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LESSON 2857 Sun 30 Dec 2018 Do Good Be Mindful - Awakened One with Awareness (AOA) Assignment - Diploma in Buddhist Studies (DTBS) 7. List and explain kamavacara ( Kāmāvacara: ’sense-sphere’ )akusala lobbamula,dosamula, mohamula cittas
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 7:19 pm
LESSON
2857 Sun 30 Dec 2018

Do Good Be Mindful - Awakened One with Awareness (AOA)

Assignment - Diploma in Buddhist Studies (DTBS)

7. List and explain kamavacara ( Kāmāvacara: ’sense-sphere’
)akusala lobbamula,dosamula, mohamula
cittas (10M )

A Summary / Commentary of the
Abhidhamma Pitaka
By:
1. Ācariya Anuruddha (Original Author)
2. Ven. Mahāthera Nārada (1
st
Revision)
3. Bhikkhu Bodhi (2
nd
Revision)
The Abhidhamma consists of seven books as
follows:-
1.
Dhammasangani
– Classification of Dhamma,
the enumeration of all mental and material
phenomena.

https://dhammawiki.com/index.php/Dhammasangani
Dhammasangani


The Dhammasangani (-saṅgaṇi or -ī) is a Buddhist scripture, part of the
Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism, where it is included in the
Abhidhamma Pitaka.

Translations:

A Buddhist Manual of Psychological Ethics.
The book begins with a matika (Pali for “matrix”), which is a list of
classifications of dhammas, variously translated as ideas, phenomena,
states, patterns etc. There are 22 3-fold classifications, followed by
100 2-fold ones according to the abhidhamma method and 42 according to
the sutta method. The main body of the book is in four parts, as
follows.

The first part deals with states of mind, listing and defining factors present in them.

The second deals with material phenomena, classifying them numerically, by ones, twos etc.

The third part applies the material in the first two to explaining the classifications in the matika.


The fourth does likewise, but in a different and sometimes more
detailed way, and omitting the sutta method 2-fold classifications. This
fourth part is mostly omitted from the old translation, only a few
extracts being included. The new translation is complete.


dhammawiki.com
The
Dhammasangani (-saṅgaṇi or -ī) is a Buddhist scripture, part of the
Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism, where it is included in the
Abhidhamma…

2.
Vibhanga
–The Book of Divisions, the book of
treatises of all phenomena.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vibhanga


The Vibhanga (vibhaṅga) is a Buddhist scripture, part of the Pali Canon
of Theravada Buddhism, where it is included in the Abhidhamma Pitaka.

The book has eighteen chapters, and each deals with a particular topic:

aggregate (khandha)
sense bases (āyatana)
elements (dhātu)
truth (sacca)
faculties (indriya)
dependent origination (paticcasamuppāda)
mindfulness foundation (satipaṭṭhāna)
right exertion (sammappadhāna)
base of power (iddhipāda)
enlightenment factor (bojjhanga)
path (magga)
absorption (jhāna)
immeasurables (appammaññā)
training rules (sikkhāpada)
analysis (paṭisambhidā)
knowledge (ñāṇa)
smaller subjects (khuddhaka vatthu)
heart of the Dhamma (dhammahadaya)

A typical chapter is divided into three parts:

Sutta method: often consisting of quotations from the Sutta Pitaka
Abhidhamma method: various lists of synonyms, numerical classifications
Question method: applies the matika (matrix) of the Dhammasangani


en.wikipedia.org
The
Vibhanga (vibhaṅga) is a Buddhist scripture, part of the Pali Canon of
Theravada Buddhism, where it is included in the Abhidhamma Pitaka. One
known English translation is contained in The Book of Analysis, first
published in 1969.[1]
3.
Dhatukatha
- Discussion with reference to
Elements, the discussion of the groups, bases and
elements of existence.

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Dhatukatha
Dhatukatha

(Discussion with Reference to the Elements)


Dhatukatha is the third book of Abhidhamma. This book combines ideas
from the two preceding Abhidhamma books, the Dhammasangani and Vibhanga.
It is in the form of questions and answers, grouped into 14 chapters by
form. Thus the first chapter asks of each item covered, “In how many
aggregates, bases and elements is it included?” Later chapters progress
to more complex questions like “From how many aggregates etc. are the
Dhammas dissociated from the Dhammas associated with it dissociated?”


The Buddha is said to have expounded the Abhidhamma in Tavatimsa
Heaven, the abode of the devas(angels). Dhatukatha was the subject of
discourse following Vibhanga. Therefore, its contents form the third
book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka. Dhatu (element) is defined as that which
bears its own nature. Thus all the states of enquiry of the text
beginning with the aggregates and ending with the couplet on lamentation
come under the elements. This also implies that elements are not living
beings and are not concerned with them. Dhatu-katha (Discourse on
Elements) deals with the classification, unclassification, association
and dissociation of the above states of enquiry with reference to the
three categories of 5 aggregates, 12 bases and 18 elements. Although
these elements are expounded in the Dhammasangani and Vibhanga, they are
not treated exclusively and in detail there as they are in this text.
Dhatukatha : Chapters (Translation By U Narada)Edit

THE TREATMENT OF THE TEXT

Chapter 1 : Classification and Unclassification

1. Aggregates

2. Bases

3. Elements

4. Truths

5. Faculties

6. Dependent Origination and so on

7. Triplets 22

8. Couplets 100

The Classification Chart of Aggregates, Bases and Elements.

Method of Chapter I

Explanation of the Method and Chart of Chapter I

Internal Tables (Abbhantara matika)

External Tables (Bahira matika)

Chapter 2: Classified and Unclassified

8 Questions and Answers

Chart: Method of Chapter II

Explanation of the Method and Chart of Chapter II

Chapter 3 : Unclassified and Classified

12 Questions and Answers

Chart: Method of Chapter III

Explanation of the Method and Chart of Chapter III

Chapter 4 : Classified and classified

2 Questions and Answers

Chart: Method of Chapter IV

Explanation of the Method and Chart of Chapter IV

Chapter 5 : Unclassified and Unclassified

35 Questions and Answers

Chart: Method of Chapter V

Explanation of the Method and Chart of Chapter V

Chapter 6 : Association and dissociation

78 Questions and Answers

1. Aggregates

2. Bases

3. Elements

4. Truths and so on

5. Triplets

6. Couplets

Chart ; Method of Chapter VI

Explanation of the Method and Chart of Chapter VI

Chapter 7 : Associated and Dissociated

11 Questions and Answers

Chart: Method of Chapter VII

Explanation of the Method and Chart of Chapter VII

Chapter 8 : Dissociated and Associated

2 Questions and Answers

Chart: Method of Chapters VIII and XIV

Explanation of the Method and Chart of Chapters VIII and XIV

Chapter 9 : Associated and Associated

34 Questions and Answers

Chart: Method of Chapters IX and XII

Explanation of the Method and Chart of Chapter IX

Chapter 10 : Dissociated and Dissociated

56 Questions and Answers

Chart: Method of Chapter X

Explanation of the Method and Chart of Chapter X

Chapter 11 : Associated with, and Dissociated from, the Classified

8 Questions and Answers

Chart: Method of Chapter XI

Explanation of the Method and Chart of Chapter XI

Chapter 12 : Classified and Unclassified Concerning the Associated

31 Questions and Answers

Chart: Method of Chapter XII

Explanation of the Method and Chart of Chapter XII

Chapter 13 : Associated with, and Dissociated from, the Unclassified

8 Questions and Answers

Chart: Method of Chapter XIII

Explanation of the Method and Chart of Chapter XII

Chapter 14 : Classified and Unclassified Concerning the Dissociated

63 Questions and Answers

Chart: Method o f Chapter XIV

Explanation of the Method and Chart of Chapter XIV

Download/View English TranslationEdit

Dhatukatha simple translation in English in .pdf , click to open then save the file:

File:Dhatukatha wiki1 with table.pdf

Dhatukatha PTS translation in .pdf is available here, click to open then save the file:

File:Dhatukatha2.pdf
Original Pali Version Edit

(From www.tipitaka.org)

Click the link below to access the original Dhatukatha files in Pali language, the language spoken by Buddha.

Dhatukatha, Pali


tipitaka.wikia.com
Tipitaka
Abhidhamma Pitaka Dhatukatha Contents[show] Dhatukatha (Discussion with
Reference to the Elements) Dhatukatha is the third book of Abhidhamma.
This book combines ideas from the two preceding Abhidhamma books, the
Dhammasangani and Vibhanga. It is in the form of questions and answers,
groupe…
4.
Puggalapannatti
- Description of Individuals, the
description of individual types of persons.

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Puggalapannatti

Puggalapannatti

(Designation of individuals)
The Fourth Book of Abhidhamma Pitaka
of Tipitaka - The Collection of Buddha’s Teachings

Originally Spoken by Gautam Buddha in Pali Language Around 550 BC
Adapted From Translation into English by Bimala Charan Law,

INTRODUCTION


The title consists of two words: ‘Puggala’ and ‘Pannatti’. The word
‘Puggala’ means an individual or a person. Buddhism distinguishes
altogether twelve classes of intelligent beings or puggala— viz., four
of the average ordinary class (puthujjana)and eight of the elect class
(ariya).

