaddasāla
Thera were sent to Tambapaṇṇi (now Sri Lanka). The Dhamma missions of
these monks succeeded and bore great fruits in the course of time and
went a long way in ennobling the peoples of these lands with the gift of
the Dhamma and influencing their civilizations and cultures.

With
the spread of Dhamma through the words of the Buddha, in due course
India came to be known as Visvaguru, the teacher of the world.

The Fourth Council

The
Fourth Council was held in Tambapaṇṇi [Sri Lanka] in 29 B.C. under the
patronage of King Vaṭṭagāmaṇi. The main reason for its convening was the
realization that is was now not possible for the majority of monks to
retain the entire Tipiṭaka in their memories as had been the case
formerly for the Venerable Mahinda and those who followed him soon
after. Therefore, as the art of writing had, by this time developed
substantially, it was thought expedient and necessary to have the entire
body of the Buddha’s teaching written down. King Vaṭṭagāmaṇi supported
the monk’s idea and a council was held specifically to reduce the
Tipiṭaka in its entirety to writing. Therefore, so that the genuine
Dhamma might be lastingly preserved, the Venerable Mahārakhita and five
hundred monks recited the words of the Buddha and then wrote them down
on palm leaves. This remarkable project took place in a cave called, the
Āloka lena, situated in the cleft of an ancient landslip near what is
now Matale. Thus the aim of the Council was achieved and the
preservation in writing of the authentic Dhamma was ensured. Later, in
the Eighteenth Century, King Vijayarājasīha had images of the Buddha
created in this cave.

The Fifth Council

The Fifth Council
took place in Māndalay, Burma now known as Myanmar in 1871 A.D. in the
reign of King Mindon. The chief objective of this meeting was to recite
all the teachings of the Buddha and examine them in minute detail to see
if any of them had been altered, distorted or dropped. It was presided
over by three Elders, the Venerable Mahāthera Jāgarābhivaṃsa, the
Venerable Narindābhidhaja, and the Venerable Mahāthera Sumaṅgalasāmi in
the company of some two thousand four hundred monks (2,400). Their joint
Dhamma recitation lasted for five months. It was also the work of this
council to cause the entire Tipiṭaka to be inscribed for posterity on
seven hundred and twenty-nine marble slabs in the Myanmar script after
its recitation had been completed and unanimously approved. This
monumental task was done by some two thousand four hundred erudite monks
and many skilled craftsmen who upon completion of each slab had them
housed in beautiful miniature ‘piṭaka’ pagodas on a special site in the
grounds of King Mindon’s Kuthodaw Pagoda at the foot of Māndalay Hill
where this so called ‘largest book in the world’, stands to this day.

The Sixth Council

The
Sixth Council was called at Kaba Aye in Yangon, formerly Rangoon in
1954, eighty-three years after the fifth one was held in Mandalay. It
was sponsored by the Burmese Government led by the Prime Minister, the
Honorable U Nu. He authorized the construction of the Mahā Pāsāna Gūhā,
the great cave that was built from the ground up, to serve as the
gathering place much like India’s Sattapānni Cave–the site of the first
Dhamma Council. Upon its completion, the Council met on the 17th of
May, 1954. As in the case of the preceding councils, its first objective
was to affirm and preserve the genuine Dhamma and Vinaya. However it
was unique in so far as the monks who took part in it came from eight
countries. These two thousand five hundred learned Theravāda monks came
from Myanmar, Cambodia, India, Laos, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and
Vietnam. The late Venerable Mahāsi Sayadaw was appointed the noble task
of asking the required questions about the Dhamma of the Venerable
Bhadanta Vicittasārābhivaṃsa Tipiṭakadhara Dhammabhaṇḍāgārika who
answered all of them learnedly and satisfactorily. By the time this
council met, all the participating countries had the Pāli Tipiṭaka
rendered into their native scripts, with the exception of India.

The
traditional recitation of the Dhamma Scriptures took two years during
which the Tipiṭaka and its allied literature in all the scripts were
painstakingly examined. Any differences found were noted down, the
necessary corrections were made and all the versions were then collated.
Happily, it was found that there was not much difference in the content
of any of the texts. Finally, after the Council had officially approved
them, all the volumes of the Tipiṭaka and their Commentaries were
prepared for printing on modern presses and published in the Myanmar
(Burmese) script. This notable achievement was made possible through the
dedicated efforts of the two thousand five hundred monks and numerous
lay people. Their work came to an end in May, 1956, two and a half
millennia after the Lord attained Parinibbāna. This council’s work was
the unique achievement of representatives from the entire Buddhist
world. The version of the Tipiṭaka which it undertook to produce has
been recognized as being true to the pristine teachings of Gotama the
Buddha and the most authoritative rendering of them to date.

The
volumes printed after the Sixth Saṅgāyana were printed in Myanmar
script. In order to make the volumes to the people of India, Vipassana
Research Institute started the project to print the Tipiṭaka with its
Aṭṭhakathās and ṭikas in Devanagari in the year 1990.


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The Original Words of the Buddha
Asal Usul Kanon Pali

‘Seandainya
seorang bhikkhu berkata: “Teman-teman, saya mendengar dan menerima ini
dari bibir Tuhan sendiri: ini adalah Dhamma, ini adalah disiplin, ini
adalah ajaran Guru”, maka, para bhikkhu, Anda tidak boleh menyetujui
atau tidak menyetujui
kata-kata. Kemudian,
tanpa menyetujui atau menolak, kata-kata dan ekspresinya harus dicatat
dengan cermat dan dibandingkan dengan Sutta-sutta dan ditinjau kembali
dalam terang disiplin.
Jika
mereka, pada perbandingan dan peninjauan semacam itu, ditemukan tidak
sesuai dengan Sutta-sutta atau disiplin, kesimpulannya harus: “Sudah
pasti ini bukan kata-kata Sang Buddha, itu telah keliru dipahami oleh
bhikkhu ini”, dan masalah
harus ditolak. Tetapi
di mana pada perbandingan dan peninjauan semacam itu, mereka ditemukan
sesuai dengan Sutta-sutta atau disiplin, kesimpulannya harus: “Sudah
pasti ini adalah kata-kata Sang Buddha, itu telah dipahami dengan benar
oleh bhikkhu ini.”

- DN 16 Mahāparinibbāna Sutta - The Great Passing, Hari-Hari Terakhir Sang Buddha
Ajaran otentik Gotama Sang Buddha telah dilestarikan dan diwariskan kepada kita dan dapat ditemukan di Tipiṭaka. Kata Pāli, ‘Tipiṭaka’, secara harfiah berarti ‘tiga keranjang’ (ti = tiga + piṭaka = koleksi kitab suci). Semua ajaran Buddha dibagi menjadi tiga bagian.

1. Bagian pertama dikenal sebagai Vinaya Piṭaka dan berisi semua aturan yang ditetapkan Buddha untuk biarawan dan biarawati.
2. Bagian kedua disebut Suttaṅta Piṭaka dan itu berisi Khotbah-khotbah.
3. Bagian ketiga dikenal sebagai Abhidhamma Piṭaka dan terdiri dari ajaran psiko-etika Sang Buddha.

Sudah
diketahui, bahwa bilamana Sang Buddha memberikan ceramah kepada
murid-muridnya yang ditahbiskan atau umat awam atau memberikan aturan
monastik dalam pelayanannya selama empat puluh lima tahun, para bhikkhu
yang berbakti dan terpelajar, kemudian hadir akan segera melakukan
ajarannya.
kata kata ke memori. Dengan demikian kata-kata Sang Buddha dilestarikan secara akurat dan pada waktunya diwariskan secara lisan dari guru ke murid. Beberapa
bhikkhu yang telah mendengar Sang Buddha berkhotbah secara pribadi
adalah Arahat, dan dengan definisi, ‘orang-orang suci’ yang bebas dari
nafsu, niat jahat dan khayalan dan karenanya, tanpa ragu mampu
mempertahankan, secara sempurna kata-kata Sang Buddha.
Dengan demikian mereka memastikan bahwa ajaran Buddha akan dilestarikan dengan setia untuk anak cucu.

Bahkan
para bhikkhu yang berbakti yang belum mencapai Arahat tetapi telah
mencapai tiga tahap pertama dari kesucian dan memiliki daya ingat yang
kuat, juga dapat mengingatkan kata demi kata apa yang Sang Buddha telah
ajarkan dan dengan demikian dapat menjadi pelindung yang layak dari
ajaran Sang Buddha.
Salah
satu bhikkhu tersebut adalah Ānanda, pengawal yang dipilih dan teman
setia Sang Buddha selama dua puluh lima tahun terakhir dari hidupnya.
Ānanda sangat cerdas dan berbakat dengan kemampuan untuk mengingat apa pun yang telah didengarnya. Memang,
itu adalah harapannya bahwa Sang Buddha selalu menceritakan semua
khotbahnya kepadanya dan meskipun ia belum menjadi Arahanta ia sengaja
berkomitmen untuk mengingat kata demi kata semua khotbah Sang Buddha
yang dengannya ia mendesak para biarawan, biarawati dan pengikut
awamnya.
Upaya
gabungan dari para bhikkhu yang berbakat dan berbakti ini memungkinkan
Dhamma dan Vinaya, sebagaimana diajarkan oleh Buddha untuk dilestarikan
dalam keadaan aslinya.

Tipiṭaka
Pāli dan literatur sekutunya ada sebagai hasil dari penemuan Buddha
atas jalan mulia dan membebaskan dari Dhamma murni.
Jalan ini memungkinkan semua orang yang mengikutinya menjalani kehidupan yang damai dan bahagia. Memang,
di zaman sekarang ini kita beruntung memiliki ajaran-ajaran otentik
Buddha yang dilestarikan untuk generasi masa depan melalui upaya teliti
dan terpadu dari para muridnya yang ditahbiskan selama berabad-abad.
Sang
Buddha telah berkata kepada murid-muridnya bahwa ketika dia tidak lagi
berada di antara mereka, bahwa adalah penting bahwa Saṅgha harus datang
bersama-sama untuk tujuan secara kolektif membaca Dhamma, persis seperti
yang telah diajarkannya.
Sesuai
dengan instruksi ini Penatua pertama sepatutnya memanggil dewan dan
secara sistematis memerintahkan semua wacana Buddha dan aturan monastik
dan kemudian dengan setia mengucapkan kata demi kata dalam konser.


Ajaran-ajaran yang terkandung dalam Tipiṭaka juga dikenal sebagai Ajaran Para Tetua [Theravāda]. Khotbah-khotbah ini jumlahnya beberapa ratus dan selalu dilafalkan kata demi kata sejak Konsili Pertama digelar. Selanjutnya,
lebih banyak Dewan telah dipanggil untuk sejumlah alasan tetapi pada
setiap dari mereka seluruh tubuh ajaran Sang Buddha selalu dibacakan
oleh para peserta Saṅgha, dalam konser dan kata demi kata.
Konsili
pertama terjadi tiga bulan setelah pencapaian Buddha Mahāparinibbāṇa
dan diikuti oleh lima lagi, dua di antaranya diadakan pada abad
kesembilan belas dan kedua puluh.
Bacaan
kolektif ini yang dilakukan oleh para bhikkhu di semua Dewan Dhamma ini
dikenal sebagai ‘Dhamma Saṅgītis’, Bacaan Dhamma.
Mereka
begitu ditentukan karena preseden yang ditetapkan di Dewan Dhamma
Pertama, ketika semua Ajaran dibacakan pertama oleh Penatua Saṅgha dan
kemudian dinyanyikan sekali lagi dengan paduan suara oleh semua bhikkhu
yang hadir di kebaktian.
Bacaan itu dinilai otentik, ketika dan hanya ketika, itu telah disetujui dengan suara bulat oleh para anggota Dewan. Apa yang berikut adalah sejarah singkat dari Six Councils.

Dewan Pertama

Raja Ajātasattu mensponsori Dewan Pertama. Itu diadakan di 544 SM. di Gua Sattapaāāī yang terletak di luar Rājagaha tiga bulan setelah Sang Buddha meninggal. Catatan rinci tentang pertemuan bersejarah ini dapat ditemukan di Cūllavagga dari Vinaya Piṭaka. Menurut
catatan ini, insiden yang mendorong Penatua Mahākassapa untuk
mengadakan pertemuan ini adalah pendengarannya yang meremehkan
pernyataan tentang aturan hidup yang ketat bagi para bhikkhu.
Inilah yang terjadi. Biksu
Subhadda, seorang mantan tukang cukur, yang telah ditahbiskan di akhir
hidupnya, setelah mendengar bahwa Buddha telah berakhir, menyuarakan
kebenciannya karena harus mematuhi semua aturan untuk para bhikkhu yang
ditetapkan oleh Sang Buddha.
Banyak biarawan menyesalkan meninggalnya Sang Buddha dan sangat berduka. Namun, Penatua Mahākassapa mendengar Subhadda berkata: ‘’ Cukuplah Penghormatan Anda, jangan bersedih, jangan meratap. Kami juga menyingkirkan pertapa yang agung ini (Sang Buddha). Kami
tersiksa ketika dia berkata, ‘ini diijinkan untuk Anda, ini tidak
diijinkan untuk Anda’ tetapi sekarang kami akan dapat melakukan apa yang
kami sukai dan kami tidak perlu melakukan apa yang tidak kami sukai ‘’.
Mahākassapa
diperingatkan oleh ucapannya dan takut bahwa Dhamma dan Vinaya mungkin
rusak dan tidak selamat utuh jika bhikkhu lain berperilaku seperti
Subhadda dan menafsirkan Dhamma dan peraturan Vinaya sesuka hati mereka.
Untuk menghindari ini, dia memutuskan bahwa Dhamma harus dilestarikan dan dilindungi. Untuk tujuan ini setelah mendapatkan persetujuan Saṅgha dia memanggil lima ratus Arahat. Ānanda harus dimasukkan dalam hal ini asalkan ia mencapai arahat pada saat konsili berkumpul. Dengan pemimpin Tetua Mahākassapa, lima ratus biarawan Arahat bertemu di dewan selama musim hujan. Hal
pertama yang Mahākassapa lakukan adalah mempertanyakan ahli terkemuka
tentang Vinaya hari itu, Yang Mulia Upāli tentang hal-hal khusus dari
kekuasaan monastik.
Biksu ini memenuhi syarat untuk tugas tersebut sebagaimana yang Sang Buddha telah ajarkan kepadanya seluruh Vinaya sendiri. Pertama-tama,
Penatua Mahākassapa menanyainya secara khusus tentang keputusan tentang
pelanggaran pertama [pārājika], sehubungan dengan subjek, kesempatan,
individu yang diperkenalkan, proklamasi, pengulangan proklamasi,
pelanggaran dan kasus non-
pelanggaran. Upāli
memberikan jawaban yang berpengetahuan dan memadai dan sambutannya
bertemu dengan persetujuan bulat dari Saṅgha yang memimpin.
Jadi Vinaya secara resmi disetujui.

Penatua
Mahākassapa kemudian mengalihkan perhatiannya ke Ānanda berdasarkan
keahliannya yang terkemuka dalam semua hal yang berkaitan dengan Dhamma.
Syukurlah, malam sebelum Konsili bertemu, Ānanda telah mencapai tingkat Arahat dan bergabung dengan Konsili. Oleh
karena itu, Penatua Mahākassapa dapat menanyainya secara panjang lebar
dengan keyakinan penuh tentang Dhamma dengan referensi khusus pada
khotbah Sang Buddha.
Interogasi
pada Dhamma ini berusaha untuk memverifikasi tempat di mana semua
khotbah pertama kali dikhotbahkan dan orang yang mereka tuju.
Ānanda,
dibantu oleh ingatannya yang sempurna, mampu menjawab secara akurat dan
karenanya Wacana bertemu dengan persetujuan penuh dari Saṅgha.
Dewan
Pertama juga memberikan stempel persetujuan resmi untuk penutupan bab
pada peraturan minor dan yang lebih kecil, dan persetujuan untuk
ketaatan mereka.
Biarawan
membutuhkan waktu tujuh bulan untuk membaca seluruh Vinaya dan Dhamma
dan para bhikkhu yang cukup diberkati dengan kenangan yang baik menahan
semua yang telah dibacakan.
Konsili
pertama yang bersejarah ini kemudian dikenal sebagai Paācasatika karena
lima ratus Arahat yang sepenuhnya tercerahkan telah mengambil bagian di
dalamnya.


Konsili Kedua

Konsili
Kedua disebut seratus tahun setelah Parinibbāṇa Sang Buddha untuk
menyelesaikan perselisihan serius atas ’sepuluh poin’.
Ini adalah referensi untuk beberapa biarawan melanggar sepuluh aturan kecil. mereka diberikan kepada:

1. Menyimpan garam dalam tanduk.
2. Makan setelah tengah hari.
3. Makan sekali dan kemudian pergi lagi ke desa untuk menerima sedekah.
4. Menyelenggarakan Upacara Uposatha dengan para biarawan yang tinggal di wilayah yang sama.
5. Melakukan tindakan resmi ketika majelis itu tidak lengkap.
6. Mengikuti praktik tertentu karena dilakukan oleh guru atau pengajar seseorang.
7. Makan susu asam setelah makan tengah hari.
8. Mengkonsumsi minuman keras sebelum difermentasi.
9. Menggunakan karpet yang bukan ukuran yang tepat.
10. Menggunakan emas dan perak.

Kelakuan
buruk mereka menjadi masalah dan menyebabkan kontroversi besar karena
melanggar aturan-aturan ini dianggap bertentangan dengan ajaran asli
Buddha.
Raja Kāḷāsoka adalah pelindung Dewan Kedua dan pertemuan itu terjadi di Vesāli karena keadaan berikut. Suatu
hari, ketika mengunjungi Mahāvana Grove di Veāsli, Elder Yasa
mengetahui bahwa sekelompok besar biarawan yang dikenal sebagai Vajji
melanggar aturan yang melarang biksu menerima emas dan perak dengan
secara terbuka meminta itu dari umat awam mereka.
Dia
segera mengkritik perilaku mereka dan tanggapan mereka adalah
menawarkan bagian dari keuntungan ilegal mereka dengan harapan bahwa dia
akan dimenangkan.
Tetua Yasa, bagaimanapun menolak dan mencemooh perilaku mereka. Para biarawan segera menggugatnya dengan tindakan rekonsiliasi formal, menuduh dia telah menyalahkan umat awam mereka. Tetua
Yasa dengan sendirinya mendamaikan dirinya dengan umat awam, tetapi
pada saat yang sama, meyakinkan mereka bahwa para bhikkhu Vijjian telah
melakukan kesalahan dengan mengutip pernyataan Buddha tentang larangan
menerima atau meminta emas dan perak.
Orang
awam segera menyatakan dukungan mereka kepada Elder Yasa dan menyatakan
para bhikkhu Vajjian kepada orang-orang yang melakukan kesalahan dan
bidaah, dengan mengatakan ‘’ Elder Yasa sendiri adalah bhikkhu sejati
dan putra Sākyan.
Semua yang lain bukan bhikkhu, bukan putra Saka ”.

Biksu
Vajjian yang keras kepala dan tidak bertobat kemudian pindah untuk
menangguhkan Yang Mulia Yasa Thera tanpa persetujuan dari Sa ofgha
lainnya ketika mereka mengetahui hasil pertemuannya dengan umat awam
mereka.
Elder
Yasa, bagaimanapun lolos dari kecaman mereka dan pergi mencari dukungan
dari para biarawan di tempat lain, yang menjunjung pandangan
ortodoksnya tentang Vinaya.
Enam
puluh biksu yang tinggal di hutan dari Pāvā dan delapan puluh biksu
dari daerah selatan Avanti yang memiliki pandangan yang sama, menawarkan
untuk membantunya memeriksa korupsi Vinaya.
Bersama-sama
mereka memutuskan untuk pergi ke Soreyya untuk berkonsultasi dengan
Yang Mulia Revata karena dia adalah seorang bhikkhu yang sangat
dihormati dan ahli dalam Dhamma dan Vinaya.
Segera
setelah para bhikkhu Vajjian mengetahui hal ini, mereka juga mencari
dukungan Yang Mulia Revata dengan menawarkan kepadanya empat kebutuhan
yang segera dia tolak.
Para
bhikkhu ini kemudian berusaha menggunakan cara yang sama untuk
memenangkan para petugas Venerable Revata, Yang Mulia Uttara.
Pada
mulanya dia juga, dengan benar menolak tawaran mereka tetapi mereka
dengan rajin membujuknya untuk menerima tawaran mereka, mengatakan bahwa
ketika syarat-syarat yang dimaksudkan untuk Sang Buddha tidak diterima
olehnya, Ānanda akan diminta untuk menerima mereka dan akan sering
setuju untuk melakukannya.
Uttara berubah pikiran dan menerima syarat-syaratnya. Didesak
oleh mereka, dia kemudian setuju untuk pergi dan membujuk Yang Mulia
Revata untuk menyatakan bahwa para bhikkhu Vajjian memang adalah
pembicara Kebenaran dan penegak Dhamma.
Yang Mulia Revata melihat melalui tipu muslihat mereka dan menolak untuk mendukung mereka. Dia kemudian memecat Uttara. Untuk
menyelesaikan masalah ini sekali dan untuk selamanya, Yang Mulia Revata
menyarankan bahwa dewan harus dipanggil di Vāḷikārāma dengan dirinya
sendiri mengajukan pertanyaan tentang sepuluh pelanggaran yang paling
senior dari Sesepuh hari itu, Thera Sabbjakāmi.
Begitu pendapatnya diberikan, itu harus didengar oleh komite delapan biksu, dan validitasnya diputuskan oleh suara mereka. Delapan
bhikkhu dipanggil untuk menilai masalah itu adalah Yang Mulia
Sabbakāmi, saḷha, Khujjasobhita dan Vāsabhagāmika, dari Timur dan empat
bhikkhu dari Barat, Yang Mulia Revata, Sambhuta-Sāṇavāsī, Yasa dan
Sumana.
Mereka benar-benar memperdebatkan masalah ini dengan Revata sebagai penanya dan sabbakāmī menjawab pertanyaannya. Setelah perdebatan terdengar, delapan bhikkhu memutuskan melawan biksu Vajjian dan putusan mereka diumumkan ke sidang. Setelah
itu, tujuh ratus biksu membacakan Dhamma dan Vinaya dan resital ini
kemudian dikenal sebagai Sattasatī karena tujuh ratus bhikkhu telah
mengambil bagian di dalamnya.
Dewan
bersejarah ini juga disebut, SangHti Yasatthera karena peran utama yang
dimainkan oleh Elder Yasa di dalamnya dan semangatnya untuk melindungi
Vinaya.
Para
bhikkhu Vajjian secara kategoris menolak untuk menerima keputusan
Konsili dan dalam pembangkangan yang disebut dewan di sana sendiri yang
disebut Mahāsaṅgiti.

Dewan Ketiga

Konsili Ketiga diadakan terutama untuk menyingkirkan Saṅgha para koruptor dan biksu palsu yang memiliki pandangan sesat. Dewan diadakan pada 326 SM. Di Asokārāma di Paṭaliputta di bawah perlindungan Kaisar Asoka. Itu dipimpin oleh Elder Moggaliputta Tissa dan seribu biarawan berpartisipasi dalam Dewan ini. Tradisi
mengatakan bahwa Asoka telah memenangkan tahtanya dengan menumpahkan
darah semua putra ayahnya, menyelamatkan saudaranya sendiri, Tissa
Kumāra yang akhirnya ditahbiskan dan mencapai Arahat.

Asoka dimahkotai pada tahun dua ratus delapan belas setelah Mahaparinibbāna Sang Buddha. Pada
mulanya dia hanya membayar penghormatan token kepada Dhamma dan Saṅgha
dan juga mendukung anggota sekte keagamaan lainnya seperti yang
dilakukan ayahnya sebelum dia.
Namun, semua ini berubah ketika dia bertemu dengan novis-biksu Nigrodha yang saleh yang mengajarkannya Appamāda-vagga. Setelah itu dia berhenti mendukung kelompok agama lain dan minat serta pengabdiannya pada Dhamma semakin dalam. Dia
menggunakan kekayaannya yang luar biasa untuk membangun, dikatakan,
delapan puluh empat ribu pagoda dan vihāra dan dengan boros mendukung
para bhikkhu dengan empat syarat.
Putranya Mahinda dan putrinya Saṅghamittā ditahbiskan dan diterima di Saṅgha. Akhirnya, kemurahan hatinya menyebabkan masalah serius dalam Saṅgha. Pada
waktunya, ordo itu disusupi oleh banyak pria yang tidak layak, yang
memiliki pandangan sesat dan yang tertarik pada pesanan karena dukungan
Kaisar yang murah hati dan penawaran makanan, pakaian, tempat tinggal,
dan obat-obatan yang mahal.
Sejumlah
besar pria yang tidak beriman dan serakah yang mendukung pandangan
salah mencoba bergabung dengan ordo tetapi dianggap tidak layak untuk
ditahbiskan.
Meskipun
demikian, mereka memanfaatkan kesempatan untuk mengeksploitasi
kedermawanan Kaisar untuk tujuan mereka sendiri dan mengenakan jubah dan
bergabung dengan ordo tanpa ditahbiskan dengan benar.
Konsekuensinya, penghormatan terhadap Saṅgha berkurang. Ketika
ini terungkap beberapa biksu asli menolak untuk mengadakan upacara
pemurnian yang ditentukan atau Uposatha di perusahaan para biarawan yang
sesat dan korup.

Ketika
Kaisar mendengar tentang ini dia berusaha memperbaiki situasi dan
mengirim salah satu menterinya kepada para biarawan dengan perintah
bahwa mereka melakukan upacara.
Namun,
Kaisar telah memberikan menteri tidak ada perintah khusus tentang apa
yang harus digunakan untuk menjalankan perintahnya.
Para
bhikkhu menolak untuk menaati dan mengadakan upacara di perusahaan
teman-teman palsu dan ‘pencuri’ mereka [theyyasinivāsaka].
Dalam
keputusasaan, pendeta yang marah itu maju menyusuri barisan biksu yang
duduk dan menghunus pedangnya, memenggal kepala mereka satu demi satu
sampai dia datang ke saudara Raja, Tissa yang telah ditahbiskan.
Menteri
yang ketakutan menghentikan pembantaian dan melarikan diri dari balai
dan melaporkan kembali kepada Kaisar Asoka sangat sedih dan kesal dengan
apa yang telah terjadi dan menyalahkan dirinya atas pembunuhan itu.
Dia mencari nasihat Thera Moggaliputta Tissa. Dia mengusulkan agar para biarawan bidah diusir dari perintah dan Dewan ketiga segera disidangkan. Jadi pada tahun ketujuhbelas pemerintahan Kaisar, Konsili Ketiga dipanggil. Thera
Moggaliputta Tissa memimpin proses dan memilih seribu bhikkhu dari enam
puluh ribu peserta untuk pembacaan tradisional Dhamma dan Vinaya, yang
berlangsung selama sembilan bulan.
Kaisar, dirinya mempertanyakan para biarawan dari sejumlah biara tentang ajaran Buddha. Mereka yang memiliki pandangan salah diekspos dan diusir dari Saṅgha dengan segera. Dengan cara ini Bhikkhu Saṅgha dibersihkan dari bidah dan bhikkhu palsu.
Dewan ini mencapai sejumlah hal penting lainnya juga. Penatua
Moggaliputta Tissa, untuk menyanggah sejumlah bidat dan memastikan
Dhamma dijaga tetap murni, memenuhi sebuah buku selama dewan yang
disebut Kathāvatthu.
Buku
ini terdiri dari dua puluh tiga bab, dan merupakan kumpulan diskusi
(kathā) dan sanggahan dari pandangan sesat yang dipegang oleh berbagai
sekte pada hal-hal filosofis.
Ini adalah buku kelima dari tujuh buku Abhidhamma Piṭaka. Para anggota Dewan juga memberi stempel persetujuan kepada doktrin Sang Buddha, menamakannya Vibhajjavāda, Doktrin Analisis. Itu identik dengan doktrin Theravāda yang disetujui. Salah
satu pencapaian paling penting dari kebaktian Dhamma ini dan yang akan
berbuah selama berabad-abad yang akan datang, adalah kiriman Kaisar dari
para bhikkhu, yang paham dengan baik dalam Buddha Dhamma dan Vinaya
yang dapat mengucapkannya dengan sepenuh hati, untuk mengajarkannya
di sembilan negara yang berbeda. Para bhikkhu Dhammadūta ini termasuk Yang Mulia Majjhantika Thera yang pergi ke Kashmir dan Gandhara. Dia diminta untuk memberitakan Dhamma dan mendirikan sebuah ordo para bhikkhu di sana. Yang
Mulia Mahādeva dikirim ke Mahinsakamaṇḍaḷa (Mysore modern) dan Yang
Mulia Rakkhita Thera dikirim ke Vanavāsī (Kanara utara di selatan
India). Yang Mulia Yonaka Dhammarakkhita Thera dikirim ke Upper
Aparantaka (Gujarat, Kathiawar, Kutch, dan Sindh utara)
.


Yang
Mulia Mahārakkhita Thera pergi ke Yonaka-loka (negeri para lonian,
Bactrians dan Yunani.) Yang Mulia Majjhima Thera pergi ke Himavanta
(tempat yang berdampingan dengan Himalaya.) Yang Mulia Soṇa dan Yang
Mulia Uttara dikirim ke Suvaṇṇabhūmi [sekarang
Myanmar]. Yang
Mulia Mahinda Thera, Yang Mulia Ittiya Thera, Yang Mulia Uttiya Thera,
Yang Mulia Sambala Thera dan Yang Mulia Bhaddasāla Thera dikirim ke
Tambapaṇṇi (sekarang Sri Lanka).
Misi
Dhamma dari para bhikkhu ini berhasil dan menghasilkan buah-buah besar
dalam perjalanan waktu dan pergi jauh dalam memuliakan orang-orang di
tanah ini dengan karunia Dhamma dan mempengaruhi peradaban dan budaya
mereka.

Dengan penyebaran Dhamma melalui kata-kata Sang Buddha, pada waktunya India kemudian dikenal sebagai Visvaguru, guru dunia.

Dewan Keempat

Konsili Keempat diadakan di Tambapaṇṇi [Sri Lanka] pada tahun 29 SM. di bawah perlindungan Raja Vaṭṭagāmaṇi. Alasan
utama untuk bersidang adalah realisasi yang sekarang tidak mungkin bagi
mayoritas biksu untuk mempertahankan seluruh Tipiṭaka dalam ingatan
mereka seperti yang pernah terjadi sebelumnya untuk Yang Mulia Mahinda
dan orang-orang yang mengikutinya segera setelah itu.
Oleh
karena itu, karena seni menulis, pada saat ini berkembang secara
substansial, dianggap bijaksana dan perlu untuk memiliki seluruh tubuh
ajaran Sang Buddha dituliskan.
Raja
Vaṭṭagāmaṇi mendukung gagasan biarawan itu dan sebuah dewan diadakan
khusus untuk mengurangi Tipiṭaka secara keseluruhan untuk menulis.
Oleh
karena itu, agar Dhamma yang asli dapat dipertahankan dengan langgeng,
Yang Mulia Mahārakhita dan lima ratus bhikkhu mengucapkan kata-kata Sang
Buddha dan kemudian menuliskannya pada daun lontar.
Proyek
luar biasa ini terjadi di sebuah gua yang disebut, Āloka lena, yang
terletak di celah tanah longsor kuno dekat apa yang sekarang menjadi
Matale.
Dengan demikian tujuan dari Konsili itu tercapai dan pelestarian dalam penulisan Dhamma yang otentik dipastikan. Kemudian, di Abad Delapan Belas, Raja Vijayarājasīha memiliki gambar-gambar Buddha yang dibuat di gua ini.

Dewan Kelima

Dewan
Kelima terjadi di Māndalay, Burma yang sekarang dikenal sebagai Myanmar
pada tahun 1871 pada masa pemerintahan Raja Mindon.
Tujuan
utama dari pertemuan ini adalah untuk membaca semua ajaran Sang Buddha
dan memeriksa mereka secara mendetail untuk melihat apakah ada yang
telah diubah, terdistorsi atau dijatuhkan.
Itu
dipimpin oleh tiga Sesepuh, Yang Mulia Mahāthera Jāgarābhivaṃsa, Yang
Mulia Narindābhidhaja, dan Yang Mulia Mahāthera Sumaṅgalasāmi di dalam
perusahaan sekitar dua ribu empat ratus bhikkhu (2.400).
Pembacaan Dhamma bersama mereka berlangsung selama lima bulan. Itu
juga merupakan kerja dari dewan ini untuk menyebabkan seluruh Tipiṭaka
diukir untuk anak cucu di tujuh ratus dua puluh sembilan lempengan
marmer dalam naskah Myanmar setelah pembacaannya telah selesai dan
disetujui dengan suara bulat.
Tugas
monumental ini dilakukan oleh sekitar dua ribu empat ratus biksu
terpelajar dan banyak pengrajin terampil yang setelah menyelesaikan
masing-masing lempengan memiliki mereka ditempatkan di pagoda piṭaka
indah miniatur ‘di situs khusus di lapangan King Mindon’s Kuthodaw
Pagoda di kaki Māndalay
Bukit tempat ‘buku terbesar di dunia’ ini, berdiri hingga hari ini.

Dewan Keenam

Dewan
Keenam dipanggil di Kaba Aye di Yangon, sebelumnya Rangoon pada tahun
1954, delapan puluh tiga tahun setelah yang kelima diadakan di Mandalay.
Ini disponsori oleh Pemerintah Birma yang dipimpin oleh Perdana Menteri, Yang Terhormat U Nu. Dia
mengizinkan pembangunan Mahā Pāsāna Gūhā, gua besar yang dibangun dari
bawah ke atas, untuk melayani sebagai tempat berkumpul seperti Gua
Sattapānni di India - tempat Dewan Dhamma pertama.
Setelah
selesai, Konsili bertemu pada tanggal 17 Mei 1954. Seperti dalam kasus
konsili sebelumnya, tujuan pertamanya adalah untuk menegaskan dan
melestarikan Dhamma dan Vinaya yang asli.
Namun itu unik sejauh para biarawan yang mengambil bagian di dalamnya berasal dari delapan negara. Dua
ribu lima ratus biarawan Theravāda yang terpelajar ini berasal dari
Myanmar, Kamboja, India, Laos, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, dan Vietnam.
Almarhum
Yang Mulia Mahāsi Sayadaw ditunjuk sebagai tugas mulia untuk mengajukan
pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang diperlukan tentang Dhamma dari Yang Mulia
Bhadanta Vicittasārābhivaṃsa Tipiṭakadhara Dhammabhaṇḍāgārika yang
menjawab semua dari mereka secara terpelajar dan memuaskan.
Pada
saat konsili ini bertemu, semua negara peserta memiliki Tipiṭaka Pāli
yang diterjemahkan ke dalam skrip asli mereka, dengan pengecualian
India.

Bacaan
tradisional Kitab-Kitab Dhamma memakan waktu dua tahun di mana Tipiṭaka
dan literatur-literaturnya yang berserikat dalam semua naskah diperiksa
dengan saksama.
Setiap perbedaan yang ditemukan dicatat, koreksi yang diperlukan dibuat dan semua versi kemudian disusun. Syukurlah, ditemukan bahwa tidak ada banyak perbedaan dalam isi teks manapun. Akhirnya,
setelah Dewan secara resmi menyetujui mereka, semua volume Tipiṭaka dan
Komentar mereka dipersiapkan untuk dicetak pada tekanan modern dan
diterbitkan dalam naskah Myanmar (Burma).
Pencapaian
penting ini dimungkinkan melalui upaya-upaya yang didedikasikan dari
dua ribu lima ratus bhikkhu dan banyak umat awam.
Pekerjaan mereka berakhir pada bulan Mei 1956, dua setengah milenium setelah Tuhan mencapai Parinibbāna. Pekerjaan dewan ini adalah pencapaian unik para wakil dari seluruh dunia Buddhis. Versi
Tipiṭaka yang ia lakukan untuk menghasilkan telah diakui sebagai benar
bagi ajaran-ajaran yang murni dari Gotama Sang Buddha dan rujukan yang
paling berwibawa dari mereka hingga saat ini.

