Free Online FOOD for MIND & HUNGER - DO GOOD 😊 PURIFY MIND.To live like free birds 🐦 🦢 🦅 grow fruits 🍍 🍊 🥑 🥭 🍇 🍌 🍎 🍉 🍒 🍑 🥝 vegetables 🥦 🥕 🥗 🥬 🥔 🍆 🥜 🎃 🫑 🍅🍜 🧅 🍄 🍝 🥗 🥒 🌽 🍏 🫑 🌳 🍓 🍊 🥥 🌵 🍈 🌰 🇧🇧 🫐 🍅 🍐 🫒Plants 🌱in pots 🪴 along with Meditative Mindful Swimming 🏊‍♂️ to Attain NIBBĀNA the Eternal Bliss.
Kushinara NIBBĀNA Bhumi Pagoda White Home, Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru, Prabuddha Bharat International.

December 2018
« Nov   Jan »
LESSON 2842 Dec 17 Mon 2018 TIPITAKA from Analytic Insight Net - Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University and related NEWS through 
 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā is an Online GOOD NEWS CHANNEL FOR WELFARE, HAPPINESS AND PEACE FOR ALL SOCIETIES Catering to more than 3000 Emails: 200 WhatsApp, Facebook and Twitter. is the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement followed by millions of people all over the world. Rendering exact translation as a lesson of this University in one’s mother tongue to this Google Translation and propagation entitles to become a Stream Enterer (Sottapanna) and to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal. Awakeness Practices All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections: The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters. BuddhaSasana-The Home of Pali
Filed under: General
Posted by: site admin @ 10:56 pm

LESSON 2842 Dec 17 Mon  2018



Analytic Insight Net -

Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart

Online Tipiṭaka Research and Practice University and related NEWS through 

Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya
anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā

SOCIETIES Catering to more than 3000 Emails: 200 WhatsApp, Facebook and

is the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement followed by millions of people all over the world.

exact translation as a lesson of this University in one’s mother tongue
to this Google Translation and propagation entitles to become a Stream

Enterer (Sottapanna) and to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal.

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get
Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of
practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue
those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There
are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate
addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I
received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the
priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are
divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into
361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses
including both those of
Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras,
containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

BuddhaSasana-The Home of Pali

A Few Important Pali Language Words and Their Meaning

Abidhamma = Pertaining to Dhammas

Pariyatti = Study of the theoretical aspects of the Dhamma.

Sama-sam-buddha = One who rediscovers the teachings and teaches the masses as the historical Buddha did.

Vinaya Pitaka = The Vinaya Pitaka contains the rules for monks and
nuns, monastic jurisprudence & the early history of the Sangha.

Tipitaka = “Path” or “Way of Dhamma”. This book consists of a collection of 423 verses grouped into 26 chapters.

Paccekabuddha = A silent Buddha.
Arahant = Fully enlightened person.

Dhamma = Teaching & doctrines of the Buddha, called as Dhamma
because they explain & describe nature of things, the way things
are, and the way they operate.

Bodhisatta = A person who is seeking to be a Buddha
Nibbana = A Bliss of No-Craving


4 Stages in the realization of Nibbana

Sotapanna – Stream-entrant
Sakadagami – Once returner
Anagami – Non returner
Arahant – The Holy One


Buddha = Gyan/Vigyan/Tarq/Bodhi,
Dhamma = Gyan ka Marg/Astangik Marg/Madhyam Marg,
Sangha = Gyan ke Marg par chal rahe/chalchuke log
Pali Class
Samaloka Buddhist Centre
Published on Dec 17, 2015
People & Blogs
Basic Pali Grammar series Episode 01: Introduction to the series
The People
Published on May 17, 2013

1. Main text: Pali Primer by Lily De Silva and workbook:
a. 130 pages divided in 31 lessens of 2-3 pages each lessens.
b. Auther: Professor from srilankan university, it’s it’s based on
the teaching style of his teacher, which he refined and simplified, and I
have done some work on it to simplify even fruther
c. Used by many university and pali learning groups around the world.

2. What is the content like?
a. Pali alphabet and pronunciation: 41 letters, 8 vowels and 33 consonants
b. Genders of the nouns: Masculine, feminine and neuter nouns
c. 8 Case :Nouns, pronouns or adjectives (often marked by inflection) related in some way to other words in a sentence
d. Plural and singular
e. Tense Past, Present and Future
f. First person, second person and third person
g. Moods: imperative, potential, etc.
3. What will I do and what you will have to do
a. What will I do?
i. My job is to go through each lessen and explain it as easy as possible
ii. Your job is to listen learn and repeat until you understand it deeply.
4. The Link to the text online, as well as workbook
a. Google pali primer by lily desilva
b. Book-
c. Wokbook
d. Link to audio books-online on youtube for audio lesssion and workbook files
5. How to learn language and some other advise for beginner
a. It takes time: have patience, it takes time
b. Consistency in learning, little by little
c. Repetition: lots of it: 20-30 times,
6. Everything is hard before it’s easy.

LEARN BASIC PALI GRAMMER TALK 1- course content 1. Main text: Pali Primer by Lily De Silva and…
Learn Basic Pāli Grammar Episode 02: Pāli Vowels

The People
Published on Jun 25, 2016
Hello, and welcome back, in this lesson we are going to study the Pali
Pronunciation. The first thing to know about Pali is that it was an oral
language, it had no script of its own. All Theravada countries has its
own script for Pali and we shall use roman script for this course.

There are 41 letters in Pali, 8 Vowels, and 33 consonants. For this
lesson, we will study 8 Vowels and see how to pronounce them. The eight
Vowels are: a, ā, i, ī, u, ū, e, o.

A= cut=Dhamma
Ā=Father =Dāna

Hello, and welcome back, in this lesson we are going to study the Pali Pronunciation. The first thing to know…
The People
Published on Aug 1, 2013

Buddhist and Pali University of Sri Lanka Part 1

5:04 / 15:04
Buddhist and Pali University of Sri Lanka Part 1
Buddhist and Pali University
Published on May 14, 2015
The Buddhist and Pali University of Sri Lanka, established in terms of
the Act of Parliament No.74 of 1981 of the Democratic Socialistic
Republic of Sri Lanka was ceremonially opened on the 22nd day of April

The main objectives
of this University are the propagation of Buddha Dhamma,the promotion of
the Buddhist & Pali studies in Sri Lanka and abroad and the
provision of facilities for the conduct of research in the relevant

The above Act has been modified by the Buddhist and Pali
University of Sri Lanka Act(Amendment)No.37 of 1995.Simultaneous with
the activation of the above mentioned Act of Amendment, the local
affiliated institutions which were so far in existence ceased to exist
and Buddhist and Pali University of Sri Lanka had been re-structured in
conformity with the structure of the other Universities of Sri Lanka.
The structured University with its halls of residence for students was
located at Pitipana in Homagama.

The basic arrangements required
to turn the Buddhist and Pali University of Sri Lanka into the level of a
fully equipped international university have been already made. It
enjoys membership of the Association of Universities of the Commonwealth
of Nations. It is also an Associate member of the Committee of Vice
Chancellors and Directors (CVCD) of the chain of universities of this
People & Blogs

The Buddhist and Pali University of Sri Lanka, established in terms of the Act of Parliament No.74 of…

Pali Made Easy ( OCRed)
by Ven. Balangoda Ananda Maitreya

Usage Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0
Topics Pali, language, linguistics, Buddhism, Theravada, Sri Lanka, Balangoda Ananda Maitreya, Ananda Maitreya, Pali language
Collection opensource
Language English
An excellent course-book on Pali Language and Grammar with quizes and
solutions at the backside. OCRed by Solid PDF/A Express. Written by ven.
Balangoda Ananda Maitreya from Sri Lanka.

Identifier PaliMadeEasyOCRed
Identifier-ark ark:/13960/t6f22v332
Ocr ABBYY FineReader 11.0
Ppi 300
Scanner Internet Archive HTML5 Uploader 1.6.3
plus-circle Add Review
There are no reviews yet. Be the first one to write a review.

excellent course-book on Pali Language and Grammar with quizes and
solutions at the backside. OCRed by Solid PDF/A Express. Written by ven.
Balangoda Ananda…

Community of The Followers of The Path Shown by The
Blessed,Noble,Awakened One-The Tathagata


The Eightfold Path is best understood as a collection of personal
qualities to be developed, rather than as a sequence of steps along a
linear path. The development of right view and right resolve (the
factors classically identified with wisdom and discernment) facilitates
the development of right speech, action, and livelihood (the factors
identified with virtue). As virtue develops so do the factors identified
with concentration (right effort, mindfulness, and concentration).
Likewise, as concentration matures, discernment evolves to a still
deeper level. And so the process unfolds: development of one factor
fosters development of the next, lifting the practitioner in an upward
spiral of spiritual maturity that eventually culminates in Awakening.

The long journey to Awakening begins in earnest with the first tentative
stirrings of right view — the discernment by which one recognizes the
validity of the four Noble Truths and the principle of kamma. One begins
to see that one’s future well-being is neither predestined by fate, nor
left to the whims of a divine being or random chance. The
responsibility for one’s happiness rests squarely on one’s own
shoulders. Seeing this, one’s spiritual aims become suddenly clear: to
relinquish the habitual unskillful tendencies of the mind in favor of
skillful ones. As this right resolve grows stronger, so does the
heartfelt desire to live a morally upright life, to choose one’s actions
with care.

At this point many followers make the inward commitment to take the
Buddha’s teachings to mind, to become “Buddhist” through the act of
taking refuge in the Triple Gem: the Buddha (both the historical Buddha
and one’s own innate potential for Awakening), the Dhamma (both the
Buddha’s teachings and the ultimate Truth towards which they point), and
the Sangha (both the unbroken monastic lineage that has preserved the
teachings since the Buddha’s day, and all those who have achieved at
least some degree of Awakening). With one’s feet thus planted on solid
ground, and with the help of an admirable friend or teacher
(kalyanamitta) to guide the way, one is now well-equipped to proceed
down the Path, following in the footsteps left by the Buddha himself.

bhikkhū anāgatam·addhānaṃ, ye te suttantā tathāgata·bhāsitā gambhīrā
gambhīr·atthā lok·uttarā suññata·p·paṭisaṃyuttā, tesu bhaññamānesu na
sussūsissanti na sotaṃ odahissanti na aññā cittaṃ upaṭṭhāpessanti na ca
te dhamme uggahetabbaṃ pariyāpuṇitabbaṃ maññissanti.

In future
time, there will be bhikkhus who will not listen to the utterance of
such discourses which are words of the Tathāgata, profound, profound in
meaning, leading beyond the world, (consistently) connected with
emptiness, they will not lend ear, they will not apply their mind on
knowledge, they will not consider those teachings as to be taken up and

Ye pana te suttantā kavi·katā kāveyyā citta·kkharā citta·byañjanā bāhirakā sāvaka·bhāsitā,
tesu bhaññamānesu sussūsissanti, sotaṃ odahissanti, aññā cittaṃ
upaṭṭhāpessanti, te ca dhamme uggahetabbaṃ pariyāpuṇitabbaṃ maññissanti.

On the
contrary, they will listen to the utterance of such discourses which are
literary compositions made by poets, witty words, witty letters, by
people from outside, or the words of disciples, they will lend
ear, they will apply their mind on knowledge, they will consider those
teachings as to be taken up and mastered.

bhikkhave, suttantānaṃ tathāgata·bhāsitānaṃ gambhīrānaṃ
gambhīr·atthānaṃ lok·uttarānaṃ suññata·p·paṭisaṃyuttānaṃ antaradhānaṃ

bhikkhus, the discourses which are words of the Tathāgata, profound,
profound in meaning, leading beyond the world, (consistently) connected
with emptiness, will disappear.

bhikkhave, evaṃ sikkhitabbaṃ: ‘ye te suttantā tathāgata·bhāsitā
gambhīrā gambhīr·atthā lok·uttarā suññata·p·paṭisaṃyuttā, tesu
bhaññamānesu sussūsissāma, sotaṃ odahissāma, aññā cittaṃ upaṭṭhāpessāma,
te ca dhamme uggahetabbaṃ pariyāpuṇitabbaṃ maññissāmā’ti. Evañhi vo,
bhikkhave, sikkhitabbanti.

bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘We will listen to the utterance of
such discourses which are words of the Tathāgata, profound, profound in
meaning, leading beyond the world, (consistently) connected with
emptiness, we will lend ear, we will apply our mind on knowledge, we
will consider those teachings as to be taken up and mastered.’ This is
how, bhikkhus, you should train yourselves.

— Āṇi Sutta —

Recent updates log:


Glossary definition: bhavarāga


Glossary definition: bhāvanā


Using Sutta Central

Offline version update

Buddha Vacana

— The words of the Buddha —

Learn Pali online for free and the easy way.

This website is dedicated to those who wish to understand better the
words of the Buddha by learning the basics of Pali language, but who
don’t have much time available for it. The idea is that if their purpose
is merely to get enabled to read the Pali texts and have a fair feeling
of understanding them, even if that understanding does not cover all
the minute details of grammatical rules, they don’t really need to spend
much time struggling with a discouraging learning of tedious
grammatical theory involving such things as numerous declensions and

In that case, it is enough to
limit themselves to simply learn the meaning of the most important Pali
words, because the repeated experience of reading provides an empirical
and intuitive understanding of the most common sentence structures.
They are thus enabled to become autodidacts, choosing the time,
duration, frequency, contents and depth of their own study.

Their understanding of the
Buddha Vacana will become much more precise as they effortlessly learn
and memorize the words and the important formulae that are fundamental
in the Buddha’s teaching, by ways of regular reading. Their learning and
the inspiration they get from it will grow deeper as their receptivity
to the messages of the Teacher will improve.

Disclaimer: This website is created by an autodidact and
is meant for autodidacts. The webmaster has not followed any official
Pali course and there is no claim that all the information presented
here is totally free from errors. Those who want academic precision may
consider joining a formal Pali course. In case the readers notice any
mistake, the webmaster will be grateful if they report it via the
mailbox mentioned under ‘Contact’.

Users of this website may have noticed that only few updates have been made in recent years. The main reason is that Sutta Central
now provides the service this website intended to make available. If
you want a quick tutorial explaining how you can use Sutta Central with a
similar Pali lookup tooltip using pop-up ‘bubbles’, click here.
The only work I keep doing on this part of the website is to expand the
glossary with definitions and references taken only from the Sutta
Pitaka and occasionally the Vinaya Pitaka.