Pannatti means ‘notion’, ‘designation’ etc. According to
the Puggala-Pannatti Commentary, pannatti means ‘ explanation,’ ‘
preaching,’ ‘ pointing out,’ ‘ establishing,’ ‘ showing,’ and ‘
exposition.’ There are, it says, six pannattis. These amount to so many
(a) designations, (b) indications, (c) expositions, (d) affirmations,
(e) depositions. All these are the meanings of pannatti.

At the
outset, the author classifies the ‘ pannatti,’ or notion, into group
(khandha), locus (ayatana), element (dhatu), truth (sacca), faculty
(indriya), and person (puggala). Of these six, the last one is the
subject-matter of this work.

In the treatment of the subject, the
author first gives a Table of Contents of the whole work, and then
follows the method of the Anguttara Nikaya. That is, he first gives the
grouping under one term, then under two, and so on, up to the grouping
under ten terms.

In essence, Puggala-Pannati mentions the states
of individuals living mundane life as well as the states of those who
attain higher upto the final Nirvana, following the path of abstinence ,
morality & meditation as taught by Buddha.
Chapters Edit

List Of All The Human Types In The Book
Chapter 1 - Division Of Human Types By One
Chapter 2 - Division Of Human Types By Two
Chapter 3 - Division Of Human Types By Three
Chapter 4 - Division Of Human Types By Four
Chapter 5 - Division Of Human Types By Five
Chapter 6 - Division Of Human Types By Six
Chapter 7 - Division Of Human Types By Seven
Chapter 8 - Division Of Human Types By Eight
Chapter 9 - Division Of Human Types By Nine
Chapter 10 - Division Of Human Types By Ten
Download/View English Translation Edit

Puggalapannati simpler version, click to open then save the file:File:Puggala-pannati-edit.pdf
Puggalapannati PTS translation :File:Puggala-pannatti Scan.pdf
Original Pali Version Edit

(From www.tipitaka.org)

Click the link below to access the original Puggalapannatti files in Pali language, the language spoken by Buddha.

Puggalapannatti, Pali


tipitaka.wikia.com
Tipitaka
Abhidhamma Pitaka Puggalapannatti Contents[show] Puggalapannatti
(Designation of individuals) The Fourth Book of Abhidhamma Pitaka of
Tipitaka - The Collection of Buddha’s Teachings Originally Spoken by
Gautam Buddha in Pali Language Around 550 BC Adapted From Translation
into English by Bi…


5.
Kathavatthu
- Points of Controversy, the
discussion of points of controversy with schismatic
sects.

https://dhammawiki.com/index.php/Kathavatthu
Kathāvatthu (Pāli) (abbrev. Kv, Kvu), literally “Points of
Controversy”, is a Buddhist scripture, one of the seven books in the
Theravada Abhidhamma Pitaka. It primarily documents doctrinal points
that were debated from the time of King Ashoka.

Translation: Points of Controversy, tr. S.Z. Aung & C.A.F. Rhys Davids (1915, 1993), Pali Text Society, Bristol.


The Kathavatthu was compiled in order to clarify the various points of
controversy regarding Dhamma that had arisen among early Buddhist
schools. Some of these disputes had provided the rationale for the
convening of the Third Buddhist Council, traditionally by King Ashoka,
in the 3rd Century BCE.
Contents

1 Origins
2 Organization
3 Canonicity
4 Interpretation

Origins


According to tradition, this work was compiled by the venerable
Moggaliputta Tissa in his role as leader of the Third Council.The
Kathavatthu is said to record the answers that were deemed orthodox by
the assembled senior monks. Based on linguistic, thematic and structural
evidence, it seems likely that Moggaliputta Tissa only began the work,
with further debates added as more “heresies” came to the notice of
Theravada authorities.
Organization

The Kathavatthu documents
over 200 points of contention. The debated points are divided into four
paṇṇāsaka (lit., “group of 50″). Each paṇṇāsaka is again divided, into
20 chapters (vagga) in all. In addition, three more vagga follow the
four paṇṇāsaka.

Each chapter contains questions and answers by
means of which the most diverse views are presented, refuted and
rejected. The form of the debates gives no identification of the
participants, and does not step outside the debate to state explicitly
which side is right.

The views deemed non-heretical by the
commentary’s interpretation of the Katthavatthu were embraced by the
Theravada denomination. According to the Commentaries those whose views
were rejected include the Sarvastivada.
Canonicity

The
inclusion of the Kathavatthu in the Abhidhamma Pitaka has sometimes been
thought of as something of an anomaly. First, the book is not regarded
as being the words of the Buddha himself - its authorship is
traditionally attributed to Moggaliputta Tissa. However this is not
unusual: the Vinaya’s accounts of the first two Councils are obviously
also not the Buddha’s actual words. Second, the subject matter of the
Kathavatthu differs substantially from that of the other texts in the
Abhidhamma – but this is true of the Puggalapannatti as well.


Scholars sometimes also point to the inclusion of some obviously later
(relatively new) sections of the Kathavatthu in the Tipitaka as an
indication that the Pāli Canon was more ‘open’ than has sometimes been
thought, and as illustrative of the process of codifying new texts as
canonical. In fact this too is not unusual, there being quite a bit of
relatively late material in the Canon.
Interpretation

The
debates are understood by the tradition, followed by many scholars, as
disputes between different schools of Buddhism. However, L. S. Cousins,
described by Professor Gombrich as the West’s leading abhidhamma
scholar, says:

“In spiritual traditions the world over,
instructors have frequently employed apparent contradictions as part of
their teaching method – perhaps to induce greater awareness in the pupil
or to bring about a deeper and wider view of the subject in hand. The
Pali Canon contains many explicit examples of such methods. (Indeed much
of the Kathāvatthu makes better sense in these terms than as sectarian
controversy.)”


dhammawiki.com
Kathāvatthu
(Pāli) (abbrev. Kv, Kvu), literally “Points of Controversy”, is a
Buddhist scripture, one of the seven books in the Theravada Abhidhamma
Pitaka. It primarily documents doctrinal points that were debated from
the time of King Ashoka.


6.
Yamaka
- The Book of the Pairs, the book of
pairs of questions.

https://www.accesstoinsight.org/…/sn/sn22/sn22.085.than.html

Yamaka Sutta: To Yamaka


I have heard that on one occasion Ven. Sariputta was staying near
Savatthi at Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s monastery. Now, at that time
this evil supposition had arisen to Ven. Yamaka: “As I understand the
Teaching explained by the Blessed One, a monk with no more (mental)
effluents, on the break-up of the body, is annihilated, perishes, &
does not exist after death.” A large number of monks heard, “They say
that this evil supposition has arisen to Ven. Yamaka: ‘As I understand
the Teaching explained by the Blessed One, a monk with no more
effluents, on the break-up of the body, is annihilated, perishes, &
does not exist after death.’” So they went to Ven. Yamaka and on arrival
exchanged courteous greetings. After an exchange of friendly greetings
& courtesies, they sat to one side. As they were sitting there, they
said to Ven. Yamaka, “Is it true, friend Yamaka, that this evil
supposition has arisen to you: ‘As I understand the Teaching explained
by the Blessed One, a monk with no more effluents, on the break-up of
the body, is annihilated, perishes, & does not exist after death.’


“Yes, friends. As I understand the Teaching explained by the Blessed
One, a monk with no more effluents, on the break-up of the body, is
annihilated, perishes, & does not exist after death.”

“Don’t
say that, friend Yamaka. Don’t misrepresent the Blessed One. It’s not
good to misrepresent the Blessed One, for the Blessed One would not say,
‘A monk with no more effluents, on the break-up of the body, is
annihilated, perishes, & does not exist after death.’”

But
even though Ven. Yamaka was thus rebuked by those monks, he — from
stubbornness & attachment — maintained his adherence to that evil
supposition: ‘As I understand the Teaching explained by the Blessed One,
a monk with no more effluents, on the break-up of the body, is
annihilated, perishes, & does not exist after death.’

When
those monks could not pry Ven. Yamaka loose from his evil supposition,
they got up from their seats and went to Ven. Sariputta. On arrival they
said to him: “Friend Sariputta, this evil supposition has arisen to
Ven. Yamaka: ‘As I understand the Teaching explained by the Blessed One,
a monk with no more effluents, on the break-up of the body, is
annihilated, perishes, & does not exist after death.’ It would be
good if you would go to Ven. Yamaka out of sympathy for his sake.”

Ven. Sariputta consented by remaining silent.


Then in the evening Ven. Sariputta left his seclusion, went to Ven.
Yamaka, and on arrival exchanged courteous greetings. After an exchange
of friendly greetings & courtesies, he sat to one side. As he was
sitting there, he said to Ven. Yamaka, “Is it true, my friend Yamaka,
that this evil supposition has arisen to you: ‘As I understand the
Teaching explained by the Blessed One, a monk with no more effluents, on
the break-up of the body, is annihilated, perishes, & does not
exist after death.’

“Yes, my friend Sariputta. As I understand
the Teaching explained by the Blessed One, a monk with no more
effluents, on the break-up of the body, is annihilated, perishes, &
does not exist after death.”

“What do you think, my friend Yamaka: Is form constant or inconstant?”

“Inconstant, my friend.”

“And is that which is inconstant easeful or stressful?”

“Stressful, my friend.”


“And is it proper to regard what is inconstant, stressful, subject to
change as: ‘This is mine. This is my self. This is what I am’?”

“No, my friend.”

“Is feeling constant or inconstant?”

“Inconstant, my friend.”…

“Is perception constant or inconstant?”

“Inconstant, my friend.”…

“Are fabrications constant or inconstant?”