Jilid yang dicetak setelah Sa Sixgāyana Keenam dicetak dalam naskah Myanmar. Untuk
membuat jilid kepada orang-orang India, Vipassana Research Institute
memulai proyek untuk mencetak Tipiṭaka dengan Aṭṭhakathās dan ṭikas di
Devanagari pada tahun 1990.

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Learn Indonesian Holidays - Birth of Buddha - Waisak
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45) Classical Irish

45) Indinéisis Clasaiceach

2632 Sat 26 Bealtaine LESSON

Dul i bhFeach le Feasacht Teagasc Búda i 5 Focail
Bí i gcónaí Dea-Bí aireach!

Le haghaidh míniú iomlán

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Is é sin do LESSON

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Pali Canon Ar Líne

Focail Bhunaidh an Búda
Origin the Canon Pali

“Más
rud é go raibh manach le rá:” Cairde, chuala mé é seo ó liopaí an
Tiarna féin: is é seo an Dhamma, is é seo an smacht, is é seo an
mhúinteoireacht Máistreachta “, mar sin, manaigh, níor cheart duit a
cheadú ná a dhiúltú
focail. Ansin,
gan cead a thabhairt nó a dhíbirt, ba chóir go gcuirfí na focail agus
na habairtí a thugtar faoi deara go cúramach agus a chur i gcomparáid
leis na Suttas agus iad a athbhreithniú i bhfianaise na disciplín.
Más
rud é go bhfuarthas, ar an gcomparáid agus an t-athbhreithniú sin, gan
cloí leis na Suttas nó leis an smacht, ní mór go mbeadh an chonclúid:
“Go deimhin ní hé seo an focal an Búda, tá an manach seo tuigthe go
mícheart”, agus an ní
a dhiúltú. Ach
nuair is féidir comparáid agus athbhreithniú den sórt sin a dhéanamh de
réir na Suttas nó an smachta, ní mór go mbeadh an chonclúid: “Go
deimhin is é seo focal an Búda, is é an manach seo a thuigeann go ceart
é.”

- DN 16 Mahāparinibbāna Sutta - An Bealach Mór, Laethanta Last an Búda
Caomhnófar tuistí barántúla Gotama an Búda agus tugtar lámh dúinn agus tá siad le fáil sa Tipiṭaka. Is é an focal Pāli, ‘Tipiṭaka’, go liteartha ciallaíonn ‘na trí chiseán’ (ti = three + piṭaka = bailiúcháin na scrioptúir). Roinneadh múineadh na Búda ar fad i dtrí chuid.

1. Is é an Vinaya Piṭaka an chéad chuid agus tá na rialacha go léir a leagann Buddha do manaigh agus do mhná mná.
2. Tugtar an Suttaṅta Piṭaka ar an dara cuid agus tá na Discourses ann.
3. Tugtar an Abhidhamma Piṭaka sa tríú cuid agus cuimsíonn sé teagascanna síceiticeacha an Búda.


sé ar eolas, nuair a thug an Búda discios dá dheisceabail nó do lucht
leanúna a ordú nó riail mhainistir a fhorordú le linn a aireacht
daichead cúig bliana, na mhanachigh a bhí dírithe aige agus a fhoghlaim,
ansin bheadh ​​sé ina theagasc láithreach
focal focal le cuimhne. Dá bhrí sin caomhnaíodh focail an Búda go cruinn agus bhí siad á gcur ar fáil ó bhéal ó mhúinteoir don dalta. Ba
iad Arahants cuid de na manach a d’éisteacht leis an búdaigh a bhí ag
cloisteáil an Búda go pearsanta, agus mar sin de réir na sainmhínithe,
bhí ‘naíonna íon’ saor ó bhroinn, drochthuiscint agus deimhin, agus dá
bhrí sin níorbh fhéidir focail Bhúda a choinneáil go breá.
Dá bhrí sin, chinntigh siad go ndéanfaí teagasc an Búda a chaomhnú go dílis don todhchaí.

Fiú
amháin na manaigh tiomanta sin nach raibh Comhionannas fós bainte amach
acu ach gur tháinig an chéad trí chéim den cháipéis amach orthu agus go
bhféadfadh cuimhní cinn cumhachtacha, cúlmhainneacha focal a chur san
áireamh mar gheall ar an bhfocal a raibh an Búda réamhtheagasc agus mar
sin d’fhéadfaí a bheith ina gcáilitheoirí fiú ar theagasc an Búda.
Ba
é fear amháin den sórt sin Ānanda, an t-iarrthóir roghnaithe agus
comhpháirtí leanúnach an Búda le linn cúig bliana is fiche dá shaol.
Bhí Ānanda an-chliste agus cumasach leis an gcumas cuimhneamh ar gach rud a chuala sé. Go
deimhin, ba mhaith leis a rá go mbainfeadh an Búda a chuid cainteanna i
gcónaí dó agus cé nach raibh sé ina Arahanta fós bhí sé tiomanta
d’fhocal cuimhne gach focal a bhí ag Búda leis, agus d’iarr sé air
manaigh, mná céile agus a lucht leanúna.
D’éirigh
le hiarrachtaí comhcheangailte na n-manach cumasach agus tiomanta seo
an Dhamma agus Vinaya, mar a mhúineann an Búda a chaomhnú ina stát
bhunaidh.


an Pāli Tipiṭaka agus a litríocht choibhneasta ann mar thoradh ar
fhionnachtana an Búda ar shlí uasal agus shaorga an Dhamma íon.
Cuireann an cosán seo ar chumas gach duine a leanann é chun saol síochánta agus sona a threorú. Go
deimhin, tá an t-ádh linn an lá atá inniu ann agus táimid ag teagasc
barántúil an Búda a chaomhnú do na glúnta atá le teacht trí iarrachtaí
coinsiasacha agus comhbheartaithe a dheisceabail ordúnaithe a dhéanamh
síos trí na haois.
Dúirt
an Búda lena dheisceabail nach raibh sé ríthábhachtach go dtiocfadh an
Saṅgha le chéile chun an Dhamma a chur in iúl go comhchoiteann mar a bhí
sé á theagasc nuair nach raibh sé ina measc ina measc.
Ag
cloí leis an treoir seo d’iarr an chéad Elders comhairle ar bhonn cuí
agus d’ordaigh siad go léir go raibh na búda agus na rialacha
maistíneacha go léir ag an mBúda agus ansin d’eisigh siad go fírinneach
dóibh focal le haghaidh focal i gceolchoirm.

Tugtar Doctrine of the Elders [Theravāda] ar an teagasc atá sa Tipiṭaka freisin.
roinnt cúpla céad ag na díospóireachtaí seo agus tugadh focal dóibh i
gcónaí ar fhocal ó shin i leith gur thionóil an Chéad Chomhairle.
Ina
dhiaidh sin, tugadh cúiseanna ar roinnt Comhairlí ar roinnt cúiseanna
ach bhí rannpháirtithe Saṅgha ag aithris go raibh comhlacht iomlán an
teagaisc i gcónaí ag gach duine, i gceolchoirm agus i bhfocal focal.
Tháinig
an chéad chomhairle trí mhí tar éis ghnóthachtáil an Bhúda ar
Mahāparinibbāṇa agus lean cúig cinn eile ina dhiaidh sin, tionóladh dhá
cheann acu sa naoú haois déag agus san fhichiú haois.
Tugtar
‘Dhamma Saṅgītis’ ar na comhchomhairliúcháin chomhchoiteanna a rinne na
manach sna Comhairlí Dhamma seo go léir, ar an Dhamma Recitations.

siad ainmnithe amhlaidh mar gheall ar an tsraith fasach a bhí ag
Comhairle Chéad Dhamma, nuair a bhí Elder of the Saṅgha ag aithris an
Teachings ar dtús agus ansin a chantar arís i gcorus ag na manach ar fad
a bhí ag freastal ar an gcomhthionól.
Rinneadh
breithniú ar an aithris go raibh sé fíordheimhnithe, nuair a cheadaigh
baill na Comhairle é d’aon toil agus nuair amháin.
Seo a leanas stair ghearr na Sé Chomhairle.

An Chéad Chomhairle

Thug an Rí Ajātasattu urraíocht don Chéad Chomhairle. Tionóladh é i 544 B.C. in Uaimh Sattapaāāī atá suite lasmuigh de Rājagaha trí mhí tar éis don Búda fuair bás. Is féidir cuntas mionsonraithe ar an gcruinniú stairiúil seo a fháil i gCúllavagga an Vinaya Piṭaka. De
réir an taifead seo ba é an t-eachtra a spreag an Elder Mahākassapa an
cruinniú seo a ghlaoch ná éisteacht a dhéanamh ar ráiteas díograiseach
maidir le riail dhian na ndaoine.
Seo a tharla. D’éirigh
leis an manach Subhadda, sean-bharbaróg, a d’ordaigh go déanach sa
saol, ag éisteacht go ndeachaigh an Búda in éag, go raibh sé ag iarraidh
a bheith ag cloí leis na rialacha go léir do na manach atá leagtha síos
ag an Búda.
Bhí go leor manach ag caoineadh an Búda a rith agus bhí siad sásta go mór. Mar sin féin, d’éist an Elder Mahākassapa Subhadda: ‘’ Go leor do Reverences, ná grieve, ná caoineadh. Táimid réidh go maith leis an athmhúnlú mór seo (an Búda). Cuireadh
in iúl dúinn nuair a dúirt sé, “is féidir seo a thabhairt duit, níl sé
seo inmholta duit ach anois beidh muid in ann a dhéanamh mar is maith
linn agus ní bheidh orainn a dhéanamh cad is maith linn”.
Bhí
eagla ar Mahākassapa ag a ráiteas agus bhí eagla orm go bhféadfadh an
Dhamma agus an Vinaya a bheith truaillithe agus nach mairfidh siad slán
más rud é go raibh manaigh eile ag iompar mar Subhadda agus léirmhínigh
siad na rialacha Dhamma agus na Vinaya mar a bhí siad sásta.
Chun é seo a sheachaint chinn sé go gcaithfí an Dhamma a chaomhnú agus a chosaint. Chun na críche sin tar éis cead an Saṅgha a fháil, d’iarr sé ar chomhairle cúig chéad Arahants. Bhí Ānanda le cur san áireamh sa choinníoll gur ghnóthaigh sé Arathantacht faoin tráth a thionóil an chomhairle. Le ceannasaí Elder Mahākassapa, bhuail na cúig chéad manach Arahant sa chomhairle i rith séasúr na báistí. Ba
é an chéad rud a rinne Mahākassapa ná an saineolaí is fearr a cheistiú
ar Vinaya an lae, Inbhuanaithe Upāli ar shonraí an riail manach.
Bhí cáil mhaith ag an manach seo as an tasc mar gur mhúin an Búda an t-iomlán ar an Vinaya é féin. Ar
an gcéad dul síos, d’iarr an Elder Mahākassapa go sonrach air an rialú
ar an gcéad chion [pārājika], maidir leis an ábhar, an ócáid, an duine
aonair a tugadh isteach, an t-aistreofar, an t-athráiteas a athrá, an
cion agus cás neamh-
cionta. Thug
Upāli freagraí eolasacha agus leordhóthanach agus bhuail a chuid ráitis
le ceadú aon-ghuthach de chuid an Cheannaire Saṅgha.
Dá bhrí sin, formheasadh an Vinaya go foirmiúil.

Ansin d’iompaigh an Elder Mahākassapa aird ar Ānanda de bhua a saineolais cáiliúil i ngach ábhar a bhain leis an Dhamma. Go hiontach, an oíche roimh an gComhairle a chomhlíonadh, d’fhulaing Ānanda Arahantship agus chuaigh sé isteach sa Chomhairle.
bhrí sin, d’éirigh leis an Elder Mahākassapa a cheistiú go fad le
muinín iomlán faoin Dhamma le tagairt shonrach a dhéanamh ar shearmonaí
an Búda.
D’iarr
an cheist seo ar an Dhamma an áit a ndearnadh réamhsheoladh ar na
díoscóireachtaí ar fad agus an duine a ndearnadh aghaidh orthu a fhíorú.
D’éirigh
le Ānanda, a chabhraigh leis an gcuimhne a bhí ag an bhfocal aige,
freagra a dhéanamh go cruinn agus mar sin bhuail na Discourses le ceadú
d’aon toil an Saṅgha.
Thug
an Chéad Chomhairle freisin séala ceadúnais oifigiúil chun an chaibidil
a dhúnadh ar na rialacha beaga agus níos lú, agus ceadú a dhéanamh dá
aire.
Ghlac
sé na manaigh seacht míosa chun aithris a dhéanamh ar an mBaileáire ar
fad agus ar an Dhamma agus na manaigh sin a thug go leor de na cuimhní
cinn ar fad a choinníodh go léir a tuairiscíodh.
Tháinig an Paācasatika ar an gcéad chomhairle stairiúil seo toisc go raibh cúig chéad Arahants lántheorantaithe páirteach ann.

An Dara Comhairle

Tugadh céad bliain d’iarr an Dara Comhairle tar éis Parinibbāṇa an Buddha chun díospóid mhór a réiteach thar na deich pointí. Is tagairt í seo do roinnt manaigh a bhriseann deich rialacha beaga. tugadh dóibh:

1. Salann a stóráil in adharc.
2. Ithe tar éis meán lae.
3. Ithe aon uair amháin agus ansin ag dul arís chuig sráidbhaile le haghaidh ailse.
4. Searmanais Uposatha a shealbhú le manaigh ina gcónaí sa cheantar céanna.
5. Gníomhartha oifigiúla a dhéanamh nuair nach raibh an tionóil neamhiomlán.
6. Tar éis cleachtas áirithe toisc go ndearna an teagascóir nó an múinteoir amháin é.
7. Ag ithe bainne géar tar éis a béile meán lae a bheith aige.
8. Deoch láidir a thomhas sula gcoiptheadh ​​é.
9. Ag baint úsáide as rug nach raibh an méid ceart.
10. Ag baint úsáide as ór agus airgead.

Tháinig
a n-éagmaisí mar cheist agus ba chúis le conspóint mhór nuair a
shíltear go bhforbródh na rialacha seo go raibh siad ag cur salach
teagasc bunaidh an Bhúda.
Ba é Rí Kāḷāsoka pátrún an Dara Comhairle agus tionóladh an cruinniú ag Vesāli mar gheall ar na cúinsí seo a leanas.
amháin, agus é ag tabhairt cuairte ar Gharda Mahavánna ag Veāsli, thug
an Elder Yasa a fhios go raibh grúpa mór manach ar a dtugtar na Vajjians
ag sárú an riail a chuir toirmisc ar mhacach glacadh le hór agus
airgead trína n-iarrfaí orthu óna ngaonóidí laga.
Cáineadh
sé láithreach ar a n-iompar agus ba é a fhreagra ná cuid dá
ghnóthachain mhídhleathacha a thairiscint dó leis an dóchas go mbainfí
amach é.
Ach dhiúltaigh an Elder Yasa, áfach, a n-iompraíocht. Ghlac
na manaigh gníomh foirmeálta ar athmhuintearas air, rud a chiallaíonn
go ndearnadh a n-éilimhsí a bheith curtha i muinín air.

réir sin, d’aontaigh an Elder Yasa leis na devotees leagan amach, ach
ag an am céanna, bhí siad cinnte go raibh mígeanna Vijjian déanta
mícheart trí fhógairt an Bhúda a lua maidir leis an toirmeasc ar ghlac
ór agus airgead a ghlacadh nó a iarraidh.
Chuir
na laigí a dtacaíocht láithreach in iúl don Elder Yasa agus d’fhógair
siad na manaigh Vajjian leis na mícheartaithe agus leis na heiticí, ag
rá ‘’ is é an Elder Yasa ina n-aonar an fear fíor agus Sākyan mac.
Níl na daoine eile go léir ina manach, ní mic Sākyan ‘’.

Ansin,
d’aistrigh na manaigh Vajjian Stubborn agus unrepentant an Yasa Thera
Inbhuanaithe a chur ar fionraí gan ceadú an chuid eile den Saṅgha nuair a
tháinig siad ar an eolas maidir le toradh a chruinnithe lena gcuid
devotees lay.
D’éalaigh
an Elder Yasa, áfach, a gcinniú agus chuaigh sé ag cuardach tacaíochta ó
manaigh in áiteanna eile, a sheas a chuid tuairimí ortchreidmheacha ar
an Vinaya.
Thairg
seasca monach teaghaise foraoise ó Pāvā agus ochtó manach ó réigiúin
theas Avanti a raibh an dearcadh céanna orthu, chun cuidiú leis éilliú
an Vinaya a sheiceáil.
Le
chéile shocraigh siad dul chuig Soreyya chun dul i gcomhairle leis an
Athbheochan Inbhuanaithe toisc go raibh sé ina manach an-chreidiúnach
agus mar shaineolaí sa Dhamma agus sa Vinaya.
Chomh
luath agus a tháinig na manaigh Vajjian chun é seo a fhios, d’iarr siad
tacaíocht an Urramach Athbhreithnithe chomh maith trí na ceithre
riachtanas a thairiscint dó a dhiúltaigh sé go pras.
Ansin,
d’iarr na manaigh sin na modhanna céanna a úsáid chun an buaiteoir a
fhreastail ar fhreastail an Athbhreithnithe Inbhuanaithe, an tUasalmhar
Uttara.
Ar
an gcéad dul síos, dhiúltaigh sé go díreach dá thairiscint ach chuir
siad craptily ina luí air glacadh lena dtairiscint, ag rá nach iarrfaí
orthu go nglacfadh Ānanda leo agus nuair a d’aontaigh siad go minic a
dhéanamh.
Athraigh Uttara a intinn agus ghlac sé leis na riachtanais. Ina
dhiaidh sin, d’aontaigh sé leo dul ar aghaidh agus a chur ina luí ar an
Athchóiriú Inbhuanaithe a dhearbhú go raibh cainteoirí na Fírinne agus
na sealbhóirí an Dhamma i ndáiríre na manaigh Vajjian.
Chonacthas an tUasal Athbhreithnithe trí mheán na mban agus dhiúltaigh siad tacaíocht a thabhairt dóibh. Ansin dhiúltaigh sé Uttara. D’fhonn
an t-ábhar a réiteach uair amháin agus ar chor ar bith, mhol an tUasal
Athbhreithnithe gur chóir comhairle a thabhairt ar Vāḷikārāma leis féin
ag cur ceisteanna faoi na deich gcinn de na daoine sinsearacha d’aois an
lae, Thera Sabbjakāmi.
Nuair a tugadh a thuairim tugadh do choiste de ocht manach é a chloisteáil, agus rinne a vóta a bhailíocht a chinneadh. Ba
iad na hocht oighreach a d’iarr breithniú a dhéanamh ar an ábhar ná an
Venerables Sabbakāmi, saḷha, Khujjasobhita agus Vāsabhagāmika, ón
Oirthear agus ceathrar manach ón Iarthar, an Revata Venerables,
Sambhuta-Sāṇavāsī, Yasa agus Sumana.
Rinne siad an t-ábhar a phlé go mór leis an Athfhógra mar an ceistneoir agus an sabbakāmī ag freagairt a chuid ceisteanna. Tar
éis éisteacht leis an díospóireacht, chinn na hocht oighreach in
aghaidh na manach Vajjian agus fógraíodh a bhfíorasc don chomhthionól.
Ina
dhiaidh sin d’aithin seacht gcéad manach an Dhamma agus Vinaya agus
tháinig an Sattasatī leis an aithris seo mar gheall ar ghlac seacht
gcéad manach páirt ann.
Tugtar
an Yasatthera Sangīti ar an gcomhairle stairiúil seo freisin mar gheall
ar an ról mór a bhí ag Elder Yasa ann agus a fhírinne chun an Vinaya a
chosaint.
Dhiúltaigh
na manach Vajjian go géilliúil go nglacfaí le cinneadh na Comhairle
agus dá ngairm siad comhairle ar a dtugtar féin an Mhahasaṅgiti féin.


An Tríú Comhairle

Reáchtáladh
an Tríú Comhairle go príomha le haitheantas coibhneasta a bhaint as an
Saṅgha éillithe agus manach bréagach a raibh tuairimí hereticiúla acu.
Tionóladh an Chomhairle i 326 B.C. Ag Asokārāma i Paṭaliputta faoi phátrúnacht an Impire Asoka. Bhí an Elder Moggaliputta Tissa ina cheannas agus ghlac míle manach páirt sa Chomhairle seo. Is
é an traidisiún é gur bhuaigh Asoka a ríchathaoir trí fhuil mhac uile a
athar a shábháil ach a dheartháir féin, Tissa Kumāra, a d’éirigh as
ordú agus a bhaint amach Arahantship.

Críochnaíodh Asoka sa dá chéad agus ocht mbliana déag tar éis Mahaparinibbāna an Buddha. Ar
dtús, níor íoc sé ach hómós toisc go dtí an Dhamma agus an Saṅgha agus
thug sé tacaíocht do bhaill d’earnálacha reiligiúnacha eile a rinne a
athair os a chomhair.
D’athraigh sé seo uile, áfach, nuair a bhuail sé leis an noviceach pious Nigrodha a rinne an Appamāda-vagga air. Ina
dhiaidh sin, d’éirigh sé le tacaíocht a thabhairt do ghrúpaí
reiligiúnacha eile agus dhílsear a spéis agus a dtiomantas don Dhamma.
Bhain
sé úsáid as a chuid saibhreas ollmhór a thógáil, a deirtear, ochtó is
ceithre mhíle pagoda agus vihras agus tacú leis an Bhikkhus leis na
ceithre riachtanas.
Ordaíodh a mhac Mahinda agus a iníon Saṅghamittā agus lig siad isteach sa Saṅgha. Faoi dheireadh, ba é a fhlaithiúlacht fadhbanna tromchúiseacha a chur faoi deara sa Saṅgha. In
am, bhí go leor fir neamhfhiacha ag insint an t-ordú, a raibh tuairimí
heiticiúla acu agus a mheall an t-ordú mar gheall ar thacaíocht fhial an
Impire agus tairiscintí costasacha bia, éadaí, foscadh agus leigheas.
Rinne
líon mór de na fir neamhspleácha, neamhchreidte a bhí ag lorg tuairimí
mícheart iarracht a bheith páirteach san ordú ach measadh go raibh siad
mí-oiriúnach le haghaidh ordú.
In
ainneoin seo, chuir siad an deis chun leas a bhaint as fhlaithiúlacht
an Impire as a gcuid foircinn féin agus bhí siad ag gabháil leo agus
chuir siad isteach san ord gan é a ordú i gceart.
Dá bhrí sin, urramú do Saṅgha laghdaithe. Nuair
a tháinig sé chun solais dhiúltaigh cuid de na manaigh fhíor an
searmanas forordaithe nó searmanas Uposatha a shealbhú i gcuideachta na
manaigh truaillithe, éisteacha.

Nuair
a chuala an Impire faoi seo bhí sé ag iarraidh an staid a cheartú agus
d’aon cheann dá chuid aire a chur chuig na manach leis an gceannas go
ndéanfaidh siad an searmanas.
Mar sin féin, níor thug an t-Impire orduithe ar leith don aire maidir leis na bealaí a bhí le húsáid chun a ordú a dhéanamh. Dhiúltaigh na manaigh leanúint leis an searmanas i gcomhlacht a gcomhpháirtithe bréagacha agus ‘thieving’ [theyyasinivāsaka]. I
éadóchas tháinig an t-aire feargach síos ar mhaighdiúir na suí agus
tarraingíodh a chlaíomh, agus chuir sé gach ceann acu i ndiaidh a chéile
go dtí go dtiocfadh sé le deartháir an Rí, Tissa a d’ordaigh.
Chuir
an t-aire uafásach stop ar an marú agus theith an halla agus
thuairiscigh sé ar ais go dtí an Impire Asoka go raibh sé an-sásta agus a
bhí suaite ag an méid a tharla agus a rinne sé an táille as na
maraíodh.
D’iarr sé comhairleoir Thera Moggaliputta Tissa. Mhol sé go n-éireofar na manaigh hereticiúla as an ordú agus go dtionólfaí an tríú Comhairle láithreach. Mar sin, ba é an tríú bliain déag de réim an Impire ná glaodh an Tríú Comhairle. Tháinig
Thera Moggaliputta Tissa i gceannas ar na himeachtaí agus roghnaigh
míle manach ó na seasca míle rannpháirtí le haghaidh aithris an Dhamma
agus an Vinaya, a chuaigh ar aghaidh ar feadh naoi mí.
Cheistigh an Impire féin manaigh ó roinnt mainistreacha faoi theagasc an Búda. Bhí na daoine a raibh tuairimí mícheart orthu agus nochtaíodh iad ón Saṅgha láithreach. Ar an mbealach seo, rinneadh an Bhikkhu Saṅgha a shaothrú ó heretics agus bikkhus bréagach.
Bhain an chomhairle seo roinnt rudaí tábhachtacha eile chomh maith. D’éirigh
leis an Elder Moggaliputta Tissa, chun roinnt heresies a dhiúltú agus a
chinntiú go gcoinníodh an Dhamma íon, comhlíon sé leabhar i rith na
comhairle ar a dtugtar an Kathāvatthu.
Is
éard atá sa leabhar seo ná trí chaibidil is fiche, agus is bailiúchán
de phlé (kathā) agus athmhúnlú ar na tuairimí hereticiúla atá á sealbhú
ag seiceanna éagsúla ar ábhair fealsúnacha.
Is é an cúigiú cuid de na seacht leabhar den Abhidhamma Piṭaka. Thug
baill na Comhairle séala ríoga ceadúnais chomh maith le teagasc an
Búda, agus é ina Vibhajjavāda, an Dochtúireacht Anailíse.
Tá sé comhionann leis an fhoirceadal ceadaithe Theravāda. Ceann
de na héachtaí is suntasaí a bhí ag an tionól Dhamma seo agus ceann a
bhí le torthaí a thabhairt le linn na gcéadta bliain le teacht, ná go
raibh na háiteach ag an Impire ag dul isteach i Dhamma agus Vinaya an
Búda a d’fhéadfaí a rá go léir a chothú, chun é a mhúineadh
i naoi dtír éagsúla. I measc na manaigh seo a bhí i nDhammadūta, bhí an tUasalánta Majjhantika Thera a chuaigh go Kashmir agus Gandhara. Iarradh air seanmóir a dhéanamh ar an Dhamma agus ordú manach a bhunú ann. Cuireadh
an tUasaláithreach Mahādeva chuig Mahinsakamaṇḍaḷa (Mysore
nua-aimseartha) agus cuireadh an Rakkhita Thera uafásach chuig Vanavāsī
(Kanara thuaidh i ndeisceart na hIndia.) Cuireadh an Yonaka Yonaka
Dhammarakkhita Inrastaire chuig Aparantaka Uachtarach (Gujarat
Thuaisceart, Kathiawar, Kutch agus Sindh]
.

Chuaigh
The Venerable Mahārakkhita Thera go Yonaka-loka (talamh na lonian, na
Baictrians agus na Gréagaigh.) Chuaigh an tUasalánta Majjhima Thera go
Himavanta (an áit in aice leis na Himalayas.) Cuireadh an tUasaláire
Soṇa agus an tUasalmhaire Uttara chuig Suvaṇṇabhūmi [anois
Maenmar]. Cuireadh
an tUasaláthach Mahinda Thera, an tUasaláire Ittiya Thera, an tUas.
Uttiya Thera, an tUasal Sambala Thera agus an Bhaddasala Thera Ardeagach
chuig Tambapaṇṇi (anois i Srí Lanca).
D’éirigh
le misin Dhamma na manaigh seo torthaí mór a fháil i rith an ama agus
chuaigh siad ar bhealach fada chun pobail na dtailte seo a spreagadh le
bronntanas an Dhamma agus tionchar a imirt ar a gcuid sibhialtachtaí
agus cultúir.

Le scaipeadh Dhamma trí fhocail an Búda, in am trátha tháinig Visvaguru ar an India, múinteoir an domhain.

An Ceathrú Comhairle

Tionóladh an Ceathrú Comhairle i dTambapaṇṇi [Srí Lanca] i 29 B.C. faoi ​​phátrúnacht King Vaṭṭagāmaṇi. Ba
é an phríomhchúis a bhí ann ná a chur i gcrích ná nach bhféadfadh
formhór na manach anois an Tipiṭaka iomlán a choinneáil ina gcuid
cuimhní cinn mar a bhí roimhe seo don Inbhuanaithe Mahinda agus iad siúd
a leanúint air go luath ina dhiaidh sin.

bhrí sin, de réir mar a d’fhorbair an t-ealaín scríbhneoireachta go
suntasach, bhí sé oiriúnach agus riachtanach go mbeadh an comhlacht
iomlán de theagasc an Búda scríofa.
Thug
King Vaṭṭagāmaṇi tacaíocht don smaoineamh ar an manach agus tionóladh
comhairle go sonrach chun an Tipiṭaka a laghdú ina iomláine chun
scríobh.

bhrí sin, ionas go bhféadfaí an Dhamma fíor a chaomhnú, d’aithin an
tUasalá Maharakhita agus cúig chéad manach focail an Búda agus ansin
scríobh siad síos ar dhuilleoga pailme.
Tionóladh
an tionscadal iontach seo in uaimh ar a dtugtar, an Āloka lena, atá
suite i dtréimhsí talaimh talún ársa in aice le Matale anois.
Dá bhrí sin, ba é aidhm na Comhairle a bhaint amach agus áirithíodh caomhnú i scríbhinn ar an Dhamma barántúla. Níos déanaí, san Ochtú haois déag, bhí íomhánna den Búda cruthaithe ag an Rí Vijayarājasīha san uaimh seo.

An Cúigiú Comhairle

Bhí an Cúigiú Comhairle ar siúl i Māndalay, Burma ar a dtugtar Myanmar anois i 1871 A.D. i réimeas King Mindon. Ba
é príomhchuspóir an chruinnithe seo teagasc uile an Búda a bhreithniú
agus iad a scrúdú i miontuairiscí le feiceáil an raibh aon cheann acu
athraithe, a shaobhadh nó a thit.
Bhí
trí Elders, an tUasalánta Mahāthera Jāgarābhivaṃsa, an áilleacht
Narindābhidhaja, agus an áilleacht Mahāthera Sumaṅgalasāmi i gcomhlacht
thart ar dhá mhíle ceithre chéad manach (2,400) i gceannas air.
Mhair a n-chomhdháil Dhamma comhpháirteach ar feadh cúig mhí. Ba
é obair na comhairle seo freisin go gcuirfeadh an Tipiṭaka ar fad
inscríbhinn le haghaidh na seachtaine ar leaca marmair seacht gcéad agus
naoi gcéad i gclár Myanmar tar éis dó a bheith curtha i gcrích agus
d’fhormheas sé d’aon toil.
Rinne
thart ar dhá mhíle ceithre chéad manach scéalaithe an tasc seo a
shéadchomhartha agus bhí go leor ceardaithe oilte a bhí i ndiaidh a
bheith críochnaithe do gach leac ina n-álainn ‘piṭaka’ pagodas ar
shuíomh speisialta ar fhorais Kuthodaw Pagoda an Rí Mindon ag bun
Māndalay
Cnocann an leabhar is mó ar a dtugtar an ‘leabhar is mó ar domhan’ ar an lá inniu.

An Séú Comhairle

Glaodh
an Séú Comhairle ag Kaba Aye i Yangon, roimhe sin Rangoon i 1954, ochtó
trí bliana tar éis an cúigiú ceann a reáchtáil i Mandalay.
Thug an Rialtas Urram U Nuachta urraíocht uirthi. D’údaraigh
sé tógáil an Mahā Pāsāna Gūhā, an uaimh mhór a tógadh as an talamh,
chun freastal ar an áit bhailiúcháin i bhfad cosúil le Uaimh Sattapānni
na hIndia - suíomh an chéad Chomhairle Dhamma.
Nuair
a chríochnaíodh é, bhuail an Chomhairle an 17 Bealtaine, 1954. Mar atá i
gcás na gcomhairlí roimhe seo, ba é an chéad chuspóir ná an fíordhhamma
agus Vinaya a dhearbhú agus a chaomhnú.
Bhí sé uathúil, áfach, a mhéid a tháinig na manaigh a ghlac páirt ann ó ocht dtír. Tháinig
na míle cúig chéad fear déag seo de Themanach ó Myanmar, an Chambóid,
an India, Laos, Neipeal, Srí Lanca, an Téalainn agus Vítneam.
Ceapadh
an tUasalánta maidin Mahāsi Sayadaw an t-uaisle a bhí ag iarraidh na
ceisteanna a bhí ag teastáil faoi Dhhamma an Inbhuanaithe Bhadanta
Vicittasārābhivaṃsa Tipiṭakadhara Dhammabhaṇḍāgārika a fhreagair go léir
go foghlama agus go sásúil.
Faoin
am a bhuail an chomhairle seo, ba é Pāli Tipiṭaka na tíortha
rannpháirteacha uile a cuireadh isteach ina gcuid scripteanna dúchais,
seachas an India.

Thóg
aithris traidisiúnta na Scrioptúirí Dhamma dhá bhliain ina ndearnadh
scrúdú mór ar an Tipiṭaka agus ar a litríocht choibhneasta sna
scripteanna go léir.
Tugadh
faoi deara aon difríocht a fuarthas síos, rinneadh na ceartúcháin
riachtanacha agus rinneadh na leaganacha go léir a chomhshó ansin.
Go hiontach, fuarthas amach nach raibh mórán difríocht ann maidir le hábhar aon cheann de na téacsanna. Ar
deireadh, tar éis don Chomhairle iad a bheith faofa go hoifigiúil,
ullmhaíodh na méideanna go léir den Tipiṭaka agus a n-tráchtaireachtaí
le priontáil ar phreasanna nua-aimseartha agus a foilsíodh sa script
Myanmar (Burmais).
Rinneadh
an gnóthachtáil shuntasach seo a dhéanamh trí iarrachtaí tiomanta an dá
mhíle cúig chéad manach agus go leor daoine leaganacha.
Tháinig
a gcuid oibre chun críche i mBealtaine, 1956, dhá mhíle go leith go
leith tar éis don Tiarna Parinibbāna a bhaint amach.
Ba é obair na comhairle seo ná éachtacht uathúil ionadaithe ón domhan Búdachas ar fad. Aithníodh
an leagan den Tipiṭaka a rinne sí a tháirgeadh mar fhíor-theagasc do
theagascach Gotama an Búda agus an rindreáil is údaraithe acu go dtí
seo.

Cuireadh na méideanna atá clóite tar éis an Séú Saṅgāyana i gcló Myanmar. D’fhonn
na méideanna a dhéanamh do mhuintir na hIndia, thosaigh Institiúid
Taighde Vipassana an tionscadal chun an Tipiṭaka a phriontáil lena
Aṭṭhakathās agus ṭikas i Devanagari sa bhliain 1990.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-MTkYRHqaQs&t=4701s
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Irish music traditional instrumental compilation with fiddle, violin, guitar, flute. Folk, conuntry acoustic…

46) Classical Italian
46) Italiano classico

2632 sab 26 maggio LEZIONE

Risvegliato con la consapevolezza Insegnamenti del Buddha in 5 parole
Fai sempre del bene attenzione!

Per una spiegazione completa

Per favore visita:
Analytic Insight Net - GRATIS Online Tipiṭaka Ricerca e pratica
Università e notizie correlate attraverso http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
in 105 LINGUE CLASSICHE
A partire dal:
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

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E-mail:
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http://www.palicanon.org/
Pali Canon Online

Le parole originali del Buddha
L’origine del Pali Canon

“Supponiamo
che un monaco dicesse:” Amici, ho ascoltato e ricevuto questo dalle
labbra del Signore: questo è il Dhamma, questa è la disciplina, questo è
l’insegnamento del Maestro “, quindi, monaci, non dovreste né approvare
né disapprovare il suo
parole. Quindi,
senza approvazione o disapprovazione, le sue parole ed espressioni
dovrebbero essere attentamente annotate e confrontate con i Sutta e
rivisti alla luce della disciplina.
Se
essi, in tale confronto e revisione, non si conformano ai Sutta o alla
disciplina, la conclusione deve essere: “Assolutamente questa non è la
parola del Buddha, è stata erroneamente compresa da questo monaco”, e la
questione
deve essere rifiutato. Ma dove su tale confronto e revisione essi si trovano conformi ai
Sutta o alla disciplina, la conclusione deve essere: “Assolutamente
questa è la parola del Buddha, è stata giustamente compresa da questo
monaco”.