En Français:

Search on this website

01) Classical Magahi Magadhi,
02) Classical Chandaso language,

03) Classical Magadhi Prakrit

04) Classical Pali

05) Classical Hela Basa

06) Classical Deva Nagari,
07) Classical Cyrillic
08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans

09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,
10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,
11) Classical Arabic-اللغة العربية الفصحى
12) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,
13) Classical Azerbaijani- Klassik Azərbaycan,

14) Classical Basque- Euskal klasikoa,
15) Classical Belarusian-Класічная беларуская,

16) Classical Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,
17) Classical  Bosnian-Klasični bosanski,

18) Classical Bulgaria- Класически българск,

19) Classical  Catalan-Català clàssic
20) Classical Cebuano-Klase sa Sugbo,

21) Classical Chichewa-Chikale cha Chichewa,

22) Classical Chinese (Simplified)-古典中文(简体),

23) Classical Chinese (Traditional)-古典中文(繁體),

24) Classical Corsican-Corsa Corsicana,
25) Classical  Croatian-Klasična hrvatska,

26) Classical  Czech-Klasická čeština,

27) Classical  Danish-Klassisk dansk,Klassisk dansk,
28) Classical  Dutch- Klassiek Nederlands,
29) Classical English,
30) Classical Esperanto-Klasika Esperanto,

31) Classical Estonian- klassikaline eesti keel,
32) Classical Filipino,
33) Classical Finnish- Klassinen suomalainen,

34) Classical French- Français classique,

35) Classical Frisian- Klassike Frysk,
36) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,

37) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,

38) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,
39) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,
40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
41) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl,
42) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,
43) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,
44) Classical Hebrew- עברית קלאסית
45) Classical Hindi- शास्त्रीय हिंदी,
46) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,
47) Classical Hungarian-Klasszikus magyar,

48) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,

49) Classical Igbo,
50) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,

51) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,
52) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,
53) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,

54) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,
55) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,

56) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,

57) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,
58) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,

59) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),

60) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,
61) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,
62) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,

63) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latviešu valoda,

64) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių kalba,
65) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch,

66) Classical Macedonian-Класичен македонски,
67) Classical Malagasy,
68) Classical Malay-Melayu Klasik,

69) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,

70) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Malti,
71) Classical Maori-Maori Maori,
72) Classical Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी,

73) Classical Mongolian-Сонгодог Монгол,

74) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မြန်မာ (ဗမာ),

75) Classical Nepali-शास्त्रीय म्यांमार (बर्मा),
76) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,

77) Classical Pashto- ټولګی پښتو
78) Classical Persian-کلاسیک فارسی
79) Classical Polish-Język klasyczny polski,
80) Classical Portuguese-Português Clássico,
81) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,
82) Classical Romanian-Clasic românesc,
83) Classical Russian-Классический русский,
84) Classical Samoan-Samoan Samoa,
85) Classical Scots Gaelic-Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,

86) Classical Serbian-Класични српски,
87) Classical Sesotho-Seserbia ea boholo-holo,

88) Classical Shona-Shona Shona,
89) Classical Sindhi,
90) Classical Sinhala-සම්භාව්ය සිංහල,

91) Classical Slovak-Klasický slovenský,

92) Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,

93) Classical Somali-Soomaali qowmiyadeed,

94) Classical Spanish-Español clásico,
95) Classical Sundanese-Sunda Klasik,

96) Classical Swahili,
97) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,

98) Classical Tajik-тоҷикӣ классикӣ,
99) Classical Tamil-பாரம்பரிய இசைத்தமிழ் செம்மொழி,

100) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,
101) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,
102) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,

103) Classical Ukrainian-Класичний український,

104) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو
105) Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’zbek,
106) Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việt cổ điển,

107) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,
108) Classical Xhosa-IsiXhosa zesiXhosa,

109) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש
110) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,
111) Classical Zulu-I-Classical Z




JCMesh J Alphabets Letter Animation ClipartMesh C Alphabets Letter Animation Clipart

comments (0)
Householder (Buddhism) Tipitaka The Pali Canon
Filed under: General
Posted by: site admin @ 5:58 pm

Householder (Buddhism)

The Pali Canon

Template:Buddhist term
In English translations of Buddhist texts, householder
denotes a variety of terms. Most broadly, it refers to any layperson,
and most narrowly, to a wealthy and prestigious familial patriarch.[1] In contemporary Buddhist communities, householder is often used synonymously with laity, or non-monastics.

The Buddhist notion of householder is often contrasted with that of wandering ascetics (Pāḷi: samaṇa; Sanskrit: śramaṇa) and monastics (bhikkhu and bhikkhuni),
who would not live (for extended periods) in a normal house and who
would pursue freedom from attachments to houses and families.

Upāsakas and upāsikās, also called śrāvakas and śrāvikās - are householders and other laypersons who take refuge in the Three Jewels (the Buddha, the teachings and the community) and practice the Five Precepts. In southeast Asian communities, lay disciples also give alms to monks on their daily rounds and observe weekly uposatha days. In Buddhist thought, the cultivation of ethical conduct and dāna
or “almsgiving” will themselves refine consciousness to such a level
that rebirth in one of the lower heavens is likely even if there is no
further Buddhist practice. This level of attainment is viewed as a
proper aim for laypersons.[2]

In some traditional Buddhist societies, such as in Burma and Thailand, people transition between householder and monk and back to householder with regularity and celebration as in the practice of shinbyu among the Bamar.[3]
One of the evolving features of Buddhism in the West is the increasing
dissolution of the traditional distinction between monastics and laity.

all the diversity of Buddhist practices in the West, general trends in
the recent transformations of Buddhist practice … can be identified.
These include an erosion of the distinction between professional and lay
Buddhists; a decentralization of doctrinal authority; a diminished role
for Buddhist monastics; an increasing spirit of egalitarianism; greater
leadership roles for women; greater social activism; and, in many
cases, an increasing emphasis on the psychological, as opposed to the
purely religious, nature of practice.[4]



Theravada perspectives

{{#invoke: Sidebar | collapsible }}
In the Pāli canon,
householders received diverse advice from the Buddha and his disciples.
Some householders who were also lay disciples were even identified as
having achieved nibbana.

Core householder practices include undertaking the Five Precepts
and taking refuge in the Three Jewels. In addition, the canon nurtures
the essential bond between householders and monastics still apparent
today in southeast Asian communities.

What is a householder?

In traditional Indian society, a householder (Sanskrit gṛhastin)
is typically a settled adult male with a family. In the Pali canon,
various Pali words have been translated into the English word
“householder”, including agārika, gahapati, gahattha and gihin.[5]
Vocations most often associated with householders in the Pali canon are those of guild foreman, banker and merchant (Pali, seṭṭhi) but other vocations are mentioned such as farmer and carpenter.[6]Gombrich (2002, pp. 56–7) states:

Who were these people in terms of class or profession? In
the Canon, most of them evidently own land, but they usually have
labourers to do the physical work. Sometimes they are also in business.
In fact, they illustrate how it is in the first instance wealth
derived from agriculture which provides business capital. The average gahapati
who gave material support to the Buddha and his Sangha thus seems to
have been something like a gentleman farmer, perhaps with a town house.
On the other hand, inscriptions in the western Deccan, where Buddhism
flourished in the early centuries CE, use the term gahapati to refer to urban merchants. We must distinguish between reference and meaning: the meaning of gahapati is simple and unvarying, but the reference shifts with the social context.

Other people in the canon who are sometimes identified as
“householders” in contemporary translations are simply those individuals
who dwelt in a home or who had not renounced “home life” (Pali, agārasmā) for “homelessness” (Pali, anagāriya).

Householder ethics

While there is no formal “householder discipline” in the vinaya or “code of ethics”, the Sigalovada Sutta (DN 31)[7] has been referred to as “the Vinaya of the householder” (gihi-vinaya).[8] This sutta includes:

  • an enumeration of the Five Precepts
  • an analysis of good-hearted (Pali: su-hada) friends
  • a description of respectful actions for one’s parents, teachers, spouse, friends, workers and religious guides.

Similarly, in the “Dhammika Sutta” (Sn 2.14),[9] the Buddha articulates the “layman’s rule of conduct” (Pali, gahatthavatta),[10] as follows:

  • the Five Precepts
  • the Eight Precepts for Uposatha days
  • support of one’s parents
  • engaging in fair business.

The Mahanama sūtra has been called the “locus classicus on the definition of upāsaka.”[11] This sutra is preserved in five versions (two in Pali, three in Chinese) representing two different recensions, one in the Samyuktagama/Samyuttanikaya, the other in the Anguttaranikaya and in the Samyuktagama and further developed in the Abhidharmaskandha, one of the canonical books of the Sarvastivadin Abhidharma.[12] In this sutra the Buddha defines an upāsaka in terms of faith (śraddhā), morality (śīla), liberality (tyāga), and wisdom (prajñā), as follows:[13]

  • “One produces a deep thought of faith toward the Tathagata and
    is established in faith. He never lacks faith or is evil towards
    śramaṇas, brāhmaṇas, or deva, or māra, or brahmā. This is called the
    faith of an upāsaka.”
  • “Not to kill, not to steal, not to seduce, not to lie, and not
    to drink liquor, etc. This is called the morality of an upāsaka”.
  • “It is a rule (dharma) for an upāsaka that he should abandon
    stinginess. As for all living beings, without exception, stinginess, and
    envy are destroyed by him. Therefore, his mind should be devoid of
    stinginess and envy, and he should produce thoughts of liberality and
    personally donate, tirelessly. This is called ‘possessed of
  • “An upāsaka knows suffering according to reality, knows the
    collection of suffering according to reality, knows the extinction of
    suffering according to reality, and knows the path to the extinction of
    suffering according to reality. He understands with certainty. This is
    called ‘possessed of wisdom.’”

Some early schools, particularly the Sautrāntika, allowed for aparipūrṇa-upāsaka (partial lay vow holders), who took anywhere from one to four of the śīla observances.[14]

Other suttas in the canon likewise underline keeping the
precepts, maintaining virtuous friends, homage to one’s benefactors and
earning one’s wealth honestly.[15]

Elsewhere in the Sutta Pitaka the Buddha provides moral instruction to householders and their family members[16] on how to be good parents, spouses and children.[17]

Buddha’s advice to Buddhist laywomen is contained mostly in the Anguttara Nikaya 8:49; IV 269-71. His advice was as follows:

  • Be capable at one’s work
  • Work with diligence and skill
  • Manage domestic help skillfully (if relevant) and treat them fairly
  • Perform household duties efficiently
  • Be hospitable to one’s husband’s parents and friends
  • Be faithful to one’s husband; protect and invest family earnings
  • Discharge responsibilities lovingly and conscientiously;
    accomplish faith (faith in the possibility of enlightenment, and of the
    enlightenment of the Buddha.)
  • Accomplish moral discipline (observe/practise the five precepts.)
  • Practise generosity (cultivate a mind free from stinginess or avarice; delight in charity, giving and sharing.)
  • Cultivate wisdom (Perceive the impermanence of all things.).

The Buddha also gave advice on householders’ financial matters. In
the Anguttara Nikaya (4.61; II 65-68) it is said that the Buddha stated
that there are four worthy ways in which to spend one’s wealth:

  • On the everyday maintenance of the happiness of oneself and one’s family (as well as any employees, friends and co-workers);
  • On providing insurance (against losses from fire, floods, unloved heirs and misfortune generally);
  • By making offerings to relatives, guests, ancestors (
    offerings to ancestors are traditionally made, in a respectful Halloween
    type ritual, throughout Buddhist countries on Ullambana,
    in the eighth lunar month – around October. Food offerings and good
    deeds are done in order to relieve the sufferings of hungry ghosts and
    to help rescue one’s ancestors from the lower realms, to secure rebirth
    for them in higher realms. Many people visit cemeteries to make
    offerings to departed ancestors), the ruler and the devas (note that worshipping Devas will not bring you closer to enlightenment but it may give you some kind of material advantage);
  • By providing alms to monks and nuns who are devoted to the
    attainment of nibbana. In the Digha Nikaya (III) the Buddha is said to
    have advised Sigala, a young man, that he should spend one fourth of his
    income on daily expenses, invest half in his business and put aside one
    fourth as insurance against an emergency.

Lay-monastic reciprocity

Some suttas suggest that Buddhist renunciates are best going it alone.[18]
Many others celebrate and provide instruction for a vital reciprocity
between householders and monastics. For instance, in the Khuddaka Nikaya,[19] the Buddha articulates that “brahmins and householders” (Pali, brāhmanagahapatikā) support monks by providing monks with robes, alms food, lodgings and medicine while monks teach brahmins and householders the Dhamma. In this sutta, the Buddha declares:

Householders & the homeless [monastics]
in mutual dependence
both reach the true Dhamma:
the unsurpassed safety from bondage.[20]

Householders & future lives

In the Pali canon, the pursuit of Nibbana (Skt: Nirvana)
within this lifetime usually starts with giving up the householder life.
This is due to the householder life’s intrinsic attachments to a home,
a spouse, children and the associated wealth necessary for maintaining
the household.[21]
Thus, instead of advising householders to relinquish these and all
attachments as a prerequisite for the complete liberation from samsara in this lifetime, the Buddha instructed householders on how to achieve “well-being and happiness” (hita-sukha) in this and future lives in a spiritually meaningful way.

In Buddhism, a householder’s spiritual path is often conceived of in terms of making merit (Pali: puñña). The primary bases for meritorious action in Buddhism are generosity (dāna), ethical conduct (sīla) and mental development (bhāvanā). Traditional Buddhist practices associated with such behaviors are summarized in the table below.


Householders & Nibbana

The Anguttara Nikaya (AN 6.119 and AN 6.120)[22] identifies 19 householders (gahapati)[23] who have “attained perfection” or, according to an alternate translation, “attained to certainty” (niṭṭhamgata) and “seen deathlessness, seen deathlessness with their own eyes” (amataddaso, amataṃ sacchikata).[24] These householders are endowed (samannāgato) with six things (chahi dhammehi):

While some interpret this passage to indicate that these householders have attained arhatship, others interpret it to mean they have attained at least “stream entry” (sotāpanna) but not final release.[26] The para-canonical Milinda Pañha adds:

“…[F]or a householder who has attained arahantship: either,
that very day, he goes forth into homelessness or he attains final
Nibbāna. That day is not able to pass without one or other of these
events taking place.” (Miln. VII, 2)[27]

Attaining the state of anāgāmi or “non-returner” is portrayed in the early texts as the ideal goal for laity.[28]

Prominent householders in the Pali canon

The following are examples of individuals who are explicitly identified as a “householder” in multiple suttas:

  • Anathapindika, is referenced for instance in AN 1.14.249 as “the householder Sudatta, the foremost lay devotee.”[29]
  • Citta, referenced for instance in AN 1.14.250 as “the [foremost] householder for explaining the Teaching.”[30] In SN 17.23, Citta is one of two male lay disciples identified for emulation by the Buddha.[31]
  • Nakulapita and Nakulamata, referenced for
    instance in AN 1.14.257 and AN 1.14.266, respectively, as “the best
    confident” and the foremost “for undivided pleasantness.”[32]

Other individuals who are not explicitly identified in the suttas as
“householder” but who, by the aforementioned broader criteria, might be
considered a householder include:

  • Ghatikara was a potter in the time of the Kassapa Buddha. He was an anāgāmi and his chief supporter. (MN 81).

Mahayana perspectives

The Sigalovada Sutta has a parallel Chinese text.[33]
There are few differences between the Pali and Chinese versions.
Further discussion of householder duties is found in the fourteenth
chapter of the Sutra on Upasaka Precepts.[34]

Dogen recommended that householders meditate at least five minutes each day.[35]

In the Zen tradition, Vimalakīrti and Páng Yùn were prominent householders/laypersons who achieved enlightenment.

Vajrayana perspectives

The Vajrayana tradition has produced many prominent householders including Marpa Lotsawa, Dromtön, the heart son of Atiśa, and Padmasambhava. to mention a few.