“Inconstant, my friend.”…

“Is consciousness constant or inconstant?

“Inconstant, my friend.”

“And is that which is inconstant easeful or stressful?”

“Stressful, my friend.”


“And is it proper to regard what is inconstant, stressful, subject to
change as: ‘This is mine. This is my self. This is what I am’?”

“No, my friend.”


“Thus, friend Yamaka, any form whatsoever that is past, future, or
present; internal or external; blatant or subtle; common or sublime; far
or near: Every form is to be seen with right discernment as it has come
to be: ‘This is not mine. This is not my self. This is not what I am.’

“Any feeling whatsoever…

“Any perception whatsoever…

“Any fabrications whatsoever…


“Any consciousness whatsoever that is past, future, or present;
internal or external; blatant or subtle; common or sublime; far or near:
Every consciousness is to be seen with right discernment as it has come
to be: ‘This is not mine. This is not my self. This is not what I am.’


“Seeing thus, the instructed disciple of the noble ones grows
disenchanted with form, disenchanted with feeling, disenchanted with
perception, disenchanted with fabrications, disenchanted with
consciousness. Disenchanted, he becomes dispassionate. Through
dispassion, he is released. With release, there is the knowledge,
‘Released.’ He discerns that ‘Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled,
the task done. There is nothing further for this world.’”

“How do you construe this, my friend Yamaka: Do you regard form as the Tathagata?”

“No, my friend.”

“Do you regard feeling as the Tathagata?”

“No, my friend.”

“Do you regard perception as the Tathagata?”

“No, my friend.”

“Do you regard fabrications as the Tathagata?”

“No, my friend.”

“Do you regard consciousness as the Tathagata?”

“No, my friend.”


“What do you think: Do you regard the Tathagata as being in form?…
Elsewhere than form?… In feeling?… Elsewhere than feeling?… In
perception?… Elsewhere than perception?… In fabrications?…
Elsewhere than fabrications?… In consciousness?… Elsewhere than
consciousness?”

“No, my friend.”

“What do you think: Do you regard the Tathagata as form-feeling-perception-fabrications-consciousness?”

“No, my friend.”


“Do you regard the Tathagata as that which is without form, without
feeling, without perception, without fabrications, without
consciousness?”

“No, my friend.”

“And so, my friend Yamaka
— when you can’t pin down the Tathagata as a truth or reality even in
the present life — is it proper for you to declare, ‘As I understand the
Teaching explained by the Blessed One, a monk with no more effluents,
on the break-up of the body, is annihilated, perishes, & does not
exist after death’?”

“Previously, my friend Sariputta, I did
foolishly hold that evil supposition. But now, having heard your
explanation of the Dhamma, I have abandoned that evil supposition, and
have broken through to the Dhamma.”

“Then, friend Yamaka, how
would you answer if you are thus asked: A monk, a worthy one, with no
more mental effluents: what is he on the break-up of the body, after
death?”

“Thus asked, I would answer, ‘Form is inconstant…
Feeling… Perception… Fabrications… Consciousness is inconstant.
That which is inconstant is stressful. That which is stressful has
ceased and gone to its end.”

“Very good, my friend Yamaka. Very
good. In that case I will give you an analogy for the sake of taking
your understanding of this point even further. Suppose there were a
householder or householder’s son — rich, wealthy, with many possessions —
who was thoroughly well-guarded. Then suppose there came along a
certain man, desiring what was not his benefit, desiring what was not
his welfare, desiring his loss of security, desiring to kill him. The
thought would occur to this man: ‘It would not be easy to kill this
person by force. What if I were to sneak in and then kill him?’


“So he would go to the householder or householder’s son and say, ‘May
you take me on as a servant, lord.’ With that, the householder or
householder’s son would take the man on as a servant.

“Having
been taken on as a servant, the man would rise in the morning before his
master, go to bed in the evening only after his master, doing whatever
his master ordered, always acting to please him, speaking politely to
him. Then the householder or householder’s son would come to regard him
as a friend & companion, and would fall into his trust. When the man
realizes, ‘This householder or householder’s son trusts me,’ then
encountering him in a solitary place, he would kill him with a sharp
knife.

“Now what do you think, my friend Yamaka? When that man
went to the householder or householder’s son and said, ‘May you take me
on as a servant, lord’: wasn’t he even then a murderer? And yet although
he was a murderer, the householder or householder’s son did not know
him as ‘my murderer.’ And when, taken on as a servant, he would rise in
the morning before his master, go to bed in the evening only after his
master, doing whatever his master ordered, always acting to please him,
speaking politely to him: wasn’t he even then a murderer? And yet
although he was a murderer, the householder or householder’s son did not
know him as ‘my murderer.’ And when he encountered him in a solitary
place and killed him with a sharp knife: wasn’t he even then a murderer?
And yet although he was a murderer, the householder or householder’s
son did not know him as ‘my murderer.’”

“Yes, my friend.”


“In the same way, an uninstructed, run-of-the-mill person — who has no
regard for noble ones, is not well-versed or disciplined in their
Dhamma; who has no regard for men of integrity, is not well-versed or
disciplined in their Dhamma — assumes form (the body) to be the self, or
the self as possessing form, or form as in the self, or the self as in
form.

“He assumes feeling to be the self…

“He assumes perception to be the self…

“He assumes (mental) fabrications to be the self…


“He assumes consciousness to be the self, or the self as possessing
consciousness, or consciousness as in the self, or the self as in
consciousness.

“He does not discern inconstant form, as it
actually is present, as ‘inconstant form.’ He does not discern
inconstant feeling, as it actually is present, as ‘inconstant feeling.’
He does not discern inconstant perception… He does not discern
inconstant fabrications… He does not discern inconstant consciousness,
as it actually is present, as ‘inconstant consciousness.’

“He
does not discern stressful form, as it actually is present, as
’stressful form.’ He does not discern stressful feeling… He does not
discern stressful perception… He does not discern stressful
fabrications… He does not discern stressful consciousness, as it
actually is present, as ’stressful consciousness.’

“He does not
discern not-self form, as it actually is present, as ‘not-self form.’ He
does not discern not-self feeling… He does not discern not-self
perception… He does not discern not-self fabrications… He does not
discern not-self consciousness, as it actually is present, as ‘not-self
consciousness.’

“He does not discern fabricated form, as it
actually is present, as ‘fabricated form.’ He does not discern
fabricated feeling… He does not discern fabricated perception… He
does not discern fabricated fabrications… He does not discern
fabricated consciousness, as it actually is present, as ‘fabricated
consciousness.’

“He does not discern murderous form, as it
actually is present, as ‘murderous form.’ He does not discern murderous
feeling… He does not discern murderous perception… He does not
discern murderous fabrications… He does not discern murderous
consciousness, as it actually is present, as ‘murderous consciousness.’


“He gets attached to form, clings to form, & determines it to be
‘my self.’ He gets attached to feeling… He gets attached to
perception… He gets attached to fabrications… He gets attached to
consciousness, clings to consciousness, & determines it to be ‘my
self.’ These five clinging-aggregates — attached to, clung to — lead to
his long-term loss & suffering.

“Now, the well-instructed,
disciple of the noble ones — who has regard for noble ones, is
well-versed & disciplined in their Dhamma; who has regard for men of
integrity, is well-versed & disciplined in their Dhamma — does not
assume form to be the self, or the self as possessing form, or form as
in the self, or the self as in form.

“He does not assume feeling to be the self…

“He does not assume perception to be the self…

“He does not assume fabrications to be the self…


“He does not assume consciousness to be the self, or the self as
possessing consciousness, or consciousness as in the self, or the self
as in consciousness.

“He discerns inconstant form, as it actually
is present, as ‘inconstant form.’ He discerns inconstant feeling… He
discerns inconstant perception… He discerns inconstant fabrications…
He discerns inconstant consciousness, as it actually is present, as
‘inconstant consciousness.’

“He discerns stressful form, as it
actually is present, as ’stressful form.’ He discerns stressful
feeling… He discerns stressful perception… He discerns stressful
fabrications… He discerns stressful consciousness, as it actually is
present, as ’stressful consciousness.’

“He discerns not-self
form, as it actually is present, as ‘not-self form.’ He discerns
not-self feeling… He discerns not-self perception… He discerns
not-self fabrications… He discerns not-self consciousness, as it
actually is present, as ‘not-self consciousness.’

“He discerns
fabricated form, as it actually is present, as ‘fabricated form.’ He
discerns fabricated feeling… He discerns fabricated perception… He
discerns fabricated fabrications… He discerns fabricated
consciousness, as it actually is present, as ‘fabricated consciousness.’


“He discerns murderous form, as it actually is present, as ‘murderous
form.’ He discerns murderous feeling… He discerns murderous
perception… He discerns murderous fabrications… He discerns
murderous consciousness, as it actually is present, as ‘murderous
consciousness.’

“He does not get attached to form, does not cling
to form, does not determine it to be ‘my self.’ He does not get
attached to feeling… He does not get attached to perception… He does
not get attached to fabrications… He does not get attached to
consciousness, does not cling to consciousness, does not determine it to
be ‘my self.’ These five clinging-aggregates — not attached to, not
clung to — lead to his long-term happiness & well-being.”