- DN 16 Mahāparinibbāna Sutta - The Great Passing, The Last Days del Buddha
Gli insegnamenti autentici di Gotama il Buddha sono stati preservati e tramandati e si trovano nel Tipiṭaka. La parola Pāli, “Tipiṭaka”, significa letteralmente “i tre canestri” (ti = tre + piṭaka = raccolte di scritture). Tutti gli insegnamenti del Buddha erano divisi in tre parti.

1. La prima parte è nota come Vinaya Piṭaka e contiene tutte le regole che Buddha ha stabilito per i monaci e le monache.
2. La seconda parte è chiamata Suttaṅta Piṭaka e contiene i Discorsi.
3. La terza parte è conosciuta come Abhidhamma Piṭaka e comprende gli insegnamenti psico-etici del Buddha.

È
noto che ogni volta che il Buddha teneva un discorso ai suoi discepoli
ordinati o seguaci laici o prescriveva un governo monastico nel corso
del suo ministero di quarantacinque anni, quelli dei suoi devoti e dotti
monaci, allora presenti, avrebbero immediatamente impegnato i suoi
insegnamenti
parola per parola alla memoria. Così
le parole del Buddha furono conservate accuratamente e furono a tempo
debito tramandate oralmente da un insegnante all’altro.
Alcuni
dei monaci che avevano ascoltato il Buddha predicare di persona erano
Arahant, e quindi per definizione, “puri” liberi dalla passione, dalla
malevolenza e dall’illusione e quindi, senza dubbio, erano in grado di
mantenere, perfettamente le parole del Buddha.
Così hanno assicurato che gli insegnamenti del Buddha sarebbero stati preservati fedelmente per i posteri.

Persino
quei devoti monaci che non avevano ancora raggiunto l’Araanità ma
avevano raggiunto i primi tre stadi della santità e avevano ricordi
potenti e ritentivi potevano anche richiamare alla mente parola per
parola ciò che il Buddha aveva predicato e così potevano essere degni
custodi degli insegnamenti del Buddha.
Uno
di questi monaci era Ānanda, l’accompagnatore scelto e compagno
costante del Buddha durante gli ultimi venticinque anni della sua vita.
Era molto intelligente e dotata della capacità di ricordare ciò che aveva sentito. In
effetti, era il suo espresso desiderio che il Buddha riferisse sempre
tutti i suoi discorsi a lui e sebbene non fosse ancora un Arahanta,
deliberatamente impegnò a memoria parola per parola tutti i sermoni del
Buddha con i quali esortava monaci, monache e seguaci laici.
Gli sforzi combinati di questi monaci dotati e devoti hanno reso
possibile per il Dhamma e Vinaya, come insegnato dal Buddha di essere
preservato nel suo stato originale.

Il
Pāli Tipiṭaka e la sua letteratura alleata esistono come risultato
della scoperta del Buddha del sentiero nobile e liberatore del puro
Dhamma.
Questo percorso consente a tutti coloro che lo seguono di condurre una vita serena e felice. In
effetti, in questo giorno ed età siamo fortunati ad avere gli
insegnamenti autentici del Buddha preservati per le generazioni future
attraverso gli sforzi coscienziosi e concertati dei suoi discepoli
ordinati attraverso i secoli.
Il
Buddha aveva detto ai suoi discepoli che quando non era più tra loro,
che era essenziale che il Saṅgha si riunisse allo scopo di recitare
collettivamente il Dhamma, esattamente come lui l’aveva insegnato.
In
conformità con questa istruzione, i primi Anziani hanno debitamente
chiamato un consiglio e ordinato sistematicamente tutti i discorsi del
Buddha e le regole monastiche e poi li hanno fedelmente recitati parola
per parola in concerto.

Gli insegnamenti contenuti nel Tipiṭaka sono anche noti come Dottrina degli Anziani [Theravāda]. Questi
discorsi parlano di diverse centinaia e sono sempre stati recitati
parola per parola fin da quando fu convocato il Primo Concilio.
Successivamente,
sono stati convocati più Consigli per una serie di motivi, ma in ognuno
di essi l’intero corpo dell’insegnamento del Buddha è sempre stato
recitato dai partecipanti al Saṅgha, in concerto e parola per parola.
Il
primo consiglio ebbe luogo tre mesi dopo il conseguimento del Buddha al
Mahāparinibbāṇa e ne seguirono altri cinque, due dei quali furono
convocati nel diciannovesimo e nel ventesimo secolo.
Queste
recitazioni collettive che sono state eseguite dai monaci in tutti
questi Concili di Dhamma sono conosciute come “Dhamma Saṅgītis”, le
Recitazioni del Dhamma.
Sono
così designati per il precedente stabilito al Primo Concilio di Dhamma,
quando tutti gli Insegnamenti furono recitati per la prima volta da un
anziano del Saṅgha e poi recitarono ancora in coro da tutti i monaci che
assistevano all’assemblea.
La recita è stata giudicata autentica, quando e solo quando, era stata approvata all’unanimità dai membri del Consiglio. Quello che segue è una breve storia dei sei consigli.

Il primo consiglio

Il re Ajātasattu ha sponsorizzato il primo consiglio. Fu convocato nel 544 a.C. nella grotta Sattapaāāī situata all’esterno di Rājagaha tre mesi dopo la morte del Buddha. Un resoconto dettagliato di questo storico incontro può essere trovato nella Clavlagagga del Vinaya Piṭaka. Secondo
questo resoconto, l’incidente che ha indotto l’anziano Mahākassapa a
convocare questo incontro è stato il suo udire un commento denigratorio
sulla rigida regola di vita dei monaci.
Questo è quello che è successo. Il
monaco Subhadda, un ex barbiere, che aveva ordinato in età avanzata,
dopo aver saputo che il Buddha era spirato, espresse il suo risentimento
per aver dovuto osservare tutte le regole per i monaci del Buddha.
Molti monaci lamentavano la morte del Buddha e ne furono profondamente addolorati. Tuttavia, l’anziano Mahākassapa sentì Subhadda dire: “Basta con le tue riverenze, non rattristarti, non lamentarti. Ci liberiamo di questo grande recluso (il Buddha). Siamo
stati tormentati quando ha detto: “questo è permesso a te, questo non è
permesso a te” ma ora saremo in grado di fare ciò che ci piace e non
dovremo fare ciò che non ci piace “.
Mahākassapa
era allarmato dalla sua osservazione e temeva che il Dhamma e il Vinaya
potessero essere corrotti e non sopravvivere intatti se altri monaci
dovessero comportarsi come Subhadda e interpretare le regole del Dhamma e
del Vinaya a loro piacimento.
Per evitare ciò, decise che il Dhamma doveva essere preservato e protetto. A tal fine, dopo aver ottenuto l’approvazione del Saṅgha, chiamò a conciliare cinquecento arabi. Doveva essere incluso in ciò a condizione che raggiungesse l’Arahanthood al momento della convocazione del consiglio. Con
la presidenza dell’anziano Mahākassapa, i cinquecento monaci arahant si
riunirono in consiglio durante la stagione delle piogge.
La
prima cosa che Mahākassapa fece fu di mettere in discussione il più
esperto esperto del Vinaya del giorno, il Venerabile Upāli sui
particolari del dominio monastico.
Questo monaco era ben qualificato per il compito dato che il Buddha gli aveva insegnato l’intero Vinaya stesso. Anzitutto,
l’anziano Mahākassapa gli ha chiesto specificamente la sentenza sulla
prima infrazione [pārājika], in merito al soggetto, all’occasione,
all’individuo introdotto, alla proclamazione, alla ripetizione della
proclamazione, al reato e al caso di non-
offesa. Upāli diede risposte competenti e adeguate e le sue osservazioni incontrarono l’approvazione unanime del Saṅgha che presiedeva. Così il Vinaya fu formalmente approvato.

L’anziano
Mahākassapa rivolse allora la sua attenzione a Ānanda in virtù della
sua rispettabile competenza in tutte le questioni connesse al Dhamma.
Fortunatamente, la notte prima che il Consiglio si riunisse, Ānanda raggiunse l’Arahant e si unì al Consiglio. L’anziano
Mahākassapa, quindi, fu in grado di interrogarlo a lungo con piena
fiducia sul Dhamma con specifico riferimento ai sermoni del Buddha.
Questo
interrogatorio sul Dhamma ha cercato di verificare il luogo in cui sono
stati predicati tutti i discorsi e la persona a cui erano stati
indirizzati.
Ānanda,
aiutato dalla sua memoria perfetta per la parola, era in grado di
rispondere con precisione e così i Discorsi incontrarono l’approvazione
unanime del Saṅgha.
Il
Primo Consiglio ha anche dato il suo sigillo ufficiale di approvazione
per la chiusura del capitolo sulle norme minori e minori e
l’approvazione per la loro osservanza.
I
monaci impiegarono sette mesi per recitare l’intero Vinaya e il Dhamma e
quei monaci sufficientemente dotati di bei ricordi conservarono tutto
ciò che era stato recitato.
Questo
primo consiglio storico venne conosciuto come il Paâcasatika perché
cinquecento arabi pienamente illuminati vi avevano preso parte.

The Second Council

The
Second Council esset annorum centum dicitur, post Buddha Parinibbāṇa ut
constitueret habitatores gravis controversia est per ‘decem puncta.
Hoc est a quibusdam monachis praevaricationem et ad decem praecepta minor. data sunt;

1. thesaurizantes sal in cornu.
2. uicesimum dicendum quod comedere post meridiem.
3. et edens, et semel, et iterum ire ad villa ut eleemosynam acciperet.
4. habentes Uposatha CAERIMONIA cum monachis habitabat in eodem loco.
5. fungens publica acta cum in ecclesia est imperfecta.
6. Post quaedam usu fuit, quod uno facto vel magister est paedagogus.
7. uicesimum dicendum quod comedere uvam lac post meridiem prandium una cum suis.
8. novissima devorabitque fortis potum fuerat ante fermentum.
9. Using the proper ea pallio, quae non mole.
Using 10 aurum et argentum.

Et
exitus factus a major controversiis fiet peccatis eorum: et fecit quod
cogitavi ut solveret huiusmodi praecepta statim contra originale Buddha
doctrinas hominum.
Second Council rex Kāḷāsoka est scriptor patronus, et ea congressio in Vesāli ex huiusmodi causa. Una
autem die, cum visitare Mahāvana Veāsli apud nemus, quod est cognoscere
quae magna coetus Elder Yasa de monachis Vajjians quae sunt in imperio
summarum quo prohibitus est monachus accipiens aurum et argentum in
palam pone petendo ab hostis.
Animadversum statim moribus et responsio eorum offerre turpis lucri partem lucri spe fore. The Elder Yasa tamen contempsit, et noluit mores. De monachis statim sequebatur eum a quo formaliter reconciliationis arguebas querela lay suum hostis. Itaque
Caesar reconciliata per laicum Yasa devotum sed simul persuasi sunt
quod monachi Vijjian deliquissent vertitis Buddha pronuntiatione sive
prohibitio accepit aurum et argentum petito.
Laici
suis expressit statim declaratus est, et firmamentum in the Elder Yasa
iniquis reputatus est Vajjian monachis et haereticis dicere ‘’ solus est
verus monachus the Elder Yasa et Sākyan filium.
Omnes alii non sunt monachi, non Sākyan filios ‘.

Ora
dehinc suspendisse contumaces Vajjian monachorum ceterorumque sine
assensu venerabilium Yasa Sangha Theram venerunt ad laicos eorum
congressus eventum devoveo.
Yasa
Seniore tamen evaserunt venerunt quaerentes stipendium monachorum
animadverterunt alibi orthodoxorum sententiae de Vinaya posuerunt.
Silvae
habitabat sexaginta monachos pava octoginta monachis qui australibus
Avanti eodem obtulit in eo reprehendo Vinaya corruptionem.
Simul ire ad consulendum Soreyya venerabilis Beda monachus Revata peritus admodum fuit et Vinaya Dhamma. Et statim scire quaesivere Vajjian monachi venerabilis Revata conciliat rebus quas mox negaverunt conátus quatuor. Quaesierunt per easdem monachi perlicere Revata minister Venerabilis Venerabilis Uttara. At
ille primo quoque recte noluit autem dolum illorum offer eum accipere
persuasit offer sua, dicens quod illa requisita in in Buddha quod non
accepit ab eo, ne Ananda interrogavit eos accipere volunt facere ut
saepius conveniunt.
Uttara super magnitudinem mali et accepit requisita. Ab
his rebus impulsus inter se et ad Eposognatum persuasurumque,
Venerabiles Fratres, asseverare non dubitavit ad Revata Vajjian monachi
erant loquentium ad immo veritas et fautores Dhamma.
Euectos uidit per Venerabilium Revata advocati refutavit. Uttara dimisit eum. Semel
ad iudicem Venerabilis Revata placere sibi concilium nominari
Vāḷikārāma interrogando de peccatis maxime senior seniores decem dies
Theram Sabbjakāmi.
Cum ad suam sententiam datum fuit audiri a committee of octo monachi, et per vim suam placuit suffragio ipsorum. De
octo monachis dicta sunt iudicare rem erant Venerables Sabbakāmi,
Salha, et Khujjasobhita Vāsabhagāmika ex quatuor monachis ab Oriente et
Occidente, et Venerables Revata, Sambhuta, Sāṇavāsī, et Yasa Sumana.
Cum diligentius rem agitatam in Revata sicut et interrogantem sabbakāmī solvendum quaestiones. Et statuit super octo monachos disceptatio audita sententia pronuntiata Vajjian monachorum congregatione. Monachi
centum et septem complevit Dhamma Vinaya deinde recitatis ad hoc quod
cognoscatur Sattasatī in partes septem monachi centum.
Hoc
historic consilio est et appellatur, in Yasatthera Sangīti propter
major munus psallebat in the Elder Yasa et tuendae potissimo studio
ducti Vinaya.
Vajjian
categorice quod monachi accipere noluit Concilium arbitrium est et
contra advocato concilio scelera sua quae ibi dicta sunt Mahāsaṅgiti.

Il terzo consiglio

Il
Terzo Concilio si svolse principalmente per liberare il Saṅgha dalla
corruzione e dai monaci falsi che avevano opinioni eretiche.
Il Consiglio è stato convocato nel 326 a.C. Ad Asokārāma a Paṭaliputta sotto il patronato dell’imperatore Asoka. È stato presieduto dall’anziano Moggaliputta Tissa e un migliaio di monaci hanno partecipato a questo Consiglio. La tradizione vuole che Asoka abbia conquistato il suo trono versando
il sangue di tutto il figlio di suo padre per salvare il proprio
fratello, Tissa Kumara, che alla fine fu ordinato e conquistato
l’Arahant.

Asoka fu incoronata nel duecento e diciottesimo anno dopo il Mahaparinibbāna del Buddha. All’inizio
pagò solo un omaggio a Dhamma e Saṅgha e sostenne anche membri di altre
sette religiose come suo padre aveva fatto prima di lui.
Tuttavia, tutto questo cambiò quando incontrò il pio monaco novizio Nigrodha che gli predicò l’Appamāda-vagga. Successivamente cessò di sostenere altri gruppi religiosi e approfondì il suo interesse e la sua devozione per il Dhamma. Ha
usato la sua enorme ricchezza per costruire, si dice,
ottantaquattromila pagode e vihāra e per sostenere generosamente i
Bhikkhu con i quattro requisiti.
Suo figlio Mahinda e sua figlia Saṅghamittā furono ordinati e ammessi al Saṅgha. Alla fine, la sua generosità causò seri problemi all’interno del Saṅgha. Col
tempo l’ordine fu infiltrato da molti uomini indegni, che avevano
opinioni eretiche e che erano attratti dall’ordine a causa del generoso
sostegno dell’Imperatore e delle costose offerte di cibo, vestiti,
riparo e medicine.
Un
gran numero di uomini infedeli e avidi che sposano opinioni errate
hanno cercato di aderire all’ordine, ma sono stati ritenuti inadatti per
l’ordinazione.
Nonostante
ciò, hanno colto l’opportunità di sfruttare la generosità
dell’Imperatore per i propri fini e indossato le vesti e hanno aderito
all’ordine senza essere stati ordinati correttamente.
Di conseguenza, il rispetto per il Saṅgha diminuì. Quando questo venne alla luce, alcuni dei veri monaci si rifiutarono
di tenere la purificazione prescritta o la cerimonia di Uposatha in
compagnia dei monaci corrotti ed eretici.

Quando
l’Imperatore ne venne a conoscenza, cercò di correggere la situazione e
mandò uno dei suoi ministri ai monaci con l’ordine di eseguire la
cerimonia.
Tuttavia,
l’Imperatore non aveva dato al ministro alcun ordine specifico su quali
mezzi dovevano essere usati per eseguire il suo comando.
I monaci si rifiutarono di obbedire e tenere la cerimonia in compagnia dei loro falsi e “ladri” compagni [theyyasinivāsaka]. In
preda alla disperazione, il ministro infuriato avanzò lungo la fila di
monaci seduti e estraendo la sua spada, decapitò tutti uno dopo l’altro
fino a quando arrivò al fratello del re, Tissa che era stata ordinata.
Il
ministro inorridito fermò il massacro e fuggì dall’aula e riferì di
nuovo all’imperatore Asoka era profondamente addolorato e turbato da
quello che era successo e incolpato se stesso per le uccisioni.
Cercò il consiglio di Thera Moggaliputta Tissa. Propose che i monaci eretici fossero espulsi dall’ordine e un terzo Consiglio fosse convocato immediatamente. Fu così che nel diciassettesimo anno del regno dell’Imperatore fu chiamato il Terzo Concilio. Thera
Moggaliputta Tissa ha diretto il procedimento e ha scelto un migliaio
di monaci tra i sessantamila partecipanti per la recita tradizionale del
Dhamma e del Vinaya, che è durata nove mesi.
L’Imperatore stesso ha interrogato i monaci di numerosi monasteri sugli insegnamenti del Buddha. Coloro che hanno tenuto viste errate sono stati esposti ed espulsi immediatamente dal Saṅgha. In questo modo il Bhikkhu Saṅgha fu epurato dagli eretici e dai falchi bhikkhu.
Questo consiglio ha raggiunto anche una serie di altre cose importanti. L’anziano
Moggaliputta Tissa, per confutare un certo numero di eresie e
assicurare che il Dhamma fosse tenuto puro, rispettò un libro durante il
consiglio chiamato Kathāvatthu.
Questo
libro si compone di ventitré capitoli, ed è una raccolta di discussione
(kathā) e confutazioni delle opinioni eretiche detenute da varie sette
su questioni filosofiche.
È il quinto dei sette libri dell’Abhidhamma Piṭaka. I
membri del Consiglio diedero anche un sigillo di approvazione reale
alla dottrina del Buddha, nominandolo Vibhajjava, la Dottrina
dell’Analisi.
È identico alla dottrina Theravada approvata. Uno
dei risultati più significativi di questa assemblea del Dhamma e uno
che avrebbe portato frutto per secoli a venire, fu l’invio
dell’imperatore di monaci, ben versato nel Dhamma del Buddha e Vinaya
che poteva recitarlo tutto a memoria, per insegnarlo
in nove paesi diversi. Questi monaci Dhammadūta includevano il Venerabile Majjhantika Thera che andò nel Kashmir e nel Gandhara. Gli fu chiesto di predicare il Dhamma e stabilire un ordine di monaci lì. Il
Venerabile Mahādeva fu inviato a Mahinsakamaṇḍaḷa (il moderno Mysore) e
il Venerabile Rakkhita Thera fu inviato a Vanavāsī (Kanara
settentrionale nel sud dell’India). Il Venerabile Yonaka Dhammarakkhita
Thera fu inviato nell’Alta Aparantaka (nel nord Gujarat, Kathiawar,
Kutch e Sindh)
.

Il
Venerabile Mahārakkhita Thera andò a Yonaka-loka (la terra dei soliti,
dei Battriani e dei greci). Il Venerabile Majjhima Thera andò a
Himavanta (il luogo adiacente all’Himalaya). Il Venerabile Soṇa e il
Venerabile Uttara furono inviati a Suvaṇṇabhūmi [ora
Myanmar]. Il
Venerabile Mahinda Thera, il Venerabile Ittiya Thera, il Venerabile
Uttiya Thera, il Venerabile Sambala Thera e il Venerabile Bhaddasāla
Thera furono inviati a Tambapaṇṇi (ora Sri Lanka).
Le missioni Dhamma di questi monaci sono riuscite e hanno portato
grandi frutti nel corso del tempo e hanno fatto molto per nobilitare i
popoli di queste terre con il dono del Dhamma e influenzando le loro
civiltà e culture.

Con la diffusione del Dhamma attraverso le parole del Buddha, a tempo
debito l’India divenne nota come Visvaguru, l’insegnante del mondo.

Il quarto consiglio

Il quarto consiglio fu tenuto a Tambapaṇṇi [Sri Lanka] nel 29 a.C. sotto il patronato del re Vaṭṭagāmaṇi. La
ragione principale della sua convocazione fu la presa di coscienza che
ora non era possibile per la maggior parte dei monaci conservare
l’intero Tipiṭaka nei loro ricordi, come era stato in passato per il
Venerabile Mahinda e coloro che lo seguirono poco dopo.
Pertanto,
poiché l’arte della scrittura era, a quel punto, sviluppata
sostanzialmente, si pensava che fosse opportuno e necessario scrivere
l’intero corpo dell’insegnamento del Buddha.
Il
re Vaṭṭagāmaṇi sostenne l’idea del monaco e un consiglio fu tenuto
specificamente per ridurre il Tipiṭaka nella sua interezza alla
scrittura.
Perciò,
affinché il genuino Dhamma potesse essere durevolmente preservato, il
Venerabile Mahārakhita e cinquecento monaci recitarono le parole del
Buddha e poi le scrissero sulle foglie di palma.
Questo
straordinario progetto ebbe luogo in una grotta chiamata, l’Āloka lena,
situata nella fenditura di un’antica frana vicino a quello che ora è
Matale.
Pertanto, lo scopo del Concilio fu raggiunto e fu assicurata la conservazione per iscritto dell’autentico Dhamma. Più tardi, nel XVIII secolo, il re Vijayarājasīha ebbe le immagini del Buddha create in questa grotta.

Il quinto Consiglio

Il quinto Consiglio si svolse a Māndalay, in Birmania, ora nota come Myanmar nel 1871, durante il regno di Re Mindon. L’obiettivo
principale di questo incontro era quello di recitare tutti gli
insegnamenti del Buddha ed esaminarli con minimi dettagli per vedere se
qualcuno di loro fosse stato alterato, distorto o lasciato cadere.
Era
presieduto da tre Anziani, il Venerabile Mahāthera Jāgarābhivaṃsa, il
Venerabile Narindābhidhaja e il Venerabile Mahāthera Sumaṅgalasāmi in
compagnia di circa duemilaquattrocento monaci (2400).
La loro recita congiunta del Dhamma è durata cinque mesi. Fu
anche il lavoro di questo concilio per far iscrivere l’intero Tipiṭaka
ai posteri su settecentoventinove lastre di marmo nello scritto del
Myanmar dopo che la sua recitazione era stata completata e approvata
all’unanimità.
Questo
compito monumentale fu fatto da circa duemilaquattrocento monaci
eruditi e molti abili artigiani che, al completamento di ogni lastra, li
avevano ospitati in bellissime pagode in miniatura “piṭaka” su un sito
speciale nel parco della Pagoda di King Mindon a Kuthodaw ai piedi di
Māndalay
Hill, dove questo cosiddetto “libro più grande del mondo”, si trova ancora oggi.
Il sesto concilio

Il
sesto Concilio fu convocato a Kaba Aye a Yangon, ex Rangoon nel 1954,
ottantatré anni dopo che il quinto fu tenuto a Mandalay.
È stato sponsorizzato dal governo birmano guidato dal Primo Ministro, l’onorevole U Nu. Autorizzò
la costruzione della Mahā Pāsāna Gūhā, la grande grotta che fu
costruita da zero, per fungere da luogo di ritrovo molto simile alla
grotta Sattapānni dell’India - il sito del primo Concilio di Dhamma.
Al
suo completamento, il Consiglio si riunì il 17 maggio 1954. Come nel
caso dei precedenti Consigli, il suo primo obiettivo fu quello di
affermare e preservare il vero Dhamma e Vinaya.
Tuttavia era unico nella misura in cui i monaci che vi prendevano parte provenivano da otto paesi. Questi
duemilacinquecento eruditi monaci Theravada provenivano da Myanmar,
Cambogia, India, Laos, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailandia e Vietnam.
Il
tardo venerabile Mahāsi Sayadaw fu nominato il nobile compito di porre
le domande richieste sul Dhamma del Venerabile Bhadanta
Vicittasārābhivaṃsa Tipiṭakadhara Dhammabhaṇḍāgārika che rispose loro in
modo imparziale e soddisfacente.
Nel momento in cui questo consiglio si è riunito, tutti i paesi
partecipanti hanno presentato il Pāli Tipiṭaka nelle loro scritture
native, ad eccezione dell’India.

La
tradizionale recitazione delle Scritture del Dhamma ha richiesto due
anni durante i quali il Tipiṭaka e la sua letteratura alleata in tutte
le sceneggiature sono stati scrupolosamente esaminati.
Eventuali
differenze rilevate sono state annotate, sono state apportate le
correzioni necessarie e tutte le versioni sono state quindi confrontate.
Fortunatamente, è stato riscontrato che non c’era molta differenza nel contenuto di nessuno dei testi. Alla
fine, dopo che il Consiglio li aveva approvati ufficialmente, tutti i
volumi del Tipiṭaka e dei loro Commentari erano pronti per la stampa su
rotative moderne e pubblicati nella versione Myanmar (Burmese).
Questo risultato notevole è stato reso possibile grazie agli sforzi dedicati dei duemilacinquecento monaci e di numerosi laici. Il loro lavoro terminò nel maggio del 1956, due millenni e mezzo dopo che il Signore raggiunse il Parinibbāna. Il lavoro di questo consiglio è stato il risultato unico dei rappresentanti di tutto il mondo buddista. La versione del Tipiṭaka che si è impegnato a produrre è stata
riconosciuta come vera per gli insegnamenti incontaminati di Gotama il
Buddha e la loro interpretazione più autorevole fino ad oggi.

I volumi stampati dopo il sesto Saṅgāyana furono stampati in caratteri birmani. Al
fine di rendere i volumi al popolo indiano, l’Istituto di ricerca
Vipassana ha avviato il progetto di stampare il Tipiṭaka con i suoi
Aṭṭhakathās e ṭikas a Devanagari nell’anno 1990.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Yf_Et_mbbw
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47) Classical Japanese

47)古典的な日本語

2632年4月26日レッスン

悟りのある悟りと仏の教え
常に心がけてください!

完全な説明については

来てください:
Analytic Insight Net - 無料のオンラインTipiṭakaリサーチ&プラクティス・ユニバーシティと関連するニュースは、http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgで105 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
から:
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

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https://translate.google.com

それがあなたのレッスンです

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http://www.palicanon.org/
Pali Canon Online

仏の原語
Pali Canonの起源

「友よ、私は主の唇からこれを聞いてこれを受け取りました:これは法律です、これは規律です、これは主の教えです」と、修道士は、あなたは彼の承認も否認もしてはいけません言葉。その後、承認も否認もせずに、彼の言葉や表現を注意深く書き留め、Suttasと比較し、規律に照らして検討しなければならない。そのような比較や検討の結果、Suttasや規律に従わないと判明した場合、結論は “確かにこれは仏の言葉ではなく、この修道士に間違って理解されている”拒絶される。しかし、そのような比較と再検討では、彼らはSuttasまたは規律に準拠していることがわかっているが、結論は “確かにこれは仏の言葉であり、この修道士には正しく理解されている。

- DN 16MahāparinibbānaSutta - 偉大な合格、仏の最後の日
ゴタマ・ブッダの本物の教えは保存され、私たちに伝えられ、ティピハタカで見つかるはずです。 Pāliの単語、「Tipiṭaka」は文字通り「3つのバスケット」(ti = three +piṭaka=経典のコレクション)を意味します。すべての仏の教えは3つの部分に分かれていました。

1.最初の部分はVinayaPiṭakaと呼ばれ、仏が修道僧と僧侶のために定めたすべての規則を含んでいます。
2番目の部分はSuttaṅtaPiṭakaと呼ばれ、Discoursesが含まれています。
3.第三の部分は、アビダハマ・ピシャカ(AbhidhammaPiṭaka)と呼ばれ、仏の心理的倫理的な教えを構成しています。

仏が彼の任命された弟子や賛美者に談話をしたり、彼の45年間の奉仕の過程で僧侶の支配を命じたとき、献身的で学んだ僧侶たちは直ちに彼の教えを断ち切ることが知られている単語を記憶する単語。したがって、ブッダの言葉は正確に保存され、当然、教師から生徒に口頭で伝えられました。ブッダの説教を聞いたことのある修道僧の中にはアラハン人がいたので、情熱、悪意、妄想のない「純粋なもの」は疑いもなく完全に仏の言葉を保持することができました。こうして彼らは仏の教えが後世のために忠実に保たれることを確実にしました。

まだArahantahoodに達していないが、聖人の最初の3つの段階に達しており、強力で保持力のある僧侶でさえ、釈迦が宣べ伝えた言葉を心に呼び出すことができるので、Buddhaの教えの守護者になることができます。そのような修道士の1人は、彼の人生の最後の25年間に仏陀の選ばれた付添いと常連だったĀnandaでした。 Ānandaは、彼が聞いたことを思い出す能力を持って、高度に知的で才能がありました。確かに、ブッダは常に彼のすべての談話を彼に関連付けることを明言していました。彼はまだアラハンタではありませんでしたが、彼は僧侶、尼僧、そして賛美者を説いたブッダのすべての説教を覚えています。これらの才能と献身的な修道士の複合的な努力は、釈迦によって教えられたダムマとヴィナヤが元の状態で保存されることを可能にしました。

PāliTipiṭakaとその関連文書は、純粋なDhammaの高貴で自由な道の仏の発見の結果として存在します。この道は、それに従うすべての人が平和で幸せな生活を送ることを可能にします。確かに、この時代には、祝福された弟子たちの年月を経た良心的で協調的な努力によって、仏陀の本来の教えを次世代に保つことができて幸いです。釈迦は弟子たちに、もはや彼らの中にいなくなったときに、ダムマを集合的に暗唱する目的で、師が教えたとおりに集まることが不可欠であると言いました。この指示に従い、最初の長老たちは正式に評議会と呼ばれ、すべての仏教の談話と修道院の規則を体系的に指示し、その後それらを忠実に語り合って語りました。

Tipiṭakaに含まれている教えは、教皇の教理[Theravāda]としても知られています。これらの談話は数百に上り、最初の評議会が招集されて以来、いつも言葉の言葉にされてきました。その後、多くの協議会がいくつかの理由で呼び出されましたが、それらのすべてで、仏の教えの全身は、常にSaṅgha参加者によって、コンサートと言葉の言葉で引用されています。最初の評議会は、釈迦のMahāparinibbāṇa達成の3ヶ月後に行われ、さらに5つが続き、そのうち2つは19世紀と20世紀に招集された。これらのダムマ協議会のすべてで修道士によって行われたこれらの集合的な暗唱は、「ダムマ・サッギティス」と呼ばれ、ダムマ記法と呼ばれています。最初のダムマ評議会で設定された先例のために、すべての教えが最初にソンガの長老によって唱えられ、その後集会に出席したすべての修道士が再びコーラスで唱歌したため、彼らはそのように指定されています。この召喚状は、理事会のメンバーによって満場一致で承認されたときにのみ真正であると判断された。以下は、シックスカウンシルの簡単な歴史です。

第1審議会

王Ajātasattuは最初の評議会を後援した。それは紀元前544年に招集された。釈迦が亡くなってから3か月後に、Rājagahaの外に位置するSattapaāāī洞窟で。この歴史的な会議の詳細な説明は、VinayaPiṭakaのCūllavaggaにあります。この記録によると、Mahākassapa長老にこの会議を呼びかける事件は、修道士の厳しい生活の支配についての批判的な発言であった。これが起こったことです。釈迦が亡くなったと聞いて、晩年に命じられた元理容師のスハッダ修道士は、仏が定めた修道士のためのすべての規則を守らなければならないという憤慨を表明した。多くの修道僧が仏の通過を嘆いて深く悲しんでいました。しかし、Mahākassapa長老はSubhaddaが言う:「あなたのReverencesを十分にしなさい、悲しんではいけない、嘆くな。私たちはこの偉大な隠居者(仏)をよく取り除いています。 「これはあなたに許されている、これはあなたに許されない」と言ったとき、私たちは苦しんでいましたが、今は私たちが好きなようにできるようになり、私たちが好きでないことをする必要はありません。 Mahākassapaは彼の発言に驚いて、他の修道士がSubhaddaのように振る舞い、DhammaとVinayaの規則を満足していると解釈するならば、DhammaとVinayaが損なわれ、そのまま生き残ることができない恐れがあった。これを避けるために、彼は法律が保存され、保護されなければならないと決めた。この目的のために、Saṅghaの承認を得た後、彼は評議会に500人のArahantsを呼びかけた。議会が招集されるまでに彼はアラハンシーを達成したならば、Ānandaがこれに含まれなければならなかった。 Mahākassapa長老が司祭を務めたことで、荒れた季節に500人のArahant修道僧が評議会で会った。 Mahākassapaがやった最初のことは、今日のVinayaの一流の専門家、修道院支配の細部についてのVenerableUpāliに質問することでした。この修道士は、仏がVinaya自身の全体を彼に教えていたので、その仕事には十分な資格がありました。まず第一に、Mahākassapa長老は、主題、機会、導入された個人、宣言、宣言の繰り返し、犯罪および非暴力の事件に関して、最初の犯罪[pārājika]犯行Upāliは知識豊かで十分な答えを出し、彼の発言は宰相の拍手の全会一致で満たされた。こうしてVinayaは正式に承認された。

Mahākassapa長老は、Dhammaに関連するすべての問題の彼の評判の高い専門知識のおかげで、Ānandaに彼の注意を向けました。幸いなことに、理事会が会う前の夜、ĀnandaはArahantshipを達成し、理事会に参加しました。したがって、Mahākassapa長老は、Buddhaの説教を具体的に参照してDhammaについての完全な自信を持って、彼に長らく疑問を呈していた。ダムマに対するこの尋問は、すべての談話が最初に説教された場所と、彼らが対処された人物を確認しようとしました。彼の言葉の完全な記憶に助けられたĀnandaは正確に答えることができたので、DiscoursesはSaṅghaの全会一致で会いました。第一審理事会はまた、マイナーな規則とより少ない規則に関する章の閉鎖とその遵守の承認のための公式のシールを与えた。 VinayaとDhammaの全部を暗唱するのに7ヶ月の修道士が召集されました。この歴史的な最初の評議会は、500人の完全に啓発されたアラハントが参加したため、Paācasatikaとして知られるようになりました。
第二審議会

第二評議会は、「十点」で重大な紛争を解決するために、ブッダのパリニブバの100年後と呼ばれました。これは10人の小規模なルールを破っている修道士の参考になります。彼らは与えられた:

1.ホーンに塩を入れる。
2.正午後に食べる。
3.一度食べると、援助のために再び村に行く。
同じ場所に住んでいる修道士とのUposathaの儀式を保持する。
5.組立が不完全なときに公式行為をする。
6.教師や先生によって行われたので、特定の練習に従います。
7.正午の食事をした後に酸っぱいミルクを食べる。
8.それが発酵される前に強い飲み物を消費する。
9.適切なサイズではない敷物を使用する。
10.金と銀を使用する。