The ngagpa (Tibetan. feminine ngagma,
Tibetan) is an ordained Tantric practitioner, sometimes a householder
with certain vows (dependent upon lama and lineage) that make them the
householder equivalent of a monk or nun. The path of a ngakpa is a
rigorous discipline whereby one “enjoys the sense-fields’ as a part of
one’s practice. A practitioner utilizes the whole of the phenomenal
world as one’s path. Marrying, raising children, working jobs, leisure,
art, play etc. are all means to realize the enlightened state or rigpa,
non-dual awareness. As such, we can see the prominence of householders
in the Vajrayana tradition. One can, however, be a householder without
taking the vows of a ngagpa. Simply holding the five precepts,
bodhisattva vows and the tantric vows while practising diligently can
result in enlightenment.{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Citation needed
|date=__DATE__ |$B=
{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed]

Contemporary Buddhist householder practices

Below common contemporary lay Buddhist practices are summarized.
Some of these practices — such as taking Refuge and meditating — are
common to all major schools. Other practices — such as taking the Eight
Precepts or the Bodhisattva Vows — are not pan-Buddhist.

Theravada practices

For Theravada Buddhists, the following are practiced on a daily and weekly basis:

Daily practice: prostrations to the Triple Gem, taking refuge in the Triple Gem, taking the Five Precepts, chanting other verses, meditating, giving and sharing (Pali: dana).

Special day practices (Uposatha): practicing the Eight Precepts, studying Buddhist scriptures,
visiting and supporting Buddhist monks, visiting and supporting Buddhist monasteries.

Other practices: undertaking a pilgrimage.

Mahayana practices

Daily practices: Prostrations to the Triple Gem, taking refuge
in the Triple Gem, taking the Five Precepts, chanting sutras and the
names of buddhas/bodhisattvas, meditating, cultivating compassion and bodhichitta, recitation of mantras.

Special day practices: Upholding the eight precepts,
listening to teachings, supporting Sangha, repentance, performing
offering ceremonies to sentient beings

Other practices: Bodhisattva vows, going on a retreat.

Vajrayana practices

Daily practices: Prostrations, refuge, cultivating compassion and bodhicitta, bodhisattva vows, tantric vows (if applicable), meditation in the form of Tantric sādhanās (if applicable), purification techniques, recitation of mantras

Special day practices: Eight precepts, listening to teachings, offering ceremonies.

Other practices: Studying texts, receiving initiations and personal practice instructions from the teacher.

  Lay Buddhist practices by school
  Theravada Mahayana Vajrayana
Prostrations daily dokusan[36] daily
Chanting daily regularly[37] regularly
Take Refuge daily daily daily
Five Precepts daily[38] daily daily
Eight Precepts Uposatha Uposatha
Bodhisattva vows daily daily
Meditation vipassanā,
tonglen, compassion,
tantric visualisations,
mantras, incld. tantric mantras
Study scriptures Uposatha dependent upon tradition regularly
Support monastics Uposatha regularly regularly
Pilgrimage several sites[39] varies varies

Buddhist Studies
The Pali Canon

Pali Canon is the complete scripture collection of the
Theravada school. As such, it is the only set of scriptures
preserved in the language of its composition. It is
called the Tipitaka

or “Three Baskets” because it includes the
Vinaya Pitaka or “Basket of Discipline,”
the Sutta Pitaka or “Basket of Discourses,”
and the Abhidhamma Pitaka or “Basket of
Higher Teachings”.

Chart of Tipitaka
Daily Buddhist Theravada Pali Chanting by VenVajiradhamma Thera


Published on Mar 12, 2013
Daily Buddhist Theravada Pali Chanting by Venerable Vajiradhamma Thera

One of the best Pali Buddhist Chanting. It is very peaceful, tranquil, pleasant and harmonious chanting.

This Chanting has helped many people to have peace, calm and tranquil
mind, build mindfulness while listening and/or the chant attentively,
re-gain confidence from fear and uncertainty, bring happiness and peace
for those who are in sick and those in their last moment in this life
(as hearing is thought to be the last sense to go in the dying process).
May you get the benefits of this chanting too.

This compilation
consists of Recollection of Buddha (Buddhanusati or Itipiso),
Recollection of Dhamma (Dhammanusati), Recollection of Sangaha
(Sanghanusati), Mangala Sutta, Ratana Sutta, Karaniya Metta Sutta,
Khandha Sutta, Bhaddekaratta Gatha, Metta Chant, Accaya Vivarana,
Vandana, Pattanumodana, Devanumodana, Punnanumodana and Patthana.

This compilation is make possible by Venerable Samanera Dhammasiri
getting the permission from Venerable Vajiradhamma Thera to compile and
distribute, and co-edit and proofing. The background image is photo
taken by Venerable Dhammasubho. First compilation completed in 2007 and
further edit done in 2015. Thanks and Sadhu to all who have assisted and
given me the opportunity to do this compilation especially my family.
May the merits accrue from this compilation share with all. With Metta,
Tissa Ng.

Copyright © 2007-2015
All right reserved. Permission are granted to duplicate without modification for non commercial purpose.
[You MUST retain this notice for all the duplication, linking or sharing]
Nonprofits & Activism
Daily Buddhist Theravada Pali Chanting by Venerable Vajiradhamma Thera One of the best Pali Buddhist…
Buddhist Chanting in Pali-Tisarana巴利文唱誦-三皈依
Published on Mar 30, 2012


Indonesia Tipiṭaka Chanting 2018
Pabbajjā-Upasampadā Saṅgha Theravāda Indonesia
Streamed live on Jul 21, 2018

The Tipitaka (Pali ti, “three,” + pitaka,
“baskets”), or Pali canon, is the collection of primary Pali language
texts which form the doctrinal foundation of Theravada Buddhism. The
Tipitaka and the paracanonical Pali texts (commentaries, chronicles, etc.) together constitute the complete body of classical Theravada texts.

The Pali canon is a vast body of literature: in English translation
the texts add up to thousands of printed pages. Most (but not all) of
the Canon has already been published in English over the years. Although
only a small fraction of these texts are available on this website,
this collection can be a good place to start.

The three divisions of the Tipitaka are:

Vinaya Pitaka
The collection of texts concerning the rules of conduct governing the daily affairs within the Sangha — the community of bhikkhus (ordained monks) and bhikkhunis
(ordained nuns). Far more than merely a list of rules, the Vinaya
Pitaka also includes the stories behind the origin of each rule,
providing a detailed account of the Buddha’s solution to the question of
how to maintain communal harmony within a large and diverse spiritual
Sutta Pitaka
The collection of suttas, or discourses, attributed to the Buddha
and a few of his closest disciples, containing all the central teachings
of Theravada Buddhism. (More than one thousand sutta translations are
available on this website.) The suttas are divided among five nikayas (collections):
Abhidhamma Pitaka
The collection of texts in which the underlying doctrinal principles
presented in the Sutta Pitaka are reworked and reorganized into a
systematic framework that can be applied to an investigation into the
nature of mind and matter.

For further reading

  • Where can I find a copy of the complete Pali canon (Tipitaka)? (Frequently Asked Question)
  • Beyond the Tipitaka: A Field Guide to Post-canonical Pali Literature
  • Pali Language Study Aids offers links that may be useful to Pali students of every level.
  • Handbook of Pali Literature, by Somapala Jayawardhana
    (Colombo: Karunaratne & Sons, Ltd., 1994). A guide, in dictionary
    form, through the Pali canon, with detailed descriptions of the major
    landmarks in the Canon.
  • An Analysis of the Pali Canon, Russell Webb, ed. (Kandy:
    Buddhist Publication Society, 1975). An indispensable “roadmap” and
    outline of the Pali canon. Contains an excellent index listing suttas by
  • Guide to Tipitaka, U Ko Lay, ed. (Delhi: Sri Satguru
    Publications, 1990). Another excellent outline of the Tipitaka,
    containing summaries of many important suttas.
  • Buddhist Dictionary, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy:
    Buddhist Publication Society, 1980). A classic handbook of important
    terms and concepts in Theravada Buddhism.

Search results for



Download, Listen and View free Tipitaka MP3, Video and Lyrics
Ask A Monk: The Tipitaka

Download, Listen and View free Ask A Monk: The Tipitaka MP3, Video and Lyrics
From the Holy Buddhist Tipitaka: Mulapariyaya Sutta (The Root Sequence)

Download, Listen and View free From the Holy Buddhist Tipitaka: Mulapariyaya Sutta (The Root Sequence) MP3, Video and Lyrics
Ask A Monk: The Truth of the Tipitaka

Download, Listen and View free Ask A Monk: The Truth of the Tipitaka MP3, Video and Lyrics
From the Holy Buddhist Tipitaka: Sutta Pitaka:Khuddaka Nikaya

Download, Listen and View free From the Holy Buddhist Tipitaka: Sutta Pitaka:Khuddaka Nikaya MP3, Video and Lyrics

Download, Listen and View free Tipitaka MP3, Video and Lyrics
Tipitaka - Pali Canon

Download, Listen and View free Tipitaka - Pali Canon MP3, Video and Lyrics
International Conference on Tipitaka Studies: Traditional and Contemporary 26/11/2017

Download, Listen and View free International
Conference on Tipitaka Studies: Traditional and Contemporary 26/11/2017
MP3, Video and Lyrics
The Tipitaka Sattapanni Cave

Download, Listen and View free The Tipitaka Sattapanni Cave MP3, Video and Lyrics
ත්‍රිපිටකය හැඳින්වීම - Introduction of tipitaka

Download, Listen and View free ත්‍රිපිටකය හැඳින්වීම - Introduction of tipitaka MP3, Video and Lyrics
MAGELANG - Indonesia Tipitaka Chanting dan Asalha Mahapuja 2562/2018

Download, Listen and View free MAGELANG - Indonesia Tipitaka Chanting dan Asalha Mahapuja 2562/2018 MP3, Video and Lyrics
Tipitaka Recitation (with English Translation)

Download, Listen and View free Tipitaka Recitation (with English Translation) MP3, Video and Lyrics
ការសូត្រស្វាធ្យាយព្រះត្រៃបិដកអន្ដរជាតិ ITCC Tipitaka Chanting 2014

Download, Listen and View free ការសូត្រស្វាធ្យាយព្រះត្រៃបិដកអន្ដរជាតិ ITCC Tipitaka Chanting 2014 MP3, Video and Lyrics
Sayadaw Tipiṭaka 10 in Hanoi 23August18 Am2

Download, Listen and View free Sayadaw Tipiṭaka 10 in Hanoi 23August18 Am2 MP3, Video and Lyrics
Sayadaw Tipiṭaka 10 in Hanoi 22August18 Pm2

Download, Listen and View free Sayadaw Tipiṭaka 10 in Hanoi 22August18 Pm2 MP3, Video and Lyrics
Indonesia Tipitaka Chanting

Download, Listen and View free Indonesia Tipitaka Chanting MP3, Video and Lyrics
How I understand Lord Buddha’s concept in tipitaka

Download, Listen and View free How I understand Lord Buddha’s concept in tipitaka MP3, Video and Lyrics
L1.5 The Composition and Significance of the Tipitaka

Download, Listen and View free L1.5 The Composition and Significance of the Tipitaka MP3, Video and Lyrics
Trailer T I P I T A K A

Download, Listen and View free Trailer T I P I T A K A MP3, Video and Lyrics
From the Holy Buddhist Tipitaka: Itivuttaka - The Group of Threes

Download, Listen and View free From the Holy Buddhist Tipitaka: Itivuttaka - The Group of Threes MP3, Video and Lyrics
Sayadaw Tipiṭaka 10 in Hanoi 23August18 pm1

Download, Listen and View free Sayadaw Tipiṭaka 10 in Hanoi 23August18 pm1 MP3, Video and Lyrics

comments (0)
Murderers of democratic institutions & Master of diluting institutions (Modi) Ex CEC EVM SAMPATH to be awarded Doctorate for his Bahujan Seva at Yogi Vemana Univesity Kadapa AP on 29-06-2016 Ex CJI SADHASIVAM, shirked his duty & committed a grave error of judgment by allowing in phased manner the Fraud Tamperable EVMs on the request of ex CEC SAMPATH because of the 1600 crore cost to replace them and dealt a fatal blow to the Country’s democracy. Ex CEC SAMPATH is number one enemy of Democracy, Liberty, Equality and fraternity as enshrined in our Constitution for the welfare, happiness and peace of Sarvajan Samaj. Coal Scam: Petition to be filed at SC against CEC Sampath & EC Brahma Published on Jun 2, 2014 Coal Scam: Petition to be filed at SC against CEC Sampath & EC Brahma 2:25 mins

Filed under: General
Posted by: site admin @ 9:36 am
Murderers of democratic institutions & Master of diluting institutions (Modi)

Ex CEC EVM SAMPATH  to be awarded Doctorate for his Bahujan Seva at Yogi Vemana Univesity Kadapa AP on 29-06-2016

CJI  SADHASIVAM, shirked his duty & committed a grave error of
judgment by allowing in phased manner the  Fraud Tamperable EVMs on the
request of ex CEC   SAMPATH because of the 1600 crore cost to replace
them and dealt a fatal blow to the Country’s democracy.

SAMPATH is number one enemy of Democracy, Liberty, Equality and
fraternity as enshrined in our Constitution for the welfare, happiness
and peace of Sarvajan Samaj.

Coal Scam: Petition to be filed at SC against CEC Sampath & EC Brahma

Published on Jun 2, 2014

Scam: Petition to be filed at SC against CEC Sampath & EC Brahma
2:25 mins

For more content go to
Follow us on facebook at
Follow us on twitter at

He must be punished for murdering
democracy instead of awarding doctorate to him. Otherwise the Rakshsa
Swayam Sewaks and all its Avathars will start building temples and
install Ex CEC Sampath’s statues through out the Country as they have
done to the deadliest murderer chitpawan brahmin nathuram godse.

of all the EVMs vulnerable to fraud must be replaced with paper
ballots. Then only everything will be clean which was proved in the last
UP Panchayat Elections and Ms Mayawati will be the next PM of Prabuddha
Bharath.The architect
Dr BR Ambedkar gave the country a
modern Constitution while the Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks (RSS) wanted him to
implement manusmriti which says chitpawan brahmins as 1st rate souls
(Athmas) where education is reserved for them only. The Modern
Constitution provided education for all societies. Manusmriti wants only
kshatrias the 2nd rate souls to rule the Country while the Modern
Constitution provides all societies can rule the country which saw many
non-kshatrias ruled the Centre including Deve Gowda, IK Gujral, and
in States  Kamaraj Nadar, Annaduari, Karunanidi, Lalu Prasad, Mulayam
Singh, Nitesh Kumar, Ms Mayawati, Akilesh. As per manusmriti only the
3rd rate souls the Vysiyas can do trading and business. But any one can
do business and trade as  as per the Modern Constitution. The Shudras as
per manusmriti are 4th rate souls and the Panchamas (Aboriginal Adi
Mula Nivasis (SC/STs) having no soul at all so that they can be
torchured. The Buddha never believed in any soul. He said all are equal.
Hence DR Ambedkar and all his followers returned back to Buddhism and
the process continues. The Modern Constitution provides full freedom of
expression to SC/STs also along with others even though they meny be
imaginary for which they cannot be punished. As per Manusmriti women are
the properties of men having no rights. But because of the Modern
Constitution Indira Gandhi became the PM of this Country and Ms Mayawati
as CM of UP for four times. And she will be the next PM of Prabuddha

DR Ambedkar told to Nehru when he became the first PM of the Country
“Mr Nehru you may be the ruler of this country now. But I will rule the
country after my death.” which is true since the chitpawan brahmins have
misappropriated Dr Ambedkar’s name for their selfish and greedy rule.
Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) is even attempting to

misappropriate Buddhism by trying to misuse  monks to go around the
country to praise him which no genuine follower of Awakened One with
Awareness will ever do it.