“Even so, my friend Sariputta, are those who have people like you as
their fellows in the holy life, teaching them, admonishing them out of
sympathy, desiring their welfare. For now that I have heard this
explanation of the Dhamma from you, my mind — through lack of
clinging/sustenance — has been released from the effluents.”


accesstoinsight.org
I
have heard that on one occasion Ven. Sariputta was staying near
Savatthi at Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s monastery. Now, at that time
this evil supposition had arisen to Ven. Yamaka: “As I understand the
Teaching explained by the Blessed One, a monk with no more (mental)
effluents, on the break-u…


7.
Patthana
- The Book of Relations, the book of
origination, conditionality and dependence of all t
he
phenomena of existence (this is the largest and the
most important Abhidhamma work).

Short Patthana Version 1 - The Patthanuddesa DipaniEdit


By Mahathera Ledi Sayadaw & Translation by Sayadaw U Nyana

Introduction

Chapter 1 - Hetu-Paccaya or The Relation by Way of Root

Chapter 2 - Arammana-Paccaya or the Relation of Object

Chapter 3 - Adhipati-Paccaya or the Relation of Dominance

Chapter 4 - Anantara-Paccaya or the Relation of Contiguity

Chapter 5 - Samanantara-Paccaya or the Relation of Immediate Contiguity

Chapter 6 - Sahajata-Paccaya or the Relation of coexistence

Chapter 7 - Annamanna-Paccaya or the Relation of Reciprocity

Chapter 8 - Nissaya Paccaya or the Relation of Dependence

Chapter 9 - Upanissaya-Paccaya or the Relation of Sufficing Condition

Chapter 10 - Purejata-Paccaya or the Relation of Pre-Existence

Chapter 11 - Pacchajata-Paccaya or the Relation of Post-Existence

Chapter 12 - Asevana-Paccaya or the Relation of Habitual Recurrence

Chapter 13 - Kamma-Paccaya or the Relationship of Kamma

Chapter 14 - Vipaka-Paccaya or the Relation of Effect

Chapter 15 - Ahara-Paccaya or the Relation of Food

Chapter 16 - Indriya-Paccaya or the Relation of Control

Chapter 17 - Jhana-Paccaya or the Relation Of Jhana

Chapter 18 - Magga-Paccaya or the Relation of Path

Chapter 19 - Sampayutta-Relation or the Relation of Association

Chapter 20 - Vipayutta-Paccaya or the Relation of Dissociation

Chapter 21 - Atthi-Paccaya or the Relation of Presence

Chapter 22,23,24-Natthi,Vigata,Avigata Paccaya , the Relations of Abeyance,Absence & Continuance

Chapter 25 - Paccaya-Sabhago or the Syhthesis of Relations

Chapter 26 - Paccaya-Ghatananaya or the Synchrony of Relations

Chapter 27 - Synchrony of Relations in Consciousness not Accompanied by Hetu

Synchrony of Relations in the Immoral Class of Consciousness

Synchrony of Relations in the States of Mind

Synchrony of Relations in the Groups of Material Qualities

Footnotes





Detailed Patthana Version 2 - Patthana DhammaEdit


By Htoo Naing

Introduction

Chapter 1 - Citta

Chapter 2 - Cetasikas

Chapter 3 - Rupa

Chapter 4 - Nibbana

Chapter 5 - Hetu Paccayo

Chapter 6 - Arammana Paccayo

Chapter 7 - Adhipati Paccayo

Chapter 8 - Anantara Paccayo

Chapter 9 - Samanantara Paccayo

Chapter 10 - Sahajata Paccayo

Chapter 11 - Annamanna Paccayo

Chapter 12 - Nissaya Paccayo

Chapter 13 - Upanissaya Paccayo

Chapter 14 - Purejata Paccayo

Chapter 15 - Paccchajata Paccayo

Chapter 16 - Asevana Paccaya

Chapter 17 - Kamma Paccayo

Chapter 18 - Vipaka Paccayo

Chapter 19 - Ahara Paccayo

Chapter 20 - Indriya Paccayo

Chapter 21 - Jhana Paccayo

Chapter 22 - Magga Paccayo

Chapter 23 - Sampayutta Paccayo

Chapter 24 - Vippayutta Paccayo

Chapter 25 - Atthi Paccayo

Chapter 26 - Natthi Paccayo And Vigata Paccayo

Chapter 27 - Avigata Paccayo

Conclusion





Download/View English TranslationEdit


Short Patthana version 1 simple English translation; Click to open then save the files: 

File:Forwikitxt Patthanuddesa Dipani.pdf

Detailed Patthana version 2 simple English translation; Click to open then save the files:

File:Patthana2HtooNaing.pdf

Patthana PTS translation in .pdf ; Click to open then save the files:

File:Patthana1 a.pdf

File:Patthana1 b.pdf

File:Patthana2 a.pdf

File:Patthana2 b.pdf





Original Pali Version Edit


(From www.tipitaka.org)

Click the link below to access the original Patthana files in Pali language, the language spoken by Buddha.

Patthana, Pali



1. What is Abhidhamma Pitaka? (5M)
2. List and explain seven books of Abhidhamma(20 M)
3. What is Mind ? Define Mind according to philosophy, scienceand
Abhidhamma view (10 M)
4. Explain Lobha ( 5 M)
5.Expliain Dosa (5M)
6. Explain Moha (5M)

8. List and explain kamavacara ahetuka akusala vipaka cittas (10 M)

Nandamālābhivaṃsa Mahāthera. FUNDAMENTAL ABHIDHAMMA




http://www.abhidhamma.com/txt_fundamentalabhidhamma_03.html
Nandamālābhivaṃsa Mahāthera. FUNDAMENTAL ABHIDHAMMA

I. Chapter 1: Citta
1. Citta: Consciousness…


I. Chapter 1: Citta

1. Citta: Consciousness

2. Definition and classification – 89/121

3. Kāmāvacara – 54

4. Akusala – 12

5. Lobhamūla – 8

6. Dosamūla – 2

7. Mohamūla –2

8. Ahetuka – 18

9. Akusala vipāka – 7

10. Kusala vipāka – 8

11. Kriya – 3

12. Kāma-sobhana – 24

13. Kusala – 8

14. Vipāka – 8

15. Kriya – 8

16. Classification of kāmāvacara citta

17. Rūpāvacara – 15

18. Nivaraṇa – 5

19. Arūpāvacara – 12

20. Object – 4

21. Lokuttara – 8/40

22. Four types of magga

23. Magga and Saṃyojanas (Fetters)

24. Phala (Fruition)

25. Lokuttara jhāna

26. Jhāna citta

1. Citta: Consciousness

2. Definition and classification – 89/121

CHAPTER 1 Citta:

Consciousness Definition and classification Citta, consciousness, is
awareness of object. It is conscious (aware) of object, so it is called
citta. All types of consciousness are the same according to the nature
of being conscious of the object. But, it can be classified into 89 or
121 through the plane where it arises, type, associated dhamma,
promptitude, jhāna, object that receives and magga (the constitution of
the Eight Noble Paths).

Citta 89/121


Kāmāvacara = 54 akusala = 12 lobhamūla = 8
dosamūla = 2
mohamūla = 2
ahetuka = 18 akusala vipāka = 7
kusala vipāka = 8
kriya = 3
kāma sobhana = 24 kusala = 8
vipāka = 8
kriya = 8
Rūpāvacara = 15 kusala = 5
vipāka = 5
kriya = 5
Arūpāvacara = 12 kusala = 4
vipāka = 4
kriya = 4
Lokuttara = 8/ 40 magga = 4/20
phala = 4/20

3. Kāmāvacara – 54

Cittas that frequent kāma plane are called “kāmāvacara”
(consciousness that frequents the plane of sensual pleasure). The
kāmāvacara citta is first classified into three, namely, akusala,
ahetuka and sobhana.

4. Akusala – 12

meritorious, wholesome or moral. So akusala is demeritorious,
unwholesome or immoral. All types of akusala are with fault and bring
about ill (bad) results. Akusala consciousness is classified into three
types by means of its root, namely:


1. Lobhamūla     Attachment-rooted consciousness
2. Dosamūla Hatred-rooted consciousness
3. Mohamūla Delusion-rooted consciousness


Note: Attachment, hatred and delusion are mental concomitants, and they are the root of all types of akusala.

5. Lobhamūla – 8

The consciousness that is rooted in attachment is “lobhamūla”. All
types of lobhamūla are the same in the nature of craving. But it is
divided into eight according to feeling, association and promptitude.
The lobhamūla consciousness is twofold by means of feeling: pleasant
feeling and neutral feeling. Each one is twofold by means of
association: with wrong view and without wrong view. So lobhamūla is
four types. Again each of them is divided twofold by means of
promptitude: with promptitude and without promptitude. Thus lobha-mūla
is classified into eight.

The following is how lobhamūla can be divided into eight types:


Feeling Association Promptitude
With pleasant    With wrong view Without
With neutral Without wrong view With


The meaning of Pāḷi terms:
Somanassa-sahagata       = accompanied by pleasure
Upekkhā-sahagata = accompanied by indifference
Diṭṭhigata-sampayutta = connected with wrong view
Diṭṭhigata-vippayutta = disconnected from wrong view
Asaṅkhārika = without promptitude
Sasaṅkhārika = with promptitude  

6. Dosamūla – 2

The consciousness that is rooted in hatred is “dosamūla”. All types
of dosamūla are the same in feeling and association. But it is
classified into two by means of promptitude: with promptitude and
without promptitude.