彼らの不正行為が問題になって、これらの規則を破って仏の本来の教えと矛盾していると主張された。 Kāḷāsoka王はSecond Councilの後援者であり、次のような状況のためにVesāliで会議が開催されました。ある日、VaāsliのMahāvanaGroveを訪れている間、Yasa長老は、Vajjiansとして知られている大勢の僧侶が、僧侶が金を受け取るのを禁じる規則を侵害していることを知りました。彼はすぐに彼らの行動を批判し、彼らの反応は、彼が勝つことを望んで彼らに違法な利益のシェアを提供することだった。しかしヤサ長老は行動を断ち、嘲笑した。修道士は即座に和解の正式な行動を彼に言い、彼らは自分の献身者を非難したと非難した。それに伴って、老舗老人は、献身者と和解しましたが、金と銀の受け入れや募集の禁止に関する仏の宣言を引用して、ヴィジャンの修道士が間違って行ったと確信しました。平民はすぐにヤーサ長老の支持を表明し、バジャンの修道僧を間違った行為者や異端者に宣言し、「ヤサだけが本当の修道士であり、息子の息子である」と言った。他のすべては僧侶ではなく、息子の息子ではありません。

頑固で悔い改めのないVajjianの修道士は、彼らが敬愛者との会合の結果を知るようになったとき、Saṅghaの残りの部分の承認を得ずに、良心的なYasa Theraを中断させた。エルサレムヤーサは、しかし、彼らの非難を免れ、ヴィナヤについての彼の正統な見解を支持していた修道士からの支援を求めて行った。 Pāvāの60人の森の住人と、同じ見解のAvantiの南部の80人の僧侶は、Vinayaの腐敗を調べるのを手伝うよう提案した。彼らは一緒にSoreyyaに行き、DarenmaとVinayaの崇高な僧侶と専門家であったので、Venerable Revataと相談しました。 Vajjianの修道士がこれを知るようになるとすぐに、彼はすぐに拒否した4つの必要条件を彼に提供することによってVeneable Revataのサポートを求めました。これらの修道士は、礼儀正しいレヴァタのアテンダントである礼儀正しいウッタラを勝ち取るために、同じ手段を使用しようとしました。仏陀のための必要条件が彼によって受け入れられなかったとき、Ānandaはそれらを受け入れるように頼まれ、そうすることを頻繁に同意すると言って、彼は彼らの申し出を受け入れることを手際に彼に説得した。 Uttaraは彼の心を変え、必要条件を受け入れた。彼らはそれに耳を傾け、ヴァージン修道士たちが本当にダーマの真実と支配者であることを宣言するために、礼儀正しいレヴァタを説得し説得することに同意した。礼儀正しいレヴァタは、彼らの戒めを見て、彼らを支援することを拒んだ。彼はその後、Uttaraを解雇した。問題を一度に解決するために、礼儀正しいレヴァタは、Vāḷikārāmaで評議会を呼び出すことを勧めました。その日、TheraSabbjakāmiの最年長の10歳の犯行について質問しました。一度彼の意見が与えられれば、それは8人の修道士の委員会によって聞かれ、その妥当性は彼らの投票によって決定された。この問題を判断するために呼び出された8人の修道士は、東からのVenerablesSabbakāmi、saḷha、KhujjasobhitaとVāsabhagāmika、西部からの4人の修道士、Venerables
Revata、Sambhuta-Sāṇavāsī、YasaとSumanaであった。
彼らは徹底的に彼の質問に答える質問者とsabbakāmīとしてRevataとの問題を議論した。議論が聞かれた後、8人の修道士はVajjian修道士に反対して決定し、彼らの評決は議会に発表された。その後、700人の修道僧がダムマとヴィナヤを列挙し、このリサイタルはSattasatīとして知られるようになりました。これは700人の修道士が参加したためです。この歴史的評議会は、YasattheraSangītiとも呼ばれ、Yasa長老が果たした重要な役割と、Vinayaを守るための熱意からです。バジャンの修道士は、評議会の決定を受け入れることを拒否し、拒否権を握って、マハサ・ギティ(Mahāsaṅgiti)と呼ばれる自治体の評議会と呼ばれた。
第3審議会

第3審議会は、異端的な見解を守っていた腐敗と偽りの修道士を排除するために主に開催された。理事会は、紀元前326年に開催された。麻生皇帝の後援のもと、パテリリプッタのアソカラマで。それは、モガリプッタ・ティッサ長老が主宰し、1000人の修道士がこの理事会に参加しました。伝統には、アソーカは、父の息子の血を流すことで王座を獲得したことがあります。彼の弟、ティッサ・クマラは、最終的に安息日になり、アラハンシップを達成しました。

アソカは、ブッダのマハパリニババナの229年後に戴冠されました。当初、彼はダンマとソンガにトークンの敬意を払っただけでなく、父親が前にしたような他の宗派のメンバーも支持していました。しかし、これはすべて、彼がAppamāda-vaggaを説いた敬虔な初心者 - 僧Nigrodhaに会ったときに変わった。その後、彼は他の宗教団体の支援をやめ、ダーマへの関心と献身を深めた。彼は彼の巨額の富を使って建設しました、それは8万4千の塔とヴィハラと言われており、4つの必要条件でビックフスを惜しみなく支えています。彼の息子のMahindaと彼の娘Saṅghamittāは、Saṅghaに任命され、認められた。結局のところ、彼の寛大さはSaṅghaの中で深刻な問題を引き起こすことでした。時間が経つにつれ、異端の人を多く招き、皇帝の寛大な支援と高価な食糧、衣服、避難所と薬の提供のために、異端観を持ち、秩序に魅了された。間違った見解を支持している多くの誠実で貪欲な男性は、秩序に加わることを試みたが、儀式には不適当とみなされた。それにもかかわらず、彼らは皇帝の寛大な恩恵を彼ら自身の目的のために搾取し、服を着て適切に任命されずに命令に加わった。その結果、Saṅghaの尊重は減少した。これが現れた時、純粋な修道士のうちのいくつかは、腐敗した異端の修道士の会社で定められた浄化またはUposatha式典を拒否しました。

天皇がこれについて聞いたとき、彼は状況を是正しようとし、彼らの閣僚の一人を僧侶に派遣し、儀式を行うという命令を出した。しかし、皇帝は大臣に、命令を実行するためにどのような手段が使われるべきかについての特別な命令を与えなかった。修道士たちは、彼らの偽りの「泥棒」仲間[theyyasinivāsaka]の会社で式典に従うことを拒否した。絶望的に怒っている大臣は座っていた修道士の線を降りて、剣を引いて、すべて斬首して、王の弟であるティッサに着いた。恐ろしい大臣は虐殺をやめ、逃げ出し、皇帝アソカに戻って報告したことは深く悲しんで、起こったことに腹を立て、殺人のために自分自身を責めた。彼はThera Moggaliputta Tissaの弁護士に尋ねた。彼は、異端の修道士が命令から追放され、第3の評議会が直ちに招集されるよう提案した。それで、天皇17年の治世の第3審議会が呼び出されました。 Thera Moggaliputta Tissaは、DhammaとVinayaの伝統的な朗読のために、議事録を進み、6万人の参加者から1000人の修道士を選びました。天皇は、自分自身が仏の教えについて多くの修道院の修道士に質問しました。間違った見解をした人々は、すぐに釈我から暴露され追放された。このようにして、BhikkhuSaṅghaは異端者と偽のbhikkhusから追放されました。
この評議会は他にもいくつか重要なことを達成しました。モガガルプッタ・ティザー長老は、多数の異端を論じ、ダーマが純粋に保たれていることを確認するために、カサヴァトゥ(Kathāvatthu)と呼ばれる評議会の中で本を遵守しました。この本は23章で構成され、哲学的な問題についてさまざまな宗派が抱く異端的な見解の議論(kathā)と反論の集まりです。それはアビドハマ・ピシャカの7冊の書物のうちの5番目です。評議会のメンバーはまた、Buddhaの教義に対する認可の王立印章を与え、それをVibhajjavāda、分析の教義と命名した。それは承認されたTheravādaの教義と同一です。このDhammaアセンブリの最も重要な成果の1つと、何世紀にもわたって実を結ぶことの1つは、仏教のDhammaとVinayaに精通していて、それを教えてくれる僧侶を送り出したことでした9つの異なる国でこれらのDhammadūtaの修道士には、カシミールとガンダラに行った敬虔なMajjhantika Theraが含まれていました。彼はダムマを説き、そこに修道士の勲章を授かるよう求められた。ヨハカ・ダハマラキヒタ神父は、アッパー・アパランタカ(グジャラート州北部、カッチャワール州、クッチ族、シンド州)に派遣されました。この村では、マハーデヴァ神父(現代マイソール)がマハデカマ皇帝(近代マイソール)に、長老ラッキータ・テラがインドの南部カナーラに派遣されました。

尊敬できるマハラヒヒタ・テラは、ヨナカ・ロカ(ロワイヤン、バクトリアン、ギリシャの国)に行きました。マハジマ・テラは、ヒマラヤ(ヒマラヤに隣接する場所)に行きました。崇高なソーガと礼儀正しいウッタラは、スババブミミャンマー]。伝統的なマヒンダ・テラ、古代イテイア・テラ、由緒あるウティア・テラ、古くからあるサンバラ・テラ、古くからのバダサラ・テラは、タンバパチ(現在のスリランカ)に送られました。これらの修道僧のダムマの使命は成功し、時間の経過とともに大きな成果を上げ、ダムマの贈り物とこれらの土地の民族を崇拝し、文明や文化に影響を与えた。

法律が仏の言葉を通じて広がったことにより、インドは世界の教師であるVisvaguruとして知られるようになりました。

第四審議会

紀元前29年にスリランカのタンバパイで第4回評議会が開催された。 Vaṭṭagāmaṇi王の後援の下で。その召集の主な理由は、旧式のマヒンダの場合と同じように、多くの修道士がTipiṭaka全体を自分たちの記憶に残すことができなくなったことと、すぐ後に彼を追った人々が実現したことです。したがって、執筆の芸術が持っていたように、この時期までには実質的に発展して、釈迦の教えの全身を書き留めておくことが好都合で必要であると考えられました。 Vaṭṭagāmaṇi王は修道士のアイデアを支持し、評議会はTipiṭakaを完全に書くように具体的に開催されました。したがって、本物のダムマが永遠に保存されるように、マハラヒヒタと500人の修道士は仏の言葉を朗読し、ヤシの葉に書いた。この顕著なプロジェクトは、現在のMataleの近くにある古代の地滑りの裂け目に位置するĀlokalenaと呼ばれる洞窟で行われました。したがって、理事会の目的が達成され、本物の法律の保護が保証された。その後、18世紀に、ヴィジャヤラジャシヤ王はこの洞窟で造られた仏のイメージを持っていました。

第五審議会

第5回評議会は、1871年にMindon王であり、Mindon王であり、Mindon王の治世にあった。この会議の主な目的は、仏陀のすべての教えを暗唱し、それらが改変、歪められたか落とされたかを細かく調べることでした。それは、約2千4百人の修道士(2,400人)の同僚の3人の長老、尊敬するマハテラ・ジャアガラ・ビヴァサ、尊敬のナリンダ・ビハド・ハジャ、そしてマハテラ・スマ・ガガルアサミの司祭によって統括されました。彼らの共同の法王告知は5ヶ月間続きました。ミャンマーの司祭たちが、記念碑が完成し、満場一致で承認された後、大理石の七百二十九枚のスラブに、ティピハタカ全体が後世のために刻印されたのもこの評議会の仕事でした。この記念碑的な仕事は、約2千4百人のエウロイト僧侶と各スラブの完成に際し、マンドレーの麓にあるミンドン王のクートドーパゴダの敷地内の特別な場所にある美しいミニチュア「ピタカ」塔に収容された多くの熟練した職人によって行われましたこの「世界で一番大きな本」と呼ばれる丘は今日まで続いています。
第6審議会

第6回評議会は、Mandalayで第5回が開催されてから83年後、ヤンゴンのKaba Aye、以前はRangoonで1954年に呼び出されました。それは、首相、首相、U Nuを率いるビルマ政府が後援した。彼は、最初からダムマ評議会の場所であったインドのSattapānniCaveのような集会場として、地上から建設された巨大な洞窟MahāPāsānaGūhāの建設を許可しました。理事会は、その完了時に1954年5月17日に会合した。先の審議会の場合と同様に、その第一の目的は真のダムマとヴィナヤを肯定し、維持することであった。しかし、それに参加した修道士が8か国から来た限り、それはユニークでした。これらの2500人のTheravāda修道士は、ミャンマー、カンボジア、インド、ラオス、ネパール、スリランカ、タイ、ベトナムから来ました。晩年のマハシ・サヤドーは、すべての人に学んだと申し分なく答えた尊敬のバダンタ・ヴィッシャルタサバラ・ダ・タミハダカダラ・ダハマブハ・ガガリカの法王について、必要な質問をするという貴重な任務に任命されました。この協議会が会合する時までに、参加したすべての国は、インドを除いて、ネイティブスクリプトにレンダリングされたPāliTipiṭakaを持っていました。

ダムマ聖書の伝統的伝記は2年間かけて行われ、その間にティピオタカとそれに関連するすべての文章が熟考されて熟考されました。発見された相違点はすべて記録され、必要な修正が加えられ、すべてのバージョンが照合されました。幸いにも、テキストの内容に大きな違いはないことが判明しました。最後に、評議会が正式に承認した後、ティピハタカと解説のすべての巻は、現代の印刷機で印刷するための準備が整えられ、ミャンマー(ビルマ語)の脚本に掲載されました。この顕著な成果は、2500人の修道士と多数の人々の献身的な努力によって可能になった。彼らの仕事は1956年5月に終わり、主がパリニッバナに着いてから2年半が経過しました。この協議会の活動は、仏教界全体からの代表者のユニークな成果でした。それが生産することになったTipiṭakaのバージョンは、ゴタマ・ブッダの初期の教えとそれまでの最も権威ある描写に当てはまると認められています。

SixthSaṅgāyanaの後に印刷された巻は、ミャンマーの脚本に印刷されていた。ヴィパッサナ・リサーチ・インスティテュートは、インドの人々にその冊子を提供するために、1990年にデーバナガリのAṭṭhakathāsとṭikasでTipiṭakaを印刷するプロジェクトを開始しました。

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pPFabRaQI-0
3 HOURS of the Best Traditional Japanese Music - Relaxing Music for Stress Relief and Healing
RELAX YOUR MIND
Published on Mar 29, 2014
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Track 21 “Reiki Music Vol.2″ performed by Ajad (1:29:17 - 1:39:11)

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48) Classical Javanese

48) Klasik Jawa

2632 Sat 26 May PESAWAT

Awakened One With Awareness Buddha’s Teachings in 5 Words
Tansah Tansah Sukses!

Kanggo panjelasan lengkap

Deleng:
Wawasan Analisa Net - Tes Riset lan Praktek Online Tiongkok lan berita
Pandhuan sing gegandhengan liwat http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org ing 105
LANGUAGES klasik
Saka:
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

Translate this Google Translation in your mother tongue using
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Iku PESAN Sampeyan

Email:
buddhasaid2us@gmail.com

http://www.palicanon.org/
Pali Canon Online

Tembung asli Buddha
Asal saka Canon Pali

Dene
para bhikkhu muni: “Kanca-kanca, aku krungu lan nampa iki saka lambene
Gusti: iki Dhamma, iki disiplin, iki pandhuan Guru”, mula, bhikkhu,
sampeyan kudu ora setuju utawa ora setuju
tembung. Banjur,
tanpa setuju utawa ora setuju, tembung lan ekspresi kasebut kudu
kasebut kanthi teliti lan dibandhingake karo Suttas lan dideleng ing
cahya disiplin kasebut.
Yen
padha, ing comparison lan review, ditemokake ora salaras karo Suttas
utawa disiplin, kesimpulan kudu: “Bener iki ora tembung Sang Buddha, wis
salah dimakruhi dening biarawan iki”, lan masalah
kudu ditolak. Nanging ing ngendi comparison lan review kasebut ditemokake kanggo
salaras karo Suttas utawa disiplin, kesimpulan kudu: “Bener iki tembung
Sang Buddha, wis bener dimangerteni dening biarawan iki.”

- DN 16 Mahāparinibbāna Sutta - The Passing Great, Pungkasan Budha
Ajaran asli Gotama Buddha wis dilindhungi lan diturunake kanggo kita lan ditemokake ing Tipiṭaka. Tembung Pali, ‘Tipiṭaka’, tegesé ‘bak telu’ (ti = telung + piṭaka = koleksi tulisan suci). Kabeh ajaran Buddha dipérang dadi telung bagean.

1. Siswa kapisan dikenal minangka Piṭaka Vinaya lan ngemot kabeh aturan sing Buddha ditetepake kanggo biarawan lan banthang.
2. Bagéyan liya diarani Suttaṅta Piṭaka lan isi Wacana.
3. Bagian katelu dikenal minangka Piata Satriya lan dumadi saka ajaran Buddha-psikologis.

Dikawruhi,
yen saben Sang Buddha menehi wacana marang para murid sing ditahbisake
utawa para pengikut utawa nyatakake aturan monastik sajrone pidhato
patang puluh lima taun, para bhikkhu sing setia lan sinau, banjur saiki
bakal langsung tumindak marang ajaran
tembung kanggo tembung ing memori. Mangkene pangandikane Sang Buddha ditetepake sacara akurat lan sajrone kudu dilulusake saka guru menyang murid. Saperangan
biksu sing krungu pandhita Budha dirungokake yaiku Para Arahan, lan
kanthi definisi, ‘murni sing bebas saka hawa nafsu, gerah lan khayalan
lan mulane, ora ana sing bisa nahan, teguh tembung Budha.
Kanthi mangkono, dheweke njamin yen ajaran Sang Buddha bakal ditetepake kanthi setya tumrap generasi salajengipun.

Malah
para bhikkhu sing ora ditemtokake sing durung ngrampungake Arahantahood
nanging wis tekan telung tahap tahapan kesucian lan nduweni kuwat,
kenangan sing retentif uga bisa ngelingi tembung apa sing diucapake
dening Sang Buddha lan bisa dadi penjaga sing pantes kanggo ajaran
Buddha.
Salah sijining biyung kasebut yaiku Ānanda, petugas milih lan kanca tetep Sang Buddha sajrone rong puluh lima taun nyawa. Ānanda pancen pinter lan nduweni kemampuan kanggo ngelingi apa wae sing diduweni. Muga-muga
mungkasi yen Sang Buddha tansah nyaritakake kabeh wacana marang dheweke
lan sanajan dheweke durung ana Arahanta, dheweke sengaja setya paring
pangandika marang kabeh khutbah Sang Buddha sing dheweke njujug para
bhikkhu, bhikkhuni lan para pengikut.
Upaya gabungan para biksu-santri sing wiyar lan sing dikarepake bisa
nyebabake Dhamma lan Vinaya, kaya sing didhawuhake dening Sang Buddha
kanggo dipelihara ing negara asliné.

Pali Tipiṭaka lan literatur bersekutu sing ana minangka asil panemuan Buddha babagan dalan luhur lan mulya saka Dhamma murni. Path iki nyedhiyani kabeh wong sing ngetutake kanggo nyedhiyakake urip tentrem lan bahagia. Pancen,
ing jaman saiki lan jaman iki kita becike nduweni ajaran-ajaran kang
tulus Sang Buddha dipelihara kanggo para generasi sing bakal teka liwat
upaya-upaya sing ditindakake lan ditindakake dening para murid sing
ditahbiskan nganti umure.
Sang
Buddha wis ngandika marang murid-murid kasebut yen nalika dheweke ora
ana ing antarane dheweke, yen penting yen Saṅgha kudu digabung kanggo
tujuan bebarengan nyritakake Dhamma, sabenere dheweke ngajar.
Sasuwene
pandhidhikan iki, Sesepuh kapindho kanthi sengaja nyebut dewan lan
kanthi sistematis mrintahake kabeh wacana Buddha lan aturan monastik lan
banjur nyritakake tembung kasebut ing ukara ing konser.

Ajaran sing ana ing Tipiṭaka uga dikenal minangka Doktrin Para Tuwa [Theravāda]. Dhiskusi iki nomer sawetara atus lan wis mesthi wis diwaca tembung kanggo tembung wiwit Dhéwan Pertama diselenggarakaké. Ing
pungkasane, luwih akeh dewan wis disebut kanggo sawetara alasan,
nanging saben-saben awak kabeh ajaran Sang Buddha wis diwaca dening
peserta Saṅgha, kanthi konser lan tembung kanggo tembung.
Déwan
pisanan dumadi telung sasi sawisé dianugerahaké Mahåparinibbāṇa lan
diikuti déning lima sing luwih gedhé, loro sing diadili ing abad kaping
19 lan kaping rongpuluh.
Kathah
recitan ingkang dipunlampahi para biarawan ing sedaya Konsili Dhamma
punika dipunkenal minangka ‘Dhamma Saṅgītis’, Dhamma Recitations.
Wong-wong
mau ditetepake amarga dhéwéké dhisikan ing Dhéwan Dhamma Pertama,
nalika kabeh Ajaran kasebut diandharaké dhisik déning Penatua Saṅgha lan
banjur ngrayakaké manèh ing paduan suara déning para bhikkhu ing
sidang.
Riwayat kasebut dianggep wis asli, nalika lan nalika, wis disetujui kanthi biji dening anggota Dewan. Apa sing diarani minangka Sajarah ringkes saka Enam Dewan.

Dhéwan Pertama

Raja Ajātasattu disponsori Dhéwan Pertama. Bab iki diselenggarakake ing taun 544 SM. ing Guwa Sattapaāīī sing ana ing njaba Rājagaha telung sasi sawisé Buddha tilar donya. Sawijining akun rinci saka patemon sajarah iki bisa ditemokake ing Cūllavagga saka Vinaya Piṭaka. Miturut
cathetan kasebut kedadeyan sing nimbulaké Elder Mahākassapa nimbali
patemon iki yaiku ngrungokake ucapan sing nyatakake babagan aturan sing
ketat kanggo para biarawan.
Iki kedadeyan. Subhadda,
mantan tukang cukur, sing wis ditetepake larang ing urip, sawisé krungu
yen Sang Buddha wis kadaluwarsa, nyritakake kekeselene amarga kudu
mematuhi kabeh aturan para bhikkhu kang ditetepake dening Buddha.
Kathah bhikkhu nuwuhake piwulangipun Sang Buddha lan sanget sedhih. Nanging, Penatua Mahkkapaapa krungu Subhadda ngomong: ‘Cukup Reverences sampeyan, aja grieve, aja lament. Kita uga nyingkirake recluse gedhe (Buddha). Kita
tormented nalika ngandika, ‘iki diijini sampeyan, iki ora diijini
sampeyan’ nanging saiki kita bakal bisa nindakake kaya kita lan kita ora
kudu apa sing kita ora seneng ‘’.
Mahākassapa
kaget amarga remene lan wedi yen Dhamma lan Vinaya bisa uga rusak lan
ora bisa urip kanthi utuh yen para bhikkhu liyane kudu nindakake kaya
Subhadda lan nerangake aturan Dhamma lan Vinaya kaya sing dikarepake.
Kanggo ngindhari iki, dheweke mutusake supaya Dhamma kudu dilestarekake lan dilindhungi. Kanggo mbandhingake sawise pikantuk persetujuan Saṅgha, dheweke nimbali dhéwan limang atus Aran. Ānanda kedah dipunlampahi ing ngandap punika piyambakipun nampi Arahanthood nalika wekdal konsili dipunwontenaken. Kanthi presiding Penatua Mahākassapa, para biarawan Aragatsenthan ngetutake wolung atus nalika mangsa udan. Wangsulan
sing pisanan Mahåkassapa kanggo pitakonan pakar paling anyar ing Vinaya
dina iki, Upacara Mulya kanggo katrangan saka aturan monastik.
Biksu iki uga nduweni wewenang kanggo tugas minangka Buddha wis mulang marang kabeh Vinaya piyambak. Kaping
sepisan, para penatua Mahākassapa nyuwun dhumateng dhèwèké sacara
spesifik babagan putusan ing pelanggaran pertama [pārājika], manawa ing
bab kasebut, acara, individu kasebut, proklamasi, pengulangan
proklamasi, pelanggaran lan kasus non-
pelanggaran. Upāli mènèhi jawaban sing akèh lan nyukupi lan ucapané ditemoni kanthi persetujuan tanpa banding saka Sangha. Dadi, Vinaya resmi disetujoni.

Sang
Elder Mahākassapa banjur narik kawigaten marang Ānanda sajrone keahlian
kang pinunjul ing kabeh perkara sing ana hubungane karo Dhamma.
Apamaneh, ing wayah wengi sadurunge Dewan Pertemuan ketemu, Ānanda wis ngrampungake Arahantship lan gabung marang Dewan. Mulane,
para Penatua Mahākassapa bisa nyuwun pitulung banget marang dheweke
kanthi kapercayan lengkap babagan Dhamma kanthi rujukan khusus marang
khotbah-khotbah Buddha.
Interogasi
iki ing Dhamma nyoba kanggo verifikasi panggonan ngendi kabeh wacana
diwartakake pisanan lan wong sing padha ditangani.
Ānanda, mbiyantu ngeling-eling kasunyatane kanthi bener lan supaya Wacana ketemu kanthi persetujuan tanpa bandinge Sang Saṅgha. Dewan
pisanan uga menehi segel resmi persetujuan kanggo penutupan bab aturan
cilik lan kurang, lan persetujuan kanggo observance.
Beksan
njupuk pitung sasi kanggo nyritakake kabeh saka Vinaya lan Dhamma lan
para biarawan sing cukup diwenehi pengeling-eling sing apik sing
disimpen kabeh sing wis diwaca.
Dhéwan pisanan bersejarah iki dikenal minangka Paasiasatika amarga lima ratus arahat sing diparagakaké sacara langsung.

Dewan kapindho

Dewan
kapindho kasebut diarani saratus taun sawise Parinibbāna Buddha kanggo
ngatasi sengketa sing serius babagan ’sepuluh poin’.
Iki minangka referensi kanggo sawetara biksu ngeculake aturan sepuluh suntingan. padha diwenehi:

1. Nyimpen uyah ing sungu.
2. Mangan sawise tengah dina.
3. Mangan sepisan banjur bali menyang desa kanggo sedekah.
4. Nyekeli Uposatha Upacara karo para padman paduka ing wilayah sing padha.
5. Nglakoni aksi resmi nalika pasamuan ora lengkap.
6. Nemtokake praktek tartamtu amarga wis rampung dening tutor utawa guru.
7. Mangan susu sing ora nguntungke sawisé mangan.
8. Njupuk ngombe kuwat sadurunge wis fermented.
9. Nggunakake karpet sing ora ukuran sing tepat.
10. Nggunakake emas lan salaka.

Kesalahan sing dadi masalah lan nyebabake kontroversi utama minangka mecah aturan kasebut dianggep mbantah ajaran asli Buddha. Raja Kāḷāsoka minangka patron Dhéwan Kedua lan patemon ing Vesāli amarga kahanan ing ngisor iki. Siji
dina, nalika ngunjungi Kala Mahāvana ing Veāsli, Yasa Maharaja ngerteni
yen klompok gedhe biarawan sing dikenal kanthi jeneng Vajjians
nglanggar aturan sing nglarang monk sing nampa emas lan perak kanthi
maca kanthi langsung saka para punggawa.
Dheweke
langsung ngritik perilaku lan respon kasebut kanggo menehi dhuwit saka
hasil ilegal kanthi pangarep-arep supaya dheweke bisa menang.
Para Elder Yasa, nanging nolak lan ngaku prilaku. Para bhiksu banjur nulak dheweke kanthi tindakan rekonsiliasi resmi, sing nyalahake dheweke kanthi nyalahake para pengrajin. Para
Elder Yasa uga ngrasaake panjaluk marang para devotees, nanging ing
wektu sing padha, dheweke ngakoni yen para biarawan Vijjian wis kelakon
kanthi ngutuk putusan Buddha ing larangan nglawan utawa nrima emas lan
perak.
Wong-wong
awam langsung nyatakake dhukungan marang Yasa Sepisan lan ngumumake
para bhikkhu Vajjian marang wong sing nasar lan bidah, nyatake yen Yasa
sing sejatine yaiku bhikkhu sejati lan putra Sākyan.
Kabeh liyane ora rahib, ora anak lanang Sākian ‘.

Biyungé
Vajjian sing mbebas lan ora mratobat banjur dipindahaké kanggo
nggantungaké Thera Venerable Yasa tanpa disetujoni sisa Saṅgha nalika
mangerténi asil saka patemoné karo para punggawa liyané.
Para
Elder Yasa, nanging ngluwari anggone sinau lan ngupayakake dhukungan
saka para biarawan ing panggon liya, sing njunjung pikirane orthodox ing
Vinaya.
Sekawan
puluh wolung pendhukung hutan saka Pāvā lan wolung wolung biarawan saka
wilayah Avanti sing padha karo pandangan sing padha, mènèhi bantuan
marang mriksa korupsi saka Vinaya.
Kabeh
padha mutusake arep menyang Soreyya kanggo takon marang Venerable
Revata minangka dheweke minangka bhikkhu sing paling dihormati lan pakar
ing Dhamma lan Vinaya.
Sanalika
para biksu Vajjian ngerti iki, dheweke uga ngupaya dhukungan saka
Venerable Revata kanthi menehi dhuwit papat kasebut sing ditolak.
Beksan kasebut banjur nggunakake cara sing padha kanggo menang liwat kawruh Venerable Revata, Uttara sing Mulihake. Ing
wiwitan, dheweke uga nulak tawaran kasebut, nanging dheweke kanthi
temenan ngidini dheweke nampi tawaran kasebut, ngendikan yen yen
syarat-syarat sing ditrapake kanggo Buddha ora ditampa dening dheweke,
Ānanda bakal ditampa dening dheweke lan bakal setuju.
Uttara ngganti pikiran lan nampa syarat-syarat. Panjenenganipun
dipunparingi panjaluk piyambakipun kanggé minggah lan nyengkuyung
Revata Venerable kanggé ngandharaken bilih wiku Vajjian punika minangka
pamicara Kebenaran lan para Dhamma.
The Venerable Revata nyumurupi ruse lan ora gelem ndhukung. Dheweke banjur mecat Uttara. Kanggo
ngrampungake prakara kasebut saklawasé lan kanggo kabeh, Vendhata
Revata menehi saran yen dewan kudu diarani ing Vāḷikārāma kanthi awake
dhewe njaluk pitakon babagan sepuluh tumindak sing paling tuwa saka para
pinitu ing jaman iki, yaiku Thera Sabbjakāmi.
Sawise
mratelakake panemume, dheweke bakal dirungokake dening panitia saka
wolung biarawan, lan kesetiane mutusake dening pemungutan suara.
Beksan
sing wolung dipanggil ngadili perkara kasebut yakuwi Venerables
Sabbakāmi, saḷha, Khujjasobhita lan Vāsabhagāmika, saka Wétan lan papat
wiku saka Kulon, Venerables Revata, Sambhuta-Sāṇavāsī, Yasa lan Sumana.
Banjur padha debat perkara kasebut karo Revata minangka peneliti lan sabbakāmī njawab pitakonan. Sawise debat dirungu yen wolung wolung mutusake ngadhepi biksu Vajjian lan putusane sing diumumake kanggo sidang. Sawise
pitung atus wiku ngucapake Dhamma lan Vinaya lan recital iki banjur
dikenal minangka Sattasatī amarga pitung atus wiku wis ngetutake.
Déwan bersejarah iki uga disebut, Yasatthera Sangīti amarga peran utama Yasa sing diputer lan mantep kanggo ngayomi Vinaya. Para
bhikkhu Vajjian sacara mutlak ora gelem nampi kaputusan Dewan kasebut
lan mratelakake kanthi jeneng dewan dewan ana sing duwe jeneng
Mahāsaṅgiti.

Dhéwan Katelu

Déwan Ketiga diselenggarakaké utamané kanggo nyingkiraké Saṅgha korupsi lan biksu palsu sing ngetokake pandangan sesat. Dewan iki diselenggarakaké ing taun 326 SM. Ing Asokrāma ing Paṭaliputta ing sangisoré patunggalan Kaisar Asoka. Dhèwèké dipimpin déning Elder Moggaliputta Tissa lan salah siji sèwu biksu ngiringi Dewan iki. Tradhisi kasebut yen Asoka wis menangaké dhamparé kanthi nyedhot getih
sakabèhing putrané bapakné nylametaké adhiné dhéwé, Tissa Kumāra sing
pungkasané ditahbisaké lan ngrebut Arahal.

Asoka dipungambaraken ing taun kalih atus lan wolulas sasampunipun Mahaparinibbāna Buddha. Ing
wiwitan, dheweke mung mbayar penghormatan marang Dhamma lan Saṅgha lan
uga ndhukung anggota sekte-sekte agama kaya bapake wis rampung
sadurunge.
Nanging, kabeh iki diganti nalika dheweke ketemu karo Nigrodha wong anyar sing wicaksana, sing ngundhangake Appamāda-vagga. Sasampunipun
piyambakipun mandhegani ndhukung kelompok religius sanèsipun lan
kapinteran lan pengabdianipun dhumateng Dhamma ingkang langkung padhang.
Dheweke
nggunakake kekayaan gedhe kanggo mbangun, wis ngandika, wolung puluh
papat ewu pagoda lan vihāras lan kanggo mbiyantu ndhukung para bhikkhu
kanthi papat requisites.
Putra Mahinda lan putriné Saṅghamittā ditahbiskan lan ngakoni ing Saṅgha. Pungkasanipun, kemurahanipun nyebabaken persoalan ingkang serius ing Saṅgha. Ing
wektu iki, dhèwèké nyusup déning akèh wong sing ora pantes, nyatakaké
pandangan bidaté lan sing kasedhiya ing urutan amarga dhukungan saka
Kaisar sing wigati lan kurban dhuwit pangan, sandhangan, papan
perlindungan lan obat-obatan.
Kathah
tiyang ingkang boten pitados, tamak ingkang gadhah pamanggih ingkang
salah ngupados kangge gabung, nanging dipun anggep mboten cocok kangge
pentahbisan.
Senadyan
mangkono, dheweke nyekel kesempatan kanggo ngeksploitasi kaimaman
Kaisar kanggo tujuane dhewe lan jubah lan banjur entuk urutan kasebut
tanpa kudu ditindakake kanthi bener.
Akibaté, ngurmati Saṅgha ilang. Nalika iku, para biarawan asli ora nate nyetujoni pemurnian utawa
upacara Uposatha sing diresiki ing perusahaan saka para bhikkhu sing
rasis.