The 1% chitpawan brahmins are attempting to bury Buddhism and the Techno-Politico-Socio-
Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement of the Buddha, Dr BR
Ambedkar, Manyawar Kanshiram and Ms Mayawati without knowing that they
are seeds that keeps sprouting as Bodhi Trees.

CJI did not order for ballot paper system would be
brought in. No such precautionary measure was decreed by the apex court.
Ex CJI did not order that till the time this newer set of about 1300000
voting machines is manufactured in full & deployed totally. All the
people in 80 democracies in the world who simply done away with
fradulent EVMs should not recognise EVM Murderer of democratic
institutions(Modi) & his Government. This had happened because of
the the 1% chitpawan brahmins of RSS practicing hatred-ness towards 99%
Sarvajan Samaj including SC/STs/OBCs/Minorities and the poor upper caste
in favour of Capitalists and Industrialists. Hatred is a defilement of
mind which is madness requiring treatment in a mental asylum with
Insight Meditation till they are cured with this illness of hate.
Hatred, anger, jealousy, delusion are defilement of the mind which is
madness. The Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks (RSS) and all its avathars BJP
(Bahuth Jiyadha Psychopaths), VHP (Visha Hinutva Psychopaths), ABVP (All
Brahmin Venomous Psychopaths), Bhajan Dal etc suffer from this madness
who keep heckling & giggling like mad people celebrating their
violence thinking that they are achievers.

As a result of undemocratic act of ex CEC Sampath the damage done is as follows:

proper implementation of Reservation and to save this country from
Murderers of democratic institutions (Modi) remotely controlled by 1%
chitpawan brahmin psychopath Rowdy Swayam sevaks the offices of CJI,
CEC, Media, must have collegiate system consisting
SC/STs/OBCs/Minorities. And all the psychopaths practicing hatred must
be treated in mental asylums with Insight Meditation as cure. The ex CJI
Sadasivam committed a grave error of judgement by allowing ex CEC 
Sampath to replace all the EVMs vulnerable to fraud in phases instead of
totally replacing them with paper ballots as followed in 80 democracies
of the world. Ms Mayawati who could not win a single seat in the last
Lok sabha elections won more that 80% seats in the last UP Panchayat
elections. With paper ballots she will be the next PM od Prabuddha
Bharath. To prevent this the Judiciary wanted to remove reservation
which is unconstitutional.The CJI with collegiate system must salvage
the Central as well as all the states selected through these fraud EVMs
and order for fresh elections with paper ballots to save democracy,
liberty, fraternity and equality as enshrined in our constitution or
else these manuvadis will have their hey days.

Practice Middle path !

Eat the cake and still have it is psychopathetic !

governance because of the MASTER KEY in the hands of Murderer of
democratic institutions (Modi) selected by Evil Voting Machines (EVMs)
which are vulnerable to fraud.
If we want this country to develop,
the first necessity is to change and overhaul its legal and judicial
system. We must get the final judgment within a year and it should not
take decades to get final order. For that the CJI and CEC must have
COLLIGIATE SYSTEM consisting of SC/STs/OBCs/Minorities.

The ex
CJI Sadasivam had committed a grave error of judgement by ordering as
suggested by ex CEC Samapth to replace the fraid EVMs in phases instead
of total replacement by paper ballots as followed by 80 democracies of
the world. Ms Mayawat could not win a single seat in the last Lok sabha
elections because of these fraud EVMs. But won 80 % seats in the the
last UP Panchayat Elections.And another Justice wanted the RESERVATION
to be removed which is unconstitutional.

The present CJI must
salvage Central and all the state governments selected by these fraud
EVMs and order for fresh elections with paper ballots.Then the next PM
of Prabuddha Bharath will be Ms Mayawati.

On Wednesday, 23 December 2015 9:45 AM, “‘Prof R K Gupta India’ [Janshakti]”

problem in the judicial system is its laxity and slow process as it is
captive of corrupted legal profession which is accountable to no body,
very less number of police stations and judges in India. 15,000 police
stations for a population of 120 crores is laughable.

We have 1
judge on 1.5 lac population that is funny and absurd. Lawyers don’t
allow cases to be completed as they have no performance monitoring
system and removal form bar. They charge huge fees, cheat and misbehave
with clients, don’t appear in court, distort facts and behave
street hooligans on drop of a hat. Policemen are recruited on
bribe basis. Even if you manage to get a court order chain of appeals
start that are shameless and endless process with one judge reversing
previous judgement and  merry-go-round keeps going. No one follows court
order. Courts are helpless and don’t care. If any one does not obey
order in 30 days he should not only be fines 1 million rupees minimum
and put behind bar till he executes the order. Hence passing of juvenile
bill not going to change anything. First is can we catch the criminals ,
then investigate and then successfully prosecute?
Conviction rate  is
less than 15 % .

What government is doing about it?

All the
time he goes abroad and talks big and useless things and all his acts
are to benefit baniya. For example 2 % interest reduced for aam aadmi
and give it to baniyas . This means 2 lac crore gift annually. Modi and
Jaitley should feel ashamed and quit.

Eight Reasons Why Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) is Disliked

of democratic institutions(Modi) has earned the displeasure of many
segments of the society. Here are eight
reasons why he is disliked.

1.       Modi
is a ‘usurper of power’. He is trying to replicate the reign of the
Slave Dynasty of the thirteenth century by seizing Delhi Sultanate, an
inheritance of the Gandhi-Nehru dynasty. How dare a petty Ganchi Caste
have the audacity to gatecrash into the hallowed portals of Lutyens’
Delhi? Howsoever ill-equipped, inept and unqualified the dynasty may be,
Delhi throne is its family heritage. In any case, no competence is
required to plunder this country . As in the past, the country can be
easily ruled through a network of psycophants, stooges and dummies. It
is just a question of fine-tuning the remote controls.The EVMs which are
vulnerable to fraud have been tampered for 1% chitpawan brahmin
psychopaths Rowdy Swayam Sevaks remotely controlling Bahuth Jiyadha
paapis (BJP). Once the very same RSS wanted the Paper Ballots to be
reverted back. Now after gobbling the MASTER KEY through the very sane
EVMs which they have opposed earlier are noe silent for the greed of
power to practice their hatred, intolerance, militancy, violence,
lunching, cannibals in the name of stealth hindutva cult manufactured by
a chitpawan brahmin vir savarkar like the murderer nathuram godse for
whom temple and statues are installed all these against 99% Sarvajans
including SC/STs/OBCs/Minorities/poor brahmins and baniyas.

ex CJI Sadasivam committed a grave error judgement by ordering that
these fraud EVMs to be replaced in phases as suggested by ex CEC Sampath
instead of total replacement. These psychopaths must be punished by the
CJI by salvaging the Central and all state governments selected by
these fraud EVMs and order for fresh elections through Paper Ballots to
save democracy, liberty, fraternity and equality as enshrined in our
Constitution and to prevent manusmiriti being practiced  at present.
2.       Modi
is a ‘sadist’. How dare he discard the long practiced tenet of ‘khao
aur khane do’? His mantra of ‘naa khaunga, naa khane dunga’ is
symptomatic of his aversion for the well-being of the ruling elite. It
smacks of jealousy for the privileged. No one interfered in Raja’s
spectrum loot or in Praful Patel’s aircraft purchases. Modi must not
forget that leaders and bureaucrats have families. They have to amass
enough to secure the future of their progeny.
3.       Modi’s
Introduction of biometric system to mark presence in government offices
has been terribly painful. Modi has ruined happiness of all government
4.    Modi is ‘anti-media’.

Modi is
deliberately asphyxiating it because it was through the fraud EVMs he
has snatched the Master Key. Media is now a dead wood.
5.    Modi is ‘anti-employment’.

All his promises of generating jobs through economic growth are phony rendering numerous people jobless.
6.       Modi
is a ‘pseudo-secularist’. Although he had been demonised by the
self-proclaimed secularists as a communal menace for decades, Modi
remains unscathed. Most worrisomely, even negative campaigns like phoney
anti-Christian allegations during Delhi elections and spiteful
intolerance crusade during Bihar elections
have not provoked him.
7.       Modi
is highly ‘pretentious’. He has made a mess of country’s foreign
policy. Instead of following the established diplomatic protocol, he has
started establishing personal rapport with the world leaders.
8.       Modi is ‘intolerant’.

whole world knows that the 1% chitpawan psychopath brahmins of Rowdy
Swayam Sevaks are used for tampering the EVMs that are vulnerable to
fraud for Murder of democratic institutions (Modi)’s Bahuth Jiyadha
Paapis (BJP). The ex CJI Sadasivam committed a grave error of judgement
by ordering the EVMs to be replaced in phases as suggested by the ex CEC
Sampath instead of replacing them totally. The present CJI must order
for salvaging  the Central and all the other state governments selected
through these fraud EVMs and order for fresh eections with paper ballots
in the larger interest to save democracy, liberty, fraternity and
equality as enshrined in the Constitution. The manusmiriti has already
being implemented at present.


The Intellectuals
and intellegent Advocated belonging to Social Transformation Movement of
Sarvajan Samaj must unitedly move the Supreme Court as the EVMs are
insecure, to Scrap them and Order for fresh Lok Sabha elections and all
the State Assembly elections conducted with these fraud EVMs. Propagate
through Internet by creating websites, creating facebook, tweet, and
sending bulk emails TV channels and media as the present media is a dead
wood forgetting what Napolean said: “I can face two battalions but not
two scribes”.Democratic Institutions such as CJI, CEC, and all other
pillars of democracy such as Presidents, Prime Minister, Chief
Ministers, Defence etc. must follow Collegiate system consisting
SC/ST/OBCs/Minorities to challenge the following judgement:…/A…/India/20100828/1575461.html

RSS favours paper ballots, EVMs subjected to public scrutiny
New Delhi | Saturday, Aug 28 2010 IST

the controversy regarding the reliablity of Electronic Voting Machines
(EVMs) which have been questioned by political parties, the RSS today
asked the Election Commission (EC) to revert back to tried and tested
paper ballots and subject EVMs to public scrutiny whether these gadgets
are tamper proof. In an editorial titled ‘Can we trust our EVMs?’, The
Organiser, the RSS mouthpiece, noted it was a fact that till date an
absolutely tamper-proof machine had not been invented and credibility of
any system depends on ‘transparency, verifiability and trustworthiness’
than on blind and atavistic faith in its infallibility. The issue is
not a ‘private affair’ and it involves the future of India. Even if the
EVMs were genuine, there was no reason for the EC to be touchy about it,
the paper commented. The Government and the EC can’t impose EVMs as a
fait accompli on Indian democracy as the only option before the voter.
There were flaws like booth capturing, rigging, bogus voting, tampering
and ballot paper snatching in the ballot paper system of polling leading
the country to switch over to the EVMs and all these problems were
relevant in EVMs too. Rigging was possible even at the counting stage.
What made the ballot papers voter-friendly was that all aberrations were
taking place before the public eye and hence open for corrections
whereas the manipulations in the EVMs is entirely in the hands of powers
that be and the political appointees manning the sytem, the paper
commented. The EVM has only one advantage — ’speed’ but that advantage
has been undermined by the staggered polls at times spread over three to
four months. ‘’This has already killed the fun of the election
process,'’ the paper noted. Of the dozen General Elections held in the
country, only two were through the EVMs and instead of rationally
addressing the doubts aired by reputed institutions and experts the
Government has resorted to silence its critics by ‘intimidation and
arrests on false charges’, the paper observed, recalling the arrest of
Hyederabad-based technocrat Hari Prasad by the Mumbai Police. Prasad’s
research has proved that the EVMs were ‘vulnerable to fraud’. The
authorities want to send a message that anybody who challenges the EC
runs the risk of persecution and harassment, the RSS observed. Most
countries around the world looked at the EVMs with suspicion and
countries like the Netherlands, Italy, Germany and Ireland had all
reverted back to paper ballots shunning EVMs because they were ‘easy to
falsify, risked eavesdropping and lacked transparency’. Democracy is too
precious to be handed over to whims or an opaque establishment and
network of unsafe gizmos. ‘’For the health of Indian democracy it is
better to return to tried and tested methods or else elections in future
can turn out to be a farce,'’ the editorial said.
– (UNI) –

Today the very same fraud EVMs which was doubted by
RSS on Saturday, Aug 28 2010 has been tampered in favor of 1% RSS’s
Bahuth Jiyadha Paapis (BJP) for Murderer of democratic institutions

the Supreme Court had ordered to replace all the fraud EVMs with fool
proof voting system that is being followed by 80 democries of the world
and the tried and tested paper ballots used in the recent UK elections,
the ex CJI Sathasivan committed a grave error of judgement in allowing
the fraud EVMs to be replaced in phases as suggested by the ex CEC
Sampath because of the cost of Rs 1600 crore involved in replacing the
fraud EVMs totally.

Now the country is
OF the fraud EVMs favored
1% Horrorist, Militant, Violent, Intolerant, Heckling, Lynching Stealth
hindutva chitpawan brahmin RSS’s Bahuth Jiyadha Paapis (BJP) for
Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi)!
BY the fraud EVMs favored 1%
Terrorist, Militant, Violent, Intolerant, Heckling, Stealth hindutva
chitpawan brahmin RSS’s Bahuth Jiyadha Paapis (BJP) for Murderer of
democratic institutions (Modi)!!
FOR the fraud EVMs favored 1%
Terrorist, Militant, Violent, Intolerant, Heckling, Stealth hindutva
chitpawan brahmin RSS’s Bahuth Jiyadha Paapis (BJP) for Murderer of
democratic institutions (Modi)!!!
OFF the 99% Sarvajan Samaj
i.e., all societies including LOYAL Arogya Rakshakas (Safai
Karmacharis)/SC/STs/OBCs/Minorities and Poor Upper Castes!
BUY the
99% Sarvajan Samaj i.e., all societies including LOYAL Arogya Rakshakas
(Safai Karmacharis)/SC/STs/OBCs/Minorities and Poor Upper Castes!

the 99% Sarvajan Samaj i.e., all societies including LOYAL Arogya
Rakshakas (Safai Karmacharis)/SC/STs/OBCs/Minorities and Poor Upper

Once again the Supreme Court has to be pursued by 99%
Sarvajan Samaj i.e., All Societies literates to SCRAP all the Central
and Sate Elections conducted with these fraud EVMs and order for fresh
elections with FOOL PROOF VOTING SYSTEM. Since the MEDIA has become
DEADWOOD for the 99% and ALIVE just for 1% brahmins and Baniyas
HIGHLIGHT this issue both ONLINE by creating WEBSITES, BLOGS, Emails,
SMSs etc., and OFFLINE by taking the message directly to the people.

Amar Khade
The practical techniques of Protest !!!

Protest using Motorcyles , have a good traffic jams .Mind that police
does not catch you up …..( Just like the Political Rally …..Nobody
will dare to catch you ..The Police are ill equipped to catch you )

Protest using a Truck ….Leave the rented Truck in middle of road
….Create a Traffic Jam ..Let People and Government machinery suffer
for a while .Let the Traffic Police come and impound the truck …one
can always pay a Little Fine and get the Truck back on the
technicalities that “Truck got broke down ” ….