The following is how dosamūla can be divided into two types:


Feeling    Association    Promptitude   
With displeasure With ill will Without
With


Pāḷi terms and their meanings:
Domanassa-sahagata     = accompanied by displeasure
Paṭīgha-sampayutta = connected with ill will 

7. Mohamūla –2

The consciousness that is rooted in delusion is “mohamūla”. All
types of mohamūla are the same in feeling, indifference. It is
classified into two according to association. But it cannot be divided
as “with promptitude and without promptitude”.

How mohamūla can be divided into two types:


Feeling Association
Indifference Connected with doubt
Connected with restlessness


Pāḷi terms and their meanings:
Upekkhā-sahagata     = accompanied by indifference
Vicikicchā-sampayutta = connected with doubt
Uddhacca-sampayutta = connected with restlessness 

8. Ahetuka – 18

In Abhidhamma treatise, the six types of mental states, lobha =
attachment, dosa = hatred, moha = delusion, alobha = non-attach-ment,
adosa = non-hatred, and amoha = non-delusion, are described as “hetu”,
meaning conditions that fortify effects concerned like the root of a
tree.

The consciousness that dissociates from such a “hetu” is called
“ahetuka”. It means a consciousness that is absent from “hetu”. Ahetuka
citta is divided into three according to “types”, namely,

1. Akusala vipāka = result of akusala

2. Kusala vipāka = result of kusala, and

3. Kriya / kiriya = functional consciousness

9. Akusala vipāka – 7

The consciousness that is the result of akusala is called “akusala
vipāka”. The akusala vipāka citta is classified into seven according to
base where mind arises and function that mind performs.

Note: The base where mind arises is six-fold; the function mind performs is 14. They will be explained later.

How akusala vipāka is classified into seven:

A. According to base:

1. Eye-consciousness accompanied by indifference, and so are

2. Ear-consciousness

3. Nose-consciousness

4. Tongue-consciousness

5. Body-consciousness accompanied by pain

B. According to function:

6. Receiving consciousness accompanied by indifference

7. Investigating consciousness accompanied by indifference


Pāḷi terms and their meanings:
Upekkhā-sahagata = accompanied by indifference
Dukkha-sahagata = accompanied by pain
Cakkhu-viññāṇa = eye-consciousness
Sota-viññāṇa = ear-consciousness
Ghāna-viññāṇa = nose-consciousness
Jivhā-viññāṇa = tongue-consciousness
Kāya-viññāṇa = body-consciousness
Sampaṭicchana = receiving
Santīraṇa = investigating  

10. Kusala vipāka – 8

The consciousness that is the result of kusala is called “kusala
vipāka”. The kusala vipāka citta is classified into eight according to
base where mind arises and function that mind performs. How kusala
vipāka is classified into eight:

A. According to base:

1. Eye-consciousness accompanied by indifference, and so are

2. Ear-consciousness

3. Nose-consciousness

4. Tongue-consciousness

5. Body-consciousness accompanied by happiness

B. According to function:

6. Receiving consciousness accompanied by indifference

7. Investigating consciousness accompanied by indifference

8. Investigating consciousness accompanied by pleasure


Pāḷi terms and their meanings:
Upekkhā-sahagata = accompanied by indifference
Sukha-sahagata = accompanied by happiness 

11. Kriya – 3

The consciousness that acts, but does not produce an effect (as
kamma does) is called “kriya”. The kriya citta is classified into three
according to function. How kriya is classified into three types:

1. Adverting consciousness in Five-door accompanied by indifference

2. Adverting consciousness in Mind-door accompanied by indifference

3. Smile-producing consciousness accompanied by pleasure


Pāḷi terms and their meanings:
Pañca-dvāra-āvajjana = altering consciousness in Five-door
Mano-dvāra-āvajjana = altering consciousness in Mind-door
Hasituppāda = smile-producing consciousness 

12. Kāma-sobhana – 24

Among the kamāvacara cittas, 24 types of consciousness are called
“sobhana” because they are magnificent due to being good qualities and
producing good effects.

The kāma-sobhana citta is classified into three types, namely, kusala, vipāka and kriya.

13. Kusala – 8

Kusala is so-called because it eradicates evil. All types of kusala are naturally free from fault and bring about happiness.

Kusala citta is classified into eight, according to feeling,
association and promptitude. The following is how kusala can be divided
into eight types:


Feeling Association Promptitude
With pleasant With knowledge Without
With neutral Without knowledge With


When kusala citta arises, it feels pleasant or indifferent. Each of
them is two-fold: with knowledge and without knowledge. So kusala is
four. Four multiplied by the two promptitudes, without or with, gives
eight.


The meaning of Pāḷi terms:
Ñāṇa-sampayutta = connected with knowledge
Ñāṇa-vippayutta = disconnected from knowledge 

14. Vipāka – 8

The consciousness that is the result of kusala is called “vipāka”.
The vipāka citta is classified in the same way as kusala that is its
cause. Thus, vipāka is classified into eight types similar to kusala.

15. Kriya – 8

Kriya means mere action. It is, although similar to kusala, not
operative. Nor does it bear the result of kusala. It arises within
arahantas who are devoid of mental defilements and do not come to be
reborn in the next life. Kriya is classified into eight types in the
same way.

16. Classification of kāmāvacara citta


1. According to feeling:
Citta associated with pleasure 18
Citta associated with happiness  1
Citta associated with displeasure  2
Citta associated with pain  1
Citta associated with neutral feeling    32
Total
54
2. According to type:
Kusala  8
Akusala 12
Vipāka 23
Kriya 11
Total
54 

17. Rūpāvacara – 15

The consciousness that arises mostly in the “rūpa brahma” world is
called “rūpāvacara”. The rūpāvacara citta is basically classified into
five according to the five jhāna stages. Then five multiplied by the
three types, kusala, vipāka and kriya, comes to 15.

The constitution of jhānas

  1. The first jhāna that is constituted by vitakka, vicāra, pīti, sukha and ekaggatā.

  2. The second jhāna that is constituted by vicāra, pīti, sukha and ekaggatā.

  3. The third jhāna that is constituted by pīti, sukha and ekaggatā.

  4. The fourth jhāna that is constituted by sukha and ekaggatā.

  5. The fifth jhāna that is constituted by upekkhā and ekaggatā.

The meaning of Pāḷi terms:


Jhāna = Jhāna is so called because it concentrates firmly on an object. The word jhāna is used for the unity of jhāna factors.
Jhānaṅga = There are 5 jhāna factors, namely, vitakka, vicara, etc.
Vitakka = Initial application
Vicāra = Sustained application
Pīti = Joy
Sukha = Happiness
Upekkhā = Neutral feeling
Ekaggatā = One-pointedness of the object


Paṭhamajhāna is the constitution of five jhāna factors, and it is
the first stage that is attained. Dutiya jhāna is the constitution of
four jhāna factors, and it is the second stage that is attained. Tatiya
jhāna is the constitutions of three jhāna factors, and is the third
stage attained. Catuttha jhāna is the constitution of two jhāna factors,
and it is the fourth stage that is attained. Pañcama jhāna is the
constitution of two jhāna factors, and it is the fifth stage that is
attained.


Jhānaṅgas Jhānas
V V P S E 1st

V P S E 2nd


P S E 3nd

S E 4th

U E 5th


The meaning of jhāna:

In another way, jhāna is so-called because it temporarily burns those adverse mental states. They are termed nivaraṇa in Pāḷi. 

18. Nivaraṇa – 5

The Pāḷi word, nivaraṇa, is equivalent to the English word
“hindrance”. Nivaraṇa is the hindrance of merit. There are five types of
mental states:


1. Kāmacchanda = sensual desire
2. Byāpāda = ill will
3. Thīna-middha = sloth and torpor
4. Uddhacca-kukkucca = restlessness and remorse
5. Vicikicchā = doubt

Those five hindrances are burnt by the five jhāna factors each:


1. Thīna-middha by vitakka
2. Vicikicchā by vicāra
3. Byāpāda by pīti
4. Uddhacca-kukkucca by sukha
5. Kāmacchanda by ekaggatā

How rūpāvacara citta is classified into 15:


Jhāna Kusala Vipāka Kriya
First jhāna = 3 1 1 1
Second jhāna = 3 1 1 1
Third jhāna = 3 1 1 1
Fourth jhāna = 3 1 1 1
Fifth jhāna = 3 1 1 1
Total 15 = 5+ 5+

19. Arūpāvacara – 12

The consciousness that mostly arises in the arūpa brahma world is
called “arūpāvacara”. Arūpāvacara citta is basically classified into 4
types, according to object. Then, 4 multiplied by 3 types, namely,
kusala, vipāka and kriya, comes to 12.

20. Object – 4

The 4 objects are divided into two: Passing over and receiving.


The passed-over objects The receiving objects
Kasiṇa device Infinite space
Infinite space First viññāṇa
First viññāṇa Nothingness
Nothingness Third viññāṇa

The meaning of terms:


Kasiṇa = Entirety of device. The ten kinds of entirety of device are used as an object of rūpa jhāna.
Infinite space = A space that is known by removing the entirety of device.
First viññāṇa = The consciousness that occurs depending on infinite space. It is only the first type of arūpa cittas.
Nothingness = It is the non-existence of the first viññāṇa of arūpa citta.
Third viññāṇa = The consciousness that occurs depending on the non-existence of the first viññāṇa.