Nalika
Kaisar krungu bab iki, dheweke kepengin mbenerake kahanan kasebut lan
ngirim salah sawijining menteri marang para biarawan kanthi prentah
supaya dheweke nganakake upacara kasebut.
Nanging, Kaisar wis menehi dhuwit ora ana pesenan tartamtu kanggo apa tegese digunakake kanggo nindakake perintah. Para bhiksu gelem nampik lan njaga upacara ing perusahaan sing palsu lan ‘maling’ kanca [themyasinivāsaka]. Ing
desperation menteri duka maju mudhun garis sami santup lan drawing
pedhang, beheaded kabeh wong siji sawise liyane nganti dheweke teka ing
sadhuwure King, Tissa sing wis ditahbiskan.
Para
menteri nuwuh-ewu mandheg nyembelis lan mlayu ing bale lan nglapurake
maneh marang Kaisar Asoka kanthi sedhih banget lan diganggu dening apa
sing kedadeyan lan nyalahake awake dhewe kanggo pembunuhan.
Dheweke nggoleki penasehat Thera Moggaliputta Tissa. Panjenenganipun
ngajokaken bilih rahib-rahabi sesatipun dipunsingkiraken saking dhawuh
punika lan Konsili kaping tiga dipunwiwiti kanthi langsung.
Dadi ing taun pitulas taun pamarintahan Kaisar, Dhéwan Dhéwan diarani. Thera
Moggaliputta Tissa ngetokake prosesi lan milih satunggal ewu para
bhikkhu saka 60.000 peserta kanggo recitation tradisional Dhamma lan
Vinaya, sing dilakoni nganti sembilan sasi.
Kaisar, piyambakipun nyuwun para biarawan saka sawetara biara babagan ajaran Sang Buddha. Wong-wong sing nyelametake wong sing salah weruh banjur diusir saka Saṅgha langsung. Kanthi cara iki, Bhikkhu Saṅgha dibersihake saka para bidah lan bogus bhikkhu.
Dhéwan iki ngrambah sawetara perkara penting uga. Penatua
Moggaliputta Tissa, supaya ngremehake sakehing ramalan lan njamin
supaya Dhamma tetep murni, klebu sawijining buku nalika dewan kasebut
disebut Kathāvatthu.
Buku
iki kasusun saka rong puluh telu bab, lan minangka kumpulan diskusi
(kathah) lan panyuraaran saka pandangan bidah sing dianut déning
saperangan sekte babagan prakara-prakara filosofis.
Iki minangka kalima saka pitu saka buku pitu Abhidhamma Piṭaka. Para
anggota Dewan uga mènèhi sebutan persetujuan direktur kanggo doktrin
Sang Buddha, nyatakake Vibhajjavāda, Doktrin Analisis.
Iku identik karo doktrin Theravāda sing disetujoni. Salah
sijine prestasi sing paling penting saka Dhamma iki lan salah siji sing
bakal menehi woh kanggo abad kedadeyan, yaiku Kaisar kang ngirimake
para bhikkhu, uga ahli agama Buddha ing Dhamma lan Vinaya sing bisa maca
kabeh kasebut kanthi ati,
ing sangang negara. Beksan Dhammadūta kalebu Thera Majjhantika sing mulih menyang Kashmir lan Gandhāra. Dhèwèké dijaluk kanggo martakaké Dhamma lan ngedegaké beksan ing kono. Mahādeva
sing ditresnani dikirim menyang Mahinsakamaṇḍaḷa (modern Mysore) lan
Thera Rakkhita Venerable dikirim menyang Vanavāsī (Kanara lor ing kidul
India.) Yonaka Dhammarakkhita Thera dikirim menyang Upper Aparantaka
(Gujarat, Kathiawar, Kutch, lan Sindh)
.
Thera
Mahārakkhita sing mulih diterusake menyang Yonaka-loka (tanah wong
lonie, Bactrians lan Yunani.) Thera Majjhima sing mulih tindak menyang
Himavanta (panggonan sing dumunung ing Himalaya.) Soekarno lan Venerable
Uttara sing dikarepake dikirim menyang Suvaṇṇhhmi [saiki
Myanmar]. Mahinda
Thera Venerable, Thera Ittiya Thera, Thera Uttiya Thera, Sambala Thera
Venerable lan Thera Bhaddasāla Venerable sing dikirim menyang Tambapaṇi
(saiki Sri Lanka).
Misi Dhamma para biarawan ini berhasil dan melahirkan woh-wohan gedhe
sajrone waktune lan lunga kanthi cara sing akeh kanggo nyemangati
bangsa-bangsa kasebut karo hadiah Dhamma lan mengaruhi peradaban lan
kabudayan.

Kanthi nyebarake Dhamma liwat tembung-tembung Buddha, ing wektu iku India bakal dikenal minangka Visvaguru, guru ing donya.

Dewan kaempat

Dewan Keempat dianakaké ing Tambapaṇi [Sri Lanka] ing 29 SM. ing sangisoré Raja Vaṭṭagāmaṇi. Alasan
utamane kanggo konvènsi iki yaiku kesadaran sing saiki ora mungkin
kanggo mayoritas biksu kanggo nahan kabeh Tipiṭaka ing pengeling-elingé
sing kaya mengkono mau kanggo Mahinda Venerable lan sing ngetutaké manèh
sasampunipun.
Mulane,
minangka seni penulisan, ing wektu iki dikembangake kanthi substansial,
iki dianggep pantes lan kudu duwe kabeh awak ajaran Buddha ditulis
mudhun.
Raja Vaṭṭagāmaṇi nyengkuyung ide bhikkhu lan dewan diselenggaraake khusus kanggo ngurangi Tipiṭaka sajrone nulis. Mulane,
supaya Dhamma asli bisa ditindakake, Maharaja Mulya lan lima ratus wiku
ngucapake kata-kata Buddha lan banjur nulis ing godhong palem.
Proyek
sing luar biasa iki dumadi ing sawijining gua sing disebut, ing Āloka
lena, dumunung ing cedhak landlangan kuno cedhak karo saiki Matale.
Mangkono tujuan Dewan wis dirayakake lan pengawetan nalika nulis Dhamma asli dipertahankan. Banjur, ing abad kaping wolulas, Raja Vijayarājasīha nggambarake gambar Sang Buddha sing digawe ing gua iki.

Dewan Kelima

Dewan Kelima digelar ing Māndalay, Myanmar saiki dikenal minangka Myanmar ing taun 1871 A.D. ing masa pamaréntahan Raja Mindon. Tujuan
utama pertemuan iki yaiku kanggo maca kabeh ajaran Sang Buddha lan
menguji mereka secara rinci untuk melihat apakah ada di antaranya telah
diubah, terdistorsi, atau diganggu.
Iki
dipimpin déning telu sing pinituwa, Mahāther Venerable, Jāgarābhivaṃsa,
Narindābhidhaja, lan Mahendra Sumaṅgalasāmi sing ana ing perusahaan
sing cacahé ana rong èwu patang atus (2,400).
Dhamma gabungan kasebut berlangsung suwene limang sasi. Iku
uga karya dewan iki kanggo nyebabake kabeh Tipiṭaka supaya bisa ditulis
ing salawas-lawase ing wolung atus sangang marmer ing aksara Myanmar
sawise pemungutanane wis rampung lan disetujoni kanthi bulat.
Tugas
monumèn iki ditindakake dening sawetara wolung prakara patang atus
beksan lan para pengrajin terampil sing sawisé rampung saben papan wis
padha manggon ing pagoda miniature ‘piṭaka’ ing sawijining situs khusus
ing latar Pagoda Kuthodaw Raja Mindon ing sikil Māndalay
Gunung kasebut minangka buku paling gedhé ing donya, tegese dina iki.

Dewan Keenam

Dewan
Keenam diarani Kaba Aye ing Yangon, sadurunge Rangoon taun 1954, wolung
puluh telu taun sawisé kalima ditahan ing Mandalay.
Iki disponsori déning Pamaréntah Burma sing dipimpin déning Perdhana Mentri, U Nu paling dihormati. Panjenenganipun
sah construction saka Maha Pāsāna Guha, guwa gedhe sing dibangun saka
lemah munggah, kanggo ngawula minangka papan kanggo kumpule akeh kaya
India kang Sattapānni Cave - situs Dewan Dhamma pisanan.
Sawise
rampung, Dewan ketemu tanggal 17 Mei, 1954. Kaya ing kasus dewan-dewan
sadurunge, tujuan pisanane yaiku nguatake lan ngamanake Dhamma lan
Vinaya sing asli.
Ananging, ing wekdal punika, para bhikkhu sing nyambut gawe kasebut teka saka wolung negara. Iki loro ewu limang atus kawruh Theravāda teka saka Myanmar, Kamboja, India, Laos, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand lan Vietnam. Ing
pungkasan Venerable Mahāsi Sayadaw dados tugas mulya saka takon
pitakonan sing dibutuhake bab Dhamma saka Venerable Bhadanta
Vicittasārābhivaṃsa Tipiṭakadhara Dhammabhaṇḍāgārika sing mangsuli kabeh
mau learnedly lan satisfactorily.
Wektu dewan iki ketemu, kabeh negara sing gabung karo Pāli Tipiṭaka dipasrahake dadi naskah asli, kajaba India.

Pembacaan
tradisional Dhamma Kitab Suci njupuk rong taun nalika Tipiṭaka lan
literatur bersekutu ing kabeh naskah kasebut diteliti kanthi teliti.
Sembarang beda sing ditemokake dicathet, koreksi sing dibutuhake digawe lan kabeh versi kasebut banjur diklompokake. Apamaneh, ditemokake yen ora ana prabédan ing isi samubarang teks. Pungkasan,
sasampunipun Konsili resmi nyatakaken, kathah volume Tipiṭaka lan
Tafsiranipun dipunsiapaken kanggé nyetak ing mesin modern lan
dipunterbitaken ing aksara Myanmar (Burma).
Pencapaian iki bisa ditindakake liwat upaya sing darmabakti saka rong ewu limang atus wiku lan akeh wong awam. Karyane rampung ing Mei 1956, rong milen taun sawisé Gusti nampi Parinibbāna. Karya majelis iki minangka prestasi unik saka wakil saka kabeh donya Buddha. Versi Ki Tipiṭaka sing diprodhuksi kanggo ngasilake wis diakoni
minangka ajaran kanggo ajaran murni saka Gotama Budha lan nyanyian
paling akurat kasebut.

Jumlah volume sing dicithak sawise Sixth Saṅgāyana dicithak ing aksara Myanmar. Kanggo
nggawe jilid menyang wong India, Vipassana Research Institute miwiti
proyek kanggo nyetak Tipiṭaka karo Aṭṭhakathās lan ṭikas ing Devanagari
ing taun 1990.

https://www.youtube.com/watch…
Degung Sundanese Music of West Java
Andrea Johnson
Published on Dec 3, 2013
Artists: Suara Parahiangan. Album: Degung-Sabilulungan: Sundanese Music
of West Java, Vol. 2. Sounds of the World (1999). Track list below.
Enjoy the music!

[0:00] Sabilulungan
[5:38] Karedok Leunca
[11:35] Colenak
[17:54] Dikantun
[24:02] Ayun Ambing
[29:40] Ngantosan
[36:00] Karatangan Pahlawan
[42:18] Bandung
[48:11] Pemuda Indonesia
[53:59] Mojang Desa
Category
Music


youtube.com
An Evening of Javanese Music and Dance April 26, 2009 Kenan Rehearsal Hall at University of North…



49) Classical Kannada

49) ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ

2632 ಸತ್ 26 ಮೇ ಲೆಸನ್

5 ವರ್ಡ್ಸ್ನಲ್ಲಿ ಬುದ್ಧನ ಬೋಧನೆಗಳ ಜಾಗೃತಿ ಮೂಡಿಸಿದವರು
ಯಾವಾಗಲೂ ಒಳ್ಳೇ ಮನಸ್ಸು ಮಾಡಿರಿ!

ಪೂರ್ಣ ವಿವರಣೆಗಾಗಿ

ದಯವಿಟ್ಟು ಭೇಟಿ ನೀಡಿ:
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ಪ್ರಾಕ್ಟೀಸ್ ವಿಶ್ವವಿದ್ಯಾಲಯ ಮತ್ತು ಸಂಬಂಧಿತ ನ್ಯೂಸ್
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org ಮೂಲಕ 105 ಕ್ಲಾಸ್ಷಲ್ ಭಾಷೆಗಳು
ಇಂದ:
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

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ಅದು ನಿಮ್ಮ ಪಾಠ

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buddhasaid2us@gmail.com

http://www.palicanon.org/
ಪಾಲಿ ಕ್ಯಾನನ್ ಆನ್ಲೈನ್

ಬುದ್ಧನ ಮೂಲ ಪದಗಳು
ಪಾಲಿ ಕ್ಯಾನನ್ ಮೂಲ

“ಓ
ದೇವರೇ, ನಾನು ಕೇಳಿದೆ ಮತ್ತು ಲಾರ್ಡ್ಸ್ ಸ್ವಂತ ತುಟಿಗಳಿಂದ ಸ್ವೀಕರಿಸಿದ್ದೇನೆ: ಇದು
ಧಮ್ಮ ಆಗಿದೆ, ಇದು ಶಿಸ್ತು, ಇದು ಮಾಸ್ಟರ್ಸ್ ಬೋಧನೆ”, ನಂತರ, ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು, ನೀವು
ಸಮ್ಮತಿಸಬಾರದು ಅಥವಾ ನಿರಾಕರಿಸಬಾರದು
ಪದಗಳು. ನಂತರ,
ಅನುಮೋದನೆ ಅಥವಾ ನಿರಾಕರಿಸದೆ, ಅವರ ಪದಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಅಭಿವ್ಯಕ್ತಿಗಳು ಎಚ್ಚರವಾಗಿರಬೇಕು
ಮತ್ತು ಸೂತಾಗಳೊಂದಿಗೆ ಹೋಲಿಸಬೇಕು ಮತ್ತು ಶಿಸ್ತಿನ ಬೆಳಕಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಪರಿಶೀಲಿಸಬೇಕು.
ಅಂತಹ
ಹೋಲಿಕೆ ಮತ್ತು ಪರಿಶೀಲನೆಯ ಮೇಲೆ ಅವರು ಸುಠಾಸ್ ಅಥವಾ ಶಿಸ್ತುಗಳಿಗೆ
ಅನುಗುಣವಾಗಿಲ್ಲವೆಂದು ಕಂಡುಬಂದರೆ, “ಖಂಡಿತವಾಗಿ ಇದು ಬುದ್ಧನ ಮಾತು ಅಲ್ಲ, ಈ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿ
ಅದನ್ನು ತಪ್ಪಾಗಿ ಅರ್ಥೈಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲಾಗಿದೆ”, ಮತ್ತು ವಿಷಯ
ತಿರಸ್ಕರಿಸಬೇಕು. ಆದರೆ ಅಂತಹ ಹೋಲಿಕೆ ಮತ್ತು ವಿಮರ್ಶೆಗೆ ಸಂಬಂಧಿಸಿದಂತೆ ಅವರು ಸುಠಾಸ್ ಅಥವಾ
ಶಿಸ್ತುಗಳಿಗೆ ಅನುಗುಣವಾಗಿ ಕಂಡುಬರುತ್ತವೆ, ಈ ತೀರ್ಮಾನವು ಹೀಗಿರಲೇಬೇಕು: “ಖಂಡಿತವಾಗಿ
ಇದು ಬುದ್ಧನ ಮಾತು, ಈ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿ ಇದನ್ನು ಸರಿಯಾಗಿ ಅರ್ಥೈಸಲಾಗಿದೆ.”

- ಡಿ.ಎನ್ 16 ಮಹಾಪರಿನಿಬ್ಬಾನಾ ಸೂತಾ - ಗ್ರೇಟ್ ಹಾದುಹೋಗುವ, ಬುದ್ಧನ ಕೊನೆಯ ದಿನಗಳು
ಗೊಟಾಮಾ ಬುದ್ಧನ ಅಧಿಕೃತ ಬೋಧನೆಗಳನ್ನು ಸಂರಕ್ಷಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ ಮತ್ತು ನಮಗೆ ನೀಡಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ ಮತ್ತು ಅವುಗಳನ್ನು ಟಿಪಿತಕದಲ್ಲಿ ಕಾಣಬಹುದು. ಪಾಲಿ ಪದ, ‘ಟಿಪ್ಪತ್ತಾ’, ಅಕ್ಷರಶಃ ‘ಮೂರು ಬುಟ್ಟಿಗಳು’ (ಟೈ = ಮೂರು + ಪಿಟಾಕಾ = ಗ್ರಂಥಗಳ ಸಂಗ್ರಹಗಳು). ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಬುದ್ಧನ ಬೋಧನೆಗಳನ್ನು ಮೂರು ಭಾಗಗಳಾಗಿ ವಿಂಗಡಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ.

1. ಮೊದಲ ಭಾಗವನ್ನು ವಿನ್ಯಾಯ ಪಿತಕ ಎಂದು ಕರೆಯಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ ಮತ್ತು ಇದು ಬುದ್ಧನನ್ನು
ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳಿಗೆ ಹಾಕಿದ ಎಲ್ಲಾ ನಿಯಮಗಳನ್ನು ಒಳಗೊಂಡಿದೆ.
2. ಎರಡನೆಯ ಭಾಗವನ್ನು ಸುಟ್ಟಾಟಾ ಪಿಟಕ ಎಂದು ಕರೆಯಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ ಮತ್ತು ಇದು ಪ್ರವಚನಗಳನ್ನು ಒಳಗೊಂಡಿದೆ.
3. ಮೂರನೆಯ ಭಾಗವನ್ನು ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮ ಪಿತಕ ಎಂದು ಕರೆಯಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ ಮತ್ತು ಬುದ್ಧನ ಮಾನಸಿಕ-ನೈತಿಕ ಬೋಧನೆಗಳನ್ನು ಒಳಗೊಂಡಿದೆ.

ಬುದ್ಧನು
ತನ್ನ ನೇಮಕಗೊಂಡ ಶಿಷ್ಯರಿಗೆ ಅಥವಾ ಅನುಯಾಯಿಗಳು ಅನುಯಾಯಿಗಳು ಅಥವಾ ಅವರ ನಲವತ್ತೈದು
ವರ್ಷದ ಸಚಿವಾಲಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಯ ನಿಯಮವನ್ನು ಸೂಚಿಸಿದಾಗ, ಅವನ ಭಕ್ತರ ಮತ್ತು ಕಲಿತ
ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳ ಆಚರಣೆಯು ತಕ್ಷಣವೇ ಅವನ ಬೋಧನೆಗಳನ್ನು
ಪದದ ನೆನಪಿಗಾಗಿ ಪದ. ಹೀಗಾಗಿ ಬುದ್ಧನ ಮಾತುಗಳು ನಿಖರವಾಗಿ ಸಂರಕ್ಷಿಸಲ್ಪಟ್ಟವು ಮತ್ತು ಶಿಕ್ಷಕರಿಂದ ಶಿಷ್ಯನಿಗೆ ಮೌಖಿಕವಾಗಿ ಕೆಳಗಿಳಿಯುವ ಕಾರಣದಿಂದಾಗಿ. ಬುದ್ಧನು
ವೈಯಕ್ತಿಕವಾಗಿ ಬೋಧಿಸಿದ ಕೆಲವು ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ಅರಾಹಂತರು, ಮತ್ತು ಆದ್ದರಿಂದ
ವ್ಯಾಖ್ಯಾನದಿಂದ, ಉತ್ಸಾಹದಿಂದ, ಅಪ್ರಾಮಾಣಿಕತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಭ್ರಮೆಗಳಿಂದ ಮುಕ್ತರಾಗುತ್ತಾರೆ
ಮತ್ತು ಬುದ್ಧನ ಮಾತನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳುವಲ್ಲಿ ಸಮರ್ಥರಾಗಿದ್ದರು.
ಆದ್ದರಿಂದ ಅವರು ಬುದ್ಧನ ಬೋಧನೆಗಳನ್ನು ಅನುವಂಶಿಕತೆಗಾಗಿ ನಿಷ್ಠೆಯಿಂದ ಸಂರಕ್ಷಿಸಬಹುದೆಂದು ಖಚಿತಪಡಿಸಿದರು.

ಇನ್ನೂ
ಅರಹಂತಹುದ್ದನ್ನು ತಲುಪಿಲ್ಲದಿದ್ದರೂ, ಶಾಂತಿಧ್ವನಿಯ ಮೊದಲ ಮೂರು ಹಂತಗಳನ್ನು
ತಲುಪಿದ್ದ ಮತ್ತು ಬುದ್ಧನು ಬೋಧಿಸಿದನು ಮತ್ತು ಬುದ್ಧನ ಬೋಧನೆಗಳ ಯೋಗ್ಯವಾದ ಪಾಲಕರು
ಎಂದು ಹೇಳಲು ಶಕ್ತಿಯುತ, ಹಿಡಿದಿಟ್ಟುಕೊಳ್ಳುವ ನೆನಪುಗಳನ್ನು ಕೂಡಾ ಪದಗಳಿಗೆ ಮನಸ್ಸಿಗೆ
ಕರೆದೊಯ್ಯುವ ಆ ಭಕ್ತರ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳೂ ಸಹ.
ಅಂತಹ ಒಂದು ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿ ಅವನ ಜೀವನದ ಕೊನೆಯ ಇಪ್ಪತ್ತೈದು ವರ್ಷಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಬುದ್ಧನ ಆಯ್ದ ಅಟೆಂಡೆಂಟ್ ಮತ್ತು ಸ್ಥಿರ ಸಹಯೋಗಿಯಾದ ಆನಾಂಡಾ. ಆನಾಂಡಾ ಅವರು ಹೆಚ್ಚು ಬುದ್ಧಿವಂತರಾಗಿದ್ದರು ಮತ್ತು ಅವರು ಕೇಳಿದ ಯಾವುದನ್ನಾದರೂ ನೆನಪಿಡುವ ಸಾಮರ್ಥ್ಯದೊಂದಿಗೆ ಪ್ರತಿಭಾನ್ವಿತರಾಗಿದ್ದರು. ವಾಸ್ತವವಾಗಿ,
ಬುದ್ಧನು ಯಾವಾಗಲೂ ಅವನ ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಉಪನ್ಯಾಸಗಳನ್ನು ಅವನಿಗೆ ಸಂಬಂಧಿಸಿರುತ್ತಾನೆ ಮತ್ತು
ಅವನು ಇನ್ನೂ ಅರಾಹಂತನಾಗಿದ್ದರೂ, ಅವನು ಉದ್ದೇಶಪೂರ್ವಕವಾಗಿ ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಬುದ್ಧನ
ಧರ್ಮೋಪದೇಶದ ಪದಗಳನ್ನು ನೆನಪಿಗೆ ಬದ್ಧನಾಗಿದ್ದನು, ಅದರಲ್ಲಿ ಅವನು ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು,
ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಅವನ ಅನುಯಾಯಿಗಳ ಅನುಯಾಯಿಗಳಿಗೆ ಆಜ್ಞಾಪಿಸಿದನು.
ಈ ಪ್ರತಿಭಾನ್ವಿತ ಮತ್ತು ಭಕ್ತರ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳ ಸಂಯೋಜಿತ ಪ್ರಯತ್ನಗಳು ಬುದ್ಧರಿಂದ
ಕಲಿಸಿದಂತೆ ಧರ್ಮ ಮತ್ತು ವಿನ್ಯಾಗಳಿಗೆ ಅದರ ಮೂಲ ಸ್ಥಿತಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂರಕ್ಷಿಸಲು
ಸಾಧ್ಯವಾಯಿತು.

ಪಾಲಿ
ಟಿಪ್ಪತ್ತಕ ಮತ್ತು ಅದರ ಸಂಯೋಜಿತ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯವು ಶುದ್ಧ ಧಮ್ಮದ ಉದಾತ್ತ ಮತ್ತು ವಿಮೋಚನೆ
ಮಾರ್ಗವನ್ನು ಬುದ್ಧನ ಶೋಧನೆಯ ಪರಿಣಾಮವಾಗಿ ಅಸ್ತಿತ್ವದಲ್ಲಿದೆ.
ಈ ಮಾರ್ಗವು ಶಾಂತಿಯುತ ಮತ್ತು ಸಂತೋಷದ ಜೀವನವನ್ನು ನಡೆಸಲು ಅದನ್ನು ಅನುಸರಿಸುವ ಎಲ್ಲರನ್ನು ಶಕ್ತಗೊಳಿಸುತ್ತದೆ. ವಾಸ್ತವವಾಗಿ,
ಈ ದಿನ ಮತ್ತು ಯುಗದಲ್ಲಿ ನಾವು ಬುದ್ಧನ ಆಧ್ಯಾತ್ಮಿಕ ಬೋಧನೆಗಳನ್ನು ಭವಿಷ್ಯದ
ಪೀಳಿಗೆಗೆ ಸಂರಕ್ಷಿಸಿದ್ದು, ಅವರ ನೇತೃತ್ವದ ಅನುಯಾಯಿಗಳು ವಯಸ್ಸಿನ ಮೂಲಕ ಕೆಳಕಂಡಂತೆ
ಇಟ್ಟುಕೊಳ್ಳುತ್ತಾರೆ.
ಬುದ್ಧನು
ತನ್ನ ಶಿಷ್ಯರಿಗೆ ಹೇಳಿದ್ದೇನೆಂದರೆ, ಅವರು ಇನ್ನು ಮುಂದೆ ಇರುವಾಗ, ತಾನು ಅದನ್ನು
ಕಲಿಸಿದಂತೆಯೇ ನಿಖರವಾಗಿ ಧಮ್ಮವನ್ನು ಒಟ್ಟುಗೂಡಿಸುವ ಉದ್ದೇಶಕ್ಕಾಗಿ ಸಾಘಾ ಒಟ್ಟಾಗಿ
ಬರಬೇಕೆಂಬುದು ಅಗತ್ಯವಾಗಿತ್ತು.

ಸೂಚನೆಯ ಅನುಸಾರ, ಮೊದಲ ಎಲ್ಡರ್ಗಳು ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ ಎಂದು ಕರೆದರು ಮತ್ತು ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥಿತವಾಗಿ
ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಬುದ್ಧನ ಪ್ರವಚನ ಮತ್ತು ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿ ನಿಯಮಗಳನ್ನು ಆದೇಶಿಸಿದರು ಮತ್ತು ನಂತರ
ಕಛೇರಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಪದವನ್ನು ನಿಷ್ಠೆಯಿಂದ ಓದಿದರು.

ಟಿಪೈಟಕದಲ್ಲಿ ಇರುವ ಬೋಧನೆಗಳನ್ನು ಎಥರ್ಸ್ ಆಫ್ ದಿ ಎಲ್ಡರ್ಸ್ [ಥೆರಾವಾಡಾ] ಎಂದು ಕೂಡ ಕರೆಯಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. ಈ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ ನಂಬರ್ ನೂರಾರು ಮತ್ತು ಮೊದಲ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ ಅನ್ನು ಕರೆಯುವವರೆಗೂ ಯಾವಾಗಲೂ ಪದಕ್ಕಾಗಿ ಪದವನ್ನು ಓದಲಾಗಿದೆ. ತರುವಾಯ,
ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ಗಳನ್ನು ಅನೇಕ ಕಾರಣಗಳಿಗಾಗಿ ಕರೆಯಲಾಗುತ್ತಿತ್ತು, ಆದರೆ
ಪ್ರತಿಯೊಂದರಲ್ಲೂ ಬುದ್ಧನ ಬೋಧನೆಯ ಸಂಪೂರ್ಣ ದೇಹವನ್ನು ಸಾಗ್ಗಾ ಭಾಗವಹಿಸುವವರು
ಯಾವಾಗಲೂ ಪದಕ್ಕೆ ಸಂಗೀತ ಮತ್ತು ಪದಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಪಠಿಸುತ್ತಾರೆ.
ಬುದ್ಧನು
ಮಹಾಪಾರಿಣಿಬ್ಬಾಣವನ್ನು ಗಳಿಸಿದ ಮೂರು ತಿಂಗಳ ನಂತರ ಮೊದಲ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ ನಡೆಯಿತು ಮತ್ತು
ನಂತರ ಐದು ಮಂದಿಯನ್ನು ಅನುಸರಿಸಿತು, ಅದರಲ್ಲಿ ಎರಡು ಹತ್ತೊಂಬತ್ತನೇ ಮತ್ತು ಇಪ್ಪತ್ತನೇ
ಶತಮಾನಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಕರೆಯಲ್ಪಟ್ಟವು.
ಈ ಧಮ್ಮ ಮಂಡಳಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ನಡೆಸಿದ ಈ ಸಾಮೂಹಿಕ ವಾಚನಗಳನ್ನು ‘ಧಮ್ಮ ಸಗಾಗಿಸ್’, ಧಮ್ಮ ರೆಸಿಟೇಷನ್ ಎಂದು ಕರೆಯಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. ಮೊದಲ
ಧಮ್ಮ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ನ ಪೂರ್ವನಿದರ್ಶನದ ಸೆಟ್ನ ಕಾರಣದಿಂದಾಗಿ ಅವರನ್ನು ನೇಮಕ ಮಾಡಲಾಗಿದೆ,
ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಟೀಚಿಂಗ್ಗಳನ್ನು ಮೊದಲು ಸಾಘದ ಹಿರಿಯರು ಓದಿದ ನಂತರ ಸಭೆಗೆ ಹಾಜರಾದ ಎಲ್ಲಾ
ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ಕೋರಸ್ನಲ್ಲಿ ಮತ್ತೊಮ್ಮೆ ಪಠಿಸಿದರು.
ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ ಸದಸ್ಯರು ಏಕಾಂಗಿಯಾಗಿ ಅಂಗೀಕರಿಸಲ್ಪಟ್ಟಾಗ ಮಾತ್ರ ಮತ್ತು ಆ ಸಮಯದಲ್ಲಿ, ಈ ವಾಚನವನ್ನು ಅಧಿಕೃತ ಎಂದು ನಿರ್ಣಯಿಸಲಾಯಿತು. ಸಿಕ್ಸ್ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ಗಳ ಸಂಕ್ಷಿಪ್ತ ಇತಿಹಾಸವನ್ನು ಅನುಸರಿಸುತ್ತದೆ.

ಮೊದಲ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್

ರಾಜ ಅಜತ್ತಾಸತ್ತು ಮೊದಲ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ಗೆ ಪ್ರಾಯೋಜಿಸಿದರು. ಇದನ್ನು 544 ಬಿ.ಸಿ. ಬುದ್ಧನು ಅಂತ್ಯಗೊಂಡ ಮೂರು ತಿಂಗಳ ನಂತರ ರಾಜಗಹದ ಹೊರಗೆ ನೆಲೆಸಿದ್ದ ಸಟ್ಟಾಪಾಯಿ ಗುಹೆಯಲ್ಲಿ. ಈ ಐತಿಹಾಸಿಕ ಸಭೆಯ ವಿವರವಾದ ವಿವರವನ್ನು ವಿನ್ಯಾಯಾ ಪಿತಕನ ಕುಲವಾಗ್ಗಾದಲ್ಲಿ ಕಾಣಬಹುದು.
ದಾಖಲೆಯ ಪ್ರಕಾರ ಈ ಸಭೆಯೊಂದನ್ನು ಎಲ್ಡರ್ ಮಹಾಕಾಸ್ಪಾ ಕರೆ ಮಾಡಲು ಪ್ರೇರೇಪಿಸಿದ
ಘಟನೆಯು ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳ ಜೀವನದ ಕಟ್ಟುನಿಟ್ಟಾದ ನಿಯಮದ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ನಿರಾಕರಿಸುವ ಹೇಳಿಕೆಯಾಗಿದೆ.
ಇದು ಏನಾಯಿತು. ಬುದ್ಧನ
ಅವಧಿ ಮುಗಿದಿದೆ ಎಂದು ಕೇಳಿದ ಸುಬ್ಬದ, ಮಾಜಿ ಕ್ಷೌರಿಕ, ಜೀವನದಲ್ಲಿ ತಡವಾಗಿ
ದೀಕ್ಷಾಸ್ನಾನ ಹೊಂದಿದನು, ಬುದ್ಧನ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳ ಎಲ್ಲಾ ನಿಯಮಗಳ ಅನುಸಾರವಾಗಿ ತನ್ನ
ಅಸಮಾಧಾನವನ್ನು ವ್ಯಕ್ತಪಡಿಸಿದನು.
ಅನೇಕ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ಬುದ್ಧನನ್ನು ಹಾದುಹೋಗುವುದನ್ನು ವಿಷಾದಿಸಿದರು ಮತ್ತು ಆಳವಾಗಿ ದುಃಖಿತರಾಗಿದ್ದರು. ಹೇಗಾದರೂ, ಎಲ್ಡರ್ ಮಹಾಕಾಸ್ಪಾ ಸುಭಾದಾ ಹೇಳಿದ್ದು ಕೇಳಿದ: ‘’ ನಿಮ್ಮ ಗೌರವಗಳು ಸಾಕಷ್ಟು, ದುಃಖ ಇಲ್ಲ, ದುಃಖ ಇಲ್ಲ. ನಾವು ಈ ಮಹಾನ್ ಅನ್ವೇಷಣೆಯನ್ನು (ಬುದ್ಧ) ಚೆನ್ನಾಗಿ ತೊಡೆದುಹಾಕುತ್ತೇವೆ. ‘ಇದು
ನಿಮಗೆ ಅನುಮತಿಸಿದ್ದು, ಇದು ನಿಮಗೆ ಅನುಮತಿಸುವುದಿಲ್ಲ’ ಆದರೆ ನಾವು ಇಷ್ಟಪಡುವ ಹಾಗೆ
ನಾವು ಮಾಡಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಾಗುತ್ತದೆ ಮತ್ತು ನಾವು ಇಷ್ಟಪಡದಂತಹವುಗಳನ್ನು ನಾವು ಮಾಡಬಾರದು
ಎಂದು ಅವರು ಹೇಳಿದರು.
ಮಹಾಕಾಸ್ಸಾ
ಅವರ ಹೇಳಿಕೆಯಿಂದ ಗಾಬರಿಗೊಂಡರು ಮತ್ತು ಧಮ್ಮ ಮತ್ತು ವಿನ್ಯಾಯವು ಭ್ರಷ್ಟವಾಗಬಹುದು
ಮತ್ತು ಇತರ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ಸುಭಾದಾನಂತೆ ವರ್ತಿಸಬೇಕು ಮತ್ತು ಧಮ್ಮ ಮತ್ತು ವಿನ್ಯಾಯ
ನಿಯಮಗಳನ್ನು ಅವರು ಸಂತೋಷವಾಗಿ ಅರ್ಥೈಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳುತ್ತಿದ್ದರೆ ಅದನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಬಾರದು ಎಂದು
ಭಯಪಟ್ಟರು.
ಅದನ್ನು ತಪ್ಪಿಸಲು ಅವರು ಧಮ್ಮವನ್ನು ರಕ್ಷಿಸಬೇಕು ಮತ್ತು ರಕ್ಷಿಸಬೇಕು ಎಂದು ನಿರ್ಧರಿಸಿದರು. Saghgha ಅನುಮೋದನೆ ಪಡೆದ ನಂತರ ಈ ಕೊನೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಅವರು ಐದು ನೂರು ಅರಹಾಂಟ್ಸ್ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ ಕರೆ. ಆಂಧ್ರವನ್ನು ಸಭಾಂಗಣ ಸಭೆಗೆ ಕರೆದೊಯ್ಯುವ ಮೂಲಕ ಅವರು ಅರಾಹಂಧೂದ್ ಅನ್ನು ತಲುಪಿದರು. ಎಲ್ಡರ್ ಮಹಾಕಾಸ್ಪಾ ಅಧ್ಯಕ್ಷತೆ ವಹಿಸಿ, ಮಳೆಗಾಲದಲ್ಲಿ ಐದು-ನೂರು ಅರಾಹಂತ್ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ನಲ್ಲಿ ಭೇಟಿಯಾದರು. ಮಹಕಾಸ್ಸಾಪಾನು
ಮಾಡಿದ ಮೊದಲನೆಯ ವಿಷಯವೆಂದರೆ, ದಿನದ ವಿನ್ಯಾಯದ ಪ್ರಮುಖ ಪರಿಣತರನ್ನು ಪ್ರಶ್ನಿಸಲು
ಆಗಿತ್ತು, ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿ ಆಡಳಿತದ ವಿವರಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ವನರಬಲ್ ಉಪಾಲಿ.
ಈ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿ ಈ ಕಾರ್ಯಕ್ಕಾಗಿ ಉತ್ತಮ ಅರ್ಹತೆ ಪಡೆದುಕೊಂಡಿತು, ಏಕೆಂದರೆ ಬುದ್ಧನು ಅವನಿಗೆ ಇಡೀ ವಿನ್ಯಾಯವನ್ನು ಕಲಿಸಿದ. ಎಲ್ಲಾ
ಹಿರಿಯ ಎಲ್ಲೆಲ್ಲಿ ಮಹಾಕಾಸ್ಸಾಪಾ ಅವರು ಮೊದಲ ಬಾರಿಗೆ ಅಪರಾಧ [ಪ್ಯಾರಾಜಿಕಾ] ಬಗ್ಗೆ
ತೀರ್ಮಾನಿಸಿದರು, ವಿಷಯ, ಸಂದರ್ಭ, ಪರಿಚಯಿಸಿದ ವ್ಯಕ್ತಿ, ಘೋಷಣೆ, ಘೋಷಣೆ, ಅಪರಾಧ
ಮತ್ತು ನಾನ್-
ಅಪರಾಧ. ಉಪಲಿಯವರು ಜ್ಞಾನ ಮತ್ತು ಸೂಕ್ತವಾದ ಉತ್ತರಗಳನ್ನು ನೀಡಿದರು ಮತ್ತು ಅವರ ಅಭಿಪ್ರಾಯಗಳು ಪ್ರಖ್ಯಾತ ಸಾಘದ ಒಮ್ಮತದ ಅನುಮೋದನೆಯನ್ನು ಪಡೆಯಿತು. ಆದ್ದರಿಂದ ವಿನಯ ಔಪಚಾರಿಕವಾಗಿ ಅಂಗೀಕರಿಸಲ್ಪಟ್ಟಿತು.