3)Do not waste your
energy by shouting in protest ..Play recorded protest messages loud in a
Good Public Address System ……

4)Just carry out seating protest
…it is the most practical approach for protest …Government officials
cannot use an kind of excessive FORCE on the seating protesters
…..Meanwhile play the protest message loudly via PA system and take
care to wear an ear plug or ear muffler ….The loud noise of PA system
really make People crazy ……Sometimes one have to make Loud Voice
when not heard ….

5)Play patriotic songs in middle of protest
messages …that gives a stamp of being Nationalist ..Nobody can book
you under any so called Anti-National activity ….

6) Different
states got different laws regarding “Offences on Public disruption
“… those State specific Laws and then conduct the Protests ….

The aim of Protest is primarily Annoyance to the establishes elite
class and the causes of protest is Annoyance Due to the Public Policy or
any Govt actions of Elitist towards the other disadvantaged social
group …..It is just a game of Tit for Tat ….They annoy you ……You
annoy them …They exert power via Public policy , via their decisions
via their newly amended law …You exert power via Disruption
…….Take a note that Media will be never on your side ….It will
always take side of Elite class ….

8) Use your smart phone to
fullest extent …It got a Video Camera …A Still Camera and good
internet connection …….If any Excessive Force used by Govt Machinery
…just Record them …..Use it as a proof against the perpetrators of
Excessive Force …….

We live in Democracy …Protest is my right too …..
The EVMs have to be totally replaced by Paper ballots for the following reasons:

NO.9093 OF 2013
(Arising out of SLP (Civil) No. 13735 of 2012)
Subramanian Swamy
…. Appellant(s)
Election Commission of
…. Respondent(s)
P. Sathasivam, CJI.
Leave granted.
Civil Appeal @ SLP (C) No.
13735 of 2012
This appeal is directed against the judgment and
dated 17.01.2012 passed by the Division Bench of the High
Court of
Delhi at New Delhi in W.P.(C) No. 11879 of 2009
whereby the High Court
disposed of the petition by
disallowing the prayer made by the
appellant herein for
issuance of a writ of
directing the
Commission of India (ECI)-Respondent herein to incorporate
system of “paper trail/paper receipt” in the Electronic
Voting Machines
(EVMs) as a convincing proof that the EVM
has rightly registered the
vote cast by a voter in favour of a
particular candidate.
aggrieved of the above, the present appeal has
been filed by way of
special leave.
Writ Petition (Civil) No. 406 of 2012
One Rajendra
Satyanarayan Gilda has filed this Writ
Petition, under Article 32 of the
Constitution of India, praying
for issuance of a writ
direction(s) directing the
Union of India, the Chief
Election Commissioner and the
Technical Experts Committee-Respondent
Nos. 1-3 herein
respectively to effect the necessary modifications in
EVMs so as to allow the voters to verify their respective votes
to attach the printers to the EVMs with a facility to print
the running
record of the votes for the purpose of verification
by the voters in the
process of voting. He also prayed for a
direction to frame
guidelines and to effect necessary
amendments in the Conduct of Election
Rules, 1961.
In view of the pendency of the appeal filed by
Subramanian Swamy, this Court issued notice in the writ
petition and
tagged with the said appeal.
Heard Dr. Subramanian Swamy,
appellant-in-person in
the appeal, Dr. R.R. Deshpande, learned counsel
for the writ
petitioner, Mr. Ashok Desai and Ms. Meenakshi Arora,
senior counsel for the ECI.
Dr. Subramanian
Swamy, the appellant herein
contended before this Court that the present
system of
EVMs, as utilized in the last few general elections in
does not meet all the requirements of the international
and though the ECI maintains that the EVMs
cannot be tampered with, but
the fact is that EVMs, like all
electronic equipments, are open to
The appellant has further highlighted that the
matter arises out of the refusal of the ECI to incorporate
certain obvious safeguard in the EVMs called “paper
“paper receipt” or “paper trail”, presently in use
and mandated in some
countries like USA, which would easily
and cheaply meet the requirement
of proof that the EVM has
rightly registered the vote cast by a voter.
The appellant has
further highlighted that the “paper trail” system is
supplement the procedure of voting as in this procedure,
recording a vote in the EVM, a print out will come out
which will
appraise the voter that his vote has been rightly
registered and the
same will be deposited in a box which can
only be used by the ECI in
case of election dispute.
It is the categorical stand of the
appellant that the
above said system will bring more accuracy in the
system and if a particular election is challenged on the
that some particular identified voter’s voter or the
votes of a group of
voters have been suppressed/have not
been correctly assigned by the
EVMs, the accepted current
procedure is for a re-run of the same EVMs
for a re-count,
however, under the new procedure, a re-count will be of
receipts in the ballot box containing the printouts the EVMs
issued to the voter thereby ensuring more transparency
in the
The writ petitioner has also raised similar contentions
those of Dr. Swamy. According to the petitioner, in the
system of voting through EVMs, there is no such
facility by which a
voter can verify and confirm his own
voting. At present, a voter presses
a button only but cannot
ascertain the actual voting. He is not sure
whether his vote
is recorded or not, if recorded, whether it is recorded
favour of the person to whom it was intended or not.
Whether it is
valid or invalid and whether it is counted or not.
It is submitted by
the petitioner that unless and until answers
to these questions are
personally seen by the voter, it cannot
be said that voting is made by
him because “pressing a
button of choice and getting flashed the
red-light” is not
actual voting in real sense unless the voter knows
well that
what has happened in consequence of pressing a button of
choice from the EVMs.
Stand of the Election Commission of India:
Ashok Desai, learned senior counsel for the ECI
submitted that the
apprehension that EVMs could be
tampered with is baseless. It was also
informed to this Court
that the ECI has been exploring the possibility
incorporating a viable Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail
system as a part of the presently used EVMs to
make the election system
more transparent. Further, it was
brought to our notice that the ECI
conducted field trials for
VVPAT system earlier also but the same had
not been
successful and were discontinued. The ECI also filed a
affidavit stating that the EVMs provided by the
Commission are of such a
high end technology that it cannot
be hacked.
12) Referring to Section
61A of the Representation of the
People Act, 1951, it is submitted that
the Statute itself
provides for recording of votes by EVMs and the ECI
has been
given the discretion to prescribe recording of votes by
EVMs as it may deem fit. This discretion has to be exercised
in a
manner to preserve the sanctity of the election process
and ensure that
the election is conducted in a free and fair
manner. The ECI
has exercised due diligence to ensure that
EVMs so used are “tamper
proof” and it is also in the process
of exploring to incorporate VVPAT
system which is
compatible with the present EVMs used by it. It is
that there is no instance of tampering with EVMs so far
It is further submitted that the EVMs used in India
unique and unlike the ones used in the elections in USA and
countries, which are personal computer based. EVMs
deployed by the ECI
have been lauded not only in India but
also abroad. EVM’s Control Unit
retains in the memory each
vote recorded elector-wise. The information
stored in the
memory of the Control Unit can be retrieved by using
device called the “decoder” which, when attached to the
Control Unit
of EVM, can print out the statement of voting
data showing the order in
which each voter has voted and to
whom he has voted.
Insofar as the
transparency of the election process as
well as the right of a voter to
know whether his vote has
actually been recorded for the candidate for
whom it was
cast is concerned, it is submitted that as soon
as a vote is
recorded by a voter by pressing the “candidate’s” button
the Ballot Unit, a light glows against the name and symbol of
candidate, which the voter can see for himself/ herself.
This is a
visual (electronic) assurance to the voter that the
candidate for whom
he has cast his vote has actually got that
vote. Thereafter, the light
goes off to protect the secrecy of
It is further submitted
that the feasibility of VVPAT
system was sought to be explored to by
various political
parties and they were explained the technical
administrative safeguards. The ECI also constituted a
Experts Committee to examine the viability of the
VVPAT system. On
27.05.2011, the Technical Experts
Committee, after discussion with
political parties and civil
society members and also after seeing the
demonstration of
the prototype VVPAT system developed by M/s.
Electronics Ltd. (BEL) and M/s. Electronics Corporation of
Ltd. (ECIL), recommended that a field test of the
prototype VVPAT system
should be carried out in a simulated
election under
different environmental conditions in
Jaisalmer, Thiruvananthapuram,
Delhi, Leh and Cherapunji.
The ECI also held further meetings with the
manufacturers of
EVMs on various dates to fine tune the system and
the follow up action required. Several meetings were also
with the Expert Committee on VVPAT system.
In wider fulfillment of
the objectives of the field trial, the
ECI has requested the National
and State parties to extend
necessary cooperation by getting involved in
the trial process
actively and also witness the trial in order to have a
hand experience of the system. The ECI has also requested
individuals including the appellant – Dr. Subramanian
Swamy and the
groups, who have been engaged with the ECI
on the issue of EVM-VVPAT, to
witness the trial.
17) We have carefully perused the relevant materials
considered the rival contentions.
When the matter
was listed before this Court for
hearing on 27.09.2012, Mr. Ashok Desai
had brought to our
notice that the ECI is contemplating foolproof method
EVMs for which they are taking various steps in
with the Technical Experts Committee and the views of
recognized political parties. Mr. Desai also promised to
this Court about the deliberations and the ultimate
decision to be taken
by them in this regard. Accordingly, this
Court granted sufficient time
to the ECI to file Status Report
regarding introduction of VVPAT system
in EVMs to be used
in the elections.
Pursuant to the directions of
this Court, the ECI filed a
Status Report on the developments of VVPAT
system. In the
said report, the ECI, citing various technicalities,
prayed for
further time to make the system more robust for the
On 15.12.2012, M/s BEL, Bangalore filed a
showing the status of development of VVPAT system which
changes that have been carried out in VVPAT from
September to December,
2012 and also furnished
chronological changes made in VVPAT system after
the field
trial of the VVPAT system held in July and August,
Pursuant to the directions of this Court, the
ECI, filed an affidavit highlighting the following
That vide its Affidavit dated 14.01.2013,
Commission had filed the status report regarding
introduction of the
VVPAT system in the Electronic
Voting Machines (EVMs).
subsequently, in the Technical Expert
Committee meeting held on
04.02.2013, the
Committee approved the design of the VVPAT and
that software fine tuning will be done and
completed by the end of
February, 2013, and
modified design specifications will be submitted
the Technical Expert Committee for approval.
The Committee also
recommended that the
Commission may for using the VVPAT and that
VVPAT should be tried in a bye-election.
That in the Technical
Expert Committee
meeting held on 19.02.2013, the Committee
the VVPAT design.
The manufacturers, namely, M/s. Bharat
Limited and M/s. Electronics Corporation of India
have quoted Rs. 16,200/- (excluding duties,
taxes and transport charges)
per VVPAT system.
The Commission has decided to purchase
units of VVPAT for trials in a Bye-election, at
approximate cost of Rs.72,90,000/- (Rupees seventy
two lakh ninety
thousand) approximately.
It is submitted that the Commission
require approximately 13 lakh VVPAT units to be
manufactures for 13
lakh EVMs presently available
and roughly about Rs. 1690 crores (One
Six Hundred Ninety Crores)(i.e. 13 lakh units x
Rs.13,000 per
unit) are required for the purpose of
implementation of the VVPAT system
taking into
account the possible reduction in the cost per unit
produced in bulk.
It is further submitted that in order to
the new system the Conduct of Election
Rules, 1961 will require certain
In this connection, vide letter No.
dated 28.03.2013, the
Commission has informed the
Department of the Ministry of Law and Justice
various amendments required to the
relevant parts of Rules 49A to 49X,
66A, 55C, 56C,
57C and Form 17C of the Conduct of Elections Rules,
as well as introduction of Rules 49MA and 56D
in the said
That the Commission has called for a meeting
of all the
recognized National and State Parties on
May, 2013 for the purpose
of demonstration of
VVPAT unit to them and for discussion with them
eliciting their views regarding use of VVPAT system
in the
elections. The petitioner herein and others
interested in the matter
would also be invited at the
It is seen from the records
that after various
deliberations with the experts and persons concerned
the technology, the Technical Experts Committee approved
the final
design of VVPAT units in its meeting held on
19.01.2013. In order to
meet the directions of this Court and
for proper execution of VVPAT
system, as noticed above, the
ECI in its letter dated 28.03.2013,
addressed to the Secretary
to the Government of India, Ministry of Law
and Justice stated
that necessary ground work for amendment to the
of Election Rules, 1961 (in relevant parts in Rules 49A to
66A, 55C, 56C, 57C and Form 17C) may be made so that the
to the Rules can be notified immediately which
will enable
the ECI to use the VVPAT system in bye-elections
in consultation with
the political parties. By placing all those
materials, the ECI requested
the Ministry of Law and Justice
for drafting and notifying amendment
Rules expeditiously.
From the materials placed by the ECI, it is
noted that
the purchase order has been placed with M/s BEL and M/s
for supplying 150 and 300 VVPAT units respectively at
Rs. 16,200/- per
unit excluding excise duty, sales tax and
transportation etc. costing
Rs. 72,90,000/- (approx.). The ECI
has also highlighted that if the
VVPAT systems are ultimately
to be used with all the 13 lakh EVMs
available, the total cost
in the purchase of VVPAT units may come to
about Rs. 1,690
crores, taking into account the possible reduction in
the cost
per unit due to bulk production the cost may come to
13,000/- per unit approximately.
The affidavit dated 21.08.2013,
filed on behalf of the
ECI, shows that the Ministry of Law and Justice,
24.07.2013, referred the draft notification to amend the
Conduct of
Election Rules, 1961 to provide for use of VVPAT
system of elections to
the ECI for its views and comments.
The ECI suggested certain
minor modifications in the draft
notification and sent the same back to
the Ministry of Law
and Justice on 02.08.2013 with a request to notify
amendment Rules at the earliest. Accordingly, the Ministry
of Law
and Justice notified the amendments to the Conduct
of Election Rules,
1961 in the Gazette of India vide
notification No. S.O. 2470(E) dated
14.08.2013 to enable use
of VVPAT with EVMs.
The aforesaid affidavit
of the ECI also shows that the
ECI had also convened a meeting of all
the recognized
National and State political parties on 10.05.2013
demonstrated before their representatives the working of
system. Separately, on the same day, the ECI also
held a meeting with
individuals including the appellant
herein who had been engaged with the
ECI over the past
several years regarding the functioning of EVMs.
system was demonstrated before them as well.
Representatives of
political parties and other individuals
expressed their satisfaction
over the VVPAT system.
Thereafter, the ECI had decided to use the VVPAT
system in
the bye-election from 51-Noksen (ST) Assembly
in the State of Nagaland. Instructions were issued to
special meetings with the contesting candidates in
constituency to brief them about the use of VVPAT system.
also organized special training sessions for poll
officers for the use
of VVPAT and steps were taken to
educate the electors for the
After various hearings, when the matter was heard
4.10.2013, an affidavit dated 01.10.2013 filed on behalf of
the ECI
was placed before this Court. The said affidavit was
filed to place on
record the performance/result of the
introduction of the VVPAT system in
the bye-election from
51-Noksen (ST) Assembly Constituency of Nagaland
for which
the poll was conducted on 04.09.2013 indicating the
course of action to be decided by the ECI on the basis of
performance. By this affidavit, it was brought to our notice
since VVPAT system was being used for the first time,
the ECI has
decided that intensive training shall be given to
the polling officers.
Members of the Technical Experts
Committee of the ECI also went to
supervise training and the
actual use of VVPAT in the
bye-election. It is further stated
that the ECI also wrote letters to
all the recognized political
parties and other persons, including the
appellant herein,
engaged with the ECI on this subject inviting them to
the use of VVPAT. It is also brought to our notice that
was successfully used in all the 21 polling stations of 51-
(ST) Assembly Constituency of Nagaland. It was also
stated that as per
the Rules, the paper slips of VVPAT shall
not be counted normally except
in case the Returning Officer
decides to count them on an application
submitted by any of
the candidates. However, since VVPAT system was
used for the first time in any election, the ECI decided on
own to count paper slips of VVPAT in respect of all
stations. According to the ECI, no discrepancy was found
the electronic and paper count.
In the said affidavit, it is
finally stated that the ECI has
decided to increase the use of VVPAT
units in a phased
manner and for this purpose the ECI has already
written to
the Government of India, Ministry of Law and Justice to
administrative and financial sanction for procurement
20,000 units of VVPAT (10,000 each from M/s BEL and
ECIL) costing about Rs. 38.01 crore.
Though initially the ECI
was little reluctant in
introducing “paper trail” by use of VVPAT,
taking note of the
advantage in the system as demonstrated by
Subramanian Swamy, we issued several directions to the
Pursuant to the same, the ECI contacted several expert
bodies, technical
advisers, etc. They also had various
meetings with National and State
level political parties,
demonstrations were conducted at various places
and finally
after a thorough examination and full discussion, VVPAT
used successfully in all the 21 polling stations of 51-Noksen
Assembly Constituency of Nagaland. The information
furnished by the ECI,
through the affidavit dated 01.10.2013,
clearly shows that VVPAT system
is a successful one. We
have already highlighted that VVPAT is a system
of printing
paper trail when the voter casts his vote, in addition to
electronic record of the ballot, for the purpose of verification
his choice of candidate and also for manual counting of
votes in case of
From the materials placed by both the sides, we
satisfied that the “paper trail” is an indispensable
requirement of
free and fair elections. The confidence of the
voters in the EVMs can
be achieved only with the
introduction of the “paper trail”. EVMs with
VVPAT system
ensure the accuracy of the voting system. With an intent
have fullest transparency in the system and to restore the
of the voters, it is necessary to set up EVMs with
VVPAT system because
vote is nothing but an act of
expression which has immense importance
in democratic
In the light of the above discussion and
taking notice of
the pragmatic and reasonable approach of the ECI
considering the fact that in general elections all over India,
ECI has to handle one million (ten lakhs) polling booths,
we permit the
ECI to introduce the same in gradual stages or
geographical-wise in the
ensuing general elections. The
area, State or actual booth(s) are to be
decided by the ECI
and the ECI is free to implement the same in a
manner. We appreciate the efforts and good gesture
by the ECI in introducing the same.
For implementation of such a
system (VVPAT) in a
phased manner, the Government of India is directed
provide required financial assistance for procurement of units
Before parting with the case, we record our appreciation
the efforts made by Dr. Subramanian Swamy as well as
the ECI, in
particular Mr. Ashok Desai and Ms. Meenakshi
Arora, learned senior
counsel for the ECI.
With the above directions, the appeal and the
petition are disposed of. No separate order is required in
applications for intervention. Both sides are permitted to
this Court for further direction(s), if need
OCTOBER 8, 2013.