How arūpāvacara citta is classified into 12:


Object   Kusala Vipāka Kriya
Ākāsānañca āyatana = 3 1 1 1
Viññāṇañca āyatana = 3 1 1 1
Ākiñcañña āyatana = 3 1 1 1
Nevasaññā-nāsaññā āyatana = 3 1 1 1
Total 12 = 4 + 4 + 4

The meaning of Pāḷi terms:


Ākāsānañcāyatana = The consciousness that has the “infinite space” as its object.
Viññāṇañcāyatana = The consciousness that has the “infinite viññāṇa” as its object.
Ākiñcaññāyatana = The consciousness that has “non- existence of the first viññāṇa” as its object.
Nevasaññā-nāsaññāyatana = The consciousness that has neither perception nor non-perception based on its object.


Note: All types of arūpa jhāna belong to the fifth jhāna, the constitution of upekkhā and ekaggatā. 

21. Lokuttara – 8/40

These three types of worlds, kāma, rūpa and arūpa, are called
“loka”, meaning “mundane”. The consciousness that goes out from “loka”
or is higher than loka is called “lokuttara”, meaning “supra-mundane”.

Magga, the constitution of the Eightfold Noble Path, is classified
into four. So, lokuttara citta is classified into four according to
magga.

Phala, the effect of magga, is also four, according to magga that is its cause.

The meaning of Pāḷi terms:


Magga = By removing mental defilements, it attains Nibbāna, so it is called magga
Maggaṅga = The eight factors that compose magga: they are described as the “Eightfold Noble Path.”
Sammā-diṭṭhi = Right understanding
Sammā-saṅkappa = Right thought
Sammā-vācā = Right speech
Sammā-kammanta = Right action
Sammā-ājīva = Right livelihood
Sammā-vāyāma = Right effort
Sammā-sati = Right mindfulness
Sammā-samādhi = Right concentration 

22. Four types of magga

Magga, the constitution of the Eightfold Noble Path, is classified into four:


1. Sotāpatti = Magga that enters the stream to Nibbāna
2. Sakadāgāmi = Magga of once-returner to the kāma world
3. Anāgāmi = Magga of non-returner to the kāma world
4. Arahatta = Magga that is the cause of arahatta fruition 

23. Magga and Saṃyojanas (Fetters)

The magga of sotāpatti completely eradicates the two fetters, wrong
view and doubt. The magga of sakadāgāmi causes reduction of sensual
desire and hatred. The magga of anāgāmi completely eradicates the two
fetters, sensual desire and hatred. The magga of arahatta completely
eradicates the five fetters, desire for rūpa jhāna, desire for arūpa
jhāna, conceit, mental restlessness, and ignorance.

24. Phala (Fruition)

Phala is that which is the effect of magga. It belongs to vipāka citta. But “phala” is a special term for the effect of magga.

25. Lokuttara jhāna

Lokuttara is divided twofold: without jhāna and with jhāna. If it
arises without jhāna, lokuttara citta is divided into 8. If it arises
with jhāna, lokuttara citta is divided into 40. The 5 jhānas multiplied
by the 4 maggas make 20. The 5 jhānas multiplied by the 4 phalas is 20.
Thus, 20 plus 20 becomes 40.

26. Jhāna citta 67

The jhāna cittas, mundane and supramundane, total 67.



Mundane Supramundane Total
First jhāna 3 8 = 11
Second jhāna 3 8 = 11
Third jhāna 3 8 = 11
Fourth jhāna 3 8 = 11
Fifth jhāna 15 8 = 23
Total

= 67 
9. List and explain kamavacara ahetuka kusala vipaka cittas (10 M)

11. List and explain kamavacara sobana vipaka citta (10 M)
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13. List and explain kamavacara sobana kiria citta (10M)

More images for kamavacara sobana kiria citta

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14. List and explain Rupavacara kusala citta (10 M)

Images for kamavacara sobana kiria citta

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15. List and explain Rupavacara vipaka citta (10 M)

https://www.bdcu.org.au/bddronline/bddr12no5/abhi012.html


rupavacara citta



There are 15 rupavacara citta (consciousness mostly experienced in
rupa-loka).

They are divided into three classes in the same
way as the kamavacara – sobhana citta are equally divided into
kusala, vipaka and kiriya citta.

1.rupavacara kusala citta (5)
= rupa-jhana moral consciousness

2.rupavacara vipaka citta (5)
= rupa-jhana resultant consciousness

3.rupavacara kiriya citta
(5) = rupa-jhana functional consciousness

Rupavacara-kusala
citta and rupavacara-kiriya citta are experienced in the sense sphere
as well as in the fine-material sphere whereas rupavacara-vipaka
citta are experienced only in the fine material sphere.

jhana
= a state of wilful concentration or absorption on an object. It is a
combination of factors of absorption (jhanaranga). These factors
number five in total. They are:

(1)vitakka = initial
application that directs the mind toward the object
(2)vicara =
sustained application that examines the object again and
again
(3)piti = joy or pleasurable interests in the
object
(4)vedana = feeling, sensation (two kinds of vedana that
occur in jhana are:
(a)sukha = pleasant or agreeable
feeling
(b)upekkha = neutral feeling, equaniminity
(5)ekaggata
= one-pointedness, samadhi (concentration)

Vitakka, vicara,
piti, sukha or upekkha, and ekaggata cetasika can influence the mind
to be fixed on an object. They can be developed and strengthened by
samatha – bhavana which is actually a form of mental
training.

Our mind is normally not tranquil or calm. It is
constantly agitated by five hindrances (nivaranas); namely sensuous
desire (kamacchanda), illwill (vyapada), sloth and torpor
(thina-middha), restlessness and remorse (uddhacca-kukkucca) and
sceptical doubt (vicikiccha).

These hindrances can be overcome
and temporarily dismissed by tranquillity-meditation
(samatha-bhavana).

In the first jhana, all the five
jhana-factors are present. Then by meditating on the
patibhaga-nimitta of pathavi-kasina further eliminating the lower
jhana – factors one by one, a person can attain the higher
jhanas. He or she attains the second jhana when vitakka is
eliminated, the third jhana when vicara is further eliminated, the
fourth jhana when piti is also eliminated, and finally the fifth
jhana when sukha is replaced by upekkha.



rupavacara kusala
citta
(Fine-material Sphere Moral Consciousness)



tak

ca

pi

su/up

ek

+

+

+

+

-

pa

du

ta

ca

pan

+ means sukha which is the same as
somanassa
- means upekkha

1.vitakka, vicara, piti,
sukh’ekaggata sahitam pathamajjhana kusala-cittam
2.vicara,
piti, sukh’ekaggata sahitam dutiyajjhana kusala-cittam
3.piti,
sukh’ekaggata sahitam tatiyajjhana kusala-cittam
4.sukh’ekaggata
sahitam catutthajjhana kusala-cittam
5.upekkh’ekaggata
sahitam pancamajjhana kusala-cittam

Meanings

1.First
jhana moral consciousness together with initial application,
sustained application, joy, bliss and one-pointedness.
2.Second
jhana moral consciousness together with sustained application, joy,
bliss and one-pointedness.
3.Third jhana moral consciousness
together with joy, bliss and one-pointedness.
4.Fourth jhana moral
consciousness together with bliss and one-pointedness.
5.Fifth
jhana moral consciousness together with equanimity and
one-pointedness.



rupavacara vipaka citta
(Fine-material
Sphere Resultant Consciosness)



tak

ca

pi

su/up

ek

+

+

+

+

-

pa

du

ta

ca

pan

In naming the rupavacara vipaka
citta, just change kusala (moral) in the names of the rupavacara
kusala citta into vipaka (resultant).



arupavacara
citta
(consciousness mostly experienced in arupa-loka)



There
are 12 arupavacara citta which are equally divided into three groups
of kusala, vipaka and kiriya citta.

1.arupavacara kusala citta
= arupa-jhana moral consciousness (4)
2.arupavacara vipaka citta =
arupa-jhana resultant consciousness (4)
3.arupavacara kiriya citta
= arupa-jhana functional consciousness (4)

The four
arupavacara kusala citta may be acquired by persons who are not yet
arahats whereas the four arupavacara kiriya citta can arise only in
arahats. These two types of arupavacara citta are experienced in the
sense sphere as well as in the immaterial sphere.

The four
arupavacara vipaka citta are experienced in the immaterial-sphere
only. They are the kamma-resultants of arupavacara kusala citta. A
person who acquires arupa-jhana and maintains it till his or her
death will be reborn in the immaterial sphere.



arupa
jhanas



The person who has developed the five rupa-jhanas
may go up the ladder of concentration to arupa-jhanas. In doing so he
or she uses the concentration associated with the fifth rupa-jhana as
his or her base.

All the four arupa-jhanas belong to the
category of the fifth jhana because they are based on the fifth
rupa-jhana. They all have only two jhana-factors, namely upekkha and
ekaggata.

It should be noted that the five rupa-jhanas differ
from one another in the number of jhana-factors whereas the four
arupa-jhanas differ from one another in the objects of
meditation.



arupavacara kusala citta
(Immaterial Sphere
Moral Consciousness)



aka

vinna

akin

n’eva

-

-

-

-


1.upekk’ekagga sahitam
akasanancayatana-kusala-cittam
2.upekkh’ekaggata sahitam
vinnanancayatana-kusala-cittam
3.upekkh’ekaggata sahitam
akincannayatana-kusala-cittam
4.upekkh’ekaggata sahitam
n’eva– sanna-
n’sannayatana-kusala-cittam

Meanings

1.akasanancayatana
moral consciousness together with equanimity and
one-pointedness.
2.vinnanancayatana moral consciousness together
with equanimity and one-pointedness.
3.akicnannayatana moral
consciousness together with equanimity and
one-pointedness.
4.n’eva-sanna n’sannayatana moral
consciousness together with equanimity and
one-pointedness



arupavacara vipaka citta
(Immaterial
Sphere Resultant Consciousness)

The four arupavacara
vipaka citta are designated by the same symbols as the four
arupavacara kusala citta. The names are also similar, the only change
necessary is to put vipaka (resultant) in place of kusala
(moral).



arupavacara kiriya citta
(Immaterial Sphere
Functional Consciousness)

Again the symbols are the same
and the names are similar, the only change necessary is to put kiriya
(functional) in place of kusala (moral).