ಎಲ್ಡರ್ ಮಹಾಕಾಸ್ಪಾ ನಂತರ ಧಮಕ್ಕೆ ಸಂಬಂಧಿಸಿದ ಎಲ್ಲ ವಿಷಯಗಳಲ್ಲೂ ಅವನ ಪ್ರತಿಷ್ಠಿತ ಪರಿಣತಿಯ ಕಾರಣದಿಂದಾಗಿ ಆಂಧ್ರಕ್ಕೆ ತನ್ನ ಗಮನವನ್ನು ತಿರುಗಿಸಿದರು. ಸಂತೋಷದಿಂದ, ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ಗೆ ಭೇಟಿ ನೀಡಲು ರಾತ್ರಿ ಮೊದಲು, ಆನಾಂಡಾ ಅರಾಹಾಂಟ್ಸ್ಶಿಪ್ ಅನ್ನು ಪಡೆದು ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ಗೆ ಸೇರಿಕೊಂಡನು. ಆದ್ದರಿಂದ
ಎಲ್ಡರ್ ಮಹಾಕಾಸ್ಪಾ ಬುದ್ಧನ ಧರ್ಮೋಪದೇಶದ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ನಿರ್ದಿಷ್ಟವಾಗಿ ಉಲ್ಲೇಖಿಸಿ ಧಮ್ಮ
ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಸಂಪೂರ್ಣ ವಿಶ್ವಾಸದೊಂದಿಗೆ ಆತನನ್ನು ಪ್ರಶ್ನಿಸಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಾಯಿತು.
ಧಮಮಾದ ಈ ವಿಚಾರಣೆಗೆ ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಉಪದೇಶಗಳು ಮೊದಲು ಬೋಧಿಸಿದ ಸ್ಥಳವನ್ನು ಮತ್ತು ಅವರು ಉದ್ದೇಶಿಸಿರುವ ವ್ಯಕ್ತಿಗೆ ಪರಿಶೀಲಿಸಲು ಪ್ರಯತ್ನಿಸಿದರು. ಆನಾಂಡಾ,
ಅವರ ಪದ-ಪರಿಪೂರ್ಣ ಮೆಮೊರಿಯ ಸಹಾಯದಿಂದ ನಿಖರವಾಗಿ ಉತ್ತರಿಸಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಾಯಿತು ಮತ್ತು
ಆದ್ದರಿಂದ ಚರ್ಚೆಗಳು ಸಾಘದ ಒಮ್ಮತದ ಅನುಮೋದನೆಯನ್ನು ಪೂರೈಸಿದವು.
ಮೊದಲ
ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ ಚಿಕ್ಕ ಮತ್ತು ಕಡಿಮೆ ನಿಯಮಗಳ ಮೇಲೆ ಅಧ್ಯಾಯವನ್ನು ಮುಚ್ಚುವುದಕ್ಕೆ
ಅನುಮೋದನೆಯ ಅಧಿಕೃತ ಮುದ್ರೆಯನ್ನು ನೀಡಿದೆ ಮತ್ತು ಅವರ ಆಚರಣೆಗೆ ಅನುಮೋದನೆ ನೀಡಿತು.
ಇಡೀ
ವಿನ್ಯಾಯ ಮತ್ತು ಧಮ್ಮವನ್ನು ಪಠಿಸಲು ಏಳು ತಿಂಗಳ ಕಾಲ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳನ್ನು ತೆಗೆದುಕೊಂಡರು
ಮತ್ತು ಓದಿದ ಎಲ್ಲವನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಂಡಿದ್ದ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ಸಾಕಷ್ಟು ನೆನಪುಗಳನ್ನು
ಹೊಂದಿದ್ದರು.
ಈ ಐತಿಹಾಸಿಕ ಮೊದಲ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ ಪಕಾಸಾಟಿಕ ಎಂದು ಕರೆಯಲ್ಪಟ್ಟಿತು, ಏಕೆಂದರೆ ಐದು-ನೂರರಷ್ಟು ಪ್ರಬುದ್ಧವಾದ ಅರಹಾಂತ್ಗಳು ಅದರಲ್ಲಿ ಭಾಗವಹಿಸಿದ್ದರು.
ಎರಡನೇ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್

ಎರಡನೆಯ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ ಅನ್ನು ಬುದ್ಧನ ಪರಿಣಿಬ್ಬಾಣವು ನೂರು ವರ್ಷಗಳ ನಂತರ ‘ಹತ್ತು ಅಂಕಗಳನ್ನು’ ಗಂಭೀರ ವಿವಾದವನ್ನು ಬಗೆಹರಿಸಲು ಕರೆಯಲಾಯಿತು. ಇದು ಕೆಲವು ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ಹತ್ತು ಸಣ್ಣ ನಿಯಮಗಳನ್ನು ಮುರಿಯುವುದರ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಉಲ್ಲೇಖವಾಗಿದೆ. ಅವರಿಗೆ ನೀಡಲಾಯಿತು:

1. ಕೊಂಬಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಉಪ್ಪನ್ನು ಸಂಗ್ರಹಿಸುವುದು.
2. ಮಧ್ಯಾಹ್ನದ ನಂತರ ತಿನ್ನುವುದು.
3. ಒಮ್ಮೆ ತಿನ್ನುತ್ತಾ ನಂತರ ಗ್ರಾಮಕ್ಕೆ ಭಿಕ್ಷೆಗೆ ಹೋಗುವುದು.
4. ಅದೇ ಸ್ಥಳದಲ್ಲಿ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ವಾಸಿಸುವ ಮೂಲಕ ಉಪೋತ್ಸ ಸಮಾರಂಭವನ್ನು ಹಿಡಿದಿಟ್ಟುಕೊಳ್ಳಿ.
5. ವಿಧಾನಸಭೆ ಅಪೂರ್ಣವಾಗಿದ್ದಾಗ ಅಧಿಕೃತ ಕಾರ್ಯಗಳನ್ನು ಕೈಗೊಳ್ಳುವುದು.
6. ಒಂದು ನಿರ್ದಿಷ್ಟ ಅಭ್ಯಾಸವನ್ನು ಅನುಸರಿಸಿ ಏಕೆಂದರೆ ಅದು ಒಬ್ಬರ ಬೋಧಕ ಅಥವಾ ಶಿಕ್ಷಕರಿಂದ ಮಾಡಲ್ಪಟ್ಟಿದೆ.
7. ಮಧ್ಯಾಹ್ನ ಊಟ ಮಾಡಿದ ನಂತರ ಹುಳಿ ಹಾಲು ತಿನ್ನುವುದು.
8. ಹುದುಗಿಸುವ ಮೊದಲು ಬಲವಾದ ಪಾನೀಯವನ್ನು ಸೇವಿಸುವುದು.
9. ಸರಿಯಾದ ಗಾತ್ರವಿಲ್ಲದ ಕಂಬಳಿ ಬಳಸಿ.
10. ಚಿನ್ನ ಮತ್ತು ಬೆಳ್ಳಿ ಬಳಸಿ.

ಅವರ
ತಪ್ಪುಗಳು ಒಂದು ವಿವಾದಾಸ್ಪದವಾಗಿದ್ದವು ಮತ್ತು ಈ ನಿಯಮಗಳನ್ನು ಮುರಿಯುವಲ್ಲಿ
ಪ್ರಮುಖವಾದ ವಿವಾದವು ಬುದ್ಧನ ಮೂಲ ಬೋಧನೆಗಳನ್ನು ವಿರೋಧಿಸುತ್ತದೆ ಎಂದು ಭಾವಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ.
ರಾಜ ಕಾಜೊಸೊಕಾ ಎರಡನೇ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ನ ಪೋಷಕರಾಗಿದ್ದರು ಮತ್ತು ಕೆಳಗಿನ ಸಂದರ್ಭಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಈ ಸಭೆಯು ವೆಸಲಿನಲ್ಲಿ ನಡೆಯಿತು. ಒಂದು
ದಿನ, ವೆಯಾಸ್ಲಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಮಹಾವಾಣ ಗ್ರೋವ್ಗೆ ಭೇಟಿ ನೀಡಿದಾಗ, ವಾಜ್ಜಿಯನ್ನರು ಎಂದು
ಕರೆಯಲ್ಪಡುವ ಒಂದು ದೊಡ್ಡ ಗುಂಪು ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ಚಿನ್ನ ಮತ್ತು ಬೆಳ್ಳಿಯನ್ನು
ಒಪ್ಪಿಕೊಳ್ಳುವುದನ್ನು ನಿಷೇಧಿಸುವ ನಿಯಮವನ್ನು ಉಲ್ಲಂಘಿಸುತ್ತಿದ್ದಾರೆ ಎಂದು ಎಲ್ಡರ್
ಯಾಸಾ ತಿಳಿದುಬಂದಿತು.
ಅವರು ತಕ್ಷಣ ತಮ್ಮ ನಡವಳಿಕೆಯನ್ನು ಟೀಕಿಸಿದರು ಮತ್ತು ಅವರು ತಮ್ಮ ಅಕ್ರಮ ಲಾಭದ ಪಾಲನ್ನು ಅವರು ಗೆಲ್ಲುತ್ತಾರೆ ಎಂಬ ಭರವಸೆ ನೀಡಿದರು. ಎಲ್ಡರ್ ಯಾಸಾ ಅವರ ವರ್ತನೆಯನ್ನು ನಿರಾಕರಿಸಿದರು ಮತ್ತು ತಿರಸ್ಕರಿಸಿದರು. ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ಕೂಡಾ ತಮ್ಮ ಸಮಸ್ತ ಭಕ್ತರನ್ನು ದೂಷಿಸಿರುವುದನ್ನು ಆರೋಪಿಸಿ, ರಾಜಿ ಮಾಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳುವ ಔಪಚಾರಿಕ ಕ್ರಿಯೆಯೊಡನೆ ಆತನನ್ನು ಮೊಕದ್ದಮೆ ಹೂಡಿದರು. ಎಲ್ಡರ್
ಯಾಸನು ಲಯ ಭಕ್ತರ ಜೊತೆ ಸಮಂಜಸವಾಗಿ ಸರಿಹೊಂದುತ್ತಾನೆ, ಆದರೆ ಅದೇ ಸಮಯದಲ್ಲಿ, ವಿಜಯದ
ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ಚಿನ್ನದ ಮತ್ತು ಬೆಳ್ಳಿಗಾಗಿ ಸ್ವೀಕರಿಸುವ ಅಥವಾ ಕೋರುವುದನ್ನು ವಿರೋಧಿಸುವ
ನಿಷೇಧದ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಬುದ್ಧನ ಉಚ್ಚಾರಣೆಯನ್ನು ಉಲ್ಲೇಖಿಸಿ ತಪ್ಪು ಮಾಡಿದ್ದಾರೆಂದು ಅವರಿಗೆ
ಮನವರಿಕೆ ಮಾಡಿತು.
ಗುಲಾಮರು
ತಕ್ಷಣವೇ ಎಲ್ಡರ್ ಯಾಸಕ್ಕೆ ತಮ್ಮ ಬೆಂಬಲವನ್ನು ವ್ಯಕ್ತಪಡಿಸಿದರು ಮತ್ತು ವಾಜಿಯನ್
ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ತಪ್ಪು-ಮಾಡುವವರನ್ನು ಮತ್ತು ಅಸಭ್ಯವಾದರು ಎಂದು ಘೋಷಿಸಿದರು, “ಎಲ್ಡರ್
ಯಾಸಾ ಮಾತ್ರ ಒಬ್ಬ ನಿಜವಾದ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿ ಮತ್ತು ಸಕಾನ್ ಮಗ.
ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಇತರರು ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳಲ್ಲ, ಸಕಾನ್ ಕುಮಾರರಲ್ಲ.

ಮೊಂಡುತನದ
ಮತ್ತು ಪಶ್ಚಾತ್ತಾಪವಿಲ್ಲದ ವಾಜ್ಜಿಯನ್ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ತಮ್ಮ ಭಕ್ತರ ಜೊತೆಗಿನ ಅವರ ಸಭೆಯ
ಫಲಿತಾಂಶವನ್ನು ತಿಳಿದುಬಂದಾಗ ಸಘ್ಘದ ಉಳಿದ ಅನುಮತಿಯಿಲ್ಲದೆ ಶುಭವಾದ ಯಾಸಾ ಥೇರಾವನ್ನು
ಅಮಾನತುಗೊಳಿಸಲು ತೆರಳಿದರು.
ಎಲ್ಡರ್
ಯಾಸಾ ಅವರು ತಮ್ಮ ಖಂಡನೆ ತಪ್ಪಿಸಿಕೊಂಡರು ಮತ್ತು ಬೇರೆ ಬೇರೆ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳ ಬೆಂಬಲವನ್ನು
ಹುಡುಕಿದರು, ಅವರು ವಿನ್ಯಾ ಅವರ ಸಾಂಪ್ರದಾಯಿಕ ದೃಷ್ಟಿಕೋನಗಳನ್ನು ಸಮರ್ಥಿಸಿಕೊಂಡರು.
ಪಾವದಿಂದ
ಅರವತ್ತು ಅರಣ್ಯ ವಾಸಿಸುವ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಅದೇ ದೃಷ್ಟಿಕೋನದಲ್ಲಿರುವ ಅವಂತಿ
ದಕ್ಷಿಣದ ಪ್ರದೇಶಗಳಿಂದ ಎಂಟು ಮಂದಿ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ವಿನ್ಯಾಯ ಭ್ರಷ್ಟಾಚಾರವನ್ನು
ಪರಿಶೀಲಿಸಲು ಅವರಿಗೆ ಸಹಾಯ ಮಾಡಿದರು.
ಅವರು
ಒಟ್ಟಾಗಿ ಪೂಜಿಸಲ್ಪಡುವ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿ ಮತ್ತು ಧಮ್ಮ ಮತ್ತು ವಿನ್ಯಾಯಲ್ಲಿ
ಪರಿಣತರಾಗಿದ್ದರಿಂದ ಅವರು ವೊರೇರಬಲ್ ರೆವಟಾವನ್ನು ಭೇಟಿ ಮಾಡಲು ಸೊರೇಯಕ್ಕೆ ಹೋಗಲು
ನಿರ್ಧರಿಸಿದರು.
ವಾಜಯ್ಯದ
ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ಇದನ್ನು ತಿಳಿದುಬಂದ ತಕ್ಷಣ, ಅವರು ತಕ್ಷಣವೇ ನಿರಾಕರಿಸಿದ ನಾಲ್ಕು
ಅವಶ್ಯಕತೆಗಳನ್ನು ನೀಡುವ ಮೂಲಕ ವನರೇಬಲ್ ರೆವಟಾ ಅವರ ಬೆಂಬಲವನ್ನೂ ಅವರು ಕೇಳಿದರು.
ನಂತರ ಈ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ಪೂಜನೀಯವಾದ ರೆವಾಟಾದ ಅಟೆಂಡೆಂಟ್, ಪೂಜನೀಯ ಉತ್ತರವನ್ನು ಗೆಲ್ಲಲು ಅದೇ ವಿಧಾನವನ್ನು ಬಳಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಪ್ರಯತ್ನಿಸಿದರು. ಮೊದಲಿಗೆ
ಅವರು ಕೂಡ ತಮ್ಮ ಪ್ರಸ್ತಾಪವನ್ನು ಸರಿಯಾಗಿ ನಿರಾಕರಿಸಿದರು ಆದರೆ ಬುದ್ಧನಿಗೆ ಬೇಕಾದ
ಅಗತ್ಯತೆಗಳು ಅವನಿಗೆ ಅಂಗೀಕರಿಸದಿದ್ದಾಗ, ಅವರನ್ನು ಒಪ್ಪಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಕೇಳಲಾಗುತ್ತಿತ್ತು
ಮತ್ತು ಹಾಗೆ ಮಾಡುವುದನ್ನು ಸಾಮಾನ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಒಪ್ಪಿಕೊಳ್ಳುತ್ತಾರೆ ಎಂದು ಅವರು ತಮ್ಮ
ಪ್ರಸ್ತಾಪವನ್ನು ಒಪ್ಪಿಕೊಳ್ಳುವಂತೆ ಕಲಾತ್ಮಕವಾಗಿ ಮನವೊಲಿಸಿದರು.
ಉತ್ತರ ತನ್ನ ಮನಸ್ಸನ್ನು ಬದಲಿಸಿದ ಮತ್ತು ಅವಶ್ಯಕತೆಗಳನ್ನು ಒಪ್ಪಿಕೊಂಡನು. ವಾಜ್ಜಿಯನ್
ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ನಿಜವಾಗಿ ಸತ್ಯದ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಮಾತನಾಡುತ್ತಿದ್ದರು ಮತ್ತು ಧಮ್ಮನ
ಉದ್ಧಾರಕರಾಗಿದ್ದಾರೆ ಎಂದು ಘೋಷಿಸಲು ಅವರು ವೆಂರಬಲ್ ರೆವಾಟಾವನ್ನು ಒಪ್ಪಿಕೊಳ್ಳುವಂತೆ
ಮನವೊಲಿಸಿದರು.
ಗೌರವಯುತವಾದ ರೆವಟಾ ಅವರು ತಮ್ಮ ತಂತ್ರದ ಮೂಲಕ ನೋಡಿದರು ಮತ್ತು ಅವರನ್ನು ಬೆಂಬಲಿಸಲು ನಿರಾಕರಿಸಿದರು. ಅವರು ಉತ್ತರವನ್ನು ವಜಾ ಮಾಡಿದರು.
ವಸ್ತುವನ್ನು ಒಂದೊಮ್ಮೆ ಮತ್ತು ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಕಡೆಗೆ ಇತ್ಯರ್ಥಗೊಳಿಸಲು, ವನರೇಬಲ್ ರೆವಟಾನು,
ವಾಯುವ್ಯರಾಮಾದಲ್ಲಿ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ ಅನ್ನು ಕರೆಯಬೇಕೆಂದು ಸಲಹೆ ನೀಡಿದರು, ದಿನದ ಹಿರಿಯ
ಹಿರಿಯ ಹಿರಿಯ ಥೆರಾ ಸಬ್ಜಕಾಮಿ ಅವರ ಹತ್ತು ಅಪರಾಧಗಳ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಪ್ರಶ್ನೆಗಳನ್ನು
ಕೇಳುತ್ತಾರೆ.
ಅವರ ಅಭಿಪ್ರಾಯವನ್ನು ಒಮ್ಮೆ ನೀಡಿದಾಗ ಅದು ಎಂಟು ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳ ಸಮಿತಿಯಿಂದ ಕೇಳಿಬಂತು, ಮತ್ತು ಅವರ ಮಾನ್ಯತೆಯು ಅವರ ಮತದಿಂದ ನಿರ್ಧರಿಸಲ್ಪಟ್ಟಿತು.
ವಿಷಯವನ್ನು ನಿರ್ಣಯಿಸಲು ಎಂಟು ಮಂದಿ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ವೆನೆರಬಲ್ಸ್ ಸಬ್ಬಕಾಮಿ, ಸಾಂಹಾ,
ಖುಜ್ಜಸೋಭಿತಾ ಮತ್ತು ವಾಸಾಭಾಗಮಿಕಾ, ಪೂರ್ವದಿಂದ ಮತ್ತು ಪಶ್ಚಿಮದಿಂದ ನಾಲ್ಕು
ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು, ವೆನೆರಬಲ್ಸ್ ರೆವಟಾ, ಸಂಭೂತ-ಸನಾವಸೀ, ಯಾಸ ಮತ್ತು ಸುಮಾನ.
ಈ ವಿಷಯವನ್ನು ಅವರು ರೆವಾಟಾ ಅವರೊಂದಿಗೆ ಪ್ರಶ್ನೆಗಾರರಾಗಿ ಚರ್ಚಿಸಿದರು ಮತ್ತು ಸಬ್ಬಕಾಮಿ ಅವರ ಪ್ರಶ್ನೆಗಳಿಗೆ ಉತ್ತರಿಸಿದರು. ಚರ್ಚೆ ಕೇಳಿದ ನಂತರ ಎಂಟು ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ವಾಜ್ಜಿಯನ್ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳ ವಿರುದ್ಧ ತೀರ್ಮಾನಿಸಿದರು ಮತ್ತು ಅವರ ತೀರ್ಪನ್ನು ಸಭೆಗೆ ಘೋಷಿಸಲಾಯಿತು. ನಂತರ
ಏಳು-ನೂರು ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ಧರ್ಮ ಮತ್ತು ವಿನ್ಯಾಯವನ್ನು ಪಠಿಸಿದರು ಮತ್ತು ಈ
ನಿರೂಪಣೆಯನ್ನು ಸತ್ತಸತಿ ಎಂದು ಕರೆಯಲಾಗುತ್ತಿತ್ತು, ಏಕೆಂದರೆ ಇದರಲ್ಲಿ ಏಳು-ನೂರು
ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ಪಾಲ್ಗೊಂಡಿದ್ದರು.

ಐತಿಹಾಸಿಕ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ ಅನ್ನು ಯಸತೀರ್ಥ ಸಂಗೀತಿ ಎಂದೂ ಕರೆಯುತ್ತಾರೆ, ಏಕೆಂದರೆ ಎಲ್ಡರ್
ಯಾಸಾ ಅದರಲ್ಲಿ ಆಡಿದ ಪ್ರಮುಖ ಪಾತ್ರ ಮತ್ತು ವಿನಯವನ್ನು ಕಾಪಾಡುವ ಅವರ ಉತ್ಸಾಹ.
ವಝ್ಜಿಯನ್
ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ನ ನಿರ್ಧಾರವನ್ನು ಒಪ್ಪಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ನಿರಾಕರಿಸಿದರು ಮತ್ತು
ಅಲ್ಲಿನ ಒಂದು ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ ಎಂದು ಕರೆಯಲ್ಪಡುವ ಪ್ರತಿಭಟನೆಯು ಮಹಾಸಾಜಿತಿ ಎಂದು
ಕರೆಯಲ್ಪಟ್ಟಿತು.

ಮೂರನೇ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್

ಮೂರನೆಯ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ ಮುಖ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಭ್ರಷ್ಟಾಚಾರ ಮತ್ತು ನಕಲಿ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳ ಸಾಗಾವನ್ನು ವಿಮೋಚನೆಗೊಳಿಸುವುದಕ್ಕಾಗಿ ನಡೆಯಿತು. ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ ಅನ್ನು 326 ಬಿ.ಸಿ. ಚಕ್ರವರ್ತಿ ಅಶೋಕನ ಪ್ರೋತ್ಸಾಹದಡಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಪಾಟಲಿಪುಟ್ಟದಲ್ಲಿ ಅಶೋಕರಾಮಾದಲ್ಲಿ. ಇದನ್ನು ಎಲ್ಡರ್ ಮೊಗ್ಗಾಲಿಪುಟ್ಟಾ ಟಿಸ್ಸಾ ವಹಿಸಿದ್ದರು ಮತ್ತು ಈ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ನಲ್ಲಿ ಸುಮಾರು ಸಾವಿರ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ಭಾಗವಹಿಸಿದರು. ಸಾಂಪ್ರದಾಯಿಕವಾಗಿ ಅಶೋಕನು ತನ್ನ ತಂದೆಯ ಮಗನ ಎಲ್ಲಾ ರಕ್ತದ ರಕ್ತವನ್ನು ಚೆಲ್ಲುವ
ಮೂಲಕ ಅವನ ಸ್ವಂತ ಸಹೋದರ ಟಿಸ್ಸಾ ಕುಮಾರಾವನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಂಡು ತನ್ನ ಸಿಂಹಾಸನವನ್ನು
ಗೆದ್ದನು.

ಬುದ್ಧನ ಮಹಾಪರಿಣಿಬಾಣದ ನಂತರ ಎರಡು ನೂರ ಹದಿನೆಂಟನೇ ವರ್ಷದಲ್ಲಿ ಅಶೋಕನನ್ನು ಪಟ್ಟಾಭಿಷೇಕ ಮಾಡಲಾಯಿತು. ಮೊದಲಿಗೆ
ಅವರು ಧಮ್ಮ ಮತ್ತು ಸಾಘಾಗೆ ಮಾತ್ರ ಟೋಕನ್ ಗೌರವವನ್ನು ಸಲ್ಲಿಸಿದರು ಮತ್ತು ಅವರ ತಂದೆ
ಅವನ ಮುಂಚೆಯೇ ಮಾಡಿದ ಇತರ ಧಾರ್ಮಿಕ ಪಂಗಡಗಳ ಸದಸ್ಯರನ್ನು ಬೆಂಬಲಿಸಿದರು.
ಹೇಗಾದರೂ, ಅವರು ಧಾರ್ಮಿಕ ಅನನುಭವಿ-ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿ ನಿಗ್ರೋಧಾ ಅವರನ್ನು ಭೇಟಿಯಾದಾಗ ಎಲ್ಲವೂ ಬದಲಾಯಿತು. ನಂತರ ಅವರು ಇತರ ಧಾರ್ಮಿಕ ಗುಂಪುಗಳನ್ನು ಬೆಂಬಲಿಸುವುದನ್ನು ನಿಲ್ಲಿಸಿದರು ಮತ್ತು ಧಮ್ಮಿಗೆ ಅವರ ಆಸಕ್ತಿ ಮತ್ತು ಭಕ್ತಿಯು ಗಾಢವಾಯಿತು. ಅವನು
ತನ್ನ ಅಗಾಧವಾದ ಸಂಪತ್ತನ್ನು ನಿರ್ಮಿಸಲು ಬಳಸಿದನು, ಅದು ಎಂಭತ್ತನಾಲ್ಕು ಸಾವಿರ
ಪಗೋಡಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ವಿಹಾರಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಭಿಕ್ಷುಸ್ ಅನ್ನು ನಾಲ್ಕು ಅವಶ್ಯಕತೆಗಳೊಂದಿಗೆ
ಅದ್ದೂರಿಯಾಗಿ ಬೆಂಬಲಿಸುತ್ತದೆ.
ಅವರ ಮಗ ಮಹೀಂದ ಮತ್ತು ಅವರ ಮಗಳು ಸಾಹಘಮಿಟ್ಟರನ್ನು ದೀಕ್ಷಾಸ್ನಾನ ಮಾಡಿದರು ಮತ್ತು ಸಾಘಾಗೆ ಒಪ್ಪಿಕೊಂಡರು. ಅಂತಿಮವಾಗಿ, ಅವರ ಔದಾರ್ಯವು ಸಾಘಾದಲ್ಲಿ ಗಂಭೀರ ಸಮಸ್ಯೆಗಳನ್ನು ಉಂಟುಮಾಡುತ್ತದೆ. ಕಾಲಕ್ರಮೇಣ
ಈ ಆದೇಶವು ಅನೇಕ ಅನರ್ಹ ಪುರುಷರಿಂದ ಅಂತರ್ವ್ಯಾಪಿಸುವಂತೆ ಮಾಡಿತು, ಹಿಂಸಾತ್ಮಕ
ವೀಕ್ಷಣೆಗಳನ್ನು ಹಿಡಿದಿಟ್ಟುಕೊಂಡು, ಚಕ್ರವರ್ತಿಯ ಉದಾರವಾದ ಬೆಂಬಲ ಮತ್ತು ಆಹಾರ,
ಬಟ್ಟೆ, ಆಶ್ರಯ ಮತ್ತು ಔಷಧಿಗಳ ದುಬಾರಿ ಅರ್ಪಣೆಗಳಿಂದಾಗಿ ಆ ಆದೇಶಕ್ಕೆ ಯಾರು
ಆಕರ್ಷಿತರಾದರು.
ತಪ್ಪಾದ
ಅಭಿಪ್ರಾಯಗಳನ್ನು ಸಮರ್ಥಿಸುವ ನಂಬಿಕೆಯಿಲ್ಲದ, ಉತ್ಸಾಹಭರಿತ ಪುರುಷರು ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ
ಸಂಖ್ಯೆಯ ಆದೇಶವನ್ನು ಸೇರಲು ಪ್ರಯತ್ನಿಸಿದರು ಆದರೆ ಸಮರ್ಥನೆಗೆ ಅನರ್ಹರಾಗಿದ್ದರು.
ಇದರ
ಹೊರತಾಗಿಯೂ ಅವರು ತಮ್ಮದೇ ಆದ ತುದಿಗಳಿಗಾಗಿ ಚಕ್ರವರ್ತಿಯ ಔದಾರ್ಯವನ್ನು ಬಳಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳುವ
ಅವಕಾಶವನ್ನು ವಶಪಡಿಸಿಕೊಂಡರು ಮತ್ತು ಧರಿಸಿರುವ ನಿಲುವಂಗಿಯನ್ನು ಸರಿಯಾಗಿ ದೀಕ್ಷೆ
ಮಾಡದೆ ಆದೇಶವನ್ನು ಸೇರಿಕೊಂಡರು.
ಪರಿಣಾಮವಾಗಿ, ಸಾಘಾ ಗೌರವವು ಕಡಿಮೆಯಾಯಿತು. ಇದು ಬೆಳಕಿಗೆ ಬಂದಾಗ ಕೆಲವೊಂದು ನಿಜವಾದ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ಭ್ರಷ್ಟ, ವಿರೋಧಿ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳ
ಕಂಪನಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸೂಚಿಸಲಾದ ಶುದ್ಧೀಕರಣ ಅಥವಾ ಉಪೋಥಾ ಸಮಾರಂಭವನ್ನು ಹಿಡಿದಿಡಲು
ನಿರಾಕರಿಸಿದರು.


ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಚಕ್ರವರ್ತಿಯು ಕೇಳಿದಾಗ ಅವರು ಪರಿಸ್ಥಿತಿಯನ್ನು ಸರಿಪಡಿಸಲು ಪ್ರಯತ್ನಿಸಿದರು
ಮತ್ತು ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳಿಗೆ ಅವರು ತಮ್ಮ ಸಮಾರಂಭವನ್ನು ಆಜ್ಞಾಪಿಸುವಂತೆ ಅವರ ಮಂತ್ರಿಗಳಿಗೆ
ಕಳುಹಿಸಿದರು.
ಆದಾಗ್ಯೂ, ಚಕ್ರವರ್ತಿಯು ತನ್ನ ಆದೇಶವನ್ನು ಕೈಗೊಳ್ಳಲು ಯಾವ ವಿಧಾನವನ್ನು ಬಳಸಬೇಕೆಂಬುದರ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಯಾವುದೇ ಆದೇಶಗಳನ್ನು ಮಂತ್ರಿಗೆ ನೀಡಲಿಲ್ಲ. ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ಸಮಾರಂಭವನ್ನು ಅವರ ಸುಳ್ಳು ಮತ್ತು ‘ಥೀವಿಂಗ್’ ಸಹಚರರು [ದೆಯಾಸಿನಿವಾಸಾಕ] ಕಂಪನಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಪಾಲಿಸಬೇಕೆಂದು ನಿರಾಕರಿಸಿದರು. ಹತಾಶೆಯಲ್ಲಿ
ಕೋಪಗೊಂಡ ಸಚಿವರು ಕುಳಿತಿರುವ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳ ರೇಖೆಯನ್ನು ಮುಂದೂಡಿದರು ಮತ್ತು ಅವರ
ಕತ್ತಿಯನ್ನು ಬಿಡಿಸಿದರು, ರಾಜನ ಸಹೋದರ ಟಿಸ್ಸಾಗೆ ದೀಕ್ಷೆ ಸಲ್ಲಿಸುವ ತನಕ ಎಲ್ಲರೂ
ಶಿರಚ್ಛೇದಿಸಿದರು.
ಭಯಭೀತರಾದ
ಸಚಿವರು ಹತ್ಯಾಕಾಂಡವನ್ನು ನಿಲ್ಲಿಸಿದರು ಮತ್ತು ಸಭಾಂಗಣವನ್ನು ಪಲಾಯನ ಮಾಡಿದರು ಮತ್ತು
ಚಕ್ರವರ್ತಿ ಅಶೋಕನಿಗೆ ಮತ್ತೆ ವರದಿ ಮಾಡಿದರು ಮತ್ತು ಏನಾಯಿತು ಎಂಬುವುದರ ಮೂಲಕ ಆತನು
ದುಃಖಿತನಾಗಿದ್ದನು ಮತ್ತು ಹತ್ಯೆಗಳಿಗೆ ತನ್ನನ್ನು ದೂಷಿಸಿದನು.
ಅವರು ಥೇರಾ ಮೊಗ್ಗಾಲಿಪುಟ್ಟ ಟಿಸ್ಸಾ ಅವರ ಸಲಹೆಯನ್ನು ಕೇಳಿದರು. ವಿವಾದಾತ್ಮಕ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ಈ ಕ್ರಮದಿಂದ ಹೊರಹಾಕಲ್ಪಡಬೇಕು ಮತ್ತು ಮೂರನೆಯ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ ಕೂಡಲೇ ಸಭೆ ಸೇರಬೇಕೆಂದು ಅವರು ಪ್ರಸ್ತಾಪಿಸಿದರು. ಆದ್ದರಿಂದ ಚಕ್ರವರ್ತಿಯ ಆಳ್ವಿಕೆಯ ಹದಿನೇಳನೆಯ ವರ್ಷದಲ್ಲಿ ಮೂರನೇ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ ಕರೆಯಲಾಯಿತು. ಥೇರಾ
ಮೊಗ್ಗಾಲಿಪುಟ್ಟಾ ಟಿಸ್ಸಾ ಪ್ರೊಸೀಡಿಂಗ್ಸ್ಗೆ ನೇತೃತ್ವ ವಹಿಸಿದರು ಮತ್ತು ಧಮಮಾ ಮತ್ತು
ವಿನ್ಯಾಯ ಸಾಂಪ್ರದಾಯಿಕ ಪಠಣಕ್ಕಾಗಿ ಸುಮಾರು ಸಾವಿರ ಸಾವಿರ ಭಾಗಿಗಳಿಂದ ಒಂದು ಸಾವಿರ
ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳನ್ನು ಆಯ್ಕೆ ಮಾಡಿಕೊಂಡರು, ಅದು ಒಂಬತ್ತು ತಿಂಗಳವರೆಗೆ ಹೋಯಿತು.
ಚಕ್ರವರ್ತಿ ಸ್ವತಃ ಬುದ್ಧನ ಬೋಧನೆಗಳ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಅನೇಕ ಮಠಗಳಿಂದ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳನ್ನು ಪ್ರಶ್ನಿಸಿದರು. ತಪ್ಪಾದ ಅಭಿಪ್ರಾಯಗಳನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿದವರು ತಕ್ಷಣವೇ ಸಾಘಾದಿಂದ ಹೊರಬಂದರು. ಈ ರೀತಿಯಾಗಿ ಭಿಕು ಸಾಘಾರವರು ಹಿಂಸಾಚಾರ ಮತ್ತು ನಕಲಿ ಭಿಕ್ಷುಖರನ್ನು ಶುದ್ಧೀಕರಿಸಿದರು.
ಈ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ ಹಲವಾರು ಇತರ ಪ್ರಮುಖ ವಿಷಯಗಳನ್ನು ಸಾಧಿಸಿತು. ದಿ
ಎಲ್ಡರ್ ಮೊಗ್ಗಾಲಿಪುಟ್ಟಾ ಟಿಸ್ಸಾ, ಹಲವಾರು ಅಭಿಪ್ರಾಯಗಳನ್ನು ನಿರಾಕರಿಸುವ ಸಲುವಾಗಿ
ಮತ್ತು ಧಮ್ಮವನ್ನು ಶುದ್ಧವಾಗಿಟ್ಟುಕೊಳ್ಳುವುದನ್ನು ಕಠಾವತ್ತು ಎಂಬ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್
ಸಮಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಒಂದು ಪುಸ್ತಕವನ್ನು ಅನುಸರಿಸಿದರು.