SAMAPATH, EVM GOVERNMENT- NEED OF THE HOUR IS Electronic Virtual Movement 4 Replacing all EVMs (EVM4RAEVMs) to save Democracy.

2, 2006 Supreme Court started e-filing facility. It is a simple way of
filing any case via internet from his house. e-filing via internet does
not require the help of advocate.

This service can be utilized by any
common man as well as registered advocate. Anybody desiring to avail
this service may log on to
and sign up as a user.

For sign up procedure please follow up these
steps: First time users of Supreme Court’s E-filing have to register
him/her through the ‘Sign Up’ option.Through ‘e-FILING’ only Advocate-on
Record’ and petitioners-in-person can file cases in the Supreme Court
of India Advocate option is to be chosen if you are an
‘Advocate-on-Record’, otherwise choose ‘In-person’ option in case you
are petitioner-in-person.

For registering first time personal details
such as Address, contact details, E-mail Id etc., which are mandatory,
need to be entered.For Advocate-on-record, his/her code
(Advocate-on-record code) will be ‘Login-ID’, while ‘In-person’will
create his/her Login-Id through ‘Sign Up’ option. Password needs to be
entered thereafter. Login Id and password will be created once the
mandatory requirements are filled properly. After successful login the
‘Disclaimer screen’ appears on the screen.

Clicking of ‘I agree’
button on Disclaimer allows the user to proceed further, while ‘I
decline’ button sends the control back to the Login screen. After
successful login, the user can file the case electronically. ‘New Case’
option allows the user to file a new case ‘Modify’ option allows a user
to carryout changes to the already e-filed case, provided the court fee
payment option is not invoked. Defects associated with the e-filed case
will be e-mailed to the advocate/petitioner by the Supreme Court
Registry.For further assistance, ‘Help’ option is available.Click here
to file case online in Supreme Court of India - Reasons For
Banning Fradulent Tamperable EVMs Electronic voting machines (EVMs) were
introduced in a limited way in Indian elections in 1982, and they have
been in universal use since the general elections of 2004, when paper
ballots were phased out completely.

It is about time this country
reformed its voting system to ensure that the electoral verdicts reflect
the true will of the people of the country.
1. The Whole World has
Discarded Similar EVMs
2. Use of EVMs is Unconstitutional and Illegal
3. EVM Software Isn’t Safe
4. Nor is The Hardware
5. EVMs are
Sitting Ducks
6. “Insider” Fraud a Concern
7. Storage and Counting are
8. Vote of No Confidence
9. EC is Clueless on Technology
Trust Deficit1.

The Whole World has Discarded Similar EVMs.

electronic voting machines used in this country’s elections are
internationally known as Direct Recording Electronic (DRE) voting
machines which record votes directly in electronic memory.

voting machines have been banned in many countries such as Germany, the
Netherlands, Irelands etc. and such machines are allowed in most states
of the US only with a paper back up. Potential dangers of “vote fraud”
and more importantly, lack of transparency and verifiability associated
with them prompted ban or restrictions of their use. Developed nations
like the United Kingdom and France and advanced countries in our region
like Japan and Singapore have so far stuck to voting on paper ballots,
owing to their simplicity, verifiability and voter confidence in the
system. This country is an exception to this international trend and we
continue to use these voting machines long discarded by the world due to
lack of awareness and appreciation of the lay public of the concerns.

Use of EVMs is Unconstitutional and Illegal Too! This country’s EVMs
may also be held unconstitutional because they infringe upon the
fundamental rights of the voters. In this country, Right to vote is a
legal right but how that vote should be exercised by a voter is his/ her
individual expression covered by Article 19 (1) (a) of the
Constitution, which guarantees fundamental rights to the citizens. In
the 2002 case pertaining to disclosure of assets and the criminal
background of candidates, the Supreme Court ruled that voters have a
right to know the antecedents of the contesting candidates and this is
fundamental and basic for survival of democracy. Accordingly, a voter
has the right to know that his vote which he exercised as a part of
freedom of expression has really gone in favour of the candidate whom
he/she has chosen. This right, fundamental in nature, is absent in the
electronic voting system.

In the traditional paper ballot system,
that fundamental right was preserve because a voter knew exactly how
his/ her vote was recorded and Universal use of EVMs in Indian elections
is illegal too! In 1984, the Supreme Court of India held that the use
of electronic voting machines in elections was “illegal” as the
Representation of People (RP) Act, 1951 did not permit use of voting
machines in elections. Later, the R.P. Act was amended in 1989
incorporating Section 61A. However, the amendment says voting machines
“may be adopted in such constituency or constituencies as the Election
Commission may, having regard to the circumstances of each case,
specify.” Violating the provisions of the R.P Act, the Election
Commission has conducted 2004 and 2009 nationwide general elections only
using electronic voting machines. Going by the 1984 judgment of the
Supreme Court, parliamentary elections of 2004 and 2009 may be held

3. EVM Software Isn’t Safe.

The electronic voting machines are safe and secure only if the source code used in the EVMs is genuine.

the EVM manufacturers, the BEL and ECIL, have shared the ‘top secret’
EVM software program with two foreign companies, Microchip (USA) and
Renesas (Japan) to copy it onto microcontrollers used in EVMs. This
process could have been done securely in-house by the Indian Worse, when
the foreign companies deliver microcontrollers fused with software code
to the EVM manufacturers, the EVM manufacturers cannot “read back”
their contents as they are either OTP-ROM or masked chips.

the software given to foreign companies is not even made available with
the Election Commission, ostensibly for security reasons. With such
ridiculous decisions, the Election Commission and the public sector
manufacturers have rendered security of the EVMs a mockery. Adopting an
open standards policy by making the software public and allowing parties
to test the software installed in the EVMs would have offered better.

4. Nor is The Hardware. The danger for EVM manipulations is not just from its software.

the hardware isn’t safe. Dr. Alex Halderman, professor of computer
science in the University of Michigan says, “EVMs used in the West
require software attacks as they are sophisticated voting machines and
their hardware cannot be replaced cheaply. In contrast, the Indian EVMs
can easily be replaced either in part or as wholesale units.” One
crucial part that can be faked is microcontrollers used in the EVMs in
which the software is copied. EVM manufacturers have greatly facilitated
fraud by using generic microcontrollers rather than more secure ASIC or
FPGA microcontrollers. Not just only microcontrollers, mother boards
(cards which contain microcontrollers) and entire EVMs can be replaced.
Neither the Election Commission nor the manufacturers have undertaken
any hardware or software audit till date. As a result, such manipulation
attempts would go undetected. To detect such fraud, the upgraded EVMs
have a provision to interface with an Authentication Unit that would
allow the manufacturers to verify whether the EVM being used in the
election is the same that they have supplied to the Election Commission.
The EVM manufacturers developed an “Authentication Unit” engaging the
services of Secure Spin, a Bangalore based software services firm.

Unit was developed and tested in 2006 but when the project was ready
for implementation, the project was mysteriously shelved at the instance
of the Election Commission. Several questions posed to the Election
Commission for taking this decision went unanswered. 5. EVMs are Sitting
Ducks. This country’s EVMs can be hacked both before and after
elections to alter election results. Apart from manipulating the EVM
software and replacing many hardware parts discussed above, discussions
with knowledgeable sources revealed that our country’s EVMs can be
hacked in many ways. I mention just two of them below. Each EVM contains
two EEPROMs inside the Control Unit in which the voting data is stored.

are completely unsecured and the data inside EEPROMs can be manipulated
from an external source. It is very easy to read (data from) the
EEPROMs and manipulate them. The second and the most deadly way to hack
our country’s EVMs is by inserting a chip with Trojan inside the display
section of the Control unit. This requires access to the EVM for just
two minutes and these replacement units can be made for a few hundred
rupees. Bypassing completely all inbuilt securities, this chip would
manipulate the results and give out “fixed” results on the EVM screen.
The Election Commission is completely oblivious to such possibilities. A
demonstration of these vulnerabilities is on the cards.

“Insider” Fraud a Concern. Personal accounts from some well placed
political sources and experts say that there are some “insiders”
demanding vast sums (Rs. 5 Crore for each assembly constituency) to fix
election results. Who are these insiders? Unlike in the traditional
ballot system where only the election officials were the “insiders”,
electronic voting machine regime has spawned a long chain of insiders,
all of whom are outside the ambit and control of the Election Commission
of this country. There is every possibility that some of these
“insiders” are involved in murky activities in fixing elections. The
whole world—except us in this country–is alive to the dangers of insider
fraud in elections. The “insiders” include the public sector
manufacturers of this country’s electronic voting machines namely, the
Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) and Electronics Corporation of India
(ECIL), the foreign companies supplying micro controllers, private
players (some of which are allegedly owned by some political leaders)
for carrying out checking and maintenance of electronic voting machines

7. Storage and Counting are Concerns. The EVMs are stored
at the district headquarters or in a decentralized manner in different
locations. Election Commission’s concern for EVM safety becomes apparent
only during elections, where as security experts say that voting
machines must remain in a secure environment throughout their life
cycle. There could be many malpractices associated with electronic
counting. “Everybody watches polling closely. Nobody watches counting as
closely),” says Bev Harris, an American activist. Our Election
Commission takes three months to conduct parliamentary elections but
wants counting to be over in just three hours! In the rush to declare
results and the winners, several serious lapses go unnoticed in the
counting process. As a result, parties cannot give it the kind of
attention that this activity deserves.

Massive discrepancies
between votes polled and counted in a large number of polling stations
across the country raise serious concerns in this regard.

8. Vote
of No Confidence.The political class cutting across all sides of the
divide has just one verdict: “we don’t trust the EVMs”. This vote of “no
confidence” stems from the personal experiences of parties and leaders
as well as the nature of results thrown up by the EVMs. Parties are
looking at EVMs with great suspicion and dread the prospect of EVMs
“defeating” them.This mistrust in EVMs is not confined to any single
party and is all pervasive. Almost all mainstream political parties,
including the BJP, Congress, left parties, regional parties like the
Telugu Desam party (TDP), AIADMK, Samajwadi party, Rastriya Lok Dal
(RLD), Janata Dal (United) etc. have all expressed reservation about
EVMs in the aftermath of 2009 Lok Sabha polls. Even the Congress party
that decisively won the 2009 general elections alleged that the EVMs
have been manipulated in Orissa. Today, it is difficult to find parties
that vouch for the continued use of EVMs in Indian elections. On the
contrary, there is a flood of opposition to the EVMs from the political

9. EC is Clueless on Technology.The Election Commission
has adopted the EVM technology about which it has practically no

As a result, it has little control over many aspects
of the election process. None of the election commissioners, neither the
present commissioners nor their predecessors, have proper understanding
of the EVM technology. The only source of technical understanding for
the Election Commission is a Committee of experts led by its chairman,
Prof. P.V.Indiresan. Even the Expert Committee seems very weak in its
capacities and understanding. Alex Halderman, professor of computer
science at the University of Michigan and an expert on the security of
voting systems who was present in New Delhi for the launch of the book,
Democracy at Risk, Can We Trust our EVMS? commented, “When I read the
2006 technical report prepared by the Expert Committee of the Election
Commission. I scribbled on it that there was a cause for alarm and
quickly decided to agree to come here.” That speaks volumes for the
quality and rigor of security testing done on the Country’s EVMs.

Trust Deficit. Election Commission’s conduct in the wake of the serious
reservations expressed by people has been unbecoming of a
constitutional body. It has uttered many lies – our EVMs are “tamper
proof”, they are “different” etc. etc. It has refused to provide any
clarifications sought to the petitioners in the Supreme Court, despite a
reference from the Supreme Court of India. It has taken several
questionable decisions for which it has refused to offer any
explanations. For instance, it does not explain why old EVMs were used
in Lok Sabha elections despite the recommendations of its own Expert

It does not explain why as many as 4.48 Lakh new EVMs
(which are more secure as per the Expert Committee) were not used in any
Congress party or UPA ruled states? Why and where it had allowed use of
state government owned EVMs? The non-transparent conduct of Election
Commission in the use of EVMs and the farce of an “enquiry” it has
conducted following serious reservations on EVMs does not inspire
confidence in its unbiased functioning.