16. List and explain Rupavacara kiria citta (10 M)

17. List and explain Arupavacara kusala citta (10 M)

Arupavacara Citta; 1 Definition(s)

Part of Lokiya Cittas.

There are 12 arupavacara cittas. They can be divided into three groups according to their origin or jati. They are

  • 4 arupakusala cittas,
  • 4 arupavipaka cittas, and
  • 4 arupakiriya cittas.

4 arupakusala cittas are cittas that arise when arupa jhana are being
practised. The practice of arupa jhana is bhavana kusala. So at the
time of arupa jhana, arupakusala cittas arise.
Where the practitioner is an arahat, then the arising arupa jhana are
called arupakiriya cittas. Kiriya citta does not give rise to kammic
force or seed effect. Kusala citta gives vipaka or resultant cittas. The
practice of arupa jhana may give rise to rebirth in arupa brahma bhumi.
4 arupavipaka cittas are resultant cittas due to respective arupakusala
citta. These 4 cittas arise only in arupa brahma. Because they all are
patisandhi citta, bhavanga citta, and cuti citta of arupa brahma. So
they cannot arise in other planes of existence.

These 12 cittas arise mostly in arupa brahma bhumi. So they are
called arupavacara cittas. Arupa here means arupa brahma bhumi or arupa
brahma realm or formless realm.

(Source): Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama
Abhidhamma book cover
context information

Abhidhamma (अभिधम्म) usually refers to the last section (piṭaka)
of the Pali canon and includes schematic classifications of scholastic
literature dealing with Theravāda Buddhism. Primary topics include
psychology, philosophy, methodology and metaphysics which are rendered
into exhaustive enumerations and commentaries.

Relevant definitions


Search found 649 related definition(s) that might help you understand
this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:




Citta
Citta (चित्त, “mind”) or Cittavaśitā refers to the “mastery of mind” and represents one of the …
Arupavacara
arūpāvacara : (adj.) belonging to the realm of arūpins.
Cittanupassana

Cittānupassanā:—the critique of heart, adj. °ânupassin D.II, 299; III, 221, 281; …
Bodhicitta

Bodhichitta Skt., lit., “awakened mind”; the mind of enlightenment, one of the central no&sh…
Cittagara

Cittāgāra—a painted house, i.e. furnished with pictures; a picture gallery Vin.IV, 29…
Cittakara

Cittakāra—a painter, a decorator (cp. rajaka) S.II, 101=III, 152; Th.2, 256; J.VI, 3…
Cittakkhepa

Cittakkhepa—derangement of the mind, madness Vin.V, 189=193 (ummāda+); A.III, 219 (um…
Cittakathika

Cittakathika—=°kathin A.I, 24; Th.2, 449 (+bahussuta), expld at ThA.281 by cittad…
Cittapatali

Cittapāṭalī—Name of a plant (the “pied” trumpet-flower) in the world of Asuras J.I, 20…
Cittapassaddhi

Cittapassaddhi—calm of h., serenity of mind (cp. kāya°) S.V, 66; Dhs.62;
Cittakamma

Cittakamma—decoration, ornamentation, painting J.IV, 408; VI, 333; Miln.278; Vism.3…
Citta Ja Citta Samutthana Rupa
‘mind-produced corporeality’; s. samutthāna.
Cittasantapa

Cittasantāpa—“heart-burn, ” sorrow PvA.18 (=soka);  
Cittavikkhepa

Cittavikkhepa—(cp. °kkhepa) madness S.I, 126 (+ummāda); Nett 27; Vism.34;  …
Cittasala

Cittasālā—a painted room or picture gallery DA.I, 253;  



18. List and explain Arupavacara vipaka citta (10 M)

19. List and explain Arupavacara kiria citta (10 M)
20. List and explain Lokutara magga citta (10 M)
21. List and explain Lokutara phala citta (10 M)
22. What is Jhana ? List and explain Jhana factors and nivaranaas (10 M)



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http://www.buddhanet.net/higher.htm

Guide to Tipitaka

WHAT IS THE ABHIDHAMMA PITAKA?

Abhidhamma, the Higher Teaching of the Buddha.
Abhidhamma is the third great division of the Pi¥aka. It is a huge
collection of systematically arranged, tabulated and classified
doctrines of the Buddha, representing the quintessence of his Teaching.
Abhidhamma means Higher Teaching or Special Teaching; it is unique in
its abstruseness, analytical approach, immensity of scope and
conduciveness to one’s liberation.

The Buddha dhamma has only one taste, the taste of liberation.

But in
Suttanta discourses, the Buddha takes into consideration the
intellectual level of his audience, and their attainments in pæramø. He
therefore teaches the dhamma in conventional terms (vohæra vacana),
making references to persons and objects as I, we, he, she, man, woman,
cow, tree, etc. But in Abhidhamma the Buddha makes no such concessions;
he treats the dhamma entirely in terms of the ultimate reality
(Paramattha sacca). He analyses every phenomenon into its ultimate
constituents. All relative concepts such as man, mountain, etc. are
reduced to their ultimate elements which are then precisely defined,
classified and systematically arranged.

Thus in Abhidhamma everything is expressed in terms of khandhas, five
aggregates of existence; æyatanas, five sensory organs and mind, and
their respective sense objects; dhætu, elements; indriya, faculties;
sacca, fundamental truths; and so on. Relative conceptual objects such
as man, woman, etc. are resolved into ultimate components of khandhas,
æyatanas, etc. and viewed as an impersonal psycho-physical phenomenon,
which is conditioned by various factors and is impermanent (anicca),
suffering (dukkha) and is without a permanent entity (anatta).

Having resolved all phenomena into ultimate components analytically (as
in Dhammasa³ga¼ø and Vibha³ga) it aims at synthesis by defining
inter-relations (paccaya) between the various constituent factors (as in
Pa¥¥hæna). Thus Abhidhamma forms a gigantic edifice of knowledge
relating to the ultimate realities which, in its immensity of scope,
grandeur, subtlety, and profundity, properly belongs only to the
intellectual domain of the Buddha.


https://alwell.gitbooks.io/introduction-to-abhidhamma/content/the_seven_books_of_the_abhidhamma/index.html

The Seven Books of the Abhidhamma
Introduction

The Abhidhamma consists of the following seven books:

The Seven Books of the Abhidhamma
Introduction

The Abhidhamma consists of the following seven books:

Dhammasangaṇī (translated as “Buddhist Psychological Ethics”, P.T.S. and
also translated by U Kyaw, Myanmar.)

Vibhaṅga (translated as “ Book of Analysis”, P.T.S.)
Dhātukathā (Translated as “Discourse on Elements”, P.T.S.)
Puggalapaññatti (Translated as “A Designation of Human Types”, P.T.S.)
Kathā vatthu (Translated as “Points of Controversy”, P.T.S.)
Yamaka (the Book of Pairs, not translated into English)
Paṭṭhāna (Translated in part as “Conditional Relations”, P.T.S. )
A summary of the contents of these seven books has been given by Ven.
Nyanatiloka in his “Guide through the Abhidhamma Piṭaka” (B.P.S. Kandy,
1971) and also by U Kyaw Khine in the introduction to his translation of
the Dhammasaṅ ganī.

Therefore, I will render only some salient features
of each book with the purpose to show that the classifications found in
the Abhidhamma are not mere lists to be read and memorized. They all
point to the investigation of the realities of our daily life. In this
way the paññā is developed that sees realities as they are, as
impermanent, dukkha and anattā. This kind of paññā leads to the
eradication of defilements.

The commentary to the Dhammasaṅganī, the
first book, is the “Atthasālinī”, edited by the venerable Buddhaghosa
and translated as “Expositor”.

The Dhammasaṅganī begins with the Mātika,
a table of contents or matrix, which is an introduction. It is more
extensive than a table of contents.

This mā tikā has been arranged by
way of triads and dyads. It is a survey of the contents of the first
book and can even serve as an introduction to all seven books. Different
groups of defilements have been listed, such as the intoxicants
(āsavas), fetters, ties, floods, yokes, hindrances.

After the Abhidhamma
matrix there is a Suttanta matrix, explaining sutta terms.

The Atthas
ālinī, the commentary to the Dhammasaṅganī, dedicates a whole chapter to
explain the notions of the Mātika.

The Mātikā begins with: kusala
dhammā, akusala dhammā, avyā kata dhammā.

In these three terms all that
is real has been contained. In avyākata dhammā, indeterminate dhammas,
are included all realities that are not kusala or akusala, namely:
vipākacittas, kiriyacittas, rū pas and nibbāna.

The whole Tipiṭaka is
directed towards the liberation from the cycle of birth and death
through insight.

This appears also in the Mātika, where we read
(1013-1015):

“Dhammas going to building up; going to pulling down; going to neither.”