ಪುಸ್ತಕವು ಇಪ್ಪತ್ತಮೂರು ಅಧ್ಯಾಯಗಳನ್ನು ಒಳಗೊಂಡಿದೆ, ಮತ್ತು ಇದು ಚರ್ಚೆಯ
ಸಂಗ್ರಹವಾಗಿದೆ (ಕಥಾ) ಮತ್ತು ತತ್ತ್ವಶಾಸ್ತ್ರದ ವಿಷಯಗಳ ಮೇಲೆ ವಿವಿಧ ಪಂಗಡಗಳಿಂದ
ನಡೆಸಲ್ಪಟ್ಟ ಅಸಹ್ಯ ದೃಷ್ಟಿಕೋನಗಳ ಪ್ರತಿಪಾದನೆಗಳು.
ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮ ಪಿಟಕರ ಏಳು ಪುಸ್ತಕಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಇದು ಐದನೇಯದು. ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ನ
ಸದಸ್ಯರು ಬುದ್ಧನ ಸಿದ್ಧಾಂತಕ್ಕೆ ಅನುಮೋದನೆಯ ರಾಯಲ್ ಮುದ್ರೆಯನ್ನು ನೀಡಿದರು, ಇದು
ವಿಜ್ಞಾಜ್ವಾಡಾ ಎಂಬ ಹೆಸರಿನ ವಿಶ್ಲೇಷಣೆ ಸಿದ್ಧಾಂತವನ್ನು ಹೆಸರಿಸಿದರು.
ಇದು ಅನುಮೋದಿತ ಥೆರವಾಡಾ ಸಿದ್ಧಾಂತದೊಂದಿಗೆ ಹೋಲುತ್ತದೆ.
ಧಮ್ಮ ಅಸೆಂಬ್ಲಿಯ ಅತ್ಯಂತ ಗಮನಾರ್ಹ ಸಾಧನೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಒಂದು ಮತ್ತು ಬರಲು ಶತಮಾನಗಳ ಕಾಲ
ಹಣ್ಣುಗಳನ್ನು ಕೊಡುತ್ತಿದ್ದವು, ಚಕ್ರವರ್ತಿ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳ ಕಳುಹಿಸುವ, ಬುದ್ಧನ ಧಮ್ಮ
ಮತ್ತು ವಿನ್ಯಾಯಲ್ಲಿ ಬುದ್ಧಿವಂತರಾಗಿದ್ದು, ಅದನ್ನು ಕಲಿಸಲು ಅದನ್ನು ಎಲ್ಲವನ್ನೂ
ಓದಬಹುದು
ಒಂಬತ್ತು ವಿವಿಧ ದೇಶಗಳಲ್ಲಿ. ಕಾಶ್ಮೀರ ಮತ್ತು ಗಾಂಧಾರಕ್ಕೆ ತೆರಳಿದ ವನರಬಲ್ ಮಜ್ಜಂತಿಕಾ ಥೇರಾ ಈ ಧಮ್ಮಮತ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು. ಧಮ್ಮವನ್ನು ಬೋಧಿಸಲು ಮತ್ತು ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳ ಆದೇಶವನ್ನು ಸ್ಥಾಪಿಸಲು ಅವರನ್ನು ಕೇಳಲಾಯಿತು. ವನರಾಭಿಮಾನದ
ಮಹಾದೇವವನ್ನು ಮಿನಿಸಕಮಾಂಡವ (ಆಧುನಿಕ ಮೈಸೂರು) ಗೆ ಕಳುಹಿಸಲಾಯಿತು ಮತ್ತು ವನರಾಶಿ
ರಾಖಿತಾ ಥೇರವನ್ನು ವನವಾಶಿಗೆ ಕಳುಹಿಸಲಾಯಿತು (ಭಾರತದ ದಕ್ಷಿಣ ಭಾಗದಲ್ಲಿ ಉತ್ತರ
ಕೆನರಾ.) ಪೂಜ್ಯ ಯೋನಕ ಧಮರಖಿತಾ ಥೇರವನ್ನು ಮೇಲ್ ಅಪಾರಣದ (ಉತ್ತರ ಗುಜರಾತ್, ಕಥೀಯವರ್,
ಕಚ್ ಮತ್ತು ಸಿಂಧ್)
.
ಪೂಜ್ಯ
ಮಹಾರಾಖಿತಾ ಥೇರ ಯೋನಕ-ಲೋಕ (ಲೊನಿಯನ್ನರು, ಬ್ಯಾಕ್ಟರಿಯನ್ನರು ಮತ್ತು ಗ್ರೀಕರುಗಳ
ಭೂಮಿಗೆ) ಹೋದರು. ಪೂಜ್ಯ ಮಜ್ಜಿಮಾ ಥೇರವು ಹಿಮಾವಂತಕ್ಕೆ (ಹಿಮಾಲಯದ ಪಕ್ಕದಲ್ಲಿದೆ.)
ಹೋದರು. ಪೂಜ್ಯ ಸೂರ್ಯ ಮತ್ತು ಪೂಜ್ಯ ಉತ್ತರಗಳನ್ನು ಸುವಣಭೂಮಿಗೆ ಕಳುಹಿಸಲಾಯಿತು [ಈಗ
ಮ್ಯಾನ್ಮಾರ್]. ಪೂಜ್ಯ
ಮಹಿಂದಾ ಥೇರ, ಪೂಜನೀಯ ಇಟಾತಿಯ ಥೇರ, ಪೂಜ್ಯ ಉತ್ತರ ತೀರಾ, ಪೂಜ್ಯ ಸಂಬಲಾ ಥೇರ ಮತ್ತು
ಪೂಜನೀಯ ಭದಾಸಾಲಾ ಥೇರವನ್ನು ತಂಬಪಣಿ (ಈಗ ಶ್ರೀಲಂಕಾ) ಗೆ ಕಳುಹಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ.
ಈ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳ ಧಮ್ಮ ಕಾರ್ಯಾಚರಣೆಗಳು ಯಶಸ್ವಿಯಾದವು ಮತ್ತು ಸಮಯದಲ್ಲೇ ಉತ್ತಮವಾದ
ಫಲವನ್ನು ತಂದುಕೊಟ್ಟವು ಮತ್ತು ಈ ಪ್ರದೇಶಗಳ ಜನರನ್ನು ಧಮ್ಮನ ಉಡುಗೊರೆಯಾಗಿ ಮತ್ತು ಅವರ
ನಾಗರೀಕತೆಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಸಂಸ್ಕೃತಿಗಳ ಮೇಲೆ ಪ್ರಭಾವ ಬೀರುವಲ್ಲಿ ಒಂದು ಸುದೀರ್ಘ
ಮಾರ್ಗವನ್ನು ಕಂಡಿತು.

ಬುದ್ಧನ ಮಾತುಗಳ ಮೂಲಕ ಧರ್ಮವನ್ನು ಹರಡುವುದರೊಂದಿಗೆ, ಕಾಲಕ್ರಮೇಣ ಭಾರತವು ಪ್ರಪಂಚದ ಶಿಕ್ಷಕನಾದ ವಿಶ್ವಗುರು ಎಂದು ಕರೆಯಲ್ಪಟ್ಟಿತು.

ನಾಲ್ಕನೆಯ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್

ನಾಲ್ಕನೆಯ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ 29 ಬಿ.ಸಿ ಯಲ್ಲಿ ತಂಬಪಣಿಯಲ್ಲಿ [ಶ್ರೀಲಂಕಾ] ನಡೆಯಿತು. ರಾಜ ವಾಟಗಮನಿಯ ಪೋಷಣೆಯ ಅಡಿಯಲ್ಲಿ. ಅದರ
ಸಭೆಗೆ ಮುಖ್ಯ ಕಾರಣವೆಂದರೆ ಬಹುತೇಕ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ತಮ್ಮ ನೆನಪುಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಇಡೀ
ಟಿಪಿತಕವನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳುವುದಕ್ಕೆ ಸಾಧ್ಯವಾಗಲಿಲ್ಲ, ಏಕೆಂದರೆ ವಿಜಯದ ಮಹಿಂದಾ ಮತ್ತು
ಶೀಘ್ರದಲ್ಲೇ ಆತನನ್ನು ಹಿಂಬಾಲಿಸಿದವರು ಇದಕ್ಕೆ ಕಾರಣವಾಗಿತ್ತು.
ಆದ್ದರಿಂದ,
ಬರವಣಿಗೆಯ ಕಲೆಯು ಈ ಸಮಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಗಣನೀಯವಾಗಿ ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿ ಹೊಂದಿದಂತೆ, ಬುದ್ಧನ ಬೋಧನೆಯ
ಸಂಪೂರ್ಣ ದೇಹವನ್ನು ಬರೆಯುವ ಅವಶ್ಯಕತೆಯಿದೆ ಮತ್ತು ಅವಶ್ಯಕವೆಂದು ಭಾವಿಸಲಾಗಿತ್ತು.
ರಾಜ ವಿಠಗಮಮಣಿ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳ ಕಲ್ಪನೆಯನ್ನು ಬೆಂಬಲಿಸಿದರು ಮತ್ತು ನಿರ್ದಿಷ್ಟವಾಗಿ ಟಿಪೈಟಕವನ್ನು ಸಂಪೂರ್ಣವಾಗಿ ಬರೆಯುವ ಸಲುವಾಗಿ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ ನಡೆಸಲಾಯಿತು. ಆದ್ದರಿಂದ,
ನಿಜವಾದ ಧಮ್ಮವು ಶಾಶ್ವತವಾಗಿ ಸಂರಕ್ಷಿಸಲ್ಪಡಬಹುದು, ಪೂಜ್ಯ ಮಹಾರಾಖಿತ ಮತ್ತು
ಐದುನೂರು ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ಬುದ್ಧನ ಮಾತುಗಳನ್ನು ಓದಿದರು ಮತ್ತು ನಂತರ ಅವುಗಳನ್ನು ಪಾಮ್
ಎಲೆಗಳ ಮೇಲೆ ಬರೆದರು.
ಈ ಗಮನಾರ್ಹ ಯೋಜನೆಯು ಈಗ ಮಾಟೇಲ್ನಲ್ಲಿರುವ ಪುರಾತನ ಲ್ಯಾಂಡ್ಸ್ಲಿಪ್ನ ಸೀಳುಭಾಗದಲ್ಲಿರುವ ಅಲ್ಕೊ ಲೆನಾ ಎಂಬ ಗುಹೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ನಡೆಯಿತು. ಹೀಗಾಗಿ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ನ ಗುರಿಯನ್ನು ಸಾಧಿಸಲಾಯಿತು ಮತ್ತು ಅಧಿಕೃತ ಧಮ್ಮಾ ಬರಹದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂರಕ್ಷಣೆ ಖಾತರಿಪಡಿಸಿತು. ನಂತರ, ಹದಿನೆಂಟನೇ ಶತಮಾನದಲ್ಲಿ, ರಾಜ ವಿಜಯರಾಜಿಯು ಈ ಗುಹೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸೃಷ್ಟಿಸಿದ ಬುದ್ಧನ ಚಿತ್ರಗಳನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿದ್ದನು.

ಫಿಫ್ತ್ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್

ಐದನೇ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ ಮಾಂಡಲೆನಲ್ಲಿ ನಡೆಯಿತು, ಬರ್ಮಾ ಈಗ ಮ್ಯಾನ್ಮಾರ್ ಎಂದು 1871 ರಲ್ಲಿ ಕಿಂಗ್ ಮಿಂಡನ್ ಆಳ್ವಿಕೆಯಲ್ಲಿ.
ಸಭೆಯ ಮುಖ್ಯ ಉದ್ದೇಶ ಬುದ್ಧನ ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಬೋಧನೆಗಳನ್ನು ಓದಿದ ಮತ್ತು ಅವುಗಳಲ್ಲಿ
ಯಾವುದನ್ನಾದರೂ ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿದ್ದರೆ, ವಿರೂಪಗೊಳಿಸಿದ ಅಥವಾ ಕೈಬಿಡಲಾಗಿದೆಯೇ ಎಂದು ನೋಡಲು
ನಿಮಿಷಗಳ ವಿವರವಾಗಿ ಪರೀಕ್ಷಿಸುವುದು.
ಇದನ್ನು
ಮೂರು ಮೂವರು ಹಿರಿಯರು, ಪೂಜ್ಯ ಮಹಾತಥ ಜಗದಬೀಕ್ಷ, ವನರೇಬಲ್ ನರಿಂದಾಭಿಧಜ, ಮತ್ತು
ಎರಡು ಸಾವಿರ ನೂರು ನೂರು ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳ (2,400) ಕಂಪನಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಪೂಜ್ಯ ಮಹಾತೀರ
ಸುಮಗ್ಗಾಸಾಮಿ.
ಅವರ ಜಂಟಿ ಧಮ್ಮಾ ಪಠನವು ಐದು ತಿಂಗಳ ಕಾಲ ನಡೆಯಿತು. ಮಯನ್ಮಾರ್
ಲಿಪಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಏಳು ನೂರ ಇಪ್ಪತ್ತೊಂಬತ್ತು ಅಮೃತಶಿಲೆಯ ಚಪ್ಪಡಿಗಳನ್ನು ಅದರ ಪಠಣ
ಪೂರ್ಣಗೊಳಿಸಿದ ನಂತರ ಮತ್ತು ಸರ್ವಾನುಮತದಿಂದ ಅಂಗೀಕರಿಸಿದ ನಂತರ ಇಡೀ ಟಿಪಿತಕವನ್ನು
ವಂಶಾವಳಿಗಾಗಿ ಕೆತ್ತನೆ ಮಾಡಲು ಈ ಮಂಡಳಿಯ ಕೆಲಸವೂ ಸಹ ಆಗಿತ್ತು.

ಸ್ಮಾರಕ ಕಾರ್ಯವನ್ನು ಸುಮಾರು ಎರಡು ಸಾವಿರ ನೂರು ನೂರು ಸಿದ್ಧಾಂತದ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು
ಮತ್ತು ಅನೇಕ ಸ್ನಾತಕೋತ್ತರ ಕುಶಲಕರ್ಮಿಗಳು ಪ್ರತಿ ಚಪ್ಪಡಿ ಮುಗಿದ ನಂತರ ಅವುಗಳನ್ನು
ಸುಂದರ ಮಿನಿಯೇಚರ್ ‘ಪಿಟಕ’ ಪಗೋಡಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಇರಿಸಲಾಗಿತ್ತು, ಇದು ರಾಜ ಮಿಂಡನ್ನ ಕುತೊಡಾ
ಪಗೋಡದ ಮೈದಾನದಲ್ಲಿ ಮಾಂಡಲೆ
‘ವಿಶ್ವದ ಅತಿ ದೊಡ್ಡ ಪುಸ್ತಕ’ ಎಂದು ಕರೆಯಲ್ಪಡುವ ಈ ಬೆಟ್ಟವು ಇಂದಿಗೂ ನಿಂತಿದೆ.
ಆರನೇ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್

ಆರನೆಯ
ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ ಅನ್ನು 1954 ರಲ್ಲಿ ಮೊದಲು ರಂಗೂನ್ನಲ್ಲಿ ಯಾಂಗಾನ್ ನಲ್ಲಿನ ಕಾಬಾ ಆಯೆ
ಎಂದು ಕರೆದರು, ಐದನೇ ಒಂದನ್ನು ಮ್ಯಾಂಡಲೆದಲ್ಲಿ ನಡೆಸಿದ ಎಂಭತ್ತಮೂರು ವರ್ಷಗಳ ನಂತರ.
ಪ್ರಧಾನ ಮಂತ್ರಿ ನೇತೃತ್ವದ ಬರ್ಮಾ ಸರ್ಕಾರದಿಂದ ಇದು ಗೌರವಿಸಲ್ಪಟ್ಟಿದೆ, ಗೌರವಾನ್ವಿತ ಯು ನು. ಭಾರತದ
ಧಾರ್ಮಿಕ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ನ ಸ್ಥಳವಾದ ಭಾರತದ ಸಟ್ಟಾಪಾನಿ ಗುಹೆಯಂತೆ ಸಭೆಯಾಗಿ ಸೇವೆಸಲ್ಲಿಸಲು
ಮಹಾ ಭೂಸಾನ ಗುಹಾ ಎಂಬ ಮಹತ್ವದ ಗುಹೆಯು ನೆಲದಿಂದ ನಿರ್ಮಿಸಲ್ಪಟ್ಟಿತು.
ಅದರ
ಪೂರ್ಣಗೊಂಡ ನಂತರ, ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ 1954 ರ ಮೇ 17 ರಂದು ಭೇಟಿಯಾಯಿತು. ಮುಂಚಿನ
ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ಗಳಂತೆ, ನಿಜವಾದ ಧಮ್ಮಾ ಮತ್ತು ವಿನಯವನ್ನು ದೃಢೀಕರಿಸುವುದು ಮತ್ತು
ಸಂರಕ್ಷಿಸುವುದು ಇದರ ಮೊದಲ ಗುರಿಯಾಗಿದೆ.
ಆದಾಗ್ಯೂ ಎಂಟು ದೇಶಗಳಿಂದ ಬಂದ ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ಅದರಲ್ಲಿ ಭಾಗವಹಿಸಿದಂತೆ ಇದು ವಿಶಿಷ್ಟವಾಗಿದೆ.
ಎರಡು ಸಾವಿರ ಐನೂರು ಕಲಿತ ಥೆರವಾಡ ​​ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ಮ್ಯಾನ್ಮಾರ್, ಕಾಂಬೋಡಿಯಾ, ಭಾರತ,
ಲಾವೋಸ್, ನೇಪಾಳ, ಶ್ರೀಲಂಕಾ, ಥಾಯ್ಲೆಂಡ್ ಮತ್ತು ವಿಯೆಟ್ನಾಮ್ಗಳಿಂದ ಬಂದವು.
ಪೂಜಿತ
ಮಹಾಯಾಸಿ ಸಯಡಾವ್ರನ್ನು ಪೂಜ್ಯ ಭದಂತ ವಿಠಟ್ಟಾಸರಾಭಿಕ್ಷಾ ಟಿಪ್ಪತ್ತಕಧರ
ಧಮಭಾಂದಾಗರಿಕಾ ಧಾಮದ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಅಗತ್ಯವಾದ ಪ್ರಶ್ನೆಗಳನ್ನು ಕೇಳುವ ಶ್ರೇಷ್ಠ ಕಾರ್ಯವೆಂದು
ನೇಮಿಸಲಾಯಿತು. ಅವರು ಎಲ್ಲರೂ ಕಲಿತರು ಮತ್ತು ತೃಪ್ತಿಕರವಾಗಿ ಉತ್ತರಿಸಿದರು.
ಈ ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ ಭೇಟಿಯಾಗುವ ಹೊತ್ತಿಗೆ, ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಪಾಲ್ಗೊಳ್ಳುವ ದೇಶಗಳು ಪಾಲಿ ಟಿಪಿತಾಕವನ್ನು ಅವರ ಹೊರತಾದ ಲಿಪಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಭಾರತಕ್ಕೆ ಹೊರತಾದವು.

ಧಮ್ಮ
ಸ್ಕ್ರಿಪ್ಚರ್ಸ್ನ ಸಾಂಪ್ರದಾಯಿಕ ಪಠಣವು ಎರಡು ವರ್ಷಗಳನ್ನು ತೆಗೆದುಕೊಂಡಿತ್ತು,
ಅದರಲ್ಲಿ ಟಿಪಿತಾಕ ಮತ್ತು ಅದರ ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯದಲ್ಲೂ ಅದರ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯವು ತೀವ್ರವಾಗಿ
ಪರೀಕ್ಷಿಸಲ್ಪಟ್ಟಿತ್ತು.
ಕಂಡುಬರುವ ಯಾವುದೇ ವ್ಯತ್ಯಾಸಗಳು ಕೆಳಗೆ ಗುರುತಿಸಲ್ಪಟ್ಟವು, ಅಗತ್ಯವಾದ ತಿದ್ದುಪಡಿಗಳು ಮಾಡಲ್ಪಟ್ಟವು ಮತ್ತು ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಆವೃತ್ತಿಗಳು ನಂತರ ಜೋಡಿಸಲ್ಪಟ್ಟವು. ಹ್ಯಾಪಿಲಿ, ಯಾವುದೇ ಪಠ್ಯದ ವಿಷಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ ವ್ಯತ್ಯಾಸವಿಲ್ಲ ಎಂದು ತಿಳಿದುಬಂದಿದೆ. ಅಂತಿಮವಾಗಿ,
ಕೌನ್ಸಿಲ್ ಅಧಿಕೃತವಾಗಿ ಅಂಗೀಕರಿಸಿದ ನಂತರ, ಟಿಪೈಟಕಾ ಮತ್ತು ಅವರ ಕಾಮೆಂಟರಿಗಳ ಎಲ್ಲಾ
ಸಂಪುಟಗಳು ಆಧುನಿಕ ಪ್ರೆಸ್ಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಮುದ್ರಣಕ್ಕಾಗಿ ತಯಾರಿಸಲ್ಪಟ್ಟವು ಮತ್ತು
ಮ್ಯಾನ್ಮಾರ್ (ಬರ್ಮಾ) ಲಿಪಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಪ್ರಕಟಗೊಂಡಿತು.
ಎರಡು ಸಾವಿರದ ಐನೂರು ಸನ್ಯಾಸಿಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಹಲವಾರು ಲಯ ಜನರ ಸಮರ್ಪಿತ ಪ್ರಯತ್ನಗಳ ಮೂಲಕ ಈ ಗಮನಾರ್ಹ ಸಾಧನೆ ಸಾಧ್ಯವಾಯಿತು. ಅವರ ಕಾರ್ಯವು ಮೇ 1956 ರಲ್ಲಿ ಕೊನೆಗೊಂಡಿತು, ಲಾರ್ಡ್ ಪರಿಣಿಬ್ಬಾಣವನ್ನು ಪಡೆದು ಎರಡು ಮತ್ತು ಒಂದು ಅರ್ಧ ಶತಮಾನಗಳ ನಂತರ. ಇಡೀ ಬೌದ್ಧ ಪ್ರಪಂಚದ ಪ್ರತಿನಿಧಿಗಳ ವಿಶಿಷ್ಟ ಸಾಧನೆ ಈ ಮಂಡಳಿಯ ಕಾರ್ಯವಾಗಿತ್ತು. ಗೋಟಮಾ ಬುದ್ಧನ ಮೂಲಭೂತ ಬೋಧನೆಗಳಿಗೆ ಮತ್ತು ಇಲ್ಲಿಯವರೆಗಿನ ಅವರ ಅಧಿಕೃತ
ನಿರೂಪಣೆಗಳಿಗೆ ಉತ್ಪತ್ತಿಯಾಗುವ ಟಿಪ್ಪತ್ತಕದ ಆವೃತ್ತಿಗೆ ಇದು ನಿಜವೆಂದು
ಗುರುತಿಸಲ್ಪಟ್ಟಿದೆ.

ಸಿಕ್ಸ್ತ್ ಸಗಾಯಾನಾ ನಂತರ ಮುದ್ರಿತವಾದ ಸಂಪುಟಗಳನ್ನು ಮ್ಯಾನ್ಮಾರ್ ಲಿಪಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಮುದ್ರಿಸಲಾಯಿತು. ಭಾರತದ
ಜನರಿಗೆ ಸಂಪುಟಗಳನ್ನು ಮಾಡಲು, ವಿಪಾಸನ ರಿಸರ್ಚ್ ಇನ್ಸ್ಟಿಟ್ಯೂಟ್ 1990 ರಲ್ಲಿ
ದೇವನಾಗರಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಅದರ ಅಂಟಕಾತಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ತಿಕಸ್ ಅನ್ನು ಟಿಪ್ಪಿತಕವನ್ನು ಮುದ್ರಿಸಲು
ಯೋಜನೆಯನ್ನು ಪ್ರಾರಂಭಿಸಿತು.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=78zRh3UGr-k
Lord Buddha’s​ conversation with the Beggar will make u Inspired |Cine Hosathu Kannada
Filmy Central
Published on Sep 17, 2017
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50) Classical Kazakh
50) Классикалық қазақ

2632 Сб 26 мамыр САБАҚ

5 сөз бойынша Будданың тәлім-тәрбиеімен оянған адам
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«Монахтардың:«
Достар, мен мұны Жаратқан Иенің еркінен естідім және қабылдап алдым:
бұл Дхамма, бұл тәртіп, бұл Мастердің ілімі », сосын монахтардың, сіз
оны мақұлдамауға немесе мақұлдамауға тиіссіз
сөздер. Содан
кейін, мақұлдамай немесе мақұлдамай, оның сөздері мен өрнектерін мұқият
байқап, Суттаспен салыстыруға және пәннің аясында қарастыруға болады.
Егер
олар осындай салыстыру мен шолуда Суттасқа немесе тәртіпке сәйкес
келмесе, онда қорытынды жасалуы керек: «Бұл Будда сөзі емес, бұл
монахтың дұрыс түсінбегендігі» және бұл мәселе
қабылданбауы керек. Бірақ мұндай салыстыру мен қайта қарауда олар Судтасқа немесе тәртіпке
сай болғанда, қорытынды жасалуы керек: «Бұл Будда сөзі, бұл монахтың
дұрыс түсінгені».

- DN 16 Mahāparinibbāna Sutta - Ұлы өту, Будданың соңғы күндері
Будданың Готаманың шынайы ілімдері бізді сақтап қалды және Типиитакада табылды. Pāli сөзі, ‘Tipiṭaka’ сөзбе-сөз «үш себетті» білдіреді (ti = үш + piṭaka = тармақтардың жинақтары). Будданың барлық ілімдері үш бөлікке бөлінді.

1. Бірінші бөлім Виная Пиатака деп аталады және онда Будда монахтардың және монахтардың алдына қойылған барлық ережелер бар.
2. Екінші бөлік Suttaṅta Piṭaka деп аталады және онда дискурстар бар.
3. Үшінші бөлігі Абхидхамма Пиатака деп аталады және Будданың психологиялық-этикалық ілімдерін қамтиды.

Будда
өзінің тағайындалған шәкірттеріне немесе шәкірттеріне сөйлеген кезде
немесе өзінің қырық бес жылдық қызметі кезінде монастырь тағайындаған
кезде, оның адал және үйренген ғибадатханасының қызметкерлері болса,
онда ол дереу оның ілімдерін орындайды
сөзді есте сақтау. Осылайша, Будда сөздері дәл сақталып, уақытында мұғалімнен оқушыға ауызша түрде ауысты. Будда
туралы уағыздаған кейбір монахтардың «Араханц» болды, сондықтан «таза
адамдар» құмарлықтан, қателіктерден және жалғандықтан босатылды,
сондықтан, сөзсіз, Будданың сөздерін дұрыс ұстай алатын.
Осылайша, Будданың ілімдері кейінгі ұрпаққа адал сақталып қалады.

Тіпті
Аарантануға жетпеген, бірақ Саинтуттың алғашқы үш сатысына жетіп,
күшті, естен кетпес естеліктерге ие болған ғибадатханалар да Будданың
уағыздап, Будданың ілімдерін сақтауға лайықты болуы мүмкін деген сөзді
есте сақтауы мүмкін.
Осындай монахтардың бірі Андонда, оның өмірінің соңғы жиырма бес жылында Будда сайланған және тұрақты серіктесі болды. Ананда өте ақылды және естігенін еске түсіру қабілетін сыйлады. Шынында
да, Будда әрқашан өзінің барлық уәждерін айтады және ол әлі Арханта
болмаса да, ол бұл туралы Буддадағы уағыздардың бәрін сөзбен айтқанда,
монахтардың, нөкерлерді және оның ізбасарларын шақырды.
Осы дарынды және адал монахтардың бірлескен күш-жігері Будда оқыған
Дхамма мен Винаяны бастапқы күйінде сақтауға мүмкіндік берді.

Pāli Tipiṭaka және оның одақтас әдебиеті будданың таза Дхамманың асыл және босату жолын ашуы нәтижесінде орын алады. Бұл жол бейбіт және бақытты өмір сүру үшін оған еріп жүргендердің бәріне мүмкіндік береді. Шынында
да, осы күн мен жаста біз оның шәкірттерінің адал және келісілген
күш-жігері арқылы болашақ ұрпақтар үшін сақталған Будданың шынайы
ілімдеріне қол жеткізе аламыз.
Будда
шәкірттеріне олардың арасында болған кезде Смингханың Дхамманы ұжымдық
түрде оқып үйрену мақсатымен бірігіп жиналуы маңызды екенін дәлелдеді.
Осы
нұсқаулыққа сәйкес, бірінші Ақсақалдар кеңесті шақырып, жүйелі түрде
Будданың барлық дискурстарына және монастырлық ережелеріне тапсырыс
беріп, сөздерді сөзбе-сөз сөйлеп, адал сөзбен оқыды.

Типиатакадағы ілімдер ақсақалдардың доктринасы (Theravāda) ретінде белгілі. Бұл дискурстар бірнеше жүзден асады және Бірінші Кеңестің шақырылған кезінен бері әрдайым сөз айтылды. Кейінірек
Кеңестер көп себептер бойынша шақырылды, бірақ олардың әрқайсысында
Будданың барлық жаттығуларын Съмгха қатысушылары сөз сөйлеп, сөзбен және
сөзбен әрдайым оқыды.
Бірінші
кеңес Будданың Махарпиниббараһаға жеткеннен кейін үш ай өткен соң, одан
кейін тағы бесеуі болды, екеуі он тоғызыншы және жиырмасыншы ғасырларда
шақырылды.
Бұл Дхамма кеңестерінде монахтардың орындауындағы ұжымдық әңгімелер «Дхамма Сагнгтитис», «Дхамма оқулары» деп аталады. Олар
бірінші Дхамма кеңесінде орнатылған прецедентпен байланысты, сондықтан
барлық Ұстаздар алдымен Сагнганың аға шәкірті оқығаннан кейін жиналысқа
қатысқан барлық монахтардың хоры арқылы тағы да ән шырқады.
Оқулардың түпнұсқасы, Кеңестің мүшелері бірауыздан мақұлдаған кезде ғана шынайы болып саналады. Төменде Алты кеңестің қысқаша тарихы бар.

Бірінші Кеңес

Король Аджасасту алғашқы кеңеске демеушілік көрсетті. Ол 544 Б. Будда қайтыс болғаннан кейін үш айдан кейін Раджагахадан тыс орналасқан Саттаафая үңгірінде. Бұл тарихи кездесудің егжей-тегжейлі есебі Виная Пиатаканың «Куолавагга» арналған. Осы
жазбаға сәйкес, бұл кездесуді Мәриям Махачпасапаға шақырған оқиғаны
монахтардың өмір сүру қатаң ережесі туралы естігенде естігені болды.
Бұл оқиға болды. Будда
уақытының біткенін естігенде, өмірге кешігіп тағайындаған бұрынғы
шаштаразды монах Субхадда, Будданың орнатқан монахтардың барлық
ережелерін ұстанғаны үшін өзінің ренішін білдірді.
Көптеген монахтар Буддаға баруды мазақтап, қатты қайғырды. Алайда, Мольха Махачасапа Субхадды былай деп естіді: «Қайта орай, жете бермеңдер, қайғырмаңдар, қайғырмаңдар. Біз осы ұлы тынығудан (Будда) құтыламыз. «Біз
сізге рұқсат береміз, бұл сізге рұқсат етілмейді» деп айтқан кезде біз
азап шегеміз, бірақ қазір біз өзіміз қалағандай істей аламыз және бізге
ұнамайтын нәрсені істеудің қажеті болмайды ».
Махачассапа
оның ескертуімен алаңдатып, Дхамма мен Винаяның басқа да монахтардың
«Субхадда» сияқты әрекет етуі және Дхамма мен Виная ережелерін өздері
қалағандай түсіндіруі керек болған жағдайда, бүлінуі мүмкін деп қорқады.
Бұған жол бермеу үшін ол Дхамманы сақтауға және қорғауға шешім қабылдады. Осы мақсатта Сүңгердің мақұлдауын алғаннан кейін, ол бес жүз кеңеске шақырылды. Кеңестің шақыруы кезінде Арантуттағы жетістіктерге қол жеткізгенде, Аннан осыған қосылуы керек еді. Қарттар Махачассапаның төрағалығымен бес жүз аразан монахтары жаңбырлы маусымда кеңесте кездесті. Махачасапаның ең алғашқы сөзі ғибадатхананың ерекшеліктеріне қатысты «Винара» күнгі ең беделді сарапшыға қатысты болды. Бұл монахтардың міндеті жақсы болды, себебі Будда өзін Винаяны өзі үйреткен. Ең
алдымен, Мәртебасар Махачасапа осы тақырыпқа, оқиғаға, жеке адамға
енгізілгенге, жариялауға, жариялаудың қайталануына, құқық бұзушылыққа
және іс-әрекеттерге қатысты, бірінші қылмыс туралы [pārājika]
қылмыс. Уафали ақылға қонымды және жауапты жауап берді және оның ескертулері Төрағалық етушінің бірауыздан мақұлдауымен кездесті. Осылайша Vinaya ресми түрде мақұлданды.

Содан кейін Махачасапа Анедаға назарын аударып, Дхаммамен байланысты барлық мәселелер бойынша беделді сараптамадан өтті. Бақытымызға орай, Кеңестің алдындағы түні Ананда Архантияға жетіп, Кеңеске кірді. Мәселен,
қарт Махачасапа Дхаммаға қатысты толық сенімділікпен Будданың
уағыздарына нақты сілтеме жасай отырып, оған ұзақ уақыт бойы күмәндануға
мүмкіндік алды.
Дхаммаға
қатысты осы сауалнама барлық баяндамалар алғаш рет уағыздаған орынды
және олардың кімге жіберілгенін тексеруге талпынды.
Анадада, оның сөзі бар тамаша жадымен дәл жауап беруге қабілетті болды, және де Сөйлегендер Сингерханы бірауыздан мақұлдады. Бірінші
кеңес сондай-ақ кәмелетке толмаған және аз ережелер туралы тараудың
жабылуына және олардың сақталуын мақұлдауға ресми мақұлдады.
Монахтардың жеті ай бойы Виная мен Дхамманы оқығаны, ал монахтардың жақсы естеліктерімен оқығандығын естіді. Бұл тарихи кеңес бірінші болып «Паасасика» деп аталды, себебі оған бес жүз толығымен ағартылған Архандар қатысты.

Екінші кеңес

Екінші Кеңес «он пунктке» қатысты маңызды дауды реттеу үшін Будданың Париниббӓнамамен жүз жылдан кейін аталды. Бұл он монахтардың кейбір ережелерін бұзғаны туралы айтады. олар:

1. Тұзды мүйізде сақтау.
2. Түстен кейін тамақтану.
3. Бір рет тамақтанып, сосын қайырымдылық үшін ауылға қайта барады.
4. Uposatha рәсімін сол жерде орналасқан монахтардың қатысуымен өткізу.
5. Жинау аяқталмаған кезде ресми актілерді орындау.
6. Кейбір практикадан кейін оны мұғалім немесе мұғалім жасаған.
7. Пісіргеннен кейін қышқыл сүтті ішу.
8. Ашытқыға дейін күшті сусын тұтыну.
9. Кілемді дұрыс емес мөлшерде пайдалану.
10. Алтын мен күмісті пайдалану.