How EVM Works and how can changed it’s functionality Watch this video [youtube id=”ZlCOj1dElDY” width=”620″ height=”360″]

See more at:
youtube id=”ZlCOj1dElDY” width=”620″ height=”360″ -

This country’s EVMs are
Vulnerable to Fraud-Contrary to claims by our country,s election
authorities, the paperless electronic voting systems used in India
suffer from significant vulnerabilities. Even brief access to the
machines could allow criminals to alter election results.

In this
video, we demonstrate two kinds of attacks against a real Indian EVM.
One attack involves replacing a small part of the machine with a
look-alike component that can be silently instructed to steal a
percentage of the votes in favor of a chosen candidate. These
instructions can be sent wirelessly from a mobile phone. Another attack
uses a pocket-sized device to change the votes stored in the EVM between
the election and the public counting session, which in India can be
weeks later.These attacks are neither complicated nor difficult to
perform, but they would be hard to detect or defend against. The best
way to prevent them is to count votes using paper ballots that voters
can see.
- EVMs Can Be Tampered - Says Net India - Net India company says that
the Electronic Voting Machines EVMs which are used in polling stations
can be tampered in favor of the candidates. Watch this to find out
more…..To watch live news, videos subscribe to CVR News @…- -

EVM in INDIA REALITY EXPOSED by Dr Subramanian Swamy -

can be tampered, experts say - Electronic voting machines could be
easily tampered to manipulate elections results, a group of foreign
experts said at a seminar in Dhaka on Tuesday. A standing committee
member of the main opposition Bangladesh Nationalist Party, Abdul Moyeen
Khan, in the seminar said that the party would make some prototypes of
the EVMs the Election Commission made to show the people how the device
could be tampered.

Non-governmental organisation Centre for
Sustainable Development organised the seminar, ‘Electronic voting
machines: use and abuse,’ at the Lake Shore hotel in the city. The
organisation’s secretary general Mahfuzullah conducted the seminar and
its president Anwar Hashim, also a former ambassador, presided over the
programme. Computer science professor in the University of California
Mathew Allen Bishop, senior software architect of Yahoo in India
Shashank Shekhar and research and development director of Hewlett
Packard of the United States Shawn Islam made presentation in the
seminar highlighting how EVMs could be tampered. All the three experts
said the EVMs could be tampered in several ways in a short span of time
to manipulate the elections results in favour of a certain candidate if
the manipulators would get physical access to EVMs. Citing an example of
the flaws of the EVM used in the United States and in other parts of
the world, Bishop said the EVMs, electronic devices which need software
to function, could be easily tampered. Bishop, however, asked the
authorities concerned to look into certain issues before using EVMs.
‘When votes are counted, how do you know that the button pushed to vote
for scales on the ballot unit is in fact counted as a vote for scales?’
he said. Bishop also said, ‘How do you know that the software is
correct? There are no bugs that affect the vote counting?

How do you know that the software on the EPROM chip is the version that is supposed to be used? There was no malware?’

said the security of the software running the EVM must be part of the
inbuilt design of the device. Earlier, Shawn Islam,m a
Bangladeshi-American, demonstrated how a vote cast for a candidate could
be stored for the candidate the voter did not vote for through software
manipulation effected beforehand. Both of the experts said that there
be a system of paper trail of the votes cast so that the voters could
see that their votes were stored for the candidate they voted for.’But,’
Shawn Islam added, ‘the EVMs developed by Bangladesh do not have any
option to add the paper trail system.’ He claimed that the EVM developed
in Bangladesh have plenty of problems. Shashank said that there was no
electronic device in the world which could not be tampered. All of the
experts said that the device must be tested by a third party before its

In reply to a question whether the EVM can be manipulated
with remote control devise without physical intervention once EVMs are
tested and certified by the experts of the political parties just before
the elections, Shawn said, ‘You must have physical interventions to
manipulate it if the EVM does not belong to any wireless network.’

a reporter asked Abdul Moyeen Khan whether the BNP would accept it if
EVMs were tested by their experts, the BNP leader parried the answer
saying that the party would develop some EVM prototypes to show how they
could be tampered.

Representatives from the Bangladesh
Nationalist Party, including its acting secretary general Mirza Fakhrul
Islam Alamgir, the chairperson’s advisers Iqbal Hasan Mahmud, Sabiuddin
Ahmed, Ruhal Alam and opposition chief whip Zainul Abdin Farroque,
attended. Speaking on the occasion, former Dhaka University
vice-chancellor Moniruzzaman Mia, BRAC University professor Piash Karim
and Sushaner Janya Nagarik secretary Badiul Alam Majumder stressed the
need for building trust among political parties before introducing any
new device in the elections process.The country’s two major political
camps are now at loggerheads over the introduction of EVMs in the next
polls. The ruling Awami League-led alliance said that it would extend
all cooperation to the E C in using EVMs in the next general elections
while the opposition Bangladesh Nationalist Party-led alliance vowed to
resist the move.Attachments area- Preview YouTube video India’s EVMs are
Vulnerable to Fraud
-Preview YouTube video EVMs Can Be Tampered - Says
Net India Preview YouTube video EVM in INDIA REALITY EXPOSED by Dr
Subramanian Swamy.

is Time to show BJP, Cong a mirror: 99% of this Country doesn’t like
them-RSS and BJP were instrumental in the rise of all the newly elected
state governments who are just scape goats and their own mother’s flesh
eaters who emerged on the political firmament with BJP and RSS support
without which they would not remain strong for long. The country was
already on course to become ‘Congress mukt’ (free from Congress) and
that the party’s dipping fortunes could be attributed to it having
remained “captive to a family”which  had trashed the possibility of
Sonia Gandhi becoming the Prime Minister in 2004. AIADMK in Tamil Nadu
Trinamool Congress in West Bengal and Bihar’s alliance emerged due to
hard work of Sangh workers.They all will gradually become ineffective
& will not win next time. They together used to wipe out Congress.
Communists and socialist parties do this drama that they were  communal.
All of them have fought alongside them. In 1977, they came together. In
1966, they came together. They  came together in 1989. When was the
taboo. When did we not come together. This is all drama and hypocrisy of
socialists and communists.While CPI had supported Congress during
Emergency, CPM was opposed to it.”They think people’s memory is short.
All of them had come with them when they fought against Congress.

“Good Governance” situation had prevailed in UP after Mayawati’s BSP
formed its government in 2007. Hence  in 2012 the BJP wanted to remove
Mayawati and, since they believed BJP would not be able to form its
government, they used the temperable EVMs for Samajwadi Party back to
power.Today, the situation is not like that. With the fraud EVMs BJP has
72 MPs and the fraud EVMs will not have BSP now. Now they are ready.
They have proved to the world  that they are ready with the fraud
EVMs.The electorate was now convinced that  with Paper ballots Ms
Mayawati’s BSP will not only become the CM of UP but also the new PM of
Prabuddha Bharath as it was proved in the UP Panchayath Elections.Ms
Mayawati  empowered the people.Ms Mayawati will not be merely a Prime
Minister but will become a Iron lady . As CM she was  different. She was
a great  administrator as she started implementing the Modern
Constitution distributing the wealth of the state equally among the
Sarvajan Samaj. People felt she solved all their problems. So the scene
had changed.

Time to show BJP, Cong a mirror: 99% of Sarvajan Samaj doesn’t like them

the nation getting fed up of the perennial — perhaps mutual — exchange
of jibes and accusations between the Congress and the BJP,  it’s high
time that BSP showed these two prima donna entities a mirror, reflecting
their true worth in the overall political space in this country.

picture that emerges in the mirror makes it clear that both these
parties, which think too big of themselves, are living in a fools’
paradise. Even if they were to join hands at the current juncture, they
wouldn’t even occupy 1% in the country! Like it or not, that is a fact.

examine their strength in the Rajya Sabha first. The Congress continues
to be the largest single party with 64 members. The strength of the BJP
stands at 49 currently. If you add the numbers of the two top national
parties, they would account for less than half of the total strength of
this House of 245. It’s the “others” who are in majority.

this picture wouldn’t alter even after the ongoing biennial elections
in the states. In fact, the strength of the “others” would go up from
128 to 129 regardless of the fact that the BJP too would register a gain
of six seats – raising its strength from 49 to 55. And as for the
Congress, it would go down from 64 to 57. What is startling in all this
is that the Congress and the BJP would jointly go down by one seat – in
sharp contrast to the “others” who would, in fact, gain in number.

who refuse to view things from this angle might argue that things are
vastly different in the Lok Sabha, which truly represents this country.
No, it doesn’t in spite of the fact that the BJP, with its 282 members,
enjoys absolute majority in this august House.

Dig a little
deeper beneath the surface and you would find that the ruling party had
swept to power by bagging just 31.34 percent of the total valid votes
polled at the height of the Modi wave in 2014.

And if you
consider their vote share in relation to the total number of voters –
not just those who preferred to exercise their franchise – the figure
drastically comes down to 20.58 percent. Yes, that is a fact. The BJP
now lords over India by getting support of just one fifth of the total

The performance of the Congress was even worse. This
grand-old party of the Nehru-Gandhi dynasty could manage to bag only
19.52 percent of the total valid votes polled in during the Modi wave.
Their vote share, in relation to the overall number of voters in
country, had shrunk to 12.82 percent.

Can you believe that the
Congress doesn’t enjoy the support of even one eighth of the Country’s
voters? And together, the BJP and the Congress haven’t been been getting
the support of even one percent of Country’s population on the whole as
the intolerant, violent, militant, lunatic, mentally retarded
horrorists shooting, lynching cannibal psychopaths are just 1% chitpawan
brahmin Rakshasa Swayam Seevaks controlling both Congress and BJP
(Bahuth Jiyadha Psychopaths) and its avatars VHP (Visha Hindutva
Psychopaths), ABVP (All Brahmin Venomous Psychopaths) Bajan Dal etc.,for
the sake of stealth, shadowy, discriminative of hindutva cult full of
hatred towards 99% Sarvajan Samaj i.e., all societies includeng
SC/STs/OBCs/Minorities and poor upper castes!

But the perception
that these two parties are ‘be-all’ and ‘end-all’ of politics in the
country persists, thanks to the heat and dust generated by their mutual,
never-ending attacks and counter attacks.

Obviously, both the
parties have, over the years, developed expertise in keeping camera
arc-lights focused on them, through an endless series of allegations and
counter-allegations.  And they have succeeded massively.

nation listens to their otherwise explosive statements attentively.
Don’t you remember some of these catch-phrases that were used by
Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) and Sonia Gandhi to settle
scores – maut ka saudagar (merchant of death), zahar ki kheti (sowing
seeds of poison), khooni panja and zalim haath (bloody claws and cruel

Let’s play back some of their more recent jibes at each other:

At a party rally in the Capital on 6 May, Sonia said: “Do not frighten
us. Life has taught me to fight on. They are murdering democracy. The
achche din of the BJP are over.”

- In retaliation, Modi raked up the
issue of the “Italian Connection” to target Sonia over the
AgustaWestland deal, in the election rallies in Kerala and Tamil Nadu
three days later.

- Targeting Modi for its rather loud celebrations
on the completion of two years in office, Sonia said: “Modi ji acts more
like a Shahenshah than a democratically elected Prime Minister”.

Hitting back, Union agriculture minister, Radha Mohan Singh, thundered:
“The daughter-in-law of a big family is not a Maharani.”

The ranting
and raving of the two players apart, the fact regarding their worth
remains unchanged: 99% of the Country’s voters don’t like them! They
either stay away from the polling booths or vote against them actively.
They are weak collectively and even weaker separately as they are aware
both have used the fraud EVMs to gobble the Master Key.

Chances are
that they would never shake hands, not even when the nation calls for a
unity between forces espousing the cause of Congress-mukt Bharat and
Sangh-mukt Bharat. But just visualise for a minute: What happens if all
the non-Congress, non-BJP people unite in this country?

Racial prejudice runs deep in the land of casteism

Swaraj and General V K Singh are habitual in putting foot in their
mouths saying that this was a ‘minor’ incident blown out of proportion
by the media.

While most of the upper caste middle class will reject
this suggesting that SC/STs have got ‘everything’ after the government
provided them ‘reservation’ in its services and hence things are
‘resolved’. This segment of the upper caste Hindus is highly avers to
the idea of affirmative action and always claim those who get into it
lack ‘merit’. The fact is the word ‘merit’ itself has become the biggest
racist terminology of the powerful to defend and ensure their control
on the levers of powers in the country. The brahmanical in general and
the 1% chitpawan brahmin in particular system in the country work
through various ways and the biggest is controlling the popular
discourse and cultural practices and the discrimination and prejudices
are visible in not only humors but also in pains.

The Brahmanical in general and the 1% chitpawan brahminical in particular  idea of national ‘treasures’

all heard how the upper castes reacted to the so-called humor on Sachin
Tendulkar and Lata Mangeshkar by some Tanmay Bhat, evidently a brahmin
himself. The entire cinema fraternity came up to rescue Lata Mangeshkar.
The argument was that we must not make fun of ‘Icons’ of India
otherwise it would be too dangerous.  Another important point that we
must understand is whether we really have a sense of humor or we are
habitual of joking at people on the basis of their color, ability,
physique and caste? Can mocking at someone with racial, caste and gender
prejudices be called humor? Now, we have seen these entire ‘humorist’
mocking at Gandhi and Nehru with latter targeted with malicious videos
and character assassination as if he was the worst person that the
country could have. How we treat our iconic leaders of the freedom
movement is reflected in these ‘humors’ but then none ever bother to
question under the pretext of ‘freedom of expression’ but with Lata and
Sachin targeted all of us are seeking their ‘protection’ in the garb of
‘national treasure’ ? Is Nehru not ‘national treasure’? But then Nehru
is the biggest villain today for this government and Amitabh, Sachin and
Lata are the epitome of chitpawan brahmanical ‘morality’ today. Even
when we know Nehru was a brahmin but suddenly the chitpawan brahmins are
realizing that he was not and ‘researchers’ and ‘humorists’ found that
he came from a Muslim ancestry. The Bollywood never came for the
‘rescue’ of our national icons but it look that the only national icons
that we have are either from the corrupt world of cricket or orthodox
and conservative Bollywood fraternity which has become the
‘conscious-keeper’ of the country. Why is that people get agitated for
Sachin and Lata when any one try to imitate them or joke on them
particularly when we have mocked at all our icons of freedom movement
who were unambiguously against RSS ( Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks) brand of
nationalism ? The reason lies in the mindset and the targeted group of
the upper castes feeling offended these days if you remind them of their
‘sins’ or any historical wrongs. They are the torch bearer of the
chitpawan brahmanical ‘success’ stories and ‘morality’ of our times
hence any ‘humor’ in their name is questionable, though since the humor
was done by another brahmin so there are numeryous supporting fraternity
too otherwise if he were a Muslim or a Christian we would have been in a
very difficult situation.