The Atthasālinī elaborates: “… ’accumulation’ means that which is
accumulated by kamma and corruptions. It is a name for the processes of
rebirth and decease. ’Leading to accumulation’ are ’those causes which
by being accomplished to go to, lead a man, in whom they arise, to that
round of rebirth’. It is a name for co-intoxicant moral or immoral
states. Nibbāna being free from ’cumulation’, which is another word for
’accumulation’, is called dispersion. ’Leading to dispersion’ is ’going
towards that dispersion which he has made his object.’ It is a name for
the Ariyan Paths. Or, ’leading to accumulation’ are those states which
go about severally arranging (births and deaths in) a round of destiny
like a bricklayer who arranges bricks, layer by layer, in a wall.’

’Leading to dispersion’ are those states which go about destroying that
very round, like a man who continually removes the bricks as they are
laid by the mason.”


3. What is Mind ? Define Mind according to philosophy, science and
Abhidhamma view (10 M)

Cetasikas seem to imply an externalist view (citta comes into contact
with something, they also rise and disappear with citta together)
because according to externalism, for a mind content to arise, it is necessary to be related to the environment in the right way.

Citta itself seems to be an intrinsic property though, as far as
every agent is capable of knowing something. This strongly implies an
internalist viewpoint (there are intrinsic and unique properties of
agents that mental contents supervene upon), as our contents are individuated by the properties of our bodies.

4. Explain Lobha ( 5 M)
5.Expliain Dosa (5M)
6. Explain Moha (5M)
The action (kamma) that is done out of greed, hatred and delusion
(lobha, dosa, moha), that springs from them, has its source and origin
in them: this action ripens wherever one is reborn, and wherever this
action ripens there one experiences the fruits of this action, be it in
this life, or the next life, or in some future life.




https://www.budsas.org/ebud/word-of-buddha/wob4nt06.htm

Rebirth-Producing Kamma

M. 43

Truly, because beings, obstructed by ignorance (avijjaa) and ensnared by
craving (tanhaa) seek ever fresh delight, now here, now there,
therefore fresh rebirth continually comes to be.

A. III. 33

And the action (kamma) that is done out of greed, hatred and delusion
(lobha, dosa, moha), that springs from them, has its source and origin
in them: this action ripens wherever one is reborn, and wherever this
action ripens there one experiences the fruits of this action, be it in
this life, or the next life, or in some future life.


Cessation of Kamma

M. 43


However, through the fading away of ignorance, through the arising of
wisdom, through the extinction of craving, no future rebirth takes place
again.

A. III. 33

For the actions which are not done out of greed, hatred and delusion,
which have not sprung from them, which have not their source and origin
in them: such actions, through the absence of greed, hatred and
delusion, are abandoned, rooted out, like a palm-tree torn out of the
soil, destroyed, and not able to spring up again.

A. VIII. 12

In this respect one may rightly say of me: that I teach annihilation,
that I propound my doctrine for the purpose of annihilation, and that I
herein train my disciples; for certainly I do teach annihilation-the
annihilation, namely, of greed, hatred and delusion, as well as of the
manifold evil and unwholesome things.

The Pa.ticca Samuppaada, lit, the Dependent Origination, is the doctrine
of the conditionality of all physical and mental phenomena, a doctrine
which, together with that of Impersonality (anattaa), forms the
indispensable condition for the real understanding and realization of
the Buddha’s teaching. It shows that the various physical and mental
life-processes, conventionally called personality, man, animal, etc.,
are not a mere play of blind chance, but the outcome of causes and
conditions. Above all, the Pa.ticca-Samuppaada explains how the arising
of rebirth and suffering is dependent upon conditions; and, in its
second part, it shows how, through the removal of these conditions, all
suffering must disappear. Hence, the Pa.ticca-Samuppaada serves to
elucidate the second and the third Noble Truths, by explaining them from
their very foundations upwards, and giving them a fixed philosophical
form.

The following diagram shows at a glance how the twelve links of the
formula extend over three consecutive existences, past, present, and
future:

Past Existence 1. Ignorance (avijjaa) Karma Process (kamma-bhava) 5
causes: 1, 2, 8, 9, 10
2. Karma-Formations (sankhaaraa)
Present Existence 3. Consciousness (vi~n~naa.na) Rebirth-Process
(upapatti-bhava) 5 results: 3-7
4. Mental and Physical Existence (naamaruupa)
5. 6 Sense Organs (sa.l-aayatana)
6. Sense-Impression (phassa)
7. Feeling (vedanaa)
8. Craving (ta.nha) Karma Process (kamma-bhava) 5 causes: 1, 2, 8, 9, 10
9. Clinging (upaadaana)
10. Process of Existence (bhava)
Future Existence 11. Rebirth (jaati) Rebirth-Process (upapatti-bhava) 5
results: 3-7
12. Decay and Death (jaraa-marana)
The links 1-2, together with 8-10, represent the Karma-Process,
containing the five karmic causes of rebirth.

The links 3-7, together with 11-12, represent the Rebirth-Process,
containing the five Karma-Results.

Accordingly it is said in the Patisambhidaa-Magga:

Five causes were there in past,
Five fruits we find in present life.
Five causes do we now produce,
Five fruits we reap in future life.
(Quoted in Vis. Magga XVII)

For a full explanation see Fund. III and B. Dict.



https://archive.org/details/FundamentalAbidhamma

Fundamental Abhidhamma,


Part 1, Dr. Nandamalabhivamsa, 2005

Dhammasangani (”Enumeration of Phenomena”).


This book enumerates all the
paramattha dhamma (ultimate realities) to be found in the world.
According to one such enumeration these amount to:
52 cetasikas (mental factors), which, arising together in various
combination, give rise to any one of…
…89 different possible cittas (states of consciousness)
4 primary physical elements, and 23 physical phenomena derived from them
Nibbana

7. List and explain kamavacara ( Kāmāvacara: ’sense-sphere’
)akusala lobbamula,dosamula, mohamula
cittas (10M )
8. List and explain kamavacara ahetuka akusala vipaka cittas (10 M)
9. List and explain kamavacara ahetuka kusala vipaka cittas (10 M)
10. List and explain kamavacara sobnakusala citta (10M)
11. List and explain kamavacara sobana vipaka citta (10 M)
12.
13. List and explain kamavacara sobana kiria citta (10M)
14. List and explain Rupavacara kusala citta (10 M)
15. List and explain Rupavacara vipaka citta (10 M)
List and explain Rupavacara kusala citta (10 M)
16. List and explain Rupavacara kiria citta (10 M)
17. List and explain Arupavacara kusala citta (10 M)
List and explain Rupavacara kiria citta (10 M)
18. List and explain Arupavacara vipaka citta (10 M)
19. List and explain Arupavacara kiria citta (10 M)
20. List and explain Lokutara magga citta (10 M)
21. List and explain Lokutara phala citta (10 M)

Part of Lokiya Cittas.


Kamavacara cittas are


  • 30 asobhana cittas or non beautiful consciousness, and
  • 24 sobhana cittas or beautiful cittas.

In summary, kamavacara cittas are 54.


  • 30 are asobhana cittas or non beautiful consciousness.
    (12 are akusala cittas and they are ugly cittas.18 ahetuka cittas are not beautiful because they lack beautiful cetasika.)
  • And 24 cittas are kamasobhana cittas.


cittas of the sense-sphere;


In the case of the kamavacara cittas, piti arises with the cittas which are accompanied by pleasant feeling (somanassa).

Relevant definitions


Search found 37 related definition(s) that might help you understand
this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:




Kamavacara Citta

cittas of the sense-sphere;

In the case of the kamavacara cittas, piti arises with the c…

Kamavacaradeva
Kāmāvacaradeva (कामावचरदेव) refers to the “six gods of the sensual-realms” as defined in the Dh…
Kamavacara Rupa
Rupas that are where kama tanha always visits and attaches are called kamavacara rupas.
Kama
kama (कम).—a Less, wanting, short of.— OR — kāma (काम).—n An action. A work. Use. Need of. …
Citta
Citta (चित्त, “mind”) or Cittavaśitā refers to the “mastery of mind” and represents one of the …
Deva
Deva (देव, “gods”) or Devānusmṛti refers to one of the “six recollections” (anusmṛti) as define…
Loka
Loka (लोक).—A term used in the Mahābhāșya in contrast with the term वेद (veda), signifying comm…
Sagara
Sāgara (सागर) or Saptasāgara refers to the “seven oceans” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (se…
Bhumi
Bhūmi (भूमि) or Daśahūmi refers to the “ten stages (of the Bodhisattva)” as defined in the Dhar…
Avacara
Avacara, (-°) (n. -adj.) (ava + car, also BSk. avacara in same sense, e.g. antaḥpurâvacarā the …
Kushala
1) Kuśala (कुशल) or Daśakuśala refers to the “ten unwholesome things” as defined in the Dharma-…
Mara
Māra (मार) refers to the “four destroyers” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 80):

Dhamma

1) Dhamma, 3 (adj.) (Sk. dhanvan) having a bow: see daḷha°; also as dhammin in daḷha&de…
Javana
Javana (जवन).—a. (-nī f.) [जु भावे ल्युट् (ju bhāve lyuṭ)] Quick, swift, fleet; R.9.56.-naḥ 1 A…
Khandha
Khandha, (Sk. skandha) — I. Crude meaning: bulk, massiveness (gross) substance. A. esp. used (a…
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