Олардың
бұрыс әрекеттері мәселе болды және үлкен келіспеушіліктер тудырды,
өйткені бұл ережелерді бұзу Буддадағы түпнұсқа ілімдерге қайшы келеді
деп ойлады.
Король Кӓнамасока Екінші Кеңестің патроны болды және кездесу келесі жағдайларға байланысты Весайлиде өтті. Бір
күні, Вайсаниде Махавана Грутіне барғанда, қарттар заңы Ваджиандар деп
аталатын үлкен монахтардың монахтардың алтын мен күмісті қабылдауға
тыйым салған ережені бұзғанын білді.
Ол өздерінің мінез-құлқын сынап, олардың жауабы жеңіске жететініне үміттеніп, оған заңсыз пайда әкелуді ұсынды. Алайда, Қарттар заңы олардың мінез-құлқынан бас тартты. Монахтар оны бірден татуласудың формальды әрекеттерімен сотқа шақырып, оны өздерінің жалған тәңірлерін айыптады деп айыптады. Үлкен
Яза сәйкесінше, өздерін діни адал адамдармен татуластырды, бірақ
сонымен бірге Виджжиялық монахтардың Будда туралы алтын және күміс
қабылдау немесе тыйым салу туралы тыйым салу туралы айтқан сөзін келтіре
отырып қателескеніне көз жеткізді.
Мысықшылар
Еділ Язаны қолдап, Вайджик монахтарын дұрыс емес адамдарға және
еретиктерге жариялап: «Тек қарттар заңы - шынайы монах және сақ ұлы.
Қалғандардың барлығы монахтардың емес, Сақан ұлдарының емес «.

Қатты
және өкінбейтін Ваджиан монахтары өздерінің діни қызметкерлерімен
кездесуінің нәтижесі туралы білу үшін Сингергтің қалған бөлігін
мақұлдамай, Заңды Яса Тхараны тоқтатуға көшті.
Елеус Ясса, алайда, олардың айыптауынан қашып, басқа жерлерде монахтардың қолдауын іздестірді. Панадағы
алпыс орман монахтары мен Авантидің оңтүстік аймақтарынан сексен
монахтардың өзі Винайаның сыбайлас жемқорлықты тексеруге көмектесуін
ұсынды.
Олар бірге Сорейяға баруды шешті, өйткені ол жоғары реванда монах және Дхамма мен Винаядағы сарапшы болған. Вайжиан
монахтары бұл туралы біліп алғаннан кейін, олар оны тез арада бас
тартқан төрт талпыныстарды ұсына отырып, беделді Ревата қолдауын
іздестірді.
Бұл монахтар сол кездегі Ревата қызметіне, беделді Уттараға жеңіске жету үшін бірдей құралдарды қолдануға тырысты. Алғашында
ол да өз ұсыныстарын қабылдамады, бірақ олар оны өз ұсыныстарын
қабылдауға көндірді, бұл кезде Будданың реквизиттері оны қабылдамады деп
қабылдаған кезде, Аннан оларды қабылдап алуды сұрайды және жиі
келіседі.
Уттара ақылын өзгертіп, реквизиттерді қабылдады. Оларды
шақырып, ол Ваджиан монахтарының «Шындық» және «Дхамманың» ұстаушылары
болғанын жариялау үшін, Жоғарғы Реватаға баруға келіседі.
Күшті Ревата өздерінің шабуылдарын көріп, оларды қолдамады. Содан кейін ол Уткараны босатты. Бұл
мәселені бір рет және бір рет шешу үшін, Жоғарғы Ревата Кеңестің
күндізгі кеңестің ең үлкен он күніне арналған Thera Sabbjakāmi туралы он
сауалға қатысты сұрақтар қойып, Вадимкарахада кеңесті шақыруға кеңес
берді.
Оның
пікірі берілген соң, ол сегіз монахтардың комитеті тарапынан тыңдалуы
керек еді және оның жарамдылығы дауыс беру арқылы шешілді.
Бұл
мәселені шешу үшін шақырылған сегіз монахтардың Шығыс және төрт
монахтардың, Батыстың Ревата, Самбута-Са’навависы, Йаса және Сумананың
шығысындағы Саббаками, Сабаха, Хужжасобита және Васабхагамика болды.
Олар сұрақты жауап беруші ретінде Рефатамен бірге талқылап, сұрақтарына жауап берді. Дебат естілгеннен кейін сегіз монахин Ваджиан монахтарын қарсы алды және олардың шешімі жиналысқа жарияланды. Кейін жеті жүз монах дхамма мен винаяны оқыды және бұл әңгіме Саттасати деп аталды, себебі оған жеті жүз монахин қатысады. Бұл тарихи кеңесте сондай-ақ, Yasatthera Sangīti деп аталады, себебі ол үлкен Ясаның рөлінде ойнап, Винаяны қорғауға ынталы. Важжиан монахтары Кеңестің шешімін қабылдамауға және Махаизмгити деп аталатын кеңестің атына қарсы шығуға түбегейлі бас тартты.

Үшінші Кеңес

Үшінші Кеңестің ең алдымен сағингті сағаттардан құтылу үшін және сюжеттік монахтардың құтқару мақсатында өткізілді. Кеңес 326 Б. Асокармада Пациалипутта император Асоканың қамқорлығымен. Бұл кеңесте Ұлы Моггалиптута Тисса төрағалық етті және бір мың монах. Дәстүр бойынша, Асока өзінің әкесі ұлының қанын төгіп, Токса Кумараны құтқара отырып, өзінің тағын жеңіп алды.

Asoka Будда Махапариниббанадан кейін екі жүз он сегізінші жылы таққа отырды. Бастапқыда
ол Дхаммаға және Сүңгеге деген құрметпен ғана төледі, сондай-ақ әкесі
оған бұрын жасаған басқа діни секталардың мүшелерін қолдады.
Дегенмен, мұның бәрі ол Appamāda-vagga уағыздаған адал ниетті ханым Нигрдоды кездескенде өзгерді. Содан кейін ол басқа діни топтарды қолдауды тоқтатты және Дхаммаға деген қызығушылығын арттырды. Ол
өзінің үлкен байлығын салу үшін, сексен төрт мың пагодалар мен
вихараларды айтады және төрт реквизитпен Бхикхусты қолдап отырады.
Оның ұлы Махинда және оның қызы Саъмгамитта Сангнгаға тағайындалды. Ақырында, оның жомарттығы Сагнгадағы маңызды мәселелер тудырды. Уақыт
өте келе, бұйрық императордың жомарт қолдауы мен азық-түлік,
киім-кешек, баспаналар мен дәрі-дәрмектерді ұсынғандықтан, әдептілік
көзқарастарына ие болған және тәртіпке тартылған көптеген лайықсыз
адамдарға енген.
Қате
көзқарастарды қолдайтын сенімсіз, ашкөз ер адамдар бұйрыққа қосылуға
тырысады, бірақ оларды реттеу үшін жарамсыз деп есептеледі.
Осыған қарамастан, олар императордың жомарттығын өз мақсаттары үшін пайдаланып, киім-кешектерін киіп, тапсырыс бермей-ақ қойды. Демек, Сагнгаға құрмет азайды. Кейін бұл шынайы монахтардың белгілі бір тазалауды немесе Uposatha
рәсімін жемқор, еретикалық монахтардың компаниясында өткізуден бас
тартты.

Бұл туралы император естігенде, ол жағдайды түзетуге тырысып, оның бір қызметшісін монахтарға жіберіп, рәсімді орындайды. Алайда император өз бұйрығын орындауға қандай құралдарды қолдануға болатыны туралы нақты тапсырма берген емес. Монахтар өздерінің жалған және ұрлық жасаған серіктестеріне (әдеттегідей) қатысып, рәсімін орындамай бас тартты. Қуғын-сүргінге
ұшыраған министр сиқырлы монахтардың желісін төмендетіп, қылышын
көтеріп, бірін-бірі қолға түсіріп, патшаның бауыры Тиссаға
тағайындалғанға дейін бас тартты.
Қасіретін қызметші союды тоқтатты және залдан қашып, император Асокаға қайғы-қасіретке ұшырап, өзін өлтіргені үшін кінәлады. Ол Thera Moggaliputta Tissa компаниясының кеңесіне жүгінді. Ол еретикалық монахтардың бұйрықтан шығарылуын және үшінші Кеңесті дереу шақыруды ұсынды. Осылайша, императордың билігінің он жеті жылы Үшінші Кеңестің шақырылуы болды. Thera
Moggaliputta Tissa іс жүргізуді басқарып, тоғыз ай бойы жүріп жатқан
Дхамма мен Винаяның дәстүрлі оқуы үшін алпыс мыңнан астам қатысушыны
таңдады.
Император өзі монахтарды Будданың ілімі туралы бірқатар монастырлардан сұрады. Қате көзқарастарға ие болғандар дереу Сагнгадан шыққан және шығарылған. Осылайша, Бхикху Съмгаха еретиктерден және жалған бхикхустан тазартылды.
Бұл кеңес бірқатар басқа да маңызды мәселелерге қол жеткізді. Ежелгі
Моггалиптута Тисса бірнеше дұшпандықты жоққа шығарып, Дхамманы
қамтамасыз ету үшін таза сақталып, Кхатхатту деп аталатын кеңес кезінде
кітапты орындады.
Бұл
кітап жиырма жиырма тараудан тұрады және философиялық мәселелер бойынша
түрлі секталар тарапынан жүргізілген пікірталастар жиынтығы және
еретикалық көзқарастардың жоқтығы.
Бұл Абхидхамма Пиатаканың жеті кітаптарының бесінші бөлігі. Кеңес мүшелері сондай-ақ Будда доктринасына Корольдік мөрді бекітті, оны «Вибхажжавада», «Талдау доктринасы» деп атады. Бұл бекітілген Теравада доктринасына ұқсас. Осы
Дхамма ассамблеясының маңызды жетістіктерінің бірі және ғасырлар бойы
жеміс беретін бір нәрсе, императордың Будда Дхамма мен Винаяда жақсы
білетін, оны үйрететін монахтарды жібергені болды.
тоғыз елде. Бұл Dhammadūta монахтары Кашмирге және Гандарияға барған Мәртебелі Majjhantika Thera-ды қамтиды. Оған Дхамманы уағыздауға және монахтардың бұйрығын белгілеуге тапсырма берілді. Жоғары
мәртебелі Махадеваға Махинкакама сүргімен (заманауи Майсора) жіберілді,
ал ұлт Ракхита Тора Ванавасияға (Үндістанның оңтүстігіндегі
солтүстіктегі Канараға) жіберілді. Құрметті Йонака Дхаммарахита Thera
Жоғарғы Апарпакаға (солтүстік Гуджарат, Катайвар, Котч, Синдх)
.

Махаракхита
Терра Йонака-локаға (лониандықтар, бактриандықтар мен гректердің
жеріне) барды. Мәжхима Thera Химавантаға (Гималаяға жақын орналасқан
жеріне) барып қайтты. Құрметті Субинга және Мәңгілік Уттара
СувайраМонгабхуми [қазір
Мьянма]. Мәңгілік
Махинда Thera, The Venerable Ittiya Thera, беделді Uttiya Thera,
беделді Sambala Thera және беделді Bhaddasarla Thera Tambapaṇṇi (қазір
Шри-Ланка) жіберілді.
Осы монахтардың Дхамма миссиялары сәтті өтті және уақыт ішінде үлкен
жемістер әкелді және осы елдердің халықтарының Дхамма сыйлығымен және
олардың өркениеттеріне және мәдениеттеріне әсерін тигізуде ұзақ жолға
түсті.

Дхамманың Будданың сөзі арқылы таралуы кезінде, Индия Үндістанды әлемнің мұғалімі Висвагуру деп атады.

Төртінші Кеңес

Төртінші Кеңес ТамбапырМұғи [Шри-Ланка] қаласында 29 Б. Корольдің Ваṭṭagāmaṇi патронажының астында. Оның
шақыруының басты себебі - монахтардың көпшілігінің бұрынғысынша
бұрынғыдан кейінгі Махиндаға және оның соңынан ерген адамдарға арналған
еске салуларында барлық Типиитаканы сақтап қалуы мүмкін емес еді.
Сондықтан
жазба өнері осы уақытқа дейін дамыды, Будданың жаттығуларының бүкіл
денесін жазуға болатын орынды және қажетті деп саналды.
King Vaṭṭagāmaṇi монахтардың идеясын қолдады және Кеңес Типиитаканы толығымен жазу үшін арнайы өткізілді. Осылайша,
шынайы Дхамманы ұзақ уақыт сақтап қалу үшін, Махарахита және бес жүз
монахин Будданың сөздерін оқып, содан кейін оларды пальма жапырақтарына
жазған.
Бұл таңғажайып жоба қазір Матеалдың маңында орналасқан ежелгі көне саздың түбінде орналасқан Һоло лена үңгірінде орын алды. Осылайша, Кеңестің мақсаты қол жеткізілді және түпнұсқа Дхамманы жазбаша түрде сақтау қамтамасыз етілді. Кейінірек, он сегізінші ғасырда Виджаяриясха патшасы осы үңгірде құрылған Будданың бейнелері болды.

Бесінші Кеңес

Бесінші кеңес Маландале қаласында өтті, ол 1871 жылы Мьянмада Минглама деп аталды. Бұл
кездесудің басты мақсаты Будданың барлық ілімдерін оқып үйрену және
олардың біреуінің өзгергенін, бұрмаланғанын немесе түсірілгенін көру
үшін оларды егжей-тегжейлі қарап шығу.
Ол
екі мың төрт жүз монахтардың (2 400 адам) басқарған үш Мәртебелі
Махатира Джагарабахаша, Мәңгілік Нариндәххәдха және Махатриа
Суммгаргальасами төрағалық етті.
Олардың бірлескен Дхамма оқуы бес айға созылды. Бұл
кеңестің мәтіні мьянма жазуындағы жеті жүз жиырма тоғыз мәрмәр
плиталардағы барлық Типиитаканы ұрпақтарға жазуға мәжбүрлеп, оның
аяқталғаннан кейін бірауыздан бекітілді.
Бұл
монументалды тапсырманы шамамен екі мың төрт жүз эрудиттік монахтардың
және көптеген шебер қолөнершілер жасаған, олар әрбір тақтайшаны
аяқтағаннан кейін, олар Малангтың етегіндегі Корн Миндонның Кухоав
Пагода алаңындағы ерекше учаскеде әдемі миниатюралық «пиотака» пагодада
орналастырылған
Хилл, мұнда «әлемдегі ең үлкен кітап» деп аталады.Алтыншы Кеңес

Алтыншы
Кеңес 1954 жылы бұрынғы Рангон қаласында, Мандалай қаласында өткен
бесінші кездесуден сексен үш жыл өткен соң, Янгондағы Каба Ае қаласында
шақырылды.
Оны премьер-министр, Құрметті У Ну бастаған Бирма үкіметі қаржыландырды. Ол
жердің ішінен салынған Маха Пасана Гуха құрылысына рұқсат беріп,
Үндістанның Саттапанни үңгіріне ұқсас - жиналыс орны ретінде бірінші
Дхамма Кеңесінің сайтына айналды.
Кеңес
аяқталғаннан кейін Кеңес 1954 жылы 17 мамырда кездесті. Алдыңғы
кеңестерде болғандай, оның алғашқы мақсаты - шынайы Дхамма мен Винаяны
бекіту және сақтау.
Алайда оған қатысқан монахтардың сегіз елден келгені соншалық, бірегей болды. Бұл
екі мың бес жүз зерттелген Theravāda монахтары Мьянма, Камбоджия,
Үндістан, Лаос, Непал, Шри-Ланка, Таиланд және Вьетнамнан келді.
Махаиси
Сайявудың кешігіп беріліп, барлық жауаптарына қанағаттанарлық жауап
берген, Құрметті Бхаданта Викитасарабахаша Тихий Дхамма туралы сұраққа
жауап берудің асыл міндеті тағайындалды.
Осы кеңесте кездескен барлық қатысушы елдер Үндістанды қоспағанда,
өздерінің сценарийлеріне енгізілген Пәли Типиитакаға ие болды.

Дхамма
Жазбаларының дәстүрлі оқуы екі жыл өтті, оның барысында барлық
сценарийлерде Типиитака және оның одақтас әдебиеті мұқият зерделенді.
Кез келген айырмашылықтар төменде көрсетілген, қажетті түзетулер жасалды және барлық нұсқалар салыстыру жүргізілді. Бақытымызға орай, кез-келген мәтіннің мазмұнында айтарлықтай айырмашылық жоқ екендігі анықталды. Соңында,
Кеңес оларды ресми бекіткеннен кейін, Tipiṭaka барлық томдары мен
олардың түсініктемелері қазіргі заманғы баспасөзде басып шығаруға
дайындалып, Мьянма (Бирма) сценарийінде жарияланды.
Бұл елеулі жетістік екі мың бес жүз монахтардың және көптеген адамдардың өмір сүрген адамдарының арқасында мүмкін болды. Олардың
жұмыстары 1956 жылдың мамыр айында аяқталды, ал Жаратқан Иенің
Париниббанаға жеткеннен кейін екі жарым мыңжылдыққа созылды.
Бұл кеңестің жұмысы буддисттің бүкіл әлемінің өкілдерінің ерекше жетістігі болды. Типиатаканың нұсқасы, оны шығаруға міндеттеген, бүгінгі күнге дейін
Готаманың Будданың нағыз ілімдеріне және олардың ең беделді
көрсетілімдеріне қатысты деп танылды.

Алтыншы Савгаргаядан кейін басылған көлемдер Мьянмадағы сценарийде басылған. Үндістан
халқына арналған көлемді жасау үшін Випассан ғылыми-зерттеу институты
1990 жылы Диванагаридегі Титипатаканы оның ṭṭhakathās және ṭikas
баспасынан бастады.

https://www.youtube.com/watch…
The Orchestra of Kazakh Folk Instruments

Kurmangazy Kazakh National Conservatory
Published on Jul 22, 2017
The Orchestra of Kazakh Folk Instruments of Kazakh Conservatory (Almaty, Kazakhstan)

The Shanghai Oriental Art Center (2016)
Category
Music


youtube.com
The Orchestra of Kazakh Folk Instruments of Kazakh Conservatory (Almaty, Kazakhstan) The Shanghai Oriental Art Center (2016)

https://thewire.in/…/cobrapost-sting-big-media-houses-say-y…

The Murderers of democratic institutions (Modi) after gobbling the
Master Key by tampering the fraud EVMs for Brashtachar Jiyadha
Psychopaths (BJP) rightly mentioned the Media as PRESSTITUTES and wanted
them to remain as such by regularly making them payments.

All the scribes with self respect, honour and dignity must remember what Napolean said:
” I can face two battalionsbut not two scribes”


(《In what is [rather not] likely to alarm the finance ministry and the
income tax department, several of the media houses – including, in some
cases, proprietors like Vineet Jain of the Times Group – have been
recorded discussing ways in which proposed transactions running into
hundreds of crores of rupees could be conducted using cash, i.e. black
money.

The Times Group owns the Times Now channel, the Times of
India and several other media platforms. The ease with which Jain
discusses ways in which the undercover reporter could pay the company
using black money by routing those payments through other business
houses and families is hard to reconcile with Times Now’s campaigns in
favour of demonetisation – which Prime Minister Narendra Modi had said
was needed in order to deal with black money.》)
Cobrapost Sting: Big Media Houses Say Yes to Hindutva, Black Money, Paid News


Exposé reveals some of the biggest names in the Indian media agreeing
to business proposal by undercover reporter seeking promotion of
Hindutva agenda and influencing of electoral outcome for a price.
Cobrapost Sting: Big Media Houses Say Yes to Hindutva, Black Money, Paid News
Exposé reveals some of the biggest names in the Indian media agreeing
to business proposal by undercover reporter seeking promotion of
Hindutva agenda and influencing of electoral outcome for a price.

Cobrapost Sting: Big Media Houses Say Yes to Hindutva, Black Money, Paid News

The Wire Staff

16 HOURS AGO


New Delhi: Nearly two months after Cobrapost first reported how some
media houses were prepared to strike business deals to promote the
Hindutva agenda and help polarise voters in the run up to the 2019
elections, the website has released a second batch of video recordings
shot surreptitiously by an undercover reporter that shows managers and
owners of some of the largest newspapers and TV channels succumbing to
the same package of Hindutva advertorials.

Cobrapost said on
Friday that the recordings it made showed how some two dozen news
organisations were willing to “not only cause communal disharmony among
the citizens but also tilt the electoral outcome in favour of a
particular party” for a price.

The only two media houses whose
representatives refused the undercover reporter’s proposals were the
Bengali newspapers Bartaman and Dainik Sambad.

In what is likely
to alarm the finance ministry and the income tax department, several of
the media houses – including, in some cases, proprietors like Vineet
Jain of the Times Group – have been recorded discussing ways in which
proposed transactions running into hundreds of crores of rupees could be
conducted using cash, i.e. black money.

The Times Group owns the
Times Now channel, the Times of India and several other media
platforms. The ease with which Jain discusses ways in which the
undercover reporter could pay the company using black money by routing
those payments through other business houses and families is hard to
reconcile with Times Now’s campaigns in favour of demonetisation – which
Prime Minister Narendra Modi had said was needed in order to deal with
black money.

Cobrapost sent an undercover journalist, Pushp
Sharma, to pose as “Acharya Atal”, a man who identified himself as a
representative of an unnamed “sangathan”, or organisation, but who gave
the impression that he was a member of or close to the Nagpur-based
Rashtriya Swayamsewak Sangh (RSS). In the recordings the website put up
on YouTube on Friday afternoon, Acharya Atal can be heard trying to
strike deals with media house executives involving the promotion of a
Hindutva agenda through advertorials – paid-for content – that would run
on their newspapers, radio stations, TV channels and websites.

Vineet Jain of Times Group


The biggest name to be stung by Cobrapost was Times Group owner and
managing director Vineet Jain. In a number of videotaped conversations,
Jain and the group’s executive president, Sanjeev Shah, can be seen and
heard discussing the proposed deal in which Acharya Atal said he would
pay Rs 500 crore in exchange for advertorials and events that that would
be presented as programming on Krishna and the Bhagvad Gita but which
would serve as a cover for Hindutva and its political agenda.

Times Group MD Vineet Jain (right) with finance minister Arun Jaitley (left). Credit: Facebook


In one of the meetings, Jain and Shah offer guidance to the undercover
journalist on how to make payments in cash even though they said the
Times group itself had no use for cash.

“We found them naming some big corporate houses which could help make black money squeaky clean,” Cobrapost said.


It added that while Vineet Jain said, “Aur bhi businessmen honge jo
humein cheque denge aap unhe cash de do” (There are other businessmen
who would give us cheque against the cash you may give them), his aide
Shah elaborated on this to the undercover journalist saying: “Who will
take that from him in Delhi suppose if Goenka says I want it in
Ahmedabad so that I Angadiya will have contact in Ahmedabad where they
will exchange in number on a note or whatever.”

Incidentally, Rs
500 crore is equal to a little more than 5% of the total revenue of Rs
9,976 crore that the Times group earned in 2017.

Kalli Purie of India Today group


In his meeting with Kalli Purie, vice-chairperson of the India Today
group, Cobrapost’s undercover journalist spoke about using Krishna and
the Bhagvad Gita to promote Hindutva since Ram and Ayodhya had become
controversial. He said the ‘sangathan’ would make use of the Krishna
messaging the India Today group would put out to promote Hindutva among
the wider public as part of its “infield activities”. The reporter also
spoke about translating the campaign for his “political gains” and even
said that he should not be held accountable later for polarisation.

Kalli Purie of India Today. Credit: Facebook


Purie indicated she was agreeable to the idea but added that “if you
are doing some infield activities that we don’t agree with editorially,
we will be criticising you”. She urged ‘Acharya Atal’ not to resort to
polarising activities but when he said the course of the election
campaign may not leave him any option, his insistence did not become a
deal breaker.

Pushp Sharma had earlier met TV Today’s chief
revenue officer, Rahul Kumar Shaw, who had conveyed to him his own
support for the sangathan’s agenda. “I must tell you, I am very very
pro, very pro to the government”. Soon after the meeting with Kalli
Purie, Shaw sent an email proposing a Rs 275 crore advertising campaign –
an astonishing amount for what was officially going to be described as
promotion of the Bhagvad Gita. The value placed on this one campaign
alone was 20% of the total revenues earned by the India Today group in
2017.

Cobrapost stings 25 media houses

The second and
final instalment of the exposé – codenamed Operation 136 – saw a total
of 25 media houses “crumble under the weight of a ‘big business
opportunity’ that was knocking on their doors without asking,” Cobrapost
said.

The sting covered a total of 27 organisations of which
“almost all bent themselves backward to grab this opportunity,” barring
Bartaman and the Dainik Sambad.

Apart from the Times of India and
India Today groups, the undercover investigation covered Hindustan
Times, Dainik Bhaskar, Zee News, Star India, ABP, Dainik Jagran, Radio
One, Suvarna News, Red FM, Lokmat, ABN, Andhra Jyothy, TV5, Dinamalar,
Big FM, Prabhat Khabar, K News, India Voice, the New Indian Express,
MVTV and OPEN magazine.

Cobrapost was forced to withhold the
recordings and communications it had from its interaction with the
Dainik Bhaskar group after the latter managed to obtain an ex-parte
injunction from the Dehi high court. The website has said it will
challenge the injunction.

Hindustan Times: ‘If you give couple of crores, automatically my editorial is under pressure’


Another big media house, the Hindustan Times, also found the undercover
reporter’s proposal attractive with the group’s executives offering
“editorial support” to ‘Acharya Atal’ for his activities as part of an
advertising package.

In a meeting with Avneesh Bansal, associate
vice president of HT Media Ltd, ‘Acharya Atal’ is told that money spent
on advertorials will produce editorial dividends too:

Bansal:
Mera personal suggestion yeh hai, I am sure media strategy is a very
very big part of Sangh strategy, so you should attack in two ways. One
is tying up with media houses, so if you are giving me a couple of crore
rupees to talk positive about you, automatically my editorial is under
pressure not to go deep negative … Keep funding the media house so agar
hum ek positive cheez ke liye fund kar rahe hain, they will refrain form
being go deep negative, but they can’t ignore a news

Acharya Atal: Theeek hai, usko hush up kar dein, low tone de dein

Bansal: This is one.

Acharya Atal: Theek hai.


Bansal: Doosri cheez kya hai, you should find a PR company of repute
which has inroads in the top market, right, and they can control the
reporters, kyonki they are the source of news.

Bansal then
differentiates between reporters who have a fire inside them and other
reporters who are “light minded and who are not working for professional
desire but monetary desire” and says the PR company will work through
them.

A standard pitch

The pitch made by the reporter in
his meetings with management personnel and owners of media houses was
similar: he wanted them to run a media campaign on his behalf promoting
Hindutva, offering them an ad spend ranging from a few crore rupees to
Rs. 500 crore in the case of the Times group.

The reporter’s
modus operandi in dealing with large media houses was to dangle his bait
before junior executives, who then led him higher and higher up the
corporate food chain. In the final stage, Pushp Sharma tried to meet
with the owner directly in order to establish what he said was an
“emotional connect” that would convince the ‘sangathan’ that the media
house genuinely believed in the goals of the Hindutva campaign and was
not simply engaging in a transactional relationship..

The
“essential ingredients” or the deal were “spread wide before them” at
the outset and repeated in each meeting. The agenda included promoting
Hindutva in the initial phase of three months through customised
religious programmes to create a congenial atmosphere. Then the campaign
was to be “geared up to mobilise the electorate on communal lines by
promoting speeches of Hindutva hardliners, the likes of Vinay Katiyar,
Uma Bharti and Mohan Bhagwat, among others,” said Cobrapost.


Finally, as elections approach, the campaign would move to “target
opposition leaders, namely, Rahul Gandhi, Mayawati and Akhilesh Yadav,
caricaturing them using less than dignified language like Pappu, Bua and
Babua, respectively, for them, in order to show them in poor light
before the electorate.” The arrangement included running the campaign on
all platforms – print, electronic, radio or digital including, e-news
portals, web sites and social media such as Facebook and Twitter.

In his meeting with Kalli Purie, ‘Acharya Atal’ insisted the campaign also run in Cosmopolitan, the group’s fashion magazine.

Offer to swing Karnataka assembly results


Operation 136, Cobrapost editor Aniruddha Bahal said, also revealed
that most of the media houses are either owned by politicians
themselves, particularly the regional ones, or patronised by
politicians, and therefore it was natural for them to become their
masters’ voice. “Crony journalism and the search for revenue made for a
lethal cocktail”, he said.

In the case ABN Andhra Jyothy, a
prominent Telugu TV news channel patronised by TDP supremo Chandrababu
Naidu, Cobrapost said, its chief marketing manager E.V. Seshidhar was
candid enough to admit: “We have very good connects with TDP … We have
do [sic] lot of what do you call we have main official what do you call
for AP government Andhra Pradesh government, we have official event
telecaster rights for Andhra Pradesh government.”

Stating that
this connect went beyond the TDP, to include the BJP and other outfits,
it said Seshidhar even went on to state that their newspaper Andhra
Jyothy holds so much sway that they could influence the outcome of the
Karnataka elections.

Senior journalists also turned power brokers


Cobrapost said that it not only approached those whose job it was to
negotiate deals and bring business to the organisation, but also some
some senior journalists who have now become owners or CEOs and found
them “genuflecting before their big-ticket client” and “happily agreeing
to work for his agenda”.

In this regard, it made mention of
Purushottam Vaishnav, who is now CEO regional news channels at Zee
Media, saying he agreed to “run down political rivals by unleashing
their SIT ([investigative team] on them”.

“Content mein jo aapki
taraf se input aayega wo absorb ho jayega … humare taraf se jo content
generate hoga investigative journalism hum log karte hain karwa denge
jitna hum logon ne kiya hai utna kisi ne nahi kiya hoga wo hum log
karenge (Whatever input you will send in the form of content that will
be absorbed … the content we will generate … we have been doing
investigative journalism, we will do it for you. [Compared to Zee] none
of the channels has done so many … we will do that),” it quoted Vaishnav
as saying.

RSS inroads into newsrooms

Cobrapost
also claimed that its investigation established that the RSS, and as a
corollary, its ideology of Hindutva, have made deep inroads into the
newsrooms and boardrooms of Indian media houses where even owners either
blatantly admit their allegiance to the party in power and its parent
organisation or are eager to have an association with them.

“For
instance, Big FM senior business partner Amit Choudhary admits to the
relationship between the company that owns Big FM and the party in power
in no uncertain terms,” it said, as it quoted Choudhary as saying:
“Waise bhi Reliance BJP ka supporter hee hai (Anyway, Reliance is always
a supporter of the BJP).”

Similarly, it quoted Basab Ghosh,
regional sales head of OPEN magazine, which is owned by the RP-Sanjiv
Goenka Group, confessing his organisation’s allegiance to the RSS:
“Acharyaji shayad aap bhi busy rehte hain aap shayad Open dekhte nahi
hain regular. Main aapko ek baat bataata hoon. Open jitna support karte
hain sangathan ka shayad hee koi karta hoga. (Acharyaji, perhaps you are
a busy man and maybe you don’t read OPEN regularly. Let me tell you one
thing. Nobody supports the Sangathan [RSS] as much as does OPEN).”

`BJP MLA claimed she was told by Sangh people to demolish mosques’


Cobrapost said of all the interviews that the journalist had with the
owners and personnel of various media houses in the course of its
investigation, the one with BJP legislator from Belapur, Pune, Manda
Tai, who is also the owner of a local channel of Pune, MVTV, stood out.


While criticising her own party and claiming that it was the RSS
leadership which ensured she got a ticket to fight the election after
she switched loyalties from NCP to the BJP, she revealed: “Mere ko Sangh
wale bol rahe the ki Muslim masjid todo, ye karo. Main boli sorry main
ye nahi kar sakti. Masjid sthal sab kachre ke maafiq dekhte hain. Itna
log ka hum hay nahi le sakte hain kyonki aadhe log apne se jud gaye hain
(The Sangh people were telling me time and again to destroy the masjids
of Muslims. I told them ‘Sorry I can’t do that.’ They all look at a
masjid as something like trash. I cannot afford to earn so much ill-will
of all those people [by resorting to such hate] because many Muslims
have joined the BJP).”

Cobrapost said while such open confessions
could be brushed aside as “personal opinions”, given the position Tai
held in the organisation, they “cannot be taken lightly”.

It said
“all these on-camera confessions make it clear that the malaise of paid
news has set in deep as it is no longer confined to a few individuals
who would show no scruples while publishing paid content, camouflaging
it as news stories or reports. Over the years, paid news has become
institutionalized.”

17 media organisations were exposed in first tranche


At the time of its first ‘cash for coverage’ expose in March, Cobrapost
had revealed how it had surreptitiously filmed the interaction its
reporter had over several months with top executives at dozens of
leading newspapers and television channels across north India.


Part I of ‘Operation 136’ – which derived its name from the rank India
got in the World Press Freedom Index of 2017 – had reproduced excerpts
of interactions Cobrapost’s undercover journalist had with 17
organisations including with India TV, which belongs to Rajat Sharma, an
editor known to be close to Prime Minister Narendra Modi, India’s
largest Hindi newspaper Dainik Jagran, local Uttar Pradesh channel Hindi
Khabar, the entertainment and news television company SAB Group, the
English newsaper DNA (Daily News and Analysis) which is owned by Zee and
Dainik Bhaskar, Amar Ujala, the news agency UNI, the entertainment
channel 9X Tashan, the UP news channel Samachar Plus, the Uttarakhand
channel HNN 24×7, the Hindi newspapers Punjab Kesari and Swatantra
Bharat, web portals ScoopWhoop and Rediff.com, IndiaWatch, Hindi newspaper Aaj and the influential Lucknow-based news channel, Sadhna Prime News.


Among those shown in the interactions were several big names in the
media industry, including Pradeep Guha, a former top executive at the
Times of India group and now at 9X Tashan. Cobrapost had also uploaded
excerpts from the video recordings.

Sting team left shocked


Incidentally, following the first release of tapes, Cobrapost editor
Aniruddha Bahal had said that even his undercover journalists were left
surprised by what they discovered. “To our utter shock most of them not
only agreed to do what he asked for but also suggested myriad ways for
undertaking a well-orchestrated, overtly communal media campaign on
behalf of their prospective big-ticket client.”

Cobrapost had
earlier stated that its investigation had revealed yet another example
of the Indian media’s penchant for twisting facts or serving pure
rumours as news, as was recently witnessed during the Kasganj communal
riot in Uttar Pradesh earlier this year. “What our investigation shows
is symptomatic of the malaise that has set deep in the labyrinths of the
citadel called Fourth Estate. It also shows that Indian media is on
sale, lock, stock and barrel,”

The release of the latest tranche of tapes only confirms this ugly truth.


The Wire has written to the media houses featured in Cobrapost’s
Operation 136 and will update this story with their responses as and
when they are received.

*

Response received from Lokmat spokeswoman (May 25, 2017, 11:27 pm):


“Ethics and integrity have been the hallmark of Lokmat’s 100 year long
history. The views expressed in the video are personal and the
publication neither support or subscribe to it. We have robust editorial
policy with multi level checks and balances to ensure unbiased
reporting for our readers. The person in question is no more a Lokmat
employee and is not associated with the publication in any capacity
now.”

*

Response of India Today group to Cobrapost:


The India Today Group stands for the highest standards of journalism.
The editorial has always worked independent of commercial transactions.
The business side of the organization, irrespective of their seniority
or personal political and religious leanings, do not influence our
editorial coverage in any way, nor is any sales representative of ours
authorized to offer editorial coverage.

During the sting
operation carried out by your undercover reporter, he had conversations
with various sales employees of our Group for an advertising campaign.
He did not meet anyone from our editorial team.

In fact, in the
meeting with our senior management, as well as in the advertising
proposal sent to the undercover reporter on 16th February 2018, it is
clearly mentioned that all the creatives would have to be approved by
The India Today Group. Senior management also told your reporter that
the Group will not do anything unethical, and that any advertising
creative that divides the country on religious or caste lines will not
be acceptable, and will not be aired on our channels.

The India
Today Group has always condemned paid news, and in its 43 years of
existence, never indulged in any such practice. Any suggestion to the
contrary would be malicious.


Peace Is Doable

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