Haven’t we seen the ‘humor’ of mocking
at a person on the basis of their color or physical appearance or his
disability in the Hindi cinema? That reflect the popular mindset and the
perception that it has. The Country is turning into an upper-caste
stealth, shadowy, discriminative hindutva cult country now with people
getting encouragement from those in power. It is difficult for certain
communities to get a house at a relatively ‘secular’ place in any part
of the country. ‘Secular’ space means un-ghettoized upper caste
dominated space with all the ‘modern amenities’ at your disposal but
unfortunately these spaces are now being converted into ‘upper caste’
‘ghettoes’ with more and more mobilization in the name of ‘festivals’
and ‘jaati’ to protect. So it is nearly difficult for a Muslim to get a
house on rent in these places. Similarly the SC/STs too face this
discrimination based on their caste once they inform about their castes
then it becomes difficult for them to survive in that locality. Friends
from North East will not get house on cheaper rate at any good locality
and definitely our African friends would find it difficult to get a
house that easily as the ‘mainstream’ Indians get and here lies the
prejudiced mind that we have allowed to happen. ‘People call us names
like ‘blacky’, ‘blackberry’ and even ‘monkey’. It happens on the road
while driving, at public places and even at the locality we live in,”
says Faisal Dermane, President of the Africans Students Association in
Telangana. The student from Togo in West Africa, however, notes that
most students are good to Africans but it’s the few who use racial slurs
that make them live in fear. Abdoul Gueye, a Senegalese student in
Osmania University, says it’s difficult to be African and black in
India. “There are lots of stereotypes about Africans. People think that
we live in the jungle. They think Africa is a country. They say Africa
is so hot that’s why we are black,” he says as quoted by ‘The News

It is a well-known fact that Indians are highly color
conscious. My father was dark in complexion and he faced a lot of
comments due to that when he was a teacher. I was a child but I could
understand senior students doing that. Most of the ‘humor’ that we have
in our country comes from mocking at people’s color, physical appearance
like disability, caste and religion. Many times you are mocked due to
your accent of the language.

Our External Affairs minister Ms
Sushma Swaraj felt that people must ensure that we shake hand with
Africans telling them that they are welcome. Obviously, it is an
important issue but do not try to suggest that we love ‘vasudhaiv
Kutumbakam’ and there are no issues in our society related to color and
caste when our entire newspaper columns, Sunday supplements are crowded
with caste based advertisement and the most of our boys and their
families irrespective of their caste, color, religion or region want
‘fair-skinned’ ‘fair and lovely’ wife.

Just when the government was
trying to ignore this issue, a new report by Walkfree Foundation in
Australia informed that India has World’s highest number of ‘modern
slaves’. Now, this issue is highly ‘controversial’ for many as they feel
that government of India has done everything as there are laws in our
statute books. Another official was questioning the statistics as how
did they arrive at a figure of 18.35 million ‘modern slaves’ in the
country which was about 1.4% of its total population.

interesting fact is that five biggest countries are China, this country,
Pakistan, Bangladesh and Uzbekistan where 58% of the total ‘modern
slaves’ of the world work under horrible conditions but still if you
compare the figures India’s record shames us. China (3.39 million),
Pakistan ( 2.13 million), Bangladesh ( 1.53 million) and Uzbekistan (
1.23 million) are nothing in comparison to 18.35 million Indian ‘modern
slaves’. A senior officer in the Ministry of labor was pointing out that
we have all the laws and constitutional provisions to protect people so
these reports are ‘questionable’ while another one in the TV studio
wanted to ‘know’ the methodology of the process. The fact is that if a
proper methodology is taken into account then we will find the number
much larger in India. Why should we only point out to ‘economic aspect’
of the ‘modern slavery’ and ‘satisfy’ ourselves with constitutional
provisions. There is a socio-cultural aspect of the ‘slavery’ and I
can’t call it just ‘modern slavery’ when the things are historically
proven that there was a caste system which ensured that certain people
would do the most inhuman kind of ‘work’ on the basis of the caste and
these ‘aajivaks’ were not allow to obtain ‘knowledge’ which was the sole
domain of the chitpawan brahminms. How can one not call an ‘occupation’
which compel people to clean the human excreta by another human being?
For so many years, despite best laws, we are unable to bring a full stop
this heinous and criminal traditional practice worse than slavery. The
fact is that people don’t even get money in lieu of it and they are
virtually made helpless under this work.

There is a need to
understand what exactly is ‘Modern slavery’ report suggests. this
country, Pakistan and Bangladesh have commonality in terms of caste
influence in our lives while China and Uzbekistan have remnants of
feudalism in their societies which influenced Pakistan too. The report
points out that China, Pakistan, North Korea, Iran, Bangladesh and
several other countries are worst as they have not done anything to
eradicate it. The reason why this country is still better lies in our
constitutional provisions while these countries mentioned as most
problematic have not yet done anything to remove ‘modern slavery’ as
most of states have not yet ratified many international covenants. There
are issues of trafficking prevalent in our societies and yes the
government is serious in handling them yet the biggest road-block is the
prevailing mindset of prejudices and discrimination.

Dr Baba
Saheb Ambedkar often talked of contradictions in our society between the
political and social lives and therefore pointed out that the best of
the constitution in the hands of ‘worst’ people might turn out to be a
nightmare which will force people to rebel against the same.
Unfortunately the countries which have been named as worst have not been
able to change their social system despite certain provisions made in
their constitution. Most of these societies are still dominated by
religious laws which are the biggest obstacles in creating a humane
society but as far as India is concern our struggle is between the
modern constitution and those status- quoists who have been benefitted
from the feudal Manuwadi social order. The constitution can only break
this order once it has fair representation at all level of the people
who have been denied human rights for centuries and that too is possible
if the people joining the government be made compulsorily to take oath
under the constitution to protect it as caste minds are failing the
republican constitution.

It is in these context one would be
surprised to hear from our external affairs minister making a point that
there is no racial discrimination in India and that Country’s must
‘shake hand’ with African people and say ‘we love them’. Now this
symbolizes the upper caste effort to ‘resolve’ the discriminatory Indian
system through ‘tokenism’ and that too in a very patronizing way like
the upper caste leaders ‘dining’ at the places of SC/STs as if doing a
great favor on them. The cruel reality is that upper caste Indians still
suffer from Superiority complex and have not taken it seriously that
the ‘others’ are now responding better. How interesting is the fact that
now Dalit young boys and girls are faring better than caste Hindus in a
very similar way as studies showing that black boys and girls are
growing better than the American whites in term of education despite the
fact that America is not really a better model for us in terms of
representation and development of the blacks there but as far as
arrogant and false pride is concern none can beat the caste Hindus and
the way they are justifying all acts of historic wrong. The problem is
not to even accept that there was a problem and we need to address it
with all seriousness and concern. If anything is questioned about the
‘golden past’ of the upper caste Indians they come out with vengeance
hurling abuses on the others.

There is no denial the fact that
our constitutional founding fathers were aware of the whole issue of
discrimination and they did their best but what we have failed in India
is to develop those understanding and not wait for law to guide us but
strengthen our own resolve to fight against all kinds of prejudices and
stereotypes. Our sports fraternity and cultural activist have no
parallel of legendary boxer Mohammad Ali who had the courage to stand up
and speak against racial discrimination in United States. We remained
confined to glorifying our past and justifying all the historical

Frankly the current government in India is encouraging
those old stereotypes against all the dissenters, minorities
particularly Muslims as well as SC/STs. It play multiple games while on
the massive propaganda machinery of paid media the government goes on
with ‘make in India’ and Dr Ambedkar’s vision and mission while the main
clientele of the ruling party are the orthodox upper caste Hindus
despise the very word of reservation and equality. Not only in India but
abroad too they are on distortion of history mission flatly denying any
wrong of the past with the Dalits. Examples from UK and USA clearly
reveal how Hindu Council there objected to Equity Law in UK and opposed
mentioning of the word Dalit as if the problem never existed. The Modi
government’s attempt to provide citizenship to Bangladeshi and Pakistani
Hindus is an attempt to play with the communal fire in the entire
subcontinent. It means that rather than believing in multiculturalism
the government and its ideological master, the Sangh Parivar, are ready
to deepen those stereotypes, which has created the whole crisis today.
One need to understand as how will a narrow minded leadership allow a
healthy relationships between diverse faiths and races in India. Sushma
Swaraj will have to seriously ponder over whether her government’s
policies are not responsible for encouraging such elements who believe
in their caste, colour and cultural superiority.

In the
meanwhile, we would like to share with our African brothers and sisters
the feelings of all those who have suffered here on the basis of their
caste and other cultural identities from the hands of the same people
who are today threatening them. Therefore, the need of the hour is not
to think that all Indians are racists but share your solidarity with
those Indians and vice versa who are victims of hierarchical and
discriminatory caste system. Any kind of generalization and stereotyping
of a vast country like India would be dangerous and detrimental to the
interest of greater unity of all those victims of racist supremacist
discriminatory order whose unity can break the monopoly of such forces

over our lives.


Circle-Vision 360° is a film technique, refined by The Walt Disney Company, that uses nine cameras for nine big screens arranged in a circle. The cameras are usually mounted on top of an automobile for scenes through cities and highways, while films such as The Timekeeper use a static camera and many CGI effects. The first film was America the Beautiful (1955 version) in the Circarama theater, which would eventually become Circle-Vision theater in 1967.

It is used for a few attractions at Disney theme parks, such as Epcot’s O Canada!, Reflections of China, and Disneyland’s defunct America the Beautiful (1967 version), Wonders of China, and American Journeys, which were housed in the Circle-Vision theater in Tomorrowland.
At the 2011 D23 Expo, Disneyland Resort President George Kalogridis
announced that CircleVision would be making a return to Disneyland Park
with a new presentation of America the Beautiful in CircleVision 360,
though it is not currently known where the film will be presented (as
the original theater was replaced with another attraction), and whether
this will be a version of the original film or a new film with the same
name and concept.

By using an odd number
of screens, and a small space between them, a projector may be placed
in each gap, projecting across the space to a screen. The screens and
projectors are arranged above head level, and lean rails may be provided
for viewers to hold or to lean against while standing and viewing the

Parks that use Circle-Vision technologyDisneyland Park
Magic Kingdom
  • Grand opening: November 25, 1971 (America The Beautiful)
  • Closing Date: February 26, 2006 (The Timekeeper)
  • Designer: Walt Disney Imagineering
  • Location: Tomorrowland
  • Formal Names of Attraction
    • Circle-Vision 360
    • Metropolis Science Center
  • List of Films Shown
    • America the Beautiful (1971-1974, 1975-1979)
    • Magic Carpet ‘Round the World (1974-1975, 1979-1984)
    • American Journeys (September 15, 1984 – January 9, 1994)
    • The Timekeeper (November 21, 1994 – February 26, 2006)
  • Former Sponsors
    • Monsanto (Carpets)
    • Black & Decker
  • Followed by
Tokyo Disneyland
  • Grand opening: April 15, 1983
  • Closed: September 1, 2002
  • Designer: Walt Disney Imagineering
  • Location: Tomorrowland
  • Formal Names of Attraction
    • Circle-Vision 360
    • Visionarium
  • List of Films Shown
    • Magic Carpet ‘Round the World
    • American Journeys
    • Visionarium (From Time to Time)
  • Sponsors
    • Fujifilm
Disneyland Paris
  • Grand opening: April 12, 1992
  • Closed: September 2004
  • Designer: Walt Disney Imagineering
  • Location: Discoveryland
  • Formal Name of Attraction
    • Le Visionarium
  • List of Films Shown
    • Le Visionarium
  • Sponsors
Other usesExpo 64
  • Grand opening: April 30, 1964
  • Closed: October 25, 1964
  • Designer: Ernst A. Heiniger
  • Location: Transportation Pavilion, Expo 64, Lausanne
  • Formal Name of Attraction
    • “Magic of the rails, magie du rail, Zauber der Schiene”
  • Sponsors
  • Notes: It has been unseen since 1964.
Expo 67
  • Grand opening: April 28, 1967
  • Closed: October 29, 1967
  • Designer: Walt Disney Imagineering
  • Location: Telephone Pavilion, Expo 67, Montreal
  • Formal Name of Attraction
    • “Canada 67″
  • List of Films Shown
    • Canada ‘67 – Directed by Robert Barclay. Description from the Expo’67 Guide book: “You’re on centre stage for the RCMP
      Musical Ride… on centre ice for hockey… on the track at the
      Stampede! CIRCLE-VISION 360° surrounds you with all the fun and
      excitement of Canada’s most thrilling events and its scenic beauty. And
      then, take your children to the Enchanted Forest…see exciting new
      communication services for the future… all in the Telephone Pavilion!”[1]

  • Sponsors
    • The Telephone Association of Canada
  • Notes: The “B-25″ airplane was used to film the aerial shots.[2]
  • This
    is one of the rarest Circle-Vision movies, for except for a brief
    appearance in January 1974 at Magic Kingdom during their “Salute to
    Canada”, it has been unseen since 1967. The film was the inspiration for
    the original “O Canada!” film that played at Epcot from 1982-2007.

    • Man and His World – after Expo 67
      In 1970 this theater became the USA Pavilion, presenting the film
      “America the Beautiful”, with a post-show exhibit of Americana including
      a well-guarded Moon rock.
    Expo 86
    • Grand opening: May 2, 1986
    • Closed: October 13, 1986
    • Designer: ??
    • Location: Telecom Canada Pavilion, Expo 86, Vancouver
    • Formal Name of Attraction
      • “Telecom Canada”
    • Film Shown
      • “Portraits of Canada/Images du Canada”
    • Sponsors
    • Notes – Following Expo, the movie played temporarily at the Canada pavilion at EPCOT Center.

    French cinematic pioneers toyed with the technology from 1884, leading to Cinéorama. Another system (developed in the 21st century) substantially similar is in use at the site of the Terracotta Army exhibit at Xian, China. The Badaling Great Wall near Beijing, China has a Circle-Vision theater featuring scenes from the Great Wall of China.

    See also
    1. Official Expo 67 guide book, page 178. Toronto: Maclean-Hunter Publishing Co. Ltd., 1967.
    2. “Expo 67 - Plane used to film “Canada 67″ - Disney Circle Vision 360″.

    Circle-Vision 360°

    Jerry Jaran

    yes! Check out the Clam (brand) screen tent. I got the circular one
    that is 11 ft. in dia. Put the hub on the ground - let it it fall
    outward and begin to pull the sides out as you walk around. It has
    pre-installed spring rods that you pull outward as you walk around it
    and then go inside and push up the top. Less than 5 min. You buy the
    side panels separately. I got 3- for low sun, wind or privacy. They
    attach with velcro. There is one that is just 6 ft across. I think it’s
    square. I use 1 ft. spikes for stakes with a big washer welded to the
    top as the tent grommets are big and the ground in Utah is hard. The
    supplied stakes are a little weak. See on youtube and website.

    got the green one. I thought the brown with white top would be too
    bright inside. The only neg. thing about it is that even though it is a
    screen tent it gets hot inside midday if it’s 100*. But you are likely
    not in it then anyway. Don’t let that deter you from this great tent. I
    think it’s also the best overall camping tent with the available sides.

    Check out what I have inside- the Corona Swing Hammock. The worlds best zero gravity lounger. At (without canopy)

    Tionna Smith

    For Good Meditation tent visit
    In thepartytents you can afford a tent at $99.99 for your purpose of
    meditaion. 10X10 Party tent is the correct choice for 1 to 3 persons can
    meditate at the same time.

    The tents are available with life time warranty for free shipping!!

    Tsetsen Dashtseren

    The best choice is a Mongolian traditional gher. No doubts ;-) it is proven×20.html

    Party Tents
    Our Gift To You

    20′ X 20′ Octagonal Party Tent


    Special Price

    In stock

    - Designed for durable performance

    - Maximum capacity: 100 people
    - Very easy to decorate
- Unique octagonal shape
    - Included in this purchase: the Party Tent’s frame, sidewalls, the stakes, the ropes, and velcro fasteners

    Order now to receive it on or before Mon.Jul.09

    Need it sooner? Call us now at (888) 407-4802 for a quick quote!


  • comments (